WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid burns animal

  1. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation and severity of hydrofluoric acid burns vary considerably, making management particularly challenging. Given that current knowledge of HF burns is derived from small case series, case reports, animal studies and anecdotal evidence, this narrative review discusses the current understanding of the effects associated with severe hydrofluoric acid burns, describing the mechanism of injury, systemic toxicity and treatment options.

  2. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  3. A review of hydrofluoric acid burn management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Daniel; Thoma, Achilleas; Bailey, Kristy; Fish, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes a unique chemical burn. Much of the current treatment knowledge of HF burns is derived from case reports, small case series, animal studies and anecdotal evidence. The management can be challenging because clinical presentation and severity of these burns vary widely. Plastic surgeons managing burn patients must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology, the range of severity in presentation and the current treatment options available for HF burns. The present article reviews the current understanding of the pathophysiology and systemic effects associated with severe HF burns. Furthermore, it distinguishes between minor and life-threatening HF burns and describes several of the basic techniques that are available to treat patients with HF burns.

  4. Animal Exposure During Burn Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    An animal exposure test system (AETS) was designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consisted of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. Cage temperature is measured by a thermistor located in the upper portion of the rat compartment. Animal activity is monitored by the ECG and the records indicate an increase in EMG (electromyograph) noise super-imposed by the increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases and specific events occurring during the test. The AETS was shown to be a useful tool in screening materials for the relative toxicity of their outgassing products during pyrolysis and combustion.

  5. Treating burns caused by hydrofluoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is an ingredient of many common household and industrial solutions. Even seemingly minor burns caused by this acid can have catastrophic effects if they are treated inappropriately or late. This article describes the signs and symptoms, the pathophysiology and the emergency management of hydrofluoric acid burns.

  6. [Advances in the research of treatment of hydrofluoric acid burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-gang; Zhang, Yuan-hai; Han, Chun-mao

    2013-08-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is one of the most common inorganic acids used widely in industrial circle. HF not only causes cutaneous burn, but also induces systemic toxicity by its unique injury mechanism. Accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment are critical after HF burns. To date, the strategies for treating HF burns have been developed, mainly including topical treatments and systematic support. However, there is no standard treatment strategy with wide acceptance in the world. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the advances in the research of strategies for the treatment of HF burns.

  7. Hyaluronic acid covers in burn treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Marcos Dalmedico

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid in the healing of partial thickness burns. METHOD Systematic review of randomized controlled trials on the use of hyaluronic acid for the topical treatment of skin burns, based on recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. RESULTS Two randomized controlled trials that analyzed 143 patients with partial thickness burns and/or deep partial thickness burns were selected. They compared the application of hyaluronic acid 0.2% associated to silver sulfadiazine 1% 5g/cm2 versus silver sulfadiazine 1% 5g/cm2 alone for the outcome of complete healing. CONCLUSION This review emphasizes the need for new well-designed randomized controlled trials to establish the therapeutic relevance of hyaluronic acid with respect to the healing of burns of partial thickness or deep partial thickness.

  8. Long standing intra oral acid burn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.V. Kumar; S. Ebenezer; F. Lobbezoo

    2015-01-01

    Oral burn due to ingestion of corrosive substances can bring about debilitating consequences. It often brings mortality, and the survivors can have severe impairment of functions, especially in relation to the stomatognathic and gastrointestinal systems. This article presents a long-standing case (2

  9. Progress of clinical practice on the management of burn-associated pain: Lessons from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Matthew K; Clifford, John L; Maani, Christopher V; Burmeister, David M

    2016-09-01

    Opioid-based analgesics provide the mainstay for attenuating burn pain, but they have a myriad of side effects including respiratory depression, nausea, impaired gastrointestinal motility, sedation, dependence, physiologic tolerance, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. To test and develop novel analgesics, validated burn-relevant animal models of pain are indispensable. Herein we review such animal models, which are mostly limited to rodent models of burn-induced, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. The latter two are pain syndromes that provide insight into the pain caused by systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines and direct injury to nerves (e.g., after severe burn), respectively. To date, no single animal model optimally mimics the complex pathophysiology and pain that a human burn patient experiences. No currently available burn-pain model examines effects of pharmacological intervention on wound healing. As cornerstones of pain and wound healing, pro-inflammatory mediators may be utilized for insight into both processes. Moreover, common clinical concerns such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction remain unaddressed. For development of analgesics, these aberrations can significantly alter the potential efficacy and/or adverse effects of a prescribed analgesic following burn trauma. We therefore suggest that a multi-model strategy would be the most clinically relevant when evaluating novel analgesics for use in burn patients.

  10. An optimized animal model for partial and total skin thickness burns studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campelo, Ana Paula Bomfim Soares; Campelo, Marcio Wilker Soares; Britto, Gerly Anne de Castro; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de

    2011-01-01

    Development of an improved animal model for studying skin burns in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n=6): G1-Control, G2- T100°C, G3-T150°C and G4-T200°C. Two 10 x 10 mm squares were outlined with a sterile surgical marker on each side and along the vertebral column using a prepared template positioned between the anterior and posterior limbs. G2-G4 rats were subjected to 100°C, 150°C and 200ºC thermal burns, respectively. G1 rats served as controls. Burns were inflicted by applying a copper plate connected to an electronic temperature controlling device to the dorsal skin of anesthetized rats. Four burns were produced on each animal (total area: 4 cm²/animal) leaving about 1 cm of undamaged skin between burn areas. Analgesia was administered during 24 h after burn injury by adding 30 mg codeine phosphate hemihydrate to 500 ml tap water. The application of 100°C and 150ºC resulted in partial thickness skin burns with central reepithelialization of the burned area only at 100°C. In G4 group the whole thickness of the skin was injured without central reepithelialization. However, there was marginal reepithelialization in all groups. The model studied is inexpensive and easily reproducible, enabling the achievement of controlled burns with partial or total impairment of the skin in experimental animals.

  11. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  12. Experimental substantiation of infected burn wounds of skin in laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrejkin Е.А.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a method of simulation of infected area and depth-controlled burn wound through the use of laser radiation. Material and methods: The contact surgical fiber laser at heating mode of 220°C within 2 с has been used in a surgical experiment on 50 white lab rats under the control of a thermal imager, copper laser nozzle on the skin of an animal. Burn wounds have been infected. Results: Controlled single laser effect by the developed method helps speed up the simulation and subsequent infection of burn wounds, all layers of the skin. Conclusion. The infected burn wound model is suitable for the development of effective combined surgical treatment.

  13. Detection and characterization of volatile organic compounds from burned human and animal remains in fire debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, John D; Taormina, Eimi I; Brien, David J

    2017-03-01

    Debris collected from various test sites where mammalian remains (human and porcine) had been burned in a variety of full-scale fire scenarios was evaluated for the presence of volatile residues that could be characteristic of those remains. Levels of volatiles were measured using the method commonly used for fire debris analysis: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Homologous n-aldehydes (from n-pentanal to n-nonanal) proved to be a significant indicator of the presence of burned animal tissue as they were observed in nearly all of the samples. Such aldehydes are created by the combustion of animal fats. One aldehyde, n-hexanal, appeared more frequently than the other aldehydes, n-pentanal, n-heptanal, n-octanal, and n-nonanal. Ethanol was detected in two-thirds of the samples, while acetone appeared in about three-fourths of the samples, but both were detected at much lower concentrations than n-hexanal. These appear to have been combustion products of the substrates on which each body burned, rather than originating from the combustion of the body. There appeared to be no qualitative distinction between volatile products produced from burned porcine carcasses and those from human cadavers. Since a homologous series of C5-C9n-aldehydes is not produced as a dominant species by the pyrolysis or combustion of any normally encountered substrate (carpet, bedding, wood products or upholstery), their detection by normal fire debris methods appears to be a valid indicator of the presence of burned animal remains. These data will also provide guidance to fire debris analysts as to the nature of volatiles associated with the combustion of human bodies in real-world fires. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help prevent burns: Install smoke alarms in your home. Check and change batteries regularly. Teach children about fire safety and the danger of matches and fireworks. Keep children from climbing on top of a stove ...

  15. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  16. Multispectral and Photoplethysmography Optical Imaging Techniques Identify Important Tissue Characteristics in an Animal Model of Tangential Burn Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Li, Weizhi; Rodriguez-Vaqueiro, Yolanda; Squiers, John J; Mo, Weirong; Lu, Yang; Plant, Kevin D; Sellke, Eric; King, Darlene R; Fan, Wensheng; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose A; DiMaio, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Burn excision, a difficult technique owing to the training required to identify the extent and depth of injury, will benefit from a tool that can cue the surgeon as to where and how much to resect. We explored two rapid and noninvasive optical imaging techniques in their ability to identify burn tissue from the viable wound bed using an animal model of tangential burn excision. Photoplethysmography (PPG) imaging and multispectral imaging (MSI) were used to image the initial, intermediate, and final stages of burn excision of a deep partial-thickness burn. PPG imaging maps blood flow in the skin's microcirculation, and MSI collects the tissue reflectance spectrum in visible and infrared wavelengths of light to classify tissue based on a reference library. A porcine deep partial-thickness burn model was generated and serial tangential excision accomplished with an electric dermatome set to 1.0 mm depth. Excised eschar was stained with hematoxylin and eosin to determine the extent of burn remaining at each excision depth. We confirmed that the PPG imaging device showed significantly less blood flow where burn tissue was present, and the MSI method could delineate burn tissue in the wound bed from the viable wound bed. These results were confirmed independently by a histological analysis. We found these devices can identify the proper depth of excision, and their images could cue a surgeon as to the preparedness of the wound bed for grafting. These image outputs are expected to facilitate clinical judgment in the operating room.

  17. Development of Animal Model for Studying Deep Second-Degree Thermal Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle dos Santos Tavares Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal lesions were produced in 12 male Wistar rats, positioning a massive aluminum bar 10 mm in diameter (51 g, preheated to 99°C ± 2°C/10 min. on the back of each animal for 15 sec. After 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, animals were euthanized. The edema intensity was mild, with no bubble and formation of a thick and dry crust from the 3rd day. The percentage of tissue shrinkage at 28 days was 66.67 ± 1.66%. There was no sign of infection, bleeding, or secretion. Within 28 days reepithelialization was incomplete, with fibroblastic proliferation and moderate fibrosis and presence of modeled dense collagen fibers. It is concluded that the model established is applicable in obtaining deep second-degree thermal burns in order to evaluate the healing action of therapeutic agents of topical use.

  18. Intensive chromic acid burns and acute chromium poisoning with acute renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Jun; SUN Zhen; HUAN Jing-ning

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe our experience of managing a patient with chemical burns caused by hot chromic acid that covered over 60% of the patient's body. The patient developed anuria 48 hours after injury. Early excision of burn eschars and hemodialysis were carried out. The patient survived after a series of comprehensive treatments, including allografting and autografting. In patients burned by hot chromic acid, excision of affected skin down to the muscle fascia should be carried out as soon as possible after injury. Dialysis to remove circulating chromium in the first 24 hours after injury is also recommended.

  19. The development of a modular system to burn farm animal waste to generate heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd., Pottsville, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an internally circulating fluid bed (ICFB) boiler that can burn poultry litter or other waste fuels. The disposal of animal waste is a significant problem for many poultry producers in the Chesapeake Bay area where poultry waste has contaminated local watersheds and the unpleasant odour has offended the local population. ICFB boilers can be made in the range of 3,000 to 23,000 kg/hr. Spinheat Ltd. has designed a complete modular small co-generating power plant in the range of 100 to 1,000 kW electrical generation with equivalent steam output. The co-generating power unit fits on the processor's premises to supply electricity and steam for process use by burning the poultry litter. The unit has been tested for poultry litter combustion and for emissions. This paper illustrates the complete design of the modular plants in the 100, 150, 200, 580 kW range as well as the 1 MW size. This new co-generating unit solves the waste management problem for poultry producers, as it can result in half the amount of poultry litter being spread on land as fertilizer. The cost of building the co-generation plant was reported in this paper along with the running costs of the plant. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  20. A review of treatment strategies for hydrofluoric acid burns: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; You, Chuangang; Ye, Chunjiang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Liu, Jia; Han, Chunmao

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF), a dangerous inorganic acid, can cause severe corrosive effects and systemic toxicity. HF enters the human body via where it contacts, such as skin and mucosa, alimentary and respiratory tracts, and ocular surfaces. In the recent years, the incidence of HF burn has tended to increase over time. The injury mechanism of HF is associated primarily with the massive absorption of HF and the release of hydrogen ions. Correct diagnosis and timely treatment are especially important for HF burns. The critical procedure to treat HF burn is to prevent on-going HF absorption, and block the progressive destruction caused by fluoride ions. Due to the distinct characteristics of HF burns, the topical treatment, as well as systemic support, has been emphasised. Whereas, management of patients with HF burns remains a great challenge in some situations. To date, there has been no widely accepted protocol for the rescue of HF burns, partly due to the diversity of HF burns. This paper overviews the current status and problems of treatment strategies for HF burns, for the purpose of promoting the future researches and improvement.

  1. Wound healing activities of different extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and burn wound models: an experimental animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somboonwong Juraiporn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of Centella asiatica for incision and burn wounds are not fully understood. Here, we report the wound healing activities of sequential hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and partial-thickness burn wound models in rats. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into incision and burn wound groups. Each group was stratified into seven subgroups: (1 untreated; (2 NSS-; (3 Tween 20®- (vehicle control; (4 hexane extract-; (5 ethyl acetate extract-; (6 methanol extract-; and (7 aqueous extract-treated groups. The test substances were applied topically once daily. The tensile strength of the incision wound was measured on the seventh day after wound infliction. The general appearance and degree of wound healing of the burn wound were assessed on Days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after burn injury and prior to histopathological evaluation. Results On the seventh day after wound infliction, the tensile strength of incision wound in all extract-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the vehicle control (Tween 20®, but comparable to the NSS-treated group. The degrees of healing in the burn wound with the four extracts were significantly higher than that of the control on Days 3, 10 and 14. Histopathological findings on Day 14 after burn injury revealed prominent fibrinoid necrosis and incomplete epithelialization in the control and untreated groups, whereas fully developed epithelialization and keratinization were observed in all extract-treated groups. Analysis by thin layer chromatography demonstrated that the phyto-constituents β-sitosterol, asiatic acid, and asiaticoside and madecassocide were present in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions All extracts of Centella asiatica facilitate the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds. Asiatic acid in the ethyl acetate extract seemed to

  2. The Antibacterial Activity of Acetic Acid against Biofilm-Producing Pathogens of Relevance to Burns Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenella D Halstead

    Full Text Available Localised infections, and burn wound sepsis are key concerns in the treatment of burns patients, and prevention of colonisation largely relies on biocides. Acetic acid has been shown to have good antibacterial activity against various planktonic organisms, however data is limited on efficacy, and few studies have been performed on biofilms.We sought to investigate the antibacterial activity of acetic acid against important burn wound colonising organisms growing planktonically and as biofilms.Laboratory experiments were performed to test the ability of acetic acid to inhibit growth of pathogens, inhibit the formation of biofilms, and eradicate pre-formed biofilms.Twenty-nine isolates of common wound-infecting pathogens were tested. Acetic acid was antibacterial against planktonic growth, with an minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.16-0.31% for all isolates, and was also able to prevent formation of biofilms (at 0.31%. Eradication of mature biofilms was observed for all isolates after three hours of exposure.This study provides evidence that acetic acid can inhibit growth of key burn wound pathogens when used at very dilute concentrations. Owing to current concerns of the reducing efficacy of systemic antibiotics, this novel biocide application offers great promise as a cheap and effective measure to treat infections in burns patients.

  3. [Pseudothrombocytopenia induced by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Contreras-Domínguez, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    The EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia is a false decrease in the number of platelets below the normal value when analyzed with automated devices. There is an incidence of 0.09 to 0.21% in hospitalized patients. Pseudothrombocytopenia is secondary to platelet clumping induced by antibodies in the presence of EDTA and has been associated with sepsis, cancer, cardiac surgery and drugs. We report the first case of pseudothrombocytopenia induced by EDTA in a burn patient.

  4. An optimized animal model for partial and total skin thickness burns studies Um modelo animal aperfeiçoado para estudo de queimaduras superficiais e profundas da pele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bomfim Soares Campelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Development of an improved animal model for studying skin burns in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n=6: G1-Control, G2- T100°C, G3-T150°C and G4-T200°C. Two 10 x 10 mm squares were outlined with a sterile surgical marker on each side and along the vertebral column using a prepared template positioned between the anterior and posterior limbs. G2-G4 rats were subjected to 100°C, 150°C and 200ºC thermal burns, respectively. G1 rats served as controls. Burns were inflicted by applying a copper plate connected to an electronic temperature controlling device to the dorsal skin of anesthetized rats. Four burns were produced on each animal (total area: 4 cm²/animal leaving about 1 cm of undamaged skin between burn areas. Analgesia was administered during 24 h after burn injury by adding 30 mg codeine phosphate hemihydrate to 500 ml tap water. RESULTS: The application of 100°C and 150ºC resulted in partial thickness skin burns with central reepithelialization of the burned area only at 100°C. In G4 group the whole thickness of the skin was injured without central reepithelialization. However, there was marginal reepithelialization in all groups. CONCLUSION: The model studied is inexpensive and easily reproducible, enabling the achievement of controlled burns with partial or total impairment of the skin in experimental animals.OBJETIVO: Desenvolvimento de um modelo animal aperfeiçoado para estudo de queimaduras cutâneas em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar, machos, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos (n=6: G1-Controle, G2-T100°C, G3-T150°C e G4-T200°C. Dois quadrados medindo 10x10 mm foram delineados com um marcador cirúrgico estéril em cada lado e ao longo da coluna vertebral e posicionados entre os membros anteriores e posteriores, utilizando um molde previamente preparado. Os ratos dos grupos G2-G4 foram submetidos a queimaduras térmicas de 100

  5. Reduced gastric acid production in burn shock period and its significance in the prevention and treatment of acute gastric mucosal lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhu; Zhong Cheng Yang; Ao Li; De Chang Cheng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the changes of gastric acid production and its mechanism in shock period of severe burn in rats.METHODS A rat model with 30% TBSA fullthickness burn injury was employed and the gastric acid production, together with gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and energy charge ( EC ) were measured serially within 48h postburn.RESULTS The gastric acid production in the acute shock period was markedly inhibited after severe burn injury. At the 3rd h postburn, the gastric juice volume, total acidity and acid output were already significantly decreased (P<0.01), and reached the lowest point,0.63mL/L ± 0.20mL/L, 10.81mmol/L ±2.58mmol/L and 2.23 mmol/h ± 0.73mmol/h respectively, at the 12th h postburn. Although restored to some degree 24 h after thermal injury, the variables above were still statistically lower, compared with those of control animals at the 48th h postburn. The GMBF and EC were also significantly reduced after severe burns, consistent with the trend of gastric acid production changes.CONCLUSION Gastric acid production, as well as GMBF and EC was predominantly decreased in the early postburn stage, suggesting that gastric mucosal ischemia and hypoxia with resultant disturbance in energy metabolism, but not gastric acid proper, might be the decisive factor in the pathogenesis of AGML after thermal injury, and that the preventive use of anti-acid drugs during burn shock period was unreasonable in some respects. Therefore,taking effective measures to improve gastric mucosal blood perfusion as early as possible postburn might be more preferable for the AGML prevention and treatment.

  6. Upper gastrointestinal burns by peroxyacetic acid in children: a review of seven cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhibin Niu; Keren Zhang; Weilin Wang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical features of upper gastrointestinal burns by peroxyacetic acid (PA) in children and improve its treatment and outcome. Methods: The clinical materials of 7 cases with upper gastrointestinal burns by PA including clinical presentation, treatment and outcomes were reviewed. Results: There were six boys and one girl. The concentration of the swallowed PA was from 10% to 20% and the amount was 3-10 ml. The mainly burns were located in esophagus in one case, stomach in three cases, both esophagus and stomach in three cases. The gastrostomy and operation of dilating esophagus were performed in the cases with esophageal stricture. The pyloroplasty or gastroduodenostomy was performed in the cases with pyloric obstruction. All the cases were followed up for 12-18 months, dysfunction of esophagus or(and) cardia as well as stiffness and hypodynamia of the stomach was showed in most of the patients. Conclusion: The degree of upper gastrointestinal burns by PA varied according to different concentrations of PA which was swallowed. Correct emergent measures in the acute stage of the bums was very important, gastric tube should be inserted and go through esophagus and pylorus and must be retained for 5-8 weeks to prevent the stricture of esophagus and pylorus, otherwise the tube could act as a passage of nutriment. Prophylaxis of upper gastrointestinal burns by PA is very important because the treatment of the burns is difficulty and the outcomes are not always satisfactory.

  7. Impact of biomass burning on rainwater acidity and composition in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Victor, T.; Begum, R.

    1999-11-01

    The Indonesian forest fires that took place from August through October 1997 released large amounts of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the atmosphere. The particulate emissions produced a plume that was easily visible by satellite and significantly affected regional air quality in Southeast Asia. This prolonged haze episode provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the effects of biomass burning on regional atmospheric chemistry. We undertook a comprehensive field study to assess the influence of biomass burning impacted air masses on precipitation chemistry in Singapore. Major inorganic and organic ions were determined in 104 rain samples collected using an automated wet-only sampler from July through December 1997. Mean pH values ranged from 3.79 to 6.20 with a volume-weighted mean of 4.35. There was a substantially large number of rain events with elevated concentrations of these ions during the biomass burning period. The relatively high concentrations of SO2-4, NO-3, and NH+4 observed during the burning period are attributed to a long residence time of air masses, leading to progressive gas to particle conversion of biomass burning emission components. The decrease in pH of precipitation in response to the increased concentrations of acids is only marginal, which is ascribed to neutralization of acidity by NH3 and CaCO3.

  8. Animal study on expression of laminin and fibronectin in cornea during wound healing following alkali burn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂秋; 马轶群; 梁涛; 姜涛; 王传富; 张妍霞

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the expression of laminin and fibronectin in alkali-burned corneas in rats.Methods: A total of 18 normal Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=3 in each group). For each rat, one eye was injured by alkali burn, the other one was taken as the normal control. Then all the corneas were surgically removed and the expression of laminin and fibronectin was observed with immunohistochemistry respectively at 7 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days and 28 days after alkali burn. Results: Compared with that of the normal controls, the expression of laminin and fibronectin of the burned eyes was dramatically higher at 7 hours, reached peak at 14 days and decreased to the normal level at 28 days after alkali burn. Conclusions: In the process of wound healing after alkali burn, the expression of laminin and fibronectin increases dramatically, which suggests that laminin and fibronectin may participate in the process of corneal wound healing.

  9. Management of a Patient With Faciocervical Burns and Inhalational Injury Due to Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanhai, Zhang; Xingang, Wang; Liangfang, Ni; Chunmao, Han

    2014-05-01

    Hydrofluoric acid, a highly dangerous substance, can cause tissue damage and systemic toxicity by its unique mechanisms. Many cases of severe faciocervical burns due to hydrofluoric acid exposure are lethal. Herein, we present a case of 37-year-old man who suffered from hydrofluoric acid burns to his face, anterior neck, lips, and nasal cavity. On admission, this patient coughed with much sputum, and the chest auscultation detected rough breath sounds, wheezes, and very weak heart sounds, indicating possible inhalation injury. This case highlights the extreme complexity of managing this kind of injury. Timely and accurate wound treatment and respiratory tract care, as well as active systematic support treatment, played vital roles in the management of this patient.

  10. Comparison of skin effects of immediate treatment modalities in experimentally induced hydrofluoric acid skin burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songur, Meltem K; Akdemir, Ovunc; Lineaweaver, William C; Cavusoglu, Turker; Ozsarac, Murat; Aktug, Huseyin; Songur, Ecmel; Tiftikcioglu, Yigit O

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns cause immediate damage and painful long-term sequellae. Traditionally, chelating agents have been used as the initial treatment for such burns. We have introduced epidermal growth factor (EGF) into an HF model to compare EGF with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) treatments; 40 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Each rat suffered a 6 × 4 cm(2) burn induced by 40% HF. Group 1 had no treatment, group 2 had saline injected beneath the burn, group 3 received magnesium sulphate injections, group 4 received calcium gluconate and group 5 received EGF. Specimens were evaluated via planimetry and biopsy at intervals of 4, 8, 24 and 72 hours. Fluid losses were significantly less in the Mg(2+) and EGF groups. The EGF group had the smallest burn area, least oedema, least polymorphonuclear granulocyte (PMN) infiltration, most angiogenesis and highest fibroblast proliferation of any group (P < 0·005). EGF limited HF damage morphologically and histologically more effectively than Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). This finding indicates that HF treatment via growth factors may be an improvement over chelation therapy.

  11. Importance of medium chain fatty acids in animal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, B.; Starčević, M.; Đorđević, J.; Mrdović, B.; Marković, R.

    2017-09-01

    Fats in animal and human nutrition are a common subject of research. These studies most often pay attention to particular fat groups (saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated fats or fats grouped by the length of their fatty acid chains into short, medium or long chain fatty acids). Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have two main sources: milk and coconut oil. To date, research has shown these acids have positive effects on health, production, feed digestibility and lower body and muscle fats in broilers and swine. MCFAs possess antibacterial, anticoccidial and antiviral effects. Also, it has been proven that these acids act synergistically if they are used together with organic acids, essential oils, or probiotics. Nowadays, commercial MCFA products are available for use in animal nutrition as feed additives.

  12. Reduction of Burn Progression with Topical Delivery of (Antitumor Necrosis Factor-alpha )-Hyaluronic Acid Conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    level of hair follicle cell apoptosis within 24 hours of the initial burn injury.27 Intravenous injection of semapimod, a selective inhibitor of...effect of such treat- ment was unclear. Singer and coworkers have also demonstrated 30% reduction in depth of hair follicle necrosis after systemic...whether topical application of antibodies targeting tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) conjugated to hyaluronic acid (HA) could

  13. [Hydrofluoric acid burns of the hands in the home environment: correct therapeutic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Pellegatta, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    The broad market penetration of products with components used primarily in the industrial sector requires the precise knowledge of their mechanism of action in order to perform a correct therapeutic approach. The article reports on three cases of domestic hydrofluoric acid burn that came to our Plastic Surgery Unit over the last three years. The treatment options are discussed in detail with emphasis on the importance of a constant update about such emerging diseases.

  14. Thoracic Duct Chylous Fistula Following Severe Electric Injury Combined with Sulfuric Acid Burns: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fei; Cheng, Dasheng; Qian, Mingyuan; Lu, Wei; Li, Huatao; Tang, Hongtai; Xia, Zhaofan

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Thoracic duct chylous fistula Symptoms: Fistula Medication: — Clinical Procedure: A boneless muscle flap transplantatio Specialty: — Objective: Rare disease Background: As patients with thoracic duct injuries often suffer from severe local soft tissue defects, integrated surgical treatment is needed to achieve damage repair and wound closure. However, thoracic duct chylous fistula is rare in burn patients, although it typically involves severe soft tissue damage in the neck or chest. Case Report: A 32-year-old male patient fell after accidentally contacting an electric current (380 V) and knocked over a barrel of sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid continuously poured onto his left neck and chest, causing combined electrical and sulfuric acid burn injuries to his anterior and posterior torso, and various parts of his limbs (25% of his total body surface area). During treatment, chylous fistula developed in the left clavicular region, which we diagnosed as thoracic duct chylous fistula. We used diet control, intravenous nutritional support, and continuous somatostatin to reduce the chylous fistula output, and hydrophilic silver ion-containing dressings for wound coverage. A boneless muscle flap was used to seal the left clavicular cavity, and, integrated, these led to resolution of the chylous fistula. Conclusions: Patients with severe electric or chemical burns in the neck or chest may be complicated with thoracic duct injuries. Although conservative treatment can control chylous fistula, wound cavity filling using a muscle flap is an effective approach for wound healing. PMID:27725628

  15. The use of hyaluronic acid based dressings to treat burns: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Longinotti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep cutaneous lesions such as burns, traumas or ulcers are all conditions characterized by a massive loss of dermis, bringing several important consequences. For the treatment of these conditions, the evolution of material science has made available new dressings based on natural and synthetic polymers. Hyaluronic acid (HA is involved in many steps of the wound healing process, such as inflammation, granulation and re-epithelialization. In order to overcome the poor physical properties of the native polymer, such as solubility and rapid degradation, insoluble molecules starting from the natural compound were produced via esterification. Thanks to their improved structural properties, the dressings based on these hyaluronic acid derivatives represent a valuable ­option for the treatment of deep burns. This narrative monograph describes the development and the outcome of the use of these products in burns. The currently available clinical experience suggests that these HA medical devices represent a safe therapeutic method useful for the treatment of acute wounds.

  16. Uso de esteroides sistémicos en quemaduras de segundo grado en modelo animal Systemic steroid use in second degree burns in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ramos-Gallardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso de esteroide está reconocido en el tratamiento crítico del paciente quemado y es útil en el choque séptico que no responde a vasopresores. Este grupo de medicamentos ayuda a regular la respuesta hemodinámica mejorando el aporte de sangre a la piel, aunque sabemos que tienen un efecto nocivo en el proceso de cicatrización. Evaluamos el efecto histopatológico del empleo de esteroides en quemaduras usando un modelo animal. Empleamos 2 grupos de 10 ratas (Wistar en las que colocamos un cilindro de metal en el dorso durante 15 segundos a 95ºC, produciendo una quemadura. En ese momento, uno de los grupos recibió esteroide a dosis de estrés (hidrocortisona 5 mg/kg y el otro no recibió ningún medicamento. Al quinto día resecamos la escara y cubrimos el defecto con cultivo de queratinocitos. Los animales fueron sacrificadas a los 14 días. Realizamos análisis histopatológico. Macroscópicamente evaluamos la presencia de infección y el porcentaje de epitelización. Microscópicamente evaluamos la fibrosis, la inflamación, la presencia de fibroblastos y la proliferación vascular. Comparamos ambos grupos usando la prueba de Chi² (SPSS versión 10. Consideramos como significativo un valor p=/The use of steroids is well recognized in critical care specially in septic shock. There are some reports of their utility in severe burns. It helps to regulate the hemodynamic response in order to improve the blood supply to the skin, although it is well known their negative effect in wound healing. Our objective is to know the hystopathologic effect of steroids in burn healing. We used 2 groups of 10 rats (Wistar. Both groups were exposed in their backs to a metallic cylinder at 95 ºC for 15 seconds. At the moment of the burn, one group was given steroid (hydrocortisone at stress dose 5 mg/kg and the other group didn't received any medication. The scar was removed at the 5th day and the burn injury was covered with queratinocyte culture. The

  17. Collagen-chitosan scaffold - Lauric acid plasticizer for skin tissue engineering on burn cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyanti, Prihartini; Setyadi, Ewing Dian; Rudyardjo, Djony Izak

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of burns in the world is more than 800 cases per one million people each year and this is the second highest cause of death due to trauma after traffic accident. Many studies are turning to skin substitute methods of tissue engineering. The purpose of this study is to determine the composition of the collagen, chitosan, and lauric acid scaffold, as well as knowing the results of the characterization of the scaffold. The synthesis of chitosan collagen lauric acid scaffold as a skin tissue was engineered using freeze dried method. Results from making of collagen chitosan lauric acid scaffold was characterized physically, biologically and mechanically by SEM, cytotoxicity, biodegradation, and tensile strength. From the morphology test, the result obtained is that pore diameter size ranges from 94.11 to 140.1 µm for samples A,B,C,D, which are in the range of normal pore size 63-150 µm, while sample E has value below the standard which is about 37.87 to 47.36 µm. From cytotoxicity assay, the result obtained is the percentage value of living cells between 20.11 to 21.51%. This value is below 50% the standard value of living cells. Incompatibility is made possible because of human error mainly the replication of washing process over the standard. Degradation testing obtained values of 19.44% - 40% by weight which are degraded during the 7 days of observation. Tensile test results obtained a range of values of 0.192 - 3.53 MPa. Only sample A (3.53 MPa) and B (1.935 MPa) meet the standard values of skin tissue scaffold that is 1-24 MPa. Based on the results of the characteristics of this study, composite chitosan collagen scaffold with lauric acid plasticizer has a potential candidate for skin tissue engineering for skin burns cases.

  18. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in biomass burning aerosols: implications for photochemical production and degradation in smoke layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoffer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols in the size class <2.5 μm (6 daytime and 9 nighttime samples were collected at a pasture site in Rondônia, Brazil, during the intensive biomass burning period of 16–26 September 2002 as part of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC. Homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C2–C11 and related compounds (ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls were identified using gas chromatography (GC and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Among the species detected, oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant, followed by succinic, malonic and glyoxylic acids. Average concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the aerosol samples were 2180, 167 and 56 ng m−3, respectively. These are 2–8, 3–11 and 2–16 times higher, respectively, than those reported in urban aerosols, such as in 14 Chinese megacities. Higher ratios of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ were found in the daytime than in the nighttime, suggesting the importance of photochemical production. On the other hand, higher ratios of oxalic acid to other dicarboxylic acids and related compounds normalized to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ in the daytime provide evidence for the possible degradation of dicarboxylic acids (≥C3 in this smoke-polluted environment. Assuming that these and related compounds are photo-chemically oxidized to oxalic acid in the daytime, and given their linear relationship, they could account for, on average, 77% of the formation of oxalic acid. The remaining portion of oxalic acid may have been directly emitted from biomass burning as suggested by a good correlation with the biomass burning tracers (K+, CO and ECa and organic carbon (OC. However, photochemical production from other precursors could not be excluded.

  19. Successful treatments of lung injury and skin burn due to hydrofluoric acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, K; Watanabe, T; Dote, T; Usuda, K; Nishiura, H; Tagawa, T; Tominaga, M; Higuchi, Y; Onnda, M

    2000-06-01

    Recent growth in the electronics and chemical industries has brought about a progressive increase in the use of hydrofluoric acid (HF), along with the concomitant risk of acute poisoning among HF workers. We report severe cases of inhalation exposure and skin injury which were successfully treated by administering a 5% calcium gluconate solution with a nebulizer and applying 2.5% calcium gluconate jelly, respectively. Case 1: A 52-year old worker used HF for surface treatment after welding stainless steel, and was hospitalized with rapid onset of severe dyspnea. On admission to the critical care medical center he had widespread wheezing and crackles in his lungs. Chest radiograph showed a fine diffuse veiling over both lower pulmonary fields. Severe hypocalcemia with high concentrations of F in serum and urine were disclosed. He was immediately given 5% calcium gluconate solution by intermittent positive-pressure breathing (IPPB), utilizing a nebulizer. On the 21st hospital day, chest film and CT scan did not demonstrate any abnormality. He was discharged very much improved on the 22nd hospital day. Case 2: A 35-year old worker at an electronics factory was admitted to his local hospital with severe skin burn on his face and neck after exposure to 100% HF. Treatment began with immediate copious washing with water for 20 min. Calcium gluconate 2.5% gel (HF burn jelly) was applied to the area as a first-aid measure. Persistent high concentrations of serum and urinary F were disclosed for 2 weeks. After treatment with applications of HF burn jelly, he was confirmed as being completely recovered. The present cases and a review of published data suggest that an adequate method of emergency treatment for accidental HF poisoning is necessary.

  20. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition.

  1. Ototoxicity of boric acid powder in a rat animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Murat; Dogru, Salim; Cesmeci, Enver; Caliskan, Halil; Kurt, Onuralp; Kuçukodaci, Zafer; Gungor, Atila

    2017-04-22

    Boric acid, which has antiseptic and acidic properties, is used to treat external and middle ear infections. However, we have not found any literature about the effect of boric acid powder on middle ear mucosa and inner ear. The purpose of this study is to investigate possible ototoxic effects of boric acid powder (BAP) on cochlear outer hair cell function and histological changes in middle ear mucosa in a rat animal model. Twenty healthy, mature Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into two groups, Group A and Group B, each of which consisted of 10 rats. Initially, the animals in each group underwent distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) testing of their right and left ears. After the first DPOAE test, a surgical microscope was used to make a small perforation in both ears of the rats in each group, and a second DPOAE test was used to measure both ears in all of the rats. BAP was applied to the right middle ear of the rats using tympanic membrane perforation, and the DPOAEs were measured immediately after the BAP application. The histological changes and DPOAEs were evaluated three days later in Group A and 40 days later in Group B. No significant differences were found at all of the DPOAE frequencies. In Group A, mild inflammation of the middle ear mucosa was found on the third day after BAP application. In Group B, BAP caused mild inflammatory changes on the 40th day, which declined over time. Those changes did not lead to significant fibrosis within the mucosa. In rats, BAP causes mild inflammation in middle ear mucosa and it has no ototoxic effects on cochlear outer hair cell function in the inner ear of rats. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical characteristics of dicarboxylic acids and related organic compounds in PM2.5 during biomass-burning and non-biomass-burning seasons at a rural site of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fang; Zhang, Shi-Chun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chi; Xu, Zufei; Fan, Meiyi; Zhang, Wenqi; Bao, Mengying; Chang, Yunhua; Song, Wenhuai; Liu, Shoudong; Lee, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-08-25

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters during May 2013 to January 2014 at a background rural site (47(∘)35 N, 133(∘)31 E) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. A homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11) and related compounds (oxoacids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids) were analyzed by using a gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS method employing a dibutyl ester derivatization technique. Intensively open biomass-burning (BB) episodes during the harvest season in fall were characterized by high mass concentrations of PM2.5, dicarboxylic acids and levoglucosan. During the BB period, mass concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were increased by up to >20 times with different factors for different organic compounds (i.e., succinic (C4) acid > oxalic (C2) acid > malonic (C3) acid). High concentrations were also found for their possible precursors such as glyoxylic acid (ωC2), 4-oxobutanoic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal as well as fatty acids. Levoglucosan showed strong correlations with carbonaceous aerosols (OC, EC, WSOC) and dicarboxylic acids although such good correlations were not observed during non-biomass-burning seasons. Our results clearly demonstrate biomass burning emissions are very important contributors to dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. The selected ratios (e.g., C3/C4, maleic acid/fumaric acid, C2/ωC2, and C2/levoglucosan) were used as tracers for secondary formation of organic aerosols and their aging process. Our results indicate that organic aerosols from biomass burning in this study are fresh without substantial aging or secondary production. The present chemical characteristics of organic compounds in biomass-burning emissions are very important for better understanding the impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Advances in the research of treatment of hydrofluoric acid burn%氢氟酸烧伤治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新刚; 张元海; 韩春茂

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is one of the most common inorganic acids used widely in industrial circle.HF not only causes cutaneous burn,but also induces systemic toxicity by its unique injury mechanism.Accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment are critical after HF burns.To date,the strategies for treating HF burns have been developed,mainly including topical treatments and systematic support.However,there is no standard treatment strategy with wide acceptance in the world.This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the advances in the research of strategies for the treatment of HF burns.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids (ῳ-3 fatty acids) in epilepsy: animal models and human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiorgio, Christopher M; Taha, Ameer Y

    2016-10-01

    There is growing interest in alternative and nutritional therapies for drug resistant epilepsy. ῳ-3 fatty acids such as fish or krill oil are widely available supplements used to lower triglycerides and enhance cardiovascular health. ῳ-3 fatty acids have been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy. Yet, evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials in epilepsy is at an early stage. This report focuses on the key ῳ-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, their incorporation into the lipid bilayer, modulation of ion channels, and mechanisms of action in reducing excitability within the central nervous system. This paper presents pre-clinical evidence from mouse, rat, and canine models, and reports the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids in randomized controlled clinical trials. An English language search of PubMed and Google scholar for the years 1981-2016 was performed for animal studies and human randomized controlled clinical trials. Expert commentary: Basic science and animal models provide a cogent rationale and substantial evidence for a role of ῳ-3 fatty acids in reducing seizures. Results in humans are limited. Recent Phase II RCT evidence suggests that low to moderate dose of ῳ-3 fatty acids reduce seizures; however, larger multicenter randomized trials are needed to confirm or refute the evidence. The safety, health effects, low cost and ease of use make ῳ-3 fatty acids an intriguing alternative therapy for drug resistant epilepsy. Though safety of profile is excellent, the human data is not yet sufficient to support efficacy in drug resistant epilepsy at this time.

  5. Effects of Hyaluronic Acid Conjugation on Anti-TNF-alpha Inhibition of Inflammation in Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    burn progression, and early mediation may be a key factor in rescuing thermally injured tissue from secondary necrosis in order to improve healing...characterized by increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, phagocytic macrophages and monocytes in the wound microenvironment, and blood vessel dilation and...in burn wound tissue and wound fluid11 and therefore, is a key player in the destruction of tissue in burn wound progression. TNF-α causes dilation of

  6. Resuscitation after severe burn injury using high-dose ascorbic acid: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Steven Alexander; Beers, Ryan J; Lentz, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Resuscitation of burn victims with high-dose ascorbic acid (vitamin C [VC]) was reported in Japan in the year 2000. Benefits of VC include reduction in fluid requirements, resulting in less tissue edema and body weight gain. In turn, these patients suffer less respiratory impairment and reduced requirement for mechanical ventilation. Despite these results, few burn centers resuscitate patients with VC in fear that it may increase the risk of renal failure. A retrospective review of 40 patients with greater than 20% TBSA between 2007 and 2009 was performed. Patients were divided into two groups: one received only lactated Ringer's (LR) solution and another received LR solution plus 66 mg/kg/hr VC. Both groups were resuscitated with the Parkland formula to maintain stable hemodynamics and adequate urine output (>0.5 ml/kg/hr). Patients with >10-hour delay in transfer to the burn center were excluded. Data collected included age, gender, weight, %TBSA, fluid administered in the first 24 hours, urine output in the first 24 hours, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. PaO2 in millimeters mercury:%FIO2 ratio and positive end-expiratory pressure were measured at 12-hour intervals, and hematocrit was measured at 6-hour intervals. Comorbidities, mortality, pneumonia, fasciotomies, and renal failure were also noted. After 7 patients were excluded, 17 patients were included in the VC group and 16 in the LR group. VC and LR were matched for age (42 ± 16 years vs 50 ± 20 years, P = .2), burn size (45 ± 21%TBSA vs 39 ± 15%TBSA, P = .45), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (17 ± 7 vs 18 ± 8, P = .8), and gender. Fluid requirements in the first 24 hours were 5.3 ± 1 ml/kg/%TBSA for VC and 7.1 ± 1 ml/kg/%TBSA for LR (P < .05). Urine output was 1.5 ± 0.4 ml/kg/hr for VC and 1 ± 0.5 ml/kg/hr for LR (P < .05). Vasopressors were needed in four VC patients and nine LR patients (P = .07). VC patients required vasopressors to maintain mean

  7. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in biomass burning aerosols: implications for photochemical production and degradation in smoke layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kundu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols in the size class <2.5 μm (6 daytime and 9 nighttime samples were collected at a pasture site in Rondônia, Brazil, during the intensive biomass burning period of 16–26 September 2002 as part of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC. Homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C2–C11 and related compounds (ketocarboxylic acids and dicarbonyls were identified using gas chromatography and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Among the species detected, oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant, followed by succinic, malonic and glyoxylic acids. Average concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the aerosol samples were 2180, 167 and 56 ng m−3, respectively. These are 2–8, 3–11 and 2–16 times higher, respectively, than those reported in urban aerosols, such as in 14 Chinese megacities. Higher ratios of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ were found in the daytime than in the nighttime, suggesting an importance of photochemical production. On the other hand, higher ratios of oxalic acid to other dicarboxylic acids and related compounds normalized to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ in the daytime provide evidence for the possible degradation of dicarboxylic acids (≥C3 in this smoke-polluted environment. Assuming that these and related compounds are photochemically oxidized to oxalic acid in the daytime and given their linear relationship, they could account for, on average, 77% of the formation of oxalic acid. The remaining portion of oxalic acid may have been directly emitted from biomass burning as suggested by a good correlation with the biomass burning tracers (K+, CO and ECa and organic carbon (OC. However, photochemical production from other precursors

  8. High abundances of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the mountaintop aerosols over the North China Plain during wheat burning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawamura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol (TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mount Tai (elevation: 1534 m a.s.l., 36.25° N, 117.10° E located in the North China Plain using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters. Sampling was conducted on day/night or 3 h basis in the period from 29 May to 28 June 2006 during the field burning of wheat straw residue and the post-burning season. The filter samples were analyzed for low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls using capillary gas chromatography (GC and GC-MS employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11, 220–6070 ng m−3 were characterized by a predominance of oxalic (C2 acid (105–3920 ng m−3 followed by succinic (C4 or malonic (C3 acid. Unsaturated aliphatic diacids, including maleic (M, isomaleic (iM and fumaric (F acids, were also detected together with aromatic diacids (phthalic, isophthalic and terephthalic acids. ω-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9, 24–610 ng m−3 were detected as the second most abundant compound class with the predominance of glyoxylic acid (11–360 ng m−3, followed by α-ketoacid (pyruvic acid, 3–140 ng m−3 and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, 1–230 ng m−3 and methylglyoxal, 2–120 ng m−3. We found that these levels (>6000 ng m−3 for diacids are several times higher than those reported in Chinese megacities at ground levels. The concentrations of diacids increased from late May to early June, showing a maximum on 7 June, and then significantly decreased during the period 8–11 June, when the wind direction shifted from southerly to northerly. Similar temporal trends were found for ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls as well as total carbon (TC and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC. The temporal variations of water-soluble organics were interpreted by the direct emission from the field burning of agricultural wastes (wheat straw in the North China Plain and the

  9. Effect of fasting on the metabolic response of liver to experimental burn injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet A Orman

    Full Text Available Liver metabolism is altered after systemic injuries such as burns and trauma. These changes have been elucidated in rat models of experimental burn injury where the liver was isolated and perfused ex vivo. Because these studies were performed in fasted animals to deplete glycogen stores, thus simplifying quantification of gluconeogenesis, these observations reflect the combined impact of fasting and injury on liver metabolism. Herein we asked whether the metabolic response to experimental burn injury is different in fed vs. fasted animals. Rats were subjected to a cutaneous burn covering 20% of the total body surface area, or to similar procedures without administering the burn, hence a sham-burn. Half of the animals in the burn and sham-burn groups were fasted starting on postburn day 3, and the others allowed to continue ad libitum. On postburn day 4, livers were isolated and perfused for 1 hour in physiological medium supplemented with 10% hematocrit red blood cells. The uptake/release rates of major carbon and nitrogen sources, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured during the perfusion and the data fed into a mass balance model to estimate intracellular fluxes. The data show that in fed animals, injury increased glucose output mainly from glycogen breakdown and minimally impacted amino acid metabolism. In fasted animals, injury did not increase glucose output but increased urea production and the uptake of several amino acids, namely glutamine, arginine, glycine, and methionine. Furthermore, sham-burn animals responded to fasting by triggering gluconeogenesis from lactate; however, in burned animals the preferred gluconeogenic substrate was amino acids. Taken together, these results suggest that the fed state prevents the burn-induced increase in hepatic amino acid utilization for gluconeogenesis. The role of glycogen stores and means to increase and/or maintain internal sources of glucose to prevent increased hepatic amino acid

  10. Both the H2S biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid and the mitochondrially targeted H2S donor AP39 exert protective effects in a mouse model of burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akbar; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts beneficial as well as deleterious effects in various models of critical illness. Here we tested the effect of two different pharmacological interventions: (a) inhibition of H2S biosynthesis using the cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS)/cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and the mitochondrially targeted H2S donor [10-oxo-10-[4-(3-thioxo-3H-1,2-dithiol-5-yl)phenoxy]decyl]triphenyl-phosphonium (AP39). A 30% body surface area burn injury was induced in anesthetized mice; animals were treated with vehicle, AOAA (10mg/kg i.p. once or once a day for 6days), or AP39 (0.3mg/kg/day once or once a day for 6days). In two separate groups, animals were sacrificed, at 24h post-burn or on Day 7 post-burn, blood and lungs were collected and the following parameters were evaluated: myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in lung homogenates, plasma cytokines (Luminex analysis) and circulating indicators of organ dysfunction (Vetscan analysis). Lung MPO levels (an index of neutrophil infiltration) and MDA levels (an index of oxidative stress) were significantly increased in response to burn injury both at 24h and at 7days; both AOAA and AP39 attenuated these increases. From a panel of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, MIP-2, VEGF and IFNγ) in the plasma, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were markedly elevated at 24h and VEGF was slightly elevated. IL-6 remained highly elevated at 7days post-burn while IL-10 levels decreased, but remained slightly elevated over baseline 7days post-burn. The changes in cytokine levels were attenuated both by AP39 and AOAA at both time points studied. The burn-induced increases in the organ injury markers ALP and ALT, amylase and creatinine were reduced by both AOAA and AP39. We conclude that both H2S biosynthesis inhibition (using AOAA) and H2S donation (using AP39) suppresses inflammatory mediator production and reduces multi-organ injury in a murine model of burn

  11. The role of topically applied L-ascorbic acid in ex-vivo examination of burn-injured human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielesz, Anna; Biniaś, Dorota; Bobiński, Rafał; Sarna, Ewa; Paluch, Jadwiga; Waksmańska, Wioletta

    2017-10-01

    Wound treatment and healing is complex and is comprised of an elaborate set of processes including cellular, spectroscopic and biochemical ones as well as the ;reaction; of local tissue to thermal injury. Vitamin C as L-ascorbic acid (LA) prevents injurious effects of oxidants because it reduces reactive oxygen species to stable molecules, it becomes oxidized to the short-lived ascorbyl radical. As a result, antioxidant treatment may contribute to minimizing injury in burn patients. The aim of this study is to assess changes in molecular structure of collagen extracted from human epidermis burn wound scab during incubation of the epidermis in L-ascorbic acid solution. The study will be performed using FTIR and FT Raman spectroscopies. During this research it was observed that the intensity of Raman peaks increased where healing was being modified by LA. The intensity of the amide III band at 1247 cm- 1 relative to the intensity at 1326 cm- 1 was used to test tissue repair degree at the incision site. FTIR spectra were recorded from frozen specimens of serum modified by LA; an analysis of shifts in the amide I band position was conducted. The appearance of a new band for frozen samples modified by LA was observed around 1149-1220 cm- 1. The above conclusions confirmed the creation of hydrogen bonds between Nsbnd H stretch and Cdbnd O. Samples being incubated in solutions of L-ascorbic acid demonstrated the absence of electrophoretic bands of albumin. Alterations in the surface of the skin incubated in L-ascorbic acid were investigated with the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A decrease in external symptoms of burn injury was noted in the damaged epidermis incubated in L-ascorbic acid.

  12. Clinical arterial infusion of calcium gluconate: The preferred method for treating hydrofluoric acid burns of distal human limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhai Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of arterial infusions of calcium gluconate to treat hydrofluoric (HF acid burns of the distal human limbs. Materials and Methods: Eligible patients with HF burn limbs, collected from January 2008 to October 2011, were given the arterial infusion of calcium gluconate into the injured limbs. The measures of pain were conducted before the infusion, immediately after the infusion, 4 h after the infusion, and 2 days after the infusion by the visual analogy score (VAS. If the VAS score was higher than 4.0 at the time point 4 h after the first infusion, the infusion was repeated. The time of wound healing, and the number and ratio of the cases receiving the surgical operation were also evaluated. Results: A total of 118 patients, male (107 cases and female (11 cases, were collected, including 64 cases of outpatients and 54 cases of inpatients. The age of the subjects ranged from 16 to 60 years, with the mean age of 37.6. The burn sites were located in the lateral limbs (28 cases and in the unilateral limbs (90 cases. For 107 cases, the pain scores decreased quickly after the first infusion. The other 11 cases, with the VAS score higher than 4.0 at the time point 4 h after the first infusion, received the second infusion. The average time of wound healing and the ratio of the cases receiving the surgical operation were closely related to the interval from the injury to the reception of infusion. Conclusions: Arterial infusion of calcium gluconate, effectively relieving the pain, blocking wound progressive deepening, and causing no adverse effects, could be the preferential method to treat hydrofluoric acid burns of the distal human limbs.

  13. Seventy per cent hydrofluoric acid burns: delayed decontamination with hexafluorine® and treatment with calcium gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Carlos Alberto; Mathieu, Laurence; Hall, Alan H; Monteiro, Mário G Kool; de Almeida, Décio Moreira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of decontamination and treatment of a 70% hydrofluoric acid (HF) dermal splash injury. A worker was splashed with 70% HF, sustaining approximately 10% TBSA first- to third-degree chemical skin burns of the face, trunk, and left thigh and leg. Initial decontamination involved water rinsing, removal of contaminated clothing, more water rinsing, topical application of magnesium oxide, and administration of intravenous narcotics for management of severe pain. After a delay of approximately 3 hours, active skin washing with Hexafluorine®, 5 L, was performed, followed by intravenous, intradermal perilesional, and topical inunction administration of calcium gluconate. Pain relief and a cooling sensation were quite prompt after Hexafluorine® decontamination. Surgical debridement and skin grafting of the more severe burns were required. No significant systemic toxicity developed, although this has occurred in previously reported similar concentrated HF dermal splash exposure cases, some of which resulted in fatality. While burns did develop, the patient was released from the intensive care service after 2 days and, after skin grafting, had a good outcome at 90-day follow-up. Even after a long delay, decontamination with Hexafluorine® appeared to be beneficial in this case.

  14. Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Burn Pits Burn Pits Registry Studies Photo: U.S. Department ... the health of deployed Veterans. Health effects from burn pit smoke Toxins in burn pit smoke may ...

  15. Burn Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! Burn Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute provides fire ...

  16. One-week acid suppression trial in uninvestigated dyspepsia patients with epigastric pain or burning to predict response to 8 weeks' treatment with esomeprazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zanten, S V; Flook, N; Talley, N J;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While empiric acid-suppressive therapy for uninvestigated dyspepsia patients with symptoms of epigastric pain or burning is standard practice, it is unknown whether an early response to therapy predicts outcome. AIM: To evaluate whether a 1-w acid suppression trial is effective for pr...

  17. High abundances of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the mountain aerosols over the North China Plain during wheat burning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Okuzawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol (TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mount Tai (elevation: 1534 m a.s.l., 36.25° N; 117.10° E located in the North China Plain using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters. Sampling was conducted on day/night or 3 h basis in the period from 29 May to 28 June 2006 during the field burning of wheat straw residue and the post-burning season. The filter samples were analyzed for low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls using capillary gas chromatography (GC and GC-MS employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization. Dicarboxylic acids (C2–C11, 220–6070 ng m−3 were characterized by a predominance of oxalic (C2 acid (105–3920 ng m−3 followed by succinic (C4 or malonic (C3 acid. Unsaturated aliphatic diacids, including maleic (M, isomaleic (iM and fumaric (F acid, were also detected together with aromatic diacids (phthalic, iso-phthalic and tere-phthalic acids. ω-Oxocarboxylic acids (C2–C9, 24–610 ng m−3 were detected as the second most abundant compound class with the predominance of glyoxylic acid (11–360 ng m−3, followed by α-ketoacid (pyruvic acid, 3–140 ng m−3 and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, 1–230 ng m−3 and methylglyoxal, 2–120 ng m−3. We found that these levels (> 6000 ng m−3 for diacids are several times higher than those reported in Chinese megacities at ground levels. The concentrations of diacids increased from late May to early June showing a maximum on 7 June and then significantly decreased during 8–11 June when the wind direction shifted from northeasterly to northerly. Similar temporal trends were found for ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls as well as total carbon (TC and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC. The temporal variations of water-soluble organics

  18. Topical application of docosanol- or stearic acid-containing creams reduces severity of phenol burn wounds in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M H; Marcelletti, J F; Katz, L R; Katz, D H; Pope, L E

    2000-08-01

    Because of their reported antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, cream formulations containing n-docosanol (docosanol) or stearic acid were tested for effects on chemically-induced burns in mice. In this model, injury was induced by painting the abdomens of mice with a chloroform solution of phenol. This was followed by the topical application of test substances 0.5, 3, and 6 h later. Progression of the wounds was assessed by a single evaluator after 8 h, using a numerical score of gross morphology. Docosanol- and stearic acid-containing creams substantially and reproducibly lessened the severity and progression of skin lesions compared to untreated sites with a 76% and 57% reduction in mean lesion scores, respectively. Untreated wounds appeared red and ulcerated; docosanol cream-treated wounds showed only slight erythema.

  19. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  20. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  1. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, Jean Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Doerge, Daniel R. [NCTR, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Vandenbroeck, Marc [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, Johanna [University of Utrecht (Netherlands); Mennes, Wim [RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Knutsen, Helle K. [Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Vernazza, Francesco [Dietary and Chemical Monitoring, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Castle, Laurence [FERA, York (United Kingdom); Edler, Lutz [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Benford, Diane [Food Standard Agency, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ► Melamine in food and feed. ► Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ► Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ► Recent EFSA risk assessment. ► Animal and human health.

  2. Analysis of vanillic acid in polar ice cores as a biomass burning proxy - preliminary results from the Akademii Nauk Ice Cap in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieman, M. M.; Jimenez, R.; McConnell, J. R.; Fritzsche, D.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning influences global climate change and the composition of the atmosphere. The drivers, effects, and climate feedbacks related to fire are poorly understood. Many different proxies have been used to reconstruct past fire frequency from lake sediments and polar ice cores. Reconstruction of historical trends in biomass burning is challenging because of regional variability and the qualitative nature of various proxies. Vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid) is a product of the combustion of conifer lignin that is known to occur in biomass burning aerosols. Biomass burning is likely the only significant source of vanillic acid in polar ice. In this study we describe an analytical method for quantifying vanillic acid in polar ice using HPLC with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometric detection. The method has a detection limit of 100 pM and a precision of × 10% at the 100 pM level for analysis of 100 μl of ice melt water. The method was used to analyze more than 1000 discrete samples from the Akademii Nauk ice cap on Severnaya Zemlya in the high Russia Arctic (79°30'N, 97°45'E) (Fritzsche et al., 2002; Fritzsche et al., 2005; Weiler et al., 2005). The samples range in age over the past 2,000 years. The results show a mean vanillic acid concentration of 440 × 710 pM (1σ), with elevated levels during the periods from 300-600 and 1450-1550 C.E.

  3. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  4. Low molecular weight organic acids in aerosol particles from Rondônia, Brazil, during the biomass-burning, transition and wet periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Falkovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Particles from biomass burning and regional haze were sampled in Rondônia, Brazil, during dry, transition and wet periods from September to November 2002, as part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate field campaign. Water soluble organic and inorganic compounds in bulk (High Volume and Stacked Filter Unit sampler and size-resolved (Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor – MOUDI smoke samples were determined by ion chromatography. It was found that low molecular weight polar organic acids account for a significant fraction of the water soluble organic carbon (WSOC in biomass burning aerosols (C2-C6 dicarboxylic acids reached up to 3.7% and one-ring aromatic acids reached up to 2% of fine fraction WSOC during burning period. Short dicarboxylic (C2-C6 acids are dominated by oxalic acid followed by malonic and succinic acids. The largest ionic species is ammonium sulfate (60–70% of ionic mass. It was found that most of the ionic mass is concentrated in submicrometer-sized particles. Based on the size distribution and correlations with K+, a known biomass burning tracer, it is suggested that many of the organic acids are directly emitted by vegetation fires. Concentrations of dicarboxylic acids in the front and back filters of high volume sampler were determined. Based on these measurements, it was concluded that in the neutral or slightly basic smoke particles typical of this region, dicarboxylic acids are mostly confined to the particulate phase. Finally, it is shown that the distribution of water soluble species shifts to larger aerosols sizes as the aerosol population ages and mixes with other aerosol types in the atmosphere.

  5. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of orthophosphoric acid for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthophosphoric acid is commercially available as an aqueous solution at various concentrations, typically in the range 67.0–85.7 %. This assessment is based on a source of orthophosphoric acid that meets the purity criteria established for a food additive. Orthophosphoric acid is safe for all animal species when used as a preservative, provided that the optimal ratio of Ca:P is maintained. It is considered to be a source of available phosphorus in the diet. Its contribution to the phosphorus supply of animals must be considered when formulating diets or including it in water for drinking. As the maximum tolerable content of dietary phosphorus for all animal species is well known, setting a maximum content for the additive is not considered necessary. The supplementation of phosphorus from the additive to feedingstuffs will not raise safety concerns for the consumer. Orthophosphoric acid is a bulk industrial chemical and the hazards for those handling the substance are well known and documented. It is corrosive to the skin and eyes and should be considered as hazardous to the respiratory tract. As phosphorus from the acid will not add to the total dietary phosphorus content, the use of orthophosphoric acid in animal nutrition is not expected to pose an additional risk for the environment. As orthophosphoric acid is used in food as a preservative, and its function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary. It is expected that orthophosphoric acid would have the potential to contribute to the preservation of liquid feeds and sustain the quality of water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel has reservations about the effectiveness of any preservative, including orthophosphoric acid, in complete feedingstuffs with a typical moisture content of ≤ 12 %.

  7. Low molecular weight organic acids in aerosol particles from Rondônia, Brazil, during the biomass-burning, transition and wet periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Artaxo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Particles from biomass burning and regional haze were sampled in Rondônia, Brazil, during dry, transition and wet periods from September to November 2002, as part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate field campaign. Water soluble organic and inorganic compounds in bulk (High Volume and Stacked Filter Unit sampler and size-resolved (Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor – MOUDI smoke samples were determined by ion chromatography. It was found that low molecular weight polar organic acids account for a significant fraction of the water soluble organic carbon (WSOC in biomass burning aerosols (C2-C6 dicarboxylic acids reached up to 3.7% and one-ring aromatic acids reached up to 2% of fine fraction WSOC during burning period. Short dicarboxylic (C2-C6 acids are dominated by oxalic acid followed by malonic and succinic acids. The largest ionic species is ammonium sulfate (60–70% of ionic mass. It was found that most of the ionic mass is concentrated in submicrometer-sized particles. Based on the size distribution and correlations with K+, a known biomass burning tracer, it is suggested that many of the organic acids are directly emitted by vegetation fires. It is concluded that the dicarboxylic acids are mostly confined to the particulate phase, and no evidence for semi-volatile behavior was observed. Finally, it is shown that the distribution of water soluble species shifts to larger aerosols sizes as the aerosol population ages and mixes with other aerosol types in the atmosphere.

  8. 78 FR 70566 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Arsanilic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... withdrawing approval of a new animal drug application (NADA) for an arsanilic acid Type A medicated article at... 34384, Charlotte, NC 28234 has requested that FDA withdraw approval of NADA 008-019 for PRO-GEN... approval of NADA 008-019, and all supplements and amendments thereto, is hereby withdrawn. Elsewhere...

  9. 78 FR 70496 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Arsanilic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... approval of a new animal drug application (NADA) for an arsanilic acid Type A medicated article at the.... Box 34384, Charlotte, NC 28234 has requested that FDA withdraw approval of NADA 008-019 for PRO-GEN... gave notice that approval of NADA 008-019, and all supplements and amendments thereto, is...

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of orthophosphoric acid for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Orthophosphoric acid is commercially available as an aqueous solution at various concentrations, typically in the range 67.0–85.7 %. This assessment is based on a source of orthophosphoric acid that meets the purity criteria established for a food additive. Orthophosphoric acid is safe for all animal species when used as a preservative, provided that the optimal ratio of Ca:P is maintained. It is considered to be a source of available phosphorus in the diet. Its contribution to the phosphorus...

  11. Safety assessment of animal- and plant-derived amino acids as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics.

  12. Jasmonic acid accumulation and systemic photosynthetic and electrical changes in locally burned wild type tomato, ABA-deficient sitiens mutants and sitiens pre-treated by ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nožková-Hlaváčková, Vladimíra; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Nauš, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Burning the terminal leaflet of younger tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaf caused local and systemic changes in the surface electrical potential (SEP) and gas exchange (GE) parameters. The local and systemic accumulation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was measured 85 min after burning. The experiments were conducted with wild type (WT) plants, ABA-deficient mutant sitiens (SIT) and ABA pre-treated SIT plants (SITA). First changes in SEP were detected within 1.5 min after burning and were followed by a decrease in GE parameters within 3-6 min in WT, SIT and SITA plants. GE and SEP time courses of SIT were different and wave amplitudes of SEP of SIT were lower compared to WT and SITA. ABA content in WT and SITA control plants was similar and substantially higher compared to SIT, JA content was similar among WT, SIT and SITA. While changes in the ABA content in systemic leaves have not been recorded after burning, the systemic JA content was substantially increased in WT and more in SIT and SITA. The results suggest that ABA content governs the systemic reaction of GE and the SEP shape upon local burning. ABA, JA and SEP participate in triggering the GE reaction. The ABA shortage in the SIT in the reaction to burning is partly compensated by an enhanced JA accumulation. This JA compensation is maintained even in SIT endogenously supplied with ABA. A correlation between the systemic JA content and changes in GE parameters or SEP was not found.

  13. Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William E; Yokus, Hamdullah; Balci, Soner; Wilbert, David Shawn; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin Margaret

    2013-07-01

    Terahertz technologies have gained great amount of attention for biomedical imaging and tissue analysis. In this study, we utilize terahertz imaging to study the effects of hydrofluoric acid on both compact bone tissue and cartilage. We compare the differences observed in the exposure for formalin fixed and raw, dried, tissue as well as those resulting from a change in hydrofluoric (HF) concentration. Measurements are performed with THz-TDS, and a variety of spectroscopic-based image reconstruction techniques are utilized to develop contrast in the features of interest.

  14. Evaluation of anti-parkinson’s activity of gentisic acid in different animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kabra MP; Bhandari SS; Sharma A; Gupta RB

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the neuroprotective activity ofGentisic acid inPD.The study was conducted on swiss albinFo mice(20-25 g) & wistar rats(200-250 g).Methods:Three behavioural models namely,Haloperidol induced catalepsy,Reserpine antagonism andHaloperidol induce orofacial dyskinesia were employed in this study,SwissAlbino mice(20-25 g) were used in first two models whileWistar rats(200-250 g) used in last one model.There are five group(n=6) in each animal model.Various behavior activity/parameter(cataleptic behavior, horizontal movements, rearing & grooming frequencies andDyskinesia activity like vacuous chewing & tongue protrusion) in different animal models were used to evaluate the anti-Parkinson’s activity ofGentisic acid.Results:Gentisic acid showed a significant(P<0.01) reduction in the duration of cataleptic behavior dose dependently when compared to haloperidol control group.Gentisic acid shows dose dependant increase in the frequency of horizontal movement and rearing behavior when compared to theReserpine control group.But, the effect ofGentisic acid on the frequency of grooming behavior was found to be insignificant.Gentisic acid(80 mg/kg) showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the frequency of vacuous chewing & tongue protrusion but the other dose tested were found to be insignificant in this respect.Conclusions:Results shows that the Gentisic acid produced dose dependent neuroprotective activity in different animal models ofPD.

  15. Energy Storage in a fuel cell with bipolar membranes burning acid and hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emren, A. T.; Holmstrom, V. J. M.

    1983-04-01

    A battery is described, in which bipolar membranes are used to split water into acid and hydroxide. The liquids may be stored for an indefinite time, and energy may be recovered at room temperature. It is shown that the liquids are able to store about 400 kJ/litre, which roughly corresponds to pumping water up to an altitude of 40 km. Bipolar membranes of low area resistance have been made and tested. The area resistance appears to have been 2-3 ohm sq cm. A battery containing 7 unit cells has been constructed and tested. The maximum output voltage has been 1.8 V. The cost for enrgy storage is estimated to range from $0.1 to 2.5 per kWh depending on the mode of operation.

  16. Agmatine rescues autistic behaviors in the valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woon; Seung, Hana; Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Oh, Hyun Ah; Yang, Sung Min; Ko, Mee Jung; Han, Seol-Heui; Banerjee, Sourav; Shin, Chan Young

    2017-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an immensely challenging developmental disorder characterized primarily by two core behavioral symptoms of social communication deficits and restricted/repetitive behaviors. Investigating the etiological process and identifying an appropriate therapeutic target remain as formidable challenges to overcome ASD due to numerous risk factors and complex symptoms associated with the disorder. Among the various mechanisms that contribute to ASD, the maintenance of excitation and inhibition balance emerged as a key factor to regulate proper functioning of neuronal circuitry. Interestingly, our previous study involving the valproic acid animal model of autism (VPA animal model) has demonstrated excitatory-inhibitory imbalance (E/I imbalance) due to enhanced differentiation of glutamatergic neurons and reduced GABAergic neurons. Here, we investigated the potential of agmatine, an endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, as a novel therapeutic candidate in ameliorating ASD symptoms by modulating E/I imbalance using the VPA animal model. We observed that a single treatment of agmatine rescued the impaired social behaviors as well as hyperactive and repetitive behaviors in the VPA animal model. We also observed that agmatine treatment rescued the overly activated ERK1/2 signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of VPA animal models, possibly, by modulating over-excitability due to enhanced excitatory neural circuit. Taken together, our results have provided experimental evidence suggesting a possible therapeutic role of agmatine in ameliorating ASD-like symptoms in the VPA animal model of ASD.

  17. Scald Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety Tips & Info Scald Burns Thousands of scald burns occur annually, and ALL are preventable! The two high-risk populations are children under the age ... the single most important factor in preventing scald burns. Increased awareness is the key to scald prevention! ...

  18. Animal performance and fatty acid composition of lambs fed with different vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, T; Bodas, R; Castro, T; Jimeno, V; Mantecon, A R

    2009-11-01

    Twenty-seven lambs were used to investigate the effects of the inclusion of 4% hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) or sunflower oil (SFO) in the concentrate on animal performance, carcass and meat quality and fat characteristics and fatty acid composition. Animals (16.2±0.27kg initial weight) were fed concentrate (Control, HPO or SFO) and barley straw ad libitum and slaughtered at 25kg. SFO lambs tended to eat less concentrate than HPO animals (Pcharacteristics studied, meat pH and meat and fat colour (P>0.05). SFO decreased proportions of C16:0, C18:1 cis-11 and C18:3 (P<0.05) and increased C18:1 trans (P<0.001) and C18:2/C18:3 ratio (P<0.05). Atherogenicity index was lower (P<0.05) when SFO was included in the concentrate. HPO did not affected and SFO improved fatty acid composition of fattening lambs without affecting animal performance.

  19. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  20. Burn Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydemir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are important in terms of causing serious disability and threatening life. With the establishment of modern burn treatment units and advances in acute care management contributed to a reduced mortality rate over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive burn rehabilitation program. Burn rehabilitation is a process that starts from day of admission and continues for months or sometimes years after the initial event. The term ‘burn rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, physiological and social aspects of care. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Burn rehabilitation aims to prevent the possible complications, minimalize joint contractures and deformities, increase range of motion, control hypertrophic scarring, achieve the best possible functional capacity and to regain the patients vocational and recreational activities. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 70-7

  1. Free amino acid content of goat's milk cheese made with animal rennet and plant coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Adela; Cayuela, José María; Pino, Antonio; Martínez-Cachá, Adela; Salazar, Eva; Tejada, Luis

    2012-06-01

    Enzymes present in the flowers of Cynara cardunculus (cyprosins) are used in the production of some traditional Spanish and Portuguese cheeses, replacing animal rennet. The aim of this work was to study the changes that take place in free amino acids during the ripening of a goat's milk cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufactured with plant coagulant (PC) or animal rennet (AR). The total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration increased during ripening, with Ile, Val, Ala, Phe, Gaba, Arg and Lys representing more than 50% of the TFAA content at 60 days in both types of cheese. The TFAA concentration was significantly higher in cheeses made with PC (854 mg 100 g(-1) total solids (TS)) than those made with AR (735 mg 100 g(-1) TS). The concentration of most free amino acids, especially His, Ser, Gln, Thr, Ala, Met and Ile, was higher in the PC cheese. Cheese made using PC as coagulant presented higher contents of free amino acid throughout the ripening period than cheese made using AR. Therefore we can conclude that the use of PC to produce Murcia al Vino goat's cheese would accelerate the ripening process as a result of increased cyprosin proteolytic activity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of probiotic lactic acid bacteria for potential use in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Yaneisy; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Boucourt, Ramón; Balcázar, José L; Nicoli, Jacques R; Moreira-Silva, João; Rodríguez, Zoraya; Fuertes, Héctor; Nuñez, Odalys; Albelo, Nereyda; Halaihel, Nabil

    2016-10-01

    In livestock production, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common microorganisms used as probiotics. For such use, these bacteria must be correctly identified and characterized to ensure their safety and efficiency. In the present study, LAB were isolated from broiler excreta, where a fermentation process was used. Nine among sixteen isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular (sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene) methods as Lactobacillus crispatus (n=1), Lactobacillus pentosus (n=1), Weissella cibaria (n=1), Pediococcus pentosaceus (n=2) and Enterococcus hirae (n=4). Subsequently, these bacteria were characterized for their growth capabilities, lactic acid production, acidic pH and bile salts tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, antimicrobial susceptibility and antagonistic activity. Lactobacillus pentosus strain LB-31, which showed the best characteristics, was selected for further analysis. This strain was administered to broilers and showed the ability of modulating the immune response and producing beneficial effects on morpho-physiological, productive and health indicators of the animals.

  3. Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids in human and animal health: an African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, B S; Bosire, R V; Deckelbaum, R J

    2014-12-01

    Lipids are essential for plant and animal development, growth and nutrition and play critical roles in health and reproduction. The dramatic increase in the human population has put increasing pressure on human food sources, especially of those sources of food which contain adequate levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and more importantly, sources of food which have favorable ratios of the n-3 (18-carbon, α-linolenic acid, ALA) to n-6 (18-carbon linoleic acid, LA) PUFAs. Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of the n-3 PUFAs in diets as well as potentially negative effects of excessive levels of n-6 PUFAs in diets. This review discusses these human health issues relating to changes in diets based on environmental and industrial changes as well as strategies in East Africa for improving lipid composition of food using indigenous sources.

  4. Lipase Secretion and Citric Acid Production in Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast Grown on Animal and Vegetable Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kamzolova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the potentiality of the utilization of raw agro- -industrial fat for the biotechnological production of valuable products (lipase and citric acid by the yeast Yarrowia (Candida lipolytica. Thirty strains of the aforementioned species were investigated for their capability of lipase secretion and citric acid production on media containing animal fat or rapeseed oil as a sole carbon and energy source. Strain Y. lipolytica 704, exhibiting the highest lipase activity on rapeseed oil (2760 U/mL, was selected for the study of biochemical peculiarities of cell growth, and strain Y. lipolytica 187/1, exhibiting the maximum citric acid synthesis, was selected for the subsequent studies on citric acid production. A relationship between lipase production and residual rapeseed oil concentration was studied. The essential factor for lipase production was found to be the concentration of rapeseed oil in the medium, which should be no less than 5 g/L. Under optimal conditions of cultivation, citric acid production by rapeseed-oil-grown yeast Yarrowia lipolytica 187/1 amounted to 135 g/L; specific rate of citric acid production reached m(CA/m(cell=127 mg/(g·h; mass yield (YCA and energy yield (hCA were 1.55 and 0.41, respectively.

  5. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Shiah, F.-K.; Hung, C.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Zhang, R.; Chen, W.-N.; Chen, C.-C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Lin, F.-J.; Lin, S.-H.

    2014-08-01

    Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial-interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT) molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere-ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  6. O2C Laser Doppler and Digital Photo Analysis for Treatment Evaluation of Beta-Glucan versus Provitamin Pantothenic Acid of Facial Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Daniel; Spilker, Gerald; Lefering, Rolf; Weinand, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Various creams are available for superficial second-degree burns (SSDB) of the face. We evaluated provitamin pantothenic acid versus β-glucan for SSDB of the face using the O2C laser Doppler system and digital photo analysis. Out of 20 patients (January to December 2012) with facial burns, 7 with SSDB of both cheeks were included to our study. Burned cheek wounds were treated using pantothenic acid or β-glucan. Digital photos of marked regions were taken daily from predefined distances. Microcirculation was measured at marked regions for 7 days at scheduled time points using the O2C laser Doppler. Data were evaluated using the SPSS program (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Wounds treated with β-glucan showed faster reepithelialization. O2C laser Doppler measurements showed faster increase in SO2, microvascular perfusion, hemoglobin content, and blood flow. This correlated good with clinical Vancouver Scar Scale results. Although not statistically significant, β-glucan cream therapy of SSDB results in aesthetically superior outcome and faster reepithelialization. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Effects of burn location and investigator on burn depth in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam J; Toussaint, Jimmy; Chung, Won Taek; Thode, Henry C; McClain, Steve; Raut, Vivek

    2016-02-01

    In order to be useful, animal models should be reproducible and consistent regardless of sampling bias, investigator creating burn, and burn location. We determined the variability in burn depth based on biopsy location, burn location and investigator in a porcine model of partial thickness burns. 24 partial thickness burns (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm each) were created on the backs of 2 anesthetized pigs by 2 investigators (one experienced, one inexperienced) using a previously validated model. In one of the pigs, the necrotic epidermis covering each burn was removed. Five full thickness 4mm punch biopsies were obtained 1h after injury from the four corners and center of the burns and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome for determination of burn depth by a board certified dermatopathologist blinded to burn location and investigator. Comparisons of burn depth by biopsy location, burn location and investigator were performed with t-tests and ANOVA as appropriate. The mean (SD) depth of injury to blood vessels (the main determinant of burn progression) in debrided and non-debrided pigs pooled together was 1.8 (0.3)mm, which included 75% of the dermal depth. Non-debrided burns were 0.24 mm deeper than debrided burns (PBurn depth increased marginally from cephalic to caudal in non-debrided burns, but showed no statistical differences for these locations, in debrided burns. Additionally, there were also no statistical differences in burn depths from midline to lateral in either of these burn types. Burn depth was similar for both investigators and among biopsy locations. Burn depth was greater for caudal locations in non-debrided burns and overall non-debrided burns were deeper than debrided burns. However, burn depth did not differ based on investigator, biopsy site, and medial-lateral location. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Extended Electron-Transfer in Animal Cryptochromes Mediated by a Tetrad of Aromatic Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohr, Daniel; Franz, Sophie; Rodriguez, Ryan; Paulus, Bernd; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Weber, Stefan; Schleicher, Erik

    2016-07-26

    The cryptochrome/photolyase protein family possesses a conserved triad of tryptophans that may act as a molecular wire to transport electrons from the protein surface to the FAD cofactor for activation and/or signaling-state formation. Members from the animal (and animal-like) cryptochrome subclade use this process in a light-induced fashion in a number of exciting responses, such as the (re-)setting of circadian rhythms or magnetoreception; however, electron-transfer pathways have not been explored in detail yet. Therefore, we present an in-depth time-resolved optical and electron-paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic study of two cryptochromes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Drosophila melanogaster. The results do not only reveal the existence of a fourth, more distant aromatic amino acid that serves as a terminal electron donor in both proteins, but also show that a tyrosine is able to fulfill this very role in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cryptochrome. Additionally, exchange of the respective fourth aromatic amino acid to redox-inactive phenylalanines still leads to light-induced radical pair formation; however, the lifetimes of these species are drastically reduced from the ms- to the μs-range. The results presented in this study open up a new chapter, to our knowledge, in the diversity of electron-transfer pathways in cryptochromes. Moreover, they could explain unique functions of animal cryptochromes, in particular their potential roles in magnetoreception because magnetic-field effects of light-induced radical pairs strongly depend on distance and orientation parameters.

  9. Assessment of dermal hazard from acid burns with fire retardant garments in a full-size simulation of an engulfment flash fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Christopher E; Vivanco, Stephanie N; Yeboah, George; Vercellone, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    There have been concerns that fire-derived acid gases could aggravate thermal burns for individuals wearing synthetic flame retardant garments. A comparative risk assessment was performed on three commercial flame retardant materials with regard to relative hazards associated with acidic combustion gases to skin during a full engulfment flash fire event. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM F1930 and ISO 13506: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin. Three fire retardant textiles were tested: an FR treated cotton/nylon blend, a low Protex(®) modacrylic blend, and a medium Protex(®) modacrylic blend. The materials, in the form of whole body coveralls, were subjected to propane-fired flash conditions of 84kW/m(2) in a full sized simulator for a duration of either 3 or 4s. Ion traps consisting of wetted sodium carbonate-impregnated cellulose in Teflon holders were placed on the chest and back both above and under the standard undergarments. The ion traps remained in position from the time of ignition until 5min post ignition. Results indicated that acid deposition did increase with modacrylic content from 0.9μmol/cm(2) for the cotton/nylon, to 12μmol/cm(2) for the medium modacrylic blend. The source of the acidity was dominated by hydrogen chloride. Discoloration was inversely proportional to the amount of acid collected on the traps. A risk assessment was performed on the potential adverse impact of acid gases on both the skin and open wounds. The results indicated that the deposition and dissolution of the acid gases in surficial fluid media (perspiration and blood plasma) resulted in an increase in acidity, but not sufficient to induce irritation/skin corrosion or to cause necrosis in open third degree burns.

  10. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for predicting amino acids content in intact processed animal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Haba, Maria José; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Pérez-Marín, Dolores C

    2006-10-01

    Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of amino acids composition of processed animal proteins (PAPs). Two sample presentation modes were compared (ground vs intact) for demonstrating the viability of the analysis in the intact form, avoiding the need for milling. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) equations for the prediction of amino acids in PAPs were developed using the same set of samples (N = 92 PAPs) analyzed in ground and intact form and in three cups differing in the optical window size. The standard error for cross validation (SECV) and the coefficient of determination (1-VR) values yielded with the calibrations developed using the samples analyzed in the intact form showed similar or even better accuracy than those obtained with finely ground samples. The excellent predictive ability (1-VR > 0.90; CV < 3.0%) obtained for the prediction of amino acids in intact processed animal proteins opens an enormous expectative for the on-line implementation of NIRS technology in the processing and marketing of these important protein feed ingredients, alleviating the costs and time associated with the routine quality controls.

  11. Chemical and Common Burns in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shan

    2017-05-01

    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  12. Recovery of slaughterhouse Animal Fatty Wastewater Sludge by conversion into Fatty Acid Butyl Esters by acid-catalyzed esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher; Cerny, Muriel; Lacroux, Eric; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2017-02-01

    Two types of Animal Fatty Wastewater Sludges (AFWS 1 and 2) were analyzed and fully characterized to determine their suitability for conversion into biofuel. AFWS 1 was determined to be unsuitable as it contains 68.8wt.% water and only 32.3wt.% dry material, of which only around 80% is lipids to be converted. AFWS 2 has only 15.7wt.% water and 84.3wt.% dry material of which is assumed to 100% lipids as the protein and ash contents were determined to be negligible. The 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) catalyzed esterification of AFWS with 1-butanol was performed in a novel batch reactor fitted with a drying chimney for the "in situ" removal of water and optimized using a non-conventional Doehlert surface response methodology. The optimized condition was found to be 1.66mol equivalent of 1-butanol (with respect to total fatty acid chains), 10wt.% of DBSA catalyst (with respect to AFWS) at 105°C for 3h. Fatty Acid Butyl Esters (FABEs) were isolated in good yields (95%+) as well as a blend of FABEs with 1-butanol (16%). The two potential biofuels were analyzed in comparison with current and analogous biofuels (FAME based biodiesel, and FABE products made from vegetable oils) and were found to exhibit high cetane numbers and flash point values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary requirements of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" by animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Yang, Ying; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Chuang; Wang, Bin; Wang, Junjun; Yin, Yulong

    2013-04-01

    Amino acids are necessary for the survival, growth, development, reproduction and health of all organisms. They were traditionally classified as nutritionally essential or non-essential for mammals, birds and fish based on nitrogen balance or growth. It was assumed that all "non-essential amino acids (NEAA)" were synthesized sufficiently in the body to meet the needs for maximal growth and health. However, there has been no compelling experimental evidence to support this assumption over the past century. NEAA (e.g., glutamine, glutamate, proline, glycine and arginine) play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling, antioxidative responses, neurotransmission, and immunity. Additionally, glutamate, glutamine and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine to maintain its digestive function and protect its mucosal integrity. Therefore, based on new research findings, NEAA should be taken into consideration in revising the classical "ideal protein" concept and formulating balanced diets to improve protein accretion, food efficiency, and health in animals and humans.

  14. Vanillic and syringic acids from biomass burning: Behaviour during Fenton-like oxidation in atmospheric aqueous phase and in the absence of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gabriela T.A.D.; Santos, Patrícia S.M., E-mail: patricia.santos@ua.pt; Duarte, Armando C.

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • The rate of oxidation of small aromatic acids increase with the pH decrease. • With the oxidation of aromatic acids are formed new small aromatic compounds. • The initial and formed compounds are not totally degraded during the night period. • The substituents and their positions in ring affect the oxidation of aromatic acids. • The OH radical attack to vanillic and syringic acids is different in atmospheric waters. - Abstract: Biomass combustion is a threat to the environment since it emits to the atmosphere organic compounds, which may react and originate others more aggressive. This work studied the behaviours of vanillic and syringic acids, small aromatic tracers of biomass burning, during Fenton-like oxidation in aqueous phase and absence of light. For both compounds, the extent of oxidation increased with pH decrease from neutral to acid in atmospheric waters, but for vanillic acid the neutral pH was not able of promoting the oxidation. With the oxidation of both acids were formed chromophoric compounds, and the formation rate increased with the degree of electron-donator substituents in benzene ring. The initial and produced compounds were not totally degraded up to 24 h of reaction at pH 4.5, suggesting that the night period may be not sufficient for their full degradation in atmospheric waters. The major compounds formed were the 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid for vanillic acid, and the 1,4-dihydroxy-2,6-dimethoxybenzene for syringic acid. These findings suggest the occurrence of an ipso attack by the hydroxyl radical preferential to the methoxy and carboxyl groups of vanillic and syringic acids, respectively. It is important to highlight that for both aromatic acids the main compounds produced are also small aromatic compounds.

  15. Emission Ratios for Ammonia and Formic Acid and Observations of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN and Ethylene in Biomass Burning Smoke as Seen by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne H. Payne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We use the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES aboard the NASA Aura satellite to determine the concentrations of the trace gases ammonia (NH3 and formic acid (HCOOH within boreal biomass burning plumes, and present the first detection of peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN and ethylene (C2H4 by TES. We focus on two fresh Canadian plumes observed by TES in the summer of 2008 as part of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS-B campaign. We use TES retrievals of NH3 and HCOOH within the smoke plumes to calculate their emission ratios (1.0% ± 0.5% and 0.31% ± 0.21%, respectively relative to CO for these Canadian fires. The TES derived emission ratios for these gases agree well with previous aircraft and satellite estimates, and can complement ground-based studies that have greater surface sensitivity. We find that TES observes PAN mixing ratios of ~2 ppb within these mid-tropospheric boreal biomass burning plumes when the average cloud optical depth is low ( < 0.1 and that TES can detect C2H4 mixing ratios of ~2 ppb in fresh biomass burning smoke plumes.

  16. Influence of Biomass Burning on Temporal and Diurnal Variations of Acidic Gases, Particulate Nitrate, and Sulfate in a Tropical Urban Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh N. Behera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the temporal and diurnal distributions of atmospheric acidic gases (sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrous acid (HONO, and nitric acid (HNO3 and those of particulate nitrate (NO3- and sulfate (SO42- through a comprehensive field campaign during the largest smoke haze episode in Singapore, a representative country in Southeast Asia (SEA. To identify the atmospheric behavior of these pollutants during the smoke haze period, the data generated from the measurement campaign were divided into three distinct periods: prehaze, during haze, and posthaze periods. The 24 hr average data indicated that ambient SO2, HONO, and HNO3 during the smoke haze episodes increased by a factor ranging from 1.2 to 2.6 compared to those during the prehaze and posthaze periods. Similarly, in the case of particulates SO42- and NO3-, the factor ranged from 2.3 to 4.2. Backward air trajectories were constructed and used to find the sources of biomass burning to the recurring smoke haze in this region. The air trajectory analysis showed that the smoke haze episodes experienced in Singapore were influenced by transboundary air pollution, caused by severe biomass burning events in the islands of Indonesia.

  17. Endogenous Synthesis of Amino Acids Limits Growth, Lactation, and Reproduction in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yongqing; Yao, Kang; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-01

    Amino acids (AAs) are building blocks of protein. Eight AAs (Ala, Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, Gly, Pro, and Ser) are formed by all animals, whereas de novo synthesis of Arg occurs in a species-specific manner in most mammals (e.g., humans, pigs, and rats). Synthesizable AAs were traditionally classified as nutritionally nonessential for animals, because they were thought to be formed in sufficient amounts. However, this assumption is not supported by evidence showing that 1) rats grow slowly when their diets do not contain Arg, Glu, or Gln despite adequate provision of all other proteinogenous AAs; 2) pigs cannot achieve maximum growth, lactation, or reproduction performance when fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets meeting National Research Council-recommended requirements of protein and AAs without supplemental Arg, Glu, Gln, Gly, or Pro; 3) chickens exhibit increases in lean tissue gain and feed efficiency when their diets are supplemented with Glu, Gln, Gly, and Pro; 4) lactating cows cannot obtain maximum milk protein production without a postruminal supply of Gln or Pro; 5) fish cannot achieve maximum growth when diets do not contain Gln or Pro; and 6) men fail to sustain spermatogenesis when fed an Arg-deficient diet. Quantitative analysis of nitrogen metabolism showed that AA synthesis in animals is constrained by both precursor availability and enzyme activity. Taken together, these findings support the conclusion that the endogenous synthesis of AAs limits growth, lactation, and reproduction in animals. This new knowledge can guide the optimization of human nutrition for improving health and well-being.

  18. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chitkara, D K; McNeela, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  19. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-C. Hsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial–interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere–ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  20. 60例氢氟酸灼伤的早期处理%Early Treatment of Hydrofluoric Acid Burn in 60 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静; 施耘

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To investigate the early treatment methods of hydrofluoric acid burns, so as to improve the cure rate. [ Methods] The clinical data of 60 hydrofluoric acid burned cases in burn department of Tianjin Fourth Hospital from January 2006 to December 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. [ Results ] The effects of treatment in 65 cases were satisfying, and there was no severe complication or death. [ Conclusion ] Immediate and correct rescue at early phase, thorough debridement, calcium supplement, regular monitoring the concentration of blood calcium, eschar excision as early as possible, emphasizing the treatment of inhalation injury and preventing severe complications are keys of successful treatment.%目的 探究氢氟酸灼伤患者的早期治疗方法 ,以提高治愈率. 方法 对天津市第四医院烧伤科2006年1月-2009年12月60例氢氟酸灼伤患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 60例患者治疗效果满意, 未出现严重并发症或死亡.结论 早期、及时、正确的施救,彻底清创,补充钙剂,定时监测血钙,尽早切除坏死创面,重视吸入性损伤及防止严重并发症是成功救治的关键.

  1. Effect of animal and industrial trans fatty acids on HDL and LDL cholesterol levels in humans--a quantitative review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg A Brouwer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids from ruminant animals are less clear. We reviewed the literature, estimated the effects trans fatty acids from ruminant sources and of conjugated trans linoleic acid (CLA on blood lipoproteins, and compared these with industrial trans fatty acids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched Medline and scanned reference lists for intervention trials that reported effects of industrial trans fatty acids, ruminant trans fatty acids or conjugated linoleic acid on LDL and HDL cholesterol in humans. The 39 studies that met our criteria provided results of 29 treatments with industrial trans fatty acids, 6 with ruminant trans fatty acids and 17 with CLA. Control treatments differed between studies; to enable comparison between studies we recalculated for each study what the effect of trans fatty acids on lipoprotein would be if they isocalorically replaced cis mono unsaturated fatty acids. In linear regression analysis the plasma LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio increased by 0.055 (95%CI 0.044-0.066 for each % of dietary energy from industrial trans fatty acids replacing cis monounsaturated fatty acids The increase in the LDL to HDL ratio for each % of energy was 0.038 (95%CI 0.012-0.065 for ruminant trans fatty acids, and 0.043 (95% CI 0.012-0.074 for conjugated linoleic acid (p = 0.99 for difference between CLA and industrial trans fatty acids; p = 0.37 for ruminant versus industrial trans fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Published data suggest that all fatty acids with a double bond in the trans configuration raise the ratio of plasma LDL to HDL cholesterol.

  2. Rapeseed and sunflower oilcake as supplements for dairy sheep: animal performance and milk fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Gustavo; Virto, Mailo; Nájera, Ana Isabel; Mandaluniz, Nerea; Arranz, Josune; Bustamante, María Angeles; Valdivielso, Izaskun; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; García-Rodríguez, Aser; Barron, Luis J R; de Renobales, Mertxe

    2014-11-01

    The influence of different amounts of oilseed cake (rapeseed and sunflower) on animal production parameters and fatty acid (FA) concentrations of the milk was studied in a Latxa dairy sheep experimental flock, both in winter (50% oilcakes; indoor feeding) and in spring (30% oilcakes; part-time grazing). The two different levels of the oilcakes tested did not affect animal production parameters or milk yield. Milk fat content and the fat/protein ratio decreased significantly with 30 and 50% sunflower cake. Yet, fat/protein ratio values were within the range for cheesemaking. Both levels of either type of oilcake tested significantly increased the concentrations of nutritionally interesting FA (CLA isomer C18:2cis-9, trans-11, vaccenic, oleic, and total unsaturated FA), while simultaneously decreasing the concentration of atherogenic FA. The atherogenicity indexes of milks from ewes fed 50 or 30% of either oilcake were significantly lower than those of their corresponding control. The use of cakes in winter increased the concentration of nutritionally interesting FA to the values obtained with part-time grazing.

  3. A Novel and Rapid Colorimetric Method for Measuring Total Phosphorus and Phytic Acid in Foods and Animal Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, is the primary source of inositol and storage phosphorus in plant seeds and has considerable nutritional importance. In this form, phosphorus is unavailable for absorption by monogastric animals, and the strong chelating characteristic of phytic acid reduces the bioavailability of multivalent minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium. Currently, there is no simple quantitative method for phytic acid; existing methods are complex, and the most commonly accepted method, AOAC Official Method (SM) 986.11, has limitations. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, high-throughput method for the measurement of total phosphorus and phytic acid in foods and animal feeds. The method described here involves acid extraction of phytic acid, followed by dephosphorylation with phytase and alkaline phosphatase. The phosphate released from phytic acid is measured using a modified colorimetric molybdenum blue assay and calculated as total phosphorus or phytic acid content of the original sample. The method was validated to a maximum linearity of 3.0 g phytic acid/100 g sample. Accuracy ranged from 98 to 105% using pure phytic acid and from 97 to 115% for spiked samples. Repeatability ranged from 0.81 to 2.32%, and intermediate precision was 2.27%.

  4. 烧伤合并海水浸泡动物感染实验研究%Experimental study on animal infection due to burn and seawater immersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩善桥; 虞积耀; 王大鹏; 刘瑾红

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解烧伤合并海水浸泡动物细菌感染的特点.方法:制作兔烧伤动物感染实验模型并分成对照组和实验组.实验组致伤后放海水浸泡20 min,对照组致伤后不浸泡.用手工法和全自动微生物分析仪进行细菌学鉴定,用微生物动态快速测定系统检测血浆内毒素含量,全血白细胞数用显微镜计数法.结果:实验组与对照组相比,12 h后细菌数量显著增加,主要细菌有大肠埃希菌、副溶血弧菌、铜绿假单胞菌、鲍曼不动杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌;血培养有副溶血弧菌和大肠埃希菌生长;血白细胞和内毒素检测结果比单纯烧伤组高.结论:动物烧伤合并海水浸泡后可导致多种细菌混合感染,比单纯烧伤组感染时间提前,感染程度加重.%Objective: To investigate the characteristics of bacterial infection due to burn and seawater immersion in rabbits. Methods; Burn models of rabbits were made and divided into two groups randomly; control group and experimental group. The rabbits in experimental group were immersed into seawater for 20 minutes after bum, while those in control group were not. The bacteria identification was done manually and by VITEK Auto Microbe System. Plasma endotoxin was detected by Microbiology Kinetic Rapid Reader MB - 80. White blood cell count was measured by microscope counting method. Results: Compared with the control groups, the amount of bacteria in experimental groups increased obviously after 12h of burn. The main bacteria included Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli also can be found in the blood. The amount of endotoxin and white blood cell count also increased. Conclusion: Severe bacterial infection may develop after burn with seawater immersion.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mood Stabilizers Alter Behavioural and Energy Metabolism Parameters in Animals Subjected to an Animal Model of Mania Induced by Fenproporex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelier, Kizzy; Gomes, Lara M; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Teixeira, Letícia J; Rebelo, Joyce; Mota, Isabella T; Arent, Camila O; Mariot, Edemilson; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Quevedo, João; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-08-01

    Studies have shown that changes in energy metabolism are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). It was suggested that omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids have beneficial properties in the central nervous system and that this fatty acid plays an important role in energy metabolism. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the effect of ω3 fatty acids alone and in combination with lithium (Li) or valproate (VPA) on behaviour and parameters of energy metabolism in an animal model of mania induced by fenproporex. Our results showed that co-administration of ω3 fatty acids and Li was able to prevent and reverse the increase in locomotor and exploratory activity induced by fenproporex. The combination of ω3 fatty acids with VPA was only able to prevent the fenproporex-induced hyperactivity. For the energy metabolism parameters, our results showed that the administration of Fen for the reversal or prevention protocol inhibited the activities of succinate dehydrogenase, complex II and complex IV in the hippocampus. However, hippocampal creatine kinase (CK) activity was decreased only for the reversal protocol. The ω3 fatty acids, alone and in combination with VPA or Li, prevented and reversed the decrease in complex II, IV and succinate dehydrogenase activity, whereas the decrease in CK activity was only reversed after the co-administration of ω3 fatty acids and VPA. In conclusion, our results showed that the ω3 fatty acids combined with VPA or Li were able to prevent and reverse manic-like hyperactivity and the inhibition of energy metabolism in the hippocampus, suggesting that ω3 fatty acids may play an important role in the modulation of behavioural parameters and energy metabolism.

  6. Impact of biomass burning on soil microorganisms and plant metabolites: A view from molecular distributions of atmospheric hydroxy fatty acids over Mount Tai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Poonam; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fu, Pingqing; Bikkina, Srinivas; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2016-10-01

    Biomass burning events (BBEs) in the North China Plain is one of the principal sources of airborne pollutants in China and also for the neighboring countries. To examine the impact of BBEs on soil bacteria and other higher plant metabolites, their tracer compounds, hydroxy fatty acids (FAs), were measured in the bulk particulate matter (total suspended particles (TSP)) over Mount Tai during the period of wheat residue burning in June 2006. Higher inputs of epicuticular waxes and soil microorganisms during high BBEs (H; 6-14 and 27 June) relative to low BBEs (L; 15-26 and 28 June) were characterized by increased concentrations of homologous series of α-(C9-C32), β-(C9-C32), and ω-(C12-C28) hydroxy FAs in TSP samples. However, their relative abundances were not significantly different between H-BBEs and L-BBEs, suggesting their common source/transport pathways. We also found higher concentrations of trehalose and mannitol (tracers of soil microbes), and levoglucosan (tracer of biomass combustion) during H-BBEs than L-BBEs. These results are consistent with hydroxy FAs, suggesting that they are associated with biomass combustion processes of agricultural wastes as well as re-suspension of mineral dust and plant pathogens. In addition, enhanced concentrations of endotoxin and mass loading of Gram-negative bacteria during H-BBEs (117 endotoxin units (EU) m-3 and 390 ng m-3, respectively) were noteworthy as compared to those in L-BBEs (22.5 EU m-3 and 75 ng m-3, respectively). Back trajectory analysis and fire spots together with temporal variations of hydroxy FAs revealed an impact of biomass burning on emissions and atmospheric transport of bacteria and plant metabolites.

  7. Effect of folic acid on oxidative stress and behavioral changes in the animal model of schizophrenia induced by ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugno, Alexandra I; Canever, Lara; Heylmann, Alexandra S; Wessler, Patrícia G; Steckert, Amanda; Mastella, Gustavo A; de Oliveira, Mariana B; Damázio, Louyse S; Pacheco, Felipe D; Calixto, Octacílio P; Pereira, Flávio P; Macan, Tamires P; Pedro, Thayara H; Schuck, Patrícia F; Quevedo, João; Budni, Josiane

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown benefits for the supplementation of folic acid in schizophrenic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid addition on adult rats, over a period of 7 or 14 days. It also sets out to verify any potential protective action using an animal model of schizophrenia induced by ketamine, in behavioral and biochemical parameters. This study used two protocols (acute and chronic) for the administration of ketamine at a dose of 25 mg/kg (i.p.). The folic acid was given by oral route in doses of 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg, once daily, for 7 and/or 14 days in order to compare the protective effects of folic acid. Thirty minutes after the last administration of ketamine, the locomotor and social interaction activities were evaluated, and immediately the brain structure were removed for biochemical analysis. In this study, ketamine was administered in a single dose or in doses over the course of 7 days increasing the animal's locomotion. This study showed that the administration of folic acid over 7 days was unable to prevent hyper locomotion. In contrast, folic acid (10 and 50 mg/kg) administrated over a period of 14 days, was able to partially prevent the hyper locomotion. Our data indicates that both acute and chronic administrations of ketamine increased the time to first contact between the animals, while the increased latency for social contact was completely prevented by folic acid (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg). Chronic and acute administrations of ketamine also increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in brain. Folic acid (10 and 50 mg/kg) supplements showed protective effects on the oxidative damage found in the different brain structures evaluated. All together, the results indicate that nutritional supplementation with folic acid provides promising results in an animal model of schizophrenia induced by ketamine.

  8. Effects of a New Glutamic Acid Derivative on Myocardial Contractility of Stressed Animals under Conditions of Nitric Oxide Synthesis Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I N; Perfilova, V N; Sadikova, N V; Berestovitskaya, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2015-07-01

    Glufimet (glutamic acid derivative) in a dose of 28.7 mg/kg limited the reduction of the cardiac functional reserve in animals subjected to 24-h stress under conditions of nonselective NO synthase blockade with L-NAME (10 mg/kg). Adrenoreactivity and increased afterload tests showed that the increment of myocardial contraction/relaxation rates, left-ventricular pressure, and HR were significantly higher in glufimet-treated stressed animals with NO synthesis blockade than in animals which received no glufimet. The efficiency of glufimet was higher than that of phenibut (the reference drug).

  9. Multiple targets of salicylic acid and its derivatives in plants and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Klessig

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs, as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, High Mobility Group Box protein (HMGB and Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions, but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms.

  10. Multiple Targets of Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives in Plants and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klessig, Daniel F.; Tian, Miaoying; Choi, Hyong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs), as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity of others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, high mobility group box protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms. PMID:27303403

  11. Conversion of the refractory ammonia and acetic acid in catalytic wet air oxidation of animal byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanier, Virginie; Zalouk, Sofiane; Barbati, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of slaughtered animal byproducts (ABPs) were investigated. Two step experiment was carried out consisting of a non-catalysed WAO run followed by a CWAO run at 170-275 degrees C, 20 MPa, and reaction time 180 min. The WAO (1st step) of sample (5 g/L total organic carbon (TOC)) yielded (82.0 +/- 4)% TOC removal and (78.4 +/- 13.2)% conversion of the initial organic-N into NH4(+)-N. Four metal catalysts (Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru) supported over alumina have been tested in catalytic WAO (2nd step) at elevated pH to enhance ammonia conversion and organic matter removal, particularly acetic acid. It was found that the catalysts Ru, Pt, and Rh had significant effects on the TOC removal (95.1%, 99.5% and 96.7%, respectively) and on the abatement of ammonia (93.4%, 96.7% and 96.3%, respectively) with high nitrogen selectivity. The catalyst Pd was found to have the less activity while Pt had the best performance. The X-Ray diffraction analysis showed that the support of catalyst was not stable under the experimental conditions since it reacted with phosphate present in solution. Nitrite and nitrate ions were monitored during the oxidation reaction and it was concluded that CWAO of ammonia in real waste treatment framework was in good agreement with the results obtained from the literature for ideal solutions of ammonia.

  12. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > Burns A A A What's ... outlets, etc.) overexposure to the sun Types of Burns Burns are often categorized as first-, second-, or ...

  13. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-23

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds.

  14. Antidiabetic Effect of Salvianolic Acid A on Diabetic Animal Models via AMPK Activation and Mitochondrial Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifen Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM characterized by hyperglycemia contributes to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Salvianolic acid A (SalA is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about its antidiabetic effect. Our study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effect of SalA and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice and high-fat diet (HFD and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats received SalA treatment. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 24-h food and water intake were monitored. In vitro, glucose consumption and uptake were measured in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Mitochondrial function was detected in hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondria. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and Akt were analyzed by western blot. Results: In both type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, SalA lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG and fed blood glucose in dose-dependent manner, as well as reduced 24-h food and water intake. In vitro, SalA caused dose-dependent increase in glucose consumption and enhanced glucose uptake. SalA significantly increased ATP production from 10 min to 12 h in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Interestingly, SalA decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SalA improved hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, increased ATP production, and concurrently decreased MMP. In particularly, SalA activated AMPK phosphorylation through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling pathway, independent of liver kinase 1 (LKB1/AMPK pathway. However, SalA didn't show any effect on insulin secretagogue and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: SalA exhibits the antidiabetic effects in diabetic animal models through

  15. Conversion of the refractory ammonia and acetic acid in catalytic wet air oxidation of animal byproducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virginie Fontanier; Sofiane Zalouk; Stéphane Barbati

    2011-01-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of slaughtered animal byproducts (ABPs) were investigated.Two step experiment was carried out consisting ofa non-catalysed WAO run followed by a CWAO run at 170-275℃, 20 MPa, and reaction time 180 min.The WAO (1st step) of sample (5 g/L total organic carbon (TOC)) yielded (82.0 ± 4)% TOC removal and (78.4 ± 13.2)%conversion of the initial organic-N into NH4+-N.Four metal catalysts (Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru) supported over alumina have been tested in catalytic WAO (2nd step) at elevated pH to enhance ammonia conversion and organic matter removal, particularly acetic acid.It was found that the catalysts Ru, Pt, and Rh had significant effects on the TOC removal (95.1%, 99.5% and 96.7%, respectively) and on the abatement of ammonia (93.4%, 96.7% and 96.3%, respectively) with high nitrogen selectivity.The catalyst Pd was found to have the less activity while Pt had the best performance.The X-Ray diffraction analysis showed that the support of catalyst was not stable under the experimental conditions since it reacted with phosphate present in solution.Nitrite and nitrate ions were monitored during the oxidation reaction and it was concluded that CWAO of ammonia in real waste treatment framework was in good agreement with the results obtained from the literature for ideal solutions of ammonia.

  16. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  17. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1 lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2 energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3 inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.

  18. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Mersmann, Harry M; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-10-09

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.

  19. Burning vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Priyanka; Hobday, Dorian; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; D'Cruz, David

    2016-04-26

    We present the case of a 69-year-old man who was found collapsed close to a heat source and admitted to hospital for severe sepsis. He was also found to have widespread blistering and ulceration of his right leg; however, a history was unobtainable due to reduced consciousness levels. The leg lesions had the initial appearance of mixed depth burns and a management plan was made to transfer the patient to a burns unit for debridement. It was subsequently noted that the patient had a previous diagnosis of seropositive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. A biopsy of the leg lesion was performed and a diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis confirmed. Treatment with systemic steroids, intravenous antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe hypogammaglobulinaemia was started, and the patient was not transferred for surgical debridement. Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare and extremely serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis that can manifest in a number of ways, occasionally mimicking other conditions. This case is essential to raise awareness of rare, severe rheumatoid vasculitis and of the potential for its misdiagnosis as a mixed depth burn.

  20. 眼部氢氟酸烧伤治疗临床观察%Clinical observation of the treatment for eyes burned by hydrofluoric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨氢氟酸眼部烧伤的治疗方法.方法 观察15例(28眼)氢氟酸烧伤后经生理盐水冲洗、前房穿刺、自家血结膜下注射、自体血清滴眼及抗感染等治疗后的视力情况及并发症.结果 随访6~24个月,患眼无红、肿等刺激症状,病情稳定,28眼角膜均留有不同程度的瘢痕性浑浊,其中角膜白斑8眼,角膜薄翳20眼,并发白内障6眼,影响视力的主要原因是角膜浑浊,治愈后视力手动~0.1者3眼,0.2 ~0.3者4眼,0.4 ~0.6者5眼,0.7~0.8者12眼,0.9~1.5者4眼.结论 氢氟酸眼部烧伤后积极处理,能保留较好的视功能.%Objective To investigate the treatment for eyes burned by hydrofluoric acid.Methods 15 cases( 28 eyes) with hydrofluoric acid bum were enrolled in the study.Treatments included irrigation,paracentesis,subconjunctival autoserum,autoserous eyedrop and anti-infection.Vision and complications were recorded.Results Follow-up period was 6 - 24 months.No irrigating symptoms were observed.28 eyes had cloudy corneas,8 of which are leukoma and 20 of which are nebula.Complicated cataract was found in 6 eyes.Main reason for blurred vision is corneal opacity.Posttreatment visions were band movement to -0.1 in 3 eyes,0.2-0.3 in4 eyes,0.4-0.6in5 eyes,0.7-0.8 in 12 eyes and0.9-1.5 in4 eyes.Conclusion It could retain good visual function through active treatment for eyes burned by hydrofluoric acid.

  1. Antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, V; Dehdashti, Kh

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate has a key role in pain perception and also development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. It has been reported that clavulanic acid affects glutamatergic transmission via activation of glutamate transporter. Therefore the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid and its preventive activity against development of morphine tolerance and dependence in animal models. Male Swiss mice (25-30 g) were used in this study. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test and hot plate method were used to assess the antinociceptive effect of clavulanic acid. Morphine (30 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to the mice two times a day (8 AM and 4 PM) for 3 days in order to produce tolerance. To develop morphine dependence, morphine sulfate (50, 50 and 75 mg/kg) was injected at 8 and 12 AM and 16 PM respectively and for 3 consecutive days. Naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p) was used to induce morphine withdrawal syndrome and the number of jumps and presence of ptosis, piloerection, tremor, sniffing and diarrhea were recorded and compared with control group. Clavulanic acid at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg inhibited abdominal constriction and licking behavior of acetic acid and formalin-induced pain respectively. Clavulanic acid was not able to show any antinociception in hot plate model and could not prevent development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. Clavulanic acid has considerable antinociceptive activity and further studies are needed to clarify its exact mechanism.

  2. Why does brain metabolism not favor burning of fatty acids to provide energy? - Reflections on disadvantages of the use of free fatty acids as fuel for brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2013-01-01

    It is puzzling that hydrogen-rich fatty acids are used only poorly as fuel in the brain. The long-standing belief that a slow passage of fatty acids across the blood–brain barrier might be the reason. However, this has been corrected by experimental results. Otherwise, accumulated nonesterified fatty acids or their activated derivatives could exert detrimental activities on mitochondria, which might trigger the mitochondrial route of apoptosis. Here, we draw attention to three particular problems: (1) ATP generation linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids demands more oxygen than glucose, thereby enhancing the risk for neurons to become hypoxic; (2) β-oxidation of fatty acids generates superoxide, which, taken together with the poor anti-oxidative defense in neurons, causes severe oxidative stress; (3) the rate of ATP generation based on adipose tissue-derived fatty acids is slower than that using blood glucose as fuel. Thus, in periods of extended continuous and rapid neuronal firing, fatty acid oxidation cannot guarantee rapid ATP generation in neurons. We conjecture that the disadvantages connected with using fatty acids as fuel have created evolutionary pressure on lowering the expression of the β-oxidation enzyme equipment in brain mitochondria to avoid extensive fatty acid oxidation and to favor glucose oxidation in brain. PMID:23921897

  3. Why does brain metabolism not favor burning of fatty acids to provide energy? Reflections on disadvantages of the use of free fatty acids as fuel for brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2013-10-01

    It is puzzling that hydrogen-rich fatty acids are used only poorly as fuel in the brain. The long-standing belief that a slow passage of fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier might be the reason. However, this has been corrected by experimental results. Otherwise, accumulated nonesterified fatty acids or their activated derivatives could exert detrimental activities on mitochondria, which might trigger the mitochondrial route of apoptosis. Here, we draw attention to three particular problems: (1) ATP generation linked to β-oxidation of fatty acids demands more oxygen than glucose, thereby enhancing the risk for neurons to become hypoxic; (2) β-oxidation of fatty acids generates superoxide, which, taken together with the poor anti-oxidative defense in neurons, causes severe oxidative stress; (3) the rate of ATP generation based on adipose tissue-derived fatty acids is slower than that using blood glucose as fuel. Thus, in periods of extended continuous and rapid neuronal firing, fatty acid oxidation cannot guarantee rapid ATP generation in neurons. We conjecture that the disadvantages connected with using fatty acids as fuel have created evolutionary pressure on lowering the expression of the β-oxidation enzyme equipment in brain mitochondria to avoid extensive fatty acid oxidation and to favor glucose oxidation in brain.

  4. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  6. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  7. Milk fatty acid composition, rumen microbial population, and animal performances in response to diets rich in linoleic acid supplemented with chestnut or quebracho tannins in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccioni, A; Pauselli, M; Viti, C; Minieri, S; Pallara, G; Roscini, V; Rapaccini, S; Marinucci, M Trabalza; Lupi, P; Conte, G; Mele, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate milk fatty acid (FA) profile, animal performance, and rumen microbial population in response to diets containing soybean oil supplemented or not with chestnut and quebracho tannins in dairy ewes. Eighteen Comisana ewes at 122±6 d in milking were allotted into 3 experimental groups. Diets were characterized by chopped grass hay administered ad libitum and by 800 g/head and day of 3 experimental concentrates containing 84.5 g of soybean oil/kg of dry matter (DM) and 52.8 g/kg of DM of bentonite (control diet), chestnut tannin extract (CHT diet), or quebracho tannin extract (QUE diet). The trial lasted 4 wk. Milk yield was recorded daily, and milk composition and blood parameters were analyzed weekly. At the end of the experiment, samples of rumen fluid were collected to analyze pH, volatile fatty acid profile, and the relative proportions of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in the rumen microbial population. Hepatic functionality, milk yield, and gross composition were not affected by tannin extracts, whereas milk FA composition was characterized by significant changes in the concentration of linoleic acid (CHT +2.77% and QUE +9.23%), vaccenic acid (CHT +7.07% and QUE +13.88%), rumenic acid (CHT -1.88% and QUE +24.24%), stearic acid (CHT + 8.71% and QUE -11.45%), and saturated fatty acids (CHT -0.47% and QUE -3.38%). These differences were probably due to the ability of condensed versus hydrolyzable tannins to interfere with rumen microbial metabolism, as indirectly confirmed by changes in the relative proportions of B. fibrisolvens and B. proteoclasticus populations and by changes in the molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. The effect of the CHT diet on the milk FA profile and microbial species considered in this trial was intermediate between that of QUE and the control diet, suggesting a differential effect of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on rumen microbes. Compared with control animals

  8. Burns (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting ... What's in this article? Common Causes Types of Burns First-Degree Burns Second-Degree Burns ...

  9. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and locomotor activity in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus W. Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most frequent behavioral disorder of childhood and is characterized by hyperactivity, attention problems and impulsivity. Pharmacological and behavioral therapies have been shown to be effective. In addition, the role of dietary compounds in the etiology and possibly the treatment of ADHD has attracted increasing attention. For example, the lack of dietary essential fatty acids has been suggested to be associated with symptoms of ADHD in humans.Objective: To investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on locomotor activity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed as an animal model of ADHD.Methods: Two groups of randomly assigned spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed with either n-3 PUFA-deficient or n-3 PUFA-enriched food (based on AIN93G for six weeks and this was continued during the phase of behavioral testing. Locomotor activity was subsequently assessed using an open field test.Results: The results showed a marked difference in locomotor activity between the two groups of SHRs. In comparison with rats fed with n-3 deficient food, the animals on an n-3 enriched diet showed a statistically significant decrease in motor activity as assessed by the distance traveled.Conclusions: The present study demonstrates a marked reduction in locomotor activity following an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet in SHRs, i.e. the dietary enrichment with n-3 PUFAs reduced the motor activity in an established animal model of ADHD. Dietary n-3 PUFAs may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Key words: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, animal model, spontaneously hypertensive rat, SHR, motor activity

  10. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group), or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group), or only immersion in seawater (I group), or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group). The circulating endothelial cell (CEC) count and coagulation-fibrinolysis paramet...

  11. Phytic acid as a potential treatment for alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekonda, Thimmappa S; Wadsworth, Teri L; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Quinn, Joseph F

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes progressive, age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunction leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48-72-hour treatment with phytic acid provided complete protection against amyloid precursor protein-C-terminal fragment-induced cytotoxicity by attenuating levels of increased intracellular calcium, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, Aβ oligomers, and moderately upregulated the expression of autophagy (beclin-1) protein. In a tolerance paradigm, wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid in drinking water for 70 days. Phytic acid was well tolerated. Ceruloplasmin activity, brain copper and iron levels, and brain superoxide dismutase and ATP levels were unaffected by the treatment. There was a significant increase in brain levels of cytochrome oxidase and a decrease in lipid peroxidation with phytic acid administration. In a treatment paradigm, 12-month old Tg2576 and wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid or vehicle for 6 months. Brain levels of copper, iron, and zinc were unaffected. The effects of phytic acid were modest on the expression of AβPP trafficking-associated protein AP180, autophagy-associated proteins (beclin-1, LC3B), sirtuin 1, the ratio of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (PAMPK) to AMPK, soluble Aβ1-40, and insoluble Aβ1-42. These results suggest that phytic acid may provide a viable treatment option for AD.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids and mood stabilizers alter behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in animals subjected to fenproporex administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lara M; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Teixeira, Letícia J; Rebelo, Joyce; Mota, Isabella T; Bilesimo, Rafaela; Michels, Monique; Arent, Camila O; Mariot, Edemilson; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Scaini, Giselli; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-04-01

    Studies have shown that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). It is suggested that omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are fundamental to maintaining the functional integrity of the central nervous system. The animal model used in this study displayed fenproporex-induced hyperactivity, a symptom similar to manic BD. Our results showed that the administration of fenproporex, in the prevent treatment protocol, increased lipid peroxidation in the prefrontal cortex (143%), hippocampus (58%) and striatum (181%), and ω3 fatty acids alone prevented this change in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, whereas the co-administration of ω3 fatty acids with VPA prevented the lipoperoxidation in all analyzed brain areas, and the co-administration of ω3 fatty acids with Li prevented this increase only in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Moreover, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased in the striatum (54%) in the prevention treatment, and the administration of ω3 fatty acids alone or in combination with Li and VPA partially prevented this inhibition. On the other hand, in the reversal treatment protocol, the administration of fenproporex increased carbonyl content in the prefrontal cortex (25%), hippocampus (114%) and striatum (91%), and in prefrontal coxter the administration of ω3 fatty acids alone or in combination with Li and VPA reversed this change, whereas in the hippocampus and striatum only ω3 fatty acids alone or in combination with VPA reversed this effect. Additionally, the administration of fenproporex resulted in a marked increase of TBARS in the hippocampus and striatum, and ω3 fatty acids alone or in combination with Li and VPA reversed this change. Finally, fenproporex administration decreased SOD activity in the prefrontal cortex (85%), hippocampus (52%) and striatum (76%), and the ω3 fatty acids in combination with VPA reversed this change in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, while the co-administration of

  13. 75 FR 4692 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Pharmacia & Upjohn Co., a Division of Pfizer, Inc. The supplemental NADA provides for veterinarian prescription use of ceftiofur... Co., a Division of Pfizer, Inc., 235 East 42d St., New York, NY 10017, filed a supplement to NADA...

  14. 75 FR 62468 - Implantation and Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Pharmacia & Upjohn Co., a Division of Pfizer, Inc. The supplemental NADA provides for veterinary prescription use of..., Inc., 235 East 42d St., New York, NY 10017, filed a supplement to NADA 141 235 for EXCEDE...

  15. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease , peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease , peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...because it was almost uniformly ssociated with serious lethal burns. This was in the period efore effective gastric acid control, explaining the high

  16. Improvement in model replication of animal dental fluorosis caused by coal burning%燃煤型氟斑牙动物模型复制方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光平; 刘建国; 李明霞; 吴迪; 初可嘉; 管晓燕; 顾瑜

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立高仿真燃煤型大鼠氟斑牙动物模型.方法 以高氟煤拌粘土为燃料复制疫区空气环境,病区煤烘玉米配制饲料,30只SD大鼠按雌雄各半体重均等随机分为5组,即高氟空气饲养室内给予食物氟40 mg/kg (H)、25 mg/kg(M)、10 mg/kg(L)、2.1 mg/kg(A)组,阴性对照(C)组,观测大鼠体重、氟斑牙发生情况、尿氟及血氟含量、下切牙牙冠长度及釉质表面的超微结构.结果 生火期空气氟浓度为(28.5±5.3) μg/m3、闭火期为(4.1±1.2) μg/m3.高氟空气环境下各组雌、雄大鼠体重增长均较C组缓慢(P< 0.05).H、M组大鼠下切牙釉质出现白色条纹和白垩色斑等变化,尿氟、血氟含量较C组升高(P<0.05).H、M组下切牙冠长度增长较C组慢(P<0.05).釉质表面白垩色区域矿化不全、釉柱间隙增宽.结论 高氟空气环境对大鼠的生长发育可能会产生一定影响,通过模拟高氟空气环境并饲予煤烘玉米成功复制了高仿真的燃煤型氟斑牙动物模型.%Objective To establish high-quality imitation of model replication of animal dental fluorosis caused by coal burning. Methods High fluoride air model was established on the basis of living habit of epidemic area by coal burning with clay riches of fluoride. Feeding rats with corn dried by coal burning at different percentage. Thirty SD rats ( 15 males and 15 females) were randomly divided into 5 groups: in the high fluoride air room and feed food with fluorine at 40 mg/kg group ( H) , 25 mg/ kg group (M) , l0mg/kg group ( L) , 2. 1 mg/kg group ( A) and the control groupf C). Recorded dental fluorosis progresses and measured rats' weight, tooth length, concentrations of fluoride in urine and plasma. Observed the surface of enamel by scanning electron microscope ( SEM). Result The fluoride concentration of air was (28. 5 ±5.3) ug/m3 at the burning time, and (4. 1 ±1.2) ug/mat other time. Separately compared with the male and the female of the group C

  17. Visualization of amino acid composition differences between processed protein from different animal species by self-organizing feature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfan ZHOU,Zengling YANG,Longjian CHEN,Lujia HAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are the dominant organic components of processed animal proteins, however there has been limited investigation of differences in their composition between various protein sources. Information on these differences will not only be helpful for their further utilization but also provide fundamental information for developing species-specific identification methods. In this study, self-organizing feature maps (SOFM were used to visualize amino acid composition of fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM produced from poultry, ruminants and swine. SOFM display the similarities and differences in amino acid composition between protein sources and effectively improve data transparency. Amino acid composition was shown to be useful for distinguishing fish meal from MBM due to their large concentration differences between glycine, lysine and proline. However, the amino acid composition of the three MBMs was quite similar. The SOFM results were consistent with those obtained by analysis of variance and principal component analysis but more straightforward. SOFM was shown to have a robust sample linkage capacity and to be able to act as a powerful means to link different sample for further data mining.

  18. Evaluation of Acid Digestion Procedures to Estimate Mineral Contents in Materials from Animal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, M N N; Rocha, G C; Valadares Filho, S C; Detmann, E

    2015-11-01

    Rigorously standardized laboratory protocols are essential for meaningful comparison of data from multiple sites. Considering that interactions of minerals with organic matrices may vary depending on the material nature, there could be peculiar demands for each material with respect to digestion procedure. Acid digestion procedures were evaluated using different nitric to perchloric acid ratios and one- or two-step digestion to estimate the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in samples of carcass, bone, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Six procedures were evaluated: ratio of nitric to perchloric acid at 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 v/v in a one- or two-step digestion. There were no direct or interaction effects (p>0.01) of nitric to perchloric acid ratio or number of digestion steps on magnesium and zinc contents. Calcium and phosphorus contents presented a significant (p0.01) calcium or phosphorus contents in carcass, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Number of digestion steps did not affect mineral content (p>0.01). Estimated concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in carcass, excreta, concentrated, forage, and feces samples can be performed using digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 4:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. However, samples of bones demand a stronger digestion solution to analyze the mineral contents, which is represented by an increased proportion of perchloric acid, being recommended a digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 2:1 v/v in a one-step digestion.

  19. Dicarboxylic acids, metals and isotopic compositions of C and N in atmospheric aerosols from inland China: implications for dust and coal burning emission and secondary aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Xie, M.; Hu, S.; Gao, S.; Tachibana, E.; Kawamura, K.

    2010-07-01

    Dicarboxylic acids (C2-C10), metals, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and stable isotopic compositions of total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) were determined for PM10 samples collected at three urban and one suburban sites of Baoji, an inland city of China, during winter and spring 2008. Oxalic acid (C2) was the dominant diacid, followed by succinic (C4) and malonic (C3) acids. Total diacids in the urban and suburban areas were 1546±203 and 1728±495 ng m-3 during winter and 1236±335 and 1028±193 ng m-3 during spring. EC in the urban and the suburban atmospheres were 17±3.8 and 8.0±2.1 μg m-3 during winter and 20±5.9 and 7.1±2.7 μg m-3 during spring, while OC at the urban and suburban sites were 74±14 and 51±7.9 μg m-3 in winter and 51±20 and 23±6.1 μg m-3 in spring. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) accounted for 38±16% of OC in winter and 28±18% of OC in spring, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production of secondary organic aerosols in winter under an inversion layer development. Total metal elements in winter and spring were 34±10 and 61±27 μg m-3 in the urban air and 18±7 and 32±23 μg m-3 in the suburban air. A linear correlation (r2>0.8 in winter and r2>0.6 in spring) was found between primary organic carbon (POC) and Ca2+/Fe, together with a strong dependence of pH value of sample extracts on water-soluble inorganic carbon, suggesting fugitive dust as an important source of the airborne particles. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sulfate, and Pb in the samples well correlated each other (r2>0.6) in winter, indicating an importance of emissions from coal burning for house heating. Stable carbon isotope compositions of TC (δ13C) became higher with an increase in the concentration ratios of C2/OC due to aerosol aging. In contrast, nitrogen isotope compositions of TN (δ15N) became lower with an increases in the mass ratios of NH4+/PM10 and NO3-/PM10, which is possibly caused by an enhanced adsorption and

  20. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss.

  1. Effect of Arachidonic Acid on the Rate of Oxygen Consumption in Isolated Cardiomyocytes from Intact Rats and Animals with Ischemic or Diabetic Injury to the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, M V; Kutsykova, T V; Afanas'ev, S A; Popov, S V

    2015-12-01

    We studied the rate of oxygen consumption by isolated cardiomyocytes from intact rats and animals with experimental myocardial infarction or streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The measurements were performed in standard incubation medium under various conditions of oxygenation and after addition of arachidonic acid (20 μmol/liter). Under normoxic conditions, arachidonic acid improves respiration of cardiomyocytes from intact animals, but reduces this parameter in cells isolated from animals with pathologies. The intensity of O2 consumption by cardiomyocytes from intact rats and animals with pathologies was shown to decrease during hypoxia. Addition of arachidonic acid aggravated inhibition of respiration for cardiomyocytes from intact rats and specimens with myocardial infarction, but had no effect in diabetes mellitus. The effect of arachidonic acid on oxygen consumption rate is probably mediated by a nonspecific mechanism realized at the mitochondrial level.

  2. Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2009-08-01

    Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of malic acid and a mixture of sodium and calcium malate when used as technological additives for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An application has been made for the re-authorisation of malic acid as a preservative in feed and an acidity regulator in feed for cats and dogs and for the authorisation of a mixture of sodium and calcium salts of malic acid to be used as an acidity regulator in feed for all animal species. Evidence from feeding studies with dogs, poultry, piglets, veal calves and ruminants showed that the highest typical use level of 1 600 mg malic acid/kg complete feedingstuffs (supplied as acid or salts is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content was not considered as necessary. Malic acid and its sodium and calcium salts are permitted food additives without limit in the EU. The use of malic acid and its sodium and calcium salts in animal nutrition is safe for the consumer. Malic acid and its salts are considered as strongly irritant to the skin and mucosa and as a particular risk to the eyes. Exposure via inhalation for those handling the additives is also considered to present a risk. Malates are components of the diet of humans and animals and are rapidly and completely metabolised to CO2. Consequently, their use in animal production would not pose a risk to the environment. Malic acid is used in food as a preservative. It is reasonable to expect that the effect seen in food will be observed in feed when it is used at comparable concentrations and under similar conditions. However, the FEEDAP Panel has reservations about the effectiveness of malic acid as a preservative in complete feedingstuffs with a moisture content of ≤ 12 %. The ability of malic acid and its salts to act as acidity regulators in feed has not been demonstrated.

  4. 77 FR 26161 - New Animal Drugs; Ceftiofur Crystalline Free Acid; Gamithromycin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Crystalline Free Acid; Gamithromycin; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... modified injection techniques. 200-484 Huvepharma AD, 33 James TYLOVET 100 (tylosin Original approval as... Tylosin. * * * * * (b) * * * (90) No. 016592: 100 grams per pound for use as in paragraph (f) of this...

  5. IMAGING BRAIN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION AND METABOLISM VIA ARACHIDONIC AND DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID IN ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2012-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), important second messengers in brain, are released from membrane phospholipid following receptor-mediated activation of specific phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. We developed an in vivo method in rodents using quantitative autoradiography to image PUFA incorporation into brain from plasma, and showed that their incorporation rates equal their rates of metabolic consumption by brain. Thus, quantitative imaging of unesterified plasma AA or DHA incorporation into brain can be used as a biomarker of brain PUFA metabolism and neurotransmission. We have employed our method to image and quantify effects of mood stabilizers on brain AA/DHA incorporation during neurotransmission by muscarinic M1,3,5, serotonergic 5-HT2A/2C, dopaminergic D2-like (D2, D3, D4) or glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, and effects of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, of selective serotonin and dopamine reuptake transporter inhibitors, of neuroinflammation (HIV-1 and lipopolysaccharide) and excitotoxicity, and in genetically modified rodents. The method has been extended for the use with positron emission tomography (PET), and can be employed to determine how human brain AA/DHA signaling and consumption are influenced by diet, aging, disease and genetics. PMID:22178644

  6. Effects of an H3R antagonist on the animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Diego; Castro, Kamila; Gonchoroski, Taylor; de Melo, Gabriela Mueller; Nunes, Gustavo Della Flora; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Gottfried, Carmem; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders primarily characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted repetitive behaviors and interests. Ligands of histamine receptor 3 (H3R) are considered potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of different brain disorders and cognitive impairments. Considering this, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the actions of ciproxifan (CPX), an H3R antagonist, on the animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Swiss mice were prenatally exposed to VPA on embryonic day 11 and assessed for social behavior, nociceptive threshold and repetitive behavior at 50 days of life. The treatment with CPX (3 mg/kg) or saline was administered 30 minutes before each behavioral test. The VPA group presented lower sociability index compared to VPA animals that were treated with CPX. Compared to the Control group, VPA animals presented a significantly higher nociceptive threshold, and treatment with CPX was not able to modify this parameter. In the marble burying test, the number of marbles buried by VPA animals was consistent with markedly repetitive behavior. VPA animals that received CPX buried a reduced amount of marbles. In summary, we report that an acute dose of CPX is able to attenuate sociability deficits and stereotypies present in the VPA model of autism. Our findings have the potential to help the investigations of both the molecular underpinnings of ASD and of possible treatments to ameliorate the ASD symptomatology, although more research is still necessary to corroborate and expand this initial data.

  7. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment...

  8. Is Boric Acid Toxic to Reproduction in Humans? Assessment of the Animal Reproductive Toxicity Data and Epidemiological Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydın, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Brita Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates are classified as toxic to reproduction in the CLP Regulation under "Category 1B" with the hazard statement of "H360FD". This classification is based on the reprotoxic effects of boric acid and sodium borates in animal experiments at high doses. However, boron mediated reprotoxic effects have not been proven in epidemiological studies so far. The epidemiological study performed in Bandırma boric acid production plant is the most comprehensive published study in this field with 204 voluntarily participated male workers. Sperm quality parameters (sperm morphology, concentration and motility parameters), FSH, LH and testosterone levels were determined in all participated employees as the reproductive toxicity biomarkers of males. However, boron mediated unfavorable effects on reproduction in male workers have not been determined even in the workers under very high daily boron exposure (0.21 mg B/kg-bw/day) conditions. The NOAEL for rat reproductive toxicity is equivalent to a blood boron level of 2020 ng/g. This level is higher than the mean blood boron concentration (223.89 ± 69.49 ng/g) of the high exposure group workers in Bandırma boric acid production plant (Turkey) by a factor of 9. Accordingly, classifying boric acid and sodium borates under "Category 1B" as "presumed reproductive human toxicant in the CLP regulation seems scientifically not reasonable. The results of the epidemiological studies (including the study performed in China) support for a down-classification of boric acid from the category 1B, H360FD to category 2, H361d, (suspected of damaging the unborn child).

  9. In situ metabolic flux analysis to quantify the liver metabolic response to experimental burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Sharma, Nripen S; Uygun, Basak; Bieganski, Robert; Saeidi, Nima; Nahmias, Yaakov; Uygun, Korkut; Yarmush, Martin L; Berthiaume, Francois

    2011-04-01

    Trauma such as burns induces a hypermetabolic response associated with altered central carbon and nitrogen metabolism. The liver plays a key role in these metabolic changes; however, studies to date have evaluated the metabolic state of liver using ex vivo perfusions or isotope labeling techniques targeted to specific pathways. Herein, we developed a unique mass balance approach to characterize the metabolic state of the liver in situ, and used it to quantify the metabolic changes to experimental burn injury in rats. Rats received a sham (control uninjured), 20% or 40% total body surface area (TBSA) scald burn, and were allowed to develop a hypermetabolic response. One day prior to evaluation, all animals were fasted to deplete glycogen stores. Four days post-burn, blood flow rates in major vessels of the liver were measured, and blood samples harvested. We combined measurements of metabolite concentrations and flow rates in the major vessels entering and leaving the liver with a steady-state mass balance model to generate a quantitative picture of the metabolic state of liver. The main findings were: (1) Sham-burned animals exhibited a gluconeogenic pattern, consistent with the fasted state; (2) the 20% TBSA burn inhibited gluconeogenesis and exhibited glycolytic-like features with very few other significant changes; (3) the 40% TBSA burn, by contrast, further enhanced gluconeogenesis and also increased amino acid extraction, urea cycle reactions, and several reactions involved in oxidative phosphorylation. These results suggest that increasing the severity of injury does not lead to a simple dose-dependent metabolic response, but rather leads to qualitatively different responses.

  10. Acidic deposition ("acid rain")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, R. Kent; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Acidic deposition, or "acid rain," describes any form of precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog, with a pH of 5.5 or below (Note: pH values below 7 are acidic; vinegar has a pH of 3). It often results when the acidity of normal precipitation is increased by sulfates and nitrates that are emitted into the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. This form of airborne contamination is considered harmful, both directly and indirectly, to a host of plant and animal species.Although acid rain can fall virtually anywhere, ecological damages in environmentally sensitive areas downwind of industrial and urban emissions are a major concern. This includes areas that have a reduced capacity to neutralize acid inputs because of low alkalinity soils and areas that contain species with a low tolerance to acid conditions. To determine the distribution of acidic deposition and evaluate its biological effects, research and monitoring are being conducted by the federal government with support from states, universities, and private industry.            The national extent of the acid rain problem has been estimated by sampling water from 3,000 lakes and 500 streams (Irving 1991), representing more than 28,000 lakes and 56,000 stream reaches with a total of 200,000 km (125,000 mi). Some particularly sensitive areas, such as the Adirondack Mountain region, have been more intensively sampled and the biota examined in detail for effects from acidity.         To identify trends in aquatic ecosystems, present and historical survey data on water chemistry and associated biota are compared. In lakes, the chemical and biological history and pH trends may be inferred or reconstructed in some cases by examining assemblages of fossil diatoms and aquatic invertebrates in the sediment layers. In terrestrial ecosystems, vegetation damage is surveyed and effects of acidic deposition to plants and animals are determined from laboratory and field exposure experiments. Natural

  11. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-07-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products.

  12. Enhanced long-term microcircuit plasticity in the valproic Acid animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Guilherme Testa; Le Bé, Jean-Vincent; Riachi, Imad

    2009-01-01

    A single intra-peritoneal injection of valproic acid (VPA) on embryonic day (ED) 11.5 to pregnant rats has been shown to produce severe autistic-like symptoms in the offspring. Previous studies showed that the microcircuitry is hyperreactive due to hyperconnectivity of glutamatergic synapses...... and hyperplastic due to over-expression of NMDA receptors. These changes were restricted to the dimensions of a minicolumn (...

  13. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND LOCAL ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: TASKS AND POSSIBILITIES FOR THE HUMAN HEALTHY NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SEREGI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive nutritional effects of PUFA in the human diet nowadays are wellknown. The presence of PUFA in food of animal origin is first of all influenced by the feeding. The animal feeds rich in omega-3 PUFA are considered as basic feeds, such as meadow, grass, hay, green forage, grains etc. In the newly accessed EU countries the traditional breeding methods are typical (housing, lairage, pasture. This tendency is reflected also in the composition of local breeds: the so called indigenous, traditional breeds are characteristic. The development and expansion of local breeding methods is of crucial importance for the viable region, the protection (many times the restoration of environment and for the above mentioned human nutritional advantages. With modern control methods of origin, with adherence of food-safety rules, the local commercialization of the traditional foods can be solved, as many positive examples show in different countries. The need for diverse, tasteful and safe products of special quality is also increasing. Our aim is to support and favour the local, traditional breeding for direct commercialization with ensuring the proper conditions, financial support and legislation.

  14. Subchronic treatment of donepezil rescues impaired social, hyperactive, and stereotypic behavior in valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woon; Seung, Hana; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Ko, Mee Jung; Lee, Eun Joo; Oh, Hyun Ah; Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck; You, Jueng Soo; Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jongmin; Han, Seol-Heui; Yang, Sung Min; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model). We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA) induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs) such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance.

  15. Subchronic treatment of donepezil rescues impaired social, hyperactive, and stereotypic behavior in valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woon Kim

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model. We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance.

  16. Treatment of secondary burn wound progression in contact burns-a systematic review of experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauss, Daniel; Rezaeian, Farid; Finck, Tom; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Wettstein, Reto; Harder, Yves

    2015-01-01

    After a burn injury, superficial partial-thickness burn wounds may progress to deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds, if kept untreated. This phenomenon is called secondary burn wound progression or conversion. Burn wound depth is an important determinant of patient morbidity and mortality. Therefore, reduction or even the prevention of secondary burn wound progression is one goal of the acute care of burned patients. The objective of this study was to review preclinical approaches evaluating therapies to reduce burn wound progression. A systematic review of experimental approaches in animals that aim at reducing or preventing secondary burn wound progression was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The selected references consist of all the peer-reviewed studies performed in vivo in animals and review articles published in English, German, Italian, Spanish, or French language relevant to the topic of secondary burn wound progression. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar including all the articles published from the beginning of notations to the present. The search was conducted between May 3, 2012 and December 26, 2013. We included 29 experimental studies in this review, investigating agents that maintain or increase local perfusion conditions, as well as agents that exhibit an anti-coagulatory, an anti-inflammatory, or an anti-apoptotic property. Warm water, simvastatin, EPO, or cerium nitrate may represent particularly promising approaches for the translation into clinical use in the near future. This review demonstrates promising experimental approaches that might reduce secondary burn wound progression. Nevertheless, a translation into clinical application needs to confirm the results compiled in experimental animal studies.

  17. Burn Injuries: Burn Depth, Physiopathology and Type of Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemalettin Koltka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant burn injury is a serious and mortal event. The most important threat to life is hypovolemic shock with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. Burn depth is classified as first, second, or third degree. Local inflammatory response results a vasodilatation and an increase in vascular permeability. A burn injury is a three dimensional ischemic wound. Zone of coagulation is the zone with maximum damage. Zone of stasis consists of damaged but viable tissues, the tissue is salvageable. In zone of hyperemia tissue perfusion is increased. At the beginning, cardiac output falls and systemic vascular resistance increases; cardiac performance improves as hypovolemia is corrected with fluid resuscitation. While cardiac output increases systemic vascular resistance falls below normal values and a hypermetabolic state develops. Pulmonary vascular resistance increases immediately after thermal injury and this is more prolonged. To avoid secondary pulmonary complications, the smallest resuscitation volume of fluids that maintains adequate tissue perfusion should be given. Changes parallel to the cardiovascular response develop in other organ systems. The reasons of burn injury can be thermal, electrical, chemical or radiation. It is important to know the exact mechanism of burn injury because of different therapies for a specific cause. In this review information about burn depth, local and systemic responses to burn injury and major causes of burn injury are presented. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl:1-6

  18. Emergency in Burn; Burn in Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bayram

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicians who first meet with burned patients are often emergency service employees. When the patient was admitted to emergency service, especially in patients with major burn injury, is a matter should be dealt with strongly. Before sending the patients to a burn center, some interventions could became life saving which should be done as a first line treatment. Herein, review of the literature related to emergency burn treatment was performed and presented to all physicians as a summary guide. In addition, some questions such as how should be physician, who first meet with the burned patient, evaluated the patient, what should be physician paid attention, which principles should be employed for fluid replacement, how should be approached to burn wound are tried to be addressed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 365-368

  19. Synergistic effect of docosahexaenoic acid on anticonvulsant activity of valproic acid and lamotrigine in animal seizure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavzan, Hakimeh; Sayyah, Mohammad; Sardari, Soroush; Babapour, Vahab

    2015-10-01

    Add-on therapy is a common strategy to improve efficacy and tolerability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Anticonvulsant potential and appropriate safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) makes it a promising candidate for combination therapy. We evaluated influence of DHA on anticonvulsant activity of AEDs phenytoin, valproate, and lamotrigine in maximal electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), and kindling models of epilepsy. The dose-response to DHA was obtained 15 min after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection in PTZ model of clonic seizures in mice, MES model of tonic seizures in mice, and kindling model of complex partial seizures in rats. The dose-response curve of valproate (30 min after i.p. injection to mice) in PTZ, phenytoin (60 min after i.p. injection to mice) in MES, and lamotrigine (60 min after i.p. injection to rats) in kindling models were obtained. Dose-response curves of the AEDs were then achieved in the presence of ED25 of DHA. DHA had no anticonvulsant effect in the MES model. However, it showed a dose-dependent protective effect against PTZ (ED50 = 0.13 μM) and kindled seizures (ED50 = 1.08 mM). DHA at ED25 caused a 3.6-fold increase in potency of valproate as its ED50 value from 117.5 (98.3-135.3) decreased to 32.5 (21.6-44.1) mg/kg. Moreover, a 4.9-fold increase in potency of lamotrigine occurred, as its ED50 value from 13.10 (11.50-14.9) decreased to 2.65 (0.8-5.6) mg/kg. CompuSyn analysis indicated synergistic anticonvulsant interaction between DHA and both valproate and lamotrigine. Co-administration strategy of the safe and inexpensive anticonvulsant compound DHA with AEDs should be favorably regarded in clinical studies of epilepsy treatment.

  20. Probiotics Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids are More Effective for Hepatic Steatosis Reduction in an Animal Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Bodnar, Petro; Beregova, Tetyana

    2016-09-22

    Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG. The III (Symbiter) group received 2.5 ml/kg of multiprobiotic "Symbiter" containing concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera. The IV (Symbiter-Omega) groups received "Symbiter-Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5 %). In both interventional groups reduction in total NAS score was observed. Supplementation of alive probiotic mixture with omega-3 fatty acids lead to 20 % higher decrease in steatosis score (0.73 ± 0.11 vs 0.93 ± 0.22, p = 0.848) and reduction by 16.6 % of triglycerides content in liver as compared to probiotic alone. Our study demonstrated more pronounced reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic lipid accumulation after treatment with combination of alive probiotics and omega-3 as compared to probiotics alone.

  1. Effect of Nitric Acid on the Low Fluorescing Performance of Drilling Fluid Lubricant Based Animal and Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After synthesis of mixed fatty acid triethanolamine ester surfactant based on animal and vegetable mixed oils, the reaction solution was added into 4% (wt/wt liquid nitric acid or 9% (wt/wt solid nitric acid as eliminating fluorescent agent continuing to react from 1 to 2 hours. The low fluorescence lubricant named E167 for drilling fluid was prepared, in which maximum fluorescence intensity (Fmax was less than 10 in three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of excitation wavelength range. When the E167 was added into fresh water based drilling fluid at the dosage of 0.5% (wt/wt, the sticking coefficient reduced rate (ΔKf is 78% and the extreme pressure (E-P friction coefficient reduced rate (Δf is 79%. In the case of 4% brine mud with 0.5% (wt/wt E167 in it, the ΔKf and Δf are 75% and 62%, respectively. After the hot rolling ageing test 180°C × 16 h with the E167 was added into fresh water based drilling fluid at the dosage of 1% (wt/wt, the ΔKf and Δf are greater than 70%, which shows a much better lubrication properties of strong resistance to high temperature. The fresh water based drilling fluid which contains 1% (wt/wt E167 is almost nonfoaming even after hot rolling ageing 120°C × 16 h.

  2. Odd-numbered very-long-chain fatty acids from the microbial, animal and plant kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomás; Sigler, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (FAs) are important components of different classes of lipids in all organisms from bacteria to man. They include also, usually as minor components, odd-numbered FAs. These have so far been given little attention because of technical difficulties inherent in their detection and identification. Current modern analytical methods such as GC-MS and/or LC-MS make this detection and identification possible, and should promote a study of their properties. This review brings, in a concise manner, most of the currently available information about these FAs, their occurrence in different organisms, their structure and other properties. It should provide an impetus for further research into these very interesting compounds whose chemical, biochemical and biological properties are poorly known.

  3. Potent protection of gallic acid against DNA oxidation: Results of human and animal experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferk, Franziska; Chakraborty, Asima [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Jaeger, Walter [Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Diagnostic, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kundi, Michael [Institute of Environmental Health, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bichler, Julia; Misik, Miroslav [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Wagner, Karl-Heinz [Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Sagmeister, Sandra [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Haidinger, Gerald [Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hoelzl, Christine; Nersesyan, Armen [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Dusinska, Maria [Health Effect Laboratory, Center for Ecological Economics, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Simic, Tatjana [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Knasmueller, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-10-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a constituent of plant derived foods, beverages and herbal remedies. We investigated its DNA protective properties in a placebo controlled human intervention trial in single cell gel electrophoresis experiments. Supplementation of drinking water with GA (12.8 mg/person/d) for three days led to a significant reduction of DNA migration attributable to oxidised pyrimidines (endonuclease III sensitive sites) and oxidised purines (formamidopyrimidine glycosylase sensitive sites) in lymphocytes of healthy individuals by 75% and 64% respectively. Also DNA damage caused by treatment of the cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) was reduced after GA consumption (by 41%). These effects were paralleled by an increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathion-S-transferase-{pi}) and a decrease of intracellular ROS concentrations in lymphocytes, while no alterations of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), of malondialdehyde levels in serum and of the urinary excretion of isoprostanes were found. Experiments with rats showed that GA reduces oxidatively damaged DNA in lymphocytes, liver, colon and lungs and protects these organs against {gamma}-irradiation-induced strand breaks and formation of oxidatively damaged DNA-bases. Furthermore, the number of radiation-induced preneoplastic hepatic foci was decreased by 43% after oral administration of the phenolic. Since we did not find alterations of the TAC in plasma and lipid peroxidation of cell membranes but intracellular effects it is likely that the antioxidant properties of GA seen in vivo are not due to direct scavenging of radicals but rather to indirect mechanisms (e.g. protection against ROS via activation of transcription factors). As the amount of GA used in the intervention trial is similar to the daily intake in Middle Europe (18 mg/person/day), our findings indicate that it may contribute to prevention of

  4. Dielectric measurement in experimental burns: a new tool for burn depth determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Anthony; Lahtinen, Tapani; Härmä, Markku; Nuutinen, Jouni; Uusaro, Ari; Alhava, Esko

    2006-03-01

    There has been a lack of methods to provide quantitative information of local tissue edema after burn injury. Noninvasive dielectric measurements provide this information. The measured value, the dielectric constant, is directly related to the amount of water in tissue. Using probes of different sizes, the measurements give information from different tissue depths. The aim of this study was to characterize edema formation at different tissue depths and to examine whether the dielectric measurements could be used to distinguish partial- and full-thickness burns in pigs. An experimental animal study with pigs (n = 6) was performed in which dielectric measurements were taken of superficial, partial-thickness, and full-thickness burns for 72 hours. There was an increase in tissue water content in the superficial dermis in the partial-thickness burns at 48 hours. In whole dermis, the superficial burns resulted in increased tissue water content at 8 hours, and the partial-thickness burns resulted in increased tissue water content at 8, 24, and 72 hours. In deep burns, the water content was significantly decreased in the superficial dermis at 24 hours. All burns resulted in a considerable increase in fat water content. The dielectric probes could be used to differentiate partial- and full-thickness burns as early as 8 hours after burn. Receiver operating curve analysis of the measurements indicated 70 to 90 percent sensitivity and 80 to 100 percent specificity after 8 hours. The dielectric measurements provide a sensitive and noninvasive method for examining tissue edema and differentiate partial- and full-thickness burns in experimental burns. Thus, they are of clinical interest for early burn depth determination.

  5. Nucleic-acid testing, new platforms and nanotechnology for point-of-decision diagnosis of animal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Fernando; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Accurate disease diagnosis in animals is crucial for animal well-being but also for preventing zoonosis transmission to humans. In particular, livestock diseases may constitute severe threats to humans due to the particularly high physical contact and exposure and, also, be the cause of important economic losses, even in non-endemic countries, where they often arise in the form of rapid and devastating epidemics. Rapid diagnostic tests have been used for a long time in field situations, particularly during outbreaks. However, they mostly rely on serological approaches, which may confirm the exposure to a particular pathogen but may be inappropriate for point-of-decision (point-of-care) settings when emergency responses supported on early and accurate diagnosis are required. Moreover, they often exhibit modest sensitivity and hence significantly depend on later result confirmation in central or reference laboratories. The impressive advances observed in recent years in materials sciences and in nanotechnology, as well as in nucleic-acid synthesis and engineering, have led to an outburst of new in-the-bench and prototype tests for nucleic-acid testing towards point-of-care diagnosis of genetic and infectious diseases. Manufacturing, commercial, regulatory, and technical nature issues for field applicability more likely have hindered their wider entrance into veterinary medicine and practice than have fundamental science gaps. This chapter begins by outlining the current situation, requirements, difficulties, and perspectives of point-of-care tests for diagnosing diseases of veterinary interest. Nucleic-acid testing, particularly for the point of care, is addressed subsequently. A range of valuable signal transduction mechanisms commonly employed in proof-of-concept schemes and techniques born on the analytical chemistry laboratories are also described. As the essential core of this chapter, sections dedicated to the principles and applications of microfluidics, lab

  6. Dicarboxylic acids, metals and isotopic compositions of C and N in atmospheric aerosols from inland China: implications for dust and coal burning emission and secondary aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dicarboxylic acids (C2–C10, metals, elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, and stable isotopic compositions of total carbon (TC and total nitrogen (TN were determined for PM10 samples collected at three urban and one suburban sites of Baoji, an inland city of China, during winter and spring 2008. Oxalic acid (C2 was the dominant diacid, followed by succinic (C4 and malonic (C3 acids. Total diacids in the urban and suburban areas were 1546±203 and 1728±495 ng m−3 during winter and 1236±335 and 1028±193 ng m−3 during spring. EC in the urban and the suburban atmospheres were 17±3.8 and 8.0±2.1 μg m−3 during winter and 20±5.9 and 7.1±2.7 μg m−3 during spring, while OC at the urban and suburban sites were 74±14 and 51±7.9 μg m−3 in winter and 51±20 and 23±6.1 μg m−3 in spring. Secondary organic carbon (SOC accounted for 38±16% of OC in winter and 28±18% of OC in spring, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production of secondary organic aerosols in winter under an inversion layer development. Total metal elements in winter and spring were 34±10 and 61±27 μg m−3 in the urban air and 18±7 and 32±23 μg m−3 in the suburban air. A linear correlation (r2>0.8 in winter and r2>0.6 in spring was found between primary organic carbon (POC and Ca2+/Fe, together with a strong dependence of pH value of sample extracts on water-soluble inorganic carbon, suggesting fugitive dust as an important source of the airborne particles. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, sulfate, and Pb in the samples well correlated each other (r2>0.6 in winter, indicating an importance of emissions from coal burning for house heating. Stable carbon isotope compositions of TC (δ13C became higher with an increase

  7. Differentiation of various traditional Chinese medicines derived from animal bile and gallstone: simultaneous determination of bile acids by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Ye, Min; Pan, De-lin; Miao, Wen-juan; Xiang, Cheng; Han, Jian; Guo, De-an

    2011-01-01

    Animal biles and gallstones are popularly used in traditional Chinese medicines, and bile acids are their major bioactive constituents. Some of these medicines, like cow-bezoar, are very expensive, and may be adulterated or even replaced by less expensive but similar species. Due to poor ultraviolet absorbance and structural similarity of bile acids, effective technology for species differentiation and quality control of bile-based Chinese medicines is still lacking. In this study, a rapid and reliable method was established for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 18 bile acids, including 6 free steroids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid) and their corresponding glycine conjugates and taurine conjugates, by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). This method was used to analyze six bile-based Chinese medicines: bear bile, cattle bile, pig bile, snake bile, cow-bezoar, and artificial cow-bezoar. Samples were separated on an Atlantis dC₁₈ column and were eluted with methanol-acetonitrile-water containing ammonium acetate. The mass spectrometer was monitored in the negative electrospray ionization mode. Total ion currents of the samples were compared for species differentiation, and the contents of bile acids were determined by monitoring specific ion pairs in a selected reaction monitoring program. All 18 bile acids showed good linearity (r² > 0.993) in a wide dynamic range of up to 2000-fold, using dehydrocholic acid as the internal standard. Different animal biles could be explicitly distinguished by their major characteristic bile acids: tauroursodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid for bear bile, glycocholic acid, cholic acid and taurocholic acid for cattle bile, glycohyodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid for pig bile, and taurocholic acid for snake bile. Furthermore, cattle bile, cow

  8. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H(+) contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g(-1) of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO.

  9. Resveratrol prevents social deficits in animal model of autism induced by valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Zanatta, Geancarlo; Della Flora Nunes, Gustavo; Mueller de Melo, Gabriela; Michels, Marcus; Fontes-Dutra, Mellanie; Nogueira Freire, Valder; Riesgo, Rudimar; Gottfried, Carmem

    2014-11-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) involve a complex interplay of both genetic and environmental risk factors, such as prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Considering the neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol (RSV), we investigated the influence of prenatal RSV treatment on social behaviors of a rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to VPA. In the three-chambered apparatus test, the VPA group showed a reduced place preference conditioned by conspecific and no preference between exploring a wire-cage or a rat enclosed inside a wire cage, revealing sociability impairments. Prenatal administration of RSV prevented the VPA-induced social impairments evaluated in this study. A bioinformatics analysis was used to discard possible molecular interactions between VPA and RSV during administration. The interaction energy between RSV and VPA is weak and highly unstable, suggesting cellular effects instead of a single chemical process. In summary, the present study highlights a promising experimental strategy to evaluate new molecular targets possibly involved in the etiology of autism and developmental alterations implicated in neural and behavioral impairments in ASD.

  10. Measurement of cardiac output in adult and newborn animals by ascorbic acid dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, J K; Haselby, K A; Paradise, R R

    1984-05-01

    We have developed an ascorbic acid-dilution method for measuring cardiac output which requires minimal blood withdrawal. Ascorbate is injected into a central venous catheter. The indicator-dilution curve is obtained by drawing blood from an arterial catheter through an amperometric cell at 0.96 ml/min for 35 s. The current is measured by a picoammeter . A calibration curve is obtained in 15 s prior to each indicator-dilution curve. An on-line digital computer measures the curve areas and calculates the cardiac output. Cardiac outputs of heparinized dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital and halothane measured by this method (AA) compared closely to cardiac outputs measured by the dye-dilution method (CG) (AA = 0.96 CG + 20 ml/min, r = 0.98). Both the cardiac output and the arterial blood pressure remained stable during replicate measurements of the cardiac output of 1-day-old piglets. This system allows cardiac output determinations of neonatal subjects without excessive blood removal and, with further development, should be practical in human neonates.

  11. The Correlation between Chitin and Acidic Mammalian Chitinase in Animal Models of Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Rui Shen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is the result of chronic inflammation of the airways which subsequently results in airway hyper-responsiveness and airflow obstruction. It has been shown that an elicited expression of acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase may be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Our recent study has demonstrated that the specific suppression of elevated AMCase leads to reduced eosinophilia and Th2-mediated immune responses in an ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized mouse model of allergic asthma. In the current study, we show that the elicited expression of AMCase in the lung tissues of both ovalbumin- and Der P2-induced allergic asthma mouse models. The effects of allergic mediated molecules on AMCase expression were evaluated by utilizing promoter assay in the lung cells. In fact, the exposure of chitin, a polymerized sugar and the fundamental component of the major allergen mite and several of the inflammatory mediators, showed significant enhancement on AMCase expression. Such obtained results contribute to the basis of developing a promising therapeutic strategy for asthma by silencing AMCase expression.

  12. The body fat-lowering effect of conjugated linoleic acid: a comparison between animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Fernández-Quintela, A; Churruca, I; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    Different reasons which justify differences between rodents and humans in body fat reduction produced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could be proposed. The doses used in humans are lower than those used in rodents. Human experiments have been performed with CLA isomer mixtures instead of isolated isomers. The variable dilution of t-10, c-12, the active isomer, among different preparations might explain the reduced responsiveness in humans. Diet composition may modulate CLA effects on body fat accumulation. As far as human studies are concerned, a specific dietary pattern has not been established. As a result differences among studies and also among subjects in the same study are likely. In rodents, the effects of CLA vary with genotype, suggesting that genetic predisposition to fat accumulation can play an important role in the effectiveness of CLA. Human volunteers with different body mass index have participated in the published studies and even in the same experiment. So, differences in lipid metabolism among subjects could help to explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. Age and maturity may also be crucial. Experiments using rodents have been conducted with growing animals and there is little evidence of CLA effectiveness in adult animals. By contrast, human studies have been performed with adults. Inhibition of lipogenesis in white adipose tissue is one of the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the body-fat lowering effect of CLA, but lipogenesis in this tissue is very low in humans. Another mechanism suggested is increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver associated with peroxisome proliferation, but humans are relatively insensitive to this effect.

  13. [Case of continuous trans-arterial calcium gluconate infusion using a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line that exhibited dramatic improvement of chemical burns on the fingers caused by hydrofluoric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Makiko; Tanaka, Kotaro; Minemura, Atsuko; Tamatsukuri, Tatsuro; Miyake, Yasufumi; Aruga, Tohru

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HFA) is commonly used and many injuries occur on the upper extremities following exposure to HFA. The use of calcium gluconate (CG) -containing gel or local injections of CG are widely used for the initial treatment of HFA exposure. However, severe pain continues in some cases despite the treatment. There was a report that trans-arterial CG infusion could improve HFA burns, however, such treatment is not an established clinical procedure. A 30-year-old male presented at our hospital with severe pain in his left thumb. He had been cleaning tiles with an HFA-containing detergent. We diagnosed him with a chemical burn due to HFA exposure. Local CG injections were tried several times, but his terrible pain continued. Therefore, a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line was inserted from the left radial artery, and continuous transarterial CG injection was performed. His terrible pain dramatically improved. Direct arterial sphygmomanometry systems are widely used in the critical care field to monitor the hemodynamics and ICU staffs are used to dealing with it. Moreover, continuous saline infusion prevents the tube obstruction. Continuous CG infusion from a direct arterial sphygmomanometry line is simple and safe way to administer CG in HFA burns.

  14. Isolation and Taxonomic Identity of Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Retail Foods and Animal Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Chris; Vijayakumar, Paul; Adhikari, Raj; Jagannathan, Badrinath; Gautam, Dhiraj; Muriana, Peter M

    2015-03-19

    Bacteriocin-producing (Bac⁺) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a variety of food products and animal sources. Samples were enriched in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) Lactocilli broth and plated onto MRS agar plates using a "sandwich overlay" technique. Inhibitory activity was detected by the "deferred antagonism" indicator overlay method using Listeria monocytogenes as the primary indicator organism. Antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes was detected by 41 isolates obtained from 23 of 170 food samples (14%) and 11 of 110 samples from animal sources (10%) tested. Isolated Bac⁺ LAB included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, and Enterococcus thailandicus. In addition to these, two Gram-negative bacteria were isolated (Serratia plymuthica, and Serratia ficaria) that demonstrated inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis (S. ficaria additionally showed activity against Salmonella Typhimurium). These data continue to demonstrate that despite more than a decade of antimicrobial interventions on meats and produce, a wide variety of food products still contain Bac⁺ microbiota that are likely eaten by consumers and may have application as natural food preservatives.

  15. Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in multiple animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-05-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant.

  16. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  17. Synthetic Cyclolipopeptides Selective against Microbial, Plant and Animal Cell Targets by Incorporation of D-Amino Acids or Histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Sílvia; Badosa, Esther; Montesinos, Emilio; Planas, Marta; Feliu, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Cyclolipopeptides derived from the antimicrobial peptide c(Lys-Lys-Leu-Lys-Lys-Phe-Lys-Lys-Leu-Gln) (BPC194) were prepared on solid-phase and screened against four plant pathogens. The incorporation at Lys5 of fatty acids of 4 to 9 carbon atoms led to active cyclolipopeptides. The influence on the antimicrobial activity of the Lys residue that is derivatized was also evaluated. In general, acylation of Lys1, Lys2 or Lys5 rendered the sequences with the highest activity. Incorporation of a D-amino acid maintained the antimicrobial activity while significantly reduced the hemolysis. Replacement of Phe with a His also yielded cyclolipopeptides with low hemolytic activity. Derivatives exhibiting low phytotoxicity in tobacco leaves were also found. Interestingly, sequences with or without significant activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi, but with differential hemolysis and phytotoxicity were identified. Therefore, this study represents an approach to the development of bioactive peptides with selective activity against microbial, plant and animal cell targets. These selective cyclolipopeptides are candidates useful not only to combat plant pathogens but also to be applied in other fields.

  18. Synthetic Cyclolipopeptides Selective against Microbial, Plant and Animal Cell Targets by Incorporation of D-Amino Acids or Histidine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vilà

    Full Text Available Cyclolipopeptides derived from the antimicrobial peptide c(Lys-Lys-Leu-Lys-Lys-Phe-Lys-Lys-Leu-Gln (BPC194 were prepared on solid-phase and screened against four plant pathogens. The incorporation at Lys5 of fatty acids of 4 to 9 carbon atoms led to active cyclolipopeptides. The influence on the antimicrobial activity of the Lys residue that is derivatized was also evaluated. In general, acylation of Lys1, Lys2 or Lys5 rendered the sequences with the highest activity. Incorporation of a D-amino acid maintained the antimicrobial activity while significantly reduced the hemolysis. Replacement of Phe with a His also yielded cyclolipopeptides with low hemolytic activity. Derivatives exhibiting low phytotoxicity in tobacco leaves were also found. Interestingly, sequences with or without significant activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi, but with differential hemolysis and phytotoxicity were identified. Therefore, this study represents an approach to the development of bioactive peptides with selective activity against microbial, plant and animal cell targets. These selective cyclolipopeptides are candidates useful not only to combat plant pathogens but also to be applied in other fields.

  19. Learn Not To Burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the "Learn Not to Burn Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and burn prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight burn prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and…

  20. Economics of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  1. Minor burns - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the burn: Use cool water, not ice. The extreme cold from ice can injure the tissue even more. If possible, especially if the burn is caused by chemicals, hold the burned skin under cool running water for 10 to 15 minutes until it ...

  2. Optimization of burn referrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...

  3. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  4. New treatment strategies to reduce burn wound progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmauss, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: After a burn injury certain superficial partial-thickness burn wounds spontaneously progress into deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds. This poorly understood phenomenon is called burn wound progression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment strategies using warm water (preservation of microcirculation on the one side and erythropoietin (EPO (molecule with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, vasodilatory and neoangiogenic properties can prevent, delay and/or reduce secondary burn wound progression in a rat model.Methods: We used a burn comb model in 63 rats, creating eight rectangular contact burns (2x1 cm each intercalated by unburned zones (2x0.5 cm prone to burn wound progression. In a first experimental set we treated burn wounds with locally applied warm (37°C or cold (17°C water for 20 minutes.In a second experimental set, animals were treated systemically with EPO at two different dosages of 500 and 2,500 IU/kg bodyweight (bw and initiated at 2 different time-points (45 minutes vs. 6 hours after burn injury. Evaluation of microcirculatory perfusion, interspace necrosis and burn depth was performed using respectively laser Doppler flowmetry, planimetry and histology. For statistical analysis the two-way ANOVA-test followed by an adequate post-hoc test (Bonferroni were used. Results: In untreated control animals a conversion from superficial to full-thickness burns was observed within 24 hours. Warm and cold water treatment significantly delayed burn depth progression, nevertheless after 4 days, burn depth was similar in all three groups. Warm water significantly reduced interspace necrosis compared to untreated controls and cold water with a significantly improved perfusion in the warm water group. Surface extension and particularly burn depth progression were significantly decreased by EPO only if administered at a dosage of bw and initiated 45 minutes after burn injury. EPO

  5. Fogging low concentrated organic acid in a fattening pig unit – Effect on animal health and microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Stein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective.[/b] In intensive pig production aerial contaminates are potential hazards for the health of animals and humans. In this study, the effect of fogging a low concentrated tartaric acid solution on pigs’ health, environmental and hygiene parameters were evaluated in an inhabited fattening unit. [b]Materials and method.[/b] Pigs were housed in separate units (control group n=109 and experimental group n=110. During the whole fattening period, twice a week at 48 hour intervals, a 0.1% tartaric acid solution was aerosolized by a cold-fogging system for 20 minutes in the experimental unit. Environmental parameters were spot-checked on days of fogging. Sedimentation dust and surfaces were analysed for bacterial and fungal load. Dust particle size distribution was assessed. Pigs were clinically examined weekly. Standard meat examination at an abattoir was extended by individual quantification of lung alterations. [b]Results. [/b]The fogging procedure had no influence on ammonia concentrations. A significant reduction of mould, but not of bacteria, was found in sedimentation dust, and bacterial and mould scores of surface samples were improved. A significant reduction of particle size classes 1.6–2.0 µm, 4.0–5.0 µm, 7.5–10 µm, as well as 10–15 µm was observed. The high sound level of the fogging machine (82–102 dB led to higher activity and pen-mate directed behaviour. More skin alterations, conjunctivitis and sneezing were recorded in the experimental group. Gross pathological lung alterations did not differ between both groups. [b] Conclusions.[/b] Although fogging of tartaric acid is limited to a concentration of 0.1% due to its irritating effect on the respiratory mucosa, reduction of microbial load can be achieved, but it would be enhanced by using more powerful fogging systems.

  6. Severe metabolic acidosis following assault chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie De Roock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Assault chemical burns are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total burned surface area was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9 obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several burns-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure. Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene.

  7. Severe metabolic acidosis following assault chemical burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roock, Sophie D; Deleuze, Jean-Paul; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Hantson, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Assault chemical burns are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total burned surface area was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9) obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several burns-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure). Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene.

  8. Association between early airway damage-associated molecular patterns and subsequent bacterial infection in patients with inhalational and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Robert; Jones, Samuel; Pan, Yinghao; Zhou, Haibo; Jaspers, Ilona; Peden, David B; Cairns, Bruce A; Noah, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial infection is a major cause of morbidity affecting outcome following burn and inhalation injury. While experimental burn and inhalation injury animal models have suggested that mediators of cell damage and inflammation increase the risk of infection, few studies have been done on humans. This is a prospective, observational study of patients admitted to the North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center at the University of North Carolina who were intubated and on mechanical ventilation for treatment of burn and inhalational injury. Subjects were enrolled over a 2-yr period and followed till discharge or death. Serial bronchial washings from clinically indicated bronchoscopies were collected and analyzed for markers of tissue injury and inflammation. These include damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as hyaluronic acid (HA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70), and high-mobility group protein B-1 (HMGB-1). The study population was comprised of 72 patients who had bacterial cultures obtained for clinical indications. Elevated HA, dsDNA, and IL-10 levels in bronchial washings obtained early (the first 72 h after injury) were significantly associated with positive bacterial respiratory cultures obtained during the first 14 days postinjury. Independent of initial inhalation injury severity and extent of surface burn, elevated levels of HA dsDNA and IL-10 in the central airways obtained early after injury are associated with subsequent positive bacterial respiratory cultures in patients intubated after acute burn/inhalation injury.

  9. [Enteral nutrition in burn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in the treatment of patients with burns. Due to the severe hypercatabolism that develops in these patients, oral support is insufficient in most cases, and this makes it essential to initiate artificial nutritional support (either enteral or parenteral). Enteral nutrition is more physiological than parenteral, and data exist which show that in patients with burns, enteral nutrition exercises a protective effect on the intestine and may even reduce the hypermetabolic response in these patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of enteral nutritional support with a hypercaloric, hyperproteic diet with a high content of branched amino acids in the nutritional support of patients suffering from burns. The study included 12 patients (8 males and 4 females), admitted to the Burns Unit. Average age was 35 +/- 17 years (range: 21-85 years). The percentage of body surface affected by the burns was 10% in two cases, between 10-30% in three cases, between 30-50% in five cases and over 50% in two cases. Initiation of the enteral nutrition was between twenty-four hours and seven days after the burn. The patients were kept in the unit until they were discharged, and the average time spent in the unit was 31.5 days (range: 17-63 days). Total energetic requirements were calculated based on Harris-Benedict, with a variable aggression factor depending on the body surface burned, which varied from 2,000 and 4,000 cal day. Nitrogenous balance was determined on a daily basis, and plasmatic levels of total proteins, albumin and prealbumin on a weekly basis. There was a significant difference between the prealbumin values at the initiation and finalization of the enteral nutrition (9.6 +/- 2.24 mg/dl compared with 19.75 +/- 5.48 mg/dl; p diet was very good, and only mild complications such as diarrhoea developed in two patients. Enteral nutrition is a suitable nutritional support method for patients with

  10. Partial Burn Laws in Propellant Erosive Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Finjakov

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and computer methods were developed for investigating the combustion phenomena in the propellants which burn in streams of hot gas flowing along the burn surfaces of the propellants. The experimental investigations allowed establishment of different dependencies for erosive burning. Computer solutions of the problem for double-base (DB propellants showed a good agreement with the experimental results. The suggested variant of modified theory considers the change of heat release in solids, the real burn surface roughness, the nonisothermality of boundary layer and the effect of gas mass blow from the propellant burn surface into the gas stream. This modified theory was used for studying burn laws at 30-1000 atm and up to gas stream sound velocities for different DB propellants. It was found that gas stream leads to splitting of the propellant burn laws, m = bp/sup v/. Pressure power (v, in this case depends on gas stream velocity (W, diameter of the propellant tube canal (d and gas stream temperature (T/sub w/. It is because of this that these burn laws were named partial burn laws. They have the form (m = bp/sup w(omega/ w,d,T/sub w/ -const. The dependencies w(omega = f(w,d,T/sub w/ were obtained by the modified theory. It was found that omega values mainly decrease when pressure increases beginning from ~200 to 400 atm and they can decrease up to w(omega = 0,1- 0,3. Similar results can be obtained for composite propellants.

  11. 柠檬酸对动物的生物学作用研究%Study on biological actions of citric acid in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史彬林; 王淑琴

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid is a kind of organic acids and has some good physical and chemical natures, and so can be applied in animal diets. The paper summarized the biological actions of citric acid in ani⁃mals, in order to supply references for scientific application of citric acid in animal production.%柠檬酸是一种重要的有机酸,具有良好的物理和化学性能,可作为酸化剂在动物日粮中应用。文章综述了日粮中添加柠檬酸对动物生产性能、消化吸收、免疫功能等方面的生物学作用,为其在动物生产中的科学应用提供参考。

  12. The effect of ketogenic diet in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kamila; Baronio, Diego; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos; Gottfried, Carmem

    2017-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and by restricted repetitive behaviors and interests. Its etiology is still unknown, but different environmental factors during pregnancy, such as exposure to valproic acid (VPA), are associated with high incidence of ASD in children. In this context, prenatal exposure to VPA in rodents has been used as a reliable model of ASD. Ketogenic diet (KD) is an alternative therapeutic option for refractory epilepsy; however, the effects of this approach in ASD-like behavior need to be evaluated. We conducted a behavioral assessment of the effects of KD in the VPA model of autism. Pregnant animals received a single-intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg VPA, and their offspring were separated into four groups: (1) control group with standard diet (C-SD), (2) control group with ketogenic diet (C-KD), (3) VPA group with standard diet (VPA-SD), and (4) VPA group with ketogenic diet (VPA-KD). When compared with the control group, VPA animals presented increased social impairment, repetitive behavior and higher nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, the VPA group fed with KD presented improvements in social behavior. These mice displayed higher scores in sociability index and social novelty index when compared with the SD-fed VPA mice. VPA mice chronically exposed to a KD presented behavioral improvements; however, the mechanism by which KD improves ASD-like features needs to be further investigated. In conclusion, the present study reinforces the potential use of KD as a treatment for the core deficits of ASD.

  13. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative mobilization in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Arti; Parihar, Mordhwaj S; Milner, Stephen; Bhat, Satyanarayan

    2008-02-01

    A severe burn is associated with release of inflammatory mediators which ultimately cause local and distant pathophysiological effects. Mediators including Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are increased in affected tissue, which are implicated in pathophysiological events observed in burn patients. The purpose of this article is to understand the role of oxidative stress in burns, in order to develop therapeutic strategies. All peer-reviewed, original and review articles published in the English language literature relevant to the topic of oxidative stress in burns in animals and human subjects were selected for this review and the possible roles of ROS and RNS in the pathophysiology of burns are discussed. Both increased xanthine oxidase and neutrophil activation appear to be the oxidant sources in burns. Free radicals have been found to have beneficial effects on antimicrobial action and wound healing. However following a burn, there is an enormous production of ROS which is harmful and implicated in inflammation, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, immunosuppression, infection and sepsis, tissue damage and multiple organ failure. Thus clinical response to burn is dependent on the balance between production of free radicals and its detoxification. Supplementation of antioxidants in human and animal models has proven benefit in decreasing distant organ failure suggesting a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that oxidative damage is one of the mechanisms responsible for the local and distant pathophysiological events observed after burn, and therefore anti-oxidant therapy might be beneficial in minimizing injury in burned patients.

  14. Burn wound: Pathophysiology and its management by herbal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In human body, wound healing is a normal biological phenomenon. Burns may be acute or chronic depending upon the source and its time of exposure. Burn wounds may be superficial, partial or full thickness wounds. When skin comes in contact with higher temperature, protein denaturation takes place due to which the plasma membrane integrity is lost. When skin is burned, a number of inflammatory mediators and releasing agents such as histamine, nitric oxide, oxygen free radicals, eicosanoid products, tumor necrosis factors, and interleukins etc., are released at the site. For wound healing mechanism, the keratinocytes has to move from uninjured site to the burned area. For deeper burns this process takes a long time. By some unknown mechanisms, burn wounds may convert from one form to another form. So burn wound depth must be accurately measured before starting the treatment to prevent the complications. Burns can be induced in experimental animals by using different models. Many treatments such as herbal drugs, topical agents, gene therapy, volume therapy, and rehabilitation can be employed. This review article mainly deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of burn wound healing. Some burn wound healing plants with their chemical constituents, plant part used, uses and animal models are described here.

  15. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorhydric acid ... stomach, or intestine have holes (perforations) from the acid. ... Hydrofluoric acid is especially dangerous. The most common accidents involving hydrofluoric acid cause severe burns on the skin ...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated (chemical group 30, miscellaneous substances when used as a flavouring for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizic acid is extracted from the dried and ground rhizome and root portions of the perennial leguminous plant Glycyrrhiza glabra L., native to southern Europe and Central Asia, or other species of the genus Glycyrrhiza. It is currently listed in the register of flavouring substances, allowing its use in food without restriction. Glycyrrhyzic acid ammoniated is safe at the concentration of 1 mg/kg complete feed for all species, except chickens for fattening and laying hens. For these two categories, a safe concentration of 0.3 mg/kg complete feed applies. The Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP cannot conclude on the safety of the additive used in water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated in animal nutrition would not measurably increase consumer exposure. In the absence of data on user safety, the FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated as an irritant to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as a skin sensitiser. The use of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated in animal feeds would not pose a risk to the environment. As glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated is used in food as a flavouring, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  17. [The pain from burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  18. Amino acids hydrolyzed from animal carcasses are a good additive for the production of bio-organic fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF due to the higher H+ contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g-1 of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO.

  19. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group.

  20. Non-feed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for industrial microorganism fe...

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with a fibre-optic probe for the prediction of the amino acid composition in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Inmaculada; Alvarez-García, Noelia; González-Cabrera, José Miguel

    2006-05-15

    The amino acids alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine, valine, lysine, proline, and tyrosine present in feeds with different textures (blocks, tablets, granules and flour (meal) and used in different stages of animal feeding regimes (lactation, growth, maintenance, etc.) were analysed using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe. The method allows immediate control of the animal feeds without prior sample treatment or destruction through direct application of the fibre-optic probe on the sample. The regression method used was Modified Partial Least Squares (MPLS). The equations developed to determine the amino acid contents of the feeds afforded high values for the RSQ coefficient (0.814-0.963) in all the amino acids with the exception of lysine (0.687). The statistical prediction descriptors SEP, SEP(C) (with values between 0.134 for valine and 0.015 for aspartic acid) and bias indicated that the amino acid values in feeds predicted with NIRS with a fibre optic probe are comparable to those obtained with the chemical ion-exchange HPLC method.

  2. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    . Carrying the sacred icons of the saints, participants dance over hot coals as the saint moves them. The Burning Saints presents an analysis of these rituals and the psychology behind them. Based on long-term fieldwork, The Burning Saints traces the historical development and sociocultural context......, The Burning Saints presents a highly original analysis of how mental processes can shape social and religious behaviour....

  3. Management of Hand Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Irmak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The hand is one of the most frequently affected body parts by burn injuries with a rate of 80% among all burn wounds. Early and effective treatment ensures the best chance of survival as well as a good functional prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, variation, relationship between etiology and hospital stay, clinical features, and management of hand burns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted the University of Health Sciences; Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Application and Research Center, Departmant of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery and the Intensive Burn Care Unit between April 2009 and April 2014. Burns were assessed based on etiology, anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area affected, and depth of injury. Treatment was categorized as conservative, elective operative, or urgent operative. Results: In the study period, 788 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit. Of these, 240 were females (30.5% and 548 were males (69.5%. The most common type of burn injury in this study was thermal injury (695 cases; 88.2%, followed by electrical injury (67 cases; 8.5%, and chemical, frictional or unknown injuries (26 cases; 3.3%. Majority (more than 85% of the patients had second-degree burns, and some had third-degree burns. Conclusions: Burns commonly affect the hands, and many functional problems may develop if appropriate basic treatments are neglected. The best treatment for burns is prevention. Appropriate indoor arrangement and simple but effective measures that can be taken at home can significantly reduce burn trauma exposure.

  4. Management of Outpatient Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Waslen, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    The severity of burns depends on the depth and extent of body surface involved. The total body surface area (TBSA) involved can be estimated by the ‘rule of nines’; body locations are 9% of body surface or multiples of nine. Depth and TBSA can be used to classify burns as minor, moderate, or critical. Diagnosis depends on history and physical examination. Most burns can be treated in an outpatient setting. Treatment should include debriding necrotic tissue, preventing infection and encouragin...

  5. The biochemical and morphological alterations following administration of melatonin, retinoic acid and Nigella sativa in mammary carcinoma: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Aziz, Mohamad A Abd; Hassan, Hosny A; Mohamed, Mahmoud H; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M A; Abdel-Ghaffar, Sary K H; Hussein, Mahmoud R

    2005-12-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women and the third most common cancer. Although our understanding of the molecular basis of this fatal disease has improved, this malignancy remains elusive. Melatonin (Mel), retinoic acid (RA) and Nigella sativa (NS) are substances with anticancer effects. To date, our understanding of the mechanisms of therapeutic effects of these products in mammary cancer is still marginal. To look at the preventive and therapeutic values of these products, we carried out this investigation. An animal model formed of 80 rats was established. The animals were divided into eight groups of 10 animals each: (a) control group injected with the same vehicle used for treatments in the relevant dosages and routes; (b) carcinogen group injected with the known carcinogenic substance 7,12-di-methylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) that induces mammary carcinoma; (c) three prophylactic (Pro) groups (Mel-Pro, RA-Pro and NS-Pro) injected with test substances (Mel, RA and NS, respectively) 14 days before the intake of the carcinogenic substance DMBA and then continued until the end of the experiments; and (d) three treated (Tr) groups (Mel-Tr, RA-Tr and NS-Tr) injected with the vehicles after the intake of DMBA. In both the Pro and Tr groups, the drugs were daily administered for 3 months. The animals were killed, and their serum and tissues were evaluated for (a) markers of tumorigenicity [serum levels of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA)], (b) markers of endocrine derangement (serum prolactin, estradiol and progesterone levels), (c) apoptotic changes [serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, tissue caspase-3 activity, percentage of DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural features of apoptosis] and (d) markers of oxidative stress (tissue levels of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide). Carcinoma was absent both in the control and in the NS-Pro groups. Mammary carcinoma occurred in DMBA and other Pro and Tr

  6. Burns in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Samnia, Roya; Garadaghi, Abasad; Kianvar, Hadi

    2006-03-01

    A 9-year prospective study of burns in pregnant women hospitalized at the Sina hospital burn center was conducted to determine the etiology and outcome of pregnant patients. Fifty-one patients (27.45% self-inflicted, 72.55% unintentional) were identified and stratified by age, burn size, presence or absence of inhalation injury, trimester of pregnancy, maternal and fetal mortality, and cause of burn. The mean patient age was 24.2 years. There were 20 maternal deaths and 23 fetal deaths. The majority of which (maternal: 13 and fetal: 13) were among self-inflicted burned pregnant women. The mean burn size was 37.7%, and was significantly larger for nonsurvivors of mother than survivors (68.8% versus 17.6%; pburned body surface area exceeds 40%, both maternal and fetal mortality reaches 100%. Inhalation injuries were strongly associated with large burns, and were presents in all suicide patients. Kerosene ignition (68.6% of all patients, 100% of self-inflicted patients) was the most common type of burn. Large burn size was the strongest predictor of mortality of mother and fetus followed by the presence of inhalation injury.

  7. 动物生产中挥发性脂肪酸的研究进展%Review of Volatile Fatty Acid in Animal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗佳捷; 张彬; 兰欣怡; 王洁

    2012-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid is a short chain fatty acid,can regulate metabolism and preserve animal health.The article summarized the biological functions,measuring methods and research situations in animal production of volatile fatty acid.%挥发性脂肪酸是一种短链脂肪酸,在调节新陈代谢及维护动物机体健康等方面发挥着重要的作用。文章从生物学功能、测定方法及其在动物生产中的研究情况等方面对挥发性脂肪酸进行了综述。

  8. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  9. Ameliorating effect of DL-α-lipoic acid against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Asmma; Ahmed, Amany A E; Shouman, Samia A; Sharawy, Sabry

    2012-06-01

    Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent with a wide range of activities. Nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity represent it's major complication upon clinical use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible protective effect of DL-α-lipoic acid (LA) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. Different groups of rats (n = 10) were administered either saline (control), cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.p.), LA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or their combination (LA 30 min prior to cisplatin administration). Twenty-four hours later all animals were decapitated and sera were used for estimation of activities of urea (BUN), creatinine (Cr), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK). Homogenates of the kidney and heart were used for estimation of oxidative stress markers (reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO)). Additionally, caspase-3 activities and DNA-fragmentation were investigated in renal tissues. The results showed that cisplatin produced significant elevation in serum activities of LDH, CK, BUN, and Cr and also induced significant elevation in the oxidative stress makers (MDA and NO) accompanied by significant reduction in GSH and SOD in both kidney and heart. The integrity of DNA was heavily damaged and caspase-3 was activated in renal tissues. The results emphasized nephrotoxicty and cardiotoxicity of cisplatin. On the other hand, prior administration of LA significantly attenuated the cisplatin-evoked disturbances in the above mentioned parameters and protected both kidney and heart tissues. The histopathological examination emphasized the obtained results. In conclusion, LA is suggested to be a potential candidate to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity without altering the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin.

  10. Safety and persistence of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid fillers for nasolabial folds correction in 30 Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehnaz Z Arsiwala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correction of nasolabial creases through minimally invasive procedures is increasingly being sought by patients. Injecting non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid filler is a highly effective method to achieve an optimal and persistent cosmetic result. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, persistence and safety of Restylane and Perlane (Q-Med, Sweden for correction of nasolabial folds in Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty Indian patients with mild, moderate and severe nasolabial folds (based on Wrinkle Assessment Scale were recruited in the study after informed consent for correction of their folds with Restylane or Perlane or both. Injections were administered in a single sitting after global assessment of the patient′s face using Wrinkle assessment scale (WAS.Optimal filling was performed by using appropriate techniques and its safety and efficacy assessed independently by the investigator as well as by patients at immediately, 3, 6 and 9 months post-procedure. Any adverse reactions were noted. Results: Twenty two females and 8 males (age range 45-55 years, mean age 52 years were recruited in the study. An optimum cosmetic correction was obtained in all patients. The efficacy increased with time and was greatest at 3 months after the treatment. Grade 2 improvement was maintained at 9 months in mild and moderate folds, and grade 3 improvement for severe folds. Minor post injection side effects like erythema at puncture site, needle marks and bruising were seen. Conclusion: Restylane and Perlane are safe and effective dermal fillers for correction of nasolabial creases and offer immediate effect.

  11. Gender-specific behavioral and immunological alterations in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tomasz; Roman, Adam; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Schneider, Karolina; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2008-07-01

    Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped behaviors, with a four times higher incidence in boys than in girls. The core symptoms are frequently accompanied by a spectrum of neurobehavioral and immunological derangements, including: aberrant sensitivity to sensory stimulation, anxiety, and decreased cellular immune capacity. Recently, a new potential rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA rats) has been proposed. In order to determine if gender has an influence on alterations observed in VPA rats, male and female rats have been evaluated in a battery of behavioral, immunological, and endocrinological tests. A plethora of aberrations has been found in male VPA rats: lower sensitivity to pain, increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity, higher anxiety, decreased level of social interaction, increased basal level of corticosterone, decreased weight of the thymus, decreased splenocytes proliferative response to concanavaline A, lower IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio, and increased production of NO by peritoneal macrophages. Female VPA rats exhibited only increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and decreased IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio. Sexual dimorphism characteristics for measured parameters have been observed in both groups of animals, except social interaction in VPA rats. Our results confirm existence of similarities between the observed pattern of aberrations in VPA rats and features of disturbed behavior and immune function in autistic patients, and suggest that they are gender-specific, which is intriguing in light of disproportion in boys to girls ratio in autism.

  12. Valproic acid effects in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Brad; McLaughlin, Leslie D; Ebenezer, Philip J; Nair, Anand R; Francis, Joseph

    2014-07-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC) are upregulated in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) modify genetic transcription and can diminish ROS and PIC escalation. They can also modulate levels of neurotransmitters such as catecholamines and serotonin (5-HT). Thus, this study sought to analyze the effects of the HDACi valproic acid (VA) on oxidative stress, inflammation, and neurotransmitter modulation via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress animal model of PTSD. PTSD-like effects were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6/group×4 groups). The rats were secured in Plexiglas cylinders and placed in a cage with a cat for 1h on days 1, 11, and 40 of a 40-day stress regimen. PTSD rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the conclusion of the stress regimen, the treatment group (PTSD+VA) and control group (Control+VA) rats were given VA in their drinking water for 30 days. The rats were then euthanized and their brains were dissected to remove the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Whole blood was collected to assess systemic oxidative stress. ROS and PIC mRNA and protein elevation in the PTSD group were normalized with VA. Anxiety decreased in this group via improved performance on the elevated plus-maze (EPM). No changes were attributed to VA in the control group, and no improvements were noted in the vehicle groups. Results indicate VA can attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation, enhance fear extinction, and correct neurotransmitter aberrancies in a rat model of PTSD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Animal studies of the functional consequences of suboptimal polyunsaturated fatty acid status during pregnancy, lactation and early post-natal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, J Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Scores of animal studies demonstrate that seed oils replete with linoleic acid and very low in linolenic acid fed as the exclusive source of fat through pregnancy and lactation result in visual, cognitive, and behavioural deficits in the offspring. Commodity peanut, sunflower, and safflower oils fed to mother rats, guinea pigs, rhesus monkeys, and baboons induce predictable changes in tissue polyunsaturated fatty acid composition that are abnormal in free-living land mammals as well as changes in neurotransmitter levels, catecholamines, and signalling compounds compared with animals with a supply of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. These diets consistently induce functional deficits in electroretinograms, reflex responses, reward or avoidance induced learning, maze learning, behaviour, and motor development compared with ω3 replete groups. Boosting neural tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by feeding preformed DHA enhances visual and cognitive function. Though no human randomized controlled trials on minimal ω3 requirements in pregnancy and lactation have been conducted, the weight of animal evidence compellingly shows that randomizing pregnant or lactating humans to diets that include high linoleate oils as the sole source of fat would be frankly unethical because they would result in suboptimal child development. Increasing use of commodity ω3-deficient oils in developing countries, many in the name of heart health, will limit brain development of the next generation and can be easily corrected at minimal expense by substituting high oleic acid versions of these same oils, in many cases blended with small amounts of α-linolenic acid oils like flax or perilla oil. Inclusion of DHA in these diets is likely to further enhance visual and neural development.

  14. Critical issues in burn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, James H

    2008-01-01

    Burn care, especially for serious burn injuries, represents a considerable challenge for the healthcare system. The American Burn Association has established a number of strategies for the management of burn patients and dedicates its efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention, often in collaboration with other organizations. The American Burn Association has recommended that patients with serious burns be referred to a designated burn center, ie, a hospital outfitted with specialized personnel and equipment dedicated to burn care. Burn centers have been operational for over 50 years, but the complexity and costs of providing specialized burn care have given rise to a number of critical administrative and political issues. These include logistical limitations imposed by the uneven national distribution of burn centers and a potential shortage of burn beds, both during everyday conditions and in the event of a mass disaster. Burn surgeon shortages have also been identified, stemming, in part, from a lack of specialized burn care training opportunities. There is currently a lack of quality outcome data to support evidence-based recommendations for burn care, and burn care centers are compromised by problems obtaining reimbursement for the care of uninsured and publicly insured out-of-state burn patients. Initiatives are underway to maintain efficient burn care facilities that are fully funded, easily accessible, and most importantly, provide optimal, evidence-based care on a daily basis, and are well-equipped to handle a surge of patients during a disaster situation.

  15. Pain in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  16. Nutrition of burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudaviciene, Daiva; Rimdeika, Rytis; Adamonis, Kestutis

    2004-01-01

    Burns form 5-12% of all traumas. About 2,200 of patients are annually hospitalized in Lithuania. In most cases people of the employable age get burned. The treatment is often long-lasting, and afterwards recovered patients often have invalidity from burn sequels. The mortality of hospitalized burned patients is about 10%. The most common causes of death are pulmonary edema, pneumonia, sepsis and multiorgan failure. All these complications are related with insufficient nutrition. These complications are extremely frequent and dangerous for patients with more than 20% of body burned. The nutritional support of burned patient gives a possibility to increase the survival probability, to decrease complication rate and hospitalization time. Currently in Lithuania there are no standards for burned patient nutrition. More attention is given to strategy of surgical strategy and techniques, as well as antibiotic therapy. This article is the review of the different aspects of artificial nutrition of burned patient: indications, modes of nutrition, mixtures and terms of nutritional support.

  17. 大型硫磺制酸废热回收设备的设计与布置%The design and layout of waste heat recovery equipment in large sulphur-burning sulphuric acid plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王渭清

    2012-01-01

    介绍了大型硫磺制酸废热回收系统选用的不同工艺流程、设备和蒸汽参数,详细分析了废热锅炉、过热器、省煤器等设备的选型、结构、参数、尺寸、材料,并对废热回收系统的设备、管道布置及防腐保温等方面提出了优化措施。%The processes, equipment and steam parameters of waste heat recovery system used in large-scale sulphur-burning sulphuric acid plants are described. A detail analysis of the structure, parameters, dimensions and materials of waste heat boiler, superheater and economizer is made and optimization measures of equipment and pipe layout, corrosion protection and insulation are proposed.

  18. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  19. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  20. [Chickenpox, burns and grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Zegers, J; Fidel Avendaño, L

    1979-01-01

    An outbreak of chickenpox that occurred at the Burns Repair Surgery Unit, Department of Children's Surgery, Hospital R. del Río, between June and November, 1975, is reported. 27 cases of burned children were studied, including analysis of correlations of the stages and outcome of the disease (varicela), the trauma (burns) and the graft (repair surgery). As a result, the authors emphasize the following findings: 1. Burns and their repair are not aggravating factors for varicella. In a small number of cases the exanthema looked more confluent in the graft surgical areas and in the first degree burns healing spontaneously. 2. Usually there was an uneventful outcome of graft repair surgery on a varicella patient, either during the incubation period, the acme or the convalescence. 3. The fact that the outmost intensity of secondary viremia of varicella occurs before the onset of exanthemia, that is, during the late incubation period, is confirmed.

  1. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  2. Influence of Biomass Burning on Temporal and Diurnal Variations of Acidic Gases, Particulate Nitrate, and Sulfate in a Tropical Urban Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Sailesh N. Behera; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the temporal and diurnal distributions of atmospheric acidic gases (sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitric acid (HNO3)) and those of particulate nitrate (NO3-) and sulfate (SO42-) through a comprehensive field campaign during the largest smoke haze episode in Singapore, a representative country in Southeast Asia (SEA). To identify the atmospheric behavior of these pollutants during the smoke haze period, the data generated from the measurement ca...

  3. Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans - A Quantitative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid an

  4. AMINO ACID SEQUENCE MOTIVE OF OSELTAMIVIR BINDING POCKET IN NEURAMINIDASE PROTEIN OF AVIAN INFLUENZA (H5N1 VIRUS FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Kade Mahardika

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Former finding that avian influenza (AI virus of H5N1 subtype from Indonesia shows reduced sensitivity against oseltamivir is critically reviewed trough molecular observation of the amino-acid sequence motive of neuraminidase protein (NA of all H5N1 virus from human and animal in Indonesia available in GeneBank. Amino acid sequence of oseltamivir binding pocket of NA protein on all Indonesian viruses is typical for sensitive virus with a concerved motive of H274, E276, R292 dan N294. Resistance issue could not be explained based on available data.

  5. Identification of animal fats via compound specific δ13C values of individual fatty acids: assessments of results for reference fats and lipid extracts of archaeological pottery vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Evershed

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining molecular information from lipid residues associated with archaeological pottery has dramatically increased the potential for deriving new information on the use of ancient vessels and the commodities processed therein. Motivated by the high proportion of the archaeological potsherds that have been shown to contain animal fats, a new approach invol- ving compound specific stable isotope analysis of remnant fats has been developed to retrieve infor- mation which will allow new insights into animal exploitation, dietary preferences and vessel use amongst prehistoric peoples. The new approach uses the δ13C values of the major saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS to characterise the origins of animal fat recovered from archaeological pottery.

  6. Corosolic Acid Exhibits Anti-angiogenic and Anti-lymphangiogenic Effects on In Vitro Endothelial Cells and on an In Vivo CT-26 Colon Carcinoma Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ki Hyun; Park, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Dae Young; Hwang-Bo, Jeon; Baek, Nam In; Chung, In Sik

    2015-05-01

    We describe the anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic effects of corosolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from Cornus kousa Burg. A mouse colon carcinoma CT-26 animal model was employed to determine the in vivo anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic effects of corosolic acid. Corosolic acid induced apoptosis in CT-26 cells, mediated by the activation of caspase-3. In addition, it reduced the final tumor volume and the blood and lymphatic vessel densities of tumors, indicating that it suppresses in vivo angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Corosolic acid inhibited the proliferation and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, corosolic acid decreased the proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated by angiopoietin-1. Pretreatment with corosolic acid decreased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK1/2, suggesting that corosolic acid contains anti-angiogenic activity that can suppress FAK signaling induced by angiopoietin-1.

  7. Prescribed burning plan : Stillwater NWR : de Braga Burn Unit 67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1991 Annual Prescribed Burning Plan for Stillwater NWR calls for all 67 acres of the de Braga burn unit to be burned. The objective of this burn is to remove...

  8. Effects of Oxidizer Particle Size on Composite Solid Propellant Burning: Normal Burning, Plateau Burning and Intermediate Pressure Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-10-01

    butadiene Acrylic Acid Propellants 14 10 807 AP + 20% PBAA Data Plotted as (p/r) vs (p2/3) 14 11 DB and CMDB Propellant Data Plotted as (p/r) vs (p2/3...1.2% stabilizer causes a striking differ- ) ence in its burning behavior. This composite-modified double-base ( CMDB ) pro- pellant burns like a normal...dominated by a granular diffusion flame mechanism. It is to be noted that since the binder in a CMDB propellant is itself a monopropellant, there is no

  9. Effects of the acceleration vector on transient burning rate of an aluminized solid propellant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. B.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental results concerning the transient burning-rate augmentation of a 16% aluminum polybutadiene acrylic acid (PBAA) propellant burned in a 2-in. web motor at pressure levels from 300 to 1200 psia with centrifugal accelerations from 0 to 140 g. The orientation of the acceleration vector was varied to determine its effect on the transient burning rate. The burning-rate augmentation was strongly dependent on (1) acceleration level, (2) propellant distance burned (or burn time), and (3) orientation of the acceleration vector with respect to the burning surface. This transient rate augmentation resulted from the retention of molten metallic residue on the burning surface by the normal acceleration loading. The presence of the residue altered the combustion zone heat transfer and caused increased localized burning rates, as evidenced by the pitted propellant surfaces that were observed from extinction tests conducted at various acceleration levels.

  10. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  11. Management of burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Trop, Marija; Neuhaus, Kathrin

    2013-10-01

    Small and moderate scalds in toddlers are still the most frequent thermal injuries the pediatric surgeons have to face today. Over the last years, surgical treatment of these patients has changed in many aspects. Due to new dressing materials and new surgical treatment strategies that are particularly suitable for children, today, far better functional and aesthetic long-term results are possible. While small and moderate thermal injuries can be treated in most European pediatric surgical departments, the severely burned child must be transferred to a specialized, ideally pediatric, burn center, where a well-trained multidisciplinary team under the leadership of a (ideally pediatric) burn surgeon cares for these highly demanding patients. In future, tissue engineered full thickness skin analogues will most likely play an important role, in pediatric burn as well as postburn reconstructive surgery.

  12. Burn Wise Awareness Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and safety outreach materials in the form of an awareness kit. Designed specifically for state, local, and tribal air agencies working to reduce wood smoke pollution, it includes best burn tips, social media m

  13. Molten Metal Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Arthur M.; McCrady-Kahn, Virginia L.

    1981-01-01

    Molten metal burns are a frequent industrial injury among workers in foundries. The injury is typically small but very deep. Usually the depth and seriousness of these injuries is not recognized immediately by emergency department or industrial clinic physicians.

  14. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  15. Brain Activity of Thioctic Acid Enantiomers: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies in an Animal Model of Cerebrovascular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Khosrow Tayebati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defense mechanisms, potentially leading to tissue damage. Oxidative stress has a key role in the development of cerebrovascular and/or neurodegenerative diseases. This phenomenon is mainly mediated by an enhanced superoxide production by the vascular endothelium with its consequent dysfunction. Thioctic, also known as alpha-lipoic acid (1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid, is a naturally occurring antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the fatty and watery regions of cells. Both the reduced and oxidized forms of the compound possess antioxidant ability. Thioctic acid has two optical isomers designated as (+- and (−-thioctic acid. Naturally occurring thioctic acid is the (+-thioctic acid form, but the synthetic compound largely used in the market for stability reasons is a mixture of (+- and (−-thioctic acid. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidant activity of the two enantiomers versus the racemic form of thioctic acid on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in a rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and free oxygen radical species (ROS production was assessed by flow cytometry. Antioxidant activity of the two enantiomers and the racemic form of thioctic acid was also evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR used as an in vivo model of increased oxidative stress. A 3-h exposure of PC12 cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 significantly decreased cell viability and increased levels of intracellular ROS production. Pre-treatment with racemic thioctic acid or (+-enantiomer significantly inhibited H2O2-induced decrease in cell viability from the concentration of 50 μmol/L and 20 μmol/L, respectively. Racemic thioctic acid and (+-salt decreased levels of intracellular ROS, which were unaffected by (−-thioctic acid. In the brain of

  16. Accidental burns during surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Erhan; O'Dey, Dan Mon; Pallua, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to increase awareness of intraoperative burns during standard procedures, to discuss their possible causes and warning signs and to provide recommendations for prevention and procedures to follow after their occurrence. A total of 19 patients associated with intraoperative burn accidents were treated surgically and analyzed after a mean follow-up of 5 +/- 3.5 months. Review included retrospective patient chart analysis, clinical examination, and technical device and equipment testing. A total of 15 patients recently underwent cardiac surgery, and 4 pediatric patients recovered after standard surgical procedures. A total of 15 patients had superficial and 4 presented with deep dermal or full-thickness burns. The average injured TBSA was 2.1 +/- 1% (range, 0.5-4%). Delay between primary surgery and consultation of plastic surgeons was 4.5 +/- 3.4 days. A total of 44% required surgery, including débridment, skin grafting or musculocutaneous gluteus maximus flaps, and the remaining patients were treated conservatively. Successful durable soft-tissue coverage of the burn region was achieved in 18 patients, and 1 patient died after a course of pneumonia. Technical analysis demonstrated one malfunctioning electrosurgical device, one incorrect positioned neutral electrode, three incidents occurred after moisture under the negative electrode, eight burns occurred during surgery while fluid or blood created alternate current pathways, five accidents were chemical burns after skin preparation with Betadine solution, and in one case, the cause was not clear. The surgical team should pay more attention to the probability of burns during surgery. Early patient examination and immediate involvement of plastic and burn surgeons may prevent further complications or ease handling after the occurrence.

  17. Smartphone applications in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. THE EFFECT OF CUCUMBER ( ) EXTRACT ON ACID INDUCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    ... of corneal acid burn. Cucumber extract, corneal acid burn, guinea pigs, alpha hydroxyl acids, beta hydroxyl ..... cholesterol arteriosclerosis in rabbits. Circulation.12:696 ... production in human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Dermatol. Surg.

  19. Burns Caused by Medical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    fear of litigation, patients with such injuries, even if the injuries are minor, arc often referred to a burn center for care. Burn injury...the potential burn hazards found elsewhere in the hospital. Even fewer studies have addressed the burn risks posed by medical therapy administered...35. Mills GH, Ralph S). Bums due to pulse oximetry [ letter ]. Anaesthesia 1992j47:276·7. 36. Shdlock: FG, Kana! E. Burns associated with the use of

  20. Acid-sensing ion channel 1 is involved in both axonal injury and demyelination in multiple sclerosis and its animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergo, Sandra; Craner, Matthew J; Etzensperger, Ruth; Attfield, Kathrine; Friese, Manuel A; Newcombe, Jia; Esiri, Margaret; Fugger, Lars

    2011-02-01

    Although there is growing evidence for a role of excess intracellular cations, particularly calcium ions, in neuronal and glial cell injury in multiple sclerosis, as well as in non-inflammatory neurological conditions, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully determined. We previously showed that the acid-sensing ion channel 1 which, when activated under the acidotic tissue conditions found in inflammatory lesions opens to allow influx of sodium and calcium ions, contributes to axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, the extent and cellular distribution of acid-sensing ion channel 1 expression in neurons and glia in inflammatory lesions is unknown and, crucially, acid-sensing ion channel 1 expression has not been determined in multiple sclerosis lesions. Here we studied acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis spinal cord and optic nerve tissues to describe in detail the distribution of acid-sensing ion channel 1 and its relationship with neuronal and glial damage. We also tested the effects of amiloride treatment on tissue damage in the mouse models. We found that acid-sensing ion channel 1 was upregulated in axons and oligodendrocytes within lesions from mice with acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and from patients with active multiple sclerosis. The expression of acid-sensing ion channel 1 was associated with axonal damage as indicated by co-localization with the axonal injury marker beta amyloid precursor protein. Moreover, blocking acid-sensing ion channel 1 with amiloride protected both myelin and neurons from damage in the acute model, and when given either at disease onset or, more clinically relevant, at first relapse, ameliorated disability in mice with chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Together these findings suggest that blockade of acid-sensing ion channel 1 has the potential to provide both neuro

  1. PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA): INVESTIGATION FOR POSSIBLE ENDOCRINE EFFECTS IN FACTORY WORKERS AND CORRELATION WITH RESULTS FROM ANIMAL STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation summarizes a quantitative risk assessment procedure that was performed in West Virginia in response to a Court Order. Briefly, two putative endocrine effects had been observed in factory workers and even though a large number of animal studies which had already ...

  2. The use of formaldehyde protected palm kernel meal and its effects on animal performance, nitrogen utilization and unsaturated fatty acid composition in Priangan sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G Wiryawan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of formaldehyde-treated Palm Kernel Cake (BIS in male Priangan sheep diet and its effect on animal performance, N utilization, and unsaturated fatty acids composition of musculus longisimus dorsal. The experiment was designed based on completly randomized design with four treatments and nine replications. The treatments consisted of four levels of formaldehyde treated BIS: R1 (0%, R2 (15%, R3 (30% and R4 (45%. Results indicated that formaldehyde treated BIS up to 45% in diet did not negatively affect consumption, dry matter digestibility and daily live weight gain. Formaldehyde protection especially in R4 could significantly reduce ruminal N-NH3 concentration, increased protein digestibility and nitrogen retention, but did not influence allantoin urine concentration. Unsaturated fatty acid composition of musculus longisimus dorsal was not affected by formaldehyde treated BIS in diet. It is concluded that the inclusion of 45% formaldehyde treated BIS in diet did not negatively affect animal performance, and R4 is the most effective in improving nitrogen utilization in male Priangan sheep, but unable to alter the unsaturated fatty acids composition of musculus longisimus dorsal.

  3. Experimental stem cell therapies on burn wound: do source, dose, timing and method matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sinan; Karagoz, Huseyin

    2015-09-01

    Stem cell therapy has been introduced as a new and promising modality of wound covering in recent decade. It has been used for improvement of burn wound, post burn scar and saving stasis zone of burn with good results. However, there have been some differences between the various experimental burn wound trials in stem cell source, therapeutic dose, delivery method and timing of stem cell delivery. In our study, we aimed to review stem cell biology and investigate discrepancies in animal trials of use of stem cells in burn wound account for the variation in, stem cell source, therapeutic dose, delivery method and timing of stem cell delivery.

  4. Changes in milk fatty acid profile and animal performance in response to fish oil supplementation, alone or in combination with sunflower oil, in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G; Gómez-Cortés, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2010-04-01

    Ruminant diet supplementation with sunflower oil (SO) and fish oil (FO) has been reported as a good strategy for enhancing some milk fat compounds such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dairy cows, but no information is available regarding dairy sheep. In this work, ewe diet was supplemented with FO, alone or in combination with SO, with the aim of improving milk nutritional value and evaluating its effect on animal performance. Sixty-four Assaf ewes in mid lactation, fed a high-concentrate diet, were distributed in 8 lots of 8 animals each and assigned to 4 treatments (2 lots/treatment): no lipid supplementation (control) or supplementation with 20 g of SO/kg (SO), 10 g of FO/kg (FO), or 20 g of SO plus 10 g of FO/kg (SOFO). Milk production and composition, including a complete fatty acid profile, were analyzed on d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of treatments. Supplementation with FO tended to reduce dry matter intake compared with the control treatment (-15%), and its use in combination with SO (SOFO) resulted in a significant decrease in milk yield as well (-13%). All lipid supplements reduced milk protein content, and FO also reduced milk fat content by up to 21% alone (FO) and 27% in combination with SO (SOFO). Although the mechanisms involved in FO-induced milk fat depression are not yet well established, the observed increase in some milk trans-FA that are putative inhibitors of milk fat synthesis, such as trans-9,cis-11 CLA, and the 63% decrease in C18:0 (consistent with the theory of reduced milk fat fluidity) may be involved. When compared with the control, lipid supplementation remarkably improved the milk content of rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA; up to 4-fold increases with SO and SOFO diets), whereas FO-containing diets also increased milk n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (with mean contents of 0.29 and 0.38% of total fatty acids for SOFO and FO, respectively), and reduced the n-6:n-3 FA

  5. Treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid, is associated with increased platelet activation in a large animal model of traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekker, Simone E; Sillesen, Martin; Bambakidis, Ted

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in a large animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) decreases the size of the brain lesion, and that addition of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), provides...... synergistic benefits. In this study, we hypothesized that VPA administration would be associated with a conservation of platelet function as measured by increased platelet activation after resuscitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten swine (42-50 kg) were subjected to TBI and HS (40% blood loss). Animals were...... left in shock for 2 h before resuscitation with either FFP or FFP + VPA (300 mg/kg). Serum levels of platelet activation markers transforming growth factor beta, CD40 L, P-selectin, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) 1 were measured at baseline, postresuscitation, and after a 6-h...

  6. [Evidence for emergency treatment of chemical eye burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Jonas Vejvad Nørskov; Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the existing evidence on emergency treatment of chemical eye burns. Clinical studies show that patients receiving prompt eye irrigation after chemical burns had a significantly better clinical outcome. This is further collaborated in animal studies where prompt irrigation with diphoterine or borate buffer significantly lowered pH in the eye after alkali burns. Two of three studies showed that tap water significantly lowered pH as well, but only if it was administered within 60 seconds after exposure. Saline, however, did not cause any significant decrease in pH at all.

  7. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  8. Regulation of ascorbic acid and of xylulose synthesis in liver extracts. The effect of starvation in various animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirpe, F.; Comporti, M.; Della Corte, E.

    1965-01-01

    1. The effect of starvation on the synthesis of ascorbic acid and of xylulose from glucuronolactone and from gulonate has been studied with liver extracts from cats, rabbits, hamsters, mice and guinea pigs. 2. The synthesis of ascorbic acid from glucuronolactone is decreased in all species except cats, and that from gulonate is decreased in hamsters and mice only. 3. The synthesis of xylulose from glucuronolactone was decreased in all species except cats and mice, whereas from gulonate it was enhanced in all the species examined. PMID:14340085

  9. Bacteriological profile of burn patients at Yekatit 12 Hospital Burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    injuries, creating a formidable public health problem. (3). Despite major ... change with time. Thus, to have an in-depth knowledge .... Table 4: Antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from burn wound at Yekatit 12 hospital burn center.

  10. Development and Implementation of a Simple, Engaging Acid Rain Neutralization Experiment and Corresponding Animated Instructional Video for Introductory Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Danielle; Yennie, Craig J.; Lynch, Patrick; Lowry, Gregory; Budarz, James; Zhu, Wenlei; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an acid rain neutralization laboratory experiment and its corresponding instructional video. This experiment has been developed and implemented for use in the teaching laboratory of a large introductory chemistry course at Brown University. It provides a contextually relevant example to introduce beginner-level students with…

  11. Combined Injury Modeling: Radiation and Burn Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    when radiation exposure is combined with burn. For instance, in the Chernobyl accident, hepatic encephalopathy was a major cause of death in patients...for radiation injury that block apoptosis and have demonstrated increased survival in animal models (Whitnall and Pellmar 2007). Cell loss also... Animal studies are needed to resolve this information gap. However, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval for these types

  12. Forensic diagnosis of ante- and postmortem burn based on aquaporin-3 gene expression in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hidemichi; Hayashi, Takahito; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Kanekura, Takuro; Ogata, Mamoru

    2014-05-01

    In order to diagnose death associated with fire, it is essential to show that the person was exposed to heat while still alive. We investigated both AQP1 and AQP3 expression in the skin of an experimental burn model, as well as in forensic autopsy cases, and discuss its role in the differential diagnosis of ante- and postmortem burns. In animal experiments, there was no difference in AQP1 gene expression among four groups (n=4): antemortem burn, postmortem burn, mechanical wound, and control. However, AQP3 expression in the antemortem burn was increased significantly compared with that of the other groups even at 5min after burn. Water content of the skin was decreased significantly by the burn procedure. Consistent with animal experiments, AQP3 gene expression in the skin of antemortem burn cases was increased significantly compared with postmortem burns, mechanical wounds, and controls (n=12 in each group). These observations suggest that dermal AQP3 gene expression was increased to maintain water homeostasis in response to dehydration from burn. Finally, our results suggest that AQP3 gene expression may be useful for forensic molecular diagnosis of antemortem burn.

  13. Burn wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers weight loss in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Grace

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite dramatic improvements in the management of burns, infection still remains a serious risk for the burn patient. The aim of this study was to shed light on the impact of acute burn injury with or without infection on cytokine profiles. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 21 were randomized into three groups: 1 burn only 2 burn and infection or 3 sham burn. Weight was monitored and blood was collected for cytokine ELISA, LPS quantification, and peripheral blood analysis. Animals were sacrificed either after 6 or 12 days. Results Infected animals showed substantial weight loss until day 6 post-burn as compared to burn alone. Endotoxin and TNF-α levels were elevated early in the infected burn group within 48 hours post-burn. In contrast, significant up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 occurred later in the clinical course and was associated with the recovery from weight loss. Conclusion Our results suggest that in the presence of infection, you get a SIRS response possibly due to transient endotoxemia that is only seen in the infection group. In contrast, both burn and infection get a late IL-10 (CARS response, which is then associated with a return to normal weight in the infection group.

  14. A pliable electroporation patch (ep-Patch) for efficient delivery of nucleic acid molecules into animal tissues with irregular surface shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zewen; Huang, Yuanyu; Zhao, Deyao; Hu, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhihong; Liang, Zicai

    2015-01-05

    Delivery of nucleic acids into animal tissues by electroporation is an appealing approach for various types of gene therapy, but efficiency of existing methodsis not satisfactory. Here we present the validation of novel electroporation patch (ep-Patch) for efficient delivery of DNA and siRNA into mouse tissues. Using micromachining technology, closely spaced gold electrodes were made on the pliable parylene substrate to form a patch-like electroporation metrics. It enabled large coverage of the target tissues and close surface contact between the tissues and electrodes, thus providing a uniform electric field to deliver nucleic acids into tissues, even beneath intact skin. Using this ep-Patch for efficiently delivery of both DNA and siRNA, non-invasive electroporation of healthy mouse muscle tissue was successfully achieved. Delivery of these nucleic acids was performed to intact tumors with satisfactory results. Silencing of tumor genes using the ep-Patch was also demonstrated on mice. This pliable electroporation patch method constitutes a novel way of in vivo delivery of siRNA and DNA to certain tissues or organs to circumvent the disadvantages of existing methodologies for in vivo delivery of nucleic acid molecules.

  15. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  16. Back Bay Wilderness burning support

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  17. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery community and creating resources for survivors. Since 1977, we have partnered with survivors, families, health care professionals, burn centers, and the fire ...

  18. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-01-01

    .... We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond...

  19. The year in burns 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E

    2009-12-01

    For 2008, approximately 1200 original burn research articles were published in scientific journals using the English language. This article reviews those with the most impact on burn treatment according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns). As in the previous year's review, articles were divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology, wound characterisation, critical care physiology, inhalation injury, infection, metabolism and nutrition, psychological considerations, pain management, rehabilitation, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  20. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  1. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000059.htm Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ...

  2. PLASTIC SURGERY AND BURNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Objective Endotoxin as the inciting agentof cytokines and other mediators, whose highlevel expression correlates with the septicshock and MOF, has been the one of leadingcauses of death in ICU. Methods For treatingsepsis and MOF caused by endotoxin, the anti-lipid A of LPS antibody was used. 19 burned

  3. Development of an LC-MS/MS analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of aldehydes from polyunsaturated fatty acids degradation in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douny, Caroline; Bayram, Pinar; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2016-05-01

    Knowing that polyunsaturated fatty acids can lead to the formation of potentially toxic aldehydes as secondary oxidation products, an analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed to measure the concentration of eight aldehydes in animal feed: malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), crotonaldehyde (CRT), benzaldehyde (BNZ), hexanal (HXL), 2,4-nonadienal, and 2,4-decadienal. The developed method was validated according to the criteria and procedure described in international standards. The evaluated parameters were specificity/selectivity, recovery, precision, accuracy, uncertainty, limits of detection and quantification, using the concept of accuracy profiles. These parameters were determined during experiments conducted over three different days with ground Kellogg's® Corn Flakes® cereals as model matrix for animal feed and spiked at different levels of concentration. Malondialdehyde, 4-HHE, 4-HNE, crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and hexanal can be analyzed in the same run in animal feed with a very good accuracy, with recovery rates ranging from 86 to 109% for a working range going from 0.16 to 12.50 mg/kg. The analysis of 2,4-nonadienal and 2,4-decadienal can also be performed but in a limited range of concentration and with a limited degree of accuracy. Their recovery rates ranged between 54 and 114% and coefficient of variation for the intermediate precision between 11 and 25% for these two compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Changes in Renal Function and Oxidative Status Associated with the Hypotensive Effects of Oleanolic Acid and Related Synthetic Derivatives in Experimental Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlengiwe Pretty Madlala

    Full Text Available The triterpene oleanolic acid (OA is known to possess antihypertensive actions. In the present study we to compared the effects of the triterpene on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and kidney function following acute administration in normotensive animals with those of its related oleanane synthetic derivatives (brominated oleanolic acid, Br-OA and oleanolic acid methyl ester, Me-OA. We also used experimental models of hypertension to further explore the effects of sub-chronic oral OA treatment and evaluated influences on oxidative status.OA was extracted from dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum using a previously validated protocol in our laboratory. Me-OA and Br-OA were synthesized according to a method described. Rats were supplemented with lithium chloride (12 mmol L-1 prior to experimentation in order to raise plasma lithium to allow measurements of lithium clearance and fractional excretion (FELi as indices of proximal tubular Na+ handling. Anaesthetized animals were continuously infused via the right jugular with 0.077M NaCl. MAP was measured via a cannula inserted in the carotid artery, and urine was collected through a cannula inserted in the bladder. After a 3.5 h equilibration, MAP, urine flow, electrolyte excretion rates were determined for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. OA, Me-OA and Br-OA were added to the infusate during the treatment period. We evaluated sub-chronic effects on MAP and kidney function in normotensive Wistar rats and in two animal models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS rats, during 9-week administration of OA (p.o.. Tissue oxidative status was examined in these animals at the end of the study. Increasing evidence suggests that and renal function disturbances and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension.Acute infusion OA and oleanane derivatives displayed qualitatively similar effects in decreasing

  5. Changes in Renal Function and Oxidative Status Associated with the Hypotensive Effects of Oleanolic Acid and Related Synthetic Derivatives in Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlala, Hlengiwe Pretty; Van Heerden, Fanie Retief; Mubagwa, Kanigula; Musabayane, Cephas Tagumirwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The triterpene oleanolic acid (OA) is known to possess antihypertensive actions. In the present study we to compared the effects of the triterpene on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and kidney function following acute administration in normotensive animals with those of its related oleanane synthetic derivatives (brominated oleanolic acid, Br-OA and oleanolic acid methyl ester, Me-OA). We also used experimental models of hypertension to further explore the effects of sub-chronic oral OA treatment and evaluated influences on oxidative status. Methods OA was extracted from dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum using a previously validated protocol in our laboratory. Me-OA and Br-OA were synthesized according to a method described. Rats were supplemented with lithium chloride (12 mmol L-1) prior to experimentation in order to raise plasma lithium to allow measurements of lithium clearance and fractional excretion (FELi) as indices of proximal tubular Na+ handling. Anaesthetized animals were continuously infused via the right jugular with 0.077M NaCl. MAP was measured via a cannula inserted in the carotid artery, and urine was collected through a cannula inserted in the bladder. After a 3.5 h equilibration, MAP, urine flow, electrolyte excretion rates were determined for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. OA, Me-OA and Br-OA were added to the infusate during the treatment period. We evaluated sub-chronic effects on MAP and kidney function in normotensive Wistar rats and in two animal models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats, during 9-week administration of OA (p.o.). Tissue oxidative status was examined in these animals at the end of the study. Increasing evidence suggests that and renal function disturbances and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Results Acute infusion OA and oleanane derivatives displayed qualitatively similar effects

  6. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Jackson's. 3-dimensional burn wound model describes 3 zones: • a central zone ... the burn.7 Care must be taken not to induce hypothermia in larger burns – especially in .... Fluid therapy thereafter consists of 2 components ...

  7. Burn epidemiology and cost of medication in paediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha; Sağlam, Zeynep

    2012-09-01

    Burns are common injuries that cause problems to societies throughout the world. In order to reduce the cost of burn treatment in children, it is extremely important to determine the burn epidemiology and the cost of medicines used in burn treatment. The present study used a retrospective design, with data collected from medical records of 140 paediatric patients admitted to a burn centre between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. Medical records were examined to determine burn epidemiology, medication administered, dosage, and duration of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was completed for all variables; chi-square was used to examine the relationship between certain variables. It was found that 62.7% of paediatric burns occur in the kitchen, with 70.7% involving boiling water; 55.7% of cases resulted in third-degree burns, 19.3% required grafting, and mean duration of hospital stay was 27.5 ± 1.2 days. Medication costs varied between $1.38 US dollars (USD) and $14,159.09, total drug cost was $46,148.03 and average cost per patient was $329.63. In this study, the medication cost for burn patients was found to be relatively high, with antibiotics comprising the vast majority of medication expenditure. Most paediatric burns are preventable, so it is vital to educate families about potential household hazards that can be addressed to reduce the risk of a burn. Programmes are also recommended to reduce costs and the inappropriate prescribing of medication.

  8. [Determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal and aquatic products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hailuan; Wu, Congming; Cheng, Linli; Zhang, Suxia; Shen, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was established for the determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) in animal tissues and aquatic products. The analyte was extracted with 0.2 mol/L hydrochloric acid. The extract was cleaned up on a Bond Elut C18 cartridge. Then the eluate was collected and evaporated to dryness under nitrogen gas at 35 degrees C. The residue was redissolved in acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. The identification was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionization. The quantification was done by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity within the range of 2-500 microg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.990. The limits of detection (LODs) of MQCA in pork, swine liver, pig kidney, fish, prawn, and crab were 0.90, 1.51, 0.94, 1.04, 1.62 and 1.80 microg/kg, respectively; and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 3.00, 5.02, 3.13, 3.46, 5.40 and 6.00 microg/kg, correspondingly. The recoveries of MQCA in animal tissues and aquatic products were 73.6%-89.0% at the spiked levels of 3-100 microg/kg. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) were less than 15%, and inter-day RSDs (n = 3) were less than 20%. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity, accuracy, and precision were fit for the requirements of veterinary drug residue analysis.

  9. The effects of doxycycline administration on amino acid neurotransmitters in an animal model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzie, Lauren L; Rauw, Gail A; Todd, Kathryn G

    2006-12-01

    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major contributor to many neurological, psychiatric and behavioral disorders. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a one-time dose of doxycycline (DOXY), even when given 3h after HI insult, was neuroprotective and significantly reduced microglial activation and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression in the immature brain. In light of these data, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of DOXY administration on amino acid neurotransmitters. Post-natal-day 7 rats received DOXY (10mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) concomitant with the onset of HI, and were euthanized 30 min, 1, 2 or 4h post-HI (n>or=6). Extracted brains were either immediately dissected for frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampal regions, or removed in their entirety and flash frozen in isopentane for histological analyses. Dissected regions were homogenized and aliquots were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of amino acid levels and brain levels of DOXY. HPLC extraction revealed that systemic administration of DOXY resulted in mean drug levels of 867.1+/-376.1 ng/g of brain tissue. Histological analyses revealed microglial activation, caspase-3 activation and neuronal degeneration consistent with a mild injury in the regions most vulnerable to HI. We found that HI caused significant, time-dependent, regional changes in brain amino acids including glutamate, GABA, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, serine, glutamine, glycine and taurine. HI significantly increased glutamate levels in the hippocampus (HI+VEH=15.8+/-3.1 ng/microg versus control=11.8+/-1.4 ng/microg protein) 4h post-HI (pDOXY had lower glutamate levels (13.1+/-2.4 ng/microg) when compared to VEH-treated pups (15.8+/-3.1 ng/microg), however these values failed to reach significance. In addition, DOXY-treated pups had significantly lower alanine (HI+VEH=1.1+/-0.2 ng/microg versus HI+DOXY=0.5+0.1 ng/microg) and serine (HI+VEH=1.4+/-0.4 ng/microg versus HI

  10. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications.

  11. The year in burns 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2012-12-01

    For 2011, approximately 1746 original research articles in burns were published in English in scientific journals. This article reviews those with the most potential impact on for burn therapeutics and outcomes according to the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and his colleague. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterisation, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with editorial comment.

  12. Emissions from Biomass Burning in the Yucatan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, R.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Karl, T.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Campos, T.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; Weinheimer, A.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Holloway, J.; Weibring, P.; Flocke, F.; Zheng, W.; Toohey, D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Mauldin, L.; Fried, A.; Richter, D.; Walega, J.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicaters of BB (HCN and acetonitrile) and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on the peninsula.

  13. Silica Derived from Burned Rice Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. de Souza

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new processes to obtain silica having high specific surface area from burned pre-treated rice hulls are presented and discussed. These procedures allow for the simultaneous recovery of biomass energy and the production of high quality silica at thermoelectric plants, without the risk of using corrosive substances in the burning process. The first method involves treatment of the hull with hot organic acid solutions before burning, the second with boiling water, both using an autoclave at temperatures close to150 °C, while the third method renders the hull fragile by treating it at 250 °C and reducing it to a fine powder before burning. The first two methods result in white amorphous silica that can show 500 m²/g of specific surface area. The third method, which does not remove the alkaline elements from the hull, produces an amorphous gray carbon-free powder whose specific surface area can be as high as 250 m²/g. An investigation of the specific surface area of the prepared silica indicates the alkaline elements are not mixed with silica in the hulls or combined as insoluble compounds. A comparison is made of these processes and the dissolution of silica by sodium hydroxide solutions is discussed.

  14. Factors associated with chemical burns in Zhejiang province, China: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Rui M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related burns are common among occupational injuries. Zhejiang Province is an industrial area with a high incidence of chemical burns. We aimed to survey epidemiological features of chemical burns in Zhejiang province to determine associated factors and acquire data for developing a strategy to prevent and treat chemical burns. Methods Questionnaires were developed, reviewed and validated by experts, and sent to 25 hospitals in Zhejiang province to prospectively collect data of 492 chemical burn patients admitted during one year from Sept. 1, 2008 to Aug. 31, 2009. Questions included victims' characteristics and general condition, injury location, causes of accident, causative chemicals, total body surface area burn, concomitant injuries, employee safety training, and awareness level of protective measures. Surveys were completed for each of burn patients by burn department personnel who interviewed the hospitalized patients. Results In this study, 417 victims (87.61% got chemical burn at work, of which 355 victims (74.58% worked in private or individual enterprises. Most frequent chemicals involved were hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Main causes of chemical injury accidents were inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals and absence of or failure to use effective individual protection. Conclusions Most chemical burns are preventable occupational injuries that can be attributed to inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals, lack of employee awareness about appropriate action and lack of effective protective equipment and training. Emphasis on safety education and protection for workers may help protect workers and prevent chemical burns.

  15. Ameliorative property of Teucrium polium on second degree burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Roya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditionally, burn wound healing activities have been claimed for Teucrium polium. Teucrium polium possesses antioxidant and inflammatory activities and seems to ameliorate burn wound healing. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Teucrium polium on burn healing in Balb/C mice. Materials and Methods: In this preclinical experimental study 56 mice were randomly designated into 4 equal groups. Burn wounds were made using a hot plate with a surface area of 1.5 cm2. Animals were treated with Teucrium 2%, Silver sulfadiazine or Vaseline 2 times per day for 21 days. The forth group received no treatment. Results: The percentage of burn wounds healing and total time required for complete healing were evaluated and compared in different groups. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Conclusion: Teucrium extract accelerated the burn wound healing more rapidly than control groups (p<0.01. Teucrium polium is effective on burn wounds healing and might be beneficial in these groups of patients.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Vertellus Specialties Belgium BV

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Niacin is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. ...

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Vertellus Specialties Belgium BV

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Niacin is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. ...

  18. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | Register Home Our Sponsors Ages & Stages Ages & ... it. If you live in a high-rise building, teach your children the locations of all exits ...

  19. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  20. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  1. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X; Brogaard, Nicholas L; Rigét, Frank F; Kristensen, Paneeraq; Jomaas, Grunde; Boertmann, David M; Wegeberg, Susse; Gustavson, Kim

    2016-08-15

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified. To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil.

  2. Assessing burn depth in tattooed burn lesions with LASCA Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, N; Limbourg, A; Paprottka, F J; Könneker; Ipaktchi, R; Vogt, P M

    2016-09-30

    Tattoos are on the rise, and so are patients with tattooed burn lesions. A proper assessment with regard to burn depth is often impeded by the tattoo dye. Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) is a technique that evaluates burn lesions via relative perfusion analysis. We assessed the effect of tattoo skin pigmentation on LASCA perfusion imaging in a multicolour tattooed patient. Depth of burn lesions in multi-coloured tattooed and untattooed skin was assessed using LASCA. Relative perfusion was measured in perfusion units (PU) and compared to various pigment colours, then correlated with the clinical evaluation of the lesion. Superficial partial thickness burn (SPTB) lesions showed significantly elevated perfusion units (PU) compared to normal skin; deep partial thickness burns showed decreased PU levels. PU of various tattoo pigments to normal skin showed either significantly lower values (blue, red, pink) or significantly increased values (black) whereas orange and yellow pigment showed values comparable to normal skin. In SPTB, black and blue pigment showed reduced perfusion; yellow pigment was similar to normal SPTB burn. Deep partial thickness burn (DPTB) lesions in tattoos did not show significant differences to normal DPTB lesions for black, green and red. Tattoo pigments alter the results of perfusion patterns assessed with LASCA both in normal and burned skin. Yellow pigments do not seem to interfere with LASCA assessment. However proper determination of burn depth both in SPTB and DPTB by LASCA is limited by the heterogenic alterations of the various pigment colours.

  3. [Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms.

  4. Comparative study on fatty acid metabolism of early stages of two crustacean species: Artemia sp. metanauplii and Grapsus adscensionis zoeae, as live prey for marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Navarro, Juan C; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2017-02-01

    The present study compared the lipid composition and in vivo capability of Artemia sp. metanauplii (the main live prey used in aquaculture) and Grapsus adscensionis zoeae (as a wild zooplankton model) to metabolise unsaturated fatty acids. The two species were incubated in vivo with 0.3μM of individual [1-(14)C]fatty acids (FA) including 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:4n-6 (ARA), 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) bound to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared to metanauplii, zoeae contained twice the content of polar lipids (PL) and eight-fold the content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Artemia sp. metanauplii showed increased short chain fatty acid de novo synthesis from beta-oxidation of [1-(14)C]LC-PUFA, preferentially DHA. Of the LC-PUFA, DHA showed the highest esterification rate into Artemia sp. triacylglycerols. In contrast, in Grapsus zoeae [1-(14)C]DHA displayed the highest transformation rate into longer chain-length FAs and was preferentially esterified into PL. EPA and ARA, tended to be more easily incorporated and/or retained than DHA in Artemia sp. Moreover, both EPA and ARA were preferentially esterified into Artemia PL, which theoretically would favour their bioavailability to the larvae. In addition to the inherent better nutritional value of Grapsus zoeae due to their intrinsic lipid composition, the changes taking place after the lipid incorporation, point at two distinct models of lipid metabolism that indicate zoeae as a more suitable prey than Artemia sp. for the feeding of marine animals.

  5. Smoke from wildfires and prescribed burning in Australia: effects on human health and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tina Bell; Mark Adams

    2009-01-01

    Much of Australia is seasonally hot and dry, and fuel beds can become very flammable. Biomass burning ranges from annual savanna fires in the north to sporadic but extensive forest fires in the south. In addition, prescribed burning (the controlled application of fire) is being used more frequently as a means of reducing fuel loads, for maintenance of plant and animal...

  6. Hyper-connectivity and hyper-plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex in the valproic acid animal model of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rinaldi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex has been extensively implicated in autism to explain deficits in executive and other higher-order functions related to cognition, language, sociability and emotion. The possible changes at the level of the neuronal microcircuit are however not known. We studied microcircuit alterations in the prefrontal cortex in the valproic acid rat model of autism and found that the layer 5 pyramidal neurons are connected to significantly more neighbouring neurons than in controls. These excitatory connections are more plastic displaying enhanced long-term potentiation of the strength of synapses. The microcircuit alterations found in the prefrontal cortex are therefore similar to the alterations previously found in the somatosensory cortex. Hyper-connectivity and hyper-plasticity in the prefrontal cortex implies hyper-functionality of one of the highest order processing regions in the brain, and stands in contrast to the hypo-functionality that is normally proposed in this region to explain some of the autistic symptoms. We propose that a number of deficits in autism such as sociability, attention, multi-tasking and repetitive behaviours, should be re-interpreted in the light of a hyper-functional prefrontal cortex.

  7. Assessment of the effectiveness of silver-coated dressing, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%), citric acid (3%), and silver sulfadiazine (1%) for topical antibacterial effects against the multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting full-skin thickness burn wounds on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Basaran, Ozgur; Aydogan, Cem; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Karakayali, Feza; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different topical antimicrobial dressings on a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated full-thickness burn wound rat model. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. The control group (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (1%) group 2, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) group 3, citric acid (3%) group 4, and silver-coated dressing group 5 were compared to assess the antibacterial effects of a daily application to a 30% full-skin thickness burn wound seeded 10 minutes earlier with 10(8) CFU (colony forming unit)/0.5 mL of a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Five groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups) were compared. The administration of third-degree burns to all rats was confirmed based on histopathologic data. The tissue cultures from groups 2 and 5 exhibited significant differences compared to those of the other 3 groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between groups 1, 3, and 4. The effectiveness of the treatments was as follows: 1% silver sulfadiazine > silver-coated dressing > 3% citric acid > 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate > control group. Our results supported the efficacy of topical therapy by silver sulfadiazine and silver-coated dressing on infections caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas spp.

  8. Detecting quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal tissues by using sensitive rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tao; Yu, Huan; Niu, Xiaodong

    2015-05-15

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) based on an anti-N-butylquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (BQCA) monoclonal antibody were standardized and validated for quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) screening in animal tissues and its performance were compared to HPLC. The sensitivities obtained for edible tissue extracts were 1.62 and 1.12 ng ml(-1) for ic-ELISA and TR-FIA detection, respectively. Two samples were spiked with QCA and analyzed by both methods. The recovery values ranged from 92.6% to 112.2% and the coefficients of variation were less than 15% for QCA spiking into swine tissue samples at concentrations of 2.5-50.0 μg kg(-1). Excellent correlations (r(2)=0.987-0.996) of the ic-ELISA/HPLC and TR-FIA/HPLC data were observed for processed samples. The results demonstrated that the ic-ELISA and TR-FIA methods were rapid and accurate for the residue detection of QCA in animal tissues.

  9. Estabilidade do modelo animal de lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por ácido oleico Stability of the animal model of oleic acid-induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gaio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a estabilidade das variáveis hemodinâmicas, da mecânica respiratória e de troca gasosa do modelo animal de lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por ácido oleico. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo experimental no qual foram utilizados 10 cães de raça indeterminada. As variáveis foram aferidas inicialmente e em 30, 60, 90 e 120 min após a administração do ácido oleico. Para analisar as medidas repetidas, foram testados efeitos lineares e quadráticos e foram utilizados ajustes de modelos lineares mistos com estruturas de variâncias e covariâncias diversificadas, dependendo da variável analisada. RESULTADOS: Observamos estabilidade da pressão arterial média aos 30 min, assim como da frequência cardíaca, da pressão arterial pulmonar e da pressão de capilar pulmonar aos 60 min. Frequência respiratória, volume corrente, volume minuto e trabalho respiratório estabilizaram aos 30 min. Quanto às variáveis de troca gasosa, PaO2, relação PaO2/FiO2 e fração de shunt pulmonar estabilizaram-se aos 30 min. As demais variáveis mantiveram-se em ascensão ou queda contínuas. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo de lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por ácido oleico é estável para algumas das variáveis testadas; porém, a estabilização se dá em momentos diferentes. As variáveis da mecânica respiratória e de troca gasosa estabilizaram em 30 min, e as hemodinâmicas, em 60 min.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the stability of hemodynamic, respiratory and gas exchange variables in an animal model of oleic acid-induced acute lung injury. METHODS: This was an experimental study involving 10 mongrel dogs. The variables were measured at baseline, as well as at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the administration of oleic acid. In order to analyze repeated measurements, linear and quadratic effects were tested. Mixed linear models with diversified variance and covariance structures were used, depending on the variable studied. RESULTS: We found that mean

  10. Movements and survival of Bachman's Sparrows in response to prescribed summer burns in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, B.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Prescribed winter burning is a common practice in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) to manage for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis). The effect of these burns on non-target animals is not well studied. Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis) were captured in predominantly longleaf pine stands to be burned and not to be burned at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge (CSNWR) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. Sparrows were marked with radio-transmitters and monitored daily. Before burning, daily movements did not differ among sites within or among study areas. Additionally, daily movements did not differ by sex or time within the breeding season. After prescribed burning, daily movements were longer for sparrows in burned stands than in unburned stands. All marked sparrows dispersed 1-3 days after a stand was burned and never returned. We found no evidence that dispersing sparrows successfully breed elsewhere. Bachman's sparrow survival rates and reproductive output after burning were lowered. The juxtaposition of seemingly suitable Bachman's sparrow habitat in relation to burned stands influenced both the duration and length of dispersal movements. Managers need to consider the proximity of available habitats when developing burning plans when managing for Bachman's sparrows.

  11. Development of poly(lactic acid) nanostructured membranes for the controlled delivery of progesterone to livestock animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Eliton Souto [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais (DEMAT), Cidade Universitaria, 58.051-900, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Cardozo, Lucio; Voll, Fernando [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), 87.020, 900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Madureira, Ed Hoffmann [Departamento de Reproducao Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia (FMVZ), Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga-SP (Brazil); Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli, E-mail: mattoso@cnpdia.embrapa.br [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Assis, Odilio Benedito Garrido [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Solution blow spinning (SBS) is a novel technology feasible to produce nanostructured polymeric membranes loaded with active agents. In the present study, nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) loaded with progesterone (P4) were produced by SBS at different P4 concentrations. The spun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro releasing of P4 was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Interactions between progesterone and PLA were confirmed by rheological measurements of the PLA/P4 solutions and in the spun mats by microscopy (SEM), thermal (DSC) and spectral (FTIR) analyses. SEM micrographs provided evidences of a smooth and homogeneous structure for nanostructured membranes without progesterone crystals on fiber surface. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between the ester of PLA and the ketone groups of the P4 in the nanofibers. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of PLA crystallites increased with progesterone content. Finally, by in vitro release experiments it was possible to observe that the progesterone releasing follows nearly first-order kinetics, probably due to the diffusion of hormone into PLA nanofibers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofibers of PLA loading with progesterone were prepared via solution blow spinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their morphology, FTIR, and XRD and DSC characterization were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibers of PLA/progesterone with diameters from 280 to 440 nm were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of progesterone content in fiber properties was studied.

  12. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    2000-01-01

    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  13. Ten-year epidemiology of chemical burns in western Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chunjiang; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Han, Chunmao

    2016-05-01

    Chemical burns occur frequently in western Zhejiang Province. This study documents the epidemiology of chemical burns in the region using burn data from a local specialized hospital. Results from this analysis will assist in the planning of prevention strategies for high-risk occupations and groups. A 10-year retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients with chemical burns admitted to the Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery from January 2004 to December 2013. Information obtained for each patient included demographics (gender, age, occupation and education), location of the burn, cause of the burn, and categories of chemicals. Data regarding the season of admittance, prehospital treatment, wound site/size (area, region, and depth), accompanying injuries, operations, length of hospital stay and mortality were also assessed. A total of 690 patients (619 males, 71 females; average age: 30.6±12.4 years) were admitted to the department for chemical burns. Over the 10-year period, the incidence of chemical burns showed an increasing tendency. Chemical burns occurred most frequently in patients aged 20-59 years (94.79%). Most of the chemical burns were work-related, primarily in private enterprises (47.97%) and state-owned enterprises (24.93%). Operations (68.99%) and machine problems (17.26%) were the main causes of chemical burns in the workplace. With regard to burns caused by chemicals, most were caused by acids (72.01%), with hydrofluoric acid and sulphuric acid causing 51.45%. Most chemical burns occurred in the summer and autumn seasons (61.02%). The burn size was 40% TBSA. The most common burn sites were the upper extremities (31.57%), lower extremities (19.86%), and head and neck (28.83%). Most patients (581 (84.20%)) received water washing treatment on site immediately after exposure. The most common accompanying injuries included inhalation injury, ocular burns and digestive tract injury. The average hospital stay was 17.0±23.1 days (range 1

  14. Assessment of burn depth and burn wound healing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstrey, Stan; Hoeksema, Henk; Verbelen, Jos; Pirayesh, Ali; Blondeel, Phillip

    2008-09-01

    The depth of a burn wound and/or its healing potential are the most important determinants of the therapeutic management and of the residual morbidity or scarring. Traditionally, burn surgeons divide burns into superficial which heal by rapid re-epithelialization with minimal scarring and deep burns requiring surgical therapy. Clinical assessment remains the most frequent technique to measure the depth of a burn wound although this has been shown to be accurate in only 60-75% of the cases, even when carried out by an experienced burn surgeon. In this article we review all current modalities useful to provide an objective assessment of the burn wound depth, from simple clinical evaluation to biopsy and histology and to various perfusion measurement techniques such as thermography, vital dyes, video angiography, video microscopy, and laser Doppler techniques. The different needs according to the different diagnostic situations are considered. It is concluded that for the initial emergency assessment, the use of telemetry and simple burn photographs are the best option, that for research purposes a wide range of different techniques can be used but that, most importantly, for the actual treatment decisions, laser Doppler imaging is the only technique that has been shown to accurately predict wound outcome with a large weight of evidence. Moreover this technique has been approved for burn depth assessment by regulatory bodies including the FDA.

  15. Specific unresponsiveness to skin allografts in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G T; Moon, D J; Cunningham, P R; Johnson, T D; Thomas, J M; Thomas, F T

    1989-05-01

    We have examined the potential to provide long-term or even permanent wound coverage in a mouse model of a 30% total body surface area burn using skin allografts. Treatment of the recipient mouse with rabbit anti-mouse thymocyte serum (ATS) followed by donor bone marrow infusion induces a state of specific unresponsiveness to the skin allograft without the need for chronic immunosuppression. Specifically, a B6AF1 mouse receives a burn on Day -2 relative to grafting, ATS on Day -1, and Day +2, a skin allograft from a C3H/He mouse on Day 0, and infusion of C3H/He donor bone marrow on Day +6. We studied three groups of burned mice: Group I, allograft control (n = 5); Group II, allograft plus ATS (n = 12); and Group III, allograft plus ATS and bone marrow infusion (n = 15). Mean graft survival was compared using a one-way analysis of variance and a Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test. There was no statistical difference in animal mortality among any of the three groups, and there was no evidence of infectious morbidity. Mean skin allograft survival was as follows: Group I, 9 days; Group II, 29 days; and Group III, 66 days (P less than 0.05 vs Group I and II). Nine animals in Group III had intact hair bearing grafts at 90 days when the study was terminated. This study suggests the potential use of induced specific unresponsiveness to skin allografts for wound coverage in thermal injury without use of chronic immunosuppression. In our animal study this was accomplished without increased mortality or apparent infectious morbidity.

  16. [The organization of burn care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques

    2002-12-15

    In 2002, the organisation of burn care is confronted to a great deficiency in burn epidemiological datas. The main mechanisms of hospitalized burns are somehow wellknown in industrialized countries: about 60% scalds and 30% flame burns; as well as the place of occurrence (60% at home, and 20% at work), and the risk groups (3 times more important for the age group 0-4 years old). The incidence of burns needing medical care (all levels) (250/100,000 inh/yr) or hospitalization (15-20/100,000 inh/yr) is much more uncertain. The statistics of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), for hospitalized patients will allow in France very shortly to know more about the most rational ways of dispatching and treating them. They already show that only 30% of hospitalized burned patients are treated in specialized facilities.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Lonza Benelux BV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Oral administration routes of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide via feed or water for drinking were considered bioequivalent. Niacin is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that exposure figures for a population already include the contribution of edible tissues and products of animals fed niacin-supplemented diets. Information on niacin metabolism and the limited data available on retention in edible tissues and products indicate that supplemental levels in feeds even far higher than the requirements (1–35 mg/kg feed are highly unlikely to lead the tolerable upper intake level being exceeded. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of niacin in animal nutrition is not of safety concern for consumers. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are not irritant to skin, but can cause irritancy to eyes and mucous membranes. They are unlikely to cause skin sensitisation. Workers might be exposed to a respirable dust when handling nicotinic acid, which should be regarded as being potentially harmful to their health. Nicotinamide is considered to be of no concern for inhalation exposure. The use of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are regarded as effective sources of niacin in animal nutrition.

  18. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  19. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  20. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  1. Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme A. Farina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary.

  2. Nonclinical safety assessment of recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM) for the treatment of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency:the utility of animal models of disease in the toxicological evaluation of potential therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James M; Thompson, Anne Marie; Vitsky, Allison; Hawes, Michael; Chuang, Wei-Lien; Pacheco, Joshua; Wilson, Stephen; McPherson, John M; Thurberg, Beth L; Karey, Kenneth P; Andrews, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM) is being developed as an enzyme replacement therapy for patients with acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (Niemann-Pick disease types A and B), which causes sphingomyelin to accumulate in lysosomes. In the acid sphingomyelinase knock-out (ASMKO) mouse, intravenously administered rhASM reduced tissue sphingomyelin levels in a dose-dependent manner. When rhASM was administered to normal rats, mice, and dogs, no toxicity was observed up to a dose of 30mg/kg. However, high doses of rhASM≥10mg/kg administered to ASMKO mice resulted in unexpected toxicity characterized by cardiovascular shock, hepatic inflammation, adrenal hemorrhage, elevations in ceramide and cytokines (especially IL-6, G-CSF, and keratinocyte chemoattractant [KC]), and death. The toxicity could be completely prevented by the administration of several low doses (3mg/kg) of rhASM prior to single or repeated high doses (≥20mg/kg). These results suggest that the observed toxicity involves the rapid breakdown of large amounts of sphingomyelin into ceramide and/or other toxic downstream metabolites, which are known signaling molecules with cardiovascular and pro-inflammatory effects. Our results suggest that the nonclinical safety assessment of novel therapeutics should include the use of specific animal models of disease whenever feasible.

  3. Nutrition Support in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aydoğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn trauma causes serious metabolic derangements. Increased metabolic rate which is apart of a pathophysiologic characteristic of burn trauma results in protein-energy malnutrition. This situation causes impaired wound healing, muscle and fat tissue’s breakdown, growth retardation in children and infections. Nutrition support is vital in the treatment strategies of burn victims to prevent high mortal and disabling complications in this devastating trauma. Our aim in this study is to review management of nutrition in burn victims. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 74-83

  4. A primer on burn resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacomo Ferdinand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1900s, the scope of burn resuscitation has evolved dramatically. Due to various advances in pre-hospital care and training, under-resuscitation of patients with severe burns is now relatively uncommon. Over-resuscitation, otherwise known as "fluid creep", has emerged as one of the most important problems during the initial phases of burn care over the past decade. To avoid the complications of over-resuscitation, careful hourly titration of fluid rates based on compilation of various clinical end points by a bedside provider is vital. The aim of this review is to provide a practical approach to the resuscitation of severely burned patients.

  5. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  6. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high-inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  7. Exercise following burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lateur, Barbara J; Shore, Wendy S

    2011-05-01

    Fatigue is a major barrier to recovery for burned individuals. Studies indicate that a slow return to normal or near-normal muscle strength is the natural course of recovery. With no special interventions, other than the "usual care" tailored to the needs of the individual, postburn patients will make gradual improvement in strength and aerobic capacity. Using the principle of initial condition (the worse the initial condition, the greater the response to exercise intervention) the authors outline an augmented exercise program that should result in a robust improvement in aerobic capacity.

  8. Clinical Experience with Chitosan Matrix and Cultured Fibroblasts for Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaziza Danlybayeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Burns are an important public health challenge due to the frequency of getting burns in day-to-day life, occupational hazards, and catastrophes. Treatment of burns is complex and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Duration and complexity of burn treatment require finding new ways of curing and rehabilitating burns. The result of burn treatment plays a significant role in post-traumatic status of a patient and his or her consequent adaptation in society. Chitosan is a natural safe non-toxic product compatible with human tissues, characterized by hydrosorbid, anticoagulant, antibacterial, and wound healing features. The study aims to  show a clinical application of chitosan-pectin scaffold with cultured human skin fibroblasts in the treatment of deep burns.Methods. The substrate was prepared by dissolving 3% chitosan in 0.5N acetic acid, which was then mixed with 3% solution of pectin dissolved in distillated water. Chitosan film was formed in a Petri dish for 20-24 hours at 20-25 °C. After drying the film, cultured allogeneic fibroblasts (patent number RK-25091 were seeded on its surface.Results. The results from an in vitro culture study showed that human allogeneic fibroblasts could adhere well and grow on the selected scaffold with a typical morphology. During autodermoplasty surgery, cultured allogeneic fibroblasts were applied on granulating wounds of 9 patients with IIIA to IVB degree burns and limited donor resources. Wounds treated with the fibroblast-seeded scaffold among all patients provided the highest level of re-epithelialization (day 5, in comparison to cell-free scaffold (day 7 and untreated surface of wounds (day 10.Conclusion. Our results indicate the potential use of chitosan for wound healing due to its allogenic fibroblast adherence to scaffolding as well as high epithelization. This warrants further studies on chitosan for use in wounds resulting from third and fourth degree burns.

  9. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  10. How to manage burns in primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P C

    1993-01-01

    Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin) is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplemen...

  12. Chemical burns--an historical comparison and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Hunter, Thomas; Staruch, Robert; Moiemen, Naiem

    2012-05-01

    Chemical burns represent a small proportion of cutaneous burn with an incidence of up to 10.7%, but have been reported to account for up to 30% of all burn deaths. A review of the literature shows incidences ranging from 2.4% to 10.7%, with a substantial predominance in males. Adult patients with a burn referred to our Regional Burns Centre, over an eight-year period, were identified. 185 chemical burns were recorded (7.9%). The mean age of patient was 40 years (range 16-81 years) and male to female ratio was 6.4:1. Over three-quarters of chemical injuries occurred in the domestic or industrial setting. Acids caused 26% of all chemical burns and alkalis caused 55%. A previous study from the same centre highlights a change in the demographics of chemical burn over the last 25 years. The proportion of chemical burns has risen from 2.7% to 7.9%. Chemical burns occurring in an industrial setting, have dropped, whilst the number of domestic chemical burns has increased by over three times. This change reflects the improved industrial health and safety policy in recent years. The move from the industrial setting to the domestic has implications for future regulations.

  13. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Cloud Experiment – Layer Clouds (ICE-L in fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, 100 % of the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles, with both nitric acid and sulfuric acid present. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5 % water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07 % of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  14. Comparison of Two Types of Gels in Improving Burn Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimzadeh Golnar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Kefir are natural probiotic compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, which were tested in experimental burn injury. Kefir gels were prepared from an extract of continuously cultured kefir in Man, Rogosa and Sharpe Broth medium for 48 and 96 h. Their extracts were used for evaluation of antibacterial effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in standard sample (ATCC 27853 and samples taken from patients with burns. The antibacterial effect of different kefir extract was assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. The density of bacteria and percentage of organic acids (lactic and acetic acids were also determined. Materials and Methods: Similar burn injuries were made on dorsal skin surface of 40 rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each. The base gel, silver sulfadiazine ointment, kefir 48 h gel, kefir 96 h gel were applied twice daily. Burn wound area was measured at baseline, 1 and 2 weeks. Results: Results indicated that by increasing the time of fermentation, concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased in orders of: Kefir 48 h < kefir 96 h, the end of the 2nd week the percentage of wound size were lowest in order of kefir 96 h gel < kefir grains 48 h gel < silver sulfadiazine 1% < untreated and based gel groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the kefir gel therapy was an effective therapeutic approach to improve outcomes after severe burn when compared with conventional silver sulfadiazine treatment.

  15. Experimental burns: Comparison between silver sulfadiazine and photobiomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Teixeira Gomes

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To analyze morphological characteristics and organization of the collagen fibers of third degree burns from scalding compared to laser therapy and silver sulfadiazine, the latter considered as the gold standard. Method: Were selected 12 animals (Rattus norvegicus also divided into three groups (control group [CG] - untreated burns; sulfadiazine group [SG] - burns were treated with silver sulfadiazine at 1%; laser group [LG] - burns were treated with photobiomodulation. The scald burns were carried out by using PVC mold, and the material collected on the 14th day after burn was prepared for morphological and optical retardation analysis for evaluation of inflammatory infiltrates and collagen organization, respectively. Results: On the 14th day, the laser and sulfadiazine groups had mild inflammatory response, while the control group showed an intense inflammatory process, with statistical significance between laser and control groups, but not between sulfadiazine and control groups. Laser and sulfadiazine groups no longer had granulation tissue, opposite to what was seen in the control group. The presence of hair follicles and ulcer did not significantly differ between groups. The optical retardation of collagen fibers was higher in sulfadiazine group, followed by laser and control groups. As for systemic effect, we were able to identify it by simply analyzing the presence or absence of granulation tissue. Conclusion: Morphologically, the laser or silver sulfadiazine treatments were similar and both provided better organization of collagen fibers in relation to the untreated group. However, the sulfadiazine group modulated the deposition of collagen fibers more efficiently than the laser group.

  16. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group, or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group, or only immersion in seawater (I group, or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group. The circulating endothelial cell (CEC count and coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters were measured. The CEC count in B group increased at 4 h, 7 h, and 10 h after injury and then reduced, whereas it continuously increased to a greater extent in BI group (P<0.05. The von Willebrand factor (vWF activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, and the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2 to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α in BI group had a marked increase after injury, and the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA in the BI group decreased. Microscope observations revealed thrombus formation in lungs of the animals in BI group, but not in C, I, or B groups. Burn injury causes endothelial dysfunction, and seawater immersion lastingly aggravates this injury, leading to a higher risk of developing thrombosis.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Vertellus Specialties Belgium BV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Niacin is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that exposure figures for a population already include the contribution of edible tissues and products of animals fed niacin-supplemented diets. Information on niacin metabolism and the limited data available on retention in edible tissues and products indicate that supplemental levels in feeds even far higher than the requirements (1–35 mg/kg feed are highly unlikely to lead the tolerable upper intake level being exceeded. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of niacin in animal nutrition is not of safety concern for consumers. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are not irritant to skin, but can cause irritancy to eyes and mucous membranes. They are unlikely to cause skin sensitisation. Workers might be exposed to a respirable dust when handling nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, which should be regarded as being potentially harmful to their health. The use of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are regarded as effective sources of niacin in animal nutrition.

  18. Bad advice; bad burn: a new problem in burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, L; Slater, H; Goldfarb, I W

    1990-01-01

    Deep partial-thickness burns had been inflicted on the perineal area of an infant who was recently treated in our Burn Center. The burns were a result of advice to the patient's mother by a pediatrician. The doctor told her to use a hair dryer to prevent diaper rash. We surveyed pediatricians, well-baby clinics, and pediatric nurse practitioners in our area and found that approximately half of them advised the use of hair dryers to treat or prevent diaper rash. We tested four widely available hand-held hair dryers to determine potential for inflicting burn injury. All of the dryers are capable of delivering air heated to at least 53 degrees C after 2 minutes of use. We believe that warnings against the use of hair dryers for perineal hygiene should be included in burn prevention programs.

  19. [Determination of the residues of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal origin foods by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Wu, Yujie; Li, Yong; Li, Lihua

    2012-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) as the marker residues for carbadox (CBX) and olaquindox (OLA), respectively, in the muscles and livers of porcine and chicken and in the muscles of fish and shrimp. The MQCA and QCA were deproteinated with 5% metaphosphoric acid in 10% methanol followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Further clean-up was performed by solid phase extraction (SPE) through mixed mode anion-exchange columns (Oasis MAX SPE). The separation of the compounds was carried on a Waters Xterra MS C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 microm) by a gradient elution using methanol and 0.2% formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization. The MQCA and QCA were quantified by internal standard method. The linear ranges were 1.0-20.0 microg/L and the correlation coefficients were not less than 0.9996. The average recoveries and relative standard deviations ranged from 62.4%-118% and 1.48%-28.1% respectively at the spiked levels of 0.1, 0.2 and 1.0 microg/kg for the both markers. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.1 microg/kg. The method is sensitive, accurate and suitable for the determination and confirmation of MQCA and QCA in animal origin foods.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical group (CG 34 comprises amino acids, of which 20 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of D,L-valine because of the lack of data on its purity. The Panel cannot conclude on the use of these compounds in water for drinking. In the absence of any information on the microbial strains or substrates used for the production of the additives, and with little information on the manufacturing process, the Panel cannot ascertain whether the manufacturing process introduces any safety concerns. The conclusions on target animals and consumer safety apply only to the compounds per se, and can be extrapolated only to feed additives containing these compounds when obtained by chemical synthesis or protein hydrolysis and to those produced by fermentation which have already undergone a strain-specific safety assessment by EFSA. The 19 compounds under assessment in CG 34 are safe at the proposed use level of 25 mg/kg feed for all animal species. The FEEDAP Panel considers the use of glycine at 20 g/kg in food for cats and dogs as safe. The safety of the proposed use of beta-alanine in pet food at 20 g/kg was not substantiated. Use of these compounds does not give rise to concern for consumer safety. The Panel considers it prudent to treat all 19 compounds as irritant to skin and eyes, skin sensitisers and hazardous by inhalation. They do not give rise to any concern for the safety of the environment. No further demonstration of their efficacy is necessary when used at concentrations up to 25 mg/kg complete feed. There is some evidence that high concentrations (20 g/kg in cat and dog food of glycine may influence the food preference of cats and dogs. Comparable evidence for beta-alanine is not available.

  1. Aktivitas Antifibrotik Ekstrak Buah Delima Terstandar 40% Ellagic Acid pada Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus sebagai Hewan Model (ANTIFIBROTIC ACTIVITY OF POMEGRANATE FRUIT EXTRACT STANDARDIZED 40% ELLAGIC ACID ON RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS AS ANIMAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of patients with chronic liver disease (fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver is increasing fromtime to time. However, until now there is no therapy that really effective to overcome that disease. Therapyfor liver fibrosis typically use substance that have antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory or anti fibrotic.Various efforts always done to find alternative therapies for liver fibrosis. One of them is the use ofpotential plants that suspected having such activity. Various parts of pomegranate have been shown tohave various activities that beneficial for health. This study was conducted to determine the effect ofpomegranate fruit extract standardized 40% ellagic acid on the improvement degree of liver fibrosis causedby cholestasis by measuring of serum alkaline phosphatase levels (ALP and gamma-glutamyl transferase(GGT, as a specific indicator of liver damage becaused of cholestasis. The research was conducted by using32 male rats, wistar strain, 2.5 month old, weighing between 150-200 grams. Animal models of liver fibrosis obtained by using BDL technique. Subjects were divided into a control group (P0 = without BDLand giving of pomegranate extract and treatment groups (P1 = BDL with administration of CMC, P2 =BDL with ellagic acid 90% and P3 = BDL with pomegranate fruit extract standardized 40% ellagic acid.CMC, extract (150 mg / kg BW / PO and ellagic acid (60 mg / kg BW / PO administered for 21 consecutivedays in the same volume. At the end of 21 days periods, biochemical evaluation was performed to measureserum levels of GGT and ALP. The result indicated that administration of pomegranate fruit extract ( P3significantly reduced GGT ( 10.5±9.2 mg/dl and ALP level ( 509.0±4.2 mg/dl close to normal level of GGTand ALP ( P0, GGT : 2.8 ± 1.4; ALP : 449.0±62.3 (p<0.05. The level of GGT and ALP in P3 group were lowercompared to the group ellagic acid (P2, GGT=48.5±4.8 and ALP = 691.0± 29.7 and group which only begiven CMC (P1, GGT

  2. Wildlife mitigation burn monitoring program at Teck Coal Limited : Fording River Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, C.R. [Summit Environmental Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Caldwell, T.; Sword, G. [Teck Coal Ltd., Fording River Operations, Elkford, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This articled discussed a monitoring program evaluating the results of prescribed burns with respect to forest cover reduction, forest production, and wildlife utilization. The burn treatments were undertaken to mitigate the effects of ungulate habitat loss resulting from mine expansion and to increase wildlife habitat suitability and provide winter habitat for elk and moose. Pre-burn and post-burn aerial photographs were used to evaluate the effects of the burn treatments. Data on vegetation, wildlife use, and standing crop production were collected from 36 transects located in paired burned and unburned habitats during the course of the monitoring program, which operated from 1998 to 2007. The mitigation burns were generally found to be successful at improving ungulate habitat. Despite variation among treatment areas and years, the standing crop measurements showed that forest production and animal unit months were greater in the burn treatment areas than in the unburned areas. In particular, the increased cover of palatable grasses and forbs enhanced the elk winter range. The burn treatments altered the stand structure and species dominance. Signs of habitat use showed that elk and mule deer preferentially used the burned sites during the monitoring period. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Cardiovascular Dysfunction Following Burn Injury: What We Have Learned from Rat and Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley N. Guillory

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn profoundly affects organs both proximal and distal to the actual burn site. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a well-documented phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality following a massive thermal trauma. Beginning immediately post-burn, during the ebb phase, cardiac function is severely depressed. By 48 h post-injury, cardiac function rebounds and the post-burn myocardium becomes tachycardic and hyperinflammatory. While current clinical trials are investigating a variety of drugs targeted at reducing aspects of the post-burn hypermetabolic response such as heart rate and cardiac work, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms that induce cardiac dysfunction in the severely burned. There are many animal models of burn injury, from rodents, to sheep or swine, but the majority of burn related cardiovascular investigations have occurred in rat and mouse models. This literature review consolidates the data supporting the prevalent role that β-adrenergic receptors play in mediating post-burn cardiac dysfunction and the idea that pharmacological modulation of this receptor family is a viable therapeutic target for resolving burn-induced cardiac deficits.

  4. Burn, thermal - close-up (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first degree burns cause only reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin), as seen in this photograph. Second degree burns cause blistering and extend into the dermis (lower layer of skin). Third degree burns cause ...

  5. Nutritional management of the burn patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role include: evaporative water loss from the burn wound, bacterial contamination of the burn ... leucocytes and fibroblasts in the burned area.2 Providing exogenous glucose ... immune function, poor wound healing and exacerbation of protein.

  6. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  7. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Houston, TX Purpose:Patients with severe facial burns often suffer indirect damage to their eyes. Burn wound contracture of the periocular skin...periocular muscles , are injured and the protective blink reflex is lost. With loss of the blink reflex the patient quickly develops exposure keratitis

  8. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  9. Thermal Injury Model in the Rabbit Ear with Quantifiable Burn Progression and Hypertrophic Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Emily E; Niknam-Bienia, Solmaz; Xie, Ping; Jia, Sheng-Xian; Hong, Seok Jong; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a major clinical outcome of deep-partial thickness to full thickness thermal burn injury. Appropriate animal models are a limitation to burn research due to the lack of, or access to, animal models which address the endpoint of hypertrophic scar. Lower species, such as rodents, heal mainly by contracture, which limits the duration of study. Higher species, such as pigs, heal more similarly to humans, but are associated with high cost, long duration for scar development, challenges in quantifying scar hypertrophy, and poor manageability. Here we present a quantifiable deep-partial thickness burn model in the rabbit ear. Burns were created using a dry-heated brass rod for 10 s and 20 s at 90°C. At the time of eschar excision on day 3, excisional wounds were made on the contralateral ear for comparison. Burn wound progression, in which the wound size expands over time is a major distinction between excisional and thermal injuries, was quantified at 1 h and 3 d after the injuries using calibrated photographs and histology and the size of the wounds was found to be unchanged from the initial wound size at 1 h, but 10% in the 20 s burn wounds at 3 d. A quantifiable hypertrophic scar, measured by histology as the scar elevation index, was present in both 20 s burn wounds and excisional wounds at day 35. ImageJ measurements revealed that the 20 s burn wound scars were 22% larger than the excisional wound scars and the 20 s burn scar area measurements from histology were 26% greater than in the excisional wound scar. The ability to measure both burn progression and scar hypertrophy over a 35-day time frame suits this model to screening early intervention burn wound therapeutics or scar treatments in a burn-specific scar model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Burns injury in children: Is antibiotic prophylaxis recommended?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is the most frequent complication in burn patients. There is a lack of guidelines on the use of systemic antibiotics in children to prevent this complication. Patients and Methods: A prospective study is carried out on 80 patients to evaluate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the control of infections. Results: The mean age was 34 months (9 months to 8 years. There was a male predominance with sex ratio of 1.66. The mean burn surface size burn was 26.5% with total burn surface area ranging from 5% to 33%, respectively. According to American Burn Association 37% (30/80 were severe burns with second and third degree burns >10% of the total surface body area in children aged <10 years old. Scalds represented 76.2% (61/80 of the burns. Burns by hot oil were 11 cases (13.7%, while 8 cases (10% were flame burns. The random distribution of the groups was as follow: Group A (amoxicilline + clavulanic acid = 25 cases, Group B (oxacilline = 20 cases and Group C (no antibiotics = 35 cases. Total infection rate was 20% (16/80, distributed as follow: 8 cases (50% in Group C, 5 cases (31.2% in Group A and 3 cases in Group B (18.7%. Infection rate in each individual group was: 22.9% (8 cases/35 in Group C, 20% (5 cases/25 in Group A and 15% (3 cases/20 in Group B (P = 0.7. They were distributed as follow: Septicaemia 12 cases/16 (75%, wound infection 4 cases/16 (25%. Bacteria isolated were with a decreasing order: Staphylococcus aureus (36.3%, Pseudomonas (27.2%, Escherichia coli (18.1%, Klebsiella (9% and Enterobacteria (9%. There is a tendency to a delayed cicatrisation (P = 0.07 in case of hot oil burns (65.18 ± 120 days than by flame (54.33 ± 19.8 days than by hot water (29.55 ± 26.2 days. Otherwise no toxic shock syndrome was recorded in this study. Conclusion: It is concluded that adequate and careful nursing of burn wounds seems to be sufficient to prevent complications and to obtain cicatrisation. Antibiotics are

  11. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  12. The year in burns 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven E; Phelan, Herbert A; Arnoldo, Brett D

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 3415 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2013. We have continued to see an increase in this number; the following reviews articles selected from these by the Editor of one of the major journals (Burns) and colleagues that in their opinion are most likely to have effects on burn care treatment and understanding. As we have done before, articles were found and divided into the following topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation and long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. The articles are mentioned briefly with notes from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for details.

  13. The biology of burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Lars H; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Mailänder, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Burn injury is a complex traumatic event with various local and systemic effects, affecting several organ systems beyond the skin. The pathophysiology of the burn patient shows the full spectrum of the complexity of inflammatory response reactions. In the acute phase, inflammation mechanism may have negative effects because of capillary leak, the propagation of inhalation injury and the development of multiple organ failure. Attempts to mediate these processes remain a central subject of burn care research. Conversely, inflammation is a necessary prologue and component in the later-stage processes of wound healing. In this review, we are attempting to present the current science of burn wound pathophysiology and wound healing. We also describe the evolution of innovative strategies for burn management.

  14. A sensitive and selective imprinted solid phase extraction coupled to HPLC for simultaneous detection of trace quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid and methyl-3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid in animal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhenjuan; Yi, Jianghua; Fang, Guozhen; Fan, Lipeng; Wang, Shuo

    2013-08-15

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), selective for major metabolites of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides, was prepared through bulk polymerisation using quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) as template, diethylaminoethylmethacrylate as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker in tetrahydrofuran. The synthesised MIP was characterised by Fourier transform infrared and adsorption experiments. MIP exhibited high affinity, fast kinetics for QCA and good selectivity for QCA and methyl-3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA). MIP obtained was used as a selective sorbent for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) coupled with HPLC to detect QCA and MQCA. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) of porcine, chicken and fish muscles were 0.1, 0.3, 0.1 μg/kg for QCA and 0.2, 0.3, 0.1 μg/kg for MQCA, respectively and good recoveries were obtained in the range from 60.0 to 119.4%. These results indicated the MISPE-HPLC procedure could be successfully used for the determination QCA and MQCA in animal muscles.

  15. An improved titration model reducing over estimation of total volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion of energy crop, animal slurry and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, B J Jobling; Thai, S-M; Fritz, T; Esteves, S R; Dinsdale, R M; Guwy, A J

    2014-09-15

    Titration methodologies have been used for the many years for low cost routine monitoring of full scale anaerobic digestion plants. These methodologies have been correlated to indicate the carbonate alkalinity and the volatile fatty acids (VFA) content within digesters. Two commonly used two end-point titration methods were compared using a dataset of 154 samples from energy crop and animal slurry digestates and were shown to be inaccurate in the estimation of tVFA. Using this dataset correlated with HPLC VFA analysis, two empirical bivariate linear regression equations were derived, where the validation dataset showed an absolute tVFA mean error improvement from ±3386 and ±3324 mg kg(-1) tVFA to ±410 and ±286 mg kg(-1) tVFA, respectively. The same equation was then applied to a food waste dataset where an absolute tVFA mean error was improved from ±3828 to ±576 mg kg(-1) tVFA. The newly derived titration equations can provide greater confidence in digester performance monitoring and are tools that can improve digester management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of supplementing different oils: linseed, sunflower and soybean, on animal performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of veal from "Rubia Gallega" calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Bispo, Esperanza; Dugan, Michael E R; Franco, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of longisimus dorsi (LD) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) from Rubia Gallega (RG) calves was compared for three dietary oil sources (linseed, LO; sunflower, SFO or soybean, SYO). Oils were added (4.5%) to a commercial concentrate and no differences on animal performance, carcass characteristics or meat quality among diets were noted. Total n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) increased in LD and SCF when feeding LO diet (P<0.001). The trans(t) FA profiles were dominated by t11-18:1, except when feeding SFO diet, where ∑t6- to t10-18:1 exceeded t11-18:1 leading the highest (∑t6-to t10-18:1)/t11-18:11 ratio in LD (P<0.05). The overall changes in n-3 PUFA and t18:1 when feeding LO and SYO could be viewed as positive for human health, but quantitatively it was apparent that most dietary PUFA were completely biohydrogenated. Inhibiting PUFA biohydrogenation will be an important next step to improve the FA composition of RG cattle.

  17. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  18. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  19. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  20. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  1. Effects of normal acceleration on transient burning rate augmentation of an aluminized solid propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Instantaneous burning rate data for a polybutadiene acrylic acid propellant, containing 16 weight percent aluminum, were calculated from the pressure histories of a test motor with 96.77 sq cm of burning area and a 5.08-cm-thick propellant web. Additional acceleration tests were conducted with reduced propellant web thicknesses of 3.81, 2.54, and 1.27 cm. The metallic residue collected from the various web thickness tests was characterized by weight and shape and correlated with the instantaneous burning rate measurements. Rapid depressurization extinction tests were conducted in order that surface pitting characteristics due to localized increased burning rate could be correlated with the residue analysis and the instantaneous burning rate data. The acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation was strongly dependent on propellant distance burned, or burning time, and thus was transient in nature. The results from the extinction tests and the residue analyses indicate that the transient rate augmentation was highly dependent on local enhancement of the combustion zone heat feedback to the surface by the growth of molten residue particles on or just above the burning surface. The size, shape, and number density of molten residue particles, rather than the total residue weight, determined the acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation.

  2. Functional Outcomes Following Burn Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Colleen M; Parry, Ingrid; Richard, Reginald

    Major advances in functional recovery following burn injury over the last ten years include the development of conceptual framework for disability assessment and its application burn recovery, the description of the long-term outcomes in the burn population, and progress in basic science research leading to new treatments that improve long-term functional outcomes. Future tasks and challenges include the development of common data elements and standards for burn recovery in order to measure and optimize the path toward functional recovery. The development of patient-reported outcome measures with benchmarks for recovery over time has the potential to improve patient-provider communication and quality of patient-centered care. The study of burn recovery should include an examination of resiliency along with the study of disabilities following burn injury. Better understanding of the mechanisms, impact and modulation of hypermetabolism and inflammation following burn injury is essential to improve functional recovery. Continued basic science and clinical research must focus on scar modulation and skin replacements and address recalcitriant problems such as heterotopic ossification. Health tracking technologies should be leveraged to understand and optimize physical therapy interventions.

  3. Sedation and Analgesia in Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan Akıncı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is one of the most serious injuries that mankind may face. In addition to serious inflammation, excessive fluid loss, presence of hemodynamic instability due to intercurrent factors such as debridements, infections and organ failure, very different levels and intensities of pain, psychological problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, delirium at different levels that occur in patient with severe burn are the factors which make it difficult to provide the patient comfort. In addition to a mild to moderate level of baseline permanent pain in burn patients, which is due to tissue damage, there is procedural pain as well, which occurs by treatments such as grafting and dressings, that are severe, short-term burst style 'breakthrough' pain. Movement and tactile stimuli are also seen in burn injury as an effect to sensitize the peripheral and central nervous system. Even though many burn centers have established protocols to struggle with the pain, studies show that pain relief still inadequate in burn patients. Therefore, the treatment of burn pain and the prevention of possible emergence of future psychiatric problems suc as post-traumatic stress disorder, the sedative and anxiolytic agents should be used as a recommendation according to the needs and hemodynamic status of individual patient. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 26-30

  4. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procter Fiona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ′Burns Rehabilitation′ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration

  5. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4 as feed additives for all species: cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is safe for all animal species/categories up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feed. Consumption surveys include copper from foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with copper-containing compounds has not essentially changed over the last decade, no change in the contribution of foodstuffs originating from supplemented animals to the overall copper intake of consumers is expected. No concerns for consumer safety are expected from the use of cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate in animal nutrition, which would substitute for other copper sources. The additive should be considered as a skin and eye irritant and, owing to its amino acid/peptide component, as a skin/respiratory sensitiser. Potential risks to soil organisms have been identified as a result of the application of piglet manure. Levels of copper in other types of manure are too low to create a potential risk within the timescale considered. There might also be a potential environmental concern related to the contamination of sediment resulting from drainage and the run-off of copper to surface water. In order to draw a final conclusion, further model validation is needed and some further refinement to the assessment of copper-based feed additives in livestock needs to be considered, for which additional data would be required. The use of copper-containing additives in aquaculture up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feeds is not expected to pose an appreciable risk to the environment. The extent to which copper-resistant bacteria contribute to the overall antibiotic resistance situation cannot be quantified at present. Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is recognised as an efficacious source of copper to meet animal requirements.

  7. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  8. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  9. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David

    2016-10-01

    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  11. [Reconstruction of facial burn sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Comparin, J P; Boulos, J P; Bichet, J C; Jacquin, F

    2001-06-01

    The deep burns of the face can lead to horrible scars functionally and aesthetically. Treatment of these scars need several surgical interventions frequently and during many years. In our region we deal with this type of wounds as team work, multidisciplinary approach carrying out many process starting by emergency treatment of acute burns till the social rehabilitation. The expansion technique was great help in improving the shape of scars, by using the expanding skin as full thickness grafts. Reconstruction of the anatomical units and application of aesthetic techniques (like rhinoplasty, lifting, tattooing and autologous fat injections) participate equally in improving the quality of results. Many examples of treatments of burns scars are shown.

  12. The importance of illumination in a non-contact photoplethysmography imaging system for burn wound assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weirong; Mohan, Rachit; Li, Weizhi; Zhang, Xu; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffery E.

    2015-02-01

    We present a non-contact, reflective photoplethysmogram (PPG) imaging method and a prototype system for identifying the presence of dermal burn wounds during a burn debridement surgery. This system aims to provide assistance to clinicians and surgeons in the process of dermal wound management and wound triage decisions. We examined the system variables of illumination uniformity and intensity and present our findings. An LED array, a tungsten light source, and eventually high-power LED emitters were studied as illumination methods for our PPG imaging device. These three different illumination sources were tested in a controlled tissue phantom model and an animal burn model. We found that the low heat and even illumination pattern using high power LED emitters provided a substantial improvement to the collected PPG signal in our animal burn model. These improvements allow the PPG signal from different pixels to be comparable in both time-domain and frequency-domain, simplify the illumination subsystem complexity, and remove the necessity of using high dynamic range cameras. Through the burn model output comparison, such as the blood volume in animal burn data and controlled tissue phantom model, our optical improvements have led to more clinically applicable images to aid in burn assessment.

  13. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of aspartic acid include: ...

  14. Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Gerry; Suleman, Hanif; Bunce, Catey; Dua, Harminder

    2012-09-12

    Ocular surface burns can be caused by chemicals (alkalis and acids) or by direct heat. Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) performed in the acute phase (day 0 to day 7) of an ocular surface burn is reported to relieve pain, accelerate healing and reduce scarring and blood vessel formation. The surgery involves applying a patch of amniotic membrane (AM) over the entire ocular surface up to the eyelid margins. To assess the effects of AMT on the eyes of people having suffered acute ocular surface burns. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 June 2012. We included randomised trials of medical therapy and AMT applied in the first seven days after an ocular surface burn compared to medical therapy alone. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted relevant data. We contacted trial investigators for missing information. We summarised data using risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs) as appropriate. We included one RCT of 100 participants with ocular burns that were randomised to treatment with AMT and medical therapy or medical therapy alone. A subset of patients (n = 68) who were treated within the first seven days of the injury met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The remaining 32 eyes were excluded. The included subset consisted of 36 moderate (Dua classification II-III) and 32 severe (Dua

  15. A modified surgical technique in the management of eyelid burns: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shudong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Contractures, ectropion and scarring, the most common sequelae of skin grafts after eyelid burn injuries, can result in corneal exposure, corneal ulceration and even blindness. Split-thickness or full-thickness skin grafts are commonly used for the treatment of acute eyelid burns. Plasma exudation and infection are common early complications of eyelid burns, which decrease the success rate of grafts. Case presentation We present the cases of eight patients, two Chinese women and six Chinese men. The first Chinese woman was 36 years old, with 70% body surface area second or third degree flame burn injuries involving her eyelids on both sides. The other Chinese woman was 28 years old, with sulfuric acid burns on her face and third degree burn on her eyelids. The six Chinese men were aged 21, 31, 38, 42, 44, and 55 years, respectively. The 38-year-old patient was transferred from the ER with 80% body surface area second or third degree flame burn injuries and third degree burn injuries to his eyelids. The other five men were all patients with flame burn injuries, with 7% to 10% body surface area third degree burns and eyelids involved. All patients were treated with a modified surgical procedure consisting of separation and loosening of the musculus orbicularis oculi between tarsal plate and septum orbital, followed by grafting a large full-thickness skin graft in three days after burn injury. The use of our modified surgical procedure resulted in 100% successful eyelid grafting on first attempt, and all our patients were in good condition at six-month follow-up. Conclusions This new surgical technique is highly successful in treating eyelid burn injuries, especially flame burn injuries of the eyelid.

  16. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  17. The Burning Saints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    The Anastenaria are Orthodox Christians in Northern Greece who observe a unique annual ritual cycle focused on two festivals, dedicated to Saint Constantine and Saint Helen. The festivals involve processions, music, dancing, animal sacrifices, and culminate in an electrifying fire-walking ritual...

  18. Sciatic nerve repair with tissue engineered nerve: Olfactory ensheathing cells seeded poly(lactic-co-glygolic acid conduit in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C W Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Synthetic nerve conduits have been sought for repair of nerve defects as the autologous nerve grafts causes donor site morbidity and possess other drawbacks. Many strategies have been investigated to improve nerve regeneration through synthetic nerve guided conduits. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs that share both Schwann cell and astrocytic characteristics have been shown to promote axonal regeneration after transplantation. The present study was driven by the hypothesis that tissue-engineered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA seeded with OECs would improve peripheral nerve regeneration in a long sciatic nerve defect. Materials and Methods: Sciatic nerve gap of 15 mm was created in six adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and implanted with PLGA seeded with OECs. The nerve regeneration was assessed electrophysiologically at 2, 4 and 6 weeks following implantation. Histopathological examination, scanning electron microscopic (SEM examination and immunohistochemical analysis were performed at the end of the study. Results: Nerve conduction studies revealed a significant improvement of nerve conduction velocities whereby the mean nerve conduction velocity increases from 4.2 ΁ 0.4 m/s at week 2 to 27.3 ΁ 5.7 m/s at week 6 post-implantation ( P < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed presence of spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated the expression of S100 protein in both cell nucleus and the cytoplasm in these cells, hence confirming their Schwann-cell-like property. Under SEM, these cells were found to be actively secreting extracellular matrix. Conclusion: Tissue-engineered PLGA conduit seeded with OECs provided a permissive environment to facilitate nerve regeneration in a small animal model.

  19. Repeated lysergic acid diethylamide in an animal model of depression: Normalisation of learning behaviour and hippocampal serotonin 5-HT2 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Höllt, Volker; Grecksch, Gisela

    2014-06-01

    A re-balance of postsynaptic serotonin (5-HT) receptor signalling, with an increase in 5-HT1A and a decrease in 5-HT2A signalling, is a final common pathway multiple antidepressants share. Given that the 5-HT1A/2A agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), when repeatedly applied, selectively downregulates 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT1A receptors, one might expect LSD to similarly re-balance the postsynaptic 5-HT signalling. Challenging this idea, we use an animal model of depression specifically responding to repeated antidepressant treatment (olfactory bulbectomy), and test the antidepressant-like properties of repeated LSD treatment (0.13 mg/kg/d, 11 d). In line with former findings, we observe that bulbectomised rats show marked deficits in active avoidance learning. These deficits, similarly as we earlier noted with imipramine, are largely reversed by repeated LSD administration. Additionally, bulbectomised rats exhibit distinct anomalies of monoamine receptor signalling in hippocampus and/or frontal cortex; from these, only the hippocampal decrease in 5-HT2 related [(35)S]-GTP-gamma-S binding is normalised by LSD. Importantly, the sham-operated rats do not profit from LSD, and exhibit reduced hippocampal 5-HT2 signalling. As behavioural deficits after bulbectomy respond to agents classified as antidepressants only, we conclude that the effect of LSD in this model can be considered antidepressant-like, and discuss it in terms of a re-balance of hippocampal 5-HT2/5-HT1A signalling.

  20. Hair dryer burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, P R

    1990-11-01

    Three children with burn injuries caused by home hair dryers are described. In one patient the injury was believed to be accidental, and in the other two cases the injuries were deliberately caused by a caretaker. The lack of prior experience with hair dryer burns initially led to suspicion of other causes. The characteristics of each case aided in the final determination of accidental vs nonaccidental injury. These cases prompted testing of home hair dryers to determine their heat output. At the highest heat settings, the dryers rapidly generated temperatures in excess of 110 degrees C. After the dryers were turned off, the protective grills maintained sufficient temperatures to cause full-thickness burns for up to 2 minutes. These cases and the results of testing demonstrate that hair dryers must be added to the list of known causes of accidental and nonaccidental burns in children.

  1. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathophysiology caused by a severe burn is complicated and involves changes in all ... The interstitial pressure and intravascular oncotic pressures decrease while the ... South African Family Practice 2014; 56(6):24-26. Open Access ...

  2. Chemistry of Cigarette Burning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette-burning and the smoke-formation processes and smoke composition are important topics for understanding cigarette performance. This paper proposes the molecular formulas representing the active components of bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos and a basic chemistry model of the cigarette burning processes. Previous knowledge of the cigarette burning processes and smoke formation helped to establish parameters in deriving the basic chemistry equations. The proposed chemistry provides a brief view of the mechanisms of the cigarette burning during puffing and interpuff smoldering, and can be used to interpret and predict the smoke composition for cigarettes made from bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos. Based on the proposed chemistry, the effect of ventilation on smoke component deliveries is discussed and the reaction heat of the puffing process is estimated.

  3. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

    2013-07-01

    An 18-year-old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected.She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  4. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs .At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  5. Regimes Of Helium Burning

    CERN Document Server

    Timmes, F X

    2000-01-01

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and ZND detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts which start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star, and the thin shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial directions encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamlet regime at a density of 10^8 g cm^{-3}. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than 10^6 g cm^{-3}. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations travelling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarily, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at 10^7 g cm^{-3}, suggesting that a steady-state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into exista...

  6. Mixing between a stratospheric intrusion and a biomass burning plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brioude

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, carbon monoxide, aerosol extinction coefficient, acetonitrile, nitric acid and relative humidity measured from the NOAA P3 aircraft during the TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006 experiment, indicate mixing between a biomass burning plume and a stratospheric intrusion in the free troposphere above eastern Texas. Lagrangian-based transport analysis and satellite imagery are used to investigate the transport mechanisms that bring together the tropopause fold and the biomass burning plume originating in southern California, which may affect the chemical budget of tropospheric trace gases.

  7. Mixing between a stratospheric intrusion and a biomass burning plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brioude

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, carbon monoxide, aerosol extinction coefficient, acetonitrile, nitric acid and relative humidity measured from the NOAA P3 aircraft during the TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006 experiment, indicate mixing between a biomass burning plume and a stratospheric intrusion in the free troposphere above eastern Texas. Lagrangian-based transport analysis and satellite imagery are used to investigate the transport mechanisms that bring together the tropopause fold and the biomass burning plume originating in southern California, which may affect the chemical budget of tropospheric trace gases.

  8. Captopril protects against burn-induced cardiopulmonary injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Esra; Sehirli, Ahmet Ozer; Ozdamar, Emine Nur; Contuk, Gazi; Cetinel, Sule; Ozsavcı, Derya; Süleymanoğlu, Selami; Sener, Göksel

    2014-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of captopril treatment against oxidative damage in heart and lung tissues induced by burn injury. Under ether anesthesia, the shaved dorsum of Wistar albino rats was exposed to 90°C water bath for 10 seconds. Captopril was administered intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg) after the burn injury and repeated twice daily. In the sham group, the dorsum was dipped in a 25°C water bath for 10 seconds. At the end of the 24 hours, echocardiographic recordings were performed, then animals were decapitated and heart and lung tissue samples were taken for the determination of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, malondialdehyde and glutathione levels and myeloperoxidase, caspase-3, and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in addition to the histological analysis. Burn injury caused significant alterations in left ventricular function. In heart and lung tissues, TNF-α and malondialdehyde levels and myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities were found to be increased, while glutathione levels and Na+, K+-ATPase activity were decreased due to burn injury. Captopril treatment significantly elevated the reduced glutathione level and Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and decreased cytokine and malondialdehyde levels and myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities. Captopril prevents burn-induced damage in heart and lung tissues and protects against oxidative organ damage.

  9. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Amniotic Membrane for the Treatment of Severe Exposure Keratopathy in the New Zealand White Rabbit Introduction: Patients with severe facial burns...often suffer indirect damage to their eyes as a sequela of ocular surface exposure keratopathy. Burn wound contracture of the periocular skin causes...inflammatory properties, amniotic membrane has developed into a mainstay of treatment to help maintain the ocular surface when skin grafting is delayed

  10. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  11. Treatment of Palm Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

    2005-01-01

    The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...

  12. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  13. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  14. Effect of exercise on burn-induced changes in tissue-specific glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward A; Paul, Kasie; Bonab, Ali A; Tompkins, Ronald G; Fischman, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is a component of the clinical management for burn patients, to help reduce muscle wasting associated with prolonged hospitalization. In the present study the authors examined 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) uptake in mice subjected to burn injury with and without exercise. Mice had their the dorsums shaven, were placed in molds, and the exposed area was immersed in 90°C water for 9 seconds followed by resuscitation with saline (2 ml) to produce a 30% full-thickness burn injury. Twenty-four hours later, the mice were subjected to treadmill exercise for 1 hour. Before exercise, mice were injected with ~50 μCi 18FDG. Mice were killed after running and a complete biodistribution was performed. Exercise produced a stimulation of 18FDG update by skeletal muscle and heart, while reducing 18FDG accumulation in brain. Burn injury had no significant effect on 18FDG update by skeletal muscle, but did increase 18FDG accumulation in heart, while reducing 18FDG accumulation in brain. However, exercise combined with a burn injury produced a significant increase in 18FDG uptake in the skeletal muscle compared with the burned mice, as great as that produced in the sham animals subjected to exercise. The combination of burn plus exercise appeared to prevent the stimulation of 18FDG uptake by the heart produced by burn injury alone. Exercise treatment did not correct the changes in 18FDG uptake in the brain produced by burn injury. Separately, exercise and burn injury significantly increased serum interleukin-6 levels, increases that were higher when exercise was combined with the burn injury. These findings suggest that exercise may exert some therapeutic effects in burn patients by tissue-specific modulation of glucose metabolism, and these changes may be related to interleukin-6.

  15. Burn treatment in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, M; Lumenta, D B; Andel, H; Kamolz, L P; Frey, M

    2009-12-01

    The population of elderly patients is expected to rise continuously over the next decades due to global demographic changes. The elderly seem to be most vulnerable to burns and their management remains undoubtedly a challenge. A clear age margin for elderly patients is not yet defined, but most studies adhere to the inclusion of patients 65 years and above, but the general condition and social situation must be taken into account. The understanding of the physiological basis of aging and its related pathophysiological changes has only marginally influenced treatment and decision making in elderly burn patients. When looking at treatment regimens currently applied in elderly burn patients, the discussion of standards in intensive care as well as surgical strategies is ongoing. However, trends towards a moderate, non-aggressive resuscitation approach and careful inclusion of key parameters like physiological age, pre-burn functional status and premorbid conditions, seem to be useful guidelines for interdisciplinary treatment decisions. Once ordered for surgical treatment, the amount of body surface area operated in one session should be adapted to the general status of the patient. Even if older burn victims have a reported higher mortality rate than younger patients, improved therapeutic options have contributed to a reduced mortality rate even in the elderly over the last decades. As a result of improved outcome, more attention has to be given to a comprehensive rehabilitation program. This review will give an overview of the current literature and will draw attention to specific topics related to this important subpopulation of burn patients.

  16. Erosive burning of solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Merrill K.

    1993-01-01

    Presented here is a review of the experimental and modeling work concerning erosive burning of solid propellants (augmentation of burning rate by flow of product gases across a burning surface). A brief introduction describes the motor design problems caused by this phenomenon, particularly for low port/throat area ratio motors and nozzleless motors. Various experimental techniques for measuring crossflow sensitivity of solid propellant burning rates are described, with the conclusion that accurate simulation of the flow, including upstream flow development, in actual motors is important since the degree of erosive burning depends not only on local mean crossflow velocity and propellant nature, but also upon this upstream development. In the modeling area, a brief review of simplified models and correlating equations is presented, followed by a description of more complex numerical analysis models. Both composite and double-base propellant models are reviewed. A second generation composite model is shown to give good agreement with data obtained in a series of tests in which composite propellant composition and heterogeneity (particle size distribution) were systematically varied. Finally, the use of numerical models for the development of erosive burning correlations is described, and a brief discussion of scaling is presented.

  17. DIFFERENTIATING PERIMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM BURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahmaji Master

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging cases in forensic medicine is ascertaining the cause of death of burnt bodies under suspicious circumstances. The key questions that arise at the time of investigation include: 1  Was the person alive or dead prior to fire accident?  Did the victim die because of burn?  If death was not related to burns, could burns play a role in causing death?  Were the burns sustained accidentally, did the person commit suicide or was the person murdered?  Are the circumstances suggesting an attempt to conceal crime?  How was the fire started?  How was the victim identified?  In case of mass fatalities, who died first? Postmortem burning of corpses is supposed to be one of the ways to hide a crime. Differentiating the actual cause of death in burn patients is therefore important. Medical examiners usually focus on the defining the changes that occur in tissues while forensic anthropologists deal with the changes related to the bone with or without any the influence of other tissues. Under the circumstances of fire, differentiating the perimortem trauma from that of postmortem cause of bone fractures is vital in determining the cause and motive of death

  18. Iron metabolism in burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, J A; Ibáñez, L; Ras, M R; Aulesa, C; Vinzo, J; Iglesias, J; Carol, J

    1999-07-01

    The administration of iron supplementation in children with burns has been a subject of controversy. Recent studies argue against its use in the acute phase of stress. To assess whether iron metabolism parameters show significant differences in the acute phase and the recovery phase of burn, 21 patients (age range: 17 months to 13 years) with burns of more than 10% of body surface who had not received blood transfusions or iron supplementation were studied. Sideraemia, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation index (TSI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed both in the acute and the recovery phase after burn. Sideraemia, transferrin, and TSI were significantly lower in the acute than in the recovery phase (17.3 +/- 3 vs 53.8 +/- 6.6 microg/dL, 190.5 +/- 15 vs 287.9 +/- 14.3 mg/dL and 7.7 +/- 1.3 vs 15.4 +/- 1.6%, P 1.5 vs 0.7 +/- 0.2 mg/dL, P = 0.016 and P 2 years), the observed differences persisted. Hyposideraemia is a frequent finding in the acute phase of paediatric burns and is accompanied by increased ferritin levels and decreased transferrin concentrations. The low iron values tend to recover without the use of iron supplementation suggesting an endogenous block of iron release in the acute phase and indicates that iron therapy should be not recommended in the initial period of stress of the burned patient.

  19. NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHESIS IN MYOCARDIUM FOLLOWING BURN INJURY IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫东; 陈宗荣; 李蓉; 楼淑芳

    1998-01-01

    The nitric oxide and cyclic GMP production in myocardium early after burn injury in tats were investigated. Nitric oxide synthase activity was measured in cytosols from the left ventricular wall of burned rats.Cytosols from the control group animals were shown to contain mainly Ca2+ dependent nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) with small amount of Ca2+ independent nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following burn injury,there was a marked increase in iNOS activity with a peak at 8h post-butyl, however, myocardial cNOS activity was found to decline obviously. Parallel to iNOS induction there was a significant increase in myocardial nitric oxide and cyelic GMP production. All these chenges were alleviated by treatment of the rats with dexamethasone. Since increases in cyclic GMP levels in the heart were associated with reduced myocardial contractility, it is possible that enhanced production of nitric oxide by a Ca2+ independent NO synthase accounts, at least in part, for the depression of myocardial contractility seen in burn animals and patients.

  20. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin Kulahci; Fatih Zor; Mehmet Bozkurt; Serdar Ozturk; Mustafa Sengezer

    2007-01-01

    Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloon...

  1. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  2. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  3. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  4. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  5. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  6. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelman, Robert B. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)

    2004-07-12

    Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis.

  8. Tweens feel the burn: "salt and ice challenge" burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Lauren O; Bell, Derek E

    2016-05-01

    To review our institution's experience with frostbite injury secondary to "salt and ice challenge" (SIC) participation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of intentional freezing burns from 2012 to 2014. Demographics, depth and location of burn, total body surface area of burn, treatment, time to wound healing, length of stay, complications, and motives behind participation were analyzed. Five patients were seen in the emergency department for intentional freezing burns that resulted from SIC (all females; mean age: 12.3 years; range age: 10.0-13.2 years). Mean total body surface area was 0.408%. Salt and ice was in contact with skin for >10 min for two patients, >20 min for two patients, and an unknown duration for one patient. Complications included pain and burn scar dyschromia. Four patients cited peer pressure and desire to replicate SIC as seen on the Internet as their motivation in attempting the challenge. SIC has become a popular, self-harming behavior among youths. Increased public education, and provider and parent awareness of SIC are essential to address this public health concern.

  9. Burn Patient Expectations from Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yilmaz sahin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Burn is a kind of painful trauma that requires a long period of treatment and also changes patients body image. For this reason, nursing care of burn patients is very important. In this study in order to provide qualified care to the burned patients, patient and #8217;s expectations from nurses were aimed to be established. METHODS: Patients and #8217; expectations were evaluated on 101 patients with burn in Ministry of Health Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Burn Service and Gulhane Military Medical Academy Education and Research Hospital Burn Center. A questionnaire which was developed by the researchers was used for collecting data. The questions on the questionnaire were classified into four groups to evaluate the patients and #8217; expectations about communication, information, care and discharge. Data was evaluated by using SPSS 12 package software. RESULTS: In this study, 48.5% of patients were at 18-28 age group, 79.2% were male and 51.5% of patients were employed. Almost all of patients expect nurses to give them confidence (98% and to give them information about latest developments with the disease. Patients prior expectation from nurses about care was to do their treatments regularly (100% and to take the necessary precautions in order to prevent infection (100%. 97% of patient expect nurses to give them information about the drugs, materials and equipment that they are going to use while discharge. CONCLUSION: As a result we found that burn patient expectations from nurses about communication, information, care and discharge were high. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 37-46

  10. Harborview burns--1974 to 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren H Engrav

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1 identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2 make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3 determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4 model mortality over time, during a 36-year period (1974-2009 at the Harborview Burn Center in Seattle, WA, USA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 14,266 consecutive admissions were analyzed in five-year periods and many parameters compared to the National Burn Repository. Fluid resuscitation was compared in five-year periods from 1974 to 2009. Mortality was modeled with the rBaux model. Many changes are highlighted at the end of the manuscript including 1 the large increase in numbers of total and short-stay admissions, 2 the decline in numbers of large burn injuries, 3 that unadjusted case fatality declined to the mid-1980s but has changed little during the past two decades, 4 that race/ethnicity and payer status disparity exists, and 5 that the trajectory to death changed with fewer deaths occurring after seven days post-injury. Administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula during resuscitation of uncomplicated injuries was evident at least by the early 1990s and has continued to the present; the cause is likely multifactorial but pre-hospital fluids, prophylactic tracheal intubation and opioids may be involved. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The dramatic changes include the rise in short-stay admissions; as a result, the model of burn care practiced since the 1970s is still required but is no longer sufficient. 2 Fluid administration in excess of the Baxter formula with uncomplicated injuries began at least two decades ago. 3 Unadjusted case fatality declined to ∼6% in the mid-1980s and changed little since then. The rBaux mortality model is quite accurate.

  11. Harborview burns--1974 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engrav, Loren H; Heimbach, David M; Rivara, Frederick P; Kerr, Kathleen F; Osler, Turner; Pham, Tam N; Sharar, Sam R; Esselman, Peter C; Bulger, Eileen M; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S

    2012-01-01

    Burn demographics, prevention and care have changed considerably since the 1970s. The objectives were to 1) identify new and confirm previously described changes, 2) make comparisons to the American Burn Association National Burn Repository, 3) determine when the administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula began and to identify potential causes, and 4) model mortality over time, during a 36-year period (1974-2009) at the Harborview Burn Center in Seattle, WA, USA. 14,266 consecutive admissions were analyzed in five-year periods and many parameters compared to the National Burn Repository. Fluid resuscitation was compared in five-year periods from 1974 to 2009. Mortality was modeled with the rBaux model. Many changes are highlighted at the end of the manuscript including 1) the large increase in numbers of total and short-stay admissions, 2) the decline in numbers of large burn injuries, 3) that unadjusted case fatality declined to the mid-1980s but has changed little during the past two decades, 4) that race/ethnicity and payer status disparity exists, and 5) that the trajectory to death changed with fewer deaths occurring after seven days post-injury. Administration of fluids in excess of the Baxter formula during resuscitation of uncomplicated injuries was evident at least by the early 1990s and has continued to the present; the cause is likely multifactorial but pre-hospital fluids, prophylactic tracheal intubation and opioids may be involved. 1) The dramatic changes include the rise in short-stay admissions; as a result, the model of burn care practiced since the 1970s is still required but is no longer sufficient. 2) Fluid administration in excess of the Baxter formula with uncomplicated injuries began at least two decades ago. 3) Unadjusted case fatality declined to ∼6% in the mid-1980s and changed little since then. The rBaux mortality model is quite accurate.

  12. [Epidemiological investigation of 615 patients with chemical burns in eastern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yuan-dang

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the epidemiological factors in the first aid, early management, and treatment of chemical burns. Medical records of 615 inpatients with chemical burns out of 2682 burn patients hospitalized from January 2001 to December 2010 were screened to retrospectively analyze the clinical data, including gender, age, burn area and depth, occurrence regularity, injury cause, injury-causing chemicals, wound site, complications, pre-hospital management, treatment and prognosis. Annual number of burn patients and annual number of patients with chemical burns were statistically analyzed with linear trend test. (1) Among all the chemical burn patients, 562 (91.4%) were male and 53 (8.6%) female. The mean age of patients was (32 ± 12) years. Burn area ranged from 1% to 95%, with mean area of (30 ± 25)% TBSA. Full-thickness burn area ranged from 0 to 85%, with mean area of (18 ± 24)% TBSA. (2) The annual number of burn patients showed a slow trend of increase during the last decade (χ(2) = 4.009, P patients with chemical burns among the last decade (χ(2) = 0.060, P > 0.05). Chemical burns mainly occurred in summer and autumn, and the incidence gradually increased in April, peaked in August, and then gradually decreased. (3) Five hundred and seventy-two cases (93.0%) were injured while working, among these patients 70.8% (405/572) were injured in private enterprises. (4) Acid was the most common injury-causing chemical (299 patients, accounting for 48.6%). (5) The extremities and head were the most involved areas. (6) Among 615 patients with chemical burns, 47 cases (7.6%) were complicated by inhalation injury, 94 cases (15.3%) by ocular burns, 51 cases (8.3%) by combined injury, and 67 cases (10.9%) by poisoning. (7) Most patients did not receive (30.4%, 187/615) or only insufficient (61.1%, 376/615) immediate irrigation after injury in pre-hospital management. (8) Two hundred and twelve patients (34.5%) underwent skin grafting or flap transplantation after early

  13. Stability of bacteriophages in burn wound care products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserez, Riet; van Belleghem, Jonas; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; De Vos, Daniel; Verbeken, Gilbert; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages could be used along with burn wound care products to enhance antimicrobial pressure during treatment. However, some of the components of the topical antimicrobials that are traditionally used for the prevention and treatment of burn wound infection might affect the activity of phages. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the counteraction of therapeutic phage preparations by burn wound care products before application in patients. Five phages, representatives of two morphological families (Myoviridae and Podoviridae) and active against 3 common bacterial burn wound pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) were tested against 13 different products commonly used in the treatment of burn wounds. The inactivation of the phages was quite variable for different phages and different products. Majority of the anti-infective products affected phage activity negatively either immediately or in the course of time, although impact was not always significant. Products with high acidity had the most adverse effect on phages. Our findings demonstrate that during combined treatment the choice of phages and wound care products must be carefully defined in advance. PMID:28750102

  14. Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yokelson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicators of BB (HCN and acetonitrile and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually high amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on this peninsula. As smoke from one fire aged, the ratio ΔO3/ΔCO increased to ~15% in <~1 h similar to the fast net production of O3 in BB plumes observed earlier in Africa. The rapid change in O3 occurs at a finer spatial scale than is employed in global models and is also faster than predicted by micro-scale models. Fast increases in PAN, H2O2, and two organic acids were also observed. The amount of secondary organic acid is larger than the amount of known precursors. Rapid secondary formation of organic and inorganic aerosol was observed with the ratio ΔPM2.5/ΔCO more than doubling in ~1.4±0.7 h. The OH measurements revealed high initial OH levels >1×107 molecules/cm3. Thus, more research is needed to understand critical post emission processes for the second-largest trace gas source on Earth. It is estimated that ~44 Tg of biomass burned in the Yucatan in the spring of 2006

  15. Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicators of BB (HCN and acetonitrile and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually high amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on this peninsula. As smoke from one fire aged, the ratio ΔO3/ΔCO increased to ~15% in <~1 h similar to the fast net production of O3 in BB plumes observed earlier in Africa. The rapid change in O3 occurs at a finer spatial scale than is employed in global models and is also faster than predicted by micro-scale models. Fast increases in PAN, H2O2, and two organic acids were also observed. The amount of secondary organic acid is larger than the amount of known precursors. Rapid secondary formation of organic and inorganic aerosol was observed with the ratio ΔPM2.5/ΔCO more than doubling in ~1.4±0.7 h. The OH measurements revealed high initial levels (>1×107 molecules/cm3 that were likely caused in part by high initial HONO (~10% of NOy. Thus, more research is needed to understand critical post emission processes for the second-largest trace gas source on Earth. It is estimated that

  16. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  17. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  18. Animal Bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  19. Alterations of myelin-specific proteins and sphingolipids characterize the brains of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, an animal model of Niemann-Pick disease type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccinnà, Barbara; Piccinini, Marco; Prinetti, Alessandro; Scandroglio, Federica; Prioni, Simona; Valsecchi, Manuela; Votta, Barbara; Grifoni, Silvia; Lupino, Elisa; Ramondetti, Cristina; Schuchman, Edward H; Giordana, Maria Teresa; Sonnino, Sandro; Rinaudo, Maria Teresa

    2009-04-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation in lysosomes relying on reduced or absent acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity. NPD-A patients develop progressive neurodegeneration including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, relevant Purkinje cell and myelin deficiency with death within 3 years. ASM'knock-out' (ASMKO) mice, an animal model of NPD-A, develop a phenotype largely mimicking that of NPD-A. The mechanisms underlying myelin formation are poorly documented in ASMKO mice. In this study we determined the content of four myelin-specific proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP), 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) and proteolipid protein (PLP), and that of myelin-enriched sphingolipids in the brains of ASMKO and wild-type mice in early stages of post-natal (pn) life. Protein and mRNA analysis revealed that in ASMKO mice beginning from 4 post-natal weeks (wk-pn), the expression levels of MAG, CNP, and MBP were below those observed in wild-type mice and the same applied to PLP at 10 wk-pn. Moreover, at 4 wk-pn the expression of SOX10, one of the transcription factors involved in oligodendrocyte development and maintenance was lower in ASMKO mice. Lipid analysis showed that SM and the gangliosides GM3 and GM2 accumulated in the brains of ASMKO mice, as opposed to galactocerebroside and galactosulfocerebroside that, in parallel with the mRNAs of UDP-galactose ceramide galactosyltransferase and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 1, the two transferases involved in their synthesis, decreased. Myelin lipid analysis showed a progressive sphingomyelin accumulation in ASMKO mice; noteworthy, of the two sphingomyelin species known to be resolved by TLC, only that with the lower Rf accumulated. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that the reduced expression of myelin specific proteins in ASMKO mice at 10 wk-pn was not restricted to the Purkinje layer of the

  20. The effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on attention and impulsivity in an animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs, especially omega-3 (n-3 PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficiency of n-3 PUFAs. In addition, the impact of a supply of dietary n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of ADHD has frequently been discussed. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on attention and impulsivity in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR which has been proposed to be a valid genetic animal model of ADHD. Methods: Seven-week-old male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats and fed one of two experimental diets (n-3 PUFA-enriched or n-3 PUFA-deficient prior to and during behavioral testing. Attention and impulsivity were assessed using a three-choiceserial-reaction-time-task (3CSRTT which is based on the five-choice-serial-reaction-timetask. The experiment was performed with three-month-old rats. Results: Our findings demonstrate a marked difference between groups regarding impulsivity but not attention. The n-3 PUFA-enriched diet significantly reduced impulsivity in SHRs compared with rats fed with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. Conclusion: The present data show a decrease in impulsivity following a dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation, but no changes in attention. A possible explanation for these results is that the attention displayed by SHR may not be linked to n-3 PUFA supply. It is important to note that inattention and impulsiveness are two of the main symptoms of ADHD. Our results regarding dietary n-3 PUFA supply may support the positive findings in human studies demonstrating that n-3 PUFA administration

  1. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  2. Animal Flicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érik Bullot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leafing a book quickly creates metamorphoses of its images and illustrations. Cinema as a medium is based on such visual discontinuity.  Both Paolo Gioli, the Italian filmmaker, and Stan Brakhage in America,  made very interesting flicker films with and about insects and butterflies : Farfallìo (1993 and Mothlight (1963. Is the buttefly miming the filmic device? To what extent has a film to disguise its mechanism? What is the relation between animation and the animal? I intend to scrutinize the link between flicker film and animality in regard of camouflage and mimicry.

  3. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  4. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.

  5. LA50 in burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Forootan, K; Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Safari, R; Ghadarjani, M

    2016-03-31

    Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months - 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country.

  6. Topical management of facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Villapalos, Jorge; Jeschke, Marc G; Herndon, David N

    2008-11-01

    The face is the central point of the physical features of the human being. It transmits expressions and emotions, communicates feelings and allows for individual identity. It contains complex musculature and a pliable and unique skin envelope that reacts to the environment through a vast network of nerve endings. The face hosts vital areas that make phonation, feeding, and vision possible. Facial burns disrupt these anatomical and functional structures creating pain, deformity, swelling, and contractures that may lead to lasting physical and psychological sequelae. The management of facial burns may include operative and non-operative treatment or both, depending on the depth and extent of the burn. This paper intends to provide a review of the available options for topical management of facial burns. Topical agents will be defined as any agent applied to the surface of the skin that alters the outcome of the facial burn. Therefore, the classic concept of topical therapy will be expanded and developed within two major stages: acute and rehabilitation. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different treatments and relevant literature will be discussed.

  7. Telemedicine and burns: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, B; Dibo, S A; Janom, H H

    2014-06-30

    Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency.

  8. Effect of exercise on burn induced changes in tissue specific glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Edward A.; Paul, Kasie; Bonab, Ali A.; TOMPKINS, RONALD G.; Fischman, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is a component of the clinical management for the burn patients to help reduce muscle wasting associated with prolonged hospitalization. In the present studies we examined 18FDG uptake in mice subjected burn injury with and without exercise. Mice had their the dorsums shaven, the animals were placed in molds and the exposed area was immersed in 90° water for 9 sec followed by resuscitation with saline (2 ml) to produce a 30% full thickness burn injury. 24 hrs later, the mice were sub...

  9. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same bacterium that has become resistant to certain antibiotics, which can make infections harder to treat. MRSA can be passed back and forth between people and farm animals through direct contact. In humans, MRSA can cause ...

  10. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  11. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers and measures should be taken to minimise inhalation exposure. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking.

  13. Combination of Radiation and Burn Injury Alters FDG Uptake in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward A.; Winter, David; Tolman, Crystal; Paul, Kasie; Hamrahi, Victoria; Tompkins, Ronald; Fischman, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and burn injury have both been shown to alter glucose utilization in vivo. The present study was designed to study the effect of burn injury combined with radiation exposure, on glucose metabolism in mice using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). Groups of male mice weighing approximately 30g were studied. Group 1 was irradiated with a 137Cs source (9 Gy). Group 2 received full thickness burn injury on 25% total body surface area followed by resuscitated with saline (2mL, IP). Group 3 received radiation followed 10 minutes later by burn injury. Group 4 were sham treated controls. After treatment, the mice were fasted for 23 hours and then injected (IV) with 50 µCi of 18FDG. One hour post injection, the mice were sacrificed and biodistribution was measured. Positive blood cultures were observed in all groups of animals compared to the shams. Increased mortality was observed after 6 days in the burn plus radiated group as compared to the other groups. Radiation and burn treatments separately or in combination produced major changes in 18FDG uptake by many tissues. In the heart, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and spleen, radiation plus burn produced a much greater increase (p<0.0001) in 18FDG accumulation than either treatment separately. All three treatments produced moderate decreases in 18FDG accumulation (p<0.01) in the brain and gonads. Burn injury, but not irradiation, increased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle; however the combination of burn plus radiation decreased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle. This model may be useful for understanding the effects of burns + irradiation injury on glucose metabolism and in developing treatments for victims of injuries produced by the combination of burn plus irradiation. PMID:23143615

  14. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Liang

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1 sham group, sham burn treatment; 2 burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; 3 burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  15. Biocompatibility of poly-L-lactic acid, a new synthetic material for skin burn%聚L-乳酸合成新型烧伤材料的生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓立欢

    2015-01-01

    背景:最近有研究表明,高分子聚合物聚L-乳酸具有很好的生物相容性,可直接参与人体代谢且无任何不良反应,是一种可用作生物支架的高分子材料。目的:验证高分子聚合物聚L-乳酸的生物相容性。方法:检测胶原复合物及聚L-乳酸的吸湿性能。分别以正常HDMEM培养基、HDMEM培养基+二甲基亚砜、HDMEM培养基+胶原复合物浸提液、HDMEM培养基+聚L-乳酸浸提液培养C3H10T1/2细胞,72 h后观察细胞形态变化。MTT法检测聚L-乳酸浸提液、二甲基亚砜、胶原复合物浸提液对C3H10T1/2细胞的毒性。在兔血中分别加入生理盐水、蒸馏水、聚L-乳酸浸提液及胶原复合物浸提液,检测溶血度。通过兔耳缘静脉分别注射生理盐水、聚L-乳酸浸提液、二甲基亚砜及胶原复合物浸提液,观察过敏反应、热源反应。将胶原复合物及聚L-乳酸分别植入兔背部皮下,4周后检测血清中炎性因子白细胞介素10和白细胞介素23的水平。结果与结论:胶原复合材料单位质量和单位面积的吸湿率均明显低于聚L-乳酸材料(P <0.05)。在聚L-乳酸浸提液中培养的C3H10T1/2细胞生长状态良好,细胞相对增殖率高,材料毒性为1级;聚L-乳酸材料溶血率较低,无过敏反应及热源反应,植入体内后的炎症反应低于胶原复合材料(P<0.05)。证实聚L-乳酸新型皮肤烧伤支架材料具有良好的吸收伤口液体性能及生物相容性。%BACKGROUND:Recent studies have shown that poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) polymer has good biocompatibility and can be directly involved in human metabolism without any side effects, which is a polymer material that can be used as bioscaffolds. OBJECTIVE:To explore the biocompatibility of PLLA. METHODS:The moisture absorption rate of colagen composite and PLLA was detected. Cel morphology observation was carried to detect the growth state of C3H10T1/2 cels that grew in

  16. Partial-thickness corneal tissue restoration after a chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galan A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Galan, Anton Giulio Catania, Giuseppe Lo Giudice San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital, Padova, Italy Purpose: We describe a case of full-thickness corneal restoration after an acute corneal burn with an acid agent. Methods: A 32-year-old male reported painful discomfort, redness, photophobia, and a decrease in visual acuity in the left eye after a unilateral burn with an acid agent. Slit-lamp examination revealed massive corneal melting involving necrotic sequestrum of the entire corneal surface. Surgical approach was carried out in order to preserve residual ocular tissues. Results: Extensive corneal–conjunctival layer curettage of the necrotic tissue was performed showing perfectly clear undamaged deep lamellar corneal layers. The patient underwent multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation and total capsular–conjunctival flap in order to preserve ocular tissue from further melting or corneal perforation. A complete and spontaneous “restitutio ad integrum” of the corneal layers was shown during the follow-up. The cornea was perfectly clear with restored normal anatomical architecture. Conclusion: In this case, a spontaneous full-thickness corneal tissue restoration occurred after an acute chemical burn. Studies about the mechanisms whereby different cells interact and replicate within the stroma may unveil the biology behind corneal regeneration and transparency. Keywords: amniotic membrane, chemical burn, corneal healing

  17. The Evaluation of Folic Acid-Deficient or Folic Acid-Supplemented Diet in the Gestational Phase of Female Rats and in Their Adult Offspring Subjected to an Animal Model of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canever, L; Alves, C S V; Mastella, G; Damázio, L; Polla, J V; Citadin, S; De Luca, L A; Barcellos, A S; Garcez, M L; Quevedo, J; Budni, J; Zugno, A I

    2017-03-24

    Although folic acid (FA) supplementation is known to influence numerous physiological functions, especially during pregnancy, little is known about its direct effects on the mothers' health. However, this vitamin is essential for the health of the mother and for the normal growth and development of the fetus. Thus, the aim of this study was (1) to evaluate the cognitive effects and biochemical markers produced by the AIN-93 diet (control), the AIN-93 diet supplemented with different doses of FA (5, 10, and 50 mg/kg), and a FA-deficient diet during pregnancy and lactation in female mother rats (dams) and (2) to evaluate the effect of maternal diets on inflammatory parameters in the adult offspring which were subjected to an animal model of schizophrenia (SZ) induced by ketamine (Ket). Our study demonstrated through the Y-maze test that rats subjected to the FA-deficient diet showed significant deficits in spatial memory, while animals supplemented with FA (5 and 10 mg/kg) showed no deficit in spatial memory. Our results also suggest that the rats subjected to the FA-deficient diet had increased levels of carbonylated proteins in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and also increased plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy). Folate was able to prevent cognitive impairments in the rats supplemented with FA (5 and 10 mg/kg), data which may be attributed to the antioxidant effect of the vitamin. Moreover, FA prevented protein damage and elevations in Hcy levels in the rats subjected to different doses of this vitamin (5, 10, and 50 mg/kg). We verified a significant increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-4 (IL-4)) and a reduction in the plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and TNF-α) in the dams that were subjected to the diets supplemented with FA (5, 10, and 50 mg/kg), showing the possible anti-inflammatory effects of FA during pregnancy and lactation. In general, we also found that in the adult offspring that were

  18. Amino acid compositon and microbial contamination of spirulina maxima, a blue-green alga, grown on the effluent of different fermented animal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.F.; Pond, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The nutrient compositions of various fermented manures were compared. Large differences in the mineral concentration were observed. There were no important differences among the amino acid composition of S. spirulina grown on the different nutrient media. All were low in methionine, but were rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, arginine, and leucine. The crude protein content was 71.8-60.1%. Considerable contamination of the waste-grown algae with yeast, fungi, and sporogenous bacteria was experienced.

  19. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF BURNS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A burn is a wound in which there is coagulative necrosis of the tissue, majority of which are caused by heat. Burn injury is a major public health problem in many areas of the world. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pa thogenic microorganisms and by inducing systemic immunosuppression . (1 OBJECTIVE : The present study was therefore undertaken to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial flora in burn patients and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern. MATERIAL & METHODS : A total of 100 patients admitted with different degree of burns were studied. Wound swabs were taken with aseptic precautions by dry sterile cotton swab sticks. These swabs were transported to the microbiology laboratory and the isolates were identified based on standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. RESULT : A total of 127 bacterial pathogens were isolated from 100 patients. Of these, 69% were monomicrobial in nature and 28% wer e polymicrobial. The most frequent cause of infection was found to be Staphylococcus aureus (39.4%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.2%, Klebsiella pneumonia (13.4%, E.coli (8.7% and Acinetobacter species (7.9%.Out of the total Staphylococcus au reus isolates, 19 were Methicillin sensitive and 31 were Methicillin resistant (MRSA. All the MRSA strains were 100% sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were most sensitive to Amikacin (9 4.4%, Fluroquinolones (61.1% . CONCLUSION : Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were major causes of infection in burn wounds. Therefore it is necessary to implement urgent measures for restriction of nosocomial infections, sensible limitation on the use of antimicrobial agents, strict disinfection and hygiene.

  20. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. American Burn Association Practice Guidelines: Burn Shock Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JAN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE American Burn Association...colloid or saline solutions. Clin Sci 1964; 26:429–43. 21. Markley K, Bocanegra M, Bazan A, et al. Clinical evaluation of saline solution therapy in

  2. Neuronal Plasticity Associated with Burn Injury and Its Relevance for Perception and Management of Pain in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence J Coderre

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the introduction of the gate control theory and various subsequent works, Ronald Melzack has inspired many investigators worldwide to realize two important facts about pain. First, incoming pain messages are subject to both negative and positive modulation, which significantly affect its perception. Second, the progression of knowledge about the basic mechanisms underlying persistent and chronic pain is critically dependent on the increased understanding of the complexity of the symptoms experienced by pain patients. The present paper examines these two very important issues in an effort to understand better the mechanisms that underlie the pain suffered by burn patients. The physiological responses to burn injury involve many different mediators and mechanisms, all of which contribute to pain perception and development of neuronal plasticity underlying short and long term changes in pain sensitivity. While experimental burn injuries in humans and animals are typically well controlled and mild, in burn victims, the severity is much more variable, and clinical care involves repeated traumas and manipulations of the injured sites. Recurrent inputs from damaged and redamaged tissue impinge on a nervous system that becomes an active participant in the initiation of changes in sensory perception and maintenance of long term sensory disturbances. Recently acquired experimental evidence on postburn hyperalgesia, central hyperexcitability and changes in opioid sensitivity provides strong support that burn patients need an analgesic approach aimed at preventing or reducing the 'neural' memory of pain, including the use of more than one treatment modality. Burn injuries offer a unique opportunity to combine experimental and clinical research to understand pain mechanisms better. Over the years, Ronald Melzack has insisted that one of the most laudable enterprises in research is to span the gap between these two often separate worlds.

  3. Protect the Ones You Love: Burns Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Youth Violence Prevention Burn Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir We ... to prevent leading causes of child injury, like burns, is a step toward this goal. Every day, ...

  4. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... rare, have ranged from mild to severe chemical burns with use of such brand-name topical muscle ...

  5. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  6. Burn Prevention for Families with Children with Special Needs

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Burns and Scalds Burn Prevention for Families With Children With Special Needs Watch this video to learn ... know about burn prevention if you have a child with special needs. Read our burn prevention tips | ...

  7. Imaging acute thermal burns by photoacoustic microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hao F.; Maslov, Konstantin; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-01-01

    The clinical significance of a burn depends on the percentage of total body involved and the depth of the burn. Hence a noninvasive method that is able to evaluate burn depth would be of great help in clinical evaluation. To this end, photoacoustic microscopy is used to determine the depth of acute thermal burns by imaging the total hemoglobin concentration in the blood that accumulates along the boundaries of injuries as a result of thermal damage to the vasculature. We induce acute thermal ...

  8. Burns, metabolism and nutritional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Machado, N; Gragnani, A; Masako Ferreira, L

    2011-01-01

    To review the nutritional evaluation in burned patient, considering the literature descriptions of nutritional evaluation and energy requirements of these patients. Thermal injury is the traumatic event with the highest metabolic response in critically ill patients. Various mathematical formulas have been developed to estimate nutritional requirements in burned patient. Indirect Calorimetry is the only method considered gold standard for measuring caloric expenditure. A survey of the literature and data was collected based on official data bases, LILACS, EMBASE and PubMed. The metabolic changes involved in hypermetabolism are designed to supply energy to support immune function, brain activity, wound healing, and preservation of body tissues. Body weight is considered the easiest indicator and perhaps the best to assess the nutritional status. The most common formulas utilized in these patients are the Curreri, Pennisi, Schofield, Ireton-Jones, Harris-Benedict and the ASPEN recommendations. For children is the Mayes and World Health Organization formula. The majority of mathematical formulas overestimate the nutritional needs. The regular use of Indirect Calorimetry supplies adequate nutritional support to the burn patient. The traditional nutritional evaluation considers anthropometry, biochemical markers and estimation of nutritional requirements. The weight provides a basis for decisions that are established in the clinical context. Classic parameters can be adapted to intensive care environment. The use of Indirect Calorimetry is crucial to ensure the safety of the nutritional support of burn patients and this should be widely encouraged.

  9. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of previously burned skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric burn reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN; McCauley, RL

    2002-01-01

    Reconstruction after post-burn scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely burned patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites Healed skin from areas that had been burned and skin from grafted areas (termed as previously burned skin) have been occasionally use

  11. Use of previously burned skin as random cutaneous local flaps in pediatric burn reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Herndon, DN; McCauley, RL

    Reconstruction after post-burn scarring remains a challenge. It is especially true in the severely burned patient, who normally presents with a paucity of donor sites Healed skin from areas that had been burned and skin from grafted areas (termed as previously burned skin) have been occasionally

  12. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  13. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  14. MHD control in burning plasmas MHD control in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Tony; Liang, Yunfeng

    2012-07-01

    Fusion physics focuses on the complex behaviour of hot plasmas confined by magnetic fields with the ultimate aim to develop a fusion power plant. In the future generation of tokamaks like ITER, the power generated by the fusion reactions substantially exceeds the external input power (Pfusion}/Pin >= 10). When this occurs one speaks of a burning plasma. Twenty per cent of the generated fusion power in a burning plasma is carried by the charged alpha particles, which transfer their energy to the ambient plasma in collisions, a process called thermalization. A new phenomenon in burning plasmas is that the alpha particles, which form a minority but carry a large fraction of the plasma kinetic energy, can collectively drive certain types of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) modes, while they can suppress other MHD modes. Both types of MHD modes can have desirable effects on the plasma, as well as be detrimental to the plasma. For example, the so-called sawtooth instability, on the one hand, is largely responsible for the transport of the thermalized alpha particles out of the core, but, on the other hand, may result in the loss of the energetic alphas before they have fully thermalized. A further undesirable effect of the sawtooth instability is that it may trigger other MHD modes such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). These NTMs, in turn, are detrimental to the plasma confinement and in some cases may even lead to disruptive termination of the plasma. At the edge of the plasma, finally, so-called edge localized modes or ELMs occur, which result in extremely high transient heat and particle loads on the plasma-facing components of a reactor. In order to balance the desired and detrimental effects of these modes, active feedback control is required. An additional complication occurs in a burning plasma as the external heating power, which is nowadays generally used for plasma control, is small compared to the heating power of the alpha particles. The scientific challenge

  15. Clinical and forensic signs related to chemical burns: a mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Carvalho, Félix; Moreira, Roxana; Proença, Jorge Brandão; Santos, Agostinho; Duarte, José Alberto; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Magalhães, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript highlights and critically analyses clinical and forensic signs related to chemical burns. Signs that may lead to suspicion of a particular chemical are thoroughly discussed regarding its underlying mechanisms. Burns due to sulfuric, hydrofluoric, nitric, hydrochloric (muriatic) and acetic (including derivatives) acids, hydrogen sulphide, sodium (caustic soda) and calcium (cement) hydroxides, paraquat, burns after inflation and rupture of airbags, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine/alcohol (in preterm infants), laxatives, and vesicants (warfare agents), will be reviewed since these are the most common agents found in daily practice, for which relevant and timed information may be helpful in formulating an emergency treatment protocols and toxicological analysis.

  16. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  17. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  18. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  19. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  20. Curriculum Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  1. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  2. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...

  3. Intentional burns in Nepal: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Bir Bahadur; Duke, Janine M; Sharma, Narayan Prasad; Thapa, Buland; Dahal, Peeyush; Bariya, Nara Devi; Marston, Wendy; Wallace, Hilary J

    2015-09-01

    Intentional burns injuries are associated with high mortality rates, and for survivors, high levels of physical and psychological morbidity. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of intentional burn admissions to the adult Burns Unit at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, during the period 2002-2013. A secondary data analysis of de-identified data of patients hospitalized at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, with a burn during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2013. Socio-demographic, injury and psychosocial factors of patients with intentional and unintentional burns are described and compared. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine statistical significance. There were a total of 1148 burn admissions of which 329 (29%) were for intentional burn, 293 (26%) were self-inflicted and 36 (3%) were due to assault. Mortality rates for intentional burns were approximately three times those for unintentional burns (60 vs. 22%). When compared to unintentional burns, patients with intentional burns were more likely to be female (79 vs. 48%), married (84 vs. 67%), younger (25 vs. 30 years), have more extensive burns (total body surface area, %: 55 vs. 25) and higher mortality (60 vs. 22%). Intentional burns were more likely to occur at home (95 vs. 67%), be caused by fire (96 vs. 77%), and kerosene was the most common accelerant (91 vs. 31%). A primary psychosocial risk factor was identified in the majority of intentional burn cases, with 60% experiencing adjustment problems/interpersonal conflict and 32% with evidence of a pre-existing psychological condition. A record of alcohol/substance abuse related to the patient or other was associated with a greater proportion of intentional burns when compared with unintentional burns (17 vs. 4%). The majority of intentional burn patients were female. Almost all intentional burns occurred in the home and were caused by fire, with kerosene the most common accelerant used. Underlying

  4. Natural and synthetic polymers for wounds and burns dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2014-03-25

    In the last years, health care professionals faced with an increasing number of patients suffering from wounds and burns difficult to treat and heal. During the wound healing process, the dressing protects the injury and contributes to the recovery of dermal and epidermal tissues. Because their biocompatibility, biodegradability and similarity to macromolecules recognized by the human body, some natural polymers such as polysaccharides (alginates, chitin, chitosan, heparin, chondroitin), proteoglycans and proteins (collagen, gelatin, fibrin, keratin, silk fibroin, eggshell membrane) are extensively used in wounds and burns management. Obtained by electrospinning technique, some synthetic polymers like biomimetic extracellular matrix micro/nanoscale fibers based on polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polyacrylic acid, poly-ɛ-caprolactone, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, exhibit in vivo and in vitro wound healing properties and enhance re-epithelialization. They provide an optimal microenvironment for cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, peculiar structure and good mechanical properties. Thus, synthetic polymers are used also in regenerative medicine for cartilage, bone, vascular, nerve and ligament repair and restoration. Biocompatible with fibroblasts and keratinocytes, tissue engineered skin is indicated for regeneration and remodeling of human epidermis and wound healing improving the treatment of severe skin defects or partial-thickness burn injuries.

  5. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Care for the Critically Injured Burn Patient Modulation of Burn Scars Through Laser Deliver of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Nucleic acid analysis would rely on development of porcine specific primers. We have developed and verified porcine specific primers for Collagen ...effectiveness of these novel delivery systems and cell-based therapies for third degree burns in a porcine model. We will test the hypothesis that...treated samples. There was a tendency to observe thickened (keloidal) collagen bundles throughout the superficial, mid and deep dermis in control

  7. [Disposal of animal byproducts, dead and slaughtered animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilemann, M

    2002-08-01

    The current state of epidemiological knowledge about BSE clearly indicates that certain practices in carcass rendering had a significant impact on maintenance and spreading of BSE in the cattle population. This awareness did not come up spontaneously. As a reflection community legislation continuously developed and still does. The decisive move was done in the year 2000 by eliminating ruminant tissues with a high infectious potential with regard to BSE (specified risk material--SRM) from the human and animal feed chains. This step as well as the subsequent feed ban for all farm animals dramatically changed the logistical as well as the economical preconditions of the rendering industry. In fact the basic treatment (pressure cooking) remained almost unchanged. But instead of physically recycling the products they are nowadays predominantly used as an energy source in industry. In case of products that originate from the treatment of SRM burning is mandatory. These changes require a well adapted and intensified official supervision.

  8. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  9. Love burns: An essay about bride burning in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Rajni K; Heimbach, David

    2004-01-01

    Each year in countries like India, thousands of young women are burned to death or afflicted with fatal burns. They are victims of dowry deaths. The husband and/or in-laws have determined that the dowry, a gift given from the daughter's parents to the husband, was inadequate and therefore attempt to murder the new bride to make the husband available to remarry or to punish the bride and her family. Unfortunately, this is a domestic issue that is often ignored or minimized, and the prosecution is often inadequate. This review article illustrates various scenarios of dowry deaths, investigates different predispositions, summarizes the current legislation, and proposes solutions to this problem. One hopes that the exposure of this problem may curtail its rampant, yet well-hidden, prevalence.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of a food waste valorization process via microalgae cultivation and co-production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed from algal biomass and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Venus, Joachim; Pommeret, Aude; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-12-01

    A techno-economic study of food waste valorization via fungal hydrolysis, microalgae cultivation and production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed was simulated and evaluated by Super-Pro Designer®. A pilot-scale plant was designed with a capacity of 1 metric ton day(-1) of food waste with 20 years lifetime. Two scenarios were proposed with different products: Scenario (I) plasticizer & lactic acid, Scenario (II) plasticizer & animal feed. It was found that only Scenario I was economically feasible. The annual net profits, net present value, payback period and internal rate of return were US$ 422,699, US$ 3,028,000, 7.56 years and 18.98%, respectively. Scenario II was not economic viable due to a deficit of US$ 42,632 per year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the price of lactic acid was the largest determinant of the profitability in Scenario I, while the impact of the variables was very close in Scenario II.

  11. Criterious preparation and characterization of earthworm-composts in view of animal waste recycling. Part I. Correlation between chemical, thermal and FTIR spectroscopic analyses of four humic acids from earthworm-composted animal manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangrich Antonio S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids (HA were extracted from sheep (SH, cow (CO, goat (GO and rabbit (RA manures which were vermicomposted with the earthworm Eisenia foetida. HA DSC curves showed well-defined thermal events indicative of intramolecular bonds (300 ºC and intermolecular organo-mineral linkages (500 ºC. All samples showed high nitrogen contents (from peptide chains and probably N-heterocycles and aromatic and/or unsaturated aliphatic conjugated structures, as well as a low carboxylic functionality content. The SH-HA was the most similar to a medium soil HA and the RA-HA being the least similar. The results show that it is possible to prepare distinct worm-composts to solve specific problems of degraded soils.

  12. Randomized-controlled trial of esomeprazole in functional dyspepsia patients with epigastric pain or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talley, N J; Vakil, N; Lauritsen, K;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early identification of true responders to acid suppression in functional dyspepsia patients with symptoms of epigastric pain or burning may enable clinicians to optimally tailor treatment. AIM: To evaluate whether a 1-w acid suppression trial is useful for identifying true responders...

  13. Pediatric burn rehabilitation: Philosophy and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Ohgi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a huge public health issue for children throughout the world, with the majority occurring in developing countries. Burn injuries can leave a pediatric patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of pediatric burn treatment. The aim of this article was to review the literature on pediatric burn rehabilitation from the Medline, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases. An attempt has been made to present the basic aspects of burn rehabilitation, provide practical information, and discuss the goals and conceptualization of rehabilitation as well as the development of rehabilitation philosophy and strategies.

  14. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  15. New type of sauna-related burn: conductive contact burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Jun; Yoo, Heon; Park, Myong Chul

    2013-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman visited a Korean-style hot dry sauna room. The patient had a medical history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. During the sauna, the patient slept for 30 minutes. During the sleep, the right medial thigh was covered with a fully wet towel. The patient sustained a second-degree burn on the right medial thigh area with multiple bullas. On physical examination, erythema, heating sensation, and swelling around the bullas were noted. The patient was admitted and received intravenous antibiotics for 7 days. A dressing with Silmazine 1% cream (sulfadiazine) was applied twice a day for prevention of local infection. The patient was discharged on day 14 without complication. In this case, the mechanism of the burn was different. Hot air has much thermal energy but is not conducted to the skin directly. A wet towel will have a relatively higher thermal capacity or heat capacity than a dry or damp towel, and the sodden water might be a medium for the conduction of thermal energy. Owing to the global popularity of sauna bathing, it is important to recognize all sources of sauna-related burns.

  16. Modelling burned area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehsten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of current and projected wildfires is essential for predicting crucial aspects of vegetation patterns, biogeochemical cycling as well as pyrogenic emissions across the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize two burned area models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs and Earth system models (ESMs. We restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or that are calculated by DVMs, and we consider a spatial scale of one degree as the scale typical for DVMs and ESMs. By using the African continent here as an example, an analogue approach could in principle be adopted for other regions, for global scale dynamic burned area modelling.

    We used 9 years of data (2000–2008 for the variables: precipitation over the last dry season, the last wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index, population density, and annual proportion of area burned derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Two further variables, tree and herb cover were only available for 2001 as a remote sensing product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on burning conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too, and we were able to relate the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the daily Nesterov index.

    We parameterized two generalized linear models (GLMs, one with the full variable set (model VC and one considering only climate variables (model C. All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model VC correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone areas though the total variability is underrepresented. Model VC has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of burned area: 0.71 for model VC and 0.58 for model C. We expect the remaining variability to be attributed to additional

  17. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  18. Animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gisela

    2014-11-01

    Animal communication is first and foremost about signal transmission and aims to understand how communication occurs. It is a field that has contributed to and been inspired by other fields, from information technology to neuroscience, in finding ever better methods to eavesdrop on the actual 'message' that forms the basis of communication. Much of this review deals with vocal communication as an example of the questions that research on communication has tried to answer and it provides an historical overview of the theoretical arguments proposed. Topics covered include signal transmission in different environments and different species, referential signaling, and intentionality. The contention is that animal communication may reveal significant thought processes that enable some individuals in a small number of species so far investigated to anticipate what conspecifics might do, although some researchers think of such behavior as adaptive or worth dismissing as anthropomorphizing. The review further points out that some species are more likely than others to develop more complex communication patterns. It is a matter of asking how animals categorize their world and which concepts require cognitive processes and which are adaptive. The review concludes with questions of life history, social learning, and decision making, all criteria that have remained relatively unexplored in communication research. Long-lived, cooperative social animals have so far offered especially exciting prospects for investigation. There are ample opportunities and now very advanced technologies as well to tap further into expressions of memory of signals, be they vocal or expressed in other modalities. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:661-677. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1321 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational burns treated in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Audrey A; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L

    2015-03-01

    Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15-24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard

    2014-06-01

    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. First-aid with warm water delays burn progression and increases skin survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalem, M; Harder, Y; Tschanz, E; Speidel, V; Pittet-Cuénod, B; Wettstein, R

    2013-02-01

    First aid treatment for thermal injuries with cold water removes heat and decreases inflammation. However, perfusion in the ischemic zone surrounding the coagulated core can be compromised by cold-induced vasoconstriction and favor burn progression. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of local warming on burn progression in the rat comb burn model. 24 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either no treatment (control) or application of cold (17 °C) or warm (37 °C) water applied for 20 min. Evolution of burn depth, interspace necrosis, and microcirculatory perfusion were assessed with histology, planimetry, respectively with Laser Doppler flowmetry after 1 h, as well as 1, 4, and 7 days. Consistent conversion from a superficial to a deep dermal burn within 24 h was obtained in control animals. Warm and cold water significantly delayed burn depth progression, however after 4 days the burn depth was similar in all groups. Interspace necrosis was significantly reduced by warm water treatment (62±4% vs. 69±5% (cold water) and 82±3% (control); pcold water and 80±2% for control, pwater provided an additional benefit by improving the microcirculatory perfusion, which translated into increased tissue survival. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simvastatin Treatment Improves Survival in a Murine Model of Burn Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffa, David C; Fischman, Alan J.; Fagan, Shawn P.; Hamrahi, Victoria F.; Kaneki, Masao; Yu, Yong-Ming; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Carter, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Infection is the most common and most serious complication of a major burn injury related to burn size. Despite improvements in antimicrobial therapies sepsis still accounts for 50–60% of deaths in burn patients. Given the acute onset and unpredictable nature of sepsis, primary prevention was rarely attempted in its management. However, recent studies have demonstrated that statin treatment can decrease mortality is a murine model of sepsis by preservation of cardiac function and reversal of inflammatory alterations. In addition, it has been shown that treatment with statins is associated with reduced incidence of sepsis in human patients. In the current study groups of CD1 male mice (n=12) were anesthetized and subjected to a dorsal 30% TBSA scald burn injury. Starting 2 hours post burn, the animals were divided into a treatment group receiving 0.2 µ/g simvastatin or a sham group receiving placebo. Simvastatin and placebo were administered by intraperitoneal injection with two dosing regimens; once daily and every 12 hours. On Post burn day 7 cecal ligation and puncture with a 21-gauge needle was performed under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia and the two different dosing schedules were continued. A simvastatin dose dependant improvement in survival was observed in the burn sepsis model. PMID:21145172

  4. [Current treatment strategies for paediatric burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küntscher, M V; Hartmann, B

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric burns occupy the third place in the severe accident statistics in Germany after traffic injuries and drowning. The paper reviews current treatment concepts of pre-hospital management, fluid resuscitation and surgical therapy in paediatric burned patients. Specific features in the approximation of the total body surface area burn and indications for transfer of paediatric burn victims to specialized units are discussed. The therapy of severe paediatric burns requires an interdisciplinary team consisting of especially skilled plastic or paediatric surgeons,anaesthetists, psychiatrists or psychologists, specifically trained nurses, physiotherapists and social workers. The rehabilitation process starts basically with admission to the burn unit. A tight cooperation between therapists and the relatives of the paediatric burn victim is needed for psychological recovery and reintegration into society.'The adaptation to the suffered trauma resulting in life-long disability and disfigurement is the main task of psychotherapy.

  5. Septicemia: The Principal Killer of Burns Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury is a major problem in many areas of the world and it has been estimated that 75% of all deaths following burns are related to infection. Burns impair the skin’s normal barrier function thus allowing microbial colonization of the burn wounds and even with the use of topical antimicrobial agents, contamination is almost unavoidable. It is therefore essential for every burn institution to determine its specific pattern of burn wound microbial colonization, time related changes in predominant flora and antimicrobial resistance profiles. This would allow early management of septic episodes with proper empirical systemic antibiotics before the results of microbiologic culture becomes available, thus improving the overall infection-related morbidity and mortality. We attempted to examine the factors affecting risk of infection; strategies for infection control and prevention in burn victims.

  6. Adult campfire burns: two avenues for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Heimbach, David M; Honari, Shari; Engrav, Loren H; Gibran, Nicole S

    2005-01-01

    Campfires are a common component of outdoor festivities. Pediatric campfire burns have been well described. Adult campfire injuries also are common and have several important distinguishing characteristics. We performed a retrospective review of adult patients admitted with campfire burns to our burn center from July 1998 to July 2003. Medical records were reviewed with attention to mechanism of injury, intoxication level, burn size, and surgeries performed. A total of 27 patients with this injury were treated as inpatients over the course of the study period. Two distinct mechanisms of injury emerged: 1) contact with the campfire and 2) flash/flame injuries from igniting the fire. Eighty-one percent (13/16) of patients who sustained contact burns were intoxicated, as compared with 11% (1/11) of those who sustained flash/flame injuries. Nearly half of the patients with contact burns and more than half the patients with flash/flame burns required excision and grafting.

  7. BURN SEVERITY MAPPING IN AUSTRALIA 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. McKinley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment estimated approximately 430,000 hectares of Victoria Australia were burned by numerous bushfires. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER teams from the United States were deployed to Victoria to assist local fire managers. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (USGS/EROS and U.S. Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (USFS/RSAC aided the support effort by providing satellite-derived "soil burn severity " maps for over 280,000 burned hectares. In the United States, BAER teams are assembled to make rapid assessments of burned lands to identify potential hazards to public health and property. An early step in the assessment process is the creation of a soil burn severity map used to identify hazard areas and prioritize treatment locations. These maps are developed primarily using Landsat satellite imagery and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR algorithm.

  8. Pre-hospital care in burn injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Prabhat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The care provided to the victims of burn injury immediately after sustaining burns can largely affect the extent and depth of the wound. Although standard guidelines have been formulated by various burn associations, they are still not well known to public at large in our country. In burn injuries, most often, the bystanders are the first care providers. The swift implementation of the measures described in this article for first aid in thermal, chemical, electrical and inhalational injuries in the practical setting, within minutes of sustaining the burn, plays a vital role and can effectively reduce the morbidity and mortality to a great extent. In case of burn disasters, triage needs to be carried out promptly as per the defined protocols. Proper communication and transport from the scene of the accident to the primary care centre and onto the burn care facility greatly influences the execution of the management plans

  9. Polarized Reflectance Measurement of Burned Skin Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.

    2011-10-01

    In the US, there are over 400,000 burn victims with 3,500 deaths in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that early removal of burn tissues can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since burns continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that burns trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore, it is important to distinguish burn areas so that it can be removed. The problem with this is that it is difficult to recognize the margins of the burn area. In our project, we use polarized reflectance as a tool to identify the burned tissues from unburned ones.

  10. Opposite effects of prostacyclin on hepatic blood flow and oxygen consumption after burn and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Tamer; Traber, Daniel L; Herndon, David N

    2004-01-01

    Burn and sepsis are associated with hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury. This study examines the hypothesis that postburn treatment with the vasodilator prostacyclin would be beneficial for hepatic perfusion and oxygenation. Female pigs (n = 18, 20-25 kg) underwent laparotomy, during which ultrasonic flow probes were placed on the portal vein and the common hepatic artery. Catheters were inserted in the superior mesenteric and left hepatic veins. After 5 days, all animals were anesthetized and 12 of them received 40% total body surface area third-degree burn; 100 microg/kg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was intravenously administered 18 hours postburn. Burned animals were randomized to receive a constant infusion of iloprost (20 ng/kg per minute) or an equivalent amount of carrier solution (normal saline). All animals were studied for 42 hours. Burn caused a 2.5-fold increase in hepatic arterial vascular resistance (HAVR) and a 39% decrease in hepatic arterial blood flow (HABF). Postburn administration of iloprost did not improve the hepatic arterial hemodynamics (1.8-fold increase in HAVR and 38% decrease in HABF). Post-LPS, HABF was significantly reduced to 22% of baseline and HAVR was 15-fold increased (P portal venous blood flow (PVBF, 79% of baseline vs. 45% of baseline in nontreated animals, P Portal venous pressure showed 16% and 56% increases after burn and endotoxin, respectively. Portal hypertension did not occur in iloprost-treated animals, as portal venous pressure remained within baseline range (P oxygen delivery (hDO2, 63% and 12% of baseline, respectively) and hepatic oxygen consumption (hVO2, 61% and 21% of baseline, respectively). Only during the postburn endotoxic phase, iloprost improved hDO2 and hVO2 (140% and 79%, respectively; P oxygenation. In addition, prostacyclin treatment attenuated burn- and endotoxin-induced portal hypertension.

  11. Physico-chemical characterisation of lipids from Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.) and Rapana venosa and their healing properties on skin burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiu, Diana L; Balu, Alina M; Barbes, Lucica; Luque, Rafael; Nita, Roxana; Radu, Marius; Tanase, Ecaterina; Rosoiu, Natalia

    2008-09-01

    Black Sea molluscs and gastropods are the most studied organisms from the Romanian littoral zone. In particular, those from the Mytilidae species are of great interest because biochemical investigations have shown that they can be sources of biological active substances which can have different applications (e.g. food additives). We report here the extraction of lipids from two different species of molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis L., Mediterranean mussel) and gastropods (Rapana venosa, hard-shell clam). The extracts were evaluated in terms of antioxidant and composition properties and their healing properties were tested on skin burns in Wistar rats. Our studies proved that the two lipid extracts contained a relatively complex distribution of compounds, in terms of characteristic indices, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamins E and D. The presence of such compounds rendered the extracts very efficient in healing induced skin burns in Wistar rats. The histological analysis showed a reduction in the time of healing (12-13 and 13-15 days for the Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.) Rapana venosa extracts, respectively) compared to 20-22 for untreated animals, based on results from tissues and blood samples. Our investigations have been proved to be promising in terms of future potential applications of the extracts as skin-care products, cosmetics and/or pharmaceutical preparations owing to their dermorestitutive properties.

  12. Animation of Sequoia Forest Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Continued hot, dry weather in the American west contributed to the spread of numerous fires over the weekend of July 29-30, 2000. This is the most active fire season in the United States since 1988, when large portions of Yellowstone National Park burned. One of the largest fires currently burning has consumed more than 63,000 acres in Sequoia National Forest. This NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) image shows the fire on the afternoon of July 30, 2000. Note the clouds above the smoke plume. These often form during large fires because updrafts lift warm air near the ground high into the atmosphere, cooling the air and causing the water vapor it contains to condense into droplets. The soot particles in the smoke also act as condensation nuclei for the droplets. View the animation of GOES data to see the smoke forming clouds. Image and Animation by Robert Simmon and Marit-Jentoft Nilsen, NASA GSFC, based on data from NOAA.

  13. Fluconazole Pharmacokinetics in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Bradley A.; King, Stephen R.; Wandschneider, Heidi L.; Hickerson, William L.; Hanes, Scott D.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Canada, Todd W.; Hess, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in nine adult patients with severe (30 to 95% total body surface area) burns were studied. There was no significant difference in half-life (t1/2), clearance (CL), or volume of distribution (V) over time in five patients on days 3 and 8 of the study (P > 0.05). Combined parameter estimates (means ± standard deviations) for all nine patients for the two study periods were as follows: t1/2, 24.4 ± 5.8 h; CL, 0.36 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; and V, 0.72 ± 0.12 liters/kg. These estimates of t1/2 and CL in burn patients were approximately 13% shorter and 30% more rapid, respectively, than the most extreme estimates reported for other populations. PMID:9559811

  14. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  15. Southeast U.S. burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Human beings were responsible for most of 12,000 forest fires in the southeastern United States that burned for 10 days in late October and early November 1987. 910 km2, mostly hardwood forest, were destroyed in the fires, with arson and carelessness as the primary causes, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Measured in monetary terms, the toll was more than $40 million in resource and property damage. While the amount of forest burned did not rival the 3390 km2 lost to fires in the western United States last summer, the human impact was severe in the southeast and all along the East Coast. Favorable winds blew smoke from the southern and central Appalachians as far north as New England and as far east as Delaware, and cool fall air close to the ground prevented the smoke from rising, thickening the air in many northeastern cities on November 8 and 9.

  16. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    , the advanced gasifiers and automatic stoves (Digital and Forced air) were identified to be among the best performing technologies. In spite of the fact that the thermal efficiency of the most advanced type of heating stoves (Gasifier) is around twice larger than that achieved for the most advanced type......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use...

  17. Corneoscleral burn during phacoemulsification surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M A; Sharma, M K; Harding, S P

    1998-10-01

    We report a case in which a severe corneoscleral burn occurred during phacoemulsification surgery. The equipment-tuning process was uneventful and routine surgery was expected. Severe tissue injury occurred because the anterior chamber collapsed momentarily and the phaco tip touched corneoscleral tissue. We discuss mechanisms by which this type of injury may occur and the likely cause in our case. We also suggest methods to reduce the incidence.

  18. Burn injuries related to suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persley, G V; Pegg, S P

    1981-02-07

    Of 1060 admissions to the burns unit, Royal Brisbane Hospital, over a 12-year period, there were 30 cases (2.8%) of attempted suicide. Fourteen (47%) of these patients died. The psychosocial features of people using self-ignition as a method of suicide are consistent with those of suicide in general. The morbidity if high and the outcome is often fatal, especially for those using a flammable liquid.

  19. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. American Burn Association Consensus Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    medications (eg, propranolol , morphine, sertraline)13,15,16 should be a research pri- ority. Improved pain management has also been sug- gested as a...2000;232:455–65. 2. Jeschke MG, Norbury WB, Finnerty CC, Branski LK, Herndon DN. Propranolol does not increase inflammation, sepsis, or infectious...SE, Matin S, Herndon DN, Wolfe RR. A submaximal dose of insulin promotes net skel- etal muscle protein synthesis in patients with severe burns. Ann

  1. Rehabilitation of the Burned Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    13 Mallet and swan-neck deformities Thermal injury to the terminal slip of the extensor tendon can result in loss of DIP joint extension or mallet...deformity. Injury to the terminal slip can be a result of direct thermal injury or tendon ischemia induced as the injured tendon is compressed between...elastic bandage or self-adherent wrap may be necessary. Cotton socks over the splint may prevent the child from removing the splint. Contact burns

  2. American Burn Association consensus conference to define sepsis and infection in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Holmes, James H; Gamelli, Richard L; Palmieri, Tina L; Horton, Jureta W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Traber, Daniel L; Mozingo, David W; Deitch, Edwin A; Goodwin, Cleon W; Herndon, David N; Gallagher, James J; Sanford, Art P; Jeng, James C; Ahrenholz, David H; Neely, Alice N; O'Mara, Michael S; Wolf, Steven E; Purdue, Gary F; Garner, Warren L; Yowler, Charles J; Latenser, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Because of their extensive wounds, burn patients are chronically exposed to inflammatory mediators. Thus, burn patients, by definition, already have "systemic inflammatory response syndrome." Current definitions for sepsis and infection have many criteria (fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis) that are routinely found in patients with extensive burns, making these current definitions less applicable to the burn population. Experts in burn care and research, all members of the American Burn Association, were asked to review the literature and prepare a potential definition on one topic related to sepsis or infection in burn patients. On January 20, 2007, the participants met in Tucson, Arizona to develop consensus for these definitions. After review of the definitions, a summary of the proceedings was prepared. The goal of the consensus conference was to develop and publish standardized definitions for sepsis and infection-related diagnoses in the burn population. Standardized definitions will improve the capability of performing more meaningful multicenter trials among burn centers.

  3. [Treatment of burns in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L

    1995-10-01

    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  4. Epidemiologic evaluation of patients with major burns and recommendations for burn prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftçi, Ilhan; Arslan, Kemal; Altunbaş, Zeynep; Kara, Fatih; Yilmaz, Hüseyin

    2012-03-01

    Burns are an important health problem in our country and in the world. In our study, we aimed to epidemiologically analyze the patients who were hospitalized in a burn unit that serves 3 million individuals in Central Anatolia. Records of 457 patients who had been hospitalized in the burn unit during the period 2008-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were assessed in terms of gender, age, burn area, burn depth, admission time to the health center, burn region, and factors causing burns. Most (44.6%) of the patients were in the 0-5 age group. Burn surface area was detected as 11.6 +/- 8.5%. Patients had reached the health center in 252.8 +/- 892.5 minutes. While 82.7% of the patients had second degree bums, 17.3% had third degree burns. Most burns were on the extremities (39.6%). The most common burn agent was scalds with hot liquids (54.1%). In our study, children in the 0-5 age group were found to be the most commonly affected group with respect to indoor burns. The basic contributing factor is that children spend more time in the house and are more active. Scalding burns may be prevented when greater care is taken when using hot liquids that may lead to indoor burns. Informing parents on this issue is of first priority.

  5. Molecular characterization of urban organic aerosol in tropical India: contributions of biomass/biofuel burning, plastic burning, and fossil fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular composition of PM10 samples, collected at Chennai in tropical India, was studied using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twelve organic compound classes were detected in the aerosols, including aliphatic lipids, sugar compounds, lignin products, terpenoid biomarkers, sterols, aromatic acids, phthalates, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. At daytime, phthalates was found to be the most abundant compound class; while at nighttime, fatty acids was the dominant one. Concentrations of total quantified organics were higher in summer (611–3268 ng m−3, average 1586 ng m−3 than in winter (362–2381 ng m−3, 1136 ng m−3, accounting for 11.5±1.93% and 9.35±1.77% of organic carbon mass in summer and winter, respectively. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, C16 fatty acid, and levoglucosan were identified as the most abundant single compounds. The nighttime maxima of most organics in the aerosols indicate a land/sea breeze effect in tropical India, although some other factors such as local emissions and long-range transport may also influence the composition of organic aerosols. The abundances of anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, lignin and resin products, hopanes and PAHs in the Chennai aerosols suggest that biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion are significant sources of organic aerosols in tropical India. Interestingly, terephthalic acid was maximized at nighttime, which is different from those of phthalic and isophthalic acids. A positive correlation was found between the concentration of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (a tracer for plastic burning and terephthalic acid, suggesting that field burning of municipal solid wastes including plastics is a significant source of terephthalic acid. This study demonstrates that, in addition to biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, the open-burning of plastics also contributes to the organic

  6. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  7. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... the possibilities of re-appropriating digital software, game engines, and other tools available in digital media. The machinima film scenes demonstrate how war-related stories resemiotize, such as how meaning-making transforms from a story in a war game context to a film context. Thereby, machinima exemplifies how...

  8. Characterization of the products formed by the reaction of trichlorocyanuric acid with 2-propanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, P Mark L; Barnett, Julie S

    2009-11-01

    We report a recent investigation into the death of a cat that was initially thought to involve intentionally burning the animal via the use of an ignitable liquid. The exposure of the animal to flame was ruled out. Instead, forensic investigation revealed the intentional mixing together of a common outdoor swimming pool chlorinator, trichlorocyanuric acid (TCCA), and 2-propanol (aka, isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol). The reaction of these two chemicals resulted in the formation of cyanuric acid residue, hydrochloric acid, and the evolution of a significant volume of chlorine gas. Further alpha-chlorination side reactions also occurred between 2-propanol and TCCA to produce a variety of chlorinated 2-propanone species that were detected on the submitted evidence. The identification of the products of both the main reaction and the side reactions allowed the authors to determine what chemicals were originally mixed together by the culprit.

  9. Self-inflicted burns in soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronovich, Yoav; Binenboym, Rami; Tuchman, Izhak; Eizenman, Nirit; Golan, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Self-inflicted burns are a multidisciplinary medical challenge. In contrast to the more common motive of attempted suicide in self-infliction of a burn, usually of a serious degree, a second motive is malingering. Motivation of this nature has been exhibited among Israeli soldiers who inflict on themselves low- to moderate-degree burns to obtain dismissal from mandatory military service. The purpose of our study is to investigate and define this phenomenon. A retrospective analysis was performed on a population of 75 soldiers admitted to our Medical Center during the year 2010 with the diagnosis of any sort of burn. We set up a database including all relevant information about the burns including date and time of occurrence, cause, body location, depth of burn injury, area and shape of burn, etiology, and prescribed treatment. The summer was found to be the season with the highest incidence of burns. As far as the day of the week was influential, we found that the greater percentage of burns occurred at the beginning of the week. Most of the burns involved a minor surface area on the dorsal aspect of the foot. Scalding with hot water was the most common cause of burn. Eighty-one percent of the burns were atypical, being well demarcated.Most of the burn cases happened at home with no witnesses to the event. Sixty-one percent of the patients were not admitted to the hospital and were conservatively treated. Israeli soldiers tend to inflict burns on themselves for ulterior motives. Such burns are almost always minor with a small trauma area and sharp demarcations, and hence can be differentiated from other self-inflicted burns described in the literature. We found that most of the burns occur when the soldiers are on vacation at home. This is probably because the privacy allows them to carry out their act undisturbed. It is important to raise the awareness of attending physicians to the characteristics of these burns. Such patients should be evaluated by medical teams

  10. Medium-chain Fatty Acids and Their Application in Animal Production%中链脂肪酸的生物学特性及其在动物生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军; 王恬

    2011-01-01

    中链脂肪酸(medium-chain fatty acids,MCFAs)具有一些有别于长链脂肪酸(longchain fatty acids,LCFAs)的代谢特点.它具有一些特殊的生物学功能,可以降低脂肪沉积、改善胰岛素敏感性、调节能量代谢,同时还具有抑菌效果.本文综述了MCFAs的代谢特点、生物学功能及其在动物生产中的应用.%Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) possess some properties which are different to long-chain fatty acids. MCFAs have some specific bio-functions, such as reducing body fat accumulation, benefiting to insulin sensitivity, regulating energy metabolism, and anti-microbial effects. This paper mainly focuses on the metabolism characteristic and bio-function of MCFAs and their application in animal production.

  11. Increasing the utility of the Functional Assessment for Burns Score: Not just for major burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Rodgers, Louise; Upson, Clara

    2016-02-01

    The Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score is established as an objective measure of physical function that predicts discharge outcome in adult patients with major burn. However, its validity in patients with minor and moderate burn is unknown. This is a multi-centre evaluation of the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome in adult inpatients with minor and moderate burns. FAB assessments were undertaken within 48 h of admission to (FAB 1), and within 48 h of discharge (FAB 2) from burn wards in 115 patients. Median age was 45 years and median burn size 4%. There were significant improvements in the patients' FAB scores (pburns.

  12. Animal papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Burn Injury: A Challenge for Tissue Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerneni LK

    2009-01-01

    growth of human keratinocyte stem cells capable of producing epithelia for large-scale grafting in burns and maintain long-term functionality as a self-renewing tissue. The normal functioning of such an in vitro constructed graft under long-term artificial growth conditions is limited by the difficulties of maintaining the epidermal stem cell compartment. An apparent answer to this problem of stem cell depletion during autograft preparation would be to start with a pure population of progenitor stem cells and derive sustainable autograft from them. We have been aiming to this solution and currently attempting to isolate a pool of epidermal progenitor cells using Mebiol gel, which is a Thermo-Reversible Gelation polymer and was shown by others to support the growth of multi-potent skin-derived epithelial progenitor-1 cells. Additionally, the usefulness of Mebiol gel in maintaining epidermal stem cell compartment without FBS and/or animal origin feeder cells is being investigated by our group.

  14. Correlations Between Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Reproductive Performance of Animals%日粮多不饱和脂肪酸与动物繁殖性能的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀禹

    2011-01-01

    多不饱和脂肪酸(Polyunsaturated fatty acids,PUFAS)作为脂肪的重要组成部分,影响动物的繁殖性能.ω-3PUFAS和ω-6PUFAS之间保持适宜比例的日粮可提高畜禽成活率,降低早产率,提高精液品质.综述了PUFAS的结构与分类、在动物体内的代谢转化、影响动物繁殖性能的作用机理及PUFAS与动物繁殖性能的相关性.%As a part of fatty, PUFAS can influence animal reproductive performance. The appropriate ratio of dietary w-6 and w-3 PUFAS can increase animal survival rates, reduce the risk of preterm labor, and improve spermatozoa activity. Herein> the type, classification and metabolic transformation in vivo as well as correlations between dietary PUFAS and reproductive performance of animals were reviewed.

  15. [The experimental application of chitosan membrane for treating chemical burns of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorielov, M; Kalinkevich, O; Gortinskaya, E; Moskalenko, R; Tkachenko, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The basic method for skin damage treatment, including chemical wounds, is a topical application of different agents. Their objective is to repair structure of the skin and its functions. All dressings for treating wounds are classified as biological, artificial and composites containing both synthetic and natural materials. There are many studies concerning application of chitosan, which is a derivate of natural polymer chitin, as a basis for topical materials to treat burns. However, data are rather limited about application of chitosan for treating acid burns. Thus, the aim of research is to study the morphological futures of skin regeneration after the chemical burn applying chitosan membranes. We performed the experiment on 60 young rats (3 months old) with the chemical burns of third-degree (IIIA degree) to study the morphofunctional features of skin regeneration. Later we applied the chitosan membranes on the burns. We carried out a histologic investigation on the biopsy specimens of wound to determine the morphological features of wound regeneration. The results confirmed that earlier granulation and epithelialization of the skin surface happened as the chitosan membrane was applied on the acid effected surface. The final result of the application of chitosan film is to achieve full epithelialization, preserve the structure of tissues beneath the burn and prevent getting scars.

  16. Acute pain management in burn patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria Oline

    2014-01-01

    management addresses and alleviates these complications. The aim of our study was to compare clinical guidelines for pain management in burn patients in selected European and non-European countries. We included pediatric guidelines due to the high rate of children in burn units. METHOD: The study had...... patients. The most highly recommended guidelines provided clear and accurate recommendations for the nursing and medical staff on pain management in burn patients. We recommend the use of a validated appraisal tool such as the AGREE instrument to provide more consistent and evidence-based care to burn......OBJECTIVE: Burn patients suffer excruciating pain due to their injuries and procedures related to surgery, wound care, and mobilization. Acute Stress Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent among survivors of severe burns. Evidence-based pain...

  17. Bacterial translocation in D-galactosamine-treated rats in a burn model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, HM; Manson, WL; Blaauw, B; Klasen, HJ; deSmet, B

    1996-01-01

    Bacteria and endotoxins can pass through the gut barrier under certain conditions. This process of bacterial translocation (BT) may occur after thermal injury in animals and is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of septic complications in severely burned patients. The current study was perfo

  18. Biomass Burning: The Cycling of Gases and Particulates from the Biosphere to the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    2003-12-01

    Biomass burning is both a process of geochemical cycling of gases and particulates from the biosphere to the atmosphere and a process of global change. In the preface to the book, One Earth, One Future: Our Changing Global Environment (National Academy of Sciences, 1990), Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences, writes: "Human activities are transforming the global environment, and these global changes have many faces: ozone depletion, tropical deforestation, acid deposition, and increased atmospheric concentrations of gases that trap heat and may warm the global climate."It is interesting to note that all four global change "faces" identified by Dr. Press have a common thread - they are all caused by biomass burning.Biomass burning or vegetation burning is the burning of living and dead vegetation and includes human-initiated burning and natural lightning-induced burning. The bulk of the world's biomass burning occurs in the tropics - in the tropical forests of South America and Southeast Asia and in the savannasof Africa and South America. The majority of the biomass burning, primarily in the tropics (perhaps as much as 90%), is believed to be human initiated for land clearing and land-use change. Natural fires triggered by atmospheric lightning only accounts for ˜10% of all fires (Andreae, 1991). As will be discussed, a significant amount of biomass burning occurs in the boreal forests of Russia, Canada, and Alaska.Biomass burning is a significant source of gases and particulates to the regional and global atmosphere (Crutzen et al., 1979; Seiler and Crutzen, 1980; Crutzen and Andreae, 1990; Levine et al., 1995). Its burning is truly a multidiscipline subject, encompassing the following areas: fire ecology, fire measurements, fire modeling, fire combustion, remote sensing, fire combustion gaseous and particulate emissions, the atmospheric transport of these emissions, and the chemical and climatic impacts of these emissions. Recently

  19. Fluid management in major burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberal Mehmet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a widely accepted fact that severe fluid loss is the greatest problem faced following major burn injuries. Therefore, effective fluid resuscitation is one of the cornerstones of modern burn treatment. The aim of this article is to review the current approaches available for modern trends in fluid management for major burn patients. As these current approaches are based on various experiences all over the world, the knowledge is essential to improve the status of this patient group.

  20. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei Enkhbaatar, MD., PhD...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our recent findings demonstrate that burn injury significantly depleted stores of vitamin E in adipose tissue of children by nearly...oxidative stress. The objectives of our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to