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Sample records for acid ascorbyl palmitate

  1. Additions of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate or gamma-tocopherol to fish oil-enriched energy bars affect lipid oxidation differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol on protection of fish oil-enriched energy bars against lipid oxidation during storage for 10 weeks at room temperature. The lipophilic gamma-tocopherol reduced lipid oxidation during...... storage when added at a concentration above 440 mu g/g fish oil. However, the best antioxidative effect was observed when it was added at a concentration of 660 mu g/g fish oil. In contrast, prooxidative effects were observed when using either gamma-tocopherol at concentrations below 220 mu g/g fish oil......, or the hydrophilic caffeic acid, or the amphiphilic ascorbyl palmitate at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300 mu g/g fish oil. Prooxidative effects were observed as an increase in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and volatile secondary oxidation products, as well as the development of rancid off...

  2. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF COSMETIC MULTI- PLE EMULSIONS LOADED WITH ASCORBYL PALMITATE AND SODIUM ASCORBYL PHOSPHATE SALTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hira; Akhtar, Naveed; Ali, Atif; Khan, Haji M Shoaib; Sohail, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Nawaz, Zarqa

    2016-09-01

    Stability of hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives for quenching synergistic antioxidant activities and to treat oxidative related diseases is a major issue. This study was aimed to encapsulate hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives (ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as functional ingredients in a newly formulated multiple emulsion of the W//W type to attain the synergistic antioxidant effects and the resultant system's long term physical and chemical stability. Several multiple emulsions using the same concentration of emulsifiers but different concentrations of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were developed. Three finally selected multiple emulsions (ME₁, ME₂ and ME₃) were evaluated for physical stability in terms of rheology, microscopy, conductivity, pH, and organoleptic characteristics under different storage conditions for 3 months. Chemical stability was determined by HPLC on Sykam GmbH HPLC system (Germany), equipped with a variable UV detector. Results showed that at accelerated storage conditions all the three multiple emulsions had shear thinning behavior of varying shear stress with no influence of location of functional ingredients in a carrier system. Conductivity values increased and pH values remained within the skin pH range for 3 months. Microscopic analysis showed an increase in globule size with the passage of time, especially at higher temperatures while decreased at low temperatures. Centrifugation test did not cause phase separation till the 45th day, but little effects after 2 months. Chemical stability analysis by HPLC at the end of 3 months showed that ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were almost stable in all multiple emulsions with no influence of their location in a carrier system. Multiple emulsions were found a stable carrier for hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives to enhance their desired effects. Considering that many topical formulations

  3. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Medina, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV, which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm, high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV, which minimizes secondary oxidation products, were found at medium concentrations of α-tocopherol (478–493 ppm, high contents of ascorbyl palmitate (390–450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. The conflicting effect of α-tocopherol on the individual optimization of PV and AV motivated the generation of a Pareto front (set of non inferior solutions employing the weighted-sum multi-objective optimization technique.El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar la adición de antioxidantes naturales (α-tocoferol y palmitato de ascorbilo para la estabilización de aceite de sardina rico en omega-3 PUFA. Bajas concentraciones de α-tocoferol (50–207 ppm combinadas con la adicción de antioxidantes secundarios como palmitato de ascorbilo (450 ppm y ácido cítrico (50 ppm, minimizaron la formación de hidroperóxidos en el aceite de sardina estudiado. Sin embargo, los productos secundarios de oxidación se redujeron para concentraciones medias de α-tocoferol (478–493 ppm, altas de palmitato de ascorbilo (390–450 ppm y 50 ppm de ácido cítrico. El efecto contradictorio de la concentración de α-tocoferol en la optimización individual del índice de peróxidos e índice de p-anisidina motivó la realización de una optimización simultánea que permite satisfacer la optimización de cada una de las variables individuales en el grado deseado.

  4. Ascorbyl palmitate, gamma-tocopherol, and EDTA affect lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched salad dressing differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Let, M.B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of γ-tocopherol, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and ascorbyl palmitate to protect fish oil enriched salad dressing against oxidation during a 6 week storage period at room temperature. The lipid-soluble γ-tocopherol (220 and 880 µg g-1...

  5. Nanocarrier with self-antioxidative property for stabilizing and delivering ascorbyl palmitate into skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesirisakule, Sirinapa; Sinthusake, Tarit; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2013-08-01

    The concept of a nanocarrier with a self-antioxidative property to deliver and stabilize a labile drug while at the same time providing a free radical scavenging activity is demonstrated. Curcumin was grafted onto a poly(vinyl alcohol) [PV(OH)] chain, and the nanocarriers fabricated from the obtained curcumin-grafted PV(OH) polymer [CUR-PV(OH)] showed a good free radical scavenging activity. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) could be effectively loaded into the CUR-PV(OH) at 29% by weight. The CUR-PV(OH)-encapsulated AP was 77% more stable than the free (unencapsulated) AP, and 47% more stable than AP encapsulated in the control nanocarrier with no antioxidative property [cinnamoyl-grafted PV(OH); CIN-PV(OH)]. Although coencapsulation of curcumin and AP into CIN-PV(OH) showed some improvement on the AP stability, AP was more stable when encapsulated in CUR-PV(OH). Compared with the free AP, encapsulated AP within the CUR-PV(OH) nanocarriers showed not only a better penetration into pig skin dermis via hair follicle pathway followed by the release and diffusion of the AP, but also a greater AP stability after skin application. Although a proof of principle is shown for CUR-PV(OH) and AP, it is likely that other carriers of the same principal could be designed and applied to different oxidation-sensitive drugs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p  0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources.

  7. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Topical Application of Trisodium Ascorbyl 6-Palmitate 2-Phosphate Actively Supplies Ascorbate to Skin Cells in an Ascorbate Transporter-Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shibuya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA possesses multiple beneficial functions, such as regulating collagen biosynthesis and redox balance in the skin. AA derivatives have been developed to overcome this compound’s high fragility and to assist with AA supplementation to the skin. However, how AA derivatives are transferred into cells and converted to AA in the skin remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that AA treatment failed to increase the cellular AA level in the presence of AA transporter inhibitors, indicating an AA transporter-dependent action. In contrast, torisodium ascorbyl 6-palmitate 2-phosphate (APPS treatment significantly enhanced the cellular AA level in skin cells despite the presence of inhibitors. In ex vivo experiments, APPS treatment also increased the AA content in a human epidermis model. Interestingly, APPS was readily metabolized and converted to AA in keratinocyte lysates via an intrinsic mechanism. Furthermore, APPS markedly repressed the intracellular superoxide generation and promoted viability associated with an enhanced AA level in Sod1-deficient skin cells. These findings indicate that APPS effectively restores the AA level and normalizes the redox balance in skin cells in an AA transporter-independent manner. Topical treatment of APPS is a beneficial strategy for supplying AA and improving the physiology of damaged skin.

  9. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate acted as a nitrosation inhibitor in several food and cosmetic product studies. No compound-related clinical signs or gross or

  10. Application of l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives (sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) in topical cosmetic formulations: stability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaoui, S.; Hilima, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to formulate and subsequently evaluate a topical skin-care cream (o/w emulsion) from l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives (sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) at 2% versus its vehicle (Control). Formulations were developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of o/w emulsion and were stored at 8 degree C, 25 degree C and 40 degree C (in incubator) for a period of four weeks to investigate their stability. In the physical analysis, the evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, centrifugation, and liquefaction. Chemical stability of both derivatives was established by HPLC analysis. In the chemical analysis, the formulation with sodium ascorbyl phosphate was more stable than those with magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and l-ascorbic acid. The microbiological stability of the formulations was also evaluated. The findings indicated that the formulations with l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives were efficient against the proliferation of various spoilage microorganisms, including aerobic plate counts as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeast and mold counts. The results presented in this work showed good stability throughout the experimental period. Newly formulated emulsion proved to exhibit a number of promising properties and attributes that might open new opportunities for the construction of more efficient, safe, and cost-effective skin-care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. (author)

  11. Enzymatic formation of hexadecenoic acid from palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masao; Fujino, Yasuhiko

    1975-01-01

    Desaturation of palmitic acid was investigated in an enzyme system prepared from rat liver. 2-trans-Hexadecenoic acid as well as 9-cis-gexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid) were found to be formed as monoenoic acid in this system. (author)

  12. Fabrication of shape memory natural rubber using palmitic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sze-Hua Wee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the practicability of fabricating a shape memory natural rubber with the use of palmitic acid as the swelling agent. Strips of natural rubber samples were swollen in molten palmitic acid at 75 °C. Equilibrium swelling of natural rubber with palmitic acid was found to occur at approximately 50 min of swelling time. Under cooling effect, the palmitic acid crystallized to form a percolated crystalline platelet network. These networks allow fabricated shape memory natural rubber (SMNR to deform and recover its shape at a temperature above the melting point of palmitic acid. Under controlled uniaxial stress, the natural rubber sample with 0 parts per hundred rubber (phr carbon black loading exhibits fixity and recovery of 80 ± 10%. Motivation of this research is primarily on practicability of palmitic acid to be used as a swelling agent for shape memory properties. Results show that palmitic acid is a relatively good swelling agent to induce shape memory properties into natural rubber.

  13. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

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    Kunikazu Moribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.

  14. Ascorbyl palmitate/d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate monoester mixed micelles for prolonged circulation and targeted delivery of compound K for antilung cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo

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    Zhang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Youwen Zhang, Deyin Tong, Daobiao Che, Bing Pei, Xiaodong Xia, Gaofeng Yuan, Xin Jin Department of Hospital Pharmacy, The First Hospital of Suqian, Suqian, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The roles of ginsenoside compound K (CK in inhibiting tumor have been widely recognized in recent years. However, low water solubility and significant P-gp efflux have restricted its application. In this study, CK ascorbyl palmitate (AP/d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate monoester (TPGS mixed micelles were prepared as a delivery system to increase the absorption and targeted antitumor effect of CK. Consequently, the solubility of CK increased from 35.2±4.3 to 1,463.2±153.3 µg/mL. Furthermore, in an in vitro A549 cell model, CK AP/TPGS mixed micelles significantly inhibited cell growth, induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest, induced cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell migration compared to free CK, all indicating that the developed micellar delivery system could increase the antitumor effect of CK in vitro. Both in vitro cellular fluorescence uptake and in vivo near-infrared imaging studies indicated that AP/TPGS mixed micelles can promote cellular uptake and enhance tumor targeting. Moreover, studies in the A549 lung cancer xenograft mouse model showed that CK AP/TPGS mixed micelles are an efficient tumor-targeted drug delivery system with an effective antitumor effect. Western blot analysis further confirmed that the marked antitumor effect in vivo could likely be due to apoptosis promotion and P-gp efflux inhibition. Therefore, these findings suggest that the AP/TPGS mixed micellar delivery system could be an efficient delivery strategy for enhanced tumor targeting and antitumor effects. Keywords: ginsenoside CK, ascorbyl palmitate, TPGS, mixed micelles, anti-tumor therapy

  15. ORIGIN OF PALMITIC ACID CARBON IN PALMITATES FORMED FROM HEXADECANE-1-C14 AND TETRADECANE-1-C14 BY MICROCOCCUS CERIFICANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, W. R.; Kallio, R. E.

    1964-01-01

    Finnerty, W. R. (University of Iowa, Iowa City), and R. E. Kallio. Origin of palmitic acid carbon in palmitates formed from hexadecane-1-C14 and tetradecane-1-C14 by Micrococcus cerificans. J. Bacteriol. 87:1261–1265. 1964.—Degradation of the palmitic acid moiety of cetyl palmitate and myristyl palmitate formed from hexadecane-1-C14 and tetradecane-1-C14 by Micrococcus cerificans was carried out. The patterns of C14 labeling in palmitic acid from cetyl palmitate showed that hexadecane is oxidized at the C1 position, and cetyl alcohol and palmitic acid thus formed are directly esterified. Palmitic acid arising from tetradecane and esterified to tetradecanol appeared to have been synthesized by the addition of two carbon atoms to an existing 14-carbon atom skeleton. Considerable mixing of C14 occurred in the C1 and C2 positions of palmitic acid thus synthesized. PMID:14188700

  16. Defective [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.E.; Norris, B.J.; Brooke, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation. [1-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

  17. Defective (U-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.E.; Norris, B.J.; Brooke, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased (U-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation. (1-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

  18. System Development from Organic Solvents to Ionic Liquids for Synthesiz-ing Ascorbyl Esters with Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Schultz, Lise; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    . Results show that only Novozym® 435 turned out to be a useful enzymatic preparation for the production of ascorbyl-CLA ester. The optimum reaction conditions in the or-ganic solvent system were 4 h at 55°C and at a molar ratio of 5 (CLA/ascorbic acid). The esterification reaction was trans......-ferred to an ionic liquid system for the purpose of improving solubility of the polar substrate and avoiding the application of organic solvents. From screening experiments, it was evident that only methyltrioctylammonium triflouroacetate (tO-MA·TFA) could provide a proper reaction environment for production...... of ascorbyl-CLA ester when using Novozym® 435 as biocatalyst. It was possible to significantly increase the productivity (150 g/l) through the increase of ascorbic acid sol-ubility in ionic liquids by super saturation together with the increase of reaction temperature to 70°C, far beyond than that in organic...

  19. Efficacy Of Trichloro-acetic Acid Peel Alone Versus Combined Topical Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate For Epidermal Melasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, F.; Noor, S. M.; Bangash, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy in terms of reduction in melasma area and severity index (MASI) score by more than 10 of a combination of 20% trichloro-acetic acid peel plus 5% topical magnesium ascorbyl phosphate versus 20 percent trichloroacetic acid peel alone in the treatment of epidermal melasma. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, from May 2012 to May 2013. Methodology: Patients aged 18 - 65 years, with Fitzpatrick skin type III-V were divided into two equal groups having 74 patients each. Detailed history was taken and Wood's lamp examination done to rule out mixed and dermal melasma. Melasma area and severity index (MASI) score was calculated for every patient. Priming was done for all patients with tretinoin cream applied once daily at night for 2 weeks, and to use a broad spectrum sun block cream before sun exposure. Patients in group A were subjected to combined treatment, i.e. trichloro-acetic acid peel 20 percent (weekly) plus magnesium ascorbyl phosphate cream (applied once daily), while patients in group B were subjected to trichloro-acetic acid peel 20 percent (weekly) alone. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. After completion of treatment, MASI score was recalculated. Proportion of patients with significant MASI score reduction was compared using chi-square test with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Male and female patients were 11 (14.9 percent) and 63 (85.1 percent), respectively in group A, whereas 13 (17.6 percent) and 61 (82.4 percent) in group B. The mean age in group A was 30.28±8.08 years, and 29.36±6.84 years in group B. Significant MASI score reduction in group A was seen in 60 (81.1 percent) patients and in group B 49 (66.2 percent, p= 0.040). Conclusion: Combination of trichloro-acetic acid peel and topical magnesium ascorbyl phosphate cream was significantly more effective than trichloro-acetic acid peel alone in

  20. Metabolism of methyl-branched iodo palmitic acids in cultured hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.; Pepin, D.; Loriette, C.; Chambaz, J.; Bereziat, G.; Vidal, M.; Apparu, M.; Coornaert, S.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic fate of methyl-branched iodo fatty acids was studied in primary culture of rat hepatocytes. We compared 16-iodo-2-R,S-methyl palmitic acid (2-Me), which can be β oxidized, with 16-iodo-3-R,S-methyl palmitic acid (3-Me) which can be β oxidized only after an initial α oxydation and with 16-iodo-2,2-dimethyl palmitic acid (2,2-Me 2 ) and 16-iodo-3,3-dimethyl palmitic acid (3,3-Me 2 ) which cannot be β oxidized at all. The normal fate of natural fatty acids was given by comparative experiments with [1- 14 C] palmitic acid. Monomethyl-branched iodo fatty acids were taken up in the same range as palmitic acid but more than dimethyl-branched iodo fatty acids. After a 15-h incubation, acido-soluble products (ASP) accounted for 75% of the radioactivity taken up as 16-iodo-2-methyl palmitic acid, 50% as other methyl-branched iodo fatty acids and only 30% as palmitic acid. Cultured hepatocytes, labelled for 3 h with the various fatty acids and reincubated for 12 h without fatty acid, secreted large amounts of free dimethyl-branched iodo fatty acids as compared to the monomethyl ones and palmitic acid. Only hepatocytes prelabelled with 16-[ 125 I]iodo-2,2-dimethyl palmitic acid exhibited an appreciable secretion of labeled triglycerides, but at a lower rate than with [1- 14 C] palmitic acid. Conversely, the 16-iodo-monomethyl palmitic acids remained chiefly in hepatocyte triglycerides. Minute amounts of 16-iodo-methyl-branched palmitic acids were found in hepatocyte or secreted phospholipids as compared with palmitic acid. (orig.)

  1. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-09-18

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  2. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  3. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  4. Interaction of Palmitic Acid with Metoprolol Succinate at the Binding Sites of Bovine Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the binding profile as well as to notify the interaction of palmitic acid with metoprolol succinate at its binding site on albumin. Methods: The binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin (BSA was studied by equilibrium dialysis method (ED at 27°C and pH 7.4, in order to have an insight in the binding chemistry of the drug to BSA in presence and absence of palmitic acid. The study was carried out using ranitidine as site-1 and diazepam as site-2 specific probe. Results: Different analysis of binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin suggested two sets of association constants: high affinity association constant (k1 = 11.0 x 105 M-1 with low capacity (n1 = 2 and low affinity association (k2 = 4.0×105 M-1 constant with high capacity (n2 = 8 at pH 7.4 and 27°C. During concurrent administration of palmitic acid and metoprolol succinate in presence or absence of ranitidine or diazepam, it was found that palmitic acid displaced metoprolol succinate from its binding site on BSA resulting reduced binding of metoprolol succinate to BSA. The increment in free fraction of metoprolol succinate was from 26.27% to 55.08% upon the addition of increased concentration of palmitic acid at a concentration of 0×10-5 M to 16×10-5 M. In presence of ranitidine and diazepam, palmitic acid further increases the free fraction of metoprolol succinate from 33.05% to 66.95% and 40.68% to 72.88%, respectively. Conclusion: This data provided the evidence of interaction at higher concentration of palmitic acid at the binding sites on BSA, which might change the pharmacokinetic properties of metoprolol succinate.

  5. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  6. Comparison of palmitic acid kinetics during glucose or ketone body infusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhahn, R.H.; Block, D.J.; Birkhahn, G.C.; Thomford, N.R.

    1986-03-05

    Ketone body interactions can be observed for extended ketosis by infusion by monoacetoacetin (the monoglyceride of acetoacetic acid). Palmitic acid kinetics were compared on the 5th day of glucose or ketone body-glucose infusions. 20 rats were fed complete diets intravenously at the rate of 50 ml/day. All diets contained vitamins, trace minerals, electrolytes, amino acids and 1 kcal/ml of non-protein energy. Rats were divided by energy source: Group A (n = 10) received energy from glucose and Group B (n = 10) from 72% monoacetoacetin plus 28% glucose. Diets were given at 1/2 and 3/4 rats on days 1 and 2, respectively and at full rate for days 3-5. Urinary nitrogen losses, body weight and dietary intake were measured daily. Palmitate kinetics was measured on day 5 using a continuous infusion of (1-/sup 14/C) palmitate and measuring C-14 in breath and plasma and plasma palmitate by GC. The two groups had similar body weight changes and urinary nitrogen losses over the 3 days of full intake Group A had lower plasma palmitate (88 +/- 7 vs 105 +/- 6 micromol/l) but similar turnover (17.1 +/- 2.4 vs 15.0 +/- 1.9 mmol/hr) and oxidation 2.3 +/- 0.3 vs 2.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/hr) compared to Group B. These data show that feeding monoacetoacetin intravenously does not stimulate fatty acid metabolism in the well nourished rat.

  7. Comparison of palmitic acid kinetics during glucose or ketone body infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhahn, R.H.; Block, D.J.; Birkhahn, G.C.; Thomford, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ketone body interactions can be observed for extended ketosis by infusion by monoacetoacetin (the monoglyceride of acetoacetic acid). Palmitic acid kinetics were compared on the 5th day of glucose or ketone body-glucose infusions. 20 rats were fed complete diets intravenously at the rate of 50 ml/day. All diets contained vitamins, trace minerals, electrolytes, amino acids and 1 kcal/ml of non-protein energy. Rats were divided by energy source: Group A (n = 10) received energy from glucose and Group B (n = 10) from 72% monoacetoacetin plus 28% glucose. Diets were given at 1/2 and 3/4 rats on days 1 and 2, respectively and at full rate for days 3-5. Urinary nitrogen losses, body weight and dietary intake were measured daily. Palmitate kinetics was measured on day 5 using a continuous infusion of [1- 14 C] palmitate and measuring C-14 in breath and plasma and plasma palmitate by GC. The two groups had similar body weight changes and urinary nitrogen losses over the 3 days of full intake Group A had lower plasma palmitate (88 +/- 7 vs 105 +/- 6 micromol/l) but similar turnover (17.1 +/- 2.4 vs 15.0 +/- 1.9 mmol/hr) and oxidation 2.3 +/- 0.3 vs 2.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/hr) compared to Group B. These data show that feeding monoacetoacetin intravenously does not stimulate fatty acid metabolism in the well nourished rat

  8. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  9. Molecular dynamics of palmitic acid and lead palmitate in cross-linked linseed oil films: Implications from deuterium magnetic resonance for lead soap formation in traditional oil paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Jaclyn; Murphy, Anna; Yao, Yao; Zumbulyadis, Nicholas; Centeno, Silvia A; Dybowski, Cecil

    2018-02-01

    Many oil paintings, dating from the 15th century to the present, are affected by the formation of heavy-metal carboxylates (soaps) that alter the structural integrity and appearance of the works. Through transport phenomena not yet understood, free fatty acids formed from oils used as binders migrate through the paint film and react with heavy-metal ions that are constituents of pigments and/or driers, forming metal carboxylates. The local molecular dynamics of fatty acids and metal carboxylates are factors influencing material transport in these systems. We report temperature-dependent 2 H NMR spectra of palmitic acid and lead palmitate as pure materials, in cross-linked linseed oil films, and in a lead white linseed oil paint film as part of our broader research into metal soap formation. Local dynamics at the α carbon, at the terminal methyl group, and at the middle of the fatty acid chain were observed in specifically deuterated materials. Changes in the dynamic behavior with temperature were observed by the appearance of two species, a solid-like material and a liquid-like material. The relative amounts of the two phases and their deuterium NMR parameters indicate that the amount of liquid-like material and the local dynamics at that site increase with temperature. At the three locations along the chain and at all temperatures, there is a larger percentage of acyl chains of both palmitic acid and lead palmitate that are "mobile" or liquid-like in linseed oil films than there are in the pure materials. However, the percentage of liquid-like species is decreased in a lead white paint film, as compared to a linseed oil matrix. In addition, these experiments indicate that there is a larger percentage of liquid-like acyl chains of palmitic acid than of lead palmitate under identical conditions in these model paint systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-θ subcellular localization in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen C.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Elias, Carol F.; Abplanalp, William; Herman, James P.; Migrenne, Stephanie; Lefevre, Anne-Laure; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe; Yu, Fang; Niswender, Kevin; Irani, Boman G.; Holland, William L.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-θ, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-θ was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of the arcuate nucleus, specifically the neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein neurons and the dorsal medial nucleus in the hypothalamus. CNS exposure to palmitic acid via direct infusion or by oral gavage increased the localization of PKC-θ to cell membranes in the hypothalamus, which was associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling. This finding was specific for palmitic acid, as the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, neither increased membrane localization of PKC-θ nor induced insulin resistance. Finally, arcuate-specific knockdown of PKC-θ attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved insulin signaling. These results suggest that many of the deleterious effects of high-fat diets, specifically those enriched with palmitic acid, are CNS mediated via PKC-θ activation, resulting in reduced insulin activity. PMID:19726875

  11. Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-theta subcellular localization in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen C; Kemp, Christopher J; Elias, Carol F; Abplanalp, William; Herman, James P; Migrenne, Stephanie; Lefevre, Anne-Laure; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe; Yu, Fang; Niswender, Kevin; Irani, Boman G; Holland, William L; Clegg, Deborah J

    2009-09-01

    Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-theta, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-theta was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of the arcuate nucleus, specifically the neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein neurons and the dorsal medial nucleus in the hypothalamus. CNS exposure to palmitic acid via direct infusion or by oral gavage increased the localization of PKC-theta to cell membranes in the hypothalamus, which was associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling. This finding was specific for palmitic acid, as the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, neither increased membrane localization of PKC-theta nor induced insulin resistance. Finally, arcuate-specific knockdown of PKC-theta attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved insulin signaling. These results suggest that many of the deleterious effects of high-fat diets, specifically those enriched with palmitic acid, are CNS mediated via PKC-theta activation, resulting in reduced insulin activity.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of arabinose-palmitic acid esters by enzymatic esterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappalardo, Valeria M.; Boeriu, Carmen G.; Zaccheria, Federica; Ravasio, Nicoletta

    2017-01-01

    The direct esterification of palmitic acid with L-(+)-arabinose has been carried out. The use of Candida antartica lipase B as the catalyst and the choice of suitable solvent and experimental conditions allowed carrying out the reaction successfully. In particular 10% dimethyl-sulfoxide in

  13. Esterification of Palmitic Acid with Methanol in the Presence of Macroporous Ion Exchange Resin as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Qarina Yaakob and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied in a batch reactor using macro porous ion exchange resin Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. Methyl palmitate was produced from the reaction between palmitic acid and methanol in the presence of catalyst. The effects of processing parameters, molar ratio of alcohol to acid M, (4-10, catalyst loading (0-10 g cat/liter, water inhibition (0-2 mol/liter, agitator speed (200-800 rpm and reaction temperature (343-373K were studied. The experimental kinetic data were correlated using homogenous as well as heterogeneous models (based on single as well as dual site mechanisms. The activation energy of the reaction was 11.552 kJ/mol for forward reaction whilst 5.464 kJ/mol for backward reaction. The experimental data fitted well with the simulated data obtained from the kinetic models. Keywords: Palmitic Acid, Methanol, Esterification, Ion Exchange Resin, Kinetics.

  14. Impact of palmitic acid coating on the water uptake and loss of ammonium sulfate particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available While water insoluble organics are prevalent in the atmosphere, it is not clear how the presence of such species alters the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Here we use a combination of FTIR spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS to characterize ammonium sulfate particles coated with palmitic acid. Coated aerosols were generated by atomizing pure ammonium sulfate, mixing the particles with a heated flow of nitrogen with palmitic acid vapor, and then flowing the mixture through an in-line oven to create internally mixed particles. The mixing state of the particles was probed using the AMS data and images from the TEM. Both of these probes suggest that the particles were internally mixed. Water uptake by the mixed particles was then probed at 273 K. It was found that for ammonium sulfate containing ~20 wt% palmitic acid the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH was the same as for pure ammonium sulfate (80±3% RH. For particles with ~50 wt% palmitic acid however, the mixed particles began to take up water at relative humidities as low at 69% and continued to slowly take up water to 85% RH without fully deliquescing. In addition to studies of water uptake, water loss was also investigated. Here coatings of up to 50 wt% had no impact on the efflorescence relative humidity. These studies suggest that even if insoluble substances coat salt particles in the atmosphere, there may be relatively little effect on the resulting water uptake and loss.

  15. Free fatty acid palmitate activates unfolded protein response pathway and promotes apoptosis in meniscus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, J; Yammani, R R

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA); however, the mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. Obesity is associated with increased production of adipokine and elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA). A recent study has shown that saturated fatty acid palmitate induced pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic pathways in chondrocytes. Meniscus has been shown to be more susceptible than articular cartilage to catabolic stimuli. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of FFA (specifically, palmitate) on meniscus cells. Cultured primary porcine meniscus cells were stimulated with 500 μM FFA (palmitate and oleate) for 24 h to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. After treatment, cell lysates were prepared and immunoblotted for C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). To determine the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling, cell lysates were probed for cJun n-terminal kinase (JNK), cleaved caspase -3 and Xbp-1s, an alternative mRNA splicing product generated due to Ire1α activation. Treatment of isolated primary meniscus cells with palmitate but not oleate induced expression of CHOP and Xbp-1s. Palmitate treatment of meniscus cells also activated JNK and increased expression of caspase-3, thus promoting apoptosis in meniscus cells. Palmitate induces ER stress and promotes apoptotic pathways in meniscus cells. This is the first study to establish ER stress as a key metabolic mechanistic link between obesity and OA, in addition to (or operating with) biomechanical factors. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Retention and clearance of C-11 palmitic acid in ischemic and reperfused canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Schelbert, H.R.; Keen, R.; Vinten-Johansen, J.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Barrio, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Free fatty acids are the major energy source for cardiac muscle. Oxidation of fatty acid decreases or even ceases during ischemia. Its recovery after transient ischemia remains largely unexplored. Using intracoronary carbon-11 palmitic acid as a tracer of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in an open chest dog model, retention and clearance of tracer in myocardium were evaluated at control, during ischemia and after reperfusion following a 20 minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial C-11 time-activity curves were analyzed with biexponential curve-fitting routines yielding fractional distribution and clearance half-times of C-11 palmitic acid in myocardial tissue. In animals with permanent occlusion and intracoronary injection of C-11 palmitic acid distal to the occlusion site, the relative size and half-time of the early clearance curve component differed markedly from control values and did not change with ongoing ischemia. Conversely, in animals with only 20 minutes of coronary occlusion, the relative size of the early C-11 clearance phase was still significantly depressed at 20 and 90 minutes of reperfusion but returned to control level at 180 minutes. Tissue C-11 clearance half-times remained significantly prolonged throughout the reperfusion period. Regional function in reperfused myocardium monitored with ultrasonic crystals recovered slowly and was still less than control after 3 hours of reperfusion. The data indicate that after transient ischemia, myocardial fatty acid metabolism fails to recover immediately. Because the metabolic recovery occurs in parallel with recovery of regional function, C-11 palmitic acid in conjunction with positron tomography may be useful for studying regional fatty acid metabolism noninvasively after an ischemic injury, and may be helpful in identifying reversible tissue injury

  17. Saturated fatty acid palmitate negatively regulates autophagy by promoting ATG5 protein degradation in meniscus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Aritra; Yammani, Raghunatha R

    2018-07-20

    Obesity and associated metabolic factors are major risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Previously, we have shown that the free fatty acid palmitate induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces apoptosis in meniscus cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects are not clearly understood. In our current study, we found that palmitate inhibits autophagy by modulating the protein levels of autophagy-related genes-5 (ATG5) that is associated with decreased lipidation of LC3 and increased activation of cleaved caspase 3. Pretreatment of meniscus cells with 4-phenyl butyric acid, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, or with MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, restored normal levels of ATG5 and autophagosome formation, and decreased expression of cleaved caspase 3. Thus, our data suggest that palmitate downregulates autophagy in meniscus cells by degrading ATG5 protein via ER-associated protein degradation, and thus promotes apoptosis. This is the first study to demonstrate that palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress negatively regulates autophagy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modification of Turen Bentonite with AlCl3 for Esterification of Palmitic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulloh Abdulloh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural Turen bentonite has been modified and applied as catalyst for palmitic acid esterification. Modification of natural Turen bentonite was conducted by cation exchange method using AlCl3 solution. Catalyst characterization was performed on X-ray Fluoroscence, X-ray Diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The catalytic activity test in the esterification reaction of palmitic acid with methanol was conducted by bath at 65 °C with a variation of reaction time of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h. Catalytic activity has been observed qualitatively using GC-MS and quantitatively by changes in acid number. The analysis showed the formation of Al3+-bentonite. Observation on the elements has shown that the presence of calcium decreased from 10.2% to 4.17%, with an increase of aluminium content from 9.9% to 13%. Diffraction line at 2θ 5.7379º became 5.6489º, along with changes in d-spacing of 15.3895 Å to 15.6319 Å. The surface area increased from 83.78 m2/g to 91.26 m2/g, while Brönsted acid sites increased from 10.2 µmol/g to 67.5 µmol/g and Lewis acid sites increased from 94.9 µmol/g to 132 µmol/g. Furthermore, Al3+-bentonite has showed as active catalyst in the esterification reaction of palmitic acid with palmitic acid with conversion of 78.78% for 5 h. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 24th September 2013; Revised: 31st December 2013; Accepted: 26th January 2014[How to Cite: Abdulloh, A., Maryam, S., Aminah, N.S., Triyono, T., Trisunaryanti, W., Mudasir, M., Prasetyoko, D. (2014. Modification of Turen’s Bentonite with AlCl3 for Esterification of Palmitic Acid. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 66-73. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5513.66-73][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5513.66-73

  19. Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-θ subcellular localization in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Stephen C.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Elias, Carol F.; Abplanalp, William; Herman, James P.; Migrenne, Stephanie; Lefevre, Anne-Laure; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe; Yu, Fang; Niswender, Kevin; Irani, Boman G.; Holland, William L.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-θ, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-θ was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of ...

  20. Palmitic Acid Curcumin Ester Facilitates Protection of Neuroblastoma against Oligomeric Aβ40 Insult

    OpenAIRE

    Zhangyang Qi; Meihao Wu; Yun Fu; Tengfei Huang; Tingting Wang; Yanjie Sun; Zhibo Feng; Changzheng Li

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin) which can be cultivated on the cell membrane...

  1. High fat-diet and saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibits IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, S A; Loeser, R F; Chubinskaya, S; Willey, J S; Yammani, R R

    2017-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes matrix synthesis and cell survival in cartilage. Chondrocytes from aged and osteoarthritic cartilage have a reduced response to IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) present in a high-fat diet on IGF-1 function in cartilage and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C57BL/6 male mice were maintained on either a high-fat (60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) diet for 4 months. Mice were then sacrificed; femoral head cartilage caps were collected and treated with IGF-1 to measure proteoglycan (PG) synthesis. Cultured human chondrocytes were treated with 500 μM FFA palmitate or oleate, followed by stimulation with (100 ng/ml) IGF-1 overnight to measure CHOP (a protein marker for ER stress) and PG synthesis. Human chondrocytes were pre-treated with palmitate or 1 mM 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) or 1 μM C-Jun N terminal Kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and IGF-1 function (PG synthesis and signaling) was measured. Cartilage explants from mice on the high fat-diet showed reduced IGF-1 mediated PG synthesis compared to a low-fat group. Treatment of human chondrocytes with palmitate induced expression of CHOP, activated JNK and inhibited IGF-1 function. PBA, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress rescued IGF-1 function and a JNK inhibitor rescued IGF-1 signaling. Palmitate-induced ER stress inhibited IGF-1 function in chondrocytes/cartilage via activating the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase JNK. This is the first study to demonstrate that ER stress is metabolic factor that regulates IGF-1 function in chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb, which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  3. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  4. Ascorbyl radical disproportionation in reverse micellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gębicki, J. L.; Szymańska-Owczarek, M.; Pacholczyk-Sienicka, B.; Jankowski, S.

    2018-04-01

    Ascorbyl radical was generated by the pulse radiolysis method and observed with the fast kinetic spectrophotometry within reverse micelles stabilized by AOT in n-heptane or by Igepal CO-520 in cyclohexane at different water to surfactant molar ratio, w0. Rate constants for the disproportionation of the ascorbyl radicals were smaller than those for intermicellar exchange for both type of reverse micelles and slower than those in homogeneous aqueous solutions. However, they increased with increasing w0 for AOT/n-heptane system, while they decreased for Igepal CO-520 system. The absorption spectra of ascorbic acid AOT/n-heptane reverse micellar system showed that the "pH" sensed by this molecule is lower than that in respective homogeneous aqueous solutions. The obtained results were rationalized taking into account three main factors (i) preferential location of ascorbic acid molecules in the interfacial region of the both types of reverse micelles; (ii) postulate that the pH of the interface is lower than that of the water pool of reverse micelles and (iii) different structure of the interface of the reverse micelles made by AOT in n-heptane and those formed by Igepal CO-520 I cyclohexane. Some possible consequences of these findings are discussed.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of a Solid Acid Catalyst from Macro Fungi Residue for Methyl Palmitate Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the process of fungal polysaccharide extraction for health care products and food factories, a large quantity of macro-fungi residues are produced, but most of the residues are abandoned and become environmental pollutants. A solid acid catalyst, prepared by sulfonating carbonized Phellinus igniarius residue, was shown to be an efficient and environmentally benign catalyst for the esterification of palmitate acid (PA and methanol. As a comparison, two types of common biomass catalysts, wheat straws and wood chips, were prepared. In this study, characterizations, including scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller assays and elemental analysis, and reaction conditions for the synthesis of methyl palmitate (MP using solid acid catalysts were investigated. Experiments showed that the solid acid catalyst prepared from P. igniarius residue had a higher catalytic activity than the other two catalysts, and the highest yield of MP catalyzed by P. igniarius residue solid acid catalyst was 91.5% under the following optimum conditions: molar ratio of methanol/PA of 10:1, reaction temperature of 60 °C, mass ratio of catalyst/substrate of 2%, and a reaction time of 1.5 h. Thus, the use of this catalyst offers a method for producing MP.

  6. Effect of α-linolenic acid on endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of palmitic acid lipotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic inflammation and degeneration induced by lipid depositions may be the major cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. In this study, we investigated the effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FA on apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes. Methods The primary rat hepatocytes were treated with palmitic acid and/or α-linolenic acid in vitro. The expression of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis, caspase-3 levels were detected after the treatment. Results The treatment with palmitic acid produced a significant increase in cell death. The unfolded protein response (UPR-associated genes CHOP, GRP78, and GRP94 were induced to higher expression levels by palmitic acid. Co-treatment with α-linolenic acid reversed the apoptotic effect and levels of all three indicators of ER stress exerted by palmitic acid. Tunicamycin, which induces ER stress produced similar effects to those obtained using palmitic acid; its effects were also reversed by α-linolenic acid. Conclusions α-Linolenic acid may provide a useful strategy to avoid the lipotoxicity of dietary palmitic acid and nutrient overload accompanied with obesity and NAFLD.

  7. Lauric and palmitic acids eutectic mixture as latent heat storage material for low temperature heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncbilek, Kadir; Sari, Ahmet; Tarhan, Sefa; Erguenes, Gazanfer; Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2005-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA, 59.8 deg. C) and lauric acid (LA, 42.6 deg. C) are phase change materials (PCM) having quite high melting temperatures which can limit their use in low temperature solar applications such as solar space heating and greenhouse heating. However, their melting temperatures can be tailored to appropriate value by preparing a eutectic mixture of the lauric and the palmitic acids. In the present study, the thermal analysis based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique shows that the mixture of 69.0 wt% LA and 31 wt% PA forms a eutectic mixture having melting temperature of 35.2 deg. C and the latent heat of fusion of 166.3 J g -1 . This study also considers the experimental determination of the thermal characteristics of the eutectic mixture during the heat charging and discharging processes. Radial and axial temperature distribution, heat transfer coefficient between the heat transfer fluid (HTF) pipe and the PCM, heat recovery rate and heat charging and discharging fractions were experimentally established employing a vertical concentric pipe-in-pipe energy storage system. The changes of these characteristics were evaluated with respect to the effect of inlet HTF temperature and mass flow rate. The DSC thermal analysis and the experimental results indicate that the LA-PA eutectic mixture can be a potential material for low temperature thermal energy storage applications in terms of its thermo-physical and thermal characteristics

  8. Bactericidal activity of self-assembled palmitic and stearic fatty acid crystals on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Nguyen, Song Ha; Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A; Webb, Hayden K; Truong, Vi Khanh; Wandiyanto, Jason V; Garvey, Christopher J; Mahon, Peter J; Mainwaring, David E; Crawford, Russell J

    2017-09-01

    The wings of insects such as cicadas and dragonflies have been found to possess nanostructure arrays that are assembled from fatty acids. These arrays can physically interact with the bacterial cell membranes, leading to the death of the cell. Such mechanobactericidal surfaces are of significant interest, as they can kill bacteria without the need for antibacterial chemicals. Here, we report on the bactericidal effect of two of the main lipid components of the insect wing epicuticle, palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) fatty acids. Films of these fatty acids were re-crystallised on the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. It appeared that the presence of two additional CH 2 groups in the alkyl chain resulted in the formation of different surface structures. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the palmitic acid microcrystallites were more asymmetric than those of the stearic acid, where the palmitic acid microcrystallites were observed to be an angular abutment in the scanning electron micrographs. The principal differences between the two types of long-chain saturated fatty acid crystallites were the larger density of peaks in the upper contact plane of the palmitic acid crystallites, as well as their greater proportion of asymmetrical shapes, in comparison to that of the stearic acid film. These two parameters might contribute to higher bactericidal activity on surfaces derived from palmitic acid. Both the palmitic and stearic acid crystallite surfaces displayed activity against Gram-negative, rod-shaped Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive, spherical Staphylococcus aureus cells. These microcrystallite interfaces might be a useful tool in the fabrication of effective bactericidal nanocoatings. Nanostructured cicada and dragonfly wing surfaces have been discovered to be able physically kill bacterial cells. Here, we report on the successful fabrication of bactericidal three-dimensional structures of two main lipid

  9. Study on the metabolism of 15 p-131iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid [p-iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid] as a tracer of free fatty acids in comparison to 1-14C-palmitic acid (C-palmitic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    In an animal experiment under identical metabolic influences the metabolism of a new radiopharmaceutical, 15 p- 131 iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid (IPPA), was compared to the marked physiological fatty acid, 1- 14 C-palmitic acid (PA). The pharmacological kinetics of both tracers in tissues with widely varied turnover rates of fatty acids (heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, small intestine, skeletal muscle) was studied. By alkali extraction of the tissue lipids and then a chromatographic separation of the lipid fractions quantitatively comparable statements about the metabolism of PA and IPPA were made possible. The analyses of autoradiographs of the chromatographically separated lipids show a qualitatively congruous assimilation of both markers in the major lipid fractions. The quantitative evaluation shows minor differences as a result of a preferred assimilation of IPPA in triglycerides and of PA in phospholipids. The fractionated separation of tissue lipids which had been marked with PA and IPPA in vivo agrees very well with values which have been determined by other authors using 14 C- or 3 H-marked fatty acids. The close correlation of the tissue-specific metabolism kinetics of both markers makes it clear that both fatty acids are metabolized by similar, respectively, primarily identical metabolic pathyways. In conclusion, this study makes clear the extensive congruence of the metabolism kinetics of IPPA and the kinetics of the physiological palmitic acid. As a result of the presented results of the γ-radiating radiopharmaceutical IPPA as a free fatty acid analog new possibilities for the non-invasive external comprehension of lipid metabolism are opened up, whose use especially in the diagnostic of heart diseases promises success. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Synthesis of Renewable Diesel Range Alkanes by Hydrodeoxygenation of Palmitic Acid over 5% Ni/CNTs under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Duan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to renewable diesel has been attracting more and more attention. In the current paper, carbon nanotube (CNT-supported nickel catalysts, namely, 5% Ni/CNTs, were prepared for liquid hydrocarbon production through the deoxygenation of palmitic acid, the model compound of bio-oil under a mild condition of 240 °C reaction temperature and 2 MPa H2 pressure. The experimental results revealed that the main reaction product was pentadecane (yield of 89.64% at an optimum palmitic acid conversion of 97.25% via the hydrodecarbonylation (HDC process. The deoxygenation mechanism for palmitic acid conversion was also investigated. This study provides technical parameters and a theoretical basis for further industrialization in the bio-oil upgrading process.

  11. Selection and Characterization of Palmitic Acid Responsive Patients with an OXPHOS Complex I Defect

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    Tom E. J. Theunissen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders are genetically and clinically heterogeneous, mainly affecting high energy-demanding organs due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS. Currently, effective treatments for OXPHOS defects, with complex I deficiency being the most prevalent, are not available. Yet, clinical practice has shown that some complex I deficient patients benefit from a high-fat or ketogenic diet, but it is unclear how these therapeutic diets influence mitochondrial function and more importantly, which complex I patients could benefit from such treatment. Dietary studies in a complex I deficient patient with exercise intolerance showed increased muscle endurance on a high-fat diet compared to a high-carbohydrate diet. We performed whole-exome sequencing to characterize the genetic defect. A pathogenic homozygous p.G212V missense mutation was identified in the TMEM126B gene, encoding an early assembly factor of complex I. A complementation study in fibroblasts confirmed that the p.G212V mutation caused the complex I deficiency. The mechanism turned out to be an incomplete assembly of the peripheral arm of complex I, leading to a decrease in the amount of mature complex I. The patient clinically improved on a high-fat diet, which was supported by the 25% increase in maximal OXPHOS capacity in TMEM126B defective fibroblast by the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid, whereas oleic acid did not have any effect in those fibroblasts. Fibroblasts of other patients with a characterized complex I gene defect were tested in the same way. Patient fibroblasts with complex I defects in NDUFS7 and NDUFAF5 responded to palmitic acid, whereas ACAD9, NDUFA12, and NDUFV2 defects were non-responding. Although the data are too limited to draw a definite conclusion on the mechanism, there is a tendency that protein defects involved in early assembly complexes, improve with palmitic acid, whereas proteins defects involved in late assembly, do not. Our data show at

  12. Optimization of methanol crystallization for highly efficient separation of palmitic acid from palm fatty acid mixture using response surface methodology

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    A. A.W. Japir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to develop parameters for the separation of palmitic acid (PA from a crude palm oil saturated fatty acid (SFAs mixture by using the methanol crystallization method. The conditions of methanol crystallization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM with the D-optimal design. The procedure of developing the solvent crystallization method was based on various different parameters. The fatty acid composition was carried out using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID as fatty acid methyl esters. The highest percentage of SFAs was more than 96% with the percentage yield of 87.5% under the optimal conditions of fatty acids-to-methanol ratio of 1: 20 (w/v, the crystallization temperature of -15 °C, and the crystallization time of 24 hours, respectively. The composition of separated SFAs in the solid fraction contains 96.7% of palmitic acid (C16:0 as a dominant component and 3.3% of stearic acid (C18:0. The results showed that utilizing methanol as a crystallization solvent is recommended because of its high efficiency, low cost, stability, availability, comparative ease of recovery and its ability to form needle-like crystals which have good filtering and washing characteristics.

  13. Optimization of methanol crystallization for highly efficient separation of palmitic acid from palm fatty acid mixture using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japir, A.A.W.; Salimon, J.; Derawi, D.; Yahaya, B.H.; Jamil, M.S.M.; Yusop, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop parameters for the separation of palmitic acid (PA) from a crude palm oil saturated fatty acid (SFAs) mixture by using the methanol crystallization method. The conditions of methanol crystallization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) with the D-optimal design. The procedure of developing the solvent crystallization method was based on various different parameters. The fatty acid composition was carried out using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) as fatty acid methyl esters. The highest percentage of SFAs was more than 96% with the percentage yield of 87.5% under the optimal conditions of fatty acids-to-methanol ratio of 1: 20 (w/v), the crystallization temperature of -15 °C, and the crystallization time of 24 hours, respectively. The composition of separated SFAs in the solid fraction contains 96.7% of palmitic acid (C16:0) as a dominant component and 3.3% of stearic acid (C18:0). The results showed that utilizing methanol as a crystallization solvent is recommended because of its high efficiency, low cost, stability, availability, comparative ease of recovery and its ability to form needle-like crystals which have good filtering and washing characteristics. [es

  14. Palmitic acid/polypyrrole composites as form-stable phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silakhori, Mahyar; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Fauzi, Hadi; Baradaran, Saeid; Naghavi, Mohammad Sajad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel phase change composite of palmitic acid–polypyrrole(PA–PPy) was fabricated. • Thermal properties of PA–PPy are characterized in different mass ratios of PA–PPy. • Thermal cycling test showed that form stable PCM had a favorable thermal reliability. - Abstract: In this study a novel palmitic acid (PA)/polypyrrole (PPy) form-stable PCMs were readily prepared by in situ polymerization method. PA was used as thermal energy storage material and PPy was operated as supporting material. Form-stable PCMs were investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrometer) analysis that illustrated PA Particles were wrapped by PPy particles. XRD (X-ray diffractometer) was used for crystalline phase of PA/PPy composites. Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used for investigating Thermal stability and thermal energy storage properties of prepared form-stable PCMs. According to the obtained results the form stable PCMs exhibited favorable thermal stability in terms of their phase change temperature. The form-stable PCMs (79.9 wt% loading of PA) were considered as the highest loading PCM with desirable latent heat storage of 166.3 J/g and good thermal stability. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also showed that form stable PCM had an acceptable thermal reliability. As a consequence of acceptable thermal properties, thermal stability and chemical stability, we can consider the new kind of form stable PCMs for low temperature solar thermal energy storage applications

  15. KINETIC STUDY OF PALMITIC ACID ESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY Rhizopus oryzae RESTING CELLS

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    JONH J MÉNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, a kinetic model for the biocatalytic synthesis of esters using Rhizopus oryzae resting cells is proposed. The kinetic study has been made in a range of 30-50 °C and atmospheric pressure. The Influence of operating variables, water content, pH, amount of mycelium was studied. Different values of temperature, initial mycelium concentration and acid/alcohol molar ratio were tested. Initial rates were estimated from the slope of the concentration of palmitic acid, or their corresponding ester at conversions of less than 10%, versus time and reported as mmol l-1 min -1. The values of kinetic constants were computed using the freeware program SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk. Key words: bound lipase, esterification, fungal resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, palmitic acid, propanol. RESUMEN En el presente estudio, un modelo cinético para la síntesis de esteres usando Rhizopus oryzae resting cells es propuesto. El estudio cinético fue realizado en un rango de temperatura de 30-50 ºC a presión atmosférica reducida. La influencia de las variables de operación tales como temperatura, pH y contenido de agua fueron estudiadas. Diferentes valores de concentración de micelio y relación molar de ácido/alcohol son ensayadas, Las velocidades iníciales se estimaron de la curva de concentración de acido palmítico, y su correspondiente conversión a ester en menos del 10%, frente a tiempo y reportadas en mmol I-1 min -1. Los valores de las constantes cinéticas fueron calculados usando el programa freeware SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk. Palabras clave: Lipasas, esterificación, resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, acido palmítico, propanol.

  16. PALMITIC AND OLEIC ACIDS AND THEIR ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

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    V. N. Titov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of phylogenetic theory of general pathology, the cause of a noninfectious disease whose occurrence in a population is more than 5–7% is an impaired biological function or reaction to the environment. From the general biology viewpoint, high mortality rate related to cardio-vascular diseases and atherosclerosis (intercellular deficiency of polyenic fatty acids (PFA is just extinction of the Homo sapiens population upon adaptation to new environmental factors. The biological function of throphology (feeding and biological reaction of exotrophy (external feeding are impaired in several aspects, the major of which is nonphysiologically high dietary content of saturated fatty acids, primarily, of palmitic fatty acid (FA. The lipoprotein system formed at early stages of phylogenesis cannot transport and provide physiological deposition of great amounts of palmitic FA, which leads to the development of an adaption (compensatory and accumulation disease. This results in hypermipidemia, impaired bioavailability of PFA to cells, compesatory production of humoral mediators from ω-9 eicosatrienoic mead FA, disorders in physiological parameters of cell plasma membrane and integral proteins, nonphysiological conformation of apoВ-100 in lipoproteins, formation of ligandless lipoproteins (biological litter and impairments in the biological function of endoecology, utilization of ligandless lipoproteins in arterial intima by phylogenetically early macrophages that do not hydrolyze polyenic cholesterol esters, increase in the intensity of the biological reaction of inflammation, and destructive and inflammatory lesions in arterial intima of an atheromatosis or atherothrombosis type. Atheromatous masses are catabolites of PFA which were not internalized by phylogenetically late cells via receptor-mediated pathway.

  17. Palmitic acid-labeled lipids selectively incorporated into platelet cytoskeleton during aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packham, M.A.; Guccione, M.A.; Bryant, N.L.; Livne, A.

    1990-01-01

    Previous experiments showed that during the early stages (20-30 seconds) of aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2 microM) or thrombin (0.1 U/mL) of rabbit or human platelets prelabeled with [3H]palmitic acid, labeled lipid became associated with the cytoskeleton isolated after lysis with 1% Triton X-100, 5 mM EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)]-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid. The association appeared to be related to the number of sites of contact and was independent of the release of granule contents. We have now investigated the nature of the labeled lipids by thin-layer and column chromatography and found differences between the distribution of the label in intact platelets (both stimulated and unstimulated) and the isolated cytoskeletons. In both species, and with either ADP or thrombin as aggregating agent, 70-85% of the label in both intact platelets and in the cytoskeletons was in phospholipids. The distribution of label among the phospholipids in the cytoskeletons was similar to that in intact platelets except that the percentage of label in phosphatidylcholine was significantly higher in the cytoskeletons of human platelets than in the intact platelets, and the percentage of label in phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol was significantly lower in the cytoskeletons of rabbit platelets and thrombin-aggregated human platelets than in intact platelets. The cytoskeletons contained a lower percentage of label in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol ester than the intact platelets. Contrary to a report in the literature, we found no evidence for the incorporation of diacylglycerol and palmitic acid into the cytoskeleton

  18. Metabolism of U14C palmitic and 1-14C caproic acids by lettuce seeds during early germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salon, C.; Raymond, P.; Pradet, A.

    1986-01-01

    Germinating lettuce embryos (before radicule emergence) were fed with either U 14 C palmitic acid or 1 14 C caproic acid until a metabolic steady state was reached. The bulk of labelled caproate was evolved as respiratory CO 2 (52%) and incorporated into organic and amino acids (38%) and only a small part incorporated into lipids whereas most of labelled palmitic acid was found into lipids (92%) and only 8% evolved as CO 2 and incorporated into organic and amino acids. The label distribution at steady state in intermediates linked to the T.C.A. cycle was interpreted using a metabolic model. They found that the two fatty acids were degraded by β-oxidation and incorporated into the T.C.A. cycle as acetylCoA suggesting that β-oxidation is located in the mitochondria. The results also indicate that lipids contribute for at least 90% to the carbon supply to respiration

  19. Antioxidant effect of mogrosides against oxidative stress induced by palmitic acid in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q.; Chen, S.Y.; Deng, L.D.; Feng, L.P.; Huang, L.Z.; Yu, R.R. [Department of Pharmacy, Guilin Medical University, Guilin (China)

    2013-11-18

    Excessive oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells, caused by glucose and fatty acids, is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mogrosides have shown antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in animal models of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of mogrosides on insulinoma cells under oxidative stress caused by palmitic acid, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells were cultured in medium containing 0.75 mM palmitic acid, mimicking oxidative stress. The effects of 1 mM mogrosides were determined with the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and FITC-Annexin V/PI assay for cell apoptosis. Expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and pyruvate kinase was determined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Palmitic acid significantly increased intracellular ROS concentration 2-fold (P<0.05), and decreased expression of GLUT2 (by 60%, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (by 80%, P<0.05) mRNAs in NIT-1 cells. Compared with palmitic acid, co-treatment with 1 mM mogrosides for 48 h significantly reduced intracellular ROS concentration and restored mRNA expression levels of GLUT2 and pyruvate kinase. However, mogrosides did not reverse palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells. Our results indicate that mogrosides might exert their antioxidant effect by reducing intracellular ROS and regulating expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Further research is needed to achieve a better understanding of the signaling pathway involved in the antioxidant effect of mogrosides.

  20. Determination of Fatty Acid Metabolism with Dynamic [11C]Palmitate Positron Emission Tomography of Mouse Heart In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinlin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to establish a quantitative method for measuring fatty acid (FA metabolism with partial volume (PV and spill-over (SP corrections using dynamic [11C]palmitate positron emission tomographic (PET images of mouse heart in vivo. Twenty-minute dynamic [11C]palmitate PET scans of four 18- to 20-week-old male C57BL/6 mice under isoflurane anesthesia were performed using a Focus F-120 PET scanner. A model-corrected blood input function, by which the input function with SP and PV corrections and the metabolic rate constants (k1–k5 are simultaneously estimated from the dynamic [11C]palmitate PET images of mouse hearts in a four-compartment tracer kinetic model, was used to determine rates of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO, myocardial FA esterification, myocardial FA use, and myocardial FA uptake. The MFAO thus measured in C57BL/6 mice was 375.03 ± 43.83 nmol/min/g. This compares well to the MFAO measured in perfused working C57BL/6 mouse hearts ex vivo of about 350 nmol/g/min and 400 nmol/min/g. FA metabolism was measured for the first time in mouse heart in vivo using dynamic [11C]palmitate PET in a four-compartment tracer kinetic model. MFAO obtained with this model was validated by results previously obtained with mouse hearts ex vivo.

  1. Palmitic Acid Curcumin Ester Facilitates Protection of Neuroblastoma against Oligomeric Aβ40 Insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhangyang; Wu, Meihao; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Wang, Tingting; Sun, Yanjie; Feng, Zhibo; Li, Changzheng

    2017-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer's disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin) which can be cultivated on the cell membrane and investigated the neuroprotective effect of P-curcumin and its interaction with Aβ. P-curcumin was prepared through chemical synthesis. Its structure was determined via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). An MTT assay was used to assess Aβ cytotoxicity and the protective effect of P-curcumin on SH-SY5Y cells. The effect of P-curcumin on Aβ-induced ROS production in vitro and in vivo were assessed based on changes in dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence. A spectrophotometric method was employed to detect lipid peroxidation. To mimic the interaction of P-curcumin on cell membranes with Aβ, liposomes were prepared by thin film method. Finally, the interactions between free P-curcumin and P-curcumin cultivated on liposomes and Aβ were determined via spectrophotometry. A novel derivative, palmitic acid curcumin ester was prepared and characterized. This curcumin, cultivated on the membranes of neurocytes, may prevent Aβ-mediated ROS production and may inhibit the direct interaction between Aβ and the cellular membrane. Furthermore, P-curcumin could scavenge Aβ-mediated ROS as curcumin in vitro and in vivo, and had the potential to prevent lipid peroxidation. Morphological analyses showed that P-curcumin was better than curcumin at protecting cell shape. To examine P-curcumin's ability to attenuate direct interaction between Aβ and cell membranes, the binding affinity of Aβ to curcumin and P-curcumin was determined. The association

  2. Palmitic Acid Curcumin Ester Facilitates Protection of Neuroblastoma against Oligomeric Aβ40 Insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangyang Qi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS caused by amyloid-β (Aβ is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin which can be cultivated on the cell membrane and investigated the neuroprotective effect of P-curcumin and its interaction with Aβ. Methods: P-curcumin was prepared through chemical synthesis. Its structure was determined via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS. An MTT assay was used to assess Aβ cytotoxicity and the protective effect of P-curcumin on SH-SY5Y cells. The effect of P-curcumin on Aβ-induced ROS production in vitro and in vivo were assessed based on changes in dichlorofluorescein (DCF fluorescence. A spectrophotometric method was employed to detect lipid peroxidation. To mimic the interaction of P-curcumin on cell membranes with Aβ, liposomes were prepared by thin film method. Finally, the interactions between free P-curcumin and P-curcumin cultivated on liposomes and Aβ were determined via spectrophotometry. Results: A novel derivative, palmitic acid curcumin ester was prepared and characterized. This curcumin, cultivated on the membranes of neurocytes, may prevent Aβ-mediated ROS production and may inhibit the direct interaction between Aβ and the cellular membrane. Furthermore, P-curcumin could scavenge Aβ-mediated ROS as curcumin in vitro and in vivo, and had the potential to prevent lipid peroxidation. Morphological analyses showed that P-curcumin was better than curcumin at protecting cell shape. To examine P-curcumin’s ability to attenuate direct interaction between Aβ and cell membranes, the binding affinity of Aβ to curcumin

  3. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  4. Palmitic Acid on Salt Subphases and in Mixed Monolayers of Cerebrosides: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

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    Ellen M. Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been found to be a major constituent in marine aerosols, and is commonly used to investigate organic containing atmospheric aerosols, and is therefore used here as a proxy system. Surface pressure-area isotherms (π-A, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG were used to observe a PA monolayer during film compression on subphases of ultrapure water, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, and artificial seawater (ASW. π-A isotherms indicate that salt subphases alter the phase behavior of PA, and BAM further reveals that a condensation of the monolayer occurs when compared to pure water. VSFG spectra and BAM images show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ induce ordering of the PA acyl chains, and it was determined that the interaction of Mg2+ with the monolayer is weaker than Ca2+. π-A isotherms and BAM were also used to monitor mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside, a simple glycolipid. Results reveal that PA also has a condensing effect on the cerebroside monolayer. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that attractive interactions between the two components exist; this may be due to hydrogen bonding of the galactose and carbonyl headgroups. BAM images of the collapse structures show that mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside are miscible at all surface pressures. These results suggest that the surface morphology of organic-coated aerosols is influenced by the chemical composition of the aqueous core and the organic film itself.

  5. Concerted action of p62 and Nrf2 protects cells from palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Su [Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong Hoon [Department of Life Science and Ewha Research Center for Systems Biology (Korea, Republic of); The Research Center for Cell Homeostasis, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 127-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Da Hyun [Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Soo Han, E-mail: soohanbae@yuhs.ac [Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-09

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), frequently associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus, is caused by the accumulation of excess fatty acids within liver cells. Palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated fatty acid found in mammals, induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elicits apoptotic cell death, known as lipotoxicity. However, protective mechanisms against PA-induced lipotoxicity have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of p62, an adapter protein in the autophagic process, as well as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway, in protecting cells from PA-induced lipotoxicity. The Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is essential for the protection of cells from oxidative stress. p62 enhances its binding to Keap1 and leads to Nrf2 activation. Here, we show that PA potentiates Keap1 degradation and thereby activates the transcription of Nrf2 target genes partially through autophagy. Furthermore, this PA-mediated Keap1 degradation depends on p62. Correspondingly, a lack of p62 attenuates the PA-mediated Nrf2 activation and increases the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress. These results indicate that p62 plays an important role in protecting cells against lipotoxicity through Keap1 degradation-mediated Nrf2 activation. - Highlights: • PA induces Keap1 downregulation and activates Nrf2 target gene transcription. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation is partly mediated by the autophagic pathway. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation depends on p62. • Ablation of p62 exacerbates PA-mediated apoptotic cell death.

  6. Concerted action of p62 and Nrf2 protects cells from palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Su; Kang, Dong Hoon; Lee, Da Hyun; Bae, Soo Han

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), frequently associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus, is caused by the accumulation of excess fatty acids within liver cells. Palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated fatty acid found in mammals, induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elicits apoptotic cell death, known as lipotoxicity. However, protective mechanisms against PA-induced lipotoxicity have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of p62, an adapter protein in the autophagic process, as well as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway, in protecting cells from PA-induced lipotoxicity. The Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is essential for the protection of cells from oxidative stress. p62 enhances its binding to Keap1 and leads to Nrf2 activation. Here, we show that PA potentiates Keap1 degradation and thereby activates the transcription of Nrf2 target genes partially through autophagy. Furthermore, this PA-mediated Keap1 degradation depends on p62. Correspondingly, a lack of p62 attenuates the PA-mediated Nrf2 activation and increases the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress. These results indicate that p62 plays an important role in protecting cells against lipotoxicity through Keap1 degradation-mediated Nrf2 activation. - Highlights: • PA induces Keap1 downregulation and activates Nrf2 target gene transcription. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation is partly mediated by the autophagic pathway. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation depends on p62. • Ablation of p62 exacerbates PA-mediated apoptotic cell death.

  7. Enhancement in electrical conductivity of pastes containing submicron Ag-coated Cu filler with palmitic acid surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Byeol; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The fabrication and applied use of submicron Ag-coated Cu (Cu@Ag) particles as a filler material for epoxy-based conductive pastes having the advantages of a lower material cost and antioxidation behavior were studied. Submicron Cu@Ag particles were successfully prepared and surface-modified using palmitic acid. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry results indicated the formation of an organic layer by the chemical interaction between the Cu@Ag surface and palmitic acid and the survival of the organic layer after treatment at 160 °C for 3 h in air. The printed pastes containing both commercial micron Cu@Ag flakes and the fabricated submicron Cu@Ag particles showed a greatly reduced electrical resistivity (4.68 × 10-4 Ω cm) after surface modification compared to an initial value of 1.85 × 10-3 Ω cm when cured.

  8. Effect of artichoke extract (Cynara scolymus L.) on palmitic-1-14C acid oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzyszyn, Zygmunt; Czerny, Boguslaw; Pawlik, Andrzej; Drozdzik, Marek

    2008-05-01

    Studies on the effect of the artichoke extract (AE) on oxidation of palmitic-1-14C acid administered intravenously to rats at a dose 25 and 50 mg/kg bw demonstrated marked enhancement of both 14CO2 expiration rate and 14CO2 recovery in the expired air. The extract suppressed accumulation of palmitic-1-14C acid in serum lipids and epididymal fat pad tissue as well. The effects of the extract on 14CO2 expiration rate, 14CO2 recovery, as well as accumulation of palmitic-1-14C acid were dose dependent. Total14CO2 recovery in expired air during 60 min was elevated by 17.3% (p < 0.05) and 52.1% (p < 0.001) in rats administered the extract at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The rats supplemented with the AE at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg bw were characterized by 10.0% (not significant) and 19% (p < 0.05) decrease in( 14)C radioactivity of serum lipids as well as reduction of epididymal fat tissue 14C radioactivity by 8.7 and 17.5% (p < 0.05), respectively, in comparison with the control rats. Thus, the results demonstrate that the AE possess stimulatory properties with respect to oxidation of palmitic acid administered to rats, and provide new information on the mechanism of antilipemic activity of the extract associated with activation of lipid oxidation in the organism.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of microencapsulated myristic acid–palmitic acid eutectic mixture as phase change material for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alva, Guruprasad; Huang, Xiang; Liu, Lingkun; Fang, Guiyin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Myristic acid–palmitic acid eutectic was microencapsulated with silica shell. •Structure, morphology of microencapsulated phase change material were investigated. •Thermal capacity, stability of microencapsulated phase change material were analyzed. •Silica shell improved thermal stability of microencapsulated phase change material. -- Abstract: In this work microencapsulation of myristic acid–palmitic acid (MA–PA) eutectic mixture with silica shell using sol−gel method has been attempted. The core phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage was myristic acid−palmitic acid eutectic mixture and the shell material to prevent the PCM core from leakage was silica prepared from methyl triethoxysilane (MTES). Thermal properties of the microcapsules were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The morphology and particle size of the microcapsules were examined by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Fourier transformation infrared spectrophotometer (FT–IR) and X–ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to investigate the chemical structure and crystalloid phase of the microcapsules respectively. The DSC results indicated that microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) melts at 46.08 °C with a latent heat of 169.69 kJ kg −1 and solidifies at 44.35 °C with a latent heat of 159.59 kJ kg −1 . The thermal stability of the microcapsules was analyzed by a thermogravimeter (TGA). The results indicated that the MPCM has good thermal stability and is suitable for thermal energy storage application.

  10. Improving the physical and moisture barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum biodegradable film with stearic and palmitic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Stearic and palmitic fatty acids (10%, 20% and 30%, W/W gum) were used to improve the barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) film. The impact of the incorporation of fatty acids into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the films. Addition of stearic and palmitic fatty acids to LPSG films reduced their water vapor permeability (WVP), moisture content, water solubility and water adsorption. Increasing fatty acid concentration from 10% to 30%, reduced the elongation at break (EB). Lower values of tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained in the presence of higher fatty acids concentrations. Incorporation of fatty acids led to production of opaque films and the opacity increased as function of fatty acids concentration. Results showed that moisture content, water solubility and WVP decreased as the chain length of fatty acid increased. Therefore, LPSG-fatty acids composite film could be used for packaging in which a low affinity toward water is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in partitioning of meal fatty acids into blood lipid fractions: a comparison of linoleate, oleate, and palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Leanne; McQuaid, Siobh?n E.; Karpe, Fredrik; Frayn, Keith N.; Fielding, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been much interest in the health effects of dietary fat, but few studies have comprehensively compared the acute metabolic fate of specific fatty acids in vivo. We hypothesized that different classes of fatty acids would be variably partitioned in metabolic pathways and that this would become evident over 24 h. We traced the fate of fatty acids using equal amounts of [U-13C]linoleate, [U-13C]oleate, and [U-13C]palmitate given in a test breakfast meal in 12 healthy subjects. There wa...

  12. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPAR{sub β/δ} in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua [Comprehensive Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, Xiaoying, E-mail: zhangxy6689996@163.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Xu, Ning, E-mail: ning.xu@med.lu.se [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPAR{sub β/δ} antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR{sub β/δ}) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway.

  13. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestibility was studied with five lactating cows fed three different fat sources in a 5 × 5 latin square experiment. The treatments were 500 g of tallow, 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in stearic acid (C18:0) (SARF) or 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in palmitic acid (C16......:0) (PARF) per day. The total daily fatty acid intake was about 1100 g in rations with the highest fat inclusion. The fatty acid digestibilities were 76% for tallow, 74 and 64% for 500 and 1000 g SARF, respectively, and 87 and 81% for 500 and 1000 g of PARF, respectively. When compared to fatty acid...... digestibility for tallow predicted from a model based on literature values, PARF had a higher fatty acid digestibility at both fat intakes, and SARF had a lower fatty acid digestibility, especially at high fat intake....

  14. Adiponectin protects palmitic acid induced endothelial inflammation and insulin resistance via regulating ROS/IKKβ pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenwen; Wu, Chuanhong; Li, Shaojing; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) has been closely associated with endothelial dysfunction. Adiponectin (APN), an adipocyte-secreted hormone from adipose tissues, showed cardioprotective effects. Here, the protective effect of APN on palmitic acid (PA)-induced endothelial inflammation and IR was investigated. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with PA without or without APN pretreatment. The expression of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, adhesion molecule ICAM-1 were determined by western blotting, ELISA, and real-time PCR. The protein expression and protein-protein interaction were determined by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were monitored with fluorescence probes. PA-induced secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and expression of ICAM-1 at protein and mRNA levels, which was significantly inhibited by APN. PA treatment caused increase of ROS generation, NOX2, p-IKKβ, p-IκBα, p-p65 expression, and p-IκBα-IKKβ interaction, which were all partly reversed by APN. ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and NF-κB inhibitor PDTC showed similar effect on PA-induced secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and expression of ICAM-1. Furthermore, APN and NAC pretreatment restored PA-induced increase of p-IRS-1(S307), decrease of p-IRS-1(Tyr). In addition, insulin-triggered expression of p-IRS-1(Tyr), p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-eNOS and NO generation were inhibited by PA, which were also restored by both APN and NAC. These results suggested that APN ameliorated endothelial inflammation and IR through ROS/IKKβ pathway. This study shed new insights into the mechanisms of APN's cardiovascular protective effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Titer and cloud point of Distilled Oleic Acid is higher than is the standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design with 3 independent variables, 3 X 2 X 3, repeated twice as much, is applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. In the optimum C16, feed composition at 5.20 % produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside its specification.

  16. Stereochemistry of Endogenous Palmitic Acid Ester of 9-Hydroxystearic Acid and Relevance of Absolute Configuration to Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew T; Kolar, Matthew J; Chu, Qian; Syed, Ismail; Kahn, Barbara B; Saghatelian, Alan; Siegel, Dionicio

    2017-04-05

    Lipids have fundamental roles in the structure, energetics, and signaling of cells and organisms. The recent discovery of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), lipids with potent antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities, indicates that our understanding of the composition of lipidome and the function of lipids is incomplete. The ability to synthesize and test FAHFAs was critical in elucidating the roles of these lipids, but these studies were performed with racemic mixtures, and the role of stereochemistry remains unexplored. Here, we synthesized the R- and S- palmitic acid ester of 9-hydroxystearic acid (R-9-PAHSA, S-9-PAHSA). Access to highly enantioenriched PAHSAs enabled the development of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method to separate and quantify R- and S-9-PAHSA, and this approach identified R-9-PAHSA as the predominant stereoisomer that accumulates in adipose tissues from transgenic mice where FAHFAs were first discovered. Furthermore, biochemical analysis of 9-PAHSA biosynthesis and degradation indicate that the enzymes and pathways for PAHSA production are stereospecific, with cell lines favoring the production of R-9-PAHSA and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), a PAHSA degradative enzyme, selectively hydrolyzing S-9-PAHSA. These studies highlight the role of stereochemistry in the production and degradation of PAHSAs and define the endogenous stereochemistry of 9-PAHSA in adipose tissue. This information will be useful in the identification and characterization of the pathway responsible for PAHSA biosynthesis, and access to enantiopure PAHSAs will elucidate the role of stereochemistry in PAHSA activity and metabolism in vivo.

  17. Levels of palmitic acid ester of hydroxystearic acid (PAHSA) are reduced in the breast milk of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinova, Marie; Kuda, Ondrej; Hansikova, Jana; Rombaldova, Martina; Balas, Laurence; Bardova, Kristina; Durand, Thierry; Rossmeisl, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Stranak, Zbynek; Kopecky, Jan

    2018-02-01

    To achieve optimal development of a newborn, breastfeeding is extensively recommended, but little is known about the role of non-nutritive bioactive milk components. We aimed to characterize the fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), namely palmitic acid hydroxystearic acids (PAHSAs)-endogenous lipids with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties, in human breast milk. Breast milk samples from 30 lean (BMI=19-23) and 23 obese (BMI>30) women were collected 72h postpartum. Adipose tissue and milk samples were harvested from C57BL/6J mice. FAHFA lipid profiles were measured using reverse phase and chiral liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. PAHSA regioisomers as well as other FAHFAs were present in both human and murine milk. Unexpectedly, the levels of 5-PAHSA were higher relative to other regioisomers. The separation of both regioisomers and enantiomers of PAHSAs revealed that both R- and S-enantiomers were present in the biological samples, and that the majority of the 5-PAHSA signal is of R configuration. Total PAHSA levels were positively associated with weight gain during pregnancy, and 5-PAHSA as well as total PAHSA levels were significantly lower in the milk of the obese compared to the lean mothers. Our results document for the first time the presence of lipid mediators from the FAHFA family in breast milk, while giving an insight into the stereochemistry of PAHSAs. They also indicate the negative effect of obesity on 5-PAHSA levels. Future studies will be needed to explore the role and mechanism of action of FAHFAs in breast milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intestinal absorption and distribution of 14C-palmitic acid in an young Indian freshwater major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, G.M.; Chakrabarti, P.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of absorption and distribution of radioactive lipids in the various regions of the intestine and hepatopancreas of young Labeo rohita (Ham.) was investigated after feeding with small-sized earthworms (Pheretima posthuma), preinjected with 14 C-Palmitic acid. Dietary free fatty acids were mainly absorbed in the various regions (anterior, middle and posterior) of the intestine-the absorption capacity, however, varying greatly from region to region. The absorption of free fatty acids through the luminal brush border of the various regions of the intestine started at 24 hr of post-feeding (h.p.f.) with labelled diet and recorded its peak during 32 +- 2 h.p.f. However, middle intestine was found to be more active for such absorption than the other two regions (anterior and posterior). Incorporation of labelled Palmitic acid in the columnar epithelial cells and its subsequent transportation in the hepatic tissues, via lymphatic systems took place with in a short interval after absorption. However, absorption was completed within 40 h.p.f. when deposition of radioactive lipids was found to be maximum in the columnar epithelial cells of the various regions of the intestine and hepatic tissues. (author)

  19. Preparation and properties of highly conductive palmitic acid/graphene oxide composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Indra Mahlia, Teuku Meurah; Cornelis Metselaar, Hendrik Simon

    2013-01-01

    PA/GO (palmitic acid/graphene oxide) as PCMs (phase change materials) prepared by vacuum impregnation method, have high thermal conductivity. The GO (graphene oxide) composite was used as supporting material to improve thermal conductivity and shape stabilization of composite PCM (phase change material). SEM (Scanning electronic microscope), FT-IR (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) were applied to determine microstructure, chemical structure and crystalloid phase of palmitic acid/GO composites, respectively. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) test was done to investigate thermal properties which include melting and solidifying temperatures and latent heat. FT-IR analysis represented that the composite instruction of porous palmitic acid and GO were physical. The temperatures of melting, freezing and latent heats of the composite measured through DSC analysis were 60.45, 60.05 °C, 101.23 and 101.49 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that the form-stable composite PCM has good thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by more than three times from 0.21 to 1.02. As a result, due to their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and great thermal conductivities, we can consider the prepared form-stable composites as highly conductive PCMs for thermal energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Novel composite PCM with high thermal conductivity and latent heat storage. • New thermal cycling test for thermal reliability of composite PCMs. • Increasing thermal conductivity of composite PCM with graphene oxide. • Increasing thermal stability of phase change material by adding graphene oxide

  20. Deoxygenation of Palmitic and Lauric Acids over Pt/ZIF-67 Membrane/Zeolite 5A Bead Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiu; Carreon, Moises A

    2017-09-20

    The deoxygenation of palmitic and lauric acids over 0.5 wt % Pt/ZIF-67 membrane/zeolite 5A bead catalysts is demonstrated. Almost complete conversion (% deoxygenation of ≥95%) of these two fatty acids was observed over both fresh and recycled catalyst after a 2 h reaction time. The catalysts displayed high selectivity to pentadecane and undecane via decarboxylation reaction pathway even at low 0.5 wt % Pt loading. Selectivity to pentadecane and undecane as high as ∼92% and ∼94% was observed under CO 2 atmosphere when palmitic and lauric acids were used respectively as reactants. Depending on the reaction gas atmosphere, two distinctive reaction pathways were observed: decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. Specifically, it was found that decarboxylation reaction pathway was more favorable in the presence of helium and CO 2 , while hydrodeoxygenation pathway strongly competed against the decarboxylation pathway when hydrogen was employed during the deoxygenation reactions. Esters were identified as the key reaction intermediates leading to decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation pathways.

  1. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

    2010-01-01

    Titer and cloud point Distilled Oleic Acid’s higher than standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH) or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design 3 independent variables 3 X 2 X 3, twice repeating’s applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. On the optimum C16 feed composition at 5.20 % was produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside it...

  2. Effects of alpha lipoic acid, ascorbic acid-6-palmitate, and fish oil on the glutathione, malonaldehyde, and fatty acids levels in erythrocytes of streptozotocin induced diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Okkeş; Ozkan, Yusuf; Yildirim, Mehmet; Oztürk, A Ihsan; Erşan, Yasemin

    2002-01-01

    In this research, it has been aimed to evaluate the improvement effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA), ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (AA6P), fish oil (FO), and their combination (COM) on some biochemical properties in erythrocytes of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. According to experimental results, glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocytes decreased in diabetes (P cholesterol level was high in diabetes and D + ALA groups (P acid raised in diabetes group (P acid in D + FO, D + ALA, and diabetes groups was lower than control (P acid reduced in D + COM and D + FO groups, but its level raised in D + AA6P and D + ALA groups (P acid (LA) elevated in ALA + D, D + AA6P, and diabetes groups, linolenic acid level in diabetes, D + AA6P, and D + FO groups was lower than control (P acid (AA) decreased in D + ALA, D+ AA6P, and diabetes groups (P acid (DHA) increased in D + AA6P and D + COM (P acid level raised in diabetes group, its level reduced in D + ALA and D + FO groups (P acid level in D + ALA and D + FO groups was higher than control (P acid degree was raised by the effects of ALA and FO. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in high-fat diet and palmitic acid-induced vascular damages and fenofibrate intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yunxia, E-mail: wwwdluyx@sina.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Cheng, Jingjing [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Chen, Li [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Hefei, Anhui 230001 (China); Li, Chaofei; Chen, Guanjun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Gui, Li [The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Shen, Bing [Department of Physiology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Zhang, Qiu [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Fenofibrate (FF) is widely used to lower blood lipids in clinical practice, but whether its protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aorta is related with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains unknown. In this study, female Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into standard chow diets (SCD), high-fat diets (HFD) and HFD plus FF treatment group (HFD + FF) randomly. The rats of latter two groups were given HFD feeding for 5 months, then HFD + FF rats were treated with FF (30 mg/kg, once daily) via gavage for another 2 months. The pathological and tensional changes, protein expression of eNOS, and ER stress related genes in thoracic aorta were measured. Then impacts of palmitic acid (PA) and FF on EDV of thoracic aorta from normal female SD rats were observed. Ultimately the expression of ER stress related genes were assessed in primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) treated by fenofibric acid (FA) and PA. We found that FF treatment improved serum lipid levels and pathological changes in thoracic aorta, accompanied with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. FF pretreatment also improved EDV impaired by different concentrations of PA treatment. The dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation by PA were inverted by FA pretreatment. Phosphorylation of eNOS and expression of ER stress related genes were all inverted by FA pretreatment in PA-treated MAEC. Our findings show that fenofibrate recovers damaged EDV by chronic HFD feeding and acute stimulation of PA, this effect is related with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. - Highlights: • Fenofibrate treatment improved pathological changes in thoracic aorta by chronic high-fat-diet feeding. • Fenofibrate pretreatment improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by different concentrations of palmitic acid. • The inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells by palmitic acid were inverted by fenofibric

  4. Effects of Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Insulin on Palmitate-Induced ROS Production and Down-Regulation of PI3K/Akt Signaling Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kunihiro; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Goto, Hidemi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    In obese and diabetic patients, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels are often elevated and may play a causal role in insulin resistance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We have previously shown that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has antioxidative activity through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling-mediated glutathione production. In this study, we investigated the effects of UDCA on insulin response by analyzing intracellular ROS and the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cells treated with palmitate. The level of ROS was quantified using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H 2 DCFDA), and the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was determined by Western blotting assay using appropriate antibodies. The intracellular ROS levels were increased by palmitate but were reduced by treatment with UDCA and insulin. Furthermore, insulin significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt. When the cells were pre-treated with palmitate, insulin-induced Akt-phosphorylation was markedly inhibited. However, when the cells were treated with palmitate and UDCA, the effects of insulin were partially restored. UDCA may have protective effects against palmitate-induced decreases in responsiveness to insulin.

  5. Polarized Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy and ab Initio Calculation of Palmitic and Stearic Acids in the Bm and C Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L da Silva, L F; Andrade-Filho, T; Freire, P T C; Filho, J Mendes; da Silva Filho, J G; Saraiva, G D; Moreira, S G C; de Sousa, F F

    2017-06-29

    A complete experimental study on the vibrational properties of palmitic and stearic acids crystallized in the B m and C forms, both belonging to the monoclinic system with the P2 1 /a (C 2h 5 ) space group, through polarized Raman and infrared spectroscopy, is reported in this paper. Density functional theory calculations were also performed to assign the normal modes and to help in the interpretation of the experimental data. The different polarizations were compared and their influence on the spectral profiles, in both the lattice and the internal mode regions, was discussed. In general, the Raman and infrared spectra exhibit accentuated differences among the polymorphic forms, which are associated with the different molecular modifications, defined as gauche and all-trans conformations. Insights about interaction among different groups are also furnished.

  6. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid...

  7. Whole-body biodistribution, dosimetry and metabolite correction of [11C]palmitate: A PET tracer for imaging of fatty acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nana Louise; Jakobsen, Steen; Schacht, Anna Christina

    2017-01-01

    release and parent [11C]palmitate measured by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. Finally, myocardial fatty acid uptake was calculated in a patient cohort using input functions derived from individual metabolite correction compared with population-based metabolite correction. RESULTS: In humans, mean......INTRODUCTION: Despite the decades long use of [11C]palmitate positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography in basic metabolism studies, only personal communications regarding dosimetry and biodistribution data have been published. METHODS: Dosimetry and biodistribution studies were...

  8. The combination of ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and [Fe III 3(µ3-O)]7+ as a catalyst for the oxidation of unsaturated lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micciche, F.; Long, G.J.; Shahin, A.M.; Grandjean, F.; Ming, W.; Haveren, van J.; Linde, van der R.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, iron 2-ethylhexanoate (Fe-eh, 1) in combination with ascorbic acid 6-palmitate (AsA6p) has been reported as a good catalytic system for the oxidation of ethyl linoleate (EL), an unsaturated lipid. In response to the fascinating chemistry of this bio-inspired iron-based catalyst the

  9. Preparation and thermal properties of form-stable palmitic acid/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials for latent heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guiyin; Li, Hui; Cao, Lei; Shan, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Form-stable palmitic acid (PA)/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials were prepared by adsorbing liquid palmitic acid into active aluminum oxide. In the composites, the palmitic acid was used as latent heat storage materials, and the active aluminum oxide was used as supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). The FT-IR analyses results indicated that there is no chemical interaction between the palmitic acid and active aluminum oxide. The SEM results showed that the palmitic acid was well adsorbed into porous network of the active aluminum oxide. The DSC results indicated that the composites melt at 60.25 °C with a latent heat of 84.48 kJ kg −1 and solidify at 56.86 °C with a latent heat of 78.79 kJ kg −1 when the mass ratio of the PA to active aluminum oxide is 0.9:1. Compared with that of the PA, the melting and solidifying time of the composites CPCM5 was reduced by 20.6% and 21.4% because of the increased heat transfer rate through EG addition. The TGA results showed that the active aluminum oxide can improve the thermal stability of the composites. -- Highlights: ► Form-stable PA/active aluminum oxide composites as PCMs were prepared. ► Chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of composites were determined. ► Thermal properties and thermal stability of the composites were investigated. ► Expanded graphite can improve thermal conductivity of the composites.

  10. Thermal properties and heat storage analysis of palmitic acid-TiO_2 composite as nano-enhanced organic phase change material (NEOPCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Ganesan, P.; Tyagi, V.V.; Metselaar, H.S.C.; Sandaran, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel composite of palmitic acid and TiO_2 nanoparticles with enhanced thermal energy storage capabilities • The composite is thermally reliable and chemically stable. • Thermal conductivity of the composite increases significantly with the loading. - Graphical Abstract: - Abstract: In the present study, the phase change behavior of prepared novel composites of palmitic acid and solid nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO_2) for thermal energy storage has been investigated. The nanoparticles are dispersed into the base fluid in various mass fractions (0.5, 1, 3, and 5%), and their effects on the thermo-physical properties have been investigated. Structural analysis has been carried out by using FESEM, and crystallography was checked by XRD technique. The chemical/functional groups of the base fluid and composite PCMs have been analyzed by using FT-IR spectrum. The observations showed that the TiO_2 nanoparticles do not affect the chemical structure of palmitic acid; however they improve the chemical stability. The phase transition temperature and latent heat of fusion has shown the significant stability with the increase in nanoparticle weight fractions. The accelerated thermal cycle test of the composite shows good thermal reliability for 1500 melt/freeze cycles. Thermal conductivity of palmitic acid increased gradually by 12.7, 20.6, 46.6, and 80% for the nanoparticle weight fractions of 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% respectively. Based on the results, it can be mentioned that the prepared palmitic acid based nano-enhanced organic phase change composite materials can be very well used as potential solar thermal energy storage materials.

  11. Disruption of the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a central role in palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, Satoko; Jiang, Shuying; Nameta, Masaaki; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kanai, Mai; Nomura, Yuta; Goda, Nobuhito

    2017-10-01

    The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) is a specialized subdomain of ER that physically connects with mitochondria. Although disruption of inter-organellar crosstalk via the MAM impairs cellular homeostasis, its pathological significance in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unclear. Here, we reveal the importance of reduced MAM formation in the induction of fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Palmitic acid (PA) repressed insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HepG2 cells within 12h. Treatment with an inhibitor of the ER stress response failed to restore PA-mediated suppression of Akt activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production did not increase in PA-treated cells. Even short-term exposure (3h) to PA reduced the calcium flux from ER to mitochondria, followed by a significant decrease in MAM contact area, suggesting that PA suppressed the functional interaction between ER and mitochondria. Forced expression of mitofusin-2, a critical component of the MAM, partially restored MAM contact area and ameliorated the PA-elicited suppression of insulin sensitivity with Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt selectively improved. These results suggest that loss of proximity between ER and mitochondria, but not perturbation of homeostasis in the two organelles individually, plays crucial roles in PA-evoked Akt inactivation in hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Chandan [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Ito, Takashi [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Kawahara, Ko-ichi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan); Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Maruyama, Ikuro, E-mail: rinken@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis.

  13. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Chandan; Ito, Takashi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis

  14. , , , , , and Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001 carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases. Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  15. Caffeine Promotes Conversion of Palmitic Acid to Palmitoleic Acid by Inducing Expression of fat-5 in Caenorhabditis elegans and scd1 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaocui; Huang, Qin; Guan, Yun; Lv, Ming; He, Xiaofang; Fang, Chongye; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis and metabolism of fatty acids in an organism is related to many biological processes and is involved in several diseases. The effects of caffeine on fatty acid synthesis and fat storage in Caenorhabditis elegans and mice were studied. After 6 h of food deprivation, adult C. elegans were treated with 0.1 mg/mL caffeine for 24 h. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that, among all the genes involved in fat accumulation, the mRNA expression of fat-5 in caffeine-treated C. elegans was significantly higher than that of controls, whereas fat-6 and fat-7 displayed no significant difference. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to verify the fatty acid composition of C. elegans . Results showed that the ratio of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to that of palmitic acid (16:0) was higher in the caffeine-treated group. Several mutant strains, including those involved in the insulin-like growth factor-1, dopamine, and serotonin pathways, and nuclear hormone receptors ( nhrs ), were used to assess their necessity to the effects of caffeine. We found that mdt-15 was essential for the effects of caffeine, which was independent of nhr-49 and nhr -80. Caffeine may increase fat-5 expression by acting on mdt-15 . In high fat diet (HFD), but not in normal diet (ND) mice, caffeine induced expression of scd1 in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue, which was consistent with the palmitoleic/palmitic ratio results by gas chromatograph analysis. In mature adipocytes, caffeine treatment induced both mRNA and protein expression of scd1 and pgc-1 α. Overall, our results provided a possible mechanism on how caffeine modulates metabolism homeostasis in vivo .

  16. Thermodynamic versus non-equilibrium stability of palmitic acid monolayers in calcium-enriched sea spray aerosol proxy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen Rudd, Bethany A; Vidalis, Andrew S; Allen, Heather C

    2018-04-16

    Of the major cations in seawater (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+), Ca2+ is found to be the most enriched in fine sea spray aerosols (SSA). In this work, we investigate the binding of Ca2+ to the carboxylic acid headgroup of palmitic acid (PA), a marine-abundant fatty acid, and the impact such binding has on the stability of PA monolayers in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. A range of Ca2+ conditions from 10 μM to 300 mM was utilized to represent the relative concentration of Ca2+ in high and low relative humidity aerosol environments. The CO2- stretching modes of PA detected by surface-sensitive infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) reveal ionic binding motifs of the Ca2+ ion to the carboxylate group with varying degrees of hydration. Surface tensiometry was used to determine the thermodynamic equilibrium spreading pressure (ESP) of PA on the various aqueous CaCl2 subphases. Up to concentrations of 1 mM Ca2+, each system reached equilibrium, and Ca2+:PA surface complexation gave rise to a lower energy state revealed by elevated surface pressures relative to water. We show that PA films are not thermodynamically stable at marine aerosol-relevant Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+] ≥ 10 mM). IRRAS and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface presence of PA on high concentration Ca2+ aqueous subphases. Non-equilibrium relaxation (NER) experiments were also conducted and monitored by Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) to determine the effect of the Ca2+ ions on PA stability. At high surface pressures, the relaxation mechanisms of PA varied among the systems and were dependent on Ca2+ concentration.

  17. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss.

  18. Palmitic acid follows a different metabolic pathway than oleic acid in human skeletal muscle cells; lower lipolysis rate despite an increased level of adipose triglyceride lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Siril S; Moro, Cedric; Nikolić, Nataša; Hessvik, Nina P; Badin, Pierre-Marie; Lauvhaug, Line; Fredriksson, Katarina; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Boekschoten, Mark V; Kersten, Sander; Gaster, Michael; Thoresen, G Hege; Rustan, Arild C

    2012-10-01

    Development of insulin resistance is positively associated with dietary saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with monounsaturated fatty acids. To clarify aspects of this difference we have compared the metabolism of oleic (OA, monounsaturated) and palmitic acids (PA, saturated) in human myotubes. Human myotubes were treated with 100μM OA or PA and the metabolism of [(14)C]-labeled fatty acid was studied. We observed that PA had a lower lipolysis rate than OA, despite a more than two-fold higher protein level of adipose triglyceride lipase after 24h incubation with PA. PA was less incorporated into triacylglycerol and more incorporated into phospholipids after 24h. Supporting this, incubation with compounds modifying lipolysis and reesterification pathways suggested a less influenced PA than OA metabolism. In addition, PA showed a lower accumulation than OA, though PA was oxidized to a relatively higher extent than OA. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that 24h of PA treatment upregulated lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation and downregulated oxidative phosphorylation compared to OA. The differences in lipid accumulation and lipolysis between OA and PA were eliminated in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid (polyunsaturated fatty acid). In conclusion, this study reveals that the two most abundant fatty acids in our diet are partitioned toward different metabolic pathways in muscle cells, and this may be relevant to understand the link between dietary fat and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterisation of Fecal Soap Fatty Acids, Calcium Contents, Bacterial Community and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed with Different sn-2 Palmitic Triacylglycerols Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianchun; Hu, Songyou; Ni, Kefeng; Chang, Guifang; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli

    2016-01-01

    The structure of dietary triacylglycerols is thought to influence fatty acid and calcium absorption, as well as intestinal microbiota population of the host. In the present study, we investigated the impact of palmitic acid (PA) esterified at the sn-2 position on absorption of fatty acid and calcium and composition of intestinal microorganisms in rats fed high-fat diets containing either low sn-2 PA (12.1%), medium sn-2 PA (40.4%) or high sn-2 PA (56.3%), respectively. Fecal fatty acid profiles in the soaps were measured by gas chromatography (GC), while fecal calcium concentration was detected by ICP-MS. The fecal microbial composition was assessed using a 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology and fecal short-chain fatty acids were detected by ion chromatograph. Dietary supplementation with a high sn-2 PA fat significantly reduced total fecal contents of fatty acids soap and calcium compared with the medium or low sn-2 PA fat groups. Diet supplementation with sn-2 PA fat did not change the entire profile of the gut microbiota community at phylum level and the difference at genera level also were minimal in the three treatment groups. However, high sn-2 PA fat diet could potentially improve total short-chain fatty acids content in the feces, suggesting that high dietary sn-2 PA fat might have a beneficial effect on host intestinal health.

  20. Effect of temperature on thermal oxidation of palmitic acid studied by combination of EPR spin trapping technique and SPME-GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongjian; Wang, Yong; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2017-11-01

    Effect of temperatures on thermal oxidation of palmitic acid was studied by the combination of EPR and GC-MS/MS. DMPO was used as the spin trap. The experimental spectrum was simulated with alkyl and alkoxyl spin adducts. Total amount of spins, a parameter to indicate radical concentrations, detected at 180°C was nearly 10 times higher than that at 175°C. Besides, total amounts of spins detected at 180°C decreased rapidly because of the reaction between radical adducts and newly formed radicals. Signal intensities of alkyl radical adducts increased rapidly from 0.405 to 4.785 from 175°C to 180°C. Besides, more palmitic acid degraded to oxidized compounds from 175°C to 180°C than that of other temperature ranges. The C-C linkages between carbons 2 to 6 were easier to be oxidized at 180°C. The results all implied that oxidation rates of palmitic acid samples increased rapidly from 175°C to 180°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CPT1α over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Koss, Michael D.; Fillies, Marion; Gahl, Anja; Scheeder, Martin R.L.; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Geary, Nori; Langhans, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Monika

    2005-01-01

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1α (CPT1α). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1α transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1α over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1α over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1α over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1α, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo

  2. Targeted metabolomic analysis reveals the association between the postprandial change in palmitic acid, branched-chain amino acids and insulin resistance in young obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyan; Feng, Rennan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Ying; Jiao, Jundong; Sun, Changhao

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is the result of a positive energy balance and often leads to difficulties in maintaining normal postprandial metabolism. The changes in postprandial metabolites after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young obese Chinese men are unclear. In this work, the aim is to investigate the complex metabolic alterations in obesity provoked by an OGTT using targeted metabolomics. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze serum fatty acids, amino acids and biogenic amines profiles from 15 control and 15 obese subjects at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min during an OGTT. Metabolite profiles from 30 obese subjects as independent samples were detected in order to validate the change of metabolites. There were the decreased levels of fatty acid, amino acids and biogenic amines after OGTT in obesity. At 120 min, percent change of 20 metabolites in obesity has statistical significance when comparing with the controls. The obese parameters was positively associated with changes in arginine and histidine (Pchange in palmitic acid (PA), branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and phenylalanine between 1 and 120 min were positively associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (all Presistance in obesity. Our findings offer new insights in the complex physiological regulation of the metabolism during an OGTT in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role and mechanism of KCa3.1 channels in human monocyte migration induced by palmitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Zhen; Pang, Zheng-Da; Wang, Jun-Hong; Song, Zheng; Zhao, Li-Mei; Du, Xiao-Jun; Deng, Xiu-Ling

    2018-05-21

    Monocyte migration into diseased tissues contributes to the pathogenesis of diseases. Intermediate-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (K Ca 3.1) channels play an important role in cell migration. However, the role of K Ca 3.1 channels in mediating monocyte migration induced by palmitic acid (PA) is still unclear. Using cultured THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects, we investigated the role and signaling mechanisms of K Ca 3.1 channels in mediating the migration induced by PA. Using methods of Western blotting analysis, RNA interference, cell migration assay and ELISA, we found that PA-treated monocytes exhibited increment of the protein levels of K Ca 3.1 channel and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and the effects were reversed by co-incubation of PA with anti-TLR2/4 antibodies or by specific inhibitors of p38-MAPK, or NF-κB. In addition, PA increased monocyte migration, which was abolished by a specific K Ca 3.1 channel blocker, TRAM-34, or K Ca 3.1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). The expression and secretion of MCP-1 induced by PA was also similarly prevented by TRAM-34 and K Ca 3.1 siRNA. These results demonstrate for the first time that PA upregulates K Ca 3.1 channels through TLR2/4, p38-MAPK and NF-κB pathway to promote the expression of MCP-1, and then induce the trans-endothelial migration of monocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative evaluation of labelling patterns and turnover of lipids, tagged by 15 (p-123I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-14C-palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Sauer, W.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Uptake and turnover of chloroform/methanol extractable tissue lipids labelled in vivo simultaneously with 15(p- 123 I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1- 14 C-palmitic acid were compared. Lipid turnover studies were performed in fasted pentobarbital-anaesthetized Wistar rats in tissues with highly varying free fatty acid turnover rates. In all tissues investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney, both tracers labelled nearly identical lipid fractions. The main tracer uptake was found in free fatty acids, phospholipids, diglycerides and triglycerides. A highly significant correlation of uptake and turnover in main tissue lipid fractions indicated an essentially identical metabolic pathway of both tracers in intermediary tissue lipid metabolism. Concordant tracer uptake and turnover patterns in tissue of lipids with highly varying fatty acid metabolic rates suggested that intrinsic metabolic activity of the tissue and respective lipid fraction was the major determinant of metabolic handling of both iodophenyl fatty- and palmitic acid. Thus, the feasibility of iodophenylpentadecanoic acid as free fatty acid tracer for studying tissue lipid metabolism is demonstrated. (author)

  5. Comparative evaluation of labelling patterns and turnover of lipids, tagged by 15 (p-/sup 123/I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Sauer, W.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin); Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J. (Essen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenphysik und Strahlenbiologie)

    1984-06-15

    Uptake and turnover of chloroform/methanol extractable tissue lipids labelled in vivo simultaneously with 15(p-/sup 123/I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic acid were compared. Lipid turnover studies were performed in fasted pentobarbital-anaesthetized Wistar rats in tissues with highly varying free fatty acid turnover rates. In all tissues investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney, both tracers labelled nearly identical lipid fractions. The main tracer uptake was found in free fatty acids, phospholipids, diglycerides and triglycerides. A highly significant correlation of uptake and turnover in main tissue lipid fractions indicated an essentially identical metabolic pathway of both tracers in intermediary tissue lipid metabolism. Concordant tracer uptake and turnover patterns in tissue of lipids with highly varying fatty acid metabolic rates suggested that intrinsic metabolic activity of the tissue and respective lipid fraction was the major determinant of metabolic handling of both iodophenyl fatty- and palmitic acid. Thus, the feasibility of iodophenylpentadecanoic acid as free fatty acid tracer for studying tissue lipid metabolism is demonstrated. 21 refs.

  6. Monocyte adhesion induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and palmitic acid in endothelial cells and alveolar-endothelial co-cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2016-01-01

    Free palmitic acid (PA) is a potential pro-atherogenic stimulus that may aggravate particle-mediated cardiovascular health effects. We hypothesized that the presence of PA can aggravate oxidative stress and endothelial activation induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) exposure in vitro. We...... measured in the lower chamber on HUVECs and THP-1 cells. The exposure to MWCNTs, including a short (NM400) and long (NM402) type of entangled fibers, was associated with elevated levels of reactive oxygen species as well as a decrease in the intracellular glutathione concentration in HUVEC and A549...

  7. Metabolism in humans of cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid relative to palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emken, E.A.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Adlof, R.O.; Rakoff, H.; Gulley, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mixtures of triglycerides containing deuterium-labeled hexadecanoic acid (16:0), octadecanoic acid (18:0), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (9c-18:1), cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (9c, 12c-18:2) and cis-12,trans-15-octadecadienoic acid (12c,15t-18:2) were fed to two young-adult males. Plasma lipid classes were isolated from samples collected periodically over 48 hr. Incorporation and turnover of the deuterium-labeled fats in plasma lipids were followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the methyl ester derivatives. Absorption of the deuterated fats was followed by GC-MS analysis of chylomicron triglycerides isolated by ultracentrifugation. Results were the following: (i) endogenous fat contributed about 40% of the total fat incorporated into chylomicron triglycerides; (ii) elongation, desaturation and chain-shortened products from the deuterated fats were not detected; (iii) the polyunsaturated isomer 12c,15t-18:2 was metabolically more similar to saturated and 9c-18:1 fatty acids than to 9c,12c-18:2; (iv) relative incorporation of 9c,12c-18:2 into phospholipids did not increase proportionally with an increase of 9c,12c-18:2 in the mixture of deuterated fats fed; (v) absorption of 16:0, 18:0, 9c-18:1, 9c,12c-18:2 and 12c,15t-18:2 were similar; and (vi) data for the 1- and 2-acyl positions of phosphatidylcholine and for cholesteryl ester fractions reflected the known high specificity of phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lecithin:cholesteryl acyltransferase for 9c,12c-18:2. These results illustrate that incorporation of dietary fatty acids into human plasma lipid classes is selectively controlled and that incorporation of dietary 9c,12c-18:2 is limited

  8. Acidolysis of terebinth fruit oil with palmitic and caprylic acids in a recirculating packed bed reactor: optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koçak, D.; Keskin, H.; Fadiloglu, S.; Gögüs, F.

    2016-07-01

    The acidolysis reaction of terebinth fruit oil with caprylic and palmitic acid has been investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Lipozyme IM from Rhizomucormiehei) and carried out in recirculating packed bed reactor. The effects of reaction parameters have been analyzed using response surface methodology. Reaction time (3.5–6.5 h), enzyme load (10–20%), substrate flow rate (4–8 mL·min−1 ) and substrate mole ratios (Terebinth oil : Palmitic acid : Caprylic acid, 1:1.83:1.22–1:3.07:2.05) were evaluated. The optimum reaction conditions were 5.9 h reaction time, 10% enzyme load, 4 mL·min−1 substrate flow rate and 1:3.10:2.07 substrate mole ratio. The structured lipid obtained at these optimum conditions had 52.23% desired triacylglycerols and a lower caloric value than that of terebinth fruit oil. The melting characteristics and microstructure of the structured lipid were similar to those of commercial margarine fat extracts. The results showed that the structured lipid had the highest oxidative stability among the studied fats. (Author)

  9. Palmitic Acid Induces Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through ACSL3 and NF-κB, Novel Targets of Eicosapentaenoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Aiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Ohta, Masahiko; Sambuichi, Keisuke; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs), elevated in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) counteracts many aspects of FFA-induced vascular pathology. Although vascular calcification is invariably associated with atherosclerosis, the mechanisms involved are not completely elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that EPA prevents the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant long-chain saturated fatty acid in plasma. PA increased and EPA abolished the expression of the genes for bone-related proteins, including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, Msx2 and osteopontin in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Among the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) subfamily, ACSL3 expression was predominant in HASMC, and PA robustly increased and EPA efficiently inhibited ACSL3 expression. Importantly, PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation was mediated, at least in part, by ACSL3 activation because acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) inhibitor or siRNA targeted to ACSL3 completely prevented the PA induction of both BMP-2 and Msx2. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated ACSL3 overexpression enhanced PA-induced BMP-2 and Msx2 expression. In addition, EPA, ACSL3 siRNA and ACS inhibitor attenuated calcium deposition and caspase activation induced by PA. Notably, PA induced activation of NF-κB, and NF-κB inhibitor prevented PA-induction of osteoblastic gene expression and calcium deposition. Immunohistochemistry revealed the prominent expression of ACSL3 in VSMC and macrophages in human non-calcifying and calcifying atherosclerotic plaques from the carotid arteries. These results identify ACSL3 and NF-κB as mediators of PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcium deposition in VSMC and suggest that EPA prevents vascular calcification by inhibiting such a new molecular pathway elicited

  10. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of {sup 18}F-labeled 4-thia palmitate as a PET tracer of myocardial fatty acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrado, Timothy R. E-mail: trd@petsparc.mc.duke.edu; Wang Shuyan; Holden, James E.; Nickles, R. Jerome; Taylor, Michael; Stone, Charles K

    2000-04-01

    Interest remains strong for the development of a noninvasive technique for assessment of regional fatty acid oxidation rate in the myocardium. {sup 18}F-labeled 4-thia palmitate (FTP, 16-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-thia-hexadecanoic acid) has been synthesized and preliminarily evaluated as a metabolically trapped probe of myocardial fatty acid oxidation for positron emission tomography (PET). The radiotracer is synthesized by Kryptofix 2.2.2/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assisted nucleophilic radiofluorination of an iodo-ester precursor, followed by alkaline hydrolysis and by purification by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Biodistribution studies in rats showed high uptake and long retention of FTP in heart, liver, and kidneys consistent with relatively high fatty acid oxidation rates in these tissues. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-I caused an 80% reduction in myocardial uptake, suggesting the dependence of trapping on the transport of tracer into the mitochondrion. Experiments with perfused rat hearts showed that the estimates of the fractional metabolic trapping rate (FR) of FTP tracked inhibition of oxidation rate of palmitate with hypoxia, whereas the FR of the 6-thia analog 17-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid was insensitive to hypoxia. In vivo defluorination of FTP in the rat was evidenced by bone uptake of radioactivity. A PET imaging study with FTP in normal swine showed excellent myocardial images, prolonged myocardial retention, and no bone uptake of radioactivity up to 3 h, the last finding suggesting a species dependence for defluorination of the omega-labeled fatty acid. The results support further investigation of FTP as a potential PET tracer for assessing regional fatty acid oxidation rate in the human myocardium.

  11. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 18F-labeled 4-thia palmitate as a PET tracer of myocardial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrado, Timothy R.; Wang Shuyan; Holden, James E.; Nickles, R. Jerome; Taylor, Michael; Stone, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    Interest remains strong for the development of a noninvasive technique for assessment of regional fatty acid oxidation rate in the myocardium. 18 F-labeled 4-thia palmitate (FTP, 16-[ 18 F]fluoro-4-thia-hexadecanoic acid) has been synthesized and preliminarily evaluated as a metabolically trapped probe of myocardial fatty acid oxidation for positron emission tomography (PET). The radiotracer is synthesized by Kryptofix 2.2.2/K 2 CO 3 assisted nucleophilic radiofluorination of an iodo-ester precursor, followed by alkaline hydrolysis and by purification by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Biodistribution studies in rats showed high uptake and long retention of FTP in heart, liver, and kidneys consistent with relatively high fatty acid oxidation rates in these tissues. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-I caused an 80% reduction in myocardial uptake, suggesting the dependence of trapping on the transport of tracer into the mitochondrion. Experiments with perfused rat hearts showed that the estimates of the fractional metabolic trapping rate (FR) of FTP tracked inhibition of oxidation rate of palmitate with hypoxia, whereas the FR of the 6-thia analog 17-[ 18 F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid was insensitive to hypoxia. In vivo defluorination of FTP in the rat was evidenced by bone uptake of radioactivity. A PET imaging study with FTP in normal swine showed excellent myocardial images, prolonged myocardial retention, and no bone uptake of radioactivity up to 3 h, the last finding suggesting a species dependence for defluorination of the omega-labeled fatty acid. The results support further investigation of FTP as a potential PET tracer for assessing regional fatty acid oxidation rate in the human myocardium

  12. Enzymatic Cellulose Palmitate Synthesis Using Immobilized Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roosdiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose can be modified by esterification using palmitic acid and Mucor miehei  lipase  as catalyst. The purpose of this research was to determine the optimum conditions of esterification reaction of cellulose and palmitic acid . The esterification reaction was carried out at the time variation  of  6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 hours and the mass ratio of cellulose: palmitic acid (1: 11: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 1: 5,1:6 at 50 °C. The   cellulose palmitate  was examined  its  physical and chemical properties by using FTIR spectrophotometer, XRD, bubble point test and saponification  apparatus. The results showed that the optimum reaction time of esterification reaction of cellulose and palmitic acid occurred within 24 hours and the mass ratio of cellulose: palmitic acid was 1: 3 resulting in DS of  0.376 with  swelling index of 187 %, crystallinity index of 61.95%,  and Φ porous of 2.40 μm. Identification of functional groups using FTIR spectrophotometer showed that C=O ester group  was observed at 1737.74 cm-1 and strengthened  by  the appearance of C-O ester peak at 1280 cm-1. The conclusion of this study is reaction time and reactant ratio influence significantly the DS of cellulose ester.

  13. Turnover of lipids labeled by I-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IP) compared to C-14 palmitic acid (P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Sauer, W.; Breull, W.; Machulla, H.J.; Winkler, C.

    1984-01-01

    IP has been proposed for evaluation of cardiac lipid metabolism. To elucidate the metabolic fate of IP in more detail, the authors compared its uptake and turnover to that of P in lipids extracted from heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidneys of fasted anaesthetized Wistar rats after simultaneous i.v. tracer injection. The animals were sacrificed at different time intervals until 30 min. p.i. The organs were removed and lipids were extracted with chloroform/methanol. Fractional radioactivity distribution in lipids was analyzed by TLC. I-123 and C-14 radioactivity was assayed in free fatty acid (FFFA)-, phospholipid (PL)-, diglyceride (DG)-, and triglyceride (TG)-fraction in a -spectrometer and 20 weeks later in a liquid scintillation counter. Uptake and turnover patterns of IP-and P-labeled lipids were nearly identical. The authors conclude that IP and P label essentially the same lipids and exhibit very similar lipid turnover characteristics, indicating the feasibility of metabolic studies by means of IP as tracer for lipid metabolism

  14. Comparison of 11-C-Palmitic Acid (CPA), and 123-I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) turnover in human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notohamiprodjo, G.; Schmid, A.; Spohr, G.; Vyska, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the results obtained with IHA in the investigation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism (MFAM) with those obtained by the use of CPA.- 8 patients (pts) without clinical signs of heart or metabolic disease were investigated under rest and fasting condition by dynamic PET following i.v. injection of 3 mCi CPA and by conventional scintigraphy following i.v. injection of 3 mCi IHA. Data were collected over a period of 90 min (frame rate was 1/min) and corrected for blood activity and catabolically released 123-I.-In 6 pts a good agreement between CPA and IHA data was observed. The activity release from the myocardium in these cases was biexponential. The ratio Q ranged between 0.7 and 6.7. -In the remaining 2 pts significant discrepancies between CPA and IHA data were observed. Since these pts were known to have cardiac neurosis and the first measurement was carried out with CPA, the authors assumed that the anxiety of the pt during CPA examination is responsible for the changing of the MFAM. This was confirmed by examination of these pts with IHA under mental stress. In both vases the data obtained by the use of CPA agree closely with those obtained by the use of IHA under mental stress. These data indicate that both CPA and IHa are applicable for studying MFAM and that in external assessment of MFAM, not only the dietary status, but also the mental state of the pts should be considered

  15. Comparison of 11-C-Palmitic Acid (CPA), and 123-I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) turnover in human heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notohamiprodjo, G.; Schmid, A.; Spohr, G.; Vyska, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1985-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the results obtained with IHA in the investigation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism (MFAM) with those obtained by the use of CPA.- 8 patients (pts) without clinical signs of heart or metabolic disease were investigated under rest and fasting condition by dynamic PET following i.v. injection of 3 mCi CPA and by conventional scintigraphy following i.v. injection of 3 mCi IHA. Data were collected over a period of 90 min (frame rate was 1/min) and corrected for blood activity and catabolically released 123-I.-In 6 pts a good agreement between CPA and IHA data was observed. The activity release from the myocardium in these cases was biexponential. The ratio Q ranged between 0.7 and 6.7. -In the remaining 2 pts significant discrepancies between CPA and IHA data were observed. Since these pts were known to have cardiac neurosis and the first measurement was carried out with CPA, the authors assumed that the anxiety of the pt during CPA examination is responsible for the changing of the MFAM. This was confirmed by examination of these pts with IHA under mental stress. In both vases the data obtained by the use of CPA agree closely with those obtained by the use of IHA under mental stress. These data indicate that both CPA and IHa are applicable for studying MFAM and that in external assessment of MFAM, not only the dietary status, but also the mental state of the pts should be considered.

  16. Nutrient digestibility and milk production responses to increasing levels of palmitic acid supplementation vary in cows receiving diets with or without whole cottonseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; de Souza, J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a palmitic acid-enriched supplement in basal diets with or without the inclusion of whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (149 ± 56 days in milk) were used in a split plot Latin square design experiment. Cows were blocked by 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) and allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, = 8) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, = 8) that was fed throughout the experiment. A palmitic acid-enriched supplement (PA 88.5% C16:0) was fed at 0, 0.75, 1.50, or 2.25% of ration DM in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design within each basal diet group. Periods were 14 d with the final 4 d used for data collection. PA dose increased milk fat content linearly, and cubically affected yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. The PA dose did not affect milk protein and lactose contents, BW, and BCS, but tended to increase yields of milk, milk protein, and milk lactose. Also, PA dose reduced DMI and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically, and increased 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically. There were no effects of basal diet on the yield of milk or milk components, but DMI tended to decrease in CS compared with SH, increasing feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI). Compared with SH, CS diets increased yield of preformed milk fatty acids and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility, and tended to decrease 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility. We observed basal diet × PA dose interactions for yields of milk and milk protein and for 16-carbon and total fatty acid digestibility, as well as tendency for yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. Also, there was a tendency for an interaction between basal diet and PA dose for NDF digestibility, which increased more for CS with increasing PA than for SH. PA dose linearly decreased digestibility of total fatty acids in SH diets but did not affect it in CS diets Results demonstrate

  17. Preparation and properties of palmitic-stearic acid eutectic mixture/expanded graphite composite as phase change material for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Yuan, Yanping; Du, Yanxia; Cao, Xiaoling; Yuan, Yaguang

    2014-01-01

    A novel composite PCM (phase change material) with PA-SA (palmitic-stearic acid) eutectic mixture as PCM and EG (expanded graphite) as supporting material was prepared. The optimum absorption ratio of PA-SA/EG (Palmitic-stearic acid/expanded graphite) composite PCM was determined as PA-SA:EG = 13:1 (by mass). Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy results show that PA-SA was uniformly distributed in the porous network structure of EG due to the physical action. Thermal property and thermal stability of the PA-SA/EG composite PCM were characterized by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (thermogravimetric analysis). DSC results indicated that the melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of PA-SA/EG were measured as 53.89 °C and 54.37 °C, and 166.27 J/g and 166.13 J/g. TGA test results revealed that PA-SA/EG had a good thermal stability in working temperature range. Thermal cycling test results showed PA-SA/EG had a good thermal reliability after 720 thermal cycles. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was measured as 2.51 W/m K, much higher than that of PA-SA. The thermal energy storage and release rates of PA-SA/EG were also increased due to the high thermal conductivity of EG. In conclusion, the prepared PA-SA/EG composite PCM can be acted as a potential material for thermal energy storage due to the acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability and stability, high thermal conductivity. - Highlights: • PA-SA/EG (Palmitic-stearic acid/expanded graphite) composite PCM was prepared. • Optimum absorption ratio of PA-SA in EG was obtained as 13:1 (by mass). • Thermal conductivity and performance of PA-SA/EG have been significate improved. • PA-SA/EG has a good thermal reliability and thermal stability

  18. Phase change and heat transfer characteristics of a eutectic mixture of palmitic and stearic acids as PCM in a latent heat storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Guelseren; Sari, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    The phase change and heat transfer characteristics of a eutectic mixture of palmitic and stearic acids as phase change material (PCM) during the melting and solidification processes were determined experimentally in a vertical two concentric pipes energy storage system. This study deals with three important subjects. First is determination of the eutectic composition ratio of the palmitic acid (PA) and stearic acid (SA) binary system and measurement of its thermophysical properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Second is establishment of the phase transition characteristics of the mixture, such as the total melting and solidification temperatures and times, the heat transfer modes in the melted and solidified PCM and the effect of Reynolds and Stefan numbers as initial heat transfer fluid (HTF) conditions on the phase transition behaviors. Third is calculation of the heat transfer coefficients between the outside wall of the HTF pipe and the PCM, the heat recovery rates and heat fractions during the phase change processes of the mixture and also discussion of the effect of the inlet HTF parameters on these characteristics. The DSC results showed that the PA-SA binary system in the mixture ratio of 64.2:35.8 wt% forms a eutectic, which melts at 52.3 deg. C and has a latent heat of 181.7 J g -1 , and thus, these properties make it a suitable PCM for passive solar space heating and domestic water heating applications with respect to climate conditions. The experimental results also indicated that the eutectic mixture of PA-SA encapsulated in the annulus of concentric double pipes has good phase change and heat transfer characteristics during the melting and solidification processes, and it is an attractive candidate as a potential PCM for heat storage in latent heat thermal energy storage systems

  19. High Beta-Palmitate Fat Controls the Intestinal Inflammatory Response and Limits Intestinal Damage in Mucin Muc2 Deficient Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Peng; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Levi, Liora; Lifshitz, Yael; Witte-Bouma, Janneke; de Bruijn, Adrianus C. J. M.; Korteland-van Male, Anita M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Renes, Ingrid B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate), the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position

  20. High Beta-Palmitate Fat Controls the Intestinal Inflammatory Response and Limits Intestinal Damage in Mucin Muc2 Deficient Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Lu (Peng); F. Bar-Yoseph (Fabiana); L. Levi (Liora); Y. Lifshitz (Yael); J. Witte-Bouma (Janneke); A.C.J.M. de Bruijn (Adrianus); A.M. Korteland-van Male (Anita); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); I.B. Renes (Ingrid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate), the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the

  1. The Deoxygenation Pathways of Palmitic Acid into Hydrocarbons on Silica-Supported Ni12P5 and Ni2P Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure Ni12P5/SiO2 and pure Ni2P/SiO2 catalysts were obtained by adjusting the Ni and P molar ratios, while Ni/SiO2 catalyst was prepared as a reference against which the deoxygenation pathways of palmitic acid were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, transmission election microscopy (TEM, infrared spectroscopy of pyridine adsorption (Py-IR, H2-adsorption and temperature-programmed desorption of hydrogen (H2-TPD. The crystallographic planes of Ni(111, Ni12P5(400, Ni2P(111 were found mainly exposed on the above three catalysts, respectively. It was found that the deoxygenation pathway of palmitic acid mainly proceeded via direct decarboxylation (DCO2 to form C15 on Ni/SiO2. In contrast, on the Ni12P5/SiO2 catalyst, there were two main competitive pathways producing C15 and C16, one of which mainly proceeded via the decarbonylation (DCO to form C15 accompanying water formation, and the other pathway produced C16 via the dehydration of hexadecanol intermediate, and the yield of C15 was approximately twofold that of C16. Over the Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, two main deoxygenation pathways formed C15, one of which was mainly the DCO pathway and the other was dehydration accompanying the hexadecanal intermediate and then direct decarbonylation without water formation. The turn over frequency (TOF followed the order: Ni12P5/SiO2 > Ni/SiO2 > Ni2P/SiO2.

  2. Estradiol Uses Different Mechanisms in Astrocytes from the Hippocampus of Male and Female Rats to Protect against Damage Induced by Palmitic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Frago

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An excess of saturated fatty acids can be toxic for tissues, including the brain, and this has been associated with the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Since palmitic acid (PA is a free fatty acid that is abundant in the diet and circulation and can be harmful, we have investigated the effects of this fatty acid on lipotoxicity in hippocampal astrocytes and the mechanism involved. Moreover, as males and females have different susceptibilities to some neurodegenerative diseases, we accessed the responses of astrocytes from both sexes, as well as the possible involvement of estrogens in the protection against fatty acid toxicity. PA increased endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to cell death in astrocytes from both males and females. Estradiol (E2 increased the levels of protective factors, such as Hsp70 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, in astrocytes from both sexes. In male astrocytes, E2 decreased pJNK, TNFα, and caspase-3 activation. In contrast, in female astrocytes E2 did not affect the activation of JNK or TNFα levels, but decreased apoptotic cell death. Hence, although E2 exerted protective effects against the detrimental effects of PA, the mechanisms involved appear to be different between male and female astrocytes. This sexually dimorphic difference in the protective mechanisms induced by E2 could be involved in the different susceptibilities of males and females to some neurodegenerative processes.

  3. Oxidation of linoleic and palmitic acid in pre-hibernating and hibernating common noctule bats revealed by 13C breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Elisabeth; Voigt, Christian C

    2018-02-19

    Mammals fuel hibernation by oxidizing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from triacylglycerols in adipocytes, yet the relative importance of these two categories as an oxidative fuel may change during hibernation. We studied the selective use of fatty acids as an oxidative fuel in noctule bats ( Nyctalus noctula ). Pre-hibernating noctule bats that were fed 13 C-enriched linoleic acid (LA) showed 12 times higher tracer oxidation rates compared with conspecifics fed 13 C-enriched palmitic acid (PA). After this experiment, we supplemented the diet of bats with the same fatty acids on five subsequent days to enrich their fat depots with the respective tracer. We then compared the excess 13 C enrichment (excess atom percentage, APE) in breath of bats for torpor and arousal events during early and late hibernation. We observed higher APE values in breath of bats fed 13 C-enriched LA than in bats fed 13 C-enriched PA for both states (torpor and arousal), and also for both periods. Thus, hibernating bats selectively oxidized endogenous LA instead of PA, probably because of faster transportation rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with saturated fatty acids. We did not observe changes in APE values in the breath of torpid animals between early and late hibernation. Skin temperature of torpid animals increased by 0.7°C between early and late hibernation in bats fed PA, whereas it decreased by -0.8°C in bats fed LA, highlighting that endogenous LA may fulfil two functions when available in excess: serving as an oxidative fuel and supporting cell membrane functionality. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Involvement of CD36 in Modulating the Decrease of NPY and AgRP Induced by Acute Palmitic Acid Stimulation in N1E-115 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS fatty acid sensing plays an important role in the regulation of food intake, and palmitic acid (PA is the most important long chain fatty acid (LCFA in the mammalian diet. To explore the effect of PA on central neuropeptide expression and the role of the cluster of the differentiation of 36 (CD36 in the process, N1E-115 cells were cultured with PA in the presence or absence of sulfosuccinimidyl-oleate (SSO, a CD36 inhibitor. Results showed that 10 μmol/L PA significantly reduced NPY and AgRP mRNA expression after 20 min of exposure, while the expression of CD36 was upregulated. The presence of SSO significantly attenuated the decrease of NPY and AgRP expression that was induced by PA alone, although no notable effect on PA- induced CD36 gene expression was observed. In conclusion, our study suggests the involvement of CD36 in the PA-induced decrease of NPY and AgRP in N1E-115 cells.

  5. Vapour liquid equilibria of monocaprylin plus palmitic acid or methyl stearate at P = (1.20 and 2.50) kPa by using DSC technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunico, Larissa P.; Damaceno, Daniela S.; Matricarde Falleiro, Rafael M.; Sarup, Bent; Abildskov, Jens; Ceriani, Roberta; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel VLE data for binary mixtures involving a partial acylglycerol (monocaprylin). • Use of a promising technique for measuring VLE/vapour pressure data (DSC technique). • The consistency of experimental data is analysed by a proposed methodology. • Regressed parameters are given for excess Gibbs thermodynamic models. • New regressed parameters are presented for UNIFAC to account for nonidealities. - Abstract: The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) technique is used for measuring isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria for two binary mixtures: {monocaprylin + palmitic acid (system 1) or methyl stearate (system 2)} at two different pressures P = (1.20 and 2.50) kPa. The obtained PTx data are correlated by Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The original UNIFAC group contribution method is also considered and new binary interaction parameters for the main groups CH 2 , CCOO, OH and COOH are regressed, to account for the non-idealities found in these lipid systems. Established thermodynamic consistency tests are applied and attest the quality of the measured data. In terms of relevance of the selected components, system 1 can be found in the purification and deodorization steps during the production of edible oils, while, system 2 can be found in the purification steps of biodiesel. It should be noted that no such data could be found in the open literature, not only for the specific components selected but also for the combination of the classes of components considered; that is, acylglycerol plus fatty acid or fatty ester.

  6. Synthesis, Structural Studies and Biological Evaluation of Connections of Thiosemicarbazide, 1,2,4-Triazole and 1,3,4-Thiadiazole with Palmitic Acid

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    Michał Jóźwiak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty new derivatives of palmitic acid were efficiently synthesized. All obtained compounds can be divided into three groups of derivatives: Thiosemicarbazides (compounds 1–10, 1,2,4-triazoles (compounds 1a–10a and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles (compounds 1b–10b moieties. 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS methods were used to confirm the structure of derivatives. All obtained compounds were tested in vitro against a number of microorganisms, including Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative rods and Candida albicans. Compounds 4, 5, 6, 8 showed significant inhibition against C. albicans. The range of MIC values was 50–1.56 μg/mL. The halogen atom, especially at the 3rd position of the phenyl group was significantly important for antifungal activity. The biological activity against Candida albicans and selected molecular descriptors were used as a basis for QSAR models, that have been determined by means of multiple linear regression. The models have been validated by means of the Leave-One-Out Cross Validation. The obtained QSAR models were characterized by high determination coefficients and good prediction power.

  7. Synthesis, Structural Studies and Biological Evaluation of Connections of Thiosemicarbazide, 1,2,4-Triazole and 1,3,4-Thiadiazole with Palmitic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Michał; Stępień, Karolina; Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Olejarz, Wioletta; Kubiak-Tomaszewska, Grażyna; Filipowska, Anna; Filipowski, Wojciech; Struga, Marta

    2018-04-03

    Thirty new derivatives of palmitic acid were efficiently synthesized. All obtained compounds can be divided into three groups of derivatives: Thiosemicarbazides (compounds 1 - 10 ), 1,2,4-triazoles (compounds 1a - 10a ) and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles (compounds 1b - 10b ) moieties. ¹H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and MS methods were used to confirm the structure of derivatives. All obtained compounds were tested in vitro against a number of microorganisms, including Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative rods and Candida albicans . Compounds 4 , 5 , 6 , 8 showed significant inhibition against C. albicans . The range of MIC values was 50-1.56 μg/mL. The halogen atom, especially at the 3rd position of the phenyl group was significantly important for antifungal activity. The biological activity against Candida albicans and selected molecular descriptors were used as a basis for QSAR models, that have been determined by means of multiple linear regression. The models have been validated by means of the Leave-One-Out Cross Validation. The obtained QSAR models were characterized by high determination coefficients and good prediction power.

  8. Film fabrication of Fe or Fe3O4 nanoparticles mixed with palmitic acid for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth using Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kentaro; Kuriyama, Naoki; Takagiwa, Shota; Sato, Taiga; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) were studied as a new catalyst support for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Controlling the number density and the diameter of VA-CNTs may be necessary to optimize PEFC performance. As the catalyst for CNT growth, we fabricated Fe or Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP) films by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The catalyst Fe or Fe3O4 NPs were widely separated by mixing with filler molecules [palmitic acid (C16)]. The number density of VA-CNTs was controlled by varying the ratio of catalyst NPs to C16 filler molecules. The VA-CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst NP-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using acetylene gas as the carbon source. The developing solvents used in the LB technique and the hydrogen reduction conditions of CVD were optimized to improve the VA-CNT growth rate. We demonstrate that the proposed method can independently control both the density and the diameter of VA-CNTs.

  9. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection in ex vivo cervical tissue model of human vagina by palmitic acid; implications for a microbicide development.

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    Xudong Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of all new HIV-1 infections are acquired through sexual contact. Currently, there is no clinically approved microbicide, indicating a clear and urgent therapeutic need. We recently reported that palmitic acid (PA is a novel and specific inhibitor of HIV-1 fusion and entry. Mechanistically, PA inhibits HIV-1 infection by binding to a novel pocket on the CD4 receptor and blocks efficient gp120-to-CD4 attachment. Here, we wanted to assess the ability of PA to inhibit HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue ex vivo model of human vagina, and determine its effect on Lactobacillus (L species of probiotic vaginal flora. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that treatment with 100-200 µM PA inhibited HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue by up to 50%, and this treatment was not toxic to the tissue or to L. crispatus and jensenii species of vaginal flora. In vitro, in a cell free system that is independent of in vivo cell associated CD4 receptor; we determined inhibition constant (Ki to be ∼2.53 µM. SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate utility of PA as a model molecule for further preclinical development of a safe and potent HIV-1 entry microbicide inhibitor.

  10. Cytoprotective effect of kaempferol against palmitic acid-induced pancreatic β-cell death through modulation of autophagy via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Ritu; Gupta, Sumeet; Roy, Partha

    2017-06-15

    Lipotoxicity of pancreatic β-cells is the pathological manifestation of obesity-linked type II diabetes. We intended to determine the cytoprotective effect of kaempferol on pancreatic β-cells undergoing apoptosis in palmitic acid (PA)-stressed condition. The data showed that kaempferol treatment increased cell viability and anti-apoptotic activity in PA-stressed RIN-5F cells and murine pancreatic islets. Furthermore, kaempferol's ability to instigate autophagy was illustrated by MDC-LysoTracker red staining and TEM analysis which corroborated well with the observed increase in LC3 puncta and LC3-II protein expressions along with the concomitant decline in p62 expression. Apart from this, the data showed that kaempferol up/down-regulates AMPK/mTOR phosphorylation respectively. Subsequently, upon inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation by AMPK inhibitors, kaempferol-mediated autophagy was abolished which further led to the decline in β-cell survival. Such observations collectively lead to the conclusion that, kaempferol exerts its cytoprotective role against lipotoxicity by activation of autophagy via AMPK/mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of palmitic acid and hexadecanol on the phase transition temperature and molecular packing of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-choline monolayers at the air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka Yee C.; Gopal, Ajaykumar; von Nahmen, Anja; Zasadzinski, Joseph A.; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Smith, Gregory S.; Howes, Paul B.; Kjaer, Kristian

    2002-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) and 1-hexadecanol (HD) strongly affect the phase transition temperature and molecular packing of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers at the air-water interface. The phase behavior and morphology of mixed DPPC/PA as well as DPPC/HD monolayers were determined by pressure-area-isotherms and fluorescence microscopy. The molecular organization was probed by synchrotron grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using a liquid surface diffractometer. Addition of PA or HD to DPPC monolayers increases the temperature of the liquid-expanded to condensed phase transition. X-ray diffraction shows that DPPC forms mixed crystals both with PA and HD over a wide range of mixing ratios. At a surface pressure (π) of 40 mN/m, increasing the amount of the single chain surfactant leads to a reduction in tilt angle of the aliphatic chains from nearly 30° for pure DPPC to almost 0° in a 1:1 molar ratio of DPPC and PA or HD. At this composition we also find closest packing of the aliphatic chains. Further increase of the amount of PA or HD does not change the lattice or the tilt.

  12. Effects of Ghrelin on Triglyceride Accumulation and Glucose Uptake in Primary Cultured Rat Myoblasts under Palmitic Acid-Induced High Fat Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the effects of acylated ghrelin on glucose and triglyceride metabolism in rat myoblasts under palmitic acid- (PA- induced high fat conditions. Rat myoblasts were treated with 0, 10−11, 10−9, or 10−7 M acylated ghrelin and 0.3 mM PA for 12 h. Triglyceride accumulation was determined by Oil-Red-O staining and the glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase-peroxidase enzymatic method, and glucose uptake was determined by isotope tracer. The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. Compared to 0.3 mM PA, ghrelin at 10−9 and 10−7 M reduced triglyceride content (5.855 ± 0.352 versus 5.030 ± 0.129 and 4.158 ± 0.254 mM, P<0.05 and prevented PA-induced reduction of glucose uptake (1.717 ± 0.264 versus 2.233 ± 0.333 and 2.333 ± 0.273 10−2 pmol/g/min, P<0.05. The relative protein expression of p-AMPKα/AMPKα, UCP3, and p-ACC under 0.3 mM PA was significantly reduced compared to controls (all P<0.05, but those in the 10−9 and 10−7 M ghrelin groups were significantly protected from 0.3 mM PA (all P<0.05. In conclusion, acylated ghrelin reduced PA-induced triglyceride accumulation and prevented the PA-induced decrease in glucose uptake in rat myoblasts. These effects may involve fatty acid oxidation.

  13. Diets high in palmitic acid (16:0), lauric and myristic acids (12:0 + 14:0), or oleic acid (18:1) do not alter postprandial or fasting plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers in healthy Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Phooi Tee; Ng, Tony Kock Wai; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary fat type is known to modulate the plasma lipid profile, but its effects on plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers are unclear. We investigated the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared with palm olein, coconut oil (CO), or virgin olive oil on plasma homocysteine and selected markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy adults. A randomized-crossover intervention with 3 dietary sequences of 5 wk each was conducted in 45 healthy subjects. The 3 test fats, namely palmitic acid (16:0)-rich palm olein (PO), lauric and myristic acid (12:0 + 14:0)-rich CO, and oleic acid (18:1)-rich virgin olive oil (OO), were incorporated at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. No significant differences were observed in the effects of the 3 diets on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interferon-γ. Diets prepared with PO and OO had comparable nonhypercholesterolemic effects; the postprandial total cholesterol for both diets and all fasting lipid indexes for the OO diet were significantly lower (P diet. Unlike the PO and OO diets, the CO diet was shown to decrease postprandial lipoprotein(a). Diets that were rich in saturated fatty acids prepared with either PO or CO, and an OO diet that was high in oleic acid, did not alter postprandial or fasting plasma concentrations of tHcy and selected inflammatory markers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00941837.

  14. Acidolysis of terebinth fruit oil with palmitic and caprylic acids in a recirculating packed bed reactor: optimization using response surface methodology

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    Koçak Yanık, D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidolysis reaction of terebinth fruit oil with caprylic and palmitic acid has been investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Lipozyme IM from Rhizomucormiehei and carried out in recirculating packed bed reactor. The effects of reaction parameters have been analyzed using response surface methodology. Reaction time (3.5–6.5 h, enzyme load (10–20%, substrate flow rate (4–8 mL·min-1 and substrate mole ratios (Terebinth oil : Palmitic acid : Caprylic acid, 1:1.83:1.22–1:3.07:2.05 were evaluated. The optimum reaction conditions were 5.9 h reaction time, 10% enzyme load, 4 mL·min-1 substrate flow rate and 1:3.10:2.07 substrate mole ratio. The structured lipid obtained at these optimum conditions had 52.23% desired triacylglycerols and a lower caloric value than that of terebinth fruit oil. The melting characteristics and microstructure of the structured lipid were similar to those of commercial margarine fat extracts. The results showed that the structured lipid had the highest oxidative stability among the studied fats.Se ha investigado la reacción de acidolisis del aceite de pistacho con los ácidoscaprílico y palmítico. La reacción fue catalizada por la lipasa Lipozyme IM de Rhizomucormiehei y realizada mediante recirculación del reactor de lecho compacto. Los efectos de los parámetros de la reacción han sido analizados mediante el uso de la metodología de superficie de respuesta. El tiempo de reacción (3.5 hasta 6.5 h, la carga de enzima (10–20%, el caudal de sustrato (4–8 mL·min-1 relaciones molares de los sustrato (aceite de pistacho: ácido palmítico: ácido caprílico, 1: 1,83: 1,22–1: 3,07: 2,05 fueron evaluados. Las condiciones óptimas de reacción fueron 5,9 h de tiempo de reacción, el 10% de carga de la enzima, 4 mL·min-1 de caudal de sustrato y 1: 3,10: 2,07 de relación molar de sustratos. Los lípidos estructurados obtenidos en las condiciones óptimas tenías 52,23% de triacilgliceroles

  15. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Ford, Jeffery J; Lee, John C; Adamo, Martin L

    2014-07-18

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone, a radiolytic product of palmitic acid, is genotoxic in primary human colon cells and in cells from preneoplastic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, Nadine; Weise, Anja; Claussen, Uwe; Sendt, Wolfgang; Marian, Brigitte; Glei, Michael; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L.

    2006-01-01

    The irradiation of fat results in the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, a new class of food contaminants. Results of previous in vitro studies with primary human colon cells and in vivo experiments with rats fed with 2-alkylcyclobutanones indicated that these radiolytic derivatives may be genotoxic and enhance the progression of colon tumors. The underlying mechanisms of these effects, however, are not clearly understood. Therefore we performed additional investigations to elucidate the genotoxic potential of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2dDCB) that is generated from palmitic acid. In particular, we explored the relative sensitivities of human colon cells, representing different stages of tumor development and healthy colon tissues, respectively. HT29clone19A cells, LT97 adenoma cells and primary human epithelial cells were exposed to 2dDCB (150-2097 μM). We determined cytotoxic effects using trypan blue exclusion. Genotoxicity, reflected as strand breaks, was assessed using the alkaline version of the comet assay and chromosomal abnormalities were investigated by 24-color fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization. 2dDCB was cytotoxic in a time- and dose-dependent manner in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated primary cells but not in the human colon tumor cell line. Associated with this was a marked induction of DNA damage by 2dDCB in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated colonocytes, whereas in the HT29clone19A cells no strand breaks were detectable. A long-term incubation of LT97 adenoma cells with lower concentrations of 2dDCB revealed cytogenetic effects. In summary, 2dDCB was clearly genotoxic in healthy human colon epithelial cells and in cells representing preneoplastic colon adenoma. These findings provide additional evidence that this compound may be regarded as a possible risk factor for processes in colon carcinogenesis related to initiation and progression

  17. Osteotoxicity after chronic dietary administration of 13-CIS-retinoic acid, retinyl palmitate or selenium in mice exposed to tumor initiation and promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, K.S.; Gensler, H.L.; Watson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the clinical trials of retinoids as therapeutic agents for premalignant skin lesions, a radiographic study was undertaken to measure skeletal toxicities after chronic dietary administration of retinoids in mice exposed to tumor initiation and promotion. CD-1 mice were initiated with 0.15 moles of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and promoted twice daily with 8 nmoles of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 23 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 60 IU, 200 IU, or 700 IU or retinyl palmitate (RP) per g diet. After 5 weeks, the 700 IU of RP/g diet was lowered to 350 IU/g diet. Administration of these diets to mice during the 23 weeks of tumor promotion results in a 0-fold, 2-fold, or 10-fold increase in bone fractures, respectively. Osteoporotic bone lesions identified on radiographs rose 0-fold, 0-fold, and 10-fold at the respective doses, whereas metaphyseal flares increased O-fold, 1.4-fold, and 3.6-fold. Bone deformities was augmented O-fold, 1.8-fold and 2.9-fold at the respective doses. Addition of selenium did not alter the bone toxicity of RP. 13-cis-retionic acid (CRA) was less toxic at 700 IU/g diet than was RP at that dose, as evidence by the death of 12 of 70 mice by the 6th week of dietary RP and no deaths in the 35 mice fed 700 IU CRA/g diet for 23 weeks. CRA at 700 IU/g diet resulted in 3/4 as many osteoporotic bones, 1/3 as many bone fractures, 4/5 as many metaphyseal flares, and a similar number of bone deformities as mice fed 700/350 IU/g diet. At the dose of 200 IU/g food, osterotoxicities were similar in the mice fed diets supplemented with RP and CRA

  18. Whole-body biodistribution, dosimetry and metabolite correction of [11C]palmitate: A PET tracer for imaging of fatty acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nana Louise; Jakobsen, Steen; Schacht, Anna Christina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the decades long use of [11C]palmitate positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography in basic metabolism studies, only personal communications regarding dosimetry and biodistribution data have been published. METHODS: Dosimetry and biodistribution studies were...... performed in 2 pigs and 2 healthy volunteers by whole-body [11C]palmitate PET scans. Metabolite studies were performed in 40 participants (healthy and with type 2 diabetes) under basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions. Metabolites were estimated using 2 approaches and subsequently compared: Indirect [11C]CO2...

  19. Synthesis of L-Ascorbyl Flurbiprofenate by Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification and Transesterification Reactions

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    Jia-ying Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of L-ascorbyl flurbiprofenate was achieved by esterification and transesterification in nonaqueous organic medium with Novozym 435 lipase as biocatalyst. The conversion was greatly influenced by the kinds of organic solvents, speed of agitation, catalyst loading amount, reaction time, and molar ratio of acyl donor to L-ascorbic acid. A series of solvents were investigated, and tert-butanol was found to be the most suitable from the standpoint of the substrate solubility and the conversion for both the esterification and transesterification. When flurbiprofen was used as acyl donor, 61.0% of L-ascorbic acid was converted against 46.4% in the presence of flurbiprofen methyl ester. The optimal conversion of L-ascorbic acid was obtained when the initial molar ratio of acyl donor to ascorbic acid was 5 : 1. kinetics parameters were solved by Lineweaver-Burk equation under nonsubstrate inhibition condition. Since transesterification has lower conversion, from the standpoint of productivity and the amount of steps required, esterification is a better method compared to transesterification.

  20. Palmitic acid induces neurotoxicity and gliatoxicity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma and T98G human glioblastoma cells

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    Yee-Wen Ng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity-related central nervous system (CNS pathologies like neuroinflammation and reactive gliosis are associated with high-fat diet (HFD related elevation of saturated fatty acids like palmitic acid (PA in neurons and astrocytes of the brain. Methods Human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y (as a neuronal model and human glioblastoma cells T98G (as an astrocytic model, were treated with 100–500 µM PA, oleic acid (OA or lauric acid (LA for 24 h or 48 h, and their cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The effects of stable overexpression of γ-synuclein (γ-syn, a neuronal protein recently recognized as a novel regulator of lipid handling in adipocytes, and transient overexpression of Parkinson’s disease (PD α-synuclein [α-syn; wild-type (wt and its pathogenic mutants A53T, A30P and E46K] in SH-SY5Y and T98G cells, were also evaluated. The effects of co-treatment of PA with paraquat (PQ, a Parkinsonian pesticide, and leptin, a hormone involved in the brain-adipose axis, were also assessed. Cell death mode and cell cycle were analyzed by Annexin V/PI flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS level was determined using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescien diacetate (DCFH-DA assay and lipid peroxidation level was determined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS assay. Results MTT assay revealed dose- and time-dependent PA cytotoxicity on SH-SY5Y and T98G cells, but not OA and LA. The cytotoxicity was significantly lower in SH-SY5Y-γ-syn cells, while transient overexpression of wt α-syn or its PD mutants (A30P and E46K, but not A53T modestly (but still significantly rescued the cytotoxicity of PA in SH-SY5Y and T98G cells. Co-treatment of increasing concentrations of PQ exacerbated PA’s neurotoxicity. Pre-treatment of leptin, an anti-apoptotic adipokine, did not successfully rescue SH-SY5Y cells from PA-induced cytotoxicity—suggesting a mechanism of PA

  1. ShenFu Preparation Protects AML12 Cells Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Injury Through Inhibition of Both JNK/Nox4 and JNK/NFκB Pathways

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    Jia-Fu Ji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis includes steatosis along with liver inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the protective role and the potential mechanisms of a traditional Chinese medicine ShenFu (SF preparation in an in vitro hepatic steatosis model. Methods: In palmitic acid (PA-induced murine hepatic AML12 cell injury, effects of SF preparation on cellular apoptosis and intracellular triglyceride (iTG level were assessed using TUNEL and TG Colorimetric Assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP levels were measured using DCF and JC-1 assay. Cytokine levels were evaluated using ELISA assay. Immunoblot was used to compare the activation level of c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK, NADPH oxidase (Nox4, and NFκB pathways. Results: Addition of SF preparation prevented PA-mediated increase of apoptosis and iTG as well as IL-8 and IL-6. In PA-treated cell, SF preparation reduced the level of Nox4 and ROS, while increasing the level of MMP and the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and catalase, indicating emendation of mitochondrial dysfunction. Nox4 inhibitor GKT137381 prevented PA-induced increase of ROS and apoptosis, while decreasing iTG slightly and not influencing the level of IL-8 and IL-6. SF preparation prevented PA-induced upregulation of phospho-JNK. JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented PA-mediated increase of Nox4, IL-8, IL-6 and iTG. Nuclear translocation of NFκB/p65 was detected in PA-treated cells, which was prevented by SF preparation. An IκB degradation inhibitor, BAY11-7082, prevented PA-induced increase of IL-8 and IL-6 as well as iTG, whereas it only decreased ROS levels slightly and showed no influence on cellular apoptosis. Conclusion: SF preparation shows a beneficial role in prevention of hepatocyte injury by attenuating oxidative stress and cytokines production at least partially through inhibition of JNK/Nox4 and JNK

  2. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Lee, John C. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Adamo, Martin L., E-mail: adamo@biochem.uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  3. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J.; Lee, John C.; Adamo, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects

  4. Covalent modification of platelet proteins by palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszbek, L.; Laposata, M.

    1989-01-01

    Covalent attachment of fatty acid to proteins plays an important role in association of certain proteins with hydrophobic membrane structures. In platelets, the structure of many membrane glycoproteins (GPs) has been examined in detail, but the question of fatty acid acylation of platelet proteins has not been addressed. In this study, we wished to determine (a) whether platelet proteins could be fatty acid acylated; and, if so, (b) whether these modified proteins were present in isolated platelet membranes and cytoskeletal fractions; and (c) if the pattern of fatty acid acylated proteins changed on stimulation of the platelets with the agonist thrombin. We observed that in platelets allowed to incorporate 3H-palmitate, a small percentage (1.37%) of radioactivity incorporated into the cells became covalently bound to protein. Selective cleavage of thioester, thioester plus O-ester, and amide-linked 3H-fatty acids from proteins, and their subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that the greatest part of 3H-fatty acid covalently bound to protein was thioester-linked 3H-palmitate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorography, at least ten major radiolabeled proteins were detected. Activation of platelets by thrombin greatly increased the quantity of 3H-palmitoylated proteins associated with the cytoskeleton. Nearly all radiolabeled proteins were recovered in the membrane fraction, indicating that these proteins are either integral or peripheral membrane proteins or proteins tightly associated to membrane constituents. Components of the GPIIb-IIIa complex were not palmitoylated. Thus, platelet proteins are significantly modified posttranslationally by 3H-palmitate, and incorporation of palmitoylated proteins into the cytoskeleton is a prominent component of the platelet response to thrombin stimulation

  5. Paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Cengisiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrapyramidal, metabolic, and cardiac side effects were reported for atypical antipsychotics; although a few resources show paliperidone-induced sialorrhea, there are no resources that show paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhea. In this paper, we present the paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhea side effects of a patient who applied on our clinic [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 8-13

  6. Activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy uncoupling genes of mitochondria and reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in pancreatic {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Jun; Jiang, Li; Lue, Qingguo; Ke, Linqiu [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, No. 14, 3rd Section, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Tong, Nanwei, E-mail: buddyjun@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Recent evidence indicates that decreased oxidative capacity, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial aberrations contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) activation on lipid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta}-cells. After HIT-T15 cells (a {beta}-cell line) were exposed to high concentrations of palmitate and GW501516 (GW; a selective agonist of PPAR{delta}), we found that administration of GW increased the expression of PPAR{delta} mRNA. GW-induced activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2); alleviated mitochondrial swelling; attenuated apoptosis; and reduced basal insulin secretion induced by increased palmitate in HIT cells. These results suggest that activation of PPAR{delta} plays an important role in protecting pancreatic {beta}-cells against aberrations caused by lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  7. Ascorbyl Stearate Promotes Apoptosis Through Intrinsic Mitochondrial Pathway in HeLa Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Shirish D; Thoh, Maikho; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is proposed to have antitumor potential against certain cancer types but has the limitation of requiring high doses for treating cancer. Ascorbyl stearate (ASC-S) is a fatty acid ester derivative of ascorbic acid with comparable potent apoptotic activity. The present study was aimed at understanding the pathway involved in apoptotic activity of ASC-S in cervical cancer cells. The effect of ASC-S on reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was studied in HeLa cells. Furthermore, the dose-dependent effect of ASC-S on release of cytochrome c, pro-caspase-9, caspase-3, BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID), truncated BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (t-BID), FAS ligand (FASL) and transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activator protein-1 (AP1) were studied in HeLa cells. Treatment of HeLa cells with ASC-S significantly increased the MMP. The modulation of MMP resulted in cleavage of BID, expression of FAS, cleavage of pro-caspase-9 and release of cytochrome c into cytosol. In addition, ASC-S treatment resulted in deregulation of transcription factors NF-ĸB, NFAT and AP1, which play an important role in the development of inflammation and cancer. Our data, for the first time, suggest that ASC-S has an apoptotic effect against HeLa cells by inducing change in mitochondrial membrane permeability, cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspase-3 and NF-ĸB. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of C2 ceramide on the inositol phospholipid metabolism (uptake of 32P, 3H-serine and 3H-palmitic acid) and apoptosis-related morphological changes in Tetrahymena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, P.; Hegyesi, H.; Koehidai, L.; Nemes, P.; Csaba, G.

    1999-01-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolites have significant role in the regulation of many life processes of mammalian cells. In the present experiments the influence of phospholipid turnover and apoptosis related morphologic signs by one of this metabolite, C 2 ceramide was studied, and compared to the control, untreated cells, in the unicellular Tetrahymena. The incorporation of phospholipid head group components (serine, phosphorus) show a clear time-dependence; while the incorporation of fatty acid component (palmitic acid) is very fast: no significant alterations were found between 5- and 60-min incubations. C 2 ceramide treatment didn't alter 3 H-palmitic acid incorporation into phospholipids, however 3 H-serine incorporation was mainly inhibited. The amount of total incorporated 32 P was also decreased, on the other hand the lover concentration C 2 ceramide (10 μM) elevated the synthesis of inositol phospholipids. The higher concentration of C 2 ceramide (50 μM) had inhibitory effect on the synthesis of each phospholipids examined. This means that in the presence of the C 2 ceramide the synthesis, recovery and turnover of phospholipids, participating in signal transduction, are altered. However these observations were based the uptake of labeled phospholipid precursors, which gives information on the dynamics of the process, without using lipid mass measurements. C 2 ceramide also caused the rounding off the cells, DNA degradation and nuclear condensation. These latter observations point to morphological signs of apoptosis. The results call attention to the role of sphingomyelin metabolites on signalization of unicellulars, to the cross-talk between the inositol phospholipids and sphingomyelin metabolites, and the role of these molecules in the apoptotic processes at a low evolutionary level. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Biosysthesis of Corn Starch Palmitate by Lipase Novozym 435

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435, was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS of 1.04 and 0.0072 respectively. Esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid was confirmed by UV spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The results of emulsifying property analysis showed that the starch palmitate with higher DS contributes to the higher emulsifying property (67.6% and emulsion stability (79.6% than the native starch (5.3% and 3.9%. Modified starch obtained by esterification that possesses emulsifying properties and has long chain fatty acids, like palmitic acid, has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications industries.

  10. Prolonged Treatment with Free Fatty Acids has Post Receptor Effect in Hepatic Insulin Resistance: Evidence that Fatty Acids, Oleate and Palmitate have Insignificant Effect on the Insulin Receptor Beta In Vivo and Ex Vivo Primary Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Ragheb

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we used immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting to examine the levels and phosphorylation status of the insulin receptor-beta subunit (IR-β, as well as the down stream target in PI3K pathway, total PKB/Akt as well as their phosphorylated forms. The assessment of FFAs treatment showed no direct and significant effect on the PI3K stimulation, specifically the IR-β in primary hepatic control cells treated with insulin. Cells treated with either oleate or palmitate (360 µM showed no statistically significant values following insulin stimulation (P > 0.05. To further investigate the effect of both FFAs and high insulin (1 µg, we examined the effects of oleate and palmitate at 360 µM concentration on IR-β as well as PKB. There was no significant difference in the total protein levels and their phosphorylated forms in cells treated with or without oleate or plamitate. Interestingly, IR-β tyrosine phosphorylation showed a similar insignificant effect in vivo and ex vivo hepatic cells treated with oleate or palmitate in comparison to their controls in the fructose fed hamsters.

  11. Determination of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate in cosmetic formulations by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M M; Alves, J M P; Patto, D C S; Lima, C R R C; Quenca-Guillen, J S; Santoro, M I R M; Kedor-Hackmann, E R M

    2009-12-01

    A rapid HPLC method was developed for the assay of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate in cosmetic formulations. The validated method was applied for quantitative determination of these vitamins in simulated emulsion formulation. Samples were analysed directly on a RP-18 reverse phase column with UV detection at 222 nm. A mixture of methanol and isopropanol (25 : 75 v/v) was used as mobile phase. The retention time of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate were 3.0 min and 5.9 min, respectively. Recovery was between 95% and 104%. In addition, the excipients did not interfere in the analysis. The method is simple, reproducible, selective and is suitable for routine analyses of commercial products.

  12. Sequence-specific {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments for intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein complexed with palmitate (15.4 kDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodsdon, M.E.; Toner, J.J.; Cistola, D.P. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (I-FABP) belongs to a family of soluble, cytoplasmic proteins that are thought to function in the intracellular transport and trafficking of polar lipids. Individual members of this protein family have distinct specificities and affinities for fatty acids, cholesterol, bile salts, and retinoids. We are comparing several retinol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins from intestine in order to define the factors that control molecular recognition in this family of proteins. We have established sequential resonance assignments for uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-enriched I-FABP complexed with perdeuterated palmitate at pH7.2 and 37{degrees}C. The assignment strategy was similar to that introduced for calmodulin. We employed seven three-dimensional NMR experiments to establish scalar couplings between backbone and sidechain atoms. Backbone atoms were correlated using triple-resonance HNCO, HNCA, TOCSY-HMQC, HCACO, and HCA(CO)N experiments. Sidechain atoms were correlated using CC-TOCSY, HCCH-TOCSY, and TOCSY-HMQC. The correlations of peaks between three-dimensional spectra were established in a computer-assisted manner using NMR COMPASS (Molecular Simulations, Inc.) Using this approach, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments have been established for 120 of the 131 residues of I-FABP. For 18 residues, amide {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N resonances were unobservable, apparently because of the rapid exchange of amide protons with bulk water at pH 7.2. The missing amide protons correspond to distinct amino acid patterns in the protein sequence, which will be discussed. During the assignment process, several sources of ambiguity in spin correlations were observed. To overcome this ambiguity, the additional inter-residue correlations often observed in the HNCA experiment were used as cross-checks for the sequential backbone assignments.

  13. Mechanisms of palmitate-induced cell death in human osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratnam, Krishanthi; Vidal, Christopher; Boadle, Ross; Thekkedam, Chris; Duque, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Lipotoxicity is an overload of lipids in non-adipose tissues that affects function and induces cell death. Lipotoxicity has been demonstrated in bone cells in vitro using osteoblasts and adipocytes in coculture. In this condition, lipotoxicity was induced by high levels of saturated fatty acids (mostly palmitate) secreted by cultured adipocytes acting in a paracrine manner. In the present study, we aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of lipotoxicity in human osteoblasts. Palmitate induced autophagy in cultured osteoblasts, which was preceded by the activation of autophagosomes that surround palmitate droplets. Palmitate also induced apoptosis though the activation of the Fas/Jun kinase (JNK) apoptotic pathway. In addition, osteoblasts could be protected from lipotoxicity by inhibiting autophagy with the phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor 3-methyladenine or by inhibiting apoptosis with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. In summary, we have identified two major molecular mechanisms of lipotoxicity in osteoblasts and in doing so we have identified a new potential therapeutic approach to prevent osteoblast dysfunction and death, which are common features of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. PMID:24285710

  14. Estimation of transcapillary transport of palmitate by the multiple indicator dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, S.E.; van der Vusse, G.J.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    From the outflow concentration-time curves for 14 C-palmitate, intravascular ( 131 I-albumin) and extracellular ( 3 H-sucrose) tracers, palmitate extraction was estimated in rabbit hearts Langendorff-perfused at a constant flow with nonrecirculated palmitate-albumin Kreb's Ringer buffer. Contamination of 131 I-albumin with free 13 $ 1 I - (typically 1%) or aggregated albumin (typically 0.1 to 0.5%) greatly alters the shapes of the tails of the curves after 2 albumin transit times, vitiating accurate estimation of cellular permeability or reactions. Buffers were prepared by adding K + -palmitate (made using K 2 CO 3 ) to albumin solutions. The final concentrations (after dialysing twice and filtering through a 1.2 μ filter) of K + , HCO 3 , and CO 3 were 5.0 mM, 23.5 mM and 0.5 mM respectively, pH was between 7.35 and 7.40 for several hours. The bolus of tracers was prepared by mixing 131 I-albumin (dialysed to remove I - , and filtered through a 0.2 μM filter to remove aggregates), K + [U- 14 C]palmitate (high specific activity) and 3 H-sucrose. Before injection the radioactive bolus is preequilibrated with the perfusate at bolus:perfusate ratio of 1:10. Glacial acetic acid is added to the outflow samples to remove the 14 CO 2 which, if present in the sample, would be interpreted as increased palmitate back diffusion. The peak extractions of palmitate were about 40% at perfusate palmitate concentrations of 0.02 to 1.0 mM, 0.4 mM albumin, at a flow of 5 mlg -1 2] 1 , showing capillary permeability-surface area product to be roughly constant. This suggests either than transcapillary palmitate transport is passive or that a transporter interacts with the albumin-palmitate complex

  15. Jinlida granule inhibits palmitic acid induced-intracellular lipid accumulation and enhances autophagy in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells through AMPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingkun; Tian, Min; Qi, Yuan; Chen, Guang; Xu, Lijun; Zou, Xin; Wang, Kaifu; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer

    2015-02-23

    Jinlida granule (JLDG), composed of seventeen Chinese medical herbs, is a widely used Chinese herbal prescription for treating diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. To determine the main components in JLDG and to explore the effect of JLDG on autophagy and lipid accumulation in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells exposed to politic acid (PA) through AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. JLDG was prepared and the main components contained in the granules were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprint. Intracellular lipid accumulation in NIT-1 cells was induced by culturing with medium containing PA. Intracellular lipid droplets were observed by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG) content was measured by colorimetric assay. The formation of autophagosomes was observed under transmission electron microscope. The expression of AMPK and phospho-AMPK (pAMPK) proteins as well as its downstream fatty acid metabolism-related proteins (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-coA carboxylase, ACC; carnitine acyltransferase 1, CPT-1) and autophagy-related genes (mammal target of rapamycin, mTOR; tuberous sclerosis complex 1, TSC1; microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, LC3-II) were determined by Western blot. The expression of sterol regulating element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA was examined by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Our data showed that JLDG could significantly reduce PA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells. This effect was associated with increased protein expression of pAMPK and AMPK in NIT-1 cells. Treatment with JLDG also decreased the expression of AMPK downstream lipogenic genes (SREBP-1c mRNA, FAS and ACC proteins) whereas increased the expression of fatty acid oxidation gene (CPT-1 protein). Additionally, JLDG-treated cells displayed a markedly increase in the number of autophagosomes which was accompanied by the down-regulation of m

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  17. Effects of antioxidants on the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis during production of structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2005-01-01

    In the production process of structured lipids, the influence of the addition of antioxidants before enzymatic acidolysis was investigated. Eight different antioxidants were screened: butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, ascorbyl palmitate, citric acid, EDTA...... of the structured lipid produced....

  18. Stevioside counteracts the alpha cell hypersecretion caused by long-term palmitate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Jing; Chen, Jianguo; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to fatty acids impairs beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes, but little is known about the chronic effects of fatty acids on alpha-cells. We therefore studied the prolonged impact of palmitate on alpha-cell function and on the expression of genes related to fuel metabolism. We......-activated receptor-gamma, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expressions in the presence of palmitate (Pacids leads to a hypersecretion of glucagon and an accumulation of TG content in clonal alpha-TC1-6 cells. Stevioside was able to counteract the alpha......-cell hypersecretion caused by palmitate and enhanced the expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. This indicates that stevioside may be a promising antidiabetic agent in treatment of type 2 diabetes....

  19. Palmitate Antagonizes Wnt/Beta-catenin Signaling in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long chain saturated free fatty acids such as palmitate (PA) produce insulin resistance, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis in mature adipocytes and pre-adipocytes. In pre-adipocytes, saturated free fatty acids also promote adipogenic induction in the presence of adipogenic hormones. Wnt/be...

  20. Isosteviol has beneficial effects on palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to high levels of fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and exaggerates glucagon secretion. The aim of this study was to explore if the antihyperglycemic agent, Isosteviol (ISV, is able to counteract palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and to influence α-cell gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Long-term incubation studies with clonal α-TC1-6 cells were performed in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate with or without ISV. We investigated effects on glucagon secretion, glucagon content, cellular triglyceride (TG content, cell proliferation, and expression of genes involved in controlling glucagon synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, we studied effects of ISV on palmitate-induced glucagon secretion from isolated mouse islets. Culturing α-cells for 72-h with 0.5 mM palmitate in the presence of 18 mM glucose resulted in a 56% (p<0.01 increase in glucagon secretion. Concomitantly, the TG content of α-cells increased by 78% (p<0.01 and cell proliferation decreased by 19% (p<0.05. At 18 mM glucose, ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 27% (p<0.05 and 27% (p<0.05, respectively. ISV (10(-6 M also counteracted the palmitate-induced hypersecretion of glucagon in mouse islets. ISV (10(-6 M reduced α-TC1-6 cell proliferation rate by 25% (p<0.05, but ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M had no effect on TG content in the presence of palmitate. Palmitate (0.5 mM increased Pcsk2 (p<0.001, Irs2 (p<0.001, Fasn (p<0.001, Srebf2 (p<0.001, Acaca (p<0.01, Pax6 (p<0.05 and Gcg mRNA expression (p<0.05. ISV significantly (p<0.05 up-regulated Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pik3r1 and Akt1 gene expression in the presence of palmitate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ISV counteracts α-cell hypersecretion and apparently contributes to changes in expression of key genes resulting from long-term exposure to palmitate. ISV apparently acts as a glucagonostatic drug with potential as a

  1. Signaling dynamics of palmitate-induced ER stress responses mediated by ATF4 in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Hyunju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palmitic acid, the most common saturated free fatty acid, has been implicated in ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. This lipoapotosis is dependent, in part, on the upregulation of the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4. To better understand the mechanisms by which palmitate upregulates the expression level of ATF4, we integrated literature information on palmitate-induced ER stress signaling into a discrete dynamic model. The model provides an in silico framework that enables simulations and predictions. The model predictions were confirmed through further experiments in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and the results were used to update the model and our current understanding of the signaling induced by palmitate. Results The three key things from the in silico simulation and experimental results are: 1 palmitate induces different signaling pathways (PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PERK (PKR-like ER kinase, PKA (cyclic AMP (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A in a time dependent-manner, 2 both ATF4 and CREB1 (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 interact with the Atf4 promoter to contribute to a prolonged accumulation of ATF4, and 3 CREB1 is involved in ER-stress induced apoptosis upon palmitate treatment, by regulating ATF4 expression and possibly Ca2+ dependent-CaM (calmodulin signaling pathway. Conclusion The in silico model helped to delineate the essential signaling pathways in palmitate-mediated apoptosis.

  2. Identification of Lipoproteins Using Globomycin and Radioactive Palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddelmeijer, Nienke

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are characterized by fatty acids that are covalently attached to their amino terminus via posttranslational modification in the cytoplasmic membrane. Three enzymatic steps are involved in the synthesis of mature triacylated lipoprotein: prolipoprotein converts into diacylglyceryl-prolipoprotein that in turn converts into apolipoprotein, which is finally converted into mature triacylated lipoprotein. Here we describe the detection of one of these intermediate forms of lipoprotein, diacylglyceryl-prolipoprotein, using 3 H-palmitate labeling and inhibition by globomycin and detection by fluorography.

  3. Ascorbyl stearate and ionizing radiation potentiate apoptosis through intracellular thiols and oxidative stress in murine T lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Shirish D; Kamatham, Akhilender Naidu

    2018-02-01

    Ascorbyl stearate (Asc-s) is a derivative of ascorbic acid with better anti-tumour efficacy compared to its parent compound ascorbic acid. In this study, we have examined radio-sensitizing effect of Asc-s in murine T cell lymphoma (EL4) cells at 4 Gy. Asc-s and radiation treatment reduced cell proliferation, induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner by arresting the cells at S/G2-M phase of cell cycle. It also decreased the frequency of cancer stem cells per se, with significantly higher decrease in combination with radiation treatment./Further, Asc-s and radiation treatment increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), drop in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased caspase-3 activity resulting in apoptosis of EL4 cells. Further it also significantly decreased GSH/GSSG ratio due to binding of Asc-s with thiols. The increase in oxidative stress induced by Asc-s and radiation treatment was abrogated by thiol antioxidants in EL4 cells. Interestingly, this redox modulation triggered significant increase in protein glutathionylation in a time dependent manner. Asc-s treatment resulted in glutathionylation of IKK, p50-NF-kB and mutated p53, thereby inhibiting cancer progression during oxidative stress. Asc-s quenches GSH ensuing Asc-s + GSH adduct thereby further modulating GSH/GSSG ratio as evident from HPLC and docking studies. The anti-tumour effect of Asc-s along with radiation was studied by injecting EL4 cells in synegenicC57/BL6 male mice. Intraperitoneal injection of Asc-s followed by radiation exposure at 4 Gy to the tumour bearing mice resulted in radio-sensitization which is evident from significant regression of tumour as evident from tumour burden index. The survival study supports the data that Asc-s pre-treatment enhances radio-sensitization in murine lymphoma. Our data, suggest that Asc-s and ionizing radiation induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by perturbing redox balance through irreversible complexes of thiols with Asc

  4. The Effect of 3% Phosphate Ascorbyl Gel on Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Enamel treated with 35% Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Milena de Fátima Schalcher; Silva, Alice Carvalho; Franco, Marcela Mayana Pereira; Silva, Ana Paula Brito; Bramante, Fausto da Silva; da Silva, Monica Barros; Lima, Darlon Martins; Pereira, Adriana de Fátima Vasconcelos

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of 3% phosphate ascorbyl gel (PA) in different times onto the microshear bond strength of composite resin (CR) to bovine enamel treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). Thirty enamel blocks of bovine incisors were made and divided into 5 groups (n = 6) with three specimens per group (n = 18), according to treatment: G1= No bleaching + CR; G2 = HP + CR after 15d; G3 = HP + CR after 24 hours; G4 = HP + PA (15 min) + CR after 24 hours; G5 = HP + PA (2 hours) + CR after 24 hours. The resin cylinders were made by Tygon matrices. Microshear bond strength test was performed using universal testing machine with a 50N load at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Fracture modes were assessed by a stereomicroscope 40 ×. Microshear bond strength values were submitted to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) one-way and Tukey test (p 0.05). Failure modes were categorized into adhesive (90%) and mixed (10%). The use of 3% phosphate ascorbyl gel for 15 minutes was able to improve bond strength of composite resin to bleached bovine enamel, but when 3% phosphate ascorbyl gel was applied during 40 minutes it negatively interfered in the adhesion of the resin to bleached bovine enamel.

  5. Palmitate-induced ER stress and inhibition of protein synthesis in cultured myotubes does not require Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ben D; Rahnert, Jill A; Xie, Yang; Zheng, Bin; Woodworth-Hobbs, Myra E; Price, S Russ

    2018-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, are elevated in metabolically dysfunctional conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus. Palmitate has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity and suppress protein synthesis while upregulating proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle. Increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response may contribute to the palmitate-induced impairment of muscle protein synthesis. In some cell types, ER stress occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Given the link between ER stress and suppression of protein synthesis, we investigated whether palmitate induces markers of ER stress and protein synthesis by activating TLR4 in cultured mouse C2C12 myotubes. Myotubes were treated with vehicle, a TLR4-specific ligand (lipopolysaccharides), palmitate, or a combination of palmitate plus a TLR4-specific inhibitor (TAK-242). Inflammatory indicators of TLR4 activation (IL-6 and TNFα) and markers of ER stress were measured, and protein synthesis was assessed using puromycin incorporation. Palmitate substantially increased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, CHOP, XBP1s, and ATF 4 mRNAs and augmented the levels of CHOP, XBP1s, phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α proteins. The TLR4 antagonist attenuated both acute palmitate and LPS-induced increases in IL-6 and TNFα, but did not reduce ER stress signaling with either 6 h or 24 h palmitate treatment. Similarly, treating myotubes with palmitate for 6 h caused a 43% decline in protein synthesis consistent with an increase in phospho-eIF2α, and the TLR4 antagonist did not alter these responses. These results suggest that palmitate does not induce ER stress through TLR4 in muscle, and that palmitate impairs protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in part by induction of ER stress.

  6. Palmitate-induced ER stress and inhibition of protein synthesis in cultured myotubes does not require Toll-like receptor 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D Perry

    Full Text Available Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, are elevated in metabolically dysfunctional conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus. Palmitate has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity and suppress protein synthesis while upregulating proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle. Increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response may contribute to the palmitate-induced impairment of muscle protein synthesis. In some cell types, ER stress occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Given the link between ER stress and suppression of protein synthesis, we investigated whether palmitate induces markers of ER stress and protein synthesis by activating TLR4 in cultured mouse C2C12 myotubes. Myotubes were treated with vehicle, a TLR4-specific ligand (lipopolysaccharides, palmitate, or a combination of palmitate plus a TLR4-specific inhibitor (TAK-242. Inflammatory indicators of TLR4 activation (IL-6 and TNFα and markers of ER stress were measured, and protein synthesis was assessed using puromycin incorporation. Palmitate substantially increased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, CHOP, XBP1s, and ATF 4 mRNAs and augmented the levels of CHOP, XBP1s, phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α proteins. The TLR4 antagonist attenuated both acute palmitate and LPS-induced increases in IL-6 and TNFα, but did not reduce ER stress signaling with either 6 h or 24 h palmitate treatment. Similarly, treating myotubes with palmitate for 6 h caused a 43% decline in protein synthesis consistent with an increase in phospho-eIF2α, and the TLR4 antagonist did not alter these responses. These results suggest that palmitate does not induce ER stress through TLR4 in muscle, and that palmitate impairs protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in part by induction of ER stress.

  7. Supplementation of pyruvate prevents palmitate-induced impairment of glucose uptake in C2 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Gab; Choi, Sung-E; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Sang-A; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Min-Seok; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Kang, Yup; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2011-10-15

    Elevated fatty acid levels have been thought to contribute to insulin resistance. Repression of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) gene as well as impaired GLUT4 translocation may be a mediator for fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. This study was initiated to determine whether palmitate treatment repressed GLUT4 expression, whether glucose/fatty acid metabolism influenced palmitate-induced GLUT4 gene repression (PIGR), and whether attempts to prevent PIGR restored palmitate-induced impairment of glucose uptake (PIIGU) in C2 myotubes. Not only stimulators of fatty acid oxidation, such as bezafibrate, AICAR, and TOFA, but also TCA cycle substrates, such as pyruvate, leucine/glutamine, and α-ketoisocaproate/monomethyl succinate, significantly prevented PIGR. In particular, supplementing with pyruvate through methyl pyruvate resulted in nearly complete prevention of PIIGU, whereas palmitate treatment reduced the intracellular pyruvate level. These results suggest that pyruvate depletion plays a critical role in PIGR and PIIGU; thus, pyruvate supplementation may help prevent obesity-induced insulin resistance in muscle cells. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. HDO of Methyl Palmitate over Silica-Supported Ni Phosphides: Insight into Ni/P Effect

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    Irina V. Deliy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two sets of silica-supported nickel phosphide catalysts with a nickel content of about 2.5 and 10 wt % and Ni/P molar ratio 2/1, 1/1 and 1/2 in each set, were prepared by way of a temperature-programmed reduction method using (Ni(CH3COO2 and ((NH42HPO4 as a precursor. The NixPy/SiO2 catalysts were characterized using chemical analysis N2 physisorption, XRD, TEM, 31P MAS NMR. Methyl palmitate hydrodeoxygenation (HDO was performed in a trickle-bed reactor at 3 MPa and 290 °C with LHSV ranging from 0.3 to 16 h−1. The Ni/P ratio was found to affect the nickel phosphide phase composition, POx groups content and catalytic properties in methyl palmitate HDO with the TOF increased along with a decline of Ni/P ratio and a growth of POx groups’ content. Taking into account the possible routes of methyl palmitate conversion (metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis or acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, we proposed that the enhancement of acid POx groups’ content with the Ni/P ratio decrease provides an enhancement of the rate of methyl palmitate conversion through the acceleration of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis.

  9. High beta-palmitate fat controls the intestinal inflammatory response and limits intestinal damage in mucin Muc2 deficient mice.

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    Peng Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate, the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position (beta-palmitate, the main palmitate conformation in human milk fat, is well absorbed. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of high alpha, alpha'-palmitate fat (HAPF diet and high beta-palmitate fat (HBPF diet on colitis development in Muc2 deficient (Muc2(-/- mice, a well-described animal model for spontaneous enterocolitis due to the lack of a protective mucus layer. METHODS: Muc2(-/- mice received AIN-93G reference diet, HAPF diet or HBPF diet for 5 weeks after weaning. Clinical symptoms, intestinal morphology and inflammation in the distal colon were analyzed. RESULTS: Both HBPF diet and AIN-93G diet limited the extent of intestinal erosions and morphological damage in Muc2(-/- mice compared with HAPF diet. In addition, the immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg cell response as demonstrated by the up-regulation of Foxp3, Tgfb1 and Ebi3 gene expression levels was enhanced by HBPF diet compared with AIN-93G and HAPF diets. HBPF diet also increased the gene expression of Pparg and enzymatic antioxidants (Sod1, Sod3 and Gpx1, genes all reported to be involved in promoting an immunosuppressive Treg cell response and to protect against colitis. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that HBPF diet limits the intestinal mucosal damage and controls the inflammatory response in Muc2(-/- mice by inducing an immunosuppressive Treg cell response.

  10. High beta-palmitate fat controls the intestinal inflammatory response and limits intestinal damage in mucin Muc2 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Levi, Liora; Lifshitz, Yael; Witte-Bouma, Janneke; de Bruijn, Adrianus C J M; Korteland-van Male, Anita M; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Renes, Ingrid B

    2013-01-01

    Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate), the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position (beta-palmitate), the main palmitate conformation in human milk fat, is well absorbed. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of high alpha, alpha'-palmitate fat (HAPF) diet and high beta-palmitate fat (HBPF) diet on colitis development in Muc2 deficient (Muc2(-/-)) mice, a well-described animal model for spontaneous enterocolitis due to the lack of a protective mucus layer. Muc2(-/-) mice received AIN-93G reference diet, HAPF diet or HBPF diet for 5 weeks after weaning. Clinical symptoms, intestinal morphology and inflammation in the distal colon were analyzed. Both HBPF diet and AIN-93G diet limited the extent of intestinal erosions and morphological damage in Muc2(-/-) mice compared with HAPF diet. In addition, the immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cell response as demonstrated by the up-regulation of Foxp3, Tgfb1 and Ebi3 gene expression levels was enhanced by HBPF diet compared with AIN-93G and HAPF diets. HBPF diet also increased the gene expression of Pparg and enzymatic antioxidants (Sod1, Sod3 and Gpx1), genes all reported to be involved in promoting an immunosuppressive Treg cell response and to protect against colitis. This study shows for the first time that HBPF diet limits the intestinal mucosal damage and controls the inflammatory response in Muc2(-/-) mice by inducing an immunosuppressive Treg cell response.

  11. Protective Effect of 2-Dodecyl-6-Methoxycyclohexa-2, 5-Diene-1, 4-Dione, Isolated from Averrhoa Carambola L., Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in Min6 Cells by Inhibiting the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB Signaling Pathway

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    Qiuqiao Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Studies have demonstrated that 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2, 5-diene-1, 4-dione (DMDD, isolated from the roots of Averrhoa carambola L., has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetes. However, the protective effect of DMDD against pancreatic beta cell dysfunction has never been reported. We investigated whether DMDD protected against palmitic acid-induced dysfunction in pancreatic β-cell line Min6 cells by attenuating the inflammatory response and apoptosis and to shed light on its possible mechanism. Methods: Cell viability was assessed by CCK-8. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels and inflammatory cytokines levels were examined by ELISA. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V-FITC/PI Flow cytometry assay, Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay, and Transmission electron microscopy assay. Relative quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine the expressions of genes and proteins. Results: Cell viability and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels were increased in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells. DMDD inhibited inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 generations in palmitic acid (PA-induced Min6 cells. Moreover, DMDD protected against PA-induced Min6 cells apoptosis and the expression of Cleaved-Caspase-3, -8 and -9 were down-regulated and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells. In addition, the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB were down-regulated in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells and TAK-242-pretreated group cells. Conclusions: DMDD protected Min6 cells against PA-induced dysfunction by attenuating the inflammatory response and apoptosis, and its mechanism of this protection was associated with inhibiting the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  12. Protective Effect of 2-Dodecyl-6-Methoxycyclohexa-2, 5-Diene-1, 4-Dione, Isolated from Averrhoa Carambola L., Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Inflammation and Apoptosis in Min6 Cells by Inhibiting the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuqiao; Zhang, Shijun; Chen, Chunxia; Li, Juman; Wei, Xiaojie; Xu, Xiaohui; Xuan, Feifei; Chen, Ning; Pham, Thithaihoa; Qin, Ni; He, Junhui; Ye, Fangxing; Huang, Wansu; Huang, Renbin; Wen, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2, 5-diene-1, 4-dione (DMDD), isolated from the roots of Averrhoa carambola L., has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetes. However, the protective effect of DMDD against pancreatic beta cell dysfunction has never been reported. We investigated whether DMDD protected against palmitic acid-induced dysfunction in pancreatic β-cell line Min6 cells by attenuating the inflammatory response and apoptosis and to shed light on its possible mechanism. Cell viability was assessed by CCK-8. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels and inflammatory cytokines levels were examined by ELISA. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V-FITC/PI Flow cytometry assay, Hoechst 33342/PI double-staining assay, and Transmission electron microscopy assay. Relative quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine the expressions of genes and proteins. Cell viability and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels were increased in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells. DMDD inhibited inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 generations in palmitic acid (PA)-induced Min6 cells. Moreover, DMDD protected against PA-induced Min6 cells apoptosis and the expression of Cleaved-Caspase-3, -8 and -9 were down-regulated and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells. In addition, the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB were down-regulated in DMDD-pretreated Min6 cells and TAK-242-pretreated group cells. DMDD protected Min6 cells against PA-induced dysfunction by attenuating the inflammatory response and apoptosis, and its mechanism of this protection was associated with inhibiting the TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Oleate ameliorates palmitate-induced reduction of NAMPT activity and NAD levels in primary human hepatocytes and hepatocarcinoma cells.

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    Penke, Melanie; Schuster, Susanne; Gorski, Theresa; Gebhardt, Rolf; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2017-10-03

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels are crucial for liver function. The saturated fatty acid palmitate and the unsaturated fatty acid oleate are the main free fatty acids in adipose tissue and human diet. We asked how these fatty acids affect cell survival, NAMPT and NAD levels in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were stimulated with palmitate (0.5mM), oleate (1mM) or a combination of both (0.5mM/1mM) as well as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) (0.5 mM) or the specific NAMPT inhibitor FK866 (10nM). Cell survival was measured by WST-1 assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. NAD levels were determined by NAD/NADH Assay or HPLC. Protein and mRNA levels were analysed by Western blot analyses and qPCR, respectively. NAMPT enzyme activity was measured using radiolabelled 14 C-nicotinamide. Lipids were stained by Oil red O staining. Palmitate significantly reduced cell survival and induced apoptosis at physiological doses. NAMPT activity and NAD levels significantly declined after 48h of palmitate. In addition, NAMPT mRNA expression was enhanced which was associated with increased NAMPT release into the supernatant, while intracellular NAMPT protein levels remained stable. Oleate alone did not influence cell viability and NAMPT activity but ameliorated the negative impact of palmitate on cell survival, NAMPT activity and NAD levels, as well as the increased NAMPT mRNA expression and secretion. NMN was able to normalize intracellular NAD levels but did not ameliorate cell viability after co-stimulation with palmitate. FK866, a specific NAMPT inhibitor did not influence lipid accumulation after oleate-treatment. Palmitate targets NAMPT activity with a consequent cellular depletion of NAD. Oleate protects from palmitate-induced apoptosis and variation of NAMPT and NAD levels. Palmitate-induced cell stress leads to an increase of NAMPT mRNA and accumulation in the supernatant. However

  14. D-isoascorbyl palmitate: lipase-catalyzed synthesis, structural characterization and process optimization using response surface methodology.

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    Sun, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Cui, Feng-Jie; Li, Yun-Hong; Yu, Si-Lian; Zhou, Qiang; Qian, Jing-Ya; Dong, Ying

    2013-07-08

    Isoascorbic acid is a stereoisomer of L-ascorbic acid, and widely used as a food antioxidant. However, its highly hydrophilic behavior prevents its application in cosmetics or fats and oils-based foods. To overcome this problem, D-isoascorbyl palmitate was synthesized in the present study for improving the isoascorbic acid's oil solubility with an immobilized lipase in organic media. The structural information of synthesized product was clarified using LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR analysis, and process parameters for high yield of D-isoascorbyl palmitate were optimized by using One-factor-at-a-time experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). The synthesized product had the purity of 95% and its structural characteristics were confirmed as isoascorbyl palmitate by LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis. Results from "one-factor-at-a-time" experiments indicated that the enzyme load, reaction temperature and D-isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio had a significant effect on the D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate. 95.32% of conversion rate was obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) under the the optimized condition: enzyme load of 20% (w/w), reaction temperature of 53°C and D- isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio of 1:4 when the reaction parameters were set as: acetone 20 mL, 40 g/L of molecular sieves content, 200 rpm speed for 24-h reaction time. The findings of this study can become a reference for developing industrial processes for the preparation of isoascorbic acid ester, which might be used in food additives, cosmetic formulations and for the synthesis of other isoascorbic acid derivatives.

  15. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  16. Palmitate-induced inflammatory pathways in human adipose microvascular endothelial cells promote monocyte adhesion and impair insulin transcytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Azizi, Paymon M; Li, Yujin E; Liu, Jun; Wang, Changsen; Chan, Kenny L; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P; Heit, Bryan; Bilan, Philip J; Lee, Warren L; Klip, Amira

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and immune cell recruitment to adipose tissue, muscle and intima of atherosclerotic blood vessels. Obesity and hyperlipidemia are also associated with tissue insulin resistance and can compromise insulin delivery to muscle. The muscle/fat microvascular endothelium mediates insulin delivery and facilitates monocyte transmigration, yet its contribution to the consequences of hyperlipidemia is poorly understood. Using primary endothelial cells from human adipose tissue microvasculature (HAMEC), we investigated the effects of physiological levels of fatty acids on endothelial inflammation and function. Expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules was measured by RT-qPCR. Signaling pathways were evaluated by pharmacological manipulation and immunoblotting. Surface expression of adhesion molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. THP1 monocyte interaction with HAMEC was measured by cell adhesion and migration across transwells. Insulin transcytosis was measured by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, elevated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). HAMEC had markedly low fatty acid uptake and oxidation, and CD36 inhibition did not reverse the palmitate-induced expression of adhesion molecules, suggesting that inflammation did not arise from palmitate uptake/metabolism. Instead, inhibition of TLR4 to NF-κB signaling blunted palmitate-induced ICAM-1 expression. Importantly, palmitate-induced surface expression of ICAM-1 promoted monocyte binding and transmigration. Conversely, palmitate reduced insulin transcytosis, an effect reversed by TLR4 inhibition. In summary, palmitate activates inflammatory pathways in primary microvascular endothelial cells, impairing insulin transport and increasing monocyte transmigration. This behavior may contribute in vivo to reduced tissue insulin action and enhanced tissue

  17. Palmitate and insulin synergistically induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes

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    Lumpkin Charles K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance is associated with a proinflammatory state that promotes the development of complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and atherosclerosis. The metabolic stimuli that initiate and propagate proinflammatory cytokine production and the cellular origin of proinflammatory cytokines in insulin resistance have not been fully elucidated. Circulating proinflammatory monocytes show signs of enhanced inflammation in obese, insulin resistant subjects and are thus a potential source of proinflammatory cytokine production. The specific, circulating metabolic factors that might stimulate monocyte inflammation in insulin resistant subjects are poorly characterized. We have examined whether saturated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA and insulin, which increase in concentration with developing insulin resistance, can trigger the production of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in human monocytes. Methods Messenger RNA and protein levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Luminex bioassays. Student's t-test was used with a significance level of p Results Esterification of palmitate with coenzyme A (CoA was necessary, while β-oxidation and ceramide biosynthesis were not required, for the induction of IL-6 and TNF-α in THP-1 monocytes. Monocytes incubated with insulin and palmitate together produced more IL-6 mRNA and protein, and more TNF-α protein, compared to monocytes incubated with palmitate alone. Incubation of monocytes with insulin alone did not affect the production of IL-6 or TNF-α. Both PI3K-Akt and MEK/ERK signalling pathways are important for cytokine induction by palmitate. MEK/ERK signalling is necessary for synergistic induction of IL-6 by palmitate and insulin. Conclusions High levels of saturated NEFA, such as palmitate, when combined with hyperinsulinemia, may activate human monocytes to produce

  18. Cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by membrane palmitate accumulation.

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    Laurie-Anne Payet

    Full Text Available The F508del-CFTR mutation, responsible for Cystic Fibrosis (CF, leads to the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The mistrafficking of this mutant form can be corrected by pharmacological chaperones, but these molecules showed limitations in clinical trials. We therefore hypothesized that important factors in CF patients may have not been considered in the in vitro assays. CF has also been associated with an altered lipid homeostasis, i. e. a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma and tissues. However, the precise fatty acyl content of membrane phospholipids from human CF bronchial epithelial cells had not been studied to date. Since the saturation level of phospholipids can modulate crucial membrane properties, with potential impacts on membrane protein folding/trafficking, we analyzed this parameter for freshly isolated bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. Interestingly, we could show that Palmitate, a saturated fatty acid, accumulates within Phosphatidylcholine (PC in CF freshly isolated cells, in a process that could result from hypoxia. The observed PC pattern can be recapitulated in the CFBE41o(- cell line by incubation with 100 µM Palmitate. At this concentration, Palmitate induces an ER stress, impacts calcium homeostasis and leads to a decrease in the activity of the corrected F508del-CFTR. Overall, these data suggest that bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by hypoxia-related Palmitate accumulation in CF patients. We propose that this phenomenon could be an important bottleneck for F508del-CFTR trafficking correction by pharmacological agents in clinical trials.

  19. Palmitate activates autophagy in INS-1E β-cells and in isolated rat and human pancreatic islets.

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    Luisa Martino

    Full Text Available We have investigated the in vitro effects of increased levels of glucose and free fatty acids on autophagy activation in pancreatic beta cells. INS-1E cells and isolated rat and human pancreatic islets were incubated for various times (from 2 to 24 h at different concentrations of glucose and/or palmitic acid. Then, cell survival was evaluated and autophagy activation was explored by using various biochemical and morphological techniques. In INS-1E cells as well as in rat and human islets, 0.5 and 1.0 mM palmitate markedly increased autophagic vacuole formation, whereas high glucose was ineffective alone and caused little additional change when combined with palmitate. Furthermore, LC3-II immunofluorescence co-localized with that of cathepsin D, a lysosomal marker, showing that the autophagic flux was not hampered in PA-treated cells. These effects were maintained up to 18-24 h incubation and were associated with a significant decline of cell survival correlated with both palmitate concentration and incubation time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that autophagy activation, as evidenced by the occurrence of many autophagic vacuoles in the cytoplasm of beta cells, was associated with a diffuse and remarkable swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that among the metabolic alterations typically associated with type 2 diabetes, high free fatty acids levels could play a role in the activation of autophagy in beta cells, through a mechanism that might involve the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted lipase-catalyzed synthesis of D-isoascorbyl palmitate: process optimization and Kinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng-Jie; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Sun, Wen-Jing; Wei, Zhuan; Yu, Si-Lian; Zhou, Qiang; Dong, Ying

    2013-12-09

    D-isoascorbic acid is a food antioxidant additive and used in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). High solubility in water (about 150 g/L at 25°C) reduces its effectiveness in stabilizing fats and oils. Our research group had successfully synthesized D-isoascorbyl palmitate using immobilized lipase Novozym 435 as a biocatalyst. Low production efficiency of D-isoascorbyl palmitate is still a problem for industrial production due to the long reaction time of over 24 h. In the present work, ultrasonic treatment was applied for accelerating the reaction process. The operation parameters were optimized to obtain the maximum D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate by using a 5-level-4-factor Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methdology (RSM). The reaction apparent kinetic parameters under the ultrasound treatment and mechanical shaking conditions were also determined and compared. Results showed that ultrasound treatment decreased the reaction time by over 50%. D-isoascorbyl palmitate yielded to 94.32 ± 0.17% and the productivity reached to 8.67 g L-1 h-1 under the optimized conditions as: 9% of enzyme load (w/w), 61°C of reaction temperature, 1:5 of D- isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio, and 137 W of the ultrasound power. The immobilized lipase Novozym 435 could be reused for 7 times with 65% of the remained D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate. The reaction kinetics showed that the maximum apparent reaction rate (vmax) of the ultrasound-assisted reaction was 2.85 times higher than that of the mechanical shaking, which proved that ultrasound treatment significantly enhanced the reaction efficiency. A systematic study on ultrasound-assisted enzymatic esterification for D-isoascorbyl palmitate production is reported. The results show a promising perspective of the ultrasound technique to reduce the reaction time and improve the production efficiency. The commercial D-isoascorbyl palmitate synthesis will be potentially

  1. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Kalinina; V. I. Albanova; T. A. Belousova; V. I. Nozdrin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people) antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Be...

  2. Effect of L-Ascorbyl-2-Phosphate Magnesium as a Vitamin C Source in Different Doses on Growth of Patin Pangasius Hypophthalmus Fingerlings

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    D. Jusadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine optimum dose of L-Ascorbyl-2-Phosphate Magnesium in the diet of patin, Pangasius hypophthalmus fingerlings.  Five isoprotein and isocaloric diets containing different dose of L-Ascorbyl-2-Phosphate Magnesium, i.e. 0, 25, 75 and 100 mg/kg diet were used in this experiment.  Fish with an average size of 5.00±0.11 g were maintained at a density of 15 fish per aquarium.  Fish were fed three times a day at satiation, for 40 days.  The results of study shows that vitamin C content in fish body increased as the vitamin C level of the diet increased.  Similar pattern to vitamin C content was also found in protein retention, lipid retention, daily growth rate, and feed efficiency (p Keywords: vitamin C, patin, Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kadar optimum L-Ascorbyl-2-Phosphate Magnesium dalam pakan ikan patin, Pangasius hypophthalmus ukuran sejari. Lima macam pakan isoprotein dan isokalori mempunyai kandungan L-Ascorbyl-2-Phosphate Magnesium berbeda, berturut-turut 0, 25, 50, 75 dan 100 mg/kg pakan telah digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Benih berukuran rata-rata 5,00±0,11 g dipelihara dalam akuarium dengan kepadatan 15 ekor per akuarium. Ikan diberi pakan tiga kali sehari, secara at satiation, selama 40 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar vitamin C tubuh meningkat sejalan dengan kadar vitamin C pakan. Demikian pula retensi protein, retensi lemak laju pertumbuhan harian, efisiensi pakan mengikuti pola yang sama seperti kandungan vitamin C tubuh (p Kata kunci: vitamin C, ikan patin, Pangasius hypophthalmus.

  3. Optimization of methanol crystallization for highly efficient separation of palmitic acid from palm fatty acid mixture using response surface methodology; Optimización de la cristalización con metanol para una separación altamente eficiente del ácido palmítico en mezclas de ácidos grasos de palma usando metodología de superficie de respuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japir, A.A.W.; Salimon, J.; Derawi, D.; Yahaya, B.H.; Jamil, M.S.M.; Yusop, M.R.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop parameters for the separation of palmitic acid (PA) from a crude palm oil saturated fatty acid (SFAs) mixture by using the methanol crystallization method. The conditions of methanol crystallization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) with the D-optimal design. The procedure of developing the solvent crystallization method was based on various different parameters. The fatty acid composition was carried out using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) as fatty acid methyl esters. The highest percentage of SFAs was more than 96% with the percentage yield of 87.5% under the optimal conditions of fatty acids-to-methanol ratio of 1: 20 (w/v), the crystallization temperature of -15 °C, and the crystallization time of 24 hours, respectively. The composition of separated SFAs in the solid fraction contains 96.7% of palmitic acid (C16:0) as a dominant component and 3.3% of stearic acid (C18:0). The results showed that utilizing methanol as a crystallization solvent is recommended because of its high efficiency, low cost, stability, availability, comparative ease of recovery and its ability to form needle-like crystals which have good filtering and washing characteristics. [Spanish] El objetivo del presente estudio fue desarrollar parámetros para la separación de ácido palmítico (PA) en mezclas de ácidos grasos saturados (SFAs) de aceites de palma crudo mediante el método de cristalización con metanol. Las condiciones de cristalización con metanol se optimizaron utilizando la metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM) con el diseño D-Optimal. El procedimiento de desarrollo del método de cristalización con disolvente se basó en diversos parámetros diferentes. La composición de ácidos grasos se llevó a cabo por cromatografía de gases (GC-FID) como ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos usando un detector de ionización de llama. El porcentaje más alto de SFAs fue mayor

  4. Switching away from pipotiazine palmitate: a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Feras Ali

    2017-01-01

    In March 2015, pipotiazine palmitate depot antipsychotic was globally withdrawn due to the shortage of its active ingredient. Thus, all patients receiving this medication had to be switched to an alternative antipsychotic drug. In this study we set to evaluate the process of switching away from pipotiazine palmitate within our clinical service, and its impact on hospitalization. Demographic and clinical data on patients who were receiving pipotiazine palmitate in Northamptonshire at the time of its withdrawal were anonymously extracted from their electronic records and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 17 patients were switched away from pipotiazine palmitate at the time of its withdrawal, all of whom had a prior history of nonadherence with oral treatment. A total of 14 patients were switched to another depot antipsychotic drug, while three patients chose an oral alternative which they subsequently discontinued resulting in relapse and hospitalization. There was a five-fold increase in mean hospitalization among patients who completed a year after the switch. Switching away from pipotiazine palmitate was associated with significant clinical deterioration in patients who switched to an oral antipsychotic, whereas most patients who switched to another depot treatment maintained stability. Clinicians should exercise caution when switching patients with schizophrenia away from depot antipsychotic drugs, especially in cases of patients with a history of treatment nonadherence who prefer to switch to oral antipsychotics.

  5. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kalinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Before and after the treatment a histological and morphometric study of biopsy material from the affected areas has been carried.The terms of relapses have been set. Results. Retinol palmitate treatment efficiency - 91.7%, antiseborrheic shampoos - 84.6%. Along with the regression of symptoms of the disease in both groups after retinol palmitate treatment significantly declined oiliness of skin; the sizes of sebaceous glands acini and the presence of differentiated sebocytes, the squares of lymphocytic-macrophage clusters in the dermis, the number of keratinocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm have been reduced. Relapses of the disease during a year occured more rare - in 21 patients out of 32 (in the comparison group- in 25 out of 31 and at a later date (in the first 3 months in 2 patients out of 32, in comparison group in 10 out of 31. Identified effects were due to the action of retinol palmitate on the morphogenesis of the sebaceous glands.

  6. In Vitro Palmitate Treatment of Myotubes from Postmenopausal Women Leads to Ceramide Accumulation, Inflammation and Affected Insulin Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Julie; Henstridge, Darren C; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. In a chronic palmitate treatment model, we investigated the role of skeletal muscle fatty acid exposure in relation to the metabolic deterioration observed with menopause. Human skeletal muscle......, post-myotubes showed a blunted insulin stimulated phosphorylation of AS160 in response to chronic palmitate treatment compared with pre-myotubes (p = 0.02). The increased intramyocellular ceramide content in the post-myotubes was associated with a significantly higher mRNA expression of Serine...... Palmitoyltransferase1 (SPT1) after one day of palmitate treatment (p = 0.03) in post-myotubes compared with pre-myotubes. Our findings indicate that post-myotubes are more prone to develop lipid accumulation and defective insulin signaling following chronic saturated fatty acid exposure as compared to pre-myotubes....

  7. Synergetic Effect of Ni2P/SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 Physical Mixture in Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl Palmitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Shamanaev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, which was prepared by in situ temperature-programmed reduction and in the mixture with the inert (SiC, SiO2 or acidic (γ-Al2O3 material was studied in methyl palmitate hydrodeoxygenation (HDO. Methyl palmitate HDO was carried out at temperatures of 270–330 °C, H2/feed volume ratio of 600 Nm3/m3, and H2 pressure of 3.0 MPa. Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, diluted with γ-Al2O3 showed a higher activity than Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst diluted with SiC or SiO2. The conversion of methyl palmitate increased significantly in the presence of γ-Al2O3 most probably due to the acceleration of the acid-catalyzed reaction of ester hydrolysis. The synergism of Ni2P/SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 in methyl palmitate HDO can be explained by the cooperation of the metal sites of Ni2P/SiO2 and the acid sites of γ-Al2O3 in consecutive metal-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed reactions of HDO. The obtained results let us conclude that the balancing of metal and acid sites plays an important role in the development of the efficient catalyst for the HDO of fatty acid esters over supported phosphide catalysts.

  8. Metabolic reserve in normal myocardium assessed by positron emission tomography with C-11 palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Kawamoto, Masahide; Takahashi, Norio; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Magata, Yasuhiro; Nohara, Ryuji; Kambara, Hirofumi; Kawai, Chuichi; Konishi, Junji

    1991-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with C-11 palmitate has been used in estimating the myocardial utilization of free fatty acid. To assess the metabolic reserve in normal subjects, a PET study was performed at control and during dobutamine infusion at 2 hour intervals in 5 normal subjects. Following monoexponential curve fitting of the time activity curve of the myocardium, the clearance half time (min) and residual fraction (%) were calculated as indices of β-oxydation of free fatty acid. A significant increase in the heart rate and systolic blood pressure were observed during dobutamine infusion (65±5 vs 100±29 bpm, p<0.05 and 119±12 vs 144±16 mmHg, p<0.01, respectively). The clearance half-time and the residual fraction were significantly decreased (23.4±2.6 vs 15.8±2.3 min and 67.0±2.5 vs 58.6±4.0%, p<0.05, each). When the left ventricular myocardium was divided into 4 segments, these indices were similar at control and uniformly decreased without regional differences during dobutamine infusion. These data suggest that β-oxydation of free fatty acid may be uniformly increased in the left ventricular myocardium in relation to the increase in cardiac work in normal subjects. PET with C-11 palmitate at control and during dobutamine infusion is considered to be promising in assessing metabolic reserve in the myocardium. (author)

  9. Application of antioxidants during short-path distillation of structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm-Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2007-01-01

    A specific structured lipid was produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid. The antioxidative effect of adding alpha-tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate or citric acid (each in three different concentrations) was investigated before and after the purification process (short-path distillation...

  10. Practical guidelines on the use of paliperidone palmitate in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Richard; Hustig, Harry; Lakshmana, Raju; Lee, Joseph; Motamarri, Balaji; Norrie, Peter; Parker, Robert; Schreiner, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Paliperidone palmitate is an atypical long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic that has been approved for use in the US, EU, Australia and numerous other countries for acute and maintenance therapy of schizophrenia. LAI antipsychotics are often viewed as a 'last-resort' treatment for difficult-to-treat patients, however this article considers their role more broadly in the management of partial or non-adherence in schizophrenia. A search of MedLine, CTR and PsychInfo was conducted to identify relevant publications and clinical trials (search term 'paliperidone palmitate', up to December 2010). The findings were discussed in a number of teleconferences and the manuscript was finalized with a face-to-face meeting of the authors group. Relapse prevention in schizophrenia requires a comprehensive approach to treatment, which includes antipsychotic medication and psychosocial measures as well as family and/or carer involvement. Good symptom control and the interconnected issue of treatment adherence are arguably the most crucial factors for success. Carer and patient feedback should be carefully considered. Negotiation about commencing LAI therapy done early in course of disease is easier than many clinicians believe, although it is not often attempted in practice. Paliperidone palmitate is useful in both the acute and maintenance phases of treatment. A case-based approach is presented to suggest various opportunities where use of paliperidone palmitate could be considered within the disease course of schizophrenia. Paliperidone palmitate offers some advantages in terms of tolerability, simplicity of treatment initiation and long duration between injections. The consensus of the authors is that rather than reserving paliperidone palmitate for use in difficult-to-treat or refractory patients, it could be used to promote adherence and prevent relapse earlier in the course of the illness.

  11. ClC-3 deficiency protects preadipocytes against apoptosis induced by palmitate in vitro and in type 2 diabetes mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Ying; Huang, Xiong-Qin; Zhao, Li-Yan; Sun, Fang-Yun; Chen, Wen-Liang; Du, Jie-Yi; Yuan, Feng; Li, Jie; Huang, Xue-Lian; Liu, Jie; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Yong-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Wen; Wang, Guan-Lei

    2014-11-01

    Palmitate, a common saturated free fatty acid (FFA), has been demonstrated to induce preadipocyte apoptosis in the absence of adipogenic stimuli, suggesting that preadipocytes may be prone to apoptosis under adipogenic insufficient conditions, like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ClC-3, encoding Cl(-) channel or Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, is critical for cell fate choices of proliferation versus apoptosis under diseased conditions. However, it is unknown whether ClC-3 is related with preadipocyte apoptosis induced by palmitate or T2DM. Palmitate, but not oleate, induced apoptosis and increase in ClC-3 protein expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. ClC-3 specific siRNA attenuated palmitate-induced apoptosis and increased protein levels of Grp78, ATF4, CHOP and phosphorylation of JNK1/2, whereas had no effects on increased phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α protein expression. Moreover, the enhanced apoptosis was shown in preadipocytes from high-sucrose/fat, low-dose STZ induced T2DM mouse model with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia (elevated serum TG and FFA levels) and insulin resistance. ClC-3 knockout significantly attenuated preadipocyte apoptosis and the above metabolic disorders in T2DM mice. These data demonstrated that ClC-3 deficiency prevent preadipocytes against palmitate-induced apoptosis via suppressing ER stress, and also suggested that ClC-3 may play a role in regulating cellular apoptosis and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism during T2DM.

  12. [11C]palmitate kinetics across the splanchnic bed in arterial, portal and hepatic venous plasma during fasting and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiducci, Letizia; Jaervisalo, Mikko; Kiss, Jan; Nagren, Kjell; Viljanen, Antti; Naum, Alexandru G.; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Savunen, Timo; Knuuti, Juhani; Salvadori, Piero A.; Ferrannini, Ele; Nuutila, Pirjo; Iozzo, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The liver is fundamental in regulating lipid metabolism, and it supplies fatty acids (FA) to the rest of the body in the form of triglycerides (TG); the time-related relevance of this process is incompletely defined. The aim of the study was to investigate the appearance of labeled TG in the hepatic vascular bed after [ 11 C]palmitate injection during fasting and insulin stimulation. Methods: Plasma [ 11 C]palmitate kinetics in arterial, portal and hepatic venous lipid fractions was studied in eight anesthetized pigs during fasting or euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Plasma analyses were conducted at 10 and 40 min after tracer injection. Corresponding liver positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired for the semiquantitative determination of hepatic FA uptake. Results: At 10 min, plasma levels of unchanged [ 11 C]palmitate were lower in hyperinsulinemic than in fasting experiments in the artery and in the portal vein (P≤.03), suggesting faster clearance. Levels of unmetabolized [ 11 C]palmitate did not differ between portal and arterial plasma. In the fasting state, a tendency to a positive arterial and portal vs. hepatic venous gradient was observed, indicative of net hepatic [ 11 C]palmitate extraction. Labeled TG were already detectable at 10 min (fasting vs. hyperinsulinemia, ns) and were higher in fasting than in hyperinsulinemic animals at 40 min (92±1% and 82±6% of arterial plasma radioactivity). Higher proportions of labeled TG were recovered in portal vein plasma, suggesting release by the gut. The portal and the arterial-portal vs. hepatic venous TG gradient tended to be positive. Accordingly, hepatic FA uptake was higher, but declined more rapidly during fasting than during hyperinsulinemia. Conclusion: The study indicates that the redistribution of [ 11 C]palmitate between different lipid pools occurs within the short time interval of most PET experiments and is strongly influenced by insulin. Labeled TG constitute an additional

  13. [{sup 11}C]palmitate kinetics across the splanchnic bed in arterial, portal and hepatic venous plasma during fasting and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiducci, Letizia [SSSUP Medical Sciences Branch, Pisa 56100 (Italy); Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Jaervisalo, Mikko [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Kiss, Jan [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Department of Surgery, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Nagren, Kjell [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Viljanen, Antti [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Naum, Alexandru G. [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Gastaldelli, Amalia [PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Savunen, Timo [Department of Surgery, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Knuuti, Juhani [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Salvadori, Piero A. [PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Ferrannini, Ele [PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa School of Medicine, Pisa 56100 (Italy); Nuutila, Pirjo [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Iozzo, Patricia [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland) and PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: patricia.iozzo@ifc.cnr.it

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: The liver is fundamental in regulating lipid metabolism, and it supplies fatty acids (FA) to the rest of the body in the form of triglycerides (TG); the time-related relevance of this process is incompletely defined. The aim of the study was to investigate the appearance of labeled TG in the hepatic vascular bed after [{sup 11}C]palmitate injection during fasting and insulin stimulation. Methods: Plasma [{sup 11}C]palmitate kinetics in arterial, portal and hepatic venous lipid fractions was studied in eight anesthetized pigs during fasting or euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Plasma analyses were conducted at 10 and 40 min after tracer injection. Corresponding liver positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired for the semiquantitative determination of hepatic FA uptake. Results: At 10 min, plasma levels of unchanged [{sup 11}C]palmitate were lower in hyperinsulinemic than in fasting experiments in the artery and in the portal vein (P{<=}.03), suggesting faster clearance. Levels of unmetabolized [{sup 11}C]palmitate did not differ between portal and arterial plasma. In the fasting state, a tendency to a positive arterial and portal vs. hepatic venous gradient was observed, indicative of net hepatic [{sup 11}C]palmitate extraction. Labeled TG were already detectable at 10 min (fasting vs. hyperinsulinemia, ns) and were higher in fasting than in hyperinsulinemic animals at 40 min (92{+-}1% and 82{+-}6% of arterial plasma radioactivity). Higher proportions of labeled TG were recovered in portal vein plasma, suggesting release by the gut. The portal and the arterial-portal vs. hepatic venous TG gradient tended to be positive. Accordingly, hepatic FA uptake was higher, but declined more rapidly during fasting than during hyperinsulinemia. Conclusion: The study indicates that the redistribution of [{sup 11}C]palmitate between different lipid pools occurs within the short time interval of most PET experiments and is strongly influenced by insulin. Labeled TG

  14. Optimization of 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production using lipozyme RM IM as catalyst in a solvent-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richetti, Aline; Leite, Selma G F; Antunes, Octávio A C; de Souza, Andrea L F; Lerin, Lindomar A; Dallago, Rogério M; Paroul, Natalia; Di Luccio, Marco; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Treichel, Helen; de Oliveira, Débora

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the application of a lipase in the 2-ethylhexyl palmitate esterification in a solvent-free system with an immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RM IM). A sequential strategy was used applying two experimental designs to optimize the 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production. An empirical model was then built so as to assess the effects of process variables on the reaction conversion. Afterwards, the operating conditions that optimized 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production were established as being acid/alcohol molar ratio 1:3, temperature of 70 degrees C, stirring rate of 150 rpm, 10 wt.% of enzyme, leading to a reaction conversion as high as 95%. From this point, a kinetic study was carried out evaluating the effect of acid:alcohol molar ratio, the enzyme concentration and the temperature on product conversion. The results obtained in this step permit to verify that an excess of alcohol (acid to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6), relatively low enzyme concentration (10 wt.%) and temperature of 70 degrees C, led to conversions next to 100%.

  15. Beta Palmitate Improves Bone Length and Quality during Catch-Up Growth in Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Bar-Maisels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets. We measured bone length, epiphyseal growth plate height (EGP, histology, bone quality (micro-CT and 3-point bending assay, and gene expression (Affymetrix. The BPA-containing diet improved most growth parameters: humeri length and EGP height were greater in the BPA-fed animals. Further analysis of the EGP revealed that the hypertrophic zone was significantly higher in the BPA group. In addition, Affymetrix analysis revealed that the diet affected the expression of several genes in the liver and EGP. Despite the very subtle difference between the diets and the short re-feeding period, we found a small but significant improvement in most growth parameters in the BPA-fed rats. This pre-clinical study may have important implications, especially for children with growth disorders and children with special nutritional needs.

  16. Reduced levels of SCD1 accentuate palmitate-induced stress in insulin-producing β-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovsepyan Meri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 is an ER resident enzyme introducing a double-bond in saturated fatty acids. Global knockout of SCD1 in mouse increases fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity which makes the animal resistant to diet-induced obesity. Inhibition of SCD1 has therefore been proposed as a potential therapy of the metabolic syndrome. Much of the work has focused on insulin target tissue and very little is known about how reduced levels of SCD1 would affect the insulin-producing β-cell, however. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate how reduced levels of SCD1 affect the β-cell. Results Insulin-secreting MIN6 cells with reduced levels of SCD1 were established by siRNA mediated knockdown. When fatty acid oxidation was measured, no difference between cells with reduced levels of SCD1 and mock-transfected cells were found. Also, reducing levels of SCD1 did not affect insulin secretion in response to glucose. To investigate how SCD1 knockdown affected cellular mechanisms, differentially regulated proteins were identified by a proteomic approach. Cells with reduced levels of SCD1 had higher levels of ER chaperones and components of the proteasome. The higher amounts did not protect the β-cell from palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Instead, rise in levels of p-eIF2α and CHOP after palmitate exposure was 2-fold higher in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Accordingly, apoptosis rose to higher levels after exposure to palmitate in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Conclusions In conclusion, reduced levels of SCD1 augment palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis in the β-cell, which is an important caveat when considering targeting this enzyme as a treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Curcumin attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells through PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 and mitochondrial survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng; Kang, Jinsen; Cao, Yajun; Fan, Shengjun; Yang, Haopeng; An, Yu; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Li, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    Lipotoxicity plays a vital role in development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Prolonged elevation of free fatty acids especially the palmitate leads to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol from the curry spice turmeric, is considered to be a broadly cytoprotective agent. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of curcumin on palmitate-induced apoptosis in β-cells and investigate underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that curcumin improved cell viability and enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretory function in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells. Palmitate incubation evoked chromatin condensation, DNA nick end labeling and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Curcumin treatment inhibited palmitate-induced apoptosis, relieved mitochondrial depolarization and up-regulated Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Palmitate induced the generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes, which could be neutralized by curcumin treatment. Moreover, curcumin could promote rapid phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 in MIN6 cells under lipotoxic condition. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt specific inhibitors abolished the anti-lipotoxic effect of curcumin and stimulated FoxO1 nuclear translocation. These findings suggested that curcumin protected MIN6 pancreatic β-Cells against apoptosis through activation of Akt, inhibition of nuclear translocation of FoxO1 and mitochondrial survival pathway.

  18. Differential effects of the ascorbyl and tocopheryl derivative on the methamphetamine-induced toxic behavior and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shinobu; Mori, Tomohisa; Kanazawa, Hideko; Sawaguchi, Toshiko

    2007-01-01

    A previous study showed that high doses of methamphetamine induce self-injurious behavior (SIB) in rodents. Furthermore, the combination of methamphetamine and morphine increased lethality in mice. We recently surmised that the rise in SIB and mortality induced by methamphetamine and/or morphine may be related to oxidative stress. The present study was designed to determine whether an antioxidant could inhibit SIB or mortality directly induced by methamphetamine and/or morphine. The SIB induced by 20 mg/kg of methamphetamine was abolished by the administration of Na L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS: 300 mg/kg), but not Na DL-α-tocopheryl phosphate (TPNa: 200 mg/kg). In contrast, APS (300 mg/kg) and TPNa (200 mg/kg) each significantly attenuated the lethality induced by methamphetamine and morphine. The present study showed that the signal intensity of superoxide adduct was increased by 20 mg/kg of methamphetamine in the heart and lungs, and methamphetamine plus morphine tended to increase superoxide adduct in all of the tissues measured by ESR spin trap methods. Adduct signal induced in brain by methamphetamine administration increased in significance, but in mouse administrated methamphetamine plus morphine. There are differential effects of administration of methamphetamine and coadministration of methamphetamine plus morphine on adduct signal. These results suggest that APS and TPNa are effective for reducing methamphetamine-induced toxicity and/or toxicological behavior. While APS and TPNa each affected methamphetamine- and/or morphine-induced toxicology and/or toxicological behavior, indicating that both drugs have antioxidative effects, their effects differed

  19. Palmitate-induced ER stress increases trastuzumab sensitivity in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Jan; Wong, Jason; Sun, Yan; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells have recently been shown to use a unique Warburg-like metabolism for survival and aggressive behavior. These cells exhibit increased fatty acid synthesis and storage compared to normal breast cells or other tumor cells. Disruption of this synthetic process results in apoptosis. Since the addition of physiological doses of exogenous palmitate induces cell death in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells, the pathway is likely operating at its limits in these cells. We have studied the response of HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells to physiological concentrations of exogenous palmitate to identify lipotoxicity-associated consequences of this physiology. Since epidemiological data show that a diet rich in saturated fatty acids is negatively associated with the development of HER2/neu-positive cancer, this cellular physiology may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of the disease. We sought to identify signaling pathways that are regulated by physiological concentrations of exogenous palmitate specifically in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells and gain insights into the molecular mechanism and its relevance to disease prevention and treatment. Transcriptional profiling was performed to assess programs that are regulated in HER2-normal MCF7 and HER2/neu-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells in response to exogenous palmitate. Computational analyses were used to define and predict functional relationships and identify networks that are differentially regulated in the two cell lines. These predictions were tested using reporter assays, fluorescence-based high content microscopy, flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Physiological effects were confirmed in HER2/neu-positive BT474 and HCC1569 breast cancer cell lines. Exogenous palmitate induces functionally distinct transcriptional programs in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells. In the lipogenic HER2/neu-positive SKBR3 cell line, palmitate induces a G2 phase cell cycle delay and

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and increased calcium absorption pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from IDACE, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta...... (middle or beta) position of the glycerol backbone. Beta-palmitate is considered to be sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “beta palmitate enrichment contributes to increase calcium absorption”. The target population proposed by the applicant is infants from birth to 12 months of age......, the Panel took into account the biological plausibility of the mechanism by which beta-palmitate could exert the claimed effect and that three small human intervention studies in preterm and term infants provided some evidence that a higher degree of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of formula...

  1. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K

    2013-01-01

    in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle maintenance......  The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture...... and correlated positively to JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, muscle satellite cells retain metabolic differences associated with physical activity. Physical activity partially protects myocytes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inactivity is associated with dysregulation of metabolism...

  2. A case of paliperidone-palmitate-induced tardive dyskinesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lally, John

    2012-06-13

    OBJECTIVES: This is one of the first cases reported in the literature of paliperidone-palmitate-induced prolonged dyskinesia. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with paranoid schizophrenia who developed orofacial dyskinesia some 4 months after the commencement of paliperidone long-acting injection. CONCLUSION: This case serves as a clinical reminder that dyskinesia can occur with all antipsychotic medications.

  3. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols prevent palmitate-induced renal epithelial mesenchymal transition by alleviating dipeptidyl peptidase-4-mediated insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lin, Chih-Li; Peng, Chiung-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy has a significant socioeconomic impact, but its mechanism is unclear and needs to be examined. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) inhibited high glucose-induced angiotensin II receptor-1 (AT-1), thus attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, we reported HPE inhibited dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4, the enzyme degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)), which mediated insulin resistance signals leading to EMT. Since free fatty acids can realistically bring about insulin resistance, using the palmitate-stimulated cell model in contrast with type 2 diabetic rats, in this study we examined if insulin resistance causes renal EMT, and the preventive effect of HPE. Our findings reveal that palmitate hindered 30% of glucose uptake. Treatment with 1 mg mL(-1) of HPE and the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin completely recovered insulin sensitivity and palmitate-induced signal cascades. HPE inhibited DPP-4 activity without altering the levels of DPP-4 and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). HPE decreased palmitate-induced phosphorylation of Ser307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1 (S307)), AT-1 and vimentin, while increasing phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pPI3K). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream AT-1 and EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, it suggests that HPE concomitantly decreased the protein levels of DPP-4, AT-1, vimentin, and fibronectin, but reversed the in vivo compensation of GLP-1R. In conclusion, HPE improves insulin sensitivity by attenuating DPP-4 and the downstream signals, thus decreasing AT-1-mediated tubular-interstitial EMT. HPE could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Stability evaluation of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate in isolation and incorporated in cosmetic formulations using thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mandelli de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increase in the number of cosmetic preparations containing antioxidant vitamins, chiefly, due to their action in preventing the process of skin aging, there is a need to develop pre-formulation studies and to validate analytical methods in order to obtain high quality products. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate and compare the thermal behavior of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate as raw materials, and incorporated into a base cream. Thermogravimetry (TG / DTG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used for this purpose. Both vitamins were found to be stable up to 250ºC. The base cream (placebo and the sample (base cream containing the vitamins presented different weight loss. Thermal analysis has shown itself to be an excellent tool for the characterization of these vitamins and can be used in routine analysis for quality control of this type of cosmetic formulation.Considerando o potencial antioxidante das vitaminas utilizadas em produtos cosméticos, seu uso na prevenção do processo de envelhecimento da pele e a necessidade de estudos de pré-formulação que garantam o desenvolvimento de cosméticos de qualidade, foi objetivo deste trabalho avaliar e comparar o comportamento térmico dos ativos acetato de tocoferila e tetraisopalmitato de ascorbila, matérias-primas, isoladamente e incorporados em creme base. As técnicas termogravimetria/termogravimetria derivada (TG/DTG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC foram utilizadas para tal finalidade. Verificou-se que as vitaminas mantiveram-se estáveis até a temperatura de, aproximadamente, 250 ºC, observando-se diferença na perda de massa entre o creme base e o creme base associado às vitaminas. Assim sendo, a análise térmica mostrou-se como excelente ferramenta para caracterização das vitaminas e do creme base, podendo ser empregada em análises de rotina no controle de qualidade deste tipo de formulação cosmética.

  5. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[ 14 C]palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO 2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

  6. Metabolic fate of radiolabeled palmitate in ischemic canine myocardium: implications for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosamond, T.L.; Abendschein, D.R.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.; Fox, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Interpretation of dynamic and integrated myocardial tomograms requires elucidation of the biochemical fate of the tracer and characterization of its tissue distribution and rate of efflux. The fate of [1- 11 C] and [1- 14 C]palmitate was studied in 13 open-chest dogs during control or ischemic extracorporeal perfusion of the left circumflex coronary artery. Residue detection of myocardial radioactivity, and radio-biochemical analyses of sequential transmural biopsies and arterial and coronary venous effluent were performed for 30 min after intracoronary bolus administration of tracer. In control hearts, 10.3% of initially extracted tracer was retained in tissue (2.9% in triglyceride, 3.5% in phospholipid, and 3.9% in other lipid and aqueous fractions), 73.7% was oxidized, and 16.1% back-diffused unaltered. With ischemia (pump flow 10% of normal), 28.1% was retained (18% in triglyceride, 6.0% in phospholipid, and 4.1% in other lipid and aqueous fractions), 27.2% was oxidized, and 44.4% back diffused (p less than 0.05 compared to control). Throughout the 30-min study interval, triglyceride, diglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid comprised a significantly greater fraction of initially extracted radioactivity in ischemic than in control hearts. Thus, during ischemia externally detected clearance rates cannot be used as a direct measure of fatty acid metabolism because of marked influences on efflux of nonmetabolized radiolabeled palmitate and the distribution of tracer retained in tissue. Quantitative measurements of specific metabolic processes by tomography will require development and validation of tracers confined to individual metabolic pathways or pools

  7. Localization of viable, ischemic myocardium by positron-emission tomography with 11C-palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.A.; Ambos, H.D.; Bergmann, S.R.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Sobel, B.E.

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to determine whether viable, but ischemic, tissue could be detected and localized in vivo based on external detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism. Accordingly, regional clearance of 11 C-palmitate was assessed by sequential PET in 15 anesthetized dogs. Clearance was consistently monoexponential from 5-15 minutes after administration of the tracer. In the absence of coronary stenosis (n = 7), clearance was homogeneous throughout the heart, with an average rate constant (k) of -0.060 +/- 0.005 min -1 (+/- SEM) and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 11.1 +/- 2.1% in each heart. Homogeneity persisted when the heart rate was increased from 84.4 +/- 6.0 to 202.7 +/- 11.5 beats/min with atropine (CV 13.2 +/- 3.5%). With left circumflex coronary stenosis (less than or equal to70% reduction in vessel diameter), homogeneity of 11 C-clearance under control conditions and with tachycardia did not differ from clearance in hearts without coronary stenosis. However, with stenosis >70% sufficient to induce ischemia without gross infarction, regional clearance of 11 C became markedly heterogeneous under control conditions (CV 28.1 +/- 5.5%, p 11 C in regions supplied by the stenotic vessel (k = -0.044 +/- 0.011 min -1 ) compared with clearance in well perfused regions (k = -0.064 +/- 0.011 min -1 , p 11 C-palmitate delineates zones of viable, ischemic myocardium that characteristically exhibit impaired oxidation of extracted fatty acid

  8. Serotonin- and Dopamine-Related Gene Expression in db/db Mice Islets and in MIN6 β-Cells Treated with Palmitate and Oleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cataldo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs concentration, often reported in diabetes, leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS through not yet well-defined mechanisms. Serotonin and dopamine might contribute to NEFA-dependent β-cell dysfunction, since extracellular signal of these monoamines decreases GSIS. Moreover, palmitate-treated β-cells may enhance the expression of the serotonin receptor Htr2c, affecting insulin secretion. Additionally, the expression of monoamine-oxidase type B (Maob seems to be lower in islets from humans and mice with diabetes compared to nondiabetic islets, which may lead to increased monoamine concentrations. We assessed the expression of serotonin- and dopamine-related genes in islets from db/db and wild-type (WT mice. In addition, the effect of palmitate and oleate on the expression of such genes, 5HT content, and GSIS in MIN6 β-cell was determined. Lower Maob expression was found in islets from db/db versus WT mice and in MIN6 β-cells in response to palmitate and oleate treatment compared to vehicle. Reduced 5HT content and impaired GSIS in response to palmitate (−25%; p<0.0001 and oleate (−43%; p<0.0001 were detected in MIN6 β-cells. In conclusion, known defects of GSIS in islets from db/db mice and MIN6 β-cells treated with NEFAs are accompanied by reduced Maob expression and reduced 5HT content.

  9. Varying effects of calcium on the oxidation of palmitate and alpha-ketoglutarate in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated in KCl-based and sucrose-based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrebaek, B; Dolva, K; Singh, B

    1984-01-01

    Isolated mitochondria from rat liver were incubated in the presence of [U-14C]palmitate, ATP, CoA, carnitine, EGTA (ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid) and varying amounts of calcium. When a KC1-based incubation medium was used, the oxidation of palmitate was inhibited when the concentration of free calcium was increased from about 0.1-10 microM. When a sucrose-based incubation medium was used, the basal rate of palmitate oxidation was about half of that observed with the KC1-medium and calcium had a stimulatory effect. With the KC1-medium the rate of oxygen consumption was inhibited by calcium with alpha-ketoglutarate as well as palmitate as the respiratory substrate. No inhibitory effect of calcium was observed with succinate or beta-hydroxybutyrate. With the KC1-medium and with alpha-ketoglutarate as the respiratory substrate, state 3 respiration but not state 4 respiration was inhibited by calcium. When the sucrose-medium was used, state 3 respiration was first inhibited by calcium, but this inhibition was gradually relieved and the respiratory rate finally became higher than it was before calcium addition.

  10. Sensitization of vascular smooth muscle cell to TNF-α-mediated death in the presence of palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Mun-Chual; Ah Lee, Kyeong; Mi Kim, Sun; Sik Lee, Chang; Jeong Jang, Min; Kook Kim, Young; Sun Lee, Hyun; Hyun Choi, Yung; Yong Rhim, Byung; Kim, Koanhoi

    2007-01-01

    Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitate, can activate the intrinsic death pathway in cells. However, the relationship between FFAs and receptor-mediated death pathway is still unknown. In this study, we have investigated whether FFAs are able to trigger receptor-mediated death. In addition, to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the activation, we examined the biochemical changes in dying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and the effects of various molecules to the receptor-mediated VSMC death. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-mediated VSMC death occurred in the presence of sub-cytotoxic concentration of palmitate as determined by assessing viability and DNA degradation, while the cytokine did not influence VSMC viability in the presence of oleate. The VSMC death was inhibited by the gene transfer of a dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain-containing protein and the baculovirus p35, but not by the bcl-xL or the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1, in tests utilizing recombinant adenoviruses. The VSMC death was also inhibited by a neutralizing anti-TNF receptor 1 antibody, the caspase inhibitor z-VAD, and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA074, a finding indicative of the role of both caspases and cathepsin B in this process. Consistent with this finding, caspase-3 activation and an increase in cytosolic cathepsin B activity were detected in the dying VSMC. Palmitate inhibited an increase of TNF-α-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, the survival pathway activated by the cytokine, by hindering the translocation of the NF-κB subunit of p65 from the cytosol into the nucleus. The gene transfer of inhibitor of NF-κB predisposed VSMC to palmitate-induced cell death. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate the activation of TNF-α-mediated cell death in the presence of palmitate. The current study proposes that FFAs would take part in deleterious vascular

  11. Topical Vitamin C and the Skin: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Niaimi, Firas; Chiang, Nicole Yi Zhen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review article details the main mechanisms of action and clinical applications of topical vitamin C on the skin, including its antioxidative, photoprotective, antiaging, and antipigmentary effects. DESIGN: A PubMed search for the relevant articles on vitamin C and the skin was conducted using the following key words: “vitamin C,” “ascorbic acid,” “ascorbyl-6-palmitate,”and “magnesium ascorbyl phosphate.” RESULTS: As one of the most powerful antioxidants in the skin, vitamin C ...

  12. The effect of chronic exposure to fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, J.; Gregersen, S.; Kruhøffer, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Fatty acids affect insulin secretion of pancreatic beta-cells. Investigating gene expression profiles may help to characterize the underlying mechanism. INS-1 cells were cultured with palmitate (0, 50, and 200 microM) for up to 44 d. Insulin secretion and expressions of 8740 genes were studied. We...... 44, respectively. Genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were up-regulated, whereas those involved in glycolysis were down-regulated with 200 microM palmitate. A suppression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substate-2 gene expression was found on d 44 in cells cultured at 200 microM palmitate....... In conclusion, chronic exposure to low palmitate alters insulin secretion as well as gene expression. The number of genes that changed expression was palmitate dose and exposure time dependent. Randle's fatty acid-glucose cycle seems to be operative on the gene transcription level. A modification of expression...

  13. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in response to palmitate and TNF alpha in human placenta cells and is induced in obese placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity has been hypothesized to induce a pro-inflammatory response in the placenta. However, the specific factors contributing to this pro-infalmmatory response are yet to be determined. Our objective was to examine the effects of palmitic acid (PA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alph...

  14. 3-MCPD 1-Palmitate Induced Tubular Cell Apoptosis In Vivo via JNK/p53 Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Huang, Guoren; Wang, Thomas T.Y.; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli (Lucy)

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) are a group of processing induced food contaminants with nephrotoxicity but the molecular mechanism(s) remains unclear. This study investigated whether and how the JNK/p53 pathway may play a role in the nephrotoxic effect of 3-MCPD esters using 3-MCPD 1-palmitate (MPE) as a probe compound in Sprague Dawley rats. Microarray analysis of the kidney from the Sprague Dawley rats treated with MPE, using Gene Ontology categories and KEGG pathways, revealed that MPE altered mRNA expressions of the genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK and ERK), p53, and apoptotic signal transduction pathways. The changes in the mRNA expressions were confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses and were consistent with the induction of tubular cell apoptosis as determined by histopathological, TUNEL, and immunohistochemistry analyses in the kidneys of the Sprague Dawley rats. Additionally, p53 knockout attenuated the apoptosis, and the apoptosis-related protein bax expression and cleaved caspase-3 activation induced by MPE in the p53 knockout C57BL/6 mice, whereas JNK inhibitor SP600125 but not ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited MPE-induced apoptosis, supporting the conclusion that JNK/p53 might play a critical role in the tubular cell apoptosis induced by MPE and other 3-MCPD fatty acid esters. PMID:27008853

  15. Mechanism of long chain monoenoic fatty acids acting on the energy metabolism of heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddecke, E; Filipovic, I; Wortberg, B; Seher, A

    1975-01-01

    The oxidation of 1-/sup 14/C-erucic (Csub(22:1)) and 1-/sup 14/C-nervonic (Csub(24:1)) acid was studied compared to 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic and -oleic acid in isolated rat and pig heart mitochondria. After mitochondrial incubation with the albumin-bound fatty acids only small amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ developed from the oxidation of the long chain monoenoic acids as compared to palmitic or oleic acid. The slow down of the oxidation rate was more pronounced in rat than in pig heart mitochondria. The oxidation of palmitic or oleic acid was not found to be inhibited by the C/sub 20/-C/sub 24/-monoeneic acids, whereas palmitic or oleic acid inhibited the oxidation of erucic acid competitively. From present findings an idea may be developed of the interference on fatty acid metabolism in heart muscle by erucic and other long chain monenoic acids.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2011-01-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-α and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-κB, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research highlights: →Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. →It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. →The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

  17. Physical-chemical model for cellular uptake of fatty acids: prediction of intracellular pool sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.; Noy, N.; Zakim, D.

    1987-01-01

    If the uptake of fatty acids by liver is a physical, not a biological, process, then the size and location of the intrahepatic pool of fatty acids can be predicted from uptake rates and thermodynamic data. The purpose of the experiments in this paper was to test the accuracy of this idea. Rat livers were perfused with [ 3 H] palmitate bound to [ 14 C] albumin, and the total amounts of palmitate removed from the perfusate were measured at 3-s intervals. The intrahepatic pools of palmitate calculated from these data were 13.8 and 23.0 nmol/g of liver at ratios of palmitate/albumin (mol/mol) (afferent side) of 2/1 and 4/1, respectively, in the steady state. The intrahepatic pools of palmitate calculated from the distributions of palmitate between membranes, H 2 O, albumin, and fatty acid binding protein and the measured first-order rate constants for acyl-CoA ligases in mitochondria and microsomes were 12.1 and 34.6 nmol/g for perfusate ratios of palmitate/albumin of 2/1 and 4/1, in the steady state. Intrahepatic pools of palmitate measured after establishment of a steady-state rate of uptake were 15.0 and 31.8 nmol/g for these ratios of palmitate/albumin of 2/1 and 4/1

  18. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  19. Manic Symptoms during a Switch from Paliperidone ER to Paliperidone Palmitate in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Demirci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some antipsychotic drugs have treatment efficacy for mania and bipolar disorder. However, these drugs may rarely cause manic symptoms in some schizophrenic patients. We hereby report a 22-year-old female patient with schizophrenia who experienced a manic episode during a switch from paliperidone ER to paliperidone palmitate. This case is an important reminder that an abrupt switch from oral paliperidone to paliperidone palmitate may predispose certain patients to hypomanic or manic symptoms.

  20. Incorporation of radioactive labelled cholin and palmitate into lung lecithin of rabbits treated with high doses of bromcarbamides, barbiturates and diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichert, P. von; Schmidt, C.; Pomraenke, K.; Wiegers, U.

    1977-01-01

    Severe intoxications with bromcarbamides often show respiratory complications. To answer the question if there is a direct effect of the drug on lung tissue the incorporation of radioactive labelled choline and palmitate into lung lecithin was investigated. The phospholipid metabolism is in close relation to the surfactant system of the lung. Secondly the influence of bromcarbamides was compared with other hypnotic drugs. There was a reduction of palmitate incorporation into lung lecithin down to 40%, whereas the incorporation of choline increases in bromcarbamide intoxication. The relation between palmitate and choline incorporation was 6.77 in the controls and it decreases to 2-3 in the bromcarbamide group. The total phospholipid content in the lung/g wet weight remained unchanged in all experiments. From this data it is concluded, that these drugs cause a reduction of fatty acid exchange of the lecithin molecules of the lung. This might lead to the production of non surface active lecithin. The clinical and the morphological aspects of severe bromcarbamide intoxication are consistent with a perturbation of the surfactant function. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Effects of substrate availability on myocardial C-11 palmitate kinetics by positron emission tomography in normal subjects and patients with ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Henze, E.; Sochor, H.; Grossman, R.G.; Huang, S.C.; Barrio, J.R.; Schwaiger, M.; Phelps, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of demonstrating noninvasively with C-11 palmitate and positron emission tomography (PET) changes in myocardial substrate metabolism in normal and diseased human myocardium in response to altered substrate availability in blood and disease-related abnormalities was examined in five normal volunteers and 16 patients with ventricular dysfunction. C-11 palmitate injection and serial PET imaging were performed after an overnight fast (control period) and again 2 hours later after oral glucose (50 gm). Myocardial C-11 time-activity curves from serial PET images revealed a biexponential clearance pattern. An early rapid phase, defined by relative size and clearance half-time, reflects C-11 palmitate oxidation and the late slow phase tracer deposition in the endogenous lipid pool. During the control period, the tracer fraction entering the early rapid phase averaged 47 +/- 13% (SD) in normal subjects and 45 +/- 12% in patients. Corresponding clearance half-times were 19 +/- 7 and 20 +/- 5 minutes, respectively. Heart rate and blood pressure remained unchanged after glucose, but plasma glucose levels rose by 72.5% in normal subjects and by 98.9% in patients, while free fatty acid levels fell by 72% and 42% respectively. In normal subjects, the tracer fraction in the early rapid phase fell by 43% (p less than 0.005) and the clearance half-time increased by 46%. In patients, the response of C-11 palmitate tissue kinetics to glucose was variable. In nine patients, it was similar to normal subjects while in the other seven patients, the tracer fraction entering the rapid clearance phase increased after glucose by 30% (p less than 0.05) associated with a 36% (p less than 0.05) decline in clearance half-times. This was unrelated to disease etiology or plasma substrate levels but occurred mostly in left ventricles with more severely depressed function

  2. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  3. Uncoupling effect of palmitate is exacerbated in skeletal muscle mitochondria of sea-acclimatized king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins. Mitochondria exhibited much greater palmitate-induced uncoupling respiration and higher maximal oxidative capacity after acclimatization to marine life. Such effects were not reproduced experimentally after repeated immersions in cold water, suggesting that the plasticity of mitochondrial characteristics may not be primarily driven by cold exposure per se but by other aspects of sea acclimatization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Palmitate induces VSMC apoptosis via toll like receptor (TLR)4/ROS/p53 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanjun; Xia, Guanghao; Zhang, Yaqiong; Liu, Juxiang; Liu, Xiaowei; Li, Weihua; Lv, Yaya; Wei, Suhong; Liu, Jing; Quan, Jinxing

    2017-08-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been implicated in vascular inflammation, as well as in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and diabetes. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis has been shown to induce plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis. Previous studies reported that palmitate induced apoptosis in VSMCs; however, the role of TLR4 in palmitate-induced apoptosis in VSMCs has not yet been defined. In this study, we investigated whether or not palmitate-induced apoptosis depended on the activation of the TLR4 pathway. VSMCs were treated with or without palmitate, CRISPR/Cas9z-mediated genome editing methods were used to deplete TLR4 expression, while NADPH oxidase inhibitors were used to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, ROS was measured using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) method, the mRNA and protein expression levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, BCL-2 and p53 were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and ELISA. Palmitate significantly promotes VSMC apoptosis, ROS generation, and expression of caspase 3, caspase 9 and p53; while NADPH oxidase inhibitor pretreatment markedly attenuated these effects. Moreover, knockdown of TLR4 significantly blocked palmitate-induced ROS generation and VSMC apoptosis accompanied by inhibition of caspase 3, caspase 9, p53 expression and restoration of BCL-2 expression. Our results suggest that palmitate-induced apoptosis depends on the activation of the TLR4/ROS/p53 signaling pathway, and that TLR4 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Methylated Fatty Acids from Heartwood and Bark of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua: Effect of Strong Acid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylated fatty acid (FA compounds in the heartwood and bark of some softwood species, specifically Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua, grown in the Czech Republic were evaluated. Strong H2SO4 was used for methylation of the lipids. The highest content of lipid was found in P. abies bark (40.132 mg/g o.d. sample, and the lowest content was in A. alba wood (11.027 mg/g o.d. sample. The highest concentration of FAs was observed in L. decidua bark. The highest percentages of FAs in wood of P. sylvestris were arachidic acid and oleic acid. In bark, the highest percentages of FAs were stearic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. The FAs with the highest concentrations in A. alba wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and margarinic, and those in bark were behenic acid, lignoceric acid, and arachidic acid. P. abies wood FAs showed arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and margarinic acid, and the bark contained lignoceric acid and arachidic acid. The FAs of L. decidua wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid, and in bark they were pentacosylic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, lignoceric acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid. The lack of typically dominant unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 18:1, 18:2, compared to literature values were attributed to the application of strong acid for the hydrolysis.

  6. Choice of infusion-sampling mode for tracer studies of free fatty acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Rogers, P.J.; Ellman, M.G.; Miles, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    To determine the preferred infusion-sampling mode for isotopic studies of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, tracer [( 14 C]palmitate) was infused into the left ventricle of five anesthetized dogs, and tracee ([ 3 H]palmitate) was infused into three separate peripheral veins of each dog. The [ 14 C]palmitate specific activity (SA) was lower in mixed venous than arterial blood, and [ 3 H]palmitate SA was equal in both sites. The actual infusion rate of [ 3 H]palmitate [2.15 +/- 0.31 X 10(5) disintegrations/min (dpm).kg-1.min-1] could be accurately predicted (2.14 +/- 0.32 X 10(5) dpm.kg-1.min-1) using the known [ 14 C]palmitate infusion rate and the arterial plasma [ 14 C]-to-[ 3 H]palmitate ratio. In contrast, the mixed venous [ 14 C]-to-[ 3 H]palmitate ratio resulted in overestimates (P less than 0.05) of the actual [ 3 H]palmitate infusion rate. In summary, venous tracer infusion with arterial blood sampling for FFA tracer studies provides the most accurate estimates of tracee rate of appearance

  7. Androgenic effect of honeybee drone milk in castrated rats: roles of methyl palmitate and methyl oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seres, A B; Ducza, E; Báthori, M; Hunyadi, A; Béni, Z; Dékány, M; Hajagos-Tóth, J; Verli, J; Gáspár, Róbert

    2014-04-28

    Numerous honeybee (Apis mellifera) products have been used in traditional medicine to treat infertility and to increase vitality in both men and women. Drone milk (DM) is a relatively little-known honeybee product with a putative sexual hormone effect. The oestrogenic effect of a fraction of DM has recently been reported in rats. However, no information is available on the androgenic effects of DM. The purpose of the present study was to determine the androgen-like effect of DM in male rats and to identify effective compounds. A modified Hershberger assay was used to investigate the androgenic effect of crude DM, and the plasma level of testosterone was measured. The prostatic mRNA and protein expression of Spot14-like androgen-inducible protein (SLAP) were also examined with real-time PCR and Western blot techniques. GC-MS and NMR spectroscopic investigations were performed to identify the active components gained by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The crude DM increased the relative weights of the androgen-dependent organs and the plasma testosterone level in castrated rats and these actions were flutamide-sensitive. DM increased the tissue mRNA and protein level of SLAP, providing further evidence of its androgen-like character. After bioactivity-guided fractionation, two fatty acid esters, methyl palmitate (MP) and methyl oleate (MO), were identified as active compounds. MP alone showed an androgenic effect, whereas MO increased the weight of androgen-sensitive tissues and the plasma testosterone level only in combination. The experimental data of DM and its active compounds (MO and MP) show androgenic activity confirming the traditional usage of DM. DM or MP or/and MO treatments may project a natural mode for the therapy of male infertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alpha-synuclein gene deletion decreases brain palmitate uptake and alters the palmitate metabolism in the absence of alpha-synuclein palmitate binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Mikhail Y; Færgeman, Nils J.; Cole, Nelson B

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein is an abundant protein in the central nervous system that is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Its physiological function is poorly understood, although recently it was proposed to function as a fatty acid binding protein. To b......, alpha-synuclein has effects on 16:0 uptake and metabolism similar to those of an FABP, but unlike FABP, it does not directly bind 16:0; hence, the mechanism underlying these effects is different from that of a classical FABP....

  9. Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Factors involved in regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined using liver slices. Fatty acid oxidation was measured as the conversion of l-[ 14 C] palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C] acid-soluble metabolites. Extended (5 to 7 d) fasting of Holstein cows had relatively little effect on palmitate oxidation to acid-soluble metabolites by liver slices, although oxidation to CO 2 was decreased. Feeding a restricted roughage, high concentrate ration to lactating cows resulted in inhibition of palmitate oxidation. Insulin, glucose, and acetate inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. The authors suggest the regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation may be less dependent on hormonally induced alterations in enzyme activity as observed in rat liver and more dependent upon action of rumen fermentation products or their metabolites on enzyme systems involved in fatty acid oxidation

  10. Combined lipidomic and proteomic analysis of isolated human islets exposed to palmitate reveals time-dependent changes in insulin secretion and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Roomp

    Full Text Available Studies on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have linked the accumulation of lipid metabolites to the development of beta-cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. In most in vitro models of T2DM, rodent islets or beta-cell lines are used and typically focus is on specific cellular pathways or organs. Our aim was to, firstly, develop a combined lipidomics and proteomics approach for lipotoxicity in isolated human islets and, secondly, investigate if the approach could delineate novel and/ or confirm reported mechanisms of lipotoxicity. To this end isolated human pancreatic islets, exposed to chronically elevated palmitate concentrations for 0, 2 and 7 days, were functionally characterized and their levels of multiple targeted lipid and untargeted protein species determined. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the islets increased on day 2 and decreased on day 7. At day 7 islet insulin content decreased and the proinsulin to insulin content ratio doubled. Amounts of cholesterol, stearic acid, C16 dihydroceramide and C24:1 sphingomyelin, obtained from the lipidomic screen, increased time-dependently in the palmitate-exposed islets. The proteomic screen identified matching changes in proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis indicating up-regulated cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis in the islets. Furthermore, proteins associated with immature secretory granules were decreased when palmitate exposure time was increased despite their high affinity for cholesterol. Proteins associated with mature secretory granules remained unchanged. Pathway analysis based on the protein and lipid expression profiles implicated autocrine effects of insulin in lipotoxicity. Taken together the study demonstrates that combining different omics approaches has potential in mapping of multiple simultaneous cellular events. However, it also shows that challenges exist for effectively combining lipidomics and proteomics in primary cells. Our

  11. Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate Inclusion into Υ-Cyclodextrin and Mesoporous SBA-15: Preparation, Characterization and In Vitro Release Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bastianini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is a strong antioxidant widely used in cosmetic and food fields. This vitamin is very unstable and rapidly undergoes degradation. In order to solve this problem and to obtain a stable ascorbic acid, Nikkol Group has developed ascorbyltetraisopalmitate (VC-IP. This raw material is an oil phase, already well-known and employed in the cosmetic market. The objective of this study is to obtain VC-IP in micro-powder form, in order to produce a new raw material that is easily dispersible in oil and water phases and useful for make-up and color cosmetic applications. Various types of drug carriers were studied and considered in order to support VC-IP and obtain the conversion in powder. Υ-cyclodextrin and mesoporous silica SBA-15 were chosen as the best candidates. A white powder of supported VC-IP was obtained with each carrier (VC-IP@cyclodextrin, VC-IP@SBA-15. The systems underwent physicochemical characterization and in vitro release tests were carried out. Based on the conducted study, it can be concluded that by supporting VC-IP on Υ-cyclodextrin and SBA-15, it is feasible to obtain a new raw material in powder form. The two carriers possess different release profiles, adding the possibility to finely tune the release of the active component in smart formulations.

  12. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette

    2001-01-01

    , plasma fatty acids, and preheparin lipoprotein lipase and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activities. Design: Six test fats high (approximate to 43% by wt) in stearic acid, palmitic acid, palmitic + myristic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid (trans 18:1), and linoleic acid were produced...... to the test-fat meals were observed for plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid concentrations, and lipoprotein lipase and CETP activities (diet x time interaction: 0.001 acids stearic and palmitic acids resulted......Background: There is increasing evidence that postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins may be related to atherogenic risk. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of individual fatty acid intakes on postprandial plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations...

  13. Palmitate and stearate binding to human serum albumin. Determination of relative binding constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Fisker, K; Honoré, B

    1997-01-01

    Multiple binding equilibria of two apparently insoluble ligands, palmitate and stearate, to defatted human serum albumin were studied in a 66 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C, by determination of dialytic exchange rates of ligands among identical equilibrium solutions. The expe...

  14. The effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on ocular surface recovery after LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on ocular surface reconstruction after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK, and to evaluate the efficacy and safety. METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients(240 eyesperforming LASIK were enrolled in this study. The right and left eyes were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group were treated with vitamin A palmitate eye gel for 1 month, four times a day after LASIK, and the same as control group in other treatments. The SchirmerⅠ test, break-up time(BUTand corneal sensation were detect at preoperation and the postoperative 1st day, 1st month, 3rd month in two groups. RESULTS: There were significant difference in BUT and tear secretion quantity between the experimental group and the control group at the postoperative 1st month and 3rd month(P0.05, which revealed that vitamin A palmitate eye gel had no obvious effect on recovery of corneal sensation after LASIK. During the treatment, there was no adverse drug event occurred. CONCLUSION: Early use of vitamin A palmitate eye gel postoperatively is applicable for ocular surface reconstruction, but has no obvious effect on the regeneration of corneal sensation.

  15. Regional cerebral palmitate incorporation following transient bilateral carotid occlusion in awake gerbils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, O.; Miller, J.C.; Bell, J.M.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1987-11-01

    (/sup 14/C)Palmitate was injected intravenously in awake gerbils at various times after 5 minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion or a sham operation. Regional rates of incorporation of plasma palmitate into the hippocampus and other regions of the anterior circulation were determined relative to the mean rate of incorporation into regions of the posterior circulation using quantitative autoradiography and a ratio method of analysis. One day after bilateral carotid occlusion, relative palmitate incorporation was elevated significantly by 16% in the CA4 pyramidal cell layer and by 20% in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus compared with sham-operated gerbils. At 3 days, significant elevations of this magnitude were found in the CA3 and CA4 cell layers, whereas relative incorporation was reduced by 26% in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. At 7 days, the only significant difference from control was a 15% elevated incorporation in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer. Histologic examination indicated substantial cell death in the CA1 pyramidal layer at 3 days, with extensive glial reaction and phagocytic invasion at 7 days. Our results suggest that the turnover of palmitate-containing lipids is reduced in the CA1 layer of the gerbil hippocampus but that lipid synthesis is stimulated in hippocampal regions (CA3, CA4, dentate gyrus) affected by but recovering from transient bilateral carotid occlusion.

  16. Regional cerebral palmitate incorporation following transient bilateral carotid occlusion in awake gerbils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, O.; Miller, J.C.; Bell, J.M.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    [ 14 C]Palmitate was injected intravenously in awake gerbils at various times after 5 minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion or a sham operation. Regional rates of incorporation of plasma palmitate into the hippocampus and other regions of the anterior circulation were determined relative to the mean rate of incorporation into regions of the posterior circulation using quantitative autoradiography and a ratio method of analysis. One day after bilateral carotid occlusion, relative palmitate incorporation was elevated significantly by 16% in the CA4 pyramidal cell layer and by 20% in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus compared with sham-operated gerbils. At 3 days, significant elevations of this magnitude were found in the CA3 and CA4 cell layers, whereas relative incorporation was reduced by 26% in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. At 7 days, the only significant difference from control was a 15% elevated incorporation in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer. Histologic examination indicated substantial cell death in the CA1 pyramidal layer at 3 days, with extensive glial reaction and phagocytic invasion at 7 days. Our results suggest that the turnover of palmitate-containing lipids is reduced in the CA1 layer of the gerbil hippocampus but that lipid synthesis is stimulated in hippocampal regions (CA3, CA4, dentate gyrus) affected by but recovering from transient bilateral carotid occlusion

  17. Improved hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films through incorporation of amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymer film blends of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes (Na-Palm) were produced with no plasticizer, and were observed to have improved physical and gas barrier properties as compared with pure HPMC. The crystalline amylose helices incorporating t...

  18. Paliperidone Palmitate for Schizoaffective Disorder: A Review of the Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, William M; Citrome, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Despite being frequently diagnosed, there has been very limited study of efficacious treatments for schizoaffective disorder. Paliperidone had been approved for the treatment of schizoaffective disorder, and a recently completed relapse prevention study of the use of a once-monthly injectable paliperidone formulation has also led to an indication for that preparation to treat schizoaffective disorder. To review the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone for schizoaffective disorder, we conducted a systematic literature search of studies of paliperidone in the treatment of schizoaffective disorder, and briefly reviewed evidence regarding the somewhat controversial nature of that diagnostic entity. We located several studies of the use of paliperidone extended release in the treatment of schizoaffective disorder, but only one completed study of the use of paliperidone palmitate, which demonstrated efficacy in preventing relapse. Three other studies are currently recruiting participants. Efficacy and tolerability were similar to the profile of oral paliperidone in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. These results were similar for both individuals treated with paliperidone palmitate alone, and for those treated with paliperidone palmitate with adjunctive mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants. The use of paliperidone palmitate does not require initial co-administration of oral paliperidone, has relatively little risk of drug-drug interactions, and its pharmacokinetics are favorable for once-monthly administration, an important treatment option for individuals with psychotic disorders, who may often be non-adherent to effective medication regimens. Paliperidone palmitate is an approved treatment for schizoaffective disorder, and can be efficacious with or without commonly employed adjunctive treatments.

  19. Effect of exogenous fatty acids on biotin deprived death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shoji; Kuraishi, Hiroshi; Aida, Ko

    1978-01-01

    The effect of exogeneous fatty acids on cell growth and death of the biotin-requiring yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BA-1 was examined with respect to the mechanism of synthetic pathway of fatty acid under biotin starvation. At a growth temperature of 30 0 C, exogeneous unsaturated fatty acids, such as palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids which promote the cell growth and suppress death effectively, were incorporated intactly into the cellular fatty acids, whereas the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, which supports growth but some what inhibits death, was once incorporated, and about 60% of incorporated palmitic acid was found to be desaturated. However, at an elevated temperature of 36 0 C, even palmitic acid showed similar effects to unsaturated fatty acids in cell growth and death; following by an increased desaturation of palmitic acid. Thus the data indicate that palmitic aicd, as well as unsaturated fatty acids directly compensate for the deficiency of endogenously synthesized fatty acids caused by biotin starvation. (auth.)

  20. Activity of the main fatty acid components of the hexane leaf extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of hexane leaf extract of Ricinus communis was determined by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to contain four fatty acids: linolenic acid (47.76%), linoleic acid (15.28%), palmitic acid (13.01%), and stearic acid (1.73%). The insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the two major ...

  1. Mapping the low palmitate fap1 mutation and validation of its effects in soybean oil and agronomic traits in three soybean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Andrea J; Whetten, Rebecca; Wang, Sanbao; Auclair, Jérôme; Hyten, David; Cregan, Perry; Bachlava, Eleni; Gillman, Jason; Ramirez, Martha; Dewey, Ralph; Upchurch, Greg; Miranda, Lilian; Burton, Joseph W

    2014-01-01

    fap 1 mutation is caused by a G174A change in GmKASIIIA that disrupts a donor splice site recognition and creates a GATCTG motif that enhanced its expression. Soybean oil with reduced palmitic acid content is desirable to reduce the health risks associated with consumption of this fatty acid. The objectives of this study were: to identify the genomic location of the reduced palmitate fap1 mutation, determine its molecular basis, estimate the amount of phenotypic variation in fatty acid composition explained by this locus, determine if there are epistatic interactions between the fap1 and fap nc loci and, determine if the fap1 mutation has pleiotropic effects on seed yield, oil and protein content in three soybean populations. This study detected two major QTL for 16:0 content located in chromosome 5 (GmFATB1a, fap nc) and chromosome 9 near BARCSOYSSR_09_1707 that explained, with their interaction, 66-94 % of the variation in 16:0 content in the three populations. Sequencing results of a putative candidate gene, GmKASIIIA, revealed a single unique polymorphism in the germplasm line C1726, which was predicted to disrupt the donor splice site recognition between exon one and intron one and produce a truncated KASIIIA protein. This G to A change also created the GATCTG motif that enhanced gene expression of the mutated GmKASIIIA gene. Lines homozygous for the GmKASIIIA mutation (fap1) had a significant reduction in 16:0, 18:0, and oil content; and an increase in unsaturated fatty acids content. There were significant epistatic interactions between GmKASIIIA (fap1) and fap nc for 16:0 and oil contents, and seed yield in two populations. In conclusion, the fap1 phenotype is caused by a single unique SNP in the GmKASIIIA gene.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of fatty acids of buddleja asiatica by GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.; Ali, I.; Bibi, H.; Malik, A.

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the fatty acid contents of Buddleja asiatica Lour,both the non-volatile oil and fat obtained from the n-hexane soluble sub- fraction were subjected to GC/MS using BSTFA (N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifloroacetamide) derivatization. The oil showed the presence of six fatty acids including palmitic acid (46.75 %), linoleic acid (37.80 %), stearic acid (10.98 %), arachidic acid, margaric acid and lignoceric acid (< 3 %) . Analysis of the fat revealed nine fatty acids including lignoceric acid (43.12 %), behenic acid (26.39 %), arachidic acid (9.29 %) and stearic acid (5.3 %). Cerotic acid, montanic acid, melissic acid and palmitic acid were found in low amounts (< 5 %) while trycosylic acid (4.83 %) was the only fatty acid with odd number of carbon atoms. The oil showed a low thermal stability. (author)

  3. Efficient dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate: Progressive polarimetry and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the structure and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Bae; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Choi, Nak Cho; Jang, Jihui; Park, Chun Ho; Yoon, Moung Seok; Lee, Miyoung; Won, Kyoungae; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, B Moon

    2015-10-12

    Over the past decades, there has been a growing interest in dermal drug delivery. Although various novel delivery devices and methods have been developed, dermal delivery is still challenging because of problems such as poor drug permeation, instability of vesicles and drug leakage from vesicles induced by fusion of vesicles. To solve the vesicle instability problems in current dermal delivery systems, we developed materials comprised of liquid crystals as a new delivery vehicle of retinyl palmitate and report the characterization of the liquid crystals using a Mueller matrix polarimetry. The stability of the liquid-crystal materials was evaluated using the polarimeter as a novel evaluation tool along with other conventional methods. The dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate was investigated through the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the permeation of retinyl palmitate was enhanced by up to 106% compared to that using an ordinary emulsion with retinyl palmitate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Case of Ileus in a Patient with Schizophrenia Under Paliperidone Palmitate Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Serdar S?leyman; Kabaday?, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a side effect of antipsychotic drugs that have high affinity for muscarinic cholinergic receptors. In addition, ileus is an important side effect of antipsychotic treatment, with potentially morbid and mortal consequences if early detection fails. In this report, a colonic ileus case is described in a patient with schizophrenia under the treatment of paliperidone palmitate. Consequently, complete physical examination and close screening of side effects are recommended when ant...

  5. Review of sn-2 palmitate oil implications for infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Lifshitz, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra

    2013-09-01

    Human milk provides the optimal balanced nutrition for the growing infant in the first months after birth. The human mammary gland has evolved with unusual pathways, resulting in a specific positioning of fatty acids at the outer sn-1 and sn-3, and center sn-2 of the triacylglyceride, which is different from the triglycerides in other human tissues and plasma. The development of structured triglycerides enables mimicking the composition as well as structure of human milk fat in infant formulas. Studies conducted two decades ago, together with very recent studies, have provided increasing evidence that this unusual positioning of 16:0 in human milk triglycerides has a significant role for infant health in different directions, such as fat and calcium absorption, bone health, intestinal flora and infant comfort. This review aims to unravel the relevance of human milk triglyceride sn-2 16:0 for intestinal health and inflammatory pathways and for other post-absorption effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Equilibrium spreading pressure and Langmuir–Blodgett film formation of omega-substituted palmitic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Arthur W., E-mail: arthur.snow@nrl.navy.mil; Jernigan, Glenn G.; Ancona, Mario G.

    2014-04-01

    Langmuir–Blodgett isotherms and equilibrium spreading pressures were measured for compounds of the series X–(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}COOH, X = CH{sub 3}, SH, OH, F, Cl, Br. Only the CH{sub 3} and F terminated compounds formed monolayers with sufficient stability for accurate isotherm measurement, film transfer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The presence of the terminal heteroatom substituents significantly diminished the stability of the L–B film and depressed the equilibrium spreading pressures (20 °C) from 15.4 mN/m for the CH{sub 3} terminated compound to a range of 0.95 to 0.08 mN/m for the other members of the series. These characteristics are attributed to the monolayer film being in a metastable state and the dipole moment of the heteroatom terminal group increasing the monolayer film kinetic instability by facilitating the formation of three-dimensional structures. - Highlights: • Compound series X–(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}COOH, X = CH{sub 3}, SH, OH, F, Cl, Br was analyzed. • Only-CH{sub 3} and-F terminated compounds form stable Langmuir–Blodgett films. • Heteroatom terminal groups promote kinetic instability in Langmuir–Blodgett films. • X-ray photoelectron spectra analyzed for molecular orientation and packing density.

  7. Astragalus Polysaccharide Improves Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting PTP1B and NF-κB in C2C12 Myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes. Palmitate-reduced glucose uptake was restored by APS. APS prevented palmitate-induced C2C12 myotubes from impaired insulin signaling by inhibiting Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and increasing Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, the increases in protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B protein level and NF-κB activation associated with palmitate treatment were also prevented by APS. However the treatment with APS didn’t change AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation in palmitate-induced myotubes. The results of the present study suggest that Astragalus polysaccharide inhibits palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes by inhibiting expression of PTP1B and regulating NF-κB but not AMPK pathway.

  8. Phase equilibrium measurements and thermodynamic modelling for the system (CO2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschi, Priscilla S.; Mafra, Marcos R.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ethyl palmitate and biodiesel comparison in a pressure–composition diagram for the systems (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + biodiesel), at different temperatures. Highlights: ► We measured VLE, LLE, and VLLE for the system (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol). ► The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. ► Phase envelope of (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate) is different that (CO 2 + soybean oil biodiesel). ► The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR–WS equations of state. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} and ternary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} systems at high pressures. There is currently great interest in biodiesel production processes involving supercritical and/or pressurized solvents, such as non-catalytic supercritical biodiesel production and enzyme-catalysed biodiesel production. Also, supercritical CO 2 can offer an interesting alternative for glycerol separation in the biodiesel purification step in a water-free process. In this context, the main goal of this work was to investigate the phase behaviour of binary and ternary systems involving CO 2 , a pure constituent of biodiesel ethyl palmitate and ethanol. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell with operating temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The CO 2 mole fraction ranged from 0.5033 to 0.9913 for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} system and from 0.4436 to 0.9712 for ternary system {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} system with ethyl ester to ethanol molar ratios of (1:6), (1:3), and (1:1). For the systems investigated, vapour–liquid (VL), liquid–liquid (LL) and vapour–liquid–liquid (VLL) phase transitions were observed. The experimental data sets were successfully modeled using the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals

  9. The effect of cetyl palmitate crystallinity on physical properties of gamma-oryzanol encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Limpakdee, Surachai; Meejoo, Siwaporn; Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Junyaprasert, Varaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-03-05

    This present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the crystallinity of cetyl palmitate based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) on the physical properties of γ-oryzanol-loaded SLNs. SLNs consisting of varying ratios of cetyl palmitate and γ-oryzanol were prepared. Their hydrodynamic diameters were in the range 210-280 nm and the zeta potentials were in the range -27 to -35 mV. The size of SLNs increased as the amount of cetyl palmitate decreased whereas no significant change of zeta potentials was found. Atomic force microscopy pictures indicated the presence of disc-like particles. The crystallinity of SLNs, determined by differential scanning calorimetry and powder x-ray diffraction, was directly dependent on the ratio of cetyl palmitate to γ-oryzanol and decreased with decreasing cetyl palmitate content in the lipid matrix. Varying this ratio in the lipid mix resulted in a shift in the melting temperature and enthalpy, although the SLN structure remained unchanged as an orthorhombic lamellar lattice. This has been attributed to a potential inhibition by γ-oryzanol during lipid crystal growth as well as a less ordered structure of the SLNs. The results revealed that the crystallinity of the SLNs was mainly dependent on the solid lipid, and that the crystallinity has an important impact on the physical characteristics of active-loaded SLNs.

  10. The effect of cetyl palmitate crystallinity on physical properties of gamma-oryzanol encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Limpakdee, Surachai; Meejoo, Siwaporn; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Junyaprasert, Varaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-01-01

    This present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the crystallinity of cetyl palmitate based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) on the physical properties of γ-oryzanol-loaded SLNs. SLNs consisting of varying ratios of cetyl palmitate and γ-oryzanol were prepared. Their hydrodynamic diameters were in the range 210-280 nm and the zeta potentials were in the range -27 to -35 mV. The size of SLNs increased as the amount of cetyl palmitate decreased whereas no significant change of zeta potentials was found. Atomic force microscopy pictures indicated the presence of disc-like particles. The crystallinity of SLNs, determined by differential scanning calorimetry and powder x-ray diffraction, was directly dependent on the ratio of cetyl palmitate to γ-oryzanol and decreased with decreasing cetyl palmitate content in the lipid matrix. Varying this ratio in the lipid mix resulted in a shift in the melting temperature and enthalpy, although the SLN structure remained unchanged as an orthorhombic lamellar lattice. This has been attributed to a potential inhibition by γ-oryzanol during lipid crystal growth as well as a less ordered structure of the SLNs. The results revealed that the crystallinity of the SLNs was mainly dependent on the solid lipid, and that the crystallinity has an important impact on the physical characteristics of active-loaded SLNs

  11. Nuclear factor-κB is a common upstream signal for growth differentiation factor-5 expression in brown adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and palmitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio, E-mail: yyoneda@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • GDF5 expression is up-regulated by IL-1β, TNF-α and palmitate in brown pre-adipocytes. • NF-κB stimulates promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. • Recruitment of NF-κB to the GDF5 promoter is facilitated in BAT from ob/ob mice. • An NF-κB inhibitor prevents upregulation of GDF5 expression in brown pre-adipocytes. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that genetic and acquired obesity similarly led to drastic upregulation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), rather than white adipose tissue, of expression of both mRNA and corresponding protein for the bone morphogenic protein/growth differentiation factor (GDF) member GDF5 capable of promoting brown adipogenesis. In this study, we evaluated expression profiles of GDF5 in cultured murine brown pre-adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are all shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Both interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were effective in up-regulating GDF5 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, while similar upregulation was seen in cells exposed to the saturated FFA palmitate, but not to the unsaturated FFA oleate. In silico analysis revealed existence of the putative nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) binding site in the 5′-flanking region of mouse GDF5, whereas introduction of NF-κB subunits drastically facilitated both promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed significant facilitation of the recruitment of NF-κB to the GDF5 promoter in lysed extracts of BAT from leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice. Upregulation o GDF5 expression was invariably inhibited by an NF-κB inhibitor in cultured brown pre-adipocytes exposed to IL-1β, TNF-α and palmitate. These results suggest that obesity leads to upregulation of GDF5 expression responsible for the promotion of brown adipogenesis through a mechanism

  12. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  13. Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Shridhar, M.P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.

    . The fatty acids specific to the above mentioned fungi can be used as biomarkers for taxonomic purposes. High concentrations of C18 PUFAs (18:2 n-6 and 18:1 n-9) together with relatively high concentrations of saturated fatty acids like palmitic (16...

  14. Paliperidone Palmitate Improves and Maintains Functioning in Asia-Pacific Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Zhuo, Jianmin; Mathews, Maju; Tan, Wilson; Feng, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Post hoc analyses (two single-arm studies) were conducted to determine the impact of once-monthly injection of paliperidone palmitate on functioning in adult patients with schizophrenia in the Asia-Pacific region. Study 1 enrolled hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia, and study 2 enrolled patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia unsatisfactorily treated with oral antipsychotics. Patients received paliperidone palmitate, 150 mg eq. on day 1, 100 mg eq. on day 8, then once monthly (50-150 mg eq.) (study 1, days 36 and 64; study 2, 18 months). Functional status was evaluated by Personal and Social Performance score in both studies and employment only in study 2. In study 1, 54 of 184 patients (29.4%) with an unfavorable level of functioning at the baseline improved to a favorable level (Personal and Social Performance score greater than 70) at day 92. This improvement was significantly greater among patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia (5 years or less) compared with patients with chronic schizophrenia (more than 5 years): 40% versus 22% (p schizophrenia. Janssen-Cilag Asia-Pacific Medical Affairs.

  15. Myristic acid, a rare fatty acid, is the lipid attached to the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus and its cellular homolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, J.E.; Sefton, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The lipid bound to p60/sub src/, the transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus, has been identified by gas and thin-layer chromatography as the 14-carbon saturated fatty acid, myristic acid. The protein can be labeled biosynthetically with either [ 3 H]myristic acid or [ 3 H]palmitic acid. Incorporation of [ 3 H]myristic acid was noticeably greater than incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitic acid. All of the [ 3 H]myristic acid-derived label in p60/sub src/ was present as myristic acid. In contrast, none of the radioactivity derived from [ 3 H]palmitic acid was recovered as palmitic acid. Instead, all 3 H incorporated into p60/sub src/ from [ 3 H]palmitic acid arose by metabolism to myristic acid. The cellular tyrosine kinase, p60c-/sub src/ also contains myristic acid. By comparison of the extent of myristylation of p60v-/sub src/ with that of the Moloney murine leukemia virus structural protein precursor, Pr65gag, the authors estimate that greater than 80% of the molecules of p60v-/sub src/ contain one molecule of this fatty acid. Myristylation is a rare form of protein modification. p60v-/sub src/ contains 10 to 40% of the myristic acid bound to protein in cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus and is easily identified in total cell lysates when [ 3 H]myristic acid-labeled proteins are separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Comparison of the amount of [ 3 H]myristic acid-labeled p60/sub src/ in total cell lysates and in immunoprecipitates suggests that immunoprecipitation with rabbit anti-Rous sarcoma virus tumor sera detects ca. 25% of the p60/sub src/ present in cells

  16. Hydrogen Sulphide modulating mitochondrial morphology to promote mitophagy in endothelial cells under high-glucose and high-palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wu, Jichao; Zhang, Linxue; Gao, Zhaopeng; Sun, Yu; Yu, Miao; Zhao, Yajun; Dong, Shiyun; Lu, Fanghao; Zhang, Weihua

    2017-12-01

    Endothelial cell dysfunction is one of the main reasons for type II diabetes vascular complications. Hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) has antioxidative effect, but its regulation on mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in aortic endothelial cells under hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia is unclear. Rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were treated with 40 mM glucose and 200 μM palmitate to imitate endothelium under hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia, and 100 μM NaHS was used as an exogenous H 2 S donor. Firstly, we demonstrated that high glucose and palmitate decreased H 2 S production and CSE expression in RAECs. Then, the antioxidative effect of H 2 S was proved in RAECs under high glucose and palmitate to reduce mitochondrial ROS level. We also showed that exogenous H 2 S inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis in RAECs under high glucose and palmitate. Using Mito Tracker and transmission electron microscopy assay, we revealed that exogenous H 2 S decreased mitochondrial fragments and significantly reduced the expression of p-Drp-1/Drp-1 and Fis1 compared to high-glucose and high-palmitate group, whereas it increased mitophagy by transmission electron microscopy assay. We demonstrated that exogenous H 2 S facilitated Parkin recruited by PINK1 by immunoprecipitation and immunostaining assays and then ubiquitylated mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which illuminated the mechanism of exogenous H 2 S on mitophagy. Parkin siRNA suppressed the expression of Mfn2, Nix and LC3B, which revealed that it eliminated mitophagy. In summary, exogenous H 2 S could protect RAECs against apoptosis under high glucose and palmitate by suppressing oxidative stress, decreasing mitochondrial fragments and promoting mitophagy. Based on these results, we proposed a new mechanism of H 2 S on protecting endothelium, which might provide a new strategy for type II diabetes vascular complication. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for

  17. Palmitate diet-induced loss of cardiac caveolin-3: a novel mechanism for lipid-induced contractile dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Knowles

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, and mechanisms linking the underlying risk and dietary factors are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of saturated fat increases the levels of sphingolipids, namely ceramide and sphingomyelin in cardiac cell membranes that disrupt caveolae, specialized membrane micro-domains and important for cellular signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed two high-fat diets: palmitate diet (21% total fat, 47% is palmitate, and MCT diet (21% medium-chain triglycerides, no palmitate. We established that high-palmitate feeding for 12 weeks leads to 40% and 50% increases in ceramide and sphingomyelin, respectively, in cellular membranes. Concomitant with sphingolipid accumulation, we observed a 40% reduction in systolic contractile performance. To explore the relationship of increased sphingolipids with caveolins, we analyzed caveolin protein levels and intracellular localization in isolated cardiomyocytes. In normal cardiomyocytes, caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 co-localize at the plasma membrane and the T-tubule system. However, mice maintained on palmitate lost 80% of caveolin-3, mainly from the T-tubule system. Mice maintained on MCT diet had a 90% reduction in caveolin-1. These data show that caveolin isoforms are sensitive to the lipid environment. These data are further supported by similar findings in human cardiac tissue samples from non-obese, obese, non-obese cardiomyopathic, and obese cardiomyopathic patients. To further elucidate the contractile dysfunction associated with the loss of caveolin-3, we determined the localization of the ryanodine receptor and found lower expression and loss of the striated appearance of this protein. We suggest that palmitate-induced loss of caveolin-3 results in cardiac contractile dysfunction via a defect in calcium-induced calcium release.

  18. Fluxomic evidence for impaired contribution of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase to mitochondrial palmitate β-oxidation in symptomatic patients with ACADS gene susceptibility variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessein, Anne-Frédérique; Fontaine, Monique; Joncquel-Chevalier Curt, Marie; Briand, Gilbert; Sechter, Claire; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Dobbelaere, Dries; Douillard, Claire; Lacour, Arnaud; Redonnet-Vernhet, Isabelle; Lamireau, Delphine; Barth, Magalie; Minot-Myhié, Marie-Christine; Kuster, Alice; de Lonlay, Pascale; Gregersen, Niels; Acquaviva, Cécile; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Vamecq, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Despite ACADS (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short-chain) gene susceptibility variants (c.511C>T and c.625G>A) are considered to be non-pathogenic, encoded proteins are known to exhibit altered kinetics. Whether or not, they might affect overall fatty acid β-oxidation still remains, however, unclear. De novo biosynthesis of acylcarnitines by whole blood samples incubated with deuterated palmitate (16- 2 H 3 ,15- 2 H 2 -palmitate) is suitable as a fluxomic exploration to distinguish between normal and disrupted β-oxidation, abnormal profiles and ratios of acylcarnitines with different chain-lengths being indicative of the site for enzymatic blockade. Determinations in 301 control subjects of ratios between deuterated butyrylcarnitine and sum of deuterated C2 to C14 acylcarnitines served here as reference values to state specifically functional SCAD impairment in patients addressed for clinical and/or biological suspicion of a β-oxidation disorder. Functional SCAD impairment was found in 39 patients. The 27 patients accepting subsequent gene studies were all positive for ACADS mutations. Twenty-six of 27 patients were positive for c.625G>A variant. Twenty-three of 27 patients harbored susceptibility variants as sole ACADS alterations (18 homozygous and 3 heterozygous for c.625G>A, 2 compound heterozygous for c.625G>A/c.511C>T). Our present fluxomic assessment of SCAD suggests a link between ACADS susceptibility variants and abnormal β-oxidation consistent with known altered kinetics of these variants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Levels of palmitic acid ester of hydroxystearic acid (PAHSA) are reduced in the breast milk of obese mothers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březinová, Marie; Kuda, Ondřej; Hansíková, Jana; Rombaldová, Martina; Balas, L.; Bardová, Kristina; Durand, T.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Černá, M.; Straňák, Z.; Kopecký, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1863, č. 2 (2018), s. 126-131 ISSN 1388-1981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-10088Y; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29182A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breast milk * PAHSA * chiral separation * obesity * lipogenesis * FAHFA Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 5.547, year: 2016

  20. Fatty Acid And Essential Oil Compositions Of The Seed Oil Of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid and essential oil compositions of the seed oil of Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis and A. squamosa were investigated by GC and GC/MS spectra. About eleven fatty acids were identified of which oleic, gondoic, palmitic and stearic acids predominated in each sample, and others ...

  1. Fatty acid represses insulin receptor gene expression by impairing HMGA1 through protein kinase Cε

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Debleena; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Roy, SibSankar; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2007-01-01

    It is known that free fatty acid (FFA) contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism in FFA-induced insulin resistance is still unclear. In the present investigation we have demonstrated that palmitate significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of PDK1, the key insulin signaling molecule. Consequently, PDK1 phosphorylation of plasma membrane bound PKCε was also inhibited. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of cytosolic PKCε was greatly stimulated by palmitate; this was then translocated to the nuclear region and associated with the inhibition of insulin receptor (IR) gene transcription. A PKCε translocation inhibitor peptide, εV1, suppressed this inhibitory effect of palmitate, suggesting requirement of phospho-PKCε migration to implement palmitate effect. Experimental evidences indicate that phospho-PKCε adversely affected HMGA1. Since HMGA1 regulates IR promoter activity, expression of IR gene was impaired causing reduction of IR on cell surface and that compromises with insulin sensitivity

  2. Effect of Whole-Body X-Irradiation of the Synthesis of Individual Fatty Acids in Liver Slices from Normal and Fasted Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, Lisbeth Grænge; Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    (1) Using (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate as precursors, rat-liver fatty acids were synthesized in vitro and assayed by paper chromatography. (2) Whole-body x-irradiation induced a change in the synthetic pattern of hepatic fatty acids towards a relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitic acid....... (3) X-irradiation and fasting seem to have opposite effects on fatty-acid synthesis. X-irradiation counteracts the drop in total synthesis and the relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitoleic acid induced by fasting. The relative enhancement of palmitic-acid synthesis mentioned under (2) stands...... in contrast to the effect of fasting, which specifically decreases the hepatic synthesis of palmitic acid. (4) There is a general similarity between corresponding fatty-acid patterns based on synthesis from (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate, respectively....

  3. HNF-4α regulated miR-122 contributes to development of gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism disorders in Type 2 diabetic mice and in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Yang; Xue, Huan; Lan, Xiaoxin; Liu, Shuping; Hatch, Grant; Chen, Li

    2016-11-15

    Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF-4α) is a key nuclear receptor protein required for liver development. miR-122 is a predominant microRNA expressed in liver and is involved in the regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. HNF-4α is know to regulate expression of miR-122 in liver. We examined how HNF-4α regulated gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism through miR-122 in vivo and in vitro. Expression of miR-122, HNF-4α, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), sterol response elementary binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase-1 (FAS-1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) and acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACCα) were determined in livers of Type 2 diabetic mice and in insulin resistant palmitate-treated HepG2 cells. CPT-1 and phosphorylated ACCα expression were significantly decreased in livers of Type 2 diabetic mice and in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells compared to controls. In contrast, expression of miR-122, HNF-4α, PEPCK, G6Pase, SREBP-1, FAS-1 and ACCα were significantly elevated in liver of Type 2 diabetic mice and in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells compared to controls. Expression of HNF-4α increased whereas siRNA knockdown of HNF-4α decreased miR-122 levels in HepG2 cells compared to controls. In addition, expression of HNF-4α in HepG2 cells increased PEPCK, G6Pase, SREBP-1, FAS-1, ACCα mRNA and protein expression and decreased CPT-1 and p-ACCα mRNA and protein expression compared to controls. Addition of miR-122 inhibitors attenuated the HNF-4α mediated effect on expression of these gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism proteins. The results indicate that HNF-4α regulated miR-122 contributes to development of the gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism alterations observed in Type 2 diabetic mice and in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on early ocular surface reconstruction after thermal or chemical injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Dui Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on early ocular surface reconstruction after thermal or chemical injuries. METHODS: Seventy-eight cases with thermal or chemical injuries to eyes were selected and divided into two groups by randomized, double-blind, positive drug parallel controlled method: group A(40 cases were treated with vitamin A palmitate eye geland group B \\〖38 cases were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF\\〗. The bFGF and vitamin A palmitate eye gel were used 4 times a day. The treatment course was 14d. Restoration of epithelial defect, Schirmer's test values, tear break-up time(BUT, and subjective assessment of symptoms and signs were observed on D1, D3, D5, D7, D10 and D14.RESULTS: In group A, 31 cases were cured, 5 cases were effective, with the cure rate of 76% and efficiency 90%. In group B, 32 cases were cured, 3 cases were effective, with the cure rate of 84% and efficiency 92%. There were no significant differences between the two groups(P>0.05. However, there were significant differences on the results of Schirmer's test and BUT(PPCONCLUSION: Vitamin A palmitate eye gel is valuable and safe on early ocular surface reconstruction of the eyes suffered from thermal or chemical injuries.

  5. Recovery outcomes of schizophrenia patients treated with paliperidone palmitate in a community setting: patient and provider perspectives on recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wesley; McKinney, Christopher; Martinez, Larry; Benson, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic on recovery-oriented mental health outcomes from the perspective of healthcare providers and patients during the treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Archival data for patients with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder receiving ≥6 months of paliperidone palmitate LAI were retrieved from the electronic medical records system at the Mental Health Center of Denver. Mental health recovery was assessed from both a provider's (Recovery Markers Inventory [RMI]) and patient's (Consumer Recovery Measure [CRM]) perspective. A three-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) was utilized to determine changes in CRM and RMI scores by including independent variables in the models: intercept, months from treatment (slope), treatment time period (pretreatment and treatment), age, gender, primary diagnosis, substance abuse diagnosis, concurrent medications, and adherence to paliperidone palmitate LAI. A total of 219 patients were identified and included in the study. Results of the final three-level HLMs indicated an overall increase in CRM scores (p a retrospective, non-comparative design, and did not adjust for multiplicity Conclusions: The current study demonstrates that changes in recovery-oriented mental health outcomes can be detected following the administration of a specific antipsychotic treatment in persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Furthermore, patients receiving paliperidone palmitate LAI can effectively improve recovery-oriented outcomes, thereby supporting the drug's use as schizophrenia treatment from a recovery-oriented perspective.

  6. Quantitative analysis of retinol and retinol palmitate in vitamin tablets using {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hae; Kim, Hye Kyong; Wilson, Erica G.; Erkelens, Cornelis; Trijzelaar, Ben; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-06-04

    {sup 1}H-NMR spectrometry was applied to the quantitative analysis of Vitamin A in four different types of vitamin tablets without any chromatographic purification or saponification. The experiment was performed analysing the H-15 resonance, which appears at {delta} 4.32 for retinol and {delta} 4.69 for retinol palmitate, well separated from other resonances in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectrum. Compounds were quantified using the relative ratio of the integral of the H-15 signal to that of a known amount of internal standard (200 {mu}g/ml), anthracene. In order to evaluate the feasibility of avoiding the saponification of retinol palmitate in the preparation of samples, several solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide, n-hexane, methanol, water, and 0.1 M of HCl were tested as possible extraction solvents. Among these, dimethylsulfoxide showed the best yield of retinol palmitate. This method, using dimethylsulfoxide extraction and {sup 1}H-NMR, allows rapid and simple quantitation of retinol palmitate in tablets avoiding tedious saponification.

  7. Quantitative analysis of retinol and retinol palmitate in vitamin tablets using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hae; Kim, Hye Kyong; Wilson, Erica G.; Erkelens, Cornelis; Trijzelaar, Ben; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    1 H-NMR spectrometry was applied to the quantitative analysis of Vitamin A in four different types of vitamin tablets without any chromatographic purification or saponification. The experiment was performed analysing the H-15 resonance, which appears at δ 4.32 for retinol and δ 4.69 for retinol palmitate, well separated from other resonances in the 1 H-NMR spectrum. Compounds were quantified using the relative ratio of the integral of the H-15 signal to that of a known amount of internal standard (200 μg/ml), anthracene. In order to evaluate the feasibility of avoiding the saponification of retinol palmitate in the preparation of samples, several solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide, n-hexane, methanol, water, and 0.1 M of HCl were tested as possible extraction solvents. Among these, dimethylsulfoxide showed the best yield of retinol palmitate. This method, using dimethylsulfoxide extraction and 1 H-NMR, allows rapid and simple quantitation of retinol palmitate in tablets avoiding tedious saponification

  8. Synergy analysis reveals association between insulin signaling and desmoplakin expression in palmitate treated HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    Full Text Available The regulation of complex cellular activities in palmitate treated HepG2 cells, and the ensuing cytotoxic phenotype, involves cooperative interactions between genes. While previous approaches have largely focused on identifying individual target genes, elucidating interacting genes has thus far remained elusive. We applied the concept of information synergy to reconstruct a "gene-cooperativity" network for palmititate-induced cytotoxicity in liver cells. Our approach integrated gene expression data with metabolic profiles to select a subset of genes for network reconstruction. Subsequent analysis of the network revealed insulin signaling as the most significantly enriched pathway, and desmoplakin (DSP as its top neighbor. We determined that palmitate significantly reduces DSP expression, and treatment with insulin restores the lost expression of DSP. Insulin resistance is a common pathological feature of fatty liver and related ailments, whereas loss of DSP has been noted in liver carcinoma. Reduced DSP expression can lead to loss of cell-cell adhesion via desmosomes, and disrupt the keratin intermediate filament network. Our findings suggest that DSP expression may be perturbed by palmitate and, along with insulin resistance, may play a role in palmitate induced cytotoxicity, and serve as potential targets for further studies on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD.

  9. Mixed monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and ethyl palmitate at the air/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gzyl, Barbara [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: gzyl@chemia.uj.edu.pl; Paluch, Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-06-30

    The behaviour of monolayers containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and ethyl palmitate and their mixtures at different molar fraction, using surface pressure-molecular area results, was investigated. The negative deviation from additivity of the mean molecular areas as a function of the mixture composition indicates the miscibility. The miscibility was confirmed by applying the two-dimensional phase rule, since the collapse pressure values vary with the composition of the mixtures. Also the free energy of mixing {delta}G{sub mix} and the excess free energy of mixing {delta}G{sub mix}{sup E} were determined. The negative values of {delta}G{sub mix} and {delta}G{sub mix}{sup E} indicate that the mixed monolayers are thermodynamically more stable compared to the pure ones and that the compounds in the two dimensional state experience mainly attractive interactions.

  10. Dexamethasone palmitate ameliorates macrophages-rich graft-versus-host disease by inhibiting macrophage functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Nakayama, Takayuki; Murata, Makoto; Nishida, Tetsuya; Terakura, Seitaro; Saito, Shigeki; Kato, Tomonori; Mizuno, Hiroki; Imahashi, Nobuhiko; Seto, Aika; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Miyamura, Koichi; Ito, Masafumi; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Kato, Hidefumi; Toyokuni, Shinya; Nagao, Keisuke; Ueda, Ryuzo; Naoe, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration of skin GVHD lesions correlates directly with disease severity, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear and GVHD with many macrophages is a therapeutic challenge. Here, we characterize the macrophages involved in GVHD and report that dexamethasone palmitate (DP), a liposteroid, can ameliorate such GVHD by inhibiting macrophage functions. We found that host-derived macrophages could exacerbate GVHD in a mouse model through expression of higher levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IFN-γ, and lower levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 than resident macrophages in mice without GVHD. DP significantly decreased the viability and migration capacity of primary mouse macrophages compared to conventional dexamethasone in vitro. DP treatment on day 7 and day 14 decreased macrophage number, and attenuated GVHD score and subsequent mortality in a murine model. This is the first study to provide evidence that therapy for GVHD should be changed on the basis of infiltrating cell type.

  11. Thermal properties of silica-filled high density polyethylene composites compatibilized with glut palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Dalina; Ismail, Hanafi; Othman, Nadras; Hamid, Zuratul Ain Abdul

    2017-07-01

    A study of thermal properties resulting from the utilization of Glut Palmitate (GP) on the silica filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was carried out. The composites with the incorporation of GP at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 phr were prepared by using an internal mixer at the temperature 180 °C and the rotor speed of 50 rpm. The thermal behaviours of the composites were then investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the crystallinity and the thermal stability of the composites increased with the incorporation of GP. The highest crystallinity contents and decomposition temperatures were observed at the 1 phr GP loading.

  12. Effect of Process Factors on the Properties of Doxycycline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in order to achieve a transdermal and/or systemic nanocarier of doxycycline. ... The resulting system can be applied for the formulation of doxycycline niosomes. Keywords: Doxycicline, Vesicles, Drug delivery, Ascorbyl palmitate, Niosomes.

  13. Role of Inflammatory Signaling in the Differential Effects of Saturated and Poly-unsaturated Fatty Acids on Peripheral Circadian Clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Moon Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory signaling may play a role in high-fat diet (HFD-related circadian clock disturbances that contribute to systemic metabolic dysregulation. Therefore, palmitate, the prevalent proinflammatory saturated fatty acid (SFA in HFD and the anti-inflammatory, poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, were analyzed for effects on circadian timekeeping and inflammatory responses in peripheral clocks. Prolonged palmitate, but not DHA, exposure increased the period of fibroblast Bmal1-dLuc rhythms. Acute palmitate treatment produced phase shifts of the Bmal1-dLuc rhythm that were larger in amplitude as compared to DHA. These phase-shifting effects were time-dependent and contemporaneous with rhythmic changes in palmitate-induced inflammatory responses. Fibroblast and differentiated adipocyte clocks exhibited cell-specific differences in the time-dependent nature of palmitate-induced shifts and inflammation. DHA and other inhibitors of inflammatory signaling (AICAR, cardamonin repressed palmitate-induced proinflammatory responses and phase shifts of the fibroblast clock, suggesting that SFA-mediated inflammatory signaling may feed back to modulate circadian timekeeping in peripheral clocks.

  14. Free Fatty Acid Storage in Human Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asem H.; Koutsari, Christina; Mundi, Manpreet; Stegall, Mark D.; Heimbach, Julie K.; Taler, Sandra J.; Nygren, Jonas; Thorell, Anders; Bogachus, Lindsey D.; Turcotte, Lorraine P.; Bernlohr, David; Jensen, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because direct adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) storage may contribute to body fat distribution, we measured FFA (palmitate) storage rates and fatty acid (FA) storage enzymes/proteins in omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Elective surgery patients received a bolus of [1-14C]palmitate followed by omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies to measure direct FFA storage. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, CD36, fatty acid-binding protein, and fatty acid transport protein 1 were measured. RESULTS Palmitate tracer storage (dpm/g adipose lipid) and calculated palmitate storage rates were greater in omental than abdominal subcutaneous fat in women (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 0.4 μmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid−1 ⋅ min−1, P = 0.005) and men (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1, P < 0.001), and both were greater in women than men (P < 0.0001). Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue palmitate storage rates correlated with ACS activity (women: r = 0.66, P = 0.001; men: r = 0.70, P = 0.007); in men, CD36 was also independently related to palmitate storage rates. The content/activity of FA storage enzymes/proteins in omental fat was dramatically lower in those with more visceral fat. In women, only omental palmitate storage rates were correlated (r = 0.54, P = 0.03) with ACS activity. CONCLUSIONS Some adipocyte FA storage factors correlate with direct FFA storage, but sex differences in this process in visceral fat do not account for sex differences in visceral fatness. The reduced storage proteins in those with greater visceral fat suggest that the storage factors we measured are not a predominant cause of visceral adipose tissue accumulation. PMID:21810594

  15. Influence of fatty acids on the binding of warfarin and phenprocoumon to human serum albumin with relation to anticoagulant therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1996-01-01

    of palmitic, stearic, oleic or linoleic acids with energetic couplings for co-binding of one molecule of each of the fatty acids and one molecule of warfarin of 0.9, 1.1, 0.7 and 0.6 kJ mol-1, respectively. The affinity of phenprocoumon was only increased slightly on addition of palmitate with an energetic...... of warfarin but not of phenprocoumon was correlated to the increasing plasma fatty acid concentration. Anticoagulant therapy with phenprocoumon may thus be less sensitive than warfarin to changes in the fatty acid concentration of plasma. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-Aug...

  16. Resveratrol Ameliorates Palmitate-Induced Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle Cells by Attenuating Oxidative Stress and JNK/NF-κB Pathway in a SIRT1-Independent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Asie; Seyyed Ebrahimi, Shadi Sadat; Golestani, Abolfazl; Meshkani, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in a variety of cell types, however, its role in prevention of inflammatory responses mediated by palmitate in skeletal muscle cells remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on palmitate-induced inflammation and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells. The results showed that palmitate significantly enhanced TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression and protein secretion from C2C12 cells at 12, 24, and 36 h treatments. Increased expression of cytokines was accompanied by an enhanced phosphorylation of JNK, P38, ERK1/2, and IKKα/IKKβ. In addition, JNK and P38 inhibitors could significantly attenuate palmitate-induced mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6, respectively, whereas NF-κB inhibitor reduced the expression of both cytokines in palmitate-treated cells. Resveratrol pretreatment significantly prevented palmitate-induced TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression and protein secretion in C2C12 cells. Importantly, pre-treatment of the cells with resveratrol completely abrogated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and IKKα/IKKβ in palmitate treated cells. The protection from palmitate-induced inflammation by resveratrol was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a known scavenger of ROS, could protect palmitate-induced expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, inhibition of SIRT1 by shRNA or sirtinol demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol in muscle cells is mediated through a SIRT1-independent mechanism. Taken together, these findings suggest that resveratrol may represent a promising therapy for prevention of inflammation in skeletal muscle cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2654-2663, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Perturbation of N-linked oligosaccharide structure results in an altered incorporation of [3H]palmitate into specific proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellner, R.B.; Ghosh, P.C.; Roecklein, B.; Wu, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into specific cellular proteins has been reported to occur in Chinese hamster ovary and yeast mutant cells. In this paper we report studies concerning the relationship between N-linked oligosaccharide structure and [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into proteins of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We have compared the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into proteins of wild-type and four different mutant CHO cell lines defective in various steps of N-linked protein glycosylation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoretic analysis showed that three of the mutants exhibited increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into several CHO cellular proteins (approximately 30,000-38,000 molecular weight) as compared to the wild-type cells. One of the affected mutants which accumulates the Man5Gn2Asn intermediate structure was examined in detail. In agreement with earlier reports, virtually all of the [ 3 H] palmitate-labeled proteins of both wild-type and mutant cell lines are membrane-bound. Pretreatment of the mutant cell line with tunicamycin blocked the increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into the two specific proteins (both of approximately 30,000 molecular weight) observed in untreated cells; the decreased incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into the 30,000 molecular weight species was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into two proteins of approximately 20,000 molecular weight. Pretreatment of wild-type cells with tunicamycin also caused increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into the 20,000 molecular weight species

  18. Biocatalytic acylation of carbohydrates with fatty acids from palm fatty acid distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; H-Kittikun, Aran; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2006-05-01

    Palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) are by-products of the palm oil refining process. Their use as the source of fatty acids, mainly palmitate, for the biocatalytic synthesis of carbohydrate fatty acid esters was investigated. Esters could be prepared in high yields from unmodified acyl donors and non-activated free fatty acids obtained from PFAD with an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase preparation. Acetone was found as a compatible non-toxic solvent, which gave the highest conversion yields in a heterogeneous reaction system without the complete solubilization of the sugars. Glucose, fructose, and other acyl acceptors could be employed for an ester synthesis with PFAD. The synthesis of glucose palmitate was optimized with regard to the water activity of the reaction mixture, the reaction temperature, and the enzyme concentration. The ester was obtained with 76% yield from glucose and PFAD after reaction for 74 h with 150 U ml(-1) immobilized lipase at 40 degrees C in acetone.

  19. Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

    1986-01-01

    A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC 3 H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

  20. Characterization of free and bound fatty acids in human gallstones by capillary gas liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Khand, F.D.; Noorani, M.A.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-four human gallstone samples either of pure cholesterol or cholesterol and bilirubin were randomly selected and analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography for the relative percentage composition of free and total fatty acids. The results showed that bound fatty acids were present in higher amounts than the free fatty acids. Amongst the bound fatty acids the percentage occurrence for palmitic acid was highest followed by stearic, oleic, linoleic and myristic acids. Fatty acids myristic, palmitic and linoleic were present in higher amounts in cholesterol gallstones, whereas stearic acid in cholesterol and bilirubin gallstones. When compared, no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the levels of free and bound fatty acids were seen in gallstones of males and females. The results suggest that bound fatty acids have a role to play in the structure of gallstones. (author)

  1. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  2. Impaired fatty acid oxidation as a cause for lipotoxicity in cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffar, T. [Université de Montreal (Canada); Montreal Heart Institute (Canada); Bérubé-Simard, F. [Montreal Heart Institute (Canada); Bousette, N., E-mail: nicolas.bousette@umontreal.ca [Université de Montreal (Canada); Montreal Heart Institute (Canada)

    2015-12-04

    A major cause for diabetic cardiomyopathy is excess lipid accumulation. To elucidate mechanisms of lipotoxicity mediated diabetic heart disease we need to further our understanding of how lipid metabolism is altered in the diabetic heart. Here we investigated the role of lipid clearance by oxidation as a regulator of lipid-mediated toxicity (lipotoxicity). We evaluated the effect of pre-treating rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMs) with either oleate (mono-unsaturated fatty acid) or palmitate (saturated fatty acid) on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) by measuring {sup 14}C–CO{sub 2} production. We evaluated carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt1b) expression by western blotting and mitochondrial membrane potential by quantitative and qualitative fluorescence analyses using the JC-1 dye. We inhibited the Cpt1b pharmacologically using etomoxir and genetically by knocking down its expression using LentiVector mediated transduction of siRNAs targeting the Cpt1b gene. We found that palmitate had a slower clearance rate from NCMs than oleate, and this was associated with a significant decrease in FAO. This impairment in FAO was not the result of either loss of Cpt1b protein or mitochondrial integrity. Enhancing FAO with either oleate or carnitine was associated with a significant attenuation of palmitate mediated lipotoxicity. In contrast impairing FAO in oleate treated NCMs caused lipotoxicity. Here we demonstrate that a major difference between non-toxic unsaturated fatty acids and toxic saturated fatty acids is there ability to stimulate or inhibit fatty acid oxidation, respectively. This has important implications for diabetic cardiomyopathy since diabetic hearts consistently exhibit elevated lipid accumulation. - Highlights: • Palmitate had a slower clearance rate from NCMs than oleate. • Palmitate caused a significant decrease in fatty acid oxidation in cardiomyocytes. • Impaired FAO was not due to loss of Cpt1b protein or mitochondrial integrity. • Enhancing FAO

  3. Impaired fatty acid oxidation as a cause for lipotoxicity in cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffar, T.; Bérubé-Simard, F.; Bousette, N.

    2015-01-01

    A major cause for diabetic cardiomyopathy is excess lipid accumulation. To elucidate mechanisms of lipotoxicity mediated diabetic heart disease we need to further our understanding of how lipid metabolism is altered in the diabetic heart. Here we investigated the role of lipid clearance by oxidation as a regulator of lipid-mediated toxicity (lipotoxicity). We evaluated the effect of pre-treating rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMs) with either oleate (mono-unsaturated fatty acid) or palmitate (saturated fatty acid) on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) by measuring "1"4C–CO_2 production. We evaluated carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt1b) expression by western blotting and mitochondrial membrane potential by quantitative and qualitative fluorescence analyses using the JC-1 dye. We inhibited the Cpt1b pharmacologically using etomoxir and genetically by knocking down its expression using LentiVector mediated transduction of siRNAs targeting the Cpt1b gene. We found that palmitate had a slower clearance rate from NCMs than oleate, and this was associated with a significant decrease in FAO. This impairment in FAO was not the result of either loss of Cpt1b protein or mitochondrial integrity. Enhancing FAO with either oleate or carnitine was associated with a significant attenuation of palmitate mediated lipotoxicity. In contrast impairing FAO in oleate treated NCMs caused lipotoxicity. Here we demonstrate that a major difference between non-toxic unsaturated fatty acids and toxic saturated fatty acids is there ability to stimulate or inhibit fatty acid oxidation, respectively. This has important implications for diabetic cardiomyopathy since diabetic hearts consistently exhibit elevated lipid accumulation. - Highlights: • Palmitate had a slower clearance rate from NCMs than oleate. • Palmitate caused a significant decrease in fatty acid oxidation in cardiomyocytes. • Impaired FAO was not due to loss of Cpt1b protein or mitochondrial integrity. • Enhancing FAO attenuated

  4. Long-chain fatty acid combustion rate is associated with unique metabolite profiles in skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Seifert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete or limited long-chain fatty acid (LCFA combustion in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Signals that are responsive to shifts in LCFA beta-oxidation rate or degree of intramitochondrial catabolism are hypothesized to regulate second messenger systems downstream of the insulin receptor. Recent evidence supports a causal link between mitochondrial LCFA combustion in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. We have used unbiased metabolite profiling of mouse muscle mitochondria with the aim of identifying candidate metabolites within or effluxed from mitochondria and that are shifted with LCFA combustion rate.Large-scale unbiased metabolomics analysis was performed using GC/TOF-MS on buffer and mitochondrial matrix fractions obtained prior to and after 20 min of palmitate catabolism (n = 7 mice/condition. Three palmitate concentrations (2, 9 and 19 microM; corresponding to low, intermediate and high oxidation rates and 9 microM palmitate plus tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and electron transport chain inhibitors were each tested and compared to zero palmitate control incubations. Paired comparisons of the 0 and 20 min samples were made by Student's t-test. False discovery rate were estimated and Type I error rates assigned. Major metabolite groups were organic acids, amines and amino acids, free fatty acids and sugar phosphates. Palmitate oxidation was associated with unique profiles of metabolites, a subset of which correlated to palmitate oxidation rate. In particular, palmitate oxidation rate was associated with distinct changes in the levels of TCA cycle intermediates within and effluxed from mitochondria.This proof-of-principle study establishes that large-scale metabolomics methods can be applied to organelle-level models to discover metabolite patterns reflective of LCFA combustion, which may lead to identification of molecules linking muscle fat metabolism and insulin signaling. Our results suggest that

  5. N-nitrosamines in processed meat products – analysis, occurrence, formation, mitigation and exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange

    and NVNA in meat. Secondly data on the occurrence of VNA and NVNA in processed meat products on the Danish market were to be generated and used for an evaluation of the exposure level resulting from consumption of processed meat products. A method allowing for the simultaneous determination of both VNA......, NPIP, NTCA and NMTCA were inversely related to the amount of erythorbic acid (396-1104 mg kg-1). The levels of the individual NA were reduced with up to 20 to 75%. No additional protection against NA formation was obtained by also adding ascorbyl palmitate, a fat soluble antioxidant. Sodium chloride...

  6. Effects of methyl palmitate on cytokine release, liver injury and survival in mice with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, P; Demitri, M T; Meazza, C; Sironi, M; Gnocchi, P; Ghezzi, P

    1996-12-01

    The effects of methyl palmitate (MP), a known inhibitor of Kupffer cells, were studied in a model of polymicrobial sepsis induced in CD-1 mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The inhibition of Kupffer cells by pretreatment with MP was shown by the reduced phagocytosis, the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. The reduced activation of Kupffer cells resulted in lower levels of inflammatory products after CLP. TNF and IL-6 were significantly reduced in serum 2 h and 24 h respectively after CLP, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) was reduced in liver 4 h after CLP, nitric oxide (NO) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were significantly reduced 8 and 24 h respectively after CLP. Liver toxicity was significantly reduced in MP-treated mice and survival was significantly prolonged at all intervals, reaching 45% after six to ten days compared with 3% in control mice. These findings suggest that Kupffer cells play an important role in liver damage and survival in sepsis.

  7. Clustering effects on postprandial insulin secretion and sensitivity in response to meals with different fatty acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Beatriz; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Varela, Lourdes M; Villar, Jose; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Lopez, Sergio

    2014-07-25

    Dietary fatty acids play a role in glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to assess the individual relationship between dietary saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids with postprandial β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with normal and high fasting triglycerides. We assessed postprandial β-cell function (by the insulinogenic index and the ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the time-concentration curve) and insulin sensitivity (by the oral glucose and the minimal model insulin sensitivity indices) over four nonconsecutive, randomly assigned, high-fat meals containing a panel of SFA (palmitic and stearic acids), MUFA (palmitoleic and oleic acids) and PUFA (linoleic and α-linolenic acids) in 14 subjects with normal and in 14 subjects with high fasting triglycerides. The proportions of each fatty acid in the meals and the values for surrogate measures of postprandial β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were subjected to a Pearson correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis, which revealed two classes of dietary fatty acids for regulating postprandial glucose homeostasis. We successfully discriminated the adverse effects of SFA palmitic acid from the beneficial effects of MUFA oleic acid on postprandial β-cell function (r ≥ 0.84 for SFA palmitic acid and r ≥ -0.71 for MUFA oleic acid; P < 0.05) and insulin sensitivity (r ≥ -0.92 for SFA palmitic acid and r ≥ 0.89 for MUFA oleic acid; P < 0.001) both in subjects with normal and high fasting triglycerides. In conclusion, dietary MUFA oleic acid, in contrast to SFA palmitic acid, favours the tuning towards better postprandial glycaemic control in subjects with normal and high fasting triglycerides.

  8. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: influences of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuyu; Zhu, Luyan; Dong, Zhao; Wang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yan; Li, Xihe; Zhou, WenZhong

    2011-04-01

    Enrofloxacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were prepared using fatty acids (tetradecanoic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid) as lipid matrix by hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The effect of fatty acids on the characteristics and pharmacokinetics of the SLN were investigated. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of nanoparticles varied with fatty acids in the order of stearic acid>palmitic acid>tetradecanoic acid. Furthermore, stearic acid-SLN had larger particle size, bigger polydispersity index (PDI) and higher zeta potential compared with the other two fatty acid formulated SLN. The SLN showed sustained releases in vitro and the released enrofloxacin had the same antibacterial activity as that of the native enrofloxacin. Although in vitro release exhibited similar patterns, within 24 h the releasing rates of the three formulations were significantly different (tetradecanoic acid-SLN>palmitic acid-SLN>stearic acid-SLN). Pharmacokinetic study after a single dose of intramuscular administration to mice demonstrated that tetradecanoic acid-SLN, palmitic acid-SLN, and stearic acid-SLN increased the bioavailability by 6.79, 3.56 and 2.39 folds, and extended the mean residence time (MRT) of the drug from 10.60 h to 180.36, 46.26 and 19.09 h, respectively. These results suggest that the enrofloxacin-fatty acid SLN are promising formulations for sustained release while fatty acids had significant influences on the characteristics and performances of the SLN. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Total Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of some Almond (Amygdalus Communis L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Adnan Nurhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05 by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili to 62.01% (Supernova in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne to 63.18% (Cristomorto in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35% and 2009 (72.74%. Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08% in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01% in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1

  10. Calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends based on the grouping of triacylglycerol melting points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Nusantoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends has been developed based on grouping TAG melting points. This procedure offered more flexibility in choosing the initial fats and oils and eventually gave deeper insight into the existing chemical compositions and better prediction on the physicochemical properties and microstructure of the fat blends. The amount of high, medium and low melting TAGs could be adjusted using the given calculation procedure to obtain the desired functional properties in the fat blends. Solid fat contents and melting behavior of formulated fat blends showed particular patterns with respect to ratio adjustments of the melting TAG groups. These outcomes also suggested that both TAG species and their quantity had a significant influence on the crystallization behavior of the fat blends. Palmitic fat blends, in general, were found to exhibit higher SFC values than those of Lauric fat blends. Instead of the similarity in crystal microstructure, lauric fat blends were stabilized at β polymorph while palmitic fat blends were stabilized at β’ polymorph.

  11. Calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends based on the grouping of triacylglycerol melting points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusantoro, B.P.; Yanty, N.A.M.; Van de Walle, D.; Hidayat, C.; Danthine, S.; Dewettinck, K.

    2017-01-01

    A calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends has been developed based on grouping TAG melting points. This procedure offered more flexibility in choosing the initial fats and oils and eventually gave deeper insight into the existing chemical compositions and better prediction on the physicochemical properties and microstructure of the fat blends. The amount of high, medium and low melting TAGs could be adjusted using the given calculation procedure to obtain the desired functional properties in the fat blends. Solid fat contents and melting behavior of formulated fat blends showed particular patterns with respect to ratio adjustments of the melting TAG groups. These outcomes also suggested that both TAG species and their quantity had a significant influence on the crystallization behavior of the fat blends. Palmitic fat blends, in general, were found to exhibit higher SFC values than those of Lauric fat blends. Instead of the similarity in crystal microstructure, lauric fat blends were stabilized at β polymorph while palmitic fat blends were stabilized at β’ polymorph. [es

  12. Influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free cosmetics on FAEE concentrations in hair. A performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, versus the sum of four FAEEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, C; Paul, R; Kingston, R; Williams, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are direct metabolites of ethanol and have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of alcohol consumption. Previous research has suggested that the regular use of alcohol containing cosmetic products can influence the concentration of FAEE detected in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free hair cosmetics (hairspray and waxes) on the FAEE concentrations in hair. The effect of cosmetic treatment was measured against the impact on ethyl palmitate in isolation as compared to the sum of four esters. 10 volunteers treated part of their scalp with cosmetic products every day during a 2 month period (alcohol free hairspray n=2, hairspray containing alcohol (42% by volume) n=3, alcohol free wax n=2, wax containing alcohol (11% by volume) n=3). After the 2 month period of cosmetic application hair samples from volunteers were collected from both sides of the scalp. Hair samples were washed with n-heptane, and then cut finely into small pieces. All samples were subjected to clean-up by HS-SPME and then GC PCI-MS/MS for analysis of FAEEs. Comparison of FAEE concentrations between treated and untreated hair showed in some instances that application of hair spray or wax products caused an increase in FAEE levels. Products containing alcohol caused a more substantial increase in alcohol metabolite concentrations in hair when compared to alcohol free products. Three volunteers using an alcohol based hairspray in the study experienced a significant increase in FAEE levels (+27.4%, +205.5%, and +1287.5%), with one of the volunteers showing levels below the cut off for 'abstinence' in the untreated scalp portion, and levels above the cut off for 'chronic excessive consumption' in the treated scalp portion. Performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, compared to the sum of four esters approach suggested that the two quantification approaches react in a very similar manner to the

  13. Number needed to treat and number needed to harm with paliperidone palmitate relative to long-acting haloperidol, bromperidol, and fluphenazine decanoate for treatment of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srihari Gopal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Srihari Gopal1, Joris Berwaerts1, Isaac Nuamah1, Kasem Akhras2, Danielle Coppola1, Ella Daly1, David Hough1, Joseph Palumbo11Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA; 2Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Services, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USABackground: We analyzed data retrieved through a PubMed search of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (haloperidol decanoate, bromperidol decanoate, and fluphenazine decanoate, and a company database of paliperidone palmitate, to compare the benefit-risk ratio in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: From the eight studies that met our selection criteria, two efficacy and six safety parameters were selected for calculation of number needed to treat (NNT, number needed to harm (NNH, and the likelihood of being helped or harmed (LHH using comparisons of active drug relative to placebo. NNTs for prevention of relapse ranged from 2 to 5 for paliperidone palmitate, haloperidol decanoate, and fluphenazine decanoate, indicating a moderate to large effect size.Results: Among the selected maintenance studies, NNH varied considerably, but indicated a lower likelihood of encountering extrapyramidal side effects, such as akathisia, tremor, and tardive dyskinesia, with paliperidone palmitate versus placebo than with first-generation antipsychotic depot agents versus placebo. This was further supported by an overall higher NNH for paliperidone palmitate versus placebo with respect to anticholinergic use and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale positive score. LHH for preventing relapse versus use of anticholinergics was 15 for paliperidone palmitate and 3 for fluphenazine decanoate, favoring paliperidone palmitate.Conclusion: Overall, paliperidone palmitate had a similar NNT and a more favorable NNH compared with the first-generation long-acting injectables assessed.Keywords: long-acting injectables, first-generation antipsychotics

  14. Heterogeneity in limb fatty acid kinetics in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, M; Olsen, D B; Saltin, B

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In order to test the hypothesis that disturbances in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism with type 2 diabetes are not equally present in the upper and lower limbs, we studied fatty acid kinetics simultaneously across the arm and leg of type 2 diabetic patients (n=6) and matched...... control subjects (n=7) for 5 h under baseline conditions and during a 4-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. METHODS: Limb fatty acid kinetics was determined by means of continuous [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion and measurement of arteriovenous differences. RESULTS: The systemic palmitate rate...... in the dysregulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism, with only the leg, but not the arm, showing an impairment of fatty acid kinetics at baseline and during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp causing a physiological increase in insulin concentration....

  15. Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cai

    Full Text Available Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids.Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS. The caveolin-1 bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS.In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5 × 10(7 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid.Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.

  16. CD36 Mediated Fatty Acid-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hua

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia-induced apoptosis mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 is associated with increased uptake of ox-LDL or fatty acid in macrophages, hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis, liver damage and fibrosis in obese patients, and diabetic nephropathy (DN, respectively. However, the specific role of CD36 in podocyte apoptosis in DN with hyperlipidemia remains poorly investigated.The expression of CD36 was measured in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue samples (Ctr = 18, DN = 20 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. We cultured conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5 and treated cells with palmitic acid, and measured CD36 expression by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence; lipid uptake by Oil red O staining and BODIPY staining; apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis; and ROS production by DCFH-DA fluorescence staining. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software.CD36 expression was increased in kidney tissue from DN patients with hyperlipidemia. Palmitic acid upregulated CD36 expression and promoted its translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane in podocytes. Furthermore, palmitic acid increased lipid uptake, ROS production and apoptosis in podocytes, Sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate (SSO, the specific inhibitor of the fatty acid binding site on CD36, decreased palmitic acid-induced fatty acid accumulation, ROS production, and apoptosis in podocytes. Antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine -1-oxyl (tempol inhibited the overproduction of ROS and apoptosis in podocytes induced by palmitic acid.CD36 mediated fatty acid-induced podocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress might participate in the process of DN.

  17. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  18. Hospitalizations and economic analysis in psychotic patients with paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesones-Peral, Jesús E; Gurillo-Muñoz, Pedro; Sánchez-Sicilia, Mari Paz; Miller, Adam; Griñant-Fernández, Alejandra

    Prevent hospitalizations in psychotic disorders is an important aim, so long-acting antipsychotic is a good option that can control better the correct adherence. Moreover, in the current economic context pharmacoeconomic studies are necessary. We estimate the effect in prevention of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PP-LAI) and calculate the economic cost in the 12 months preceding the start of treatment with PP-LAI and 12 months later. Mirror image study of 71 outpatients diagnosed with psychotic disorders and treated with PP-LAI. In a first analysis, we measured along one year: number of hospitalizations/year, number of hospitalization in days, number of emergency assists/year and if there is antipsychotics associated to long-acting treatment. After this phase, we applied Fees Act of Valencia for economic analysis and estimate of the cost per hospitalization (€ 5,640.41) and hospital emergency (€ 187.61). After one year of treatment with PP-LAI (mean dose=130.65mg/month), we obtained greater numbers in assistance variables: total hospitalizations decrease, 78.8% (P=.009); shortening in hospitalization days, 89.4% (P=.009); abridgement of number of emergency assists, 79.1% (P=.002); decrease of rate of antipsychotics associated to long-acting treatment, 21% (P<.0001); increase in monotherapy, 53.8% (P<.0001). Therefore, after 12 months of treatment with PP-LAI we obtained a reduction in inpatient spending (savings of € 175,766.54) and increased spending on antipsychotics 32% (equivalent to € 151,126.92). PP-LAI can be an effective therapy for the treatment of patients with severe psychotic disorders: improves symptomatic stability and can prevent hospitalizations with cost-effective symptom control. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of physicochemical properties and degradation kinetics of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cuilian; Liu, Cong; Tang, Xing

    2010-12-01

    Triamcinolone acetonide palmitate (TAP) is a lipophilic prodrug of triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) to improve the insoluble TAA physicochemical properties for the preparation of emulsions. This investigation has focused on the preformulation study of TAP, including its physicochemical properties and hydrolysis kinetics in vitro. The solubility of TAP in medium-chain triglyceride is about twice greater than that in soybean oil (long-chain triglyceride) (19.17 versus 9.55 mg/g) at 25°C, and in all investigated cases, lecithin (80, 160, and 240 mg/g) as solubilizer provided increased solubility of drugs in medium-chain triglyceride and long-chain triglyceride, whereas the maximum water solubility of TAP was 0.10 μg/mL. The partition coefficient (log P) of TAP was 5.79 irrespective of the pH conditions. The hydrolysis of TAP followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in aqueous solutions, and the stable pH range was from pH 5.0 to 9.0. The in vitro enzymolysis kinetics of TAP in rat plasma and liver homogenate was evaluated by measuring the decrease of TAP as well as the increase of TAA at 37°C for 96 hours. The results demonstrated that the TAP may be hydrolyzed mainly by rat plasma esterase and, to a minor extent, by liver esterase, and the hydrolysis half-life of TAP in 100% rat plasma was 17.53 ± 6.85 hours at pH 7.4. All these results indicated that TAP had successfully obtained higher lipid-soluble property for the preparation of intravenous emulsion and may be an effective prodrug for sustained release of TAA in vivo.

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids induce a decrease in pHi in Jurkat T-cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced rapid (t1/2=33 s) and dose-dependent decreases in pHi in BCECF-loaded human (Jurkat) T-cells. Addition of 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger, prolonged DHA-induced acidification as a function of time, indicating that the exchanger is implicated in pHi recovery.Other fatty acids like oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, but not palmitic acid, also induced a fall in pHi in these cells.To assess the role of calcium in t...

  1. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasm and maternal effects on fatty acid components in soybean (Glycine max Merill.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Hailong; LI Wenxia; LI Wenbin

    2007-01-01

    The quality of oil determined by the constituents and proportion of fatty acid components,and the understanding of heredity of fatty acid components are of importance to breeding good quality soybean varieties.Embryo,cytoplasmic and maternal effects and genotype×environment interaction effects for quality traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] seeds were analyzed using a general genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds with parents,F1 and F2,of 20 crosses from a diallel mating design of five parents planted in the field in 2003 and 2004 in Harbin,China.The interaction effects of palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acid contents were larger than the genetic main effects,while the genetic main effects were equal to interaction effects for linolenic and oleic acid content.Among all kinds of genetic main effects,the embryo effects were the largest for palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acids,while the cytoplasm effects were the largest for oleic and linolenic acids.Among all kinds of interaction effects,the embryo interaction effects were the largest for fatty acids.The sum of additive and additive× environment effects were larger than that of dominance and dominance×environment effects for the linolenic acid content,but not for other quality traits.The general heritabilities were the main parts of heritabilities for palmitic and oleic acid contents,but the interaction was more important for stearic,linoleic,and linolenic acid contents.For the general heritability,maternal and cytoplasm heritabilities were the main components for palmitic,oleic,and linolenic acid contents.It was shown for the interaction heritabilities that the embryo interaction heritabilities were more important for oleic and linolenic acid contents,while the maternal interaction heritabilities were more important for linoleic acid content.Among selection response components,the maternal and cytoplasm general responses and/or interaction responses were more important for palmitic

  2. An investigation into the mechanisms of drug release from taste-masking fatty acid microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sheng; Deutsch, David; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2008-09-01

    Fatty acid microspheres based on stearic and palmitic acids are known to form effective taste masking systems, although the mechanisms by which the drug is preferentially released in the lower gastrointestinal tract are not known. The objective of the present study was to identify the mechanisms involved, with a particular view to clarify the role of acid soap formation in the dissolution process. Microspheres were prepared by a spray chilling process. Using benzoic acid as a model drug and an alkaline dissolution medium, a faster drug release was observed in the mixed fatty acid formulation (50:50 stearic:palmitic acid (w/w)) compared to the single fatty acid component systems. Thermal and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicated a greater degree of acid soap formation for the mixed formulation in alkaline media compared to the single fatty acid systems. Particle size and porosity studies indicated a modest reduction in size for the mixed systems and an increase in porosity on immersion in the dissolution medium. It is proposed that the mixed fatty acid system form a mixed crystal system which in turn facilitates interaction with the dissolution medium, thereby leading to a greater propensity for acid soap formation which in turn forms a permeable liquid crystalline phase through which the drug may diffuse. The role of dissolution of palmitic acid into the dissolution medium is also discussed as a secondary mechanism.

  3. Reciprocal effects of 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid on fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, D A; Chatzidakis, C; Kasziba, E; Cook, G A

    1985-10-01

    Under certain incubation conditions 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) stimulated the oxidation of palmitate by hepatocytes, as observed by others. A decrease in malonyl-CoA concentration accompanied the stimulation of oxidation. Under other conditions, however, TOFA inhibited fatty acid oxidation. The observed effects of TOFA depended on the TOFA and fatty acid concentrations, the cell concentration, the time of TOFA addition relative to the addition of fatty acid, and the nutritional state of the animal (fed or starved). The data indicate that only under limited incubation conditions may TOFA be used as an inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis without inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. When rat liver mitochondria were preincubated with TOFA, ketogenesis from palmitate was slightly inhibited (up to 20%) at TOFA concentrations that were less than that of CoA, but the inhibition became almost complete (up to 90%) when TOFA was greater than or equal to the CoA concentration. TOFA had only slight or no inhibitory effects on the oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA, palmitoyl(-)carnitine, or butyrate. Since TOFA can be converted to TOFyl-CoA, the data suggest that the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation from palmitate results from the decreased availability of CoA for extramitochondrial activation of fatty acids. These data, along with previous data of others, indicate that inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by CoA sequestration is a common mechanism of a group of carboxylic acid inhibitors. A general caution is appropriate with regard to the interpretation of results when using TOFA in studies of fatty acid oxidation.

  4. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  5. Effects of exogenous fatty acids and inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis on disaturated phosphatidylcholine production by fetal lung cells and adult type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, W M; Finkelstein, J N; Parkhurst, A B

    1989-05-01

    De novo fatty acid synthesis may be an important source of saturated fatty acids for fetal lung disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) production. To investigate the roles of de novo fatty acid synthesis and exogenous fatty acids, we incubated dispersed fetal lung cells and freshly isolated adult type II cells with exogenous palmitate and oleate and measured DSPC synthesis. Unlike adult type II cells, fetal lung cells did not increase DSPC synthesis when exogenous palmitate was available; adult type II cells increased DSPC synthesis by 70% in the presence of palmitate. Exogenous oleate decreased DSPC synthesis by 48% in fetal cells but not in adult type II cells. Incubation of fetal lung cells with TOFA [2-furancarboxylate, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-sodium], a metabolic inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis, decreased fatty acid synthesis by 65%. There was a simultaneous 56% inhibition of DSPC production, but no effect on protein, DNA, or glyceride-glycerol production, measured by precursor incorporation. The inhibition of DSPC synthesis associated with TOFA was partially prevented by exogenous palmitate but not oleate. Fetal cells prepared from explants that had been cultured in dexamethasone also had TOFA-associated inhibition of DSPC synthesis that was similar to non-dexamethasone-exposed cells. These studies suggest that under baseline conditions of low fatty acid availability, such as in the fetus, de novo fatty acid synthesis in fetal cells, but not in adult type II cells, provides sufficient saturated fatty acids to support maximal DSPC production. Inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis resulting in decreased DSPC production in fetal lung cells in conditions of low fatty acid availability suggests that fatty acid synthesis may be central to maintain DSPC synthesis in the fetus.

  6. Cross linkage studies with the membranes of the vesicular stomatitis virus using radioactive 4-acido and 5-acido palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the study described here the spatial arrangement of lipids and proteins in the VS virus was investigated on the basis of the covalent cross linkage technique. The formation of such cross linkages is brought about by the action of photosensitive acidosubstituted lipids, which permit acido functions to be introduced into a membrane in a previously defined position. Subsequently, photolysis helps to trigger the generation of radioactive nitrenes that react with the proteins and lipids in their immediate vicinity in a direct and non-selective way. The findings revealed by this study have raised questions as to the possibility of lipid-protein and lipid-lipid interactions, which is also discussed. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Effects of chronic fly ash exposure on golden hamsters: changes in lung phospholipids and their fatty acid composition as a result of inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, I; Negishi, T; Kamihira, M

    1986-01-01

    Changes in lung phospholipids of golden hamsters exposed to 2 mg/mT coal fly ash for 180 days, 7 days/week, 20 hours/day were examined. In the exposed group the amount of phospholipids in lavaged lung organ increased significantly compared with the control group, but in pulmonary surfactant did not. As regards lipid composition of phospholipids in lavaged lung organ, phosphatidylcholine was slightly increased but sphingomyelin was decreased by exposure. Some significant changes in fatty acid composition of phospholipids were observed between exposed and control group. In pulmonary surfactant, palmitic acid showed no change but myristic acid and oleic acid decreased. On the other hand, in lavaged lung organ, palmitic acid increased but stearic acid and decosatetraenoic acid decreased. Arachidonic acid composition increased in both parts of lung. An increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acid in whole fatty acid of phospholipids was found in pulmonary surfactant of exposed hamsters. 24 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Fatty acid-binding protein in liver and small intestine of the preruminant calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cytosol obtained from differential centrifugation of homogenates from liver and small intestine mucosa was incubated with 1-[ 14 C] oleic acid or 1-[ 14 C] palmitic acid and filtered through Sephadex G-75. Elution profiles for both tissues showed radioactivity in two main peaks, the first corresponding to binding of fatty acid to high molecular weight proteins and the second to a protein fraction with a molecular weight of approximately 12,000 daltons. The low molecular weight fraction had high fatty acid-binding activity, which was greater for oleic than palmitic acid. The findings demonstrate the presence of fatty acid-binding protein in liver and intestinal mucosa of the preruminant calf

  9. Incorporation of [14C]-palmitate into lipids of Brassica cells during the induction of freezing tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.V.; Joseph, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in plasma membrane lipid composition have been causally related to increased freezing tolerance. Studies of lipid metabolism during ABA induction of freezing tolerance in Brassica napus suspension cultures were undertaken. Cells were labeled with [ 14 C]-palmitate four days after transfer to fresh medium (control) or medium containing ABA (which increases freezing tolerance). At times between one and 20 hrs after labeling, ABA-treated cells incorporated almost twice the amount of label as controls cells. Approximately 80% of the radioactivity was associated with neutral lipids in ABA-treated cells and controls. Incorporation of label into total cellular polar lipids was 4.9 x 10 5 dpm/mg protein for control cells and 1 x 10 6 dpm/mg protein for cells transferred to medium containing ABA. Analysis of lipids following alkaline hydrolysis indicated that incorporation of [ 14 C]-palmitate into glucosylceramide of ABA-treated cells was less than 60% of control values when expressed relative to that of the total polar lipids. Incorporation into ceramides was also depressed in ABA-treated cells

  10. Mass spectrometry characterisation of fatty acids from metabolically engineered soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Machado, Alex M; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Coelho, Cíntia M; Lacerda, Valquiria A M; Coelho, Marly C; Rech, Elibio L

    2014-05-01

    Improving the quality and performance of soybean oil as biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of its fatty acids and requires an increase in monounsaturated acids and a reduction in polyunsaturated acids. Despite its current use as a source of biofuel, soybean oil contains an average of 25 % oleic acid and 13 % palmitic acid, which negatively impacts its oxidative stability and freezing point, causing a high rate of nitrogen oxide emission. Gas chromatography and ion mobility mass spectrometry were conducted on soybean fatty acids from metabolically engineered seed extracts to determine the nature of the structural oleic and palmitic acids. The soybean genes FAD2-1 and FatB were placed under the control of the 35SCaMV constitutive promoter, introduced to soybean embryonic axes by particle bombardment and down-regulated using RNA interference technology. Results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 94.58 %) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and non-transgenic oil extracts.

  11. Effect of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplementation on bio-plastic production under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S K; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt

    2013-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are intracellular reserve material stored by gram-negative bacteria under nutrient-limited condition. PHAs are utilized in biodegradable plastics (bio-plastics) synthesis due to their similarity with conventional synthetic plastic. In the present study, the effect of addition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid) on the production of PHAs by the soil bacterium Alcaligenes sp. NCIM 5085 was studied. Fatty acid supplementation in basal media produced saturated and unsaturated PHAs of medium and short chain length. Gas chromatography analysis of palmitic acid-supplemented media showed the presence of short chain length (scl) PHAs which could potentially serve as precursors for bio-plastic production. The scl PHA was subsequently characterized as PHB by NMR and FTIR. On the other hand, oleic acid and linoleic acid addition showed both saturated and unsaturated PHAs of different chain lengths. Palmitic acid showed maximum PHB content of 70.8 % at concentration of 15 g l -1 under shake flask cultivation. When shake flask cultivation was scaled up in a 7.5-l bioreactor (working volume 3 l), 7.6 g l -1 PHA was produced with a PHB yield (Y P/X ) and productivity of 75.89 % and 0.14 g l -1  h, respectively.

  12. Molecular assessment of complex microbial communities degrading long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in methanogenic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, D.Z.; Pereira, M.A.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.; Alves, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial diversity of anaerobic sludge after extended contact with long chain fatty acids (LCFA) was studied using molecular approaches. Samples containing high amounts of accumulated LCFA were obtained after continuous loading of two bioreactors with oleate or with palmitate. These sludge samples

  13. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by

  14. The stereospecific triacylglycerol structures and fatty acid profiles of human milk and infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Lauritzen, L.; Færk, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The stereospecific structures of the triacylglycerol molecules in human milk differ from that of cow's milk and vegetable oils, which are the fat sources used in infant formula. In human milk, palmitic acid (16:0) is predominantly esterified in the sn2 position, whereas vegetable oils...

  15. Phase Behavior of a Phospholipid/Fatty Acid/Water Mixture Studied in Atomic Detail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Volker; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert-Jan

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study the phase behavior of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/palmitic acid (PA)/water 1:2:20 mixture in atomic detail. Starting from a random solution of DPPC and PA in water, the system adopts either a gel phase at temperatures below similar

  16. Synergistic permeability enhancing effect of lysophospholipids and fatty acids on lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper; Mouritsen, O.G.; Jørgensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration-dependent s...

  17. Survey of SSC12 regions affecting fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat using high density SNP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María eMuñoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition is a critical aspect of pork because it affects sensorial and technological aspects of meat quality and it is relevant for human health. Previous studies identified significant QTLs in porcine chromosome 12 for fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat. In the present study, 374 SNPs mapped in SSC12 from the 60K Porcine SNP Beadchip were used. We have combined linkage and association analyses with expression data analysis in order to identify regions of SSC12 that could affect fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in longissimus muscle. The QTL scan showed a region around the 60 cM position that significantly affects palmitic fatty acid and two related fatty acid indexes. The Iberian QTL allele increased the palmitic content (+2.6% of mean trait. This QTL does not match any of those reported in the previous study on fatty acid composition of backfat, suggesting different genetic control acting at both tissues. The SNP association analyses showed significant associations with linolenic and palmitic acids besides several indexes. Among the polymorphisms that affect palmitic fatty acid and match the QTL region at 60 cM, there were three that mapped in the Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein (PCTP gene and one in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase  gene (ACACA. Interestingly one of the PCTP SNPs also affected significantly unsaturated and double bound indexes and the ratio between polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids. Differential expression was assessed on longissimus muscle conditional on the genotype of the QTL and on the most significant SNPs, according to the results obtained in the former analyses. Results from the microarray expression analyses, validated by RT-qPCR, showed that PCTP expression levels significantly vary depending on the QTL as well as on the own PCTP genotype. The results obtained with the different approaches point out the PCTP gene as a powerful candidate underlying the QTL for

  18. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and other health-related lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boiled samples preserved the total beneficial lipids of CLA, PUFA, MUFA and omega 3 and 6 fatty acids more than smoked samples. The major fatty acids found in the muscle analyzed are palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and octadecenoic (C18:1). Omega 3 fatty acids are 1.05%, 1.16% and 1.30 % for boiled, smoked and ...

  19. Chemical variability of fatty acid composition of seabuckthorn berries oil from different locations by GC-FID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, N.; Kanwal, F.; Siddique, M.; Ghauri, E.G.; Akram, M.

    2008-01-01

    For determining the chemical composition of seabuckthorn oil of different origins, samples of seabuckthorn berries (red and yellow varieties) were collected from different locations of northern areas of Pakistan. Among eight different fatty acids, palmitoleic acid (32.4%) and palmitic acid (36.52 %) were found to be the major fatty acids present along with other important fatty acids i.e., oleic acid (37.07%), linoleic acid (12.36%) and linolenic acid (0.73%). Quantities of unsaturated fatty acids were higher than that of saturated analogues. (author)

  20. Surface and interlayer base-characters in lepidocrocite titanate: The adsorption and intercalation of fatty acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluangnont, Tosapol, E-mail: tosapol.ma@kmitl.ac.th [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Catalytic Chemistry Research Unit, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Arsa, Pornanan [Catalytic Chemistry Research Unit, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Limsakul, Kanokporn; Juntarachairot, Songsit; Sangsan, Saithong [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Gotoh, Kazuma [Graduate School of Natural Science & Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sooknoi, Tawan, E-mail: kstawan@gmail.com [Catalytic Chemistry Research Unit, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2016-06-15

    While layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with positively-charged sheets are well known as basic materials, layered metal oxides having negatively-charged sheets are not generally recognized so. In this article, the surface and interlayer base-characters of O{sup 2−} sites in layered metal oxides have been demonstrated, taking lepidocrocite titanate K{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 1.6}O{sub 4} as an example. The low basicity (0.04 mmol CO{sub 2}/g) and low desorption temperature (50–300 °C) shown by CO{sub 2}− TPD suggests that O{sup 2−} sites at the external surfaces is weakly basic, while those at the interlayer space are mostly inaccessible to CO{sub 2}. The liquid-phase adsorption study, however, revealed the uptake as much as 37% by mass of the bulky palmitic acid (C{sub 16} acid). The accompanying expansion of the interlayer space by ~0.1 nm was detected by PXRD and TEM. In an opposite manner to the external surfaces, the interlayer O{sup 2−} sites can deprotonate palmitic acid, forming the salt (i.e., potassium palmitate) occluded between the sheets. Two types of basic sites are proposed based on ultrafast {sup 1}H MAS NMR and FTIR results. The interlayer basic sites in lepidocrocite titanate leads to an application of this material as a selective and stable two-dimensional (2D) basic catalyst, as demonstrated by the ketonization of palmitic acid into palmitone (C{sub 31} ketone). Tuning of the catalytic activity by varying the type of metal (Zn, Mg, and Li) substituting at Ti{sup IV} sites was also illustrated. - Graphical abstract: Interlayer basic sites in lepidocrocite titanate, K{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 1.6}O{sub 4}, lead to an intercalation of palmitic acid with a layer expansion. Display Omitted - Highlights: • K{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 1.6}O{sub 4} intercalates palmitic acid, forming the occluded potassium salt. • The interlayer expansion is evidenced by PXRD patterns and TEM image. • Two types of basic sites are deduced from ultrafast

  1. Surface and interlayer base-characters in lepidocrocite titanate: The adsorption and intercalation of fatty acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluangnont, Tosapol; Arsa, Pornanan; Limsakul, Kanokporn; Juntarachairot, Songsit; Sangsan, Saithong; Gotoh, Kazuma; Sooknoi, Tawan

    2016-01-01

    While layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with positively-charged sheets are well known as basic materials, layered metal oxides having negatively-charged sheets are not generally recognized so. In this article, the surface and interlayer base-characters of O 2− sites in layered metal oxides have been demonstrated, taking lepidocrocite titanate K 0.8 Zn 0.4 Ti 1.6 O 4 as an example. The low basicity (0.04 mmol CO 2 /g) and low desorption temperature (50–300 °C) shown by CO 2 − TPD suggests that O 2− sites at the external surfaces is weakly basic, while those at the interlayer space are mostly inaccessible to CO 2 . The liquid-phase adsorption study, however, revealed the uptake as much as 37% by mass of the bulky palmitic acid (C 16 acid). The accompanying expansion of the interlayer space by ~0.1 nm was detected by PXRD and TEM. In an opposite manner to the external surfaces, the interlayer O 2− sites can deprotonate palmitic acid, forming the salt (i.e., potassium palmitate) occluded between the sheets. Two types of basic sites are proposed based on ultrafast 1 H MAS NMR and FTIR results. The interlayer basic sites in lepidocrocite titanate leads to an application of this material as a selective and stable two-dimensional (2D) basic catalyst, as demonstrated by the ketonization of palmitic acid into palmitone (C 31 ketone). Tuning of the catalytic activity by varying the type of metal (Zn, Mg, and Li) substituting at Ti IV sites was also illustrated. - Graphical abstract: Interlayer basic sites in lepidocrocite titanate, K 0.8 Zn 0.4 Ti 1.6 O 4 , lead to an intercalation of palmitic acid with a layer expansion. Display Omitted - Highlights: • K 0.8 Zn 0.4 Ti 1.6 O 4 intercalates palmitic acid, forming the occluded potassium salt. • The interlayer expansion is evidenced by PXRD patterns and TEM image. • Two types of basic sites are deduced from ultrafast 1 H MAS NMR. • Lepidocrocite titanate catalyses ketonization of palmitic acid to palmitone and

  2. Studies on the disappearance of palmitate-1-14C from the plasma of pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, L.; Zimmermann, T.; Schelhorn, P.; Volk, A.; Wagner, H.

    1980-01-01

    Intravenously injected radioactive fatty acids disappear from the circulation at an ever decreasing rate; about 1% of the injected label remains in the plasma for hours. This slow elimination of the label can be explained by an extensive recycling of the label or by a slow turnover of a portion of the injected label. The results show that a recycling of the label can not be responsible for the slow elimination of the label, because of the specific activities of the tissue fatty acids being much lower than the specific activity of the plasma free fatty acids, and the reinjection of the remaining label of 1% into control animals showing the same slow elimination of the label. An interpretation of the experiments could be that some fatty acids (about 1%) have a dissociation rate from albumin that is much lower than others, and thus they might be responsible for the late portion of the disappearance curve. (author)

  3. Genetic variability in Cynara cardunculus L. domestic and wild types for grain oil production and fatty acids composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raccuia, Salvatore Antonino; Piscioneri, Ilario; Sharma, Neeta; Melilli, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed to study the genetic variability within different types of Cynara cardunculus L., domestic and wild types, for their grain oil amount and oil fatty acid composition. The grain oils were extracted from 8 domestic cardoons and 4 wild cardoons, by Soxhlet method, and obtained oils were characterized for palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids by gas chromatography. The oil amount, resulted on average of accessions 216 g kg -1 DM with a good range of variability (CV = 11.7%). Unsaturated acids (oleic and linoleic) predominated over saturated ones (stearic and palmitic acids), the chemical characterization of extracted oil, showed the main compound (as % of analysed fatty acids), averaged for all populations, was linoleic acid (44.5%), followed by oleic acid (42.6%), palmitic acid (9.8%) and stearic acid (3.1%). In particular referring the oleic acid wild cardoon populations showed a mean value of 289 g kg -1 oil, against a mean value of 472 g kg -1 oil showed by domestic cardoon accessions. Three of the studied domestic cardoon ('DC1', 'DC3' and 'DC7') showed values higher than 795 g kg -1 oil, while all the other accessions had concentration lower than 370 g kg -1 oil. The three types of domestic cardoon 'DC1', 'DC3' and 'DC7' showed a fatty acids profile similar to genetic modified sunflower oil, representing new genetic material that potentially could be used for high quality biodiesel production, characterised by a low Iodine Number. -- Highlights: → The grain oils from 12 cardoons were characterized for fatty acids composition. → The oil amount, resulted on average of accessions 216 g kg -1 DM. → Oleic and linoleic acids predominated over stearic and palmitic acids. → Three domestic cardoons grain oil showed high oleic acid content (795 g kg -1 oil). → This oil could be used for high quality biodiesel production, with a low IN.

  4. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Navas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Methods: Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Results: Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Conclusions: Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD. Keywords: Obesity, N43, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid, Central nervous system, Western diet, ω6-fatty acids

  5. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  6. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  7. SIRT1 attenuates palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells via induction of oxygen-regulated protein 150

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T.W.; Lee, K.T.; Lee, M.W.; Ka, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although SIRT1 has a therapeutic effect on T2DM, the mechanisms by which SIRT1 ameliorates insulin resistance (IR) remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of SIRT1 on palmitate-induced ER stress in HepG2 cells and its underlying signal pathway. Treatment with resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator significantly inhibited palmitate-induced ER stress, leading to the protection against palmitate-induced ER stress and insulin resistance. Resveratrol and SIRT1 overexpression induced the expression of oxygen-regulated protein (ORP) 150 in HepG2 cells. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) was involved in the regulation of ORP150 expression because suppression of FOXO1 inhibited the induction of ORP150 by SIRT1. Our results indicate a novel mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates ER stress by overexpression of ORP150, and suggest that SIRT1 ameliorates palmitate-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells via regulation of ER stress.

  8. Efficacy and safety of retinol palmitate ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eye: a Japanese Phase II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshida, Hiroshi; Funaki, Toshinari; Ono, Koichi; Tabuchi, Nobuhito; Watanabe, Sota; Seki, Tamotsu; Otake, Hiroshi; Kato, Takuji; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the administration of retinol palmitate (VApal) ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) for the treatment of patients with dry eye. This study included 66 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomized (1:1) into either a VApal ophthalmic solution or a placebo group, and a single drop of either solution was administered six times daily for 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were 12 subjective symptoms, rose bengal (RB) and fluorescein staining scores, tear film breakup time, and tear secretion. Safety measures included clinical blood and urine analyses and adverse event recordings. In comparisons of the two groups, the mean change in RB staining score from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 2 and 4 weeks ( P ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) is safe and effective for the treatment of patients with dry eye.

  9. Incorporation of [14C]-L-leucine in splenic and hepatic tissue of rats 'chemically splenectomized' by ethyl palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebestik, V.; Kselikova, M.; Freiova, M.; Potmesilova, I.

    1978-01-01

    In experiments with 'chemically splenectomized' rats by an i.v. application of ethyl palmitate (EP) emulsion and using [ 14 C]-L-leucine, the protein synthesis in spleen and liver was followed. Two hours following EP application protein synthesis in the spleen was significantly decreased; after 24 hrs and 4 days the incorporation increased moderately above normal values, and in the subsequent intervals protein synthesis was again lowered. In the liver a significant increase of protein synthesis 24 hrs and 4 days after EP injection was observed. Changes of proteins synthesis in the spleen are evidently related to damage of the tissue and its subsequent regeneration. Changes in the liver are manifestations rather of an increased metabolic load during EP degradation. (author)

  10. Substrate overload: Glucose oxidation in human myotubes conquers palmitate oxidation through anaplerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    of citrate was increased which could be abolished by phenylacetic acid (inhibitor of pyruvate carboxylase (PC)). The present data challenges above preconceptions. Although they operate at low-moderate substrate levels additional two principles determine substrate oxidation at higher substrate concentrations...

  11. PSI1 is responsible for the stearic acid enrichment that is characteristic of phosphatidylinositol in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guédard, Marina; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Boyer, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    complete disappearance of stearic (but not of palmitic acid) at the sn-1 position of this phospholipid. Moreover, it was found that, whereas glycerol 3-phosphate, lysophosphatidic acid and 1-acyl lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase activities were similar in microsomal membranes isolated from wild......-acyl-1-lysolysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase activity was recovered, and was accompanied by a strong increase in the stearic acid content of lysophosphatidylinositol. As previously suggested for phosphatidylinositol from animal cells (which contains almost exclusively stearic acid...... as the saturated fatty acid), the results obtained in the present study demonstrate that the existence of phosphatidylinositol species containing stearic acid in yeast results from a remodeling of neo-synthesized molecules of phosphatidylinositol....

  12. Amino and Fatty Acids of Wild Edible Mushrooms of the Genus Boletus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri O. Levitsky

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on the free amino acids of 15 wild edible mushroom species belonging to the genus Boletus (phylum Basidiomycota was developed. The major amino acids in the fruit bodies were arginine , alanine, glutamine, and glutamic acid. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic ( 9- 18:1, linoleic acid (9,12-18:2 , and palmitic acid (16:0, but a great variation of the ester composition from one to another one was found. Chemical constituents were characterized by GC-MS, and other chemical methods.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of the ELOVL6 gene is associated with a major QTL effect on fatty acid composition in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corominas, J.; Marchesi, J.A.; Puig-Oliveras, A.; Revilla, M.; Estelle, J.; Alves, E.; Folch, J.M.; Ballester, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In previous studies on an Iberian x Landrace cross, we have provided evidence that supported the porcine ELOVL6 gene as the major causative gene of the QTL on pig chromosome 8 for palmitic and palmitoleic acid contents in muscle and backfat. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

  14. Imidazopyridine-Based Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors That Show Anti-HCV Activity and in Vivo Target Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslob, Johan D; Johnson, Russell J; Cai, Haiying; Feng, Shirley Q; Hu, Lily; Kosaka, Yuko; Lai, Julie; Sivaraja, Mohanram; Tep, Samnang; Yang, Hanbiao; Zaharia, Cristiana A; Evanchik, Marc J; McDowell, Robert S

    2013-01-10

    Potent imidazopyridine-based inhibitors of fatty acid synthase (FASN) are described. The compounds are shown to have antiviral (HCV replicon) activities that track with their biochemical activities. The most potent analogue (compound 19) also inhibits rat FASN and inhibits de novo palmitate synthesis in vitro (cell-based) as well as in vivo.

  15. Sequestration of fatty acids in triglycerides prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress in an in vitro model of cardiomyocyte lipotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, M.; Dapito, D.H.; Drosatos-Tampakaki, Z.; Huiping-Son, N.; Huang, L.S.; Kersten, A.H.; Drosatos, K.; Goldberg, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    We used human cardiomyocyte-derived cells to create an in vitro model to study lipid metabolism and explored the effects of PPAR gamma, ACSL1 and ATGL on fatty acid-induced ER stress. Compared to oleate, palmitate treatment resulted in less intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and more ER

  16. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS OF HERB OF THYMUS CRETACEUS KLOK. ET SCHOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied carboxylic acids of the herb of Thymus cretaceus Klok. et Schost which is widespread on a territory of some regions (Belgorod, Voronezh. The study was carried out using gas-liquid chromatography at Agilent Technologies 6890 chromatographer with massspectrometric detector 5973 N. Acids concentration was calculated by means of inner standard.We have established that carboxylic acids of Thymus cretaceus are represented by 34 compounds. Palmitic (1779.02 mg/kg, behenic (1084.15 mg/kg, levulinic (986.24 mg/kg and linoleic acids (678.82 mg/kg predominate among fatty acids; citric (9835.14 mg/kg, malonic (447.91 mg/kg and oxalic acids (388.32 mg/kg predominate among organic acids; andferulic acid predominate amongphenolcarbonic acids.

  17. FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTERS FROM MICROALGAE OF Scenedesmus ecornis BY ENZYMATIC AND ACID CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabryelle F. de Almeida

    Full Text Available Microalgae are an indispensable food source for the various growth stages of mollusks, crustaceans, and several fish species. Using a microalgae biomass present in the Amazonian ecosystem (Macapá-AP, we study extraction methods for fatty acid such as solvent extraction (magnetic stirring and/or Soxhlet and/or hydrolysis (acid and/or enzymatic catalysis followed by esterification and/or direct transesterification. Extraction of crude triacylglycerides by mechanical stirring at room temperature was more efficient than continuous reflux (Soxhlet. Subsequently, the lipid extract was subject to transesterification with ethanol and CAL-B as a biocatalyst, leading to production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE. Additionally, FAEEs were prepared by hydrolysis of crude triacylglycerides followed by acid-mediated esterification or enzymatic catalysis (lipase. In this case, the type of catalyst did not significantly influence FAEE yields. In the lipid extract, we identified palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids with palmitic acid being the most abundant. Our results suggest that enzymatic catalysis is a viable method for the extraction of lipids in the microalga, Scenedesmus ecornis.

  18. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  19. The comparison of fatty acid and cholesterol profile on fresh and mozarella cheese made by pampangan buffalo milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizqiati, H.; Nurwantoro; Mulyani, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the composition of fatty acid and cholesterol profile of Fresh and Mozarella Cheese from Pampangan Buffalo Milk. Material of this reseach was Pampangan buffalo milk and Mozarella cheese made from buffalo milk. Fatty acids composition were analyzed by [1] method. Result showed the major saturated fatty acid found in milk and Mozzarella cheese Pampangan buffalo milk were palmitic, stearic and miristic acid while the unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid. The total amount of fatty acid in Mozarella cheese was lower than those in Pampangan buffalo milk.

  20. TRAF1 knockdown alleviates palmitate-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells through NF-κB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wanlu [Department of Pathogen Biology, Medical College, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Tang, Zhuqi; Zhu, Xiaohui [Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Xia, Nana; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Suxin [Department of Pathogen Biology, Medical College, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Inflammation and Molecular Drug Target, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Cui, Shiwei, E-mail: neifenmicui@163.com [Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Cuifang, E-mail: binghuodinghuo@163.com [Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-11-20

    High-fat diet (HFD) and inflammation are key contributors to insulin resistance (IR) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With HFD, plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) can activate the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in target tissues, then initiate negative crosstalk between FFAs and insulin signaling. However, the molecular link between IR and inflammation remains to be identified. We here reported that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), an adapter in signal transduction, was involved in the onset of IR in hepatocytes. TRAF1 was significantly up-regulated in insulin-resistant liver tissues and palmitate (PA)-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, we showed that depletion of TRAF1 led to inhibition of the activity of NF-κB. Given the fact that the activation of NF-κB played a facilitating role in IR, the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β was also analyzed. We found that depletion of TRAF1 markedly reversed PA-induced attenuation of the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in the cells. The accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocyte and expression of two key gluconeogenic enzymes, PEPCK and G6Pase, were also determined and found to display a similar tendency with the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β. Glucose uptake assay indicated that knocking down TRAF1 blocked the effect of PA on the suppression of glucose uptake. These data implicated that TRAF1 knockdown might alleviate PA-induced IR in HepG2 cells through NF-κB pathway. - Highlights: • TRAF1 accelerated PA-induced IR in HepG2 cells mediated through NF-κB signaling. • Knockdown of TRAF1 alleviated PA-induced IR in HepG2 cells. • Knockdown of TRAF1 alleviated PA-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. • Knockdown of TRAF1 reversed PA-induced suppression of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells. • Knockdown of TRAF1 reversed PA-induced gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells.

  1. TRAF1 knockdown alleviates palmitate-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells through NF-κB pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wanlu; Tang, Zhuqi; Zhu, Xiaohui; Xia, Nana; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Suxin; Cui, Shiwei; Wang, Cuifang

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) and inflammation are key contributors to insulin resistance (IR) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With HFD, plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) can activate the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in target tissues, then initiate negative crosstalk between FFAs and insulin signaling. However, the molecular link between IR and inflammation remains to be identified. We here reported that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), an adapter in signal transduction, was involved in the onset of IR in hepatocytes. TRAF1 was significantly up-regulated in insulin-resistant liver tissues and palmitate (PA)-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, we showed that depletion of TRAF1 led to inhibition of the activity of NF-κB. Given the fact that the activation of NF-κB played a facilitating role in IR, the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β was also analyzed. We found that depletion of TRAF1 markedly reversed PA-induced attenuation of the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in the cells. The accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocyte and expression of two key gluconeogenic enzymes, PEPCK and G6Pase, were also determined and found to display a similar tendency with the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β. Glucose uptake assay indicated that knocking down TRAF1 blocked the effect of PA on the suppression of glucose uptake. These data implicated that TRAF1 knockdown might alleviate PA-induced IR in HepG2 cells through NF-κB pathway. - Highlights: • TRAF1 accelerated PA-induced IR in HepG2 cells mediated through NF-κB signaling. • Knockdown of TRAF1 alleviated PA-induced IR in HepG2 cells. • Knockdown of TRAF1 alleviated PA-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. • Knockdown of TRAF1 reversed PA-induced suppression of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells. • Knockdown of TRAF1 reversed PA-induced gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells.

  2. The effect of endogenous essential and nonessential fatty acids on the uptake and subsequent agonist-induced release of arachidonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, E.E.; Hurtubise, V.; Schott, M.A.; Laposata, M.

    1989-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the uptake and agonist-induced release of a pulse of arachidonate are influenced by the size and composition of preexisting endogenous fatty acid pools. EFD-1 cells, an essential fatty acid-deficient mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, were incubated with radiolabeled (14C or 3H) arachidonate, linoleate, eicosapentaenoate (EPA), palmitate, or oleate in concentrations of 0-33 microM for 24 h. After 24 h, the cells were pulsed with 0.67 microM radiolabeled (3H or 14C, opposite first label) arachidonate for 15 min and then stimulated with 10 microM bradykinin for 4 min. Because EFD-1 cells contain no endogenous essential fatty acids, we were able to create essential fatty acid-repleted cells for which the specific activity of the newly constructed endogenous essential fatty acid pool was known. Loading the endogenous pool with the essential fatty acids arachidonate, eicosapentaenoate, or linoleate (15-20 nmol of fatty acid incorporated/10(6) cells) decreased the uptake of a pulse of arachidonate from 200 to 100 pmol/10(6) cells but had no effect on palmitate uptake. The percent of arachidonate incorporated during the pulse which was released upon agonist stimulation increased 2-fold (4-8%) as the endogenous pool of essential fatty acids was increased from 0 to 15-20 nmol/10(6) cells. This 8% release was at least 3-fold greater than the percent release from the various endogenous essential fatty acid pools. In contrast, loading the endogenous pool with the nonessential fatty acids oleate or palmitate to more than 2-3 times their preexisting cellular level had no effect on the uptake of an arachidonate pulse. Like the essential fatty acids, increasing endogenous oleate increased (by 2-fold) the percent release of arachidonate incorporated during the pulse, whereas endogenous palmitate had no effect on subsequent agonist-induced release from this arachidonate pool

  3. Study of the changes in the dietary fatty acids and physicochemical values of sweet and bitter apricot oils in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, H.; Hamid, S.

    2007-01-01

    The quantity of oil in local varieties of sweet and bitter apricot was found to be more than that earlier reported for the Indian varieties. Both, sweet and bitter apricot oils, were semi-drying type. Refractive index of bitter apricot oil was higher whereas, free fatty acids were more in sweet apricot oil. Amount of cyanide, cadmium, antimony, arsenic, lead and copper as well as of palmitic acid insignificantly increased with ripening, being more in bitter apricot oil. Major difference was noted in fatty acid composition. Linoleic acid was present in higher amount in sweet apricot oil (21.4%) than in bitter apricot oil (19.6%). Concentration of palmitic acid in sweet oil was 5.0%, while in bitter oil, it was 6.4%. (author)

  4. Onset of efficacy and tolerability following the initiation dosing of long-acting paliperidone palmitate: post-hoc analyses of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Dong-Jing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic for the acute and maintenance treatment of adults with schizophrenia. The recommended initiation dosing regimen is 234 mg on Day 1 and 156 mg on Day 8 via intramuscular (deltoid injection; followed by 39 to 234 mg once-monthly thereafter (deltoid or gluteal. These post-hoc analyses addressed two commonly encountered clinical issues regarding the initiation dosing: the time to onset of efficacy and the associated tolerability. Methods In a 13-week double-blind trial, 652 subjects with schizophrenia were randomized to paliperidone palmitate 39, 156, or 234 mg (corresponding to 25, 100, or 150 mg equivalents of paliperidone, respectively or placebo (NCT#00590577. Subjects randomized to paliperidone palmitate received 234 mg on Day 1, followed by their randomized fixed dose on Day 8, and monthly thereafter, with no oral antipsychotic supplementation. The onset of efficacy was defined as the first timepoint where the paliperidone palmitate group showed significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS score compared to placebo (Analysis of Covariance [ANCOVA] models and Last Observation Carried Forward [LOCF] methodology without adjusting for multiplicity using data from the Days 4, 8, 22, and 36 assessments. Adverse event (AE rates and relative risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI versus placebo were determined. Results Paliperidone palmitate 234 mg on Day 1 was associated with greater improvement than placebo on Least Squares (LS mean PANSS total score at Day 8 (p = 0.037. After the Day 8 injection of 156 mg, there was continued PANSS improvement at Day 22 (p ≤ 0.007 vs. placebo and Day 36 (p Conclusions Significantly greater symptom improvement was observed by Day 8 with paliperidone palmitate (234 mg on Day 1 compared to placebo; this effect was maintained after the 156 mg Day 8 injection, with a trend towards a dose

  5. Amino acid and fatty acid compositions of Rusip from fermented Anchovy fish (Stolephorussp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesoemawardani, D.; Hidayati, S.; Subeki

    2018-04-01

    Rusip is a typical food of Bangka Belitung Indonesia made from fermented anchovy. This study aims to determine the properties of chemistry, microbiology, composition of amino acids and fatty acids from fermented fish spontaneously and non spontaneously. Spontaneous rusip treatment is done by anchovy fish (Stolephorussp) after cleaning and added salt 25% (w/w) and palm sugar 10% (w/w). While, non-spontaneous rusip is done by adding a culture mixture of Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus bacteria 2% (w/v). The materials are then incubated for 2 weeks. The data obtained were then performed t-test at the level of 5%. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip fermentation process showed significant differences in total acid, reducing sugar, salt content, TVN, total lactic acid bacteria, total mold, and total microbial. The dominant amino acid content of spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are glutamic acid and aspartic acid, while the dominant fatty acids in spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are docosahexaenoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, stearic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, palmitoleic acid, and myristic acid.

  6. Fatty acids, phenols content, and antioxidant activity in Ibervillea sonorae callus cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada-Zúñiga, M.E.; Arano-Varela, H.; Buendía-González, L.; Orozco-Villafuerte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae callus cultures were established in order to produce fatty acids (lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic and stearic acids) and phenolic compounds. Highest callus induction (100%) was obtained in treatments containing 2.32 or 4.65 μM Kinetin (KIN) with 2.26 or 6.80 μM 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Highest fatty acids (FA) production (48.57 mg g-1), highest total phenol content (TPC; 57.1 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] g-1) and highest antioxidant activity (EC...

  7. Methodological challenges in indirect treatment comparisons: spotlight on a recent comparison of long-acting injectable aripiprazole versus paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Gopal, Srihari; Kim, Edward; Mathews, Maju; Kern-Sliwa, Jennifer; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Wooller, Annette; Berlin, Jesse

    2018-03-01

    In a recent study, an indirect treatment comparison was performed to examine the relative efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole once monthly and paliperidone palmitate once monthly. The authors concluded that the results may suggest relative advantages for aripiprazole once monthly over paliperidone palmitate once monthly in the short-term treatment of schizophrenia. However, the validity of the study is compromised as an indirect treatment comparison using extant data may violate important assumptions. Other methodological issues identified further highlight the challenges of performing indirect treatment comparisons.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  8. A simple and robust quantitative analysis of retinol and retinyl palmitate using a liquid chromatographic isocratic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yokota

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is a vital nutritional substances that regulates biological activities including development, but is also associated with disease onset. The extent of vitamin A intake influences the retinoid content in the liver, the most important organ for the storage of vitamin A. Measurement of endogenous retinoid in biological samples is important to understand retinoid homeostasis. Here we present a reliable, highly sensitive, and robust method for the quantification of retinol and retinyl palmitate using a reverse-phase HPLC/UV isocratic method. We determined the impact of chronic dietary vitamin A on retinoid levels in livers of mice fed an AIN-93G semi-purified diet (4 IU/g compared with an excess vitamin A diet (1000 IU/g over a period from birth to 10 weeks of age. Coefficients of variation for intra-assays for both retinoids were less than 5%, suggesting a higher reproducibility than any other HPLC/UV gradient method. Limits of detection and quantification for retinol were 0.08 pmol, and 0.27 pmol, respectively, which are remarkably higher than previous results. Supplementation with higher doses of vitamin A over the study period significantly increased liver retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations in adult mice. The assays described here provide a sensitive and rigorous quantification of endogenous retinol and retinyl palmitate, which can be used to help determine retinoid homeostasis in disease states, such as toxic hepatitis and liver cancer. Keywords: Vitamin A excess, Retinol, Retinyl palmitate, Liver

  9. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effects of inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1 on palmitate induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mikłosz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of short (2 h and prolonged (18 h inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1 on palmitate (PA induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes. METHODS: L6 myotubes were treated simultaneously with either PA and myriocin (SPT inhibitor or PA and Ski II (SphK1inhibitor for different time periods (2 h and 18 h. Insulin stimulated glucose uptake was measured using radioactive isotope. Expression of insulin signaling proteins was determined using Western blot analyses. Intracellular sphingolipids content [sphinganine (SFA, ceramide (CER, sphingosine (SFO, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P] were estimated by HPLC. RESULTS: Our results revealed that both short and prolonged time of inhibition of SPT by myriocin was sufficient to prevent ceramide accumulation and simultaneously reverse palmitate induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. In contrast, prolonged inhibition of SphK1 intensified the effect of PA on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and attenuated further the activity of insulin signaling proteins (pGSK3β/GSK3β ratio in L6 myotubes. These effects were related to the accumulation of sphingosine in palmitate treated myotubes. CONCLUSION: Myriocin is more effective in restoration of palmitate induced insulin resistance in L6 myocytes, despite of the time of SPT inhibition, comparing to SKII (a specific SphK1 inhibitor. Observed changes in insulin signaling proteins were related to the content of specific sphingolipids, namely to the reduction of ceramide. Interestingly, inactivation of SphK1 augmented the effect of PA induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes, which was associated with further inhibition of insulin stimulated PKB and GSK3β phosphorylation, glucose uptake and the accumulation of sphingosine.

  11. Estimated medical cost reductions for paliperidone palmitate vs placebo in a randomized, double-blind relapse-prevention trial of patients with schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, K; Lin, J; Lingohr-Smith, M; Fu, D J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this economic model was to estimate the difference in medical costs among patients treated with paliperidone palmitate once-monthly injectable antipsychotic (PP1M) vs placebo, based on clinical event rates reported in the 15-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of paliperidone palmitate evaluating time to relapse in subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Rates of psychotic, depressive, and/or manic relapses and serious and non-serious treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were obtained from the long-term paliperidone palmitate vs placebo relapse prevention study. The total annual medical cost for a relapse from a US payer perspective was obtained from published literature and the costs for serious and non-serious TEAEs were based on Common Procedure Terminology codes. Total annual medical cost differences for patients treated with PP1M vs placebo were then estimated. Additionally, one-way and Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses were conducted. Lower rates of relapse (-18.3%) and serious TEAEs (-3.9%) were associated with use of PP1M vs placebo as reported in the long-term paliperidone palmitate vs placebo relapse prevention study. As a result of the reduction in these clinical event rates, the total annual medical cost was reduced by $7140 per patient treated with PP1M vs placebo. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that variations in relapse rates had the greatest impact on the estimated medical cost differences (range: -$9786, -$4670). Of the 10,000 random cycles of Monte Carlo simulations, 100% showed a medical cost difference schizoaffective disorder was associated with a significantly lower rate of relapse and a reduction in medical costs compared to placebo. Further evaluation in the real-world setting is warranted.

  12. Effect of Retinol Palmitate on Corneal and Conjunctival Mucin Gene Expression in a Rat Dry Eye Model After Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Nobuhito; Toshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Daisuke; Odaka, Akito; Suto, Chikako; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    We examined the wound-healing effect of retinol palmitate (VApal) on mucin gene and protein expressions in a rat dry eye model based on lacrimal gland (LG) resection after injury. The rat dry eye model was prepared by surgical resection of the main LG in male Long-Evans rats. After alkaline injury of the central part of the lower palpebral conjunctiva bilaterally, VApal eye drops at 1,500 IU/mL in one eye and a vehicle in the fellow eye were both administered 6 times a day for 7 days. The expression of mucin gene and protein was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the cornea and conjunctiva of MUC1, MUC4, MUC16, and MUC5AC after 1, 3, (5), and 7 days of treatment with VApal. Significant decreases in fluorescein-stained areas and rose bengal scores were observed in VApal-treated dry eyes compared with vehicle-treated dry eyes at both 3 (P dry eye model after injury. VApal also promoted conjunctival MUC16 expression. These results indicate that VApal has efficacy in improving keratoconjunctival epithelial damage associated with decreased tear production.

  13. Topical Application of Retinyl Palmitate-Loaded Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela B. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform a structural characterization and evaluate the in vitro safety profile and in vitro antioxidant activity of liquid crystalline systems (LCS with and without retinyl palmitate (RP. LCS containing polyether functional siloxane (PFS as a surfactant, silicon glycol copolymer (SGC as oil phase, and water in the ratios 30 : 25 : 45 and 40 : 50 : 10 with (OLSv = RP-loaded opaque liquid system and TLSv = RP-loaded transparent liquid system, respectively and without (OLS and TLS, respectively RP were studied. Samples were characterized using polarized light microscopy (PLM and rheology analysis. In vitro safety profile was evaluated using red cell hemolysis and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. In vitro antioxidant activity was performed by the DPPH method. PLM analysis showed the presence of lamellar LCS just to TLS. Regardless of the presence of RP, the rheological studies showed the pseudoplastic behavior of the formulations. The results showed that the incorporation of RP in LCS improved the safety profile of the drug. In vitro antioxidant activity suggests that LCS presented a higher capacity to maintain the antioxidant activity of RP. PFS-based systems may be a promising platform for RP topical application for the treatment of skin aging.

  14. Neuroprotective effect and mechanism of daucosterol palmitate in ameliorating learning and memory impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhi-Hong; Xu, Zhong-Qi; Zhao, Hong; Yu, Xin-Yu

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline and cognitive impairment. Amyloid beta (Aβ) has been proposed as the causative role for the pathogenesis of AD. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that Aβ neurotoxicity is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity. Daucosterol palmitate (DSP), a plant steroid with anti-glutamate excitotoxicity effect, was isolated from the anti-aging traditional Chinese medicinal herb Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. in our previous study. Based on the anti-glutamate excitotoxicity effect of DSP, in this study we investigated potential benefit and mechanism of DSP in ameliorating learning and memory impairment in AD model rats. Results from this study showed that DSP administration effectively ameliorated Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment in rats, markedly inhibited Aβ-induced hippocampal ROS production, effectively prevented Aβ-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and significantly restored hippocampal synaptophysin expression level. This study suggests that DSP may be a potential candidate for development as a therapeutic agent for AD cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel adjunctive therapy on tear film stability and inflammatory cytokines in patients with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yuan Lu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined with vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel on levels of tear film stability and inflammatory cytokines in patients with dry eye. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with dry eye treated in our hospital from January 2015 to February 2017 were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 50 cases in each group. Patients in the control group were treated with sodium hyaluronate eye drops. Patients in the observation group were given vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel on the basis of the control group, and then the clinical efficacy, tear film stability and the level of inflammatory cytokines were detected in the two groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the levels of BUT and SⅠt in both groups increased significantly compared with that before treatment, and FL was significantly lower than that before treatment. The levels of BUT and SⅠt in the observation group after treatment were 11.24±0.22s and 11.4±0.17mm/5min respectively, which was high than that of control groups(PPPPCONCLUSION: Sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined with vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel can relieve the symptoms of patients with dry eye effectively, increase the stability of tear film, and reduce the levels of inflammatory factors in tears, which is reliable in clinical application.

  16. Comparative study on fatty acid composition of olive (Olea europaea L.), with emphasis on phytosterol contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ali; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Kulak, Muhittin; Bindak, Recep

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to determine the fatty acid composition and phytosterol contents of Turkish native olive cultivars, namely Kilis Yağlık and Nizip Yağlık cv. In this context, olive fruits from 34 locations were sampled and then screened for their components in comparison. Fifteen different fatty acids were found in both olive oils. In the order of abundance, the most important ones were oleic acid (18:1) > palmitic acid (16:0) > linoleic acid (18:2) > stearic acid (18:0). Significant differences were observed in the contents of oleic acid (18:1), palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic acid (18:2) but not for stearic acid content in comparison both oils (p < 0.01). There were significant differences in terms of unsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01). The seven phytosterols - cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ-5-avenasterol, Δ-7-stigmastenol and Δ-7-avenasterol - were studied in both oil sources. The predominant sterols were β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol and campesterol in the samples analysed. However, no significant differences were found in the levels of the phytosterols between the two olive cultivars. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Deoxygenation of Plant Fatty Acid using NiSnK/ SiO2 as Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiam, L.T.; Tye, C.T.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental friendly bio-oil which offers supply reliability as a potential alternative fuel, has spurred to rapid development of bio fuels technology. Palm oil is a potential renewable energy source for bio fuels production in the future and Malaysia is one of the world largest palm oil producers. However, undesired oxygen content in the plant fatty acid that contributes to low energy density, high viscosity, and low stability, makes the palm oil not effective to be used as bio fuels directly. In the present study, the performance of silica supported trimetal catalyst, NiSnK/ SiO 2 , on deoxygenation of used palm oil was evaluated. In addition, the effects of operating parameters, such as reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity were investigated. Conversion of palmitic acid as high as 90 % was achieved in deoxygenation of used palm oil at reaction temperature 350 degree Celsius. In order to have a better understanding on the deoxygenation reaction, model compound system using the major saturated fatty acid in the used palm oil, palmitic acid was also carried out. Palmitic acid was found mainly decarboxylated into n-pentadecane with some decarboxylation and isomerization products. (author)

  18. Development of a method for determination of fatty acid using FT-IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a new methodology has been developed for determination of fatty acids in biological systems using FT-IR spectroscopy. For this method is not necessary chromophore reagent or pre sample preparation. Palmitic acid was chosen as standard, because it is found in several biological systems. The FT-IR spectrum of palmitic acid showed two absorption bands in the region of 2852 and 2920 cm-1 attributed to CH stretching. The results for these bands showed that the Beer-Lambert Law was followed in wide range of concentration of palmitic acid (14 to 257 mmol L-1. Potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN6] was used as internal standard. Several interferents were tested and only cholesterol, ferric chloride (higher concentration, mixture of amino acids for the band at 2919 cm-1 (higher concentration and triglyceride could be interferent if they appear in high concentration. Thus, this new methodology has advantage to be not expensive and simple.

  19. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%, since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%, it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%, linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%, linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%, stearic acid (6.36–7.73%, oleic acid (4.31–6.98%, arachidic acid (ND–3.48%, margaric acid (1.44–2.16%, pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%, and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%. Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  20. Reevaluation of Fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) as drug target for the stimulation of insulin secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Robert; Kaiser, Gabriele; Gerst, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The role of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in glucose homeostasis is still incompletely understood. Small receptor agonists stimulating insulin secretion are under investigation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, genome-wide association studies did not discover diabetes...... risk variants in FFAR1. We reevaluated the role of FFAR1 in insulin secretion using a specific agonist, FFAR1-knockout mice and human islets. Nondiabetic individuals were metabolically phenotyped and genotyped. In vitro experiments indicated that palmitate and a specific FFAR1-agonist, TUG-469......, stimulate glucose-induced insulin secretion through FFAR1. The pro-apoptotic effect of chronic exposure of beta-cells to palmitate was independent of FFAR1. TUG-469 was protective, while inhibition of FFAR1 promoted apoptosis. In accordance with the pro-apoptotic effect of palmitate, in vivo crosssectional...

  1. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao-Qiang, M; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1993-08-01

    The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis.

  2. Simultaneous determination of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate and triamcinolone acetonide in beagle dog plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a long-term pharmacokinetic study of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate lipid emulsion injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Mingjing; Wu, Panpan; Guan, Jiao; Men, Lei; Lin, Hongli; Tang, Xing; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the pharmacokinetics of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate (TAP) which is a lipid-soluble prodrug of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), a rapid, simple, sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TAP and TA in beagle dog plasma. After simple liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes and internal standard (dexamethasone, DEX) were separated on Phenomenex Luna C18 column (50 mm × 2.1mm, 1.7 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of solvent A (acetonitrile) and solvent B (0.1% ammonia solution) at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min with gradient elution. Acquisition of mass spectrometric data was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization using the ion transitions of m/z 673.5→397.3, 435.3→415.3 and 393.3→355.3 for TAP, TA and IS, respectively. The method was of satisfactory specificity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy over the concentration range of 1-1,000 ng/ml for TAP and 0.5-500 ng/ml for TA. The intra- and inter-day precisions for both TAP and TA were 3.2% to 18.7% and the accuracy was in the range of -8.4% to 6.8%. The mean recoveries of TAP, TA and IS were 86.7-104.7%. The method was successfully applied to a long-term pharmacokinetic study of TAP and TA after 28-day repeated intravenous administration of TAP lipid emulsion injection to beagle dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the α-carbon position and C n-1 hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C n-1 hydrocarbons were higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin

  4. Influence of free fatty acids on glucose uptake in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Divilov, Vadim; Sevak, Kuntalkumar; Koziorowski, Jacek; Lewis, Jason S.; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study focuses on the interaction between glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) in malignant human prostate cancer cell lines by an in vitro observation of uptake of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and acetate. Methods: Human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, CWR22Rv1, LNCaP, and DU145) were incubated for 2 h and 24 h in glucose-containing (5.5 mM) Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) with varying concentrations of the free fatty acid palmitate (0–1.0 mM). Then the cells were incubated with [ 18 F]-FDG (1 μCi/mL; 0.037 MBq/mL) in DMEM either in presence or absence of glucose and in presence of varying concentrations of palmitate for 1 h. Standardized procedures regarding cell counting and measuring for 18 F radioactivity were applied. Cell uptake studies with 14 C-1-acetate under the same conditions were performed on PC3 cells. Results: In glucose containing media there was significantly increased FDG uptake after 24 h incubation in all cell lines, except DU145, when upper physiological levels of palmitate were added. A 4-fold increase of FDG uptake in PC3 cells (15.11% vs. 3.94%/10 6 cells) was observed in media with 1.0 mM palmitate compared to media with no palmitate. The same tendency was observed in PC3 and CWR22Rv1 cells after 2 h incubation. In glucose-free media no significant differences in FDG uptake after 24 h incubation were observed. The significant differences after 2 h incubation all pointed in the direction of increased FDG uptake when palmitate was added. Acetate uptake in PC3 cells was significantly lower when palmitate was added in glucose-free DMEM. No clear tendency when comparing FDG or acetate uptake in the same media at different time points of incubation was observed. Conclusions: Our results indicate a FFA dependent metabolic boost/switch of glucose uptake in PCa, with patterns reflecting the true heterogeneity of the disease

  5. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

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    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  7. Intramuscular administration of paliperidone palmitate extended-release injectable microsuspension induces a subclinical inflammatory reaction modulating the pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darville, Nicolas; van Heerden, Marjolein; Vynckier, An; De Meulder, Marc; Sterkens, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2014-07-01

    The present study aims at elucidating the intricate nature of the drug release and absorption following intramuscular (i.m.) injection of sustained-release prodrug nanocrystals/microcrystals. A paliperidone palmitate (PPP) long-acting suspension was characterized with regard to particle size (Dv,50 = 1.09 μm) and morphology prior to i.m. injection in rats. The local disposition was rigorously investigated by means of (immuno)histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy while the concurrent multiphasic pharmacokinetics was linked to the microanatomy. A transient (24 h) trauma-induced inflammation promptly evolved into a subclinical but chronic granulomatous inflammatory reaction initiated by the presence of solid material. The dense inflammatory envelope (CD68(+) macrophages) led to particle agglomeration with subsequent drop in dissolution rate beyond 24 h postinjection. This was associated with a decrease in apparent paliperidone (PP) absorption (near-zero order) until 96 h and a delayed time of occurrence of observed maximum drug plasma concentration (168 h). The infiltrating macrophages phagocytosed large fractions of the depot, thereby influencing the (pro)drug release. Radial angiogenesis (CD31(+)) was observed throughout the inflammatory rim from 72 h onwards and presumably contributed to the sustained systemic PP concentrations by maintaining a sufficient absorptive capacity. No solid-state transitions of the retrieved formulation were recorded with X-ray diffraction analysis. In summary, the initial formulation-driven prodrug (PPP) dissolution and drug (PP) absorption were followed by a complex phase determined by the relative contribution of formulation factors and dynamic physiological variables. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Rats and rabbits as pharmacokinetic screening tools for long acting intramuscular depots: case study with paliperidone palmitate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harilal; Patel, Prakash; Modi, Nirav; Patel, Pinakin; Wagh, Yogesh; George, Alex; Desai, Nirmal; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2018-05-08

    Development of prodrug of 9-hydroxyrisperidone (paliperidone) long-acting intramuscular injection has enabled delivery over four-week time period with improved compliance. The key aim of this work was to establish a reliable preclinical model which may potentially serve as a screening tool for judging the pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s) prior to human clinical work. Sparse sampling composite study was used in rats, (Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (SD; n = 10)) and a serial blood sampling study design was used in rabbits (n = 4). Animals received intramuscular injection of paliperidone palmitate in the thigh muscle at dose of 16 (rats) and 4.5 mg/kg (rabbits). Samples were drawn in rats (retro-orbital sinus) and rabbits (central ear artery) and were analysed for paliperidone using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/ mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. The plasma data was subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis. Following intramuscular injection of depot formulation in Wistar/SD rats and rabbits, absorption of paliperidone was slow and gradual with median value of time to reach maximum concentration (T max ) occurring on day 7. The exposures (i.e. area under the curve (AUC; 0-28) days) were 18,597, 21,865 and 18,120 ng.h/mL, in Wistar, SD and rabbits, respectively. The clearance was slow and supported long half-life (8-10 days). Either one of the two models can serve as a research tool for establishing pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s).

  9. Bezafibrate in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Preisler, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether bezafibrate increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and lowers heart rate (HR) during exercise in patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiencies. METHODS: This was a 3-month, randomized, double......, triglyceride, and free fatty acid concentrations; however, there were no changes in palmitate oxidation, FAO, or HR during exercise. CONCLUSION: Bezafibrate does not improve clinical symptoms or FAO during exercise in patients with CPT II and VLCAD deficiencies. These findings indicate that previous in vitro...

  10. Synthesis and tissue distribution of fluorine-18 labeled trifluorohexadecanoic acids. Considerations in the development of metabolically blocked myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochapsky, S.S.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; VanBrocklin, H.F.; Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A versatile method for the synthesis of trifluoro fatty acids, potential metabolically blocked myocardial imaging agents, has been developed. Two trifluorohexadecanoic (palmitic) acids have been prepared [6,6,16-trifluorohexadecanoic acid (I) and 7,7,16-trifluorohexadecanoic acid (II)], each of which bears two of the fluorine atoms as a gem-difluoromethylene unit on the fatty acid chain (at C-6 or C-7) and the third at the ω (C-16) position. The metabolic stability of carbon-fluorine bonds suggests the gem-difluoro group may block the β-oxidation pathway, while the terminal fluorine could be the site for labeling with fluorine-18. The convergent synthetic approach utilizes a 2-lithio-1,3-dithiane derived from 10-undecenal or 9-decenal, which is alkylated with the OBO (oxabicyclooctyl) ester of 5-bromopentanoic acid or 6-bromohexanoic acid, respectively. Hydroboration-oxidation and alcohol protection are followed by halofluorination to convert the 1,3-dithiane system to a gem-difluoro group. The third fluorine is introduced by fluoride ion displacement of a trifluoromethanesulfonate. This synthesis is adapted to the labeling of these trifluoro fatty acids with the short-lived radionuclide fluorine-18 (t 1/2 = 110 min), with the third fluorine introduced as fluoride ion in the penultimate step. The radiochemical syntheses proceed in 3-34% radiochemical yield (decay corrected), with an overall synthesis and purification time of 90 min. Tissue distribution studies in rats were performed with I and II, as well as with 16-[ 18 F]fluoropalmitic acid (III), [ 11 C]palmitic acid, and [ 11 C]octanoic acid. The heart uptake of the fluoropalmitic acids decreases with substitution, the 2-min activity level for 16-fluoropalmitic acid being 65% and that for both 6,6,16-and 7,7,17-trifluoropalmitic acids being 30% that of palmitic acid

  11. Cadmium Alters the Concentration of Fatty Acids in THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Łukomska, Agnieszka; Drozd, Arleta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    Fatty acid composition of human immune cells influences their function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of known toxicant and immunomodulator, cadmium, at low concentrations on levels of selected fatty acids (FAs) in THP-1 macrophages. The differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages was achieved by administration of phorbol myristate acetate. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM, and 2 μM CdCl 2 . Fatty acids were extracted from samples according to the Folch method. The fatty acid levels were determined using gas chromatography. The following fatty acids were analyzed: long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid and stearic acid, very long-chain saturated fatty acid (VLSFA) arachidic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and vaccenic acid, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Treatment of macrophages with very low concentrations of cadmium (5-200 nM) resulted in significant reduction in the levels of arachidic, palmitoleic, oleic, vaccenic, and linoleic acids and significant increase in arachidonic acid levels (following exposure to 5 nM Cd), without significant reduction of palmitic and stearic acid levels. Treatment of macrophages with the highest tested cadmium concentration (2 μM) produced significant reduction in the levels of all examined FAs: SFAs, VLSFA, MUFAs, and PUFAs. In conclusion, cadmium at tested concentrations caused significant alterations in THP-1 macrophage fatty acid levels, disrupting their composition, which might dysregulate fatty acid/lipid metabolism thus affecting macrophage behavior and inflammatory state.

  12. Oils of insects and larvae consumed in Africa: potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womeni Hilaire Macaire

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the beneficial aspects of some insects consumed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on examples of insects consumed in Cameroon, to present their potential as sources of lipids and essential fatty acids. In Africa, termites, larvae of raphia weevil, caterpillars, crickets, bees, maggots, butterflies, weevil, etc. are significant sources of food. These insects belong mainly to the orders of : Isoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Depending on the species, insects are rich in proteins, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe and/or vitamins (thiamine/B1, riboflavine/B2, pyridoxine/B6, acid pantothenic, niacin. The composition of oils extracted from the following six insects consumed in Cameroon was investigated : larvaes of raphia weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis, crickets (Homorocoryphus nitidulus, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates, termites (Macrotermes sp., a variety of caterpillars (Imbrasia sp. and an unidentified caterpillar from the forest (UI carterpillar. The extraction yields of oil were 53.75%, 67.25%, 9.12%, 49.35%, 24.44% and 20.17% respectively for raphia weevil larvae, crickets, devastating crickets, termites, Imbrasia and UI caterpillar. The oil from raphia weevil mainly contains 37.60% of palmitoleic acid and 45.46% of linoleic acid. The oil from crickets is principally made up of palmitoleic acid (27.59%, linoleic acid (45.63% and α-linolenic acid (16.19%. The oil from grasshoppers is composed of palmitoleic acid (23.83%, oleic acid (10.71%, linoleic acid (21.07%, α-linolenic acid (14.76% and γ-linolenic acid (22.54%. The main components of termite oil are : palmitic acid (30.47%, oleic acid (47.52% and linoleic acid (8.79%. Palmitic acid (36.08% and linolenic acid (38.01% are the two dominant fatty acids of Imbrasia oil. As Imbrasia oil, UI caterpillar oil is composed of palmitic acid (30.80% and linolenic acid (41.79%. Stearic acid (7.04%, oleic acid

  13. Effect of nerve growth factor on the synthesis of amino acids in PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielke, H.R.; Tildon, J.T.; Kauffman, F.C.; Baab, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive short-chain fatty acids preferentially label glutamine relative to glutamate in brain due to compartmentation of glutamine and glutamate. To determine whether this phenomenon occurs in a single cell culture model, we examined the effect of fatty acid chain length on the synthesis as well as pool size of selected amino acids in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, a cell culture model of the large glutamate compartment in neurons. Intracellular 14C-amino acids were quantitated by HPLC, and the incorporation of [U-14C]-glucose, [1-14C]-butyrate, [1-14C]-octanoate, and [1-14C]-palmitate into five amino acids was measured in native and NGF-treated PC12 cells. NGF pretreatment decreased the intracellular concentration of amino acids as did addition of fatty acids but these effects were not additive. Specific activities of amino acids in native cells labelled by 14C-octanoate were 1,300 DPM/nmol, 490 DPM/nmol, 200 DPM/nmol, and 110 DPM/nmol for glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, and serine, respectively. No radioactivity was detected in alanine. Similar specific activities were noted when 14C-butyrate was the precursor; however, there was at least 5-fold less if 14C-palmitate was the precursor. Pretreatment of cells with NGF decreased the specific activity of amino acids by 25-65%. Specific activities of amino acids synthesized from 14C-glucose decreased in the following order: glutamate, 1,640 DPM/nmol; aspartate, 1,210 DPM/nmol; alanine, 580 DPM/nmol; glutamine, 275 DPM/nmol; and serine, 80 DPM/nmol for native cells. NGF pretreatment decreased the specific activities of glutamate and glutamine, but not of the other 3 amino acids. The preferred precursor for glutamate synthesis in native PC12 cells was glucose followed by octanoate, butyrate and palmitate (16:6:3:1)

  14. Effect of impaired fatty acid oxidation on myocardial kinetics of 11C- and 123I-labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.

    1986-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with palmitate 11 C and single photon imaging with terminally radioiodinated fatty acid analogues (FFA 123 I) were evaluated for the noninvasive assessment of regional myocardial fatty acid metabolism during ischaemia. Decreased uptake of tracer and delayed clearance of activity in the ischaemic myocardium were reported for both 11 C- and 123 I-labelled compounds. However, since during ischaemia both myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism are reduced concomitantly, either factor can be responsible for the changes observed. Experimental preparations in which fatty acid metabolism can be modified independently of flow are helpful for the characterization of the relationship between metabolism and myocardial kinetics of labelled fatty acids. Results obtained during flow-independent inhibition of fatty acid oxidation include the following observations: - In dogs with controlled coronary perfusion the rate of clearance of palmitate 11 C-activity is decreased during diminished delivery of oxygen, regardless of whether myocardial perfusion is concomitantly reduced or not. - In isolated rabbit hearts perfused at normal flow, the extraction of FFA 123 I is decreased during hypoxia. - During pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid oxidation the deiodination of FFA 123 I is markedly reduced in rat hearts in vivo and in vitro. (orig.)

  15. Relative utilization of fatty acids for synthesis of ketone bodies and complex lipids in the liver of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y Y; Streuli, V L; Zee, P

    1977-04-01

    The regulation of hepatic ketogenesis, as related to the metabolism of fatty acids through oxidative and synthetic pathways, was studied in developing rats. [1-14C] palmitate was used as a substrate to determine the proportions of free fatty acids utilized for the production of ketone bodies, CO2 and complex lipids. Similar developmental patterns of hepatic ketogenesis were obtained by measuring the production of either [14C] acetoacetate from exogenous [1-14C] palmitate or the sum of unlabeled acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate from endogenous fatty acids. The production of total ketone bodies was low during the late fetal stage and at birth, but increased rapidly to a miximum value within 24 hr after brith. The maximal ketogenic capacity appeared to be maintained for the first 10 days of life. 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate increased by two- to fourfold during the suckling period, from its initial low rate seen at birth. The capacity for synthesis of total complex lipids was low at birth and had increased by day 3 to a maximal value, which was comparable to that of adult fed rats. The high lipogenic capacity lasted throughout the remaining suckling period. When ketogenesis was inhibited by 4-pentenoic acid, the rate of synthesis of complex lipids did not increase despite an increase in unutilized fatty acids. During the mid-suckling period, approximately equal amounts of [1-14C] palmitate were utilized for the synthesis of ketone plus CO2 and for complex lipid synthesis. By contrast, in adult fed rats, the incorporation of fatty acids into complex lipids was four times higher than that of ketone plus CO2. These observations suggest that stimulated hepatic ketogenesis in suckling rats results from the rapid oxidation of fatty acids and consequent increased production of acetyl CoA, but not from impaired capacity for synthesis of complex lipids.

  16. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo E; Santana, Djalva Maria N; Gatti, Mario Jorge; Direito, Gloria Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Rosa, Carlos Alberto R

    2008-09-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belonging to genus Aspergillus. All the species analyzed showed significantly FA acid profiles (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it will be possible to distinguish among Aspergillus spp. in the Flavi Section. FA composition can serve as a useful tool for the identification of filamentous fungi.

  17. Effect of Toxicants on Fatty Acid Metabolism in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grünig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of hepatic fatty acid metabolism can lead to liver steatosis and injury. Testing drugs for interference with hepatic fatty acid metabolism is therefore important. To find out whether HepG2 cells are suitable for this purpose, we investigated the effect of three established fatty acid metabolism inhibitors and of three test compounds on triglyceride accumulation, palmitate metabolism, the acylcarnitine pool and dicarboxylic acid accumulation in the cell supernatant and on ApoB-100 excretion in HepG2 cells. The three established inhibitors [etomoxir, methylenecyclopropylacetic acid (MCPA, and 4-bromocrotonic acid (4-BCA] depleted mitochondrial ATP at lower concentrations than cytotoxicity occurred, suggesting mitochondrial toxicity. They inhibited palmitate metabolism at similar or lower concentrations than ATP depletion, and 4-BCA was associated with cellular fat accumulation. They caused specific changes in the acylcarnitine pattern and etomoxir an increase of thapsic (C18 dicarboxylic acid in the cell supernatant, and did not interfere with ApoB-100 excretion (marker of VLDL export. The three test compounds (amiodarone, tamoxifen, and the cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 depleted the cellular ATP content at lower concentrations than cytotoxicity occurred. They all caused cellular fat accumulation and inhibited palmitate metabolism at similar or higher concentrations than ATP depletion. They suppressed medium-chain acylcarnitines in the cell supernatant and amiodarone and tamoxifen impaired thapsic acid production. Tamoxifen and WIN 55,212-2 decreased cellular ApoB-100 excretion. In conclusion, the established inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism caused the expected effects in HepG2 cells. HepG cells proved to be useful for the detection of drug-associated toxicities on hepatocellular fatty acid metabolism.

  18. Surface and interlayer base-characters in lepidocrocite titanate: The adsorption and intercalation of fatty acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluangnont, Tosapol; Arsa, Pornanan; Limsakul, Kanokporn; Juntarachairot, Songsit; Sangsan, Saithong; Gotoh, Kazuma; Sooknoi, Tawan

    2016-06-01

    While layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with positively-charged sheets are well known as basic materials, layered metal oxides having negatively-charged sheets are not generally recognized so. In this article, the surface and interlayer base-characters of O2- sites in layered metal oxides have been demonstrated, taking lepidocrocite titanate K0.8Zn0.4Ti1.6O4 as an example. The low basicity (0.04 mmol CO2/g) and low desorption temperature (50-300 °C) shown by CO2- TPD suggests that O2- sites at the external surfaces is weakly basic, while those at the interlayer space are mostly inaccessible to CO2. The liquid-phase adsorption study, however, revealed the uptake as much as 37% by mass of the bulky palmitic acid (C16 acid). The accompanying expansion of the interlayer space by ~0.1 nm was detected by PXRD and TEM. In an opposite manner to the external surfaces, the interlayer O2- sites can deprotonate palmitic acid, forming the salt (i.e., potassium palmitate) occluded between the sheets. Two types of basic sites are proposed based on ultrafast 1H MAS NMR and FTIR results. The interlayer basic sites in lepidocrocite titanate leads to an application of this material as a selective and stable two-dimensional (2D) basic catalyst, as demonstrated by the ketonization of palmitic acid into palmitone (C31 ketone). Tuning of the catalytic activity by varying the type of metal (Zn, Mg, and Li) substituting at TiIV sites was also illustrated.

  19. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters and Solutol HS 15 Confer Neuroprotection After Focal and Global Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hung Wen; Saul, Isabel; Gresia, Victoria L.; Neumann, Jake T.; Dave, Kunjan R.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that palmitic methyl ester (PAME) and stearic acid methyl ester (SAME) are simultaneously released from the sympathetic ganglion and PAME possesses potent vasodilatory properties which may be important in cerebral ischemia. Since PAME is a potent vasodilator simultaneously released with SAME, our hypothesis was that PAME/SAME confers neuroprotection in rat models of focal/global cerebral ischemia. We also examined the neuroprotective properties of Soluto...

  20. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra HAJRULAI-MUSLIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA. Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a potential source of linoleic and linolenic acid - a precursor for EPA and DHA. For this reason we analyzed fifty seven samples of asparagus collected from the local market. We used AOAC 996.06 method and analyses were performed with gas chromatograph with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The highest concentration of fatty acid in the asparagus was linoleic acid (C18:2n6 which content in asparagus is 25.620±1.0%. Also, asparagus is good source of -linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n3 and content of this fatty acid in asparagus is 8.840±0.3%. The omega-6 to omega-3 (n6/n3 ratio in asparagus was 3.19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and from saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid was most frequent with 24.324±1.0%. From our study we can conclude that asparagus is very good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic fatty acids.

  1. Effect of hypoxia on the incorporation of [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C[-palmitate into lipids of various brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghina, M.; Giuffrida, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The lipid metabolism in guinea pig brain after intermittent hypoxia, prolonged for 80 hrs, was markedly impaired. The in vivo incorporation of [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C] palmitate into lipids of microsomes, mitochondria, myelin, and synaptosomes, purified form cerebral hemispheres, was significantly lower in the hypoxic animals than in the controls. The same effect was observed on the incorporation of labeled precursors into lipids of mitochondria purified from cerebellum and brainstem. In particular, the labeling of th major phospholipids present - ie, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) - in the mitochondria of the three brain regions examined decreased after hypoxic treatment

  2. Efficacy and safety of retinol palmitate ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eye: a Japanese Phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshida H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Toshida,1 Toshinari Funaki,2 Koichi Ono,3 Nobuhito Tabuchi,4 Sota Watanabe,4 Tamotsu Seki,5 Hiroshi Otake,6 Takuji Kato,7 Nobuyuki Ebihara,8 Akira Murakami2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Tokyo, 4Pharmaceutical Research Laboratories, Lion Corporation, Kanagawa, 5Tamagawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 6Otake Eye Clinic, Kanagawa, 7Kato Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 8Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the administration of retinol palmitate (VApal ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL for the treatment of patients with dry eye. Patients and methods: This study included 66 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomized (1:1 into either a VApal ophthalmic solution or a placebo group, and a single drop of either solution was administered six times daily for 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were 12 subjective symptoms, rose bengal (RB and fluorescein staining scores, tear film breakup time, and tear secretion. Safety measures included clinical blood and urine analyses and adverse event recordings. Results: In comparisons of the two groups, the mean change in RB staining score from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 2 and 4 weeks (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. Furthermore, the fluorescein clearance rate (fluorescein staining score was significantly higher in the VApal group at 4 weeks (P<0.05. The VApal group showed a significant improvement in blurred vision at 1 and 2 weeks (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, and the mean change in the total score for subjective symptoms from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 1 week (P<0.05. In before- and after-intervention comparisons, the

  3. A preliminary evaluation of dexamethasone palmitate emulsion: a novel intravitreal sustained delivery of corticosteroid for treatment of macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daull, Philippe; Paterson, Christopher A; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Garrigue, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-03-01

    Dexamethasone palmitate (DXP) is a lipophilic prodrug of dexamethasone (DXM), a potent corticosteroid used to treat a variety of ophthalmic diseases. The aim of the study was to characterize the sustained release capacity (in rabbit), efficacy (in rat and rabbit), and safety (in rabbit, cat, and minipig) of intravitreal (IVT) DXP emulsions in preclinical models. Oil-in-water emulsions of DXP were administered by IVT injections in rats, rabbits, cats, or minipigs. Efficacy was assessed in rabbits by the inhibition of VEGF-induced vascular leakage and in rats by inhibition of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Concentrations of DXP and DXM in aqueous humor, vitreous, retina, choroid, and blood were determined to characterize the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. Complete ophthalmic examinations (indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit-lamp biomacroscopy, electroretinography, tonometry) were performed to assess the ocular safety of IVT DXP doses up to 2,600 μg in minipig, followed by histopathologic examinations. A validated feline model of DXM-induced elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was used to assess the ocular hypertensive impact (i.e., the safety) of an IVT injection of DXP emulsion. Rat and rabbit efficacy data demonstrated that IVT injections of DXP emulsions were effective. Rabbit PK data demonstrated that following a single 1,280 μg IVT injection resulted in sustained DXM levels in the retina and choroid (1,179.6 and 577.7 ng/g with a half-life of 189 and 103 days, respectively) sufficient to inhibit VEGF-induced vascular hyper-permeability for up to 9 months. No adverse ocular findings were observed in the rabbit at the 1,280 μg DXP dose. Plasma levels of DXP and DXM were close to the lower limit of quantification (0.5 ng/mL). In minipigs, no systemic effects were observed at a dose up to 2,600 μg DXP. In steroid responsive cats, IVT DXP emulsions increased IOP to a lesser extent than triamcinolone acetonide with a more rapid return to

  4. Comparison of Medicaid spending in schizoaffective patients treated with once monthly paliperidone palmitate or oral atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongling; Muser, Erik; Fu, Dong-Jing; Lafeuille, Marie-Hélène; Pilon, Dominic; Emond, Bruno; Wu, Allen; Duh, Mei Sheng; Lefebvre, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Compared to oral atypical antipsychotics (OAAs), long-acting injectable antipsychotics require less frequent administration, and thus may improve adherence and reduce risk of relapse in schizoaffective disorder (SAD) patients. To evaluate the impact of once monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus OAAs on healthcare resource utilization, Medicaid spending, and hospital readmission among SAD patients. Using FL, IA, KS, MS, MO, and NJ Medicaid data (January 2009-December 2013), adults with ≥2 SAD diagnoses initiated on PP or OAA (index date) were identified. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were assessed during the 12month pre- and post-index periods, respectively. Propensity score matching (PSM) and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) were used to reduce confounding and compare the estimated treatment effect for PP versus OAA. A total of 10,778 OAA-treated patients and 876 PP-treated patients were selected. Compared to OAAs, PP was associated with significantly lower medical costs (PSM: mean monthly cost difference [MMCD] = -$383, p < 0.001; IPTW: MMCD = -$403, p = 0.016), which offset the higher pharmacy costs associated with PP (PSM: MMCD = $270, p < 0.001; IPTW: MMCD = $350, p < 0.001) and resulted in similar total healthcare cost (PSM: MMCD = -$113, p = 0.414; IPTW: MMCD = -$53, p = 0.697) for PP versus OAA. Reduced risk of hospitalization (PSM: incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.85, p = 0.128; IPTW: IRR = 0.96, p = 0.004) and fewer hospitalization days (PSM: IRR = 0.74, p = 0.008; IPTW: IRR = 0.85, p < 0.001) were observed in PP versus OAA patients. Among hospitalized patients, PP was associated with a lower risk of 30 day hospital readmission compared to OAA (IPTW: odds ratio = 0.89, p = 0.041). Limitations The Medicaid data may not be representative of the nation or other states, and includes pre-rebate pharmacy costs (potentially over-estimated). Also

  5. Functional properties and fatty acids profile of different beans varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Rando, Rossana; Ravenda, Pietro; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    Dried seeds of four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, three of Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and two of Vigna angularis grown and marketed in Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast were analysed for fatty acids content. In oils from seeds of P. vulgaris, the main fatty acids were linolenic (34.7-41.5%) and linoleic (30.7-40.3%), followed by palmitic (10.7-16.8%). The first three aforementioned fatty acids in the lipid fraction of V. unguiculata varieties were 28.4, 28.7 and 26.2%, respectively; while in V. angularis varieties, main fatty acids were linoleic (36.4-39.1%) and palmitic (26.9-33.3%), followed by linolenic (17.9-22.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that botanical species play a rule in bean fatty acids distribution, while the same was not verified for geographical origin. Furthermore, the atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were investigated for health and nutritional information. The results showed that these wide spread legumes have functional features to human health.

  6. Increasing fatty acid oxidation remodels the hypothalamic neurometabolome to mitigate stress and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W McFadden

    Full Text Available Modification of hypothalamic fatty acid (FA metabolism can improve energy homeostasis and prevent hyperphagia and excessive weight gain in diet-induced obesity (DIO from a diet high in saturated fatty acids. We have shown previously that C75, a stimulator of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1 and fatty acid oxidation (FAOx, exerts at least some of its hypophagic effects via neuronal mechanisms in the hypothalamus. In the present work, we characterized the effects of C75 and another anorexigenic compound, the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT inhibitor FSG67, on FA metabolism, metabolomics profiles, and metabolic stress responses in cultured hypothalamic neurons and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines during lipid excess with palmitate. Both compounds enhanced palmitate oxidation, increased ATP, and inactivated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in hypothalamic neurons in vitro. Lipidomics and untargeted metabolomics revealed that enhanced catabolism of FA decreased palmitate availability and prevented the production of fatty acylglycerols, ceramides, and cholesterol esters, lipids that are associated with lipotoxicity-provoked metabolic stress. This improved metabolic signature was accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and yet favorable changes in oxidative stress, overt ER stress, and inflammation. We propose that enhancing FAOx in hypothalamic neurons exposed to excess lipids promotes metabolic remodeling that reduces local inflammatory and cell stress responses. This shift would restore mitochondrial function such that increased FAOx can produce hypothalamic neuronal ATP and lead to decreased food intake and body weight to improve systemic metabolism.

  7. The application of hydrogen-palladium electrode for potentiometric acid-base determinations in tetrahydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Anja B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the hydrogen-palladium electrode (H2/Pd as the indicator electrode for the determination of relative acidity scale (Es, mV of tetrahydrofuran (THF and the potentiometric titrations of acids in this solvent was investigated. The relative acidity scale tetrahydrofuran was determined from the difference half-neutralization potentials of perchloric acid and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH, which were measured by using both H2/Pd-SCE and glass-SCE electrode pairs. The experimentally obtained value of Es scale THF with a H2/Pd-SCE electrode pair was 1155 mV, and those obtained with glass-SCE electrode pair 880 mV. By using a H2/Pd indicator electrode, the individual acids (benzoic acid, palmitic acid, maleic acid, acetyl acetone, α-naphthol and two component acid mixtures (benzoic acid + α-naphthol, palmitic acid + α-naphthol, maleic acid + α-naphthol and maleic acid + ftalic acid were titrated with a standard solution of TBAH. In addition, sodium methylate and potassium hydroxide proved to be very suitable titrating agents for titrating of the individual acids and the acids in mixtures, respectively. The relative error of the determination of acids in mixture was less than 3%. The results are in agreement with those obtained by a conventional glass electrode. The advantages of H2/Pd electrode over a glass electrode in potentiometric acid-base determinations in tetrahydrofuran lie in the following: this electrode gives wider relative acidity scale THF, higher the potential jumps at the titration end-point and relatively fast response time; furthermore, it is very durable, simple to prepare and can be used in the titrations of small volumes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br.172051

  8. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional quality evaluation of rabbit meat (Flemish Giant breed corelated with fatty acids content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Frunză

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional quality of rabbit meat (Flemish Giant breed in terms of content of fatty acids. The biological material consisted of 42 rabbits (17 females and 15 males from which were collected Longissimus dorsi, Semimembranosus and Triceps Brachii muscles immediately after slaughter. The samples were vacuum packaged, frozen at -80 0C, and immediately after thawing have been minced and freeze-dried at -110 0C (using lyophilizer CoolSafe Scanvac. The content in fatty acids was followed through NIRS methodology, using FOSS 6500 spectrophotometer, by gender. Was determined: the saturated fatty acids: C14:0 (Myristic acid, C15: 0 (Pentadecanoic acid, C16: 0 (Palmitic acid, C17: 0 (Heptadecanoic acid and C18: 0 (Stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acids: Palmitoleic acid (C16: 1n-7, Vaccenic acid, cis-isomer of oleic acid (C18: 1n-7 and oleic acid (C18: 1n-9 and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 and ω6: C18: 2n-6 (linoleic acid, C18: 3n-3 (Linolenic acid, C20: 2n-6 (Eicosadienoic acid, C20: 3n-6 (Eicosatrienoic acid, C20: 4n-6 (arachidonic acid, C20: 5n-3 (Eicosapentaenoic acid, C22: 4n-6 (Docosatetraenoic acid, C22: 5n-3 (Docosopentaenoic acid and C22: 6n- 3 (docosahexaenoic acid. The results were statistically analyzed, including analysis of variance (ANOVA and was observed significant differences between gender.

  10. The effects of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein/apoB48 receptor axis in human monocyte/macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Bermudez, Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Intestinally produced triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the relevance of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) in postprandial TRL in affecting the transcriptional activity of the apolipoprotein-B48 receptor (ApoB48R) and its functionality in human monocyte/macrophage cells. Healthy male volunteers were administered four standardized high-fat meals containing butter, high-palmitic sunflower oil, olive oil (ROO) or a mixture of vegetable and fish oils (50 g/m(2) body surface area) to obtain a panel of postprandial TRL with gradual MUFA oleic acid-to-SFA palmitic acid ratios. The increase in this ratio was linearly associated with a decrease of ApoB48R up-regulation and lipid accumulation in THP-1 and primary monocytes. ApoB48R mRNA levels and intracellular triglycerides were also lower in the monocytes from volunteers after the ingestion of the ROO meal when compared to the ingestion of the butter meal. In THP-1 macrophages, the increase in the MUFA oleic acid-to-SFA palmitic acid ratio in the postprandial TRL was linearly correlated with an increase in ApoB48R down-regulation and a decrease in lipid accumulation. We also revealed that the nuclear receptor transcription factors PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ and the PPAR-RXR transcriptional complex were involved in sensing the proportion of MUFA oleic acid and SFA palmitic acid, and these were also involved in adjusting the transcriptional activity of ApoB48R. The results of this study support the notion that MUFA-rich dietary fats may prevent excessive lipid accumulation in monocyte/macrophage cells by targeting the postprandial TRL/ApoB48R axis. © 2013.

  11. Changes in cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of serum lipid in irradiated rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Shigeru

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a single dose of whole body irradiation on the serum cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in rats was investigated. A change in the fatty acid composition of liver lipids was also observed. After 600 rad of irradiation, the cholesterol content increased, reached a maximum 3 days after irradiation, and then decreased. After irradiation, an increase in cholesterol content and a marked decrease in triglyceride content were observed, bringing about a change in the amount of total serum lipids. The fatty acid compositions of normal and irradiated rat sera were compared. The relative percentages of palmitic and oleic acids in total lipids decreased while those of stearic and arachidonic acids increased. Serum triglyceride had trace amounts of arachidonic acid and the unsaturated fatty acid component decreased after irradiation. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acid in cholesterol ester increased after irradiation, while linoleic and arachidonic acids made up 29% and 22% in the controls and 17% and 61% after irradiation, respectively. The fatty acid composition of total liver lipids after irradiation showed a decrease in palmitic and oleic acids and an increase in stearic and arachidonic acids, the same trend as observed in serum lipid fatty acid. Liver cholesterol ester showed trace amounts of linoleic and arachidonic acids and an increase in short-chain fatty acid after irradiation. The major component of serum phospholipids was phosphatidylcholine while palmitostearyl lecithine and unsaturated fatty acid were minor components. Moreover, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the major components of liver phospholipids, having highly unsaturated fatty acids. The changes in fatty acid composition were similar to the changes in total phospholipids. (J.P.N.)

  12. Arachidonic and oleic acid exert distinct effects on the DNA methylome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Martínez, Guillermo A.; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Alvarado-Caudillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Abnormal fatty acid metabolism and availability are landmarks of metabolic diseases, which in turn are associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. To understand the role of fatty acids in disease epigenetics, we sought DNA methylation profiles specifically induced by arachidonic....... The divergent response to AA and OA was prominent within the gene body of target genes, where it correlated positively with transcription. AA-induced DNA methylation profiles were similar to the corresponding profiles described for palmitic acid, atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, and autism, but relatively...

  13. Synergistic Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Fatty Acids on Toxicity to Caco-2 Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Kermanizadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    epithelial (Caco-2) cells. The ZnO NPs exposure concentration dependently induced cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells showing as reduced proliferation and activity measured by 3 different assays. PA exposure induced cytotoxicity, and coexposure to ZnO NPs and PA showed the largest cytotoxic effects. The presence......Fatty acids exposure may increase sensitivity of intestinal epithelial cells to cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs). This study evaluated the synergistic effects of ZnO NPs and palmitic acid (PA) or free fatty acids (FFAs) mixture (oleic/PA 2:1) on toxicity to human colon...

  14. Bitter melon extract ameliorates palmitate-induced apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells and high-fat/high-fructose-diet-induced fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Joung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter melon (BM improves glucose level, lipid homeostasis, and insulin resistance in vivo. However, the preventive mechanism of BM in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been elucidated yet. Aim & Design: To determine the protective mechanism of bitter melon extract (BME, we performed experiments in vitro and in vivo. BME were treated palmitate (PA-administrated HepG2 cells. C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: high-fat/high-fructose (HF/HFr without or with BME supplementation (100 mg/kg body weight. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis, and biochemical markers were then examined by western blot and real-time PCR analyses. Results: BME significantly decreased expression levels of ER-stress markers (including phospho-eIF2α, CHOP, and phospho-JNK [Jun N-terminal kinases] in PA-treated HepG2 cells. BME also significantly decreased the activity of cleaved caspase-3 (a well known apoptotic-induced molecule and DNA fragmentation. The effect of BME on ER stress–mediated apoptosis in vitro was similarly observed in HF/HFr-fed mice in vivo. BME significantly reduced HF/HFr-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic damage in mice. In addition, BME ameliorated HF/HFr-induced serum TG and serum-free fatty acids. Conclusion: These data indicate that BME has protective effects against ER stress mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells as well as in HF/HFr-induced fatty liver of mouse. Therefore, BME might be useful for preventing and treating NAFLD.

  15. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  16. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Morselli, Eugenia; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD) for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

  17. Chemical constituents of the essential oil and organic acids from longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Hamad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of longkong fruits (Aglaia dookkoo Griff., collected from Narathiwat province, was dried and extracted by steam distillation to obtain the essential oil in 0.48% yield. The GC-MS data showed oleic acid (14.80%, α-copaene (11.15%, germacrene-D (9.16%, δ- cadinene (6.74%, τ -muurolol (6.34%, (+ spathulenol (5.72% and palmitic acid (5.49% as the major constituents. Organic acids were also extracted from dried pulp with methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus to give the crude extract in 36.26% yield. Four organic acids: glycolic, maleic, malic and citric acids were determined by HPLC. Maleic acid (1.23% was the major acid and the others were citric (0.22%, malic (0.15% and glycolic acids (0.14%.

  18. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence...... these processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincubation with EPA or TTA. Results: T2D myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO(2) from palmitic acid (PA....... EPA markedly enhanced TAG accumulation in myotubes, more pronounced in T2D cells. TAG accumulation and fatty acid oxidation were inversely correlated only after EPA preincubation, and total level of acyl-CoA was reduced. Glucose oxidation (CO(2) formation) was enhanced and lactate production decreased...

  19. Topical Vitamin C and the Skin: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Niaimi, Firas; Chiang, Nicole Yi Zhen

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review article details the main mechanisms of action and clinical applications of topical vitamin C on the skin, including its antioxidative, photoprotective, antiaging, and antipigmentary effects. DESIGN: A PubMed search for the relevant articles on vitamin C and the skin was conducted using the following key words: "vitamin C," "ascorbic acid," "ascorbyl-6-palmitate,"and "magnesium ascorbyl phosphate." RESULTS: As one of the most powerful antioxidants in the skin, vitamin C has been shown to protect against photoaging, ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression, and photocarcinogenesis. It also has an antiaging effect by increasing collagen synthesis, stabilizing collagen fibers, and decreasing collagen degradation. It decreases melanin formation, thereby reducing pigmentation. Vitamin C is the primary replenisher of vitamin E and works synergistically with vitamin E in the protection against oxidative damage. CONCLUSION: Topical vitamin C has a wide range of clinical applications, from antiaging and antipigmentary to photoprotective. Currently, clinical studies on the efficacy of topical formulations of vitamin C remain limited, and the challenge lies in finding the most stable and permeable formulation in achieving the optimal results.

  20. Effects of hypoxia and pyruvate infusion on myocardial fatty acid oxidation measured with 123I heptadecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comans, E.F.I.; Visser, F.C.; Elzinga, Gijs

    1993-01-01

    Radio-iodinated fatty acids like 123 I heptadecanoic acid (HDA) can be used for the non-invasive delineation of myocardial non-esterified fatty acid (FA) metabolism. In this study the quantitative value of HDA was assessed for the measurement of myocardial FA oxidation. In an isolated saline perfused rat heart preparation myocardial time-activity curves were made during control perfusion and after inhibition of FA oxidation by hypoxia and infusion of 10.0 mM pyruvate, respectively. Control experiments were performed using 1- 14 C palmitate as the 'golden standard' for myocardial FA oxidation. Myocardial HDA oxidation was calculated from the amplitude of the third exponential term of the time-activity curve. During control perfusion no differences were observed between the calculated oxygen equivalents (from HDA oxidation) and the measured (A-V oxygen content difference) and the estimated ( 14 CO 2 production) values. Inhibition of palmitate oxidation with pyruvate was accurately detected with HDA. During hypoxic perfusion, an overestimation of palmitate oxidation was calculated on the basic of HDA oxidation. Infusion of pyruvate did not influence the time constants of the time-activity curves, whereas during hypoxic perfusion an increase of the time constant of the third exponential term was observed, probably caused by the presence of back-diffusion of non-metabolized HDA. We conclude that HDA can be used as a quantitative tool for the measurement of myocardial FA oxidation under various metabolic conditions. During periods of a decreased oxygen availability back-diffusion of FA needs to be taken into account for the interpretation of the myocardial time-activity curves. (author)

  1. Intramuscular fatty acid metabolism in contracting and non-contracting human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, M; Saltin, B; Osada, T

    2002-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the fate of blood-borne non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) entering contracting and non-contracting knee extensor muscles of healthy young individuals. [U-(13)C]-palmitate was infused into a forearm vein during 5 h of one-legged knee extensor exercis...... and degraded and that the metabolic fate of plasma NEFA entering the muscle is influenced by muscle contraction, so that a higher proportion is directed towards oxidation at the expense of storage in mTAG.......The present study was undertaken to investigate the fate of blood-borne non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) entering contracting and non-contracting knee extensor muscles of healthy young individuals. [U-(13)C]-palmitate was infused into a forearm vein during 5 h of one-legged knee extensor exercise.......05) in the contracting muscle, whereas it was unchanged in the non-contracting muscle. The uptake of plasma NEFA, as well as the proportion directed towards oxidation, was higher in the exercising compared to the non-exercising leg, whereas the rate of palmitate incorporation into mTAG was fourfold lower (0.70 +/- 0...

  2. De novo arachidonic acid synthesis in Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Lund, Eric; Soudant, Philippe; Harvey, Ellen

    2002-02-01

    The capability of synthesizing fatty acids de novo in the meront stage of the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, was investigated employing stable-isotope-labeled precursors (1,2 13C-acetate and palmitic-d(31) acid). Fatty acid methyl esters derived from 1,2 13C-acetate and palmitic-d(31) acid were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Results revealed that in vitro cultured P. marinus meronts utilized 13C-acetate to synthesize a range of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, 24:0 and the unsaturated fatty acids, 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 20:1(n-9), 20:2(n-6), 20:2(n-9), 20:3(n-6), 20:4(n-6) were found to contain 13C, after 7, 14, and 21 days incubation with the precursor. This indicates that meronts can synthesize fatty acid de novo using acetate as a substrate. Meronts efficiently elongated 16:0-d(31) to 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, 24:0, but desaturation activity was limited, after 7 and 14 days cultivation. Only a small quantity of 18:1-d(29) was detected. This suggests that meronts cannot directly convert exogenous palmitic acid or its products of elongation to unsaturated counterparts. The ability to synthesize 20:4(n-6) from acetate is particularly interesting. No parasitic protozoan has been reported to be capable of synthesizing long chain essential fatty acids, such as 20:4(n-6) de novo. Future study will be directed to determine whether the observed in vitro activities indeed reflect the in vivo activities, when meronts are associated with the host.

  3. Spectrometric determination of clinically relevant fatty acids in the blood serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Krasheninnikov, V. N.; Sviridov, A. P.; Titov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    The content of fatty acid (FA) triglycerides in food and biological media is predicting traditionally using gas and liquid chromatographic methods. Named techniques aren't available for clinical labs due to their complexity. So, our objective was to develop the method and apparatus for rapid assay of a few clinically important FA as the saturated palmitic, mono unsaturated oleic and others in serum using near infrared spectrometer. As a result, the applicability of the FT spectrometer in the wavelength range of 0.9 -1.8 μ to analyze these FA in serum without sample preparation was confirmed. Besides, measurement specifications were determined and a correlations of the absorption spectra and contents of total triglycerides and cholesterol, palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic FA in serum were established

  4. THYROID HORMONE REVERSES AGING-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL FATTY ACID OXIDATION DEFECTS AND IMPROVES THE RESPONSE TO ACUTELY INCREASED AFTERLOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledee, Dolena; Portman, Michael A.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron

    2013-06-07

    Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs during aging in humans and mice and may contribute to development of heart failure. Aging also impairs myocardial fatty acid oxidation, causing increased reliance on flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) to maintain function. We hypothesize that the metabolic changes in aged hearts make them less tolerant to acutely increased work and that thyroid hormone reverses these defects. Methods: Studies were performed on young (Young, 4-6 months) and aged (Old, 22-24 months) C57/BL6 mice at standard (50 mmHg) and high afterload (80 mmHg). Another aged group received thyroid hormone for 3 weeks (Old-TH, high afterload only). Function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle (CAC) using perfusate with 13C labeled lactate, pyruvate, glucose and unlabeled palmitate and insulin. Results: Cardiac function was similar between Young and Old mice at standard afterload. Palmitate Fc was reduced but no individual carbohydrate contributions differed. CAC and individual substrate fluxes decreased in aged. At high afterload, -dP/dT was decreased in Old versus Young. Similar to low afterload, palmitate Fc was decreased in Old. Thyroid hormone reversed aging-induced changes in palmitate Fc and flux while significantly improving cardiac function. Conclusion: The aged heart shows diminished ability to increase cardiac work due to substrate limitations, primarily impaired fatty acid oxidation. The heart accommodates slightly by increasing efficiency through oxidation of carbohydrate substrates. Thyroid hormone supplementation in aged mice significantly improves cardiac function potentially through restoration of fatty acid oxidation.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of various kinds of milk fat. II. Fatty acids composition of milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, E.S.; Rady, A.H.; Kamal, T.H.; Shehata, T.E.; Ibrahim, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    Fresh cow's, buffalo's and goat's milk fat were subjected to ascendent doses of 8-rays of 250, 500 and 750 K.rad as compared to raw milk samples (control). The methyl esters of fats separated from these samples were analyzed using gas liquid chromatographic technique. Total saturated fatty acids (T.S.F.A.) were 70.46%, 67.44% and 72.85%, while total unsaturated fatty acid (T.U.F.A.) were 29.51%, 32.54% and 27.15% for cow's buffalo's and goat's raw milk fats, respectively. Water insoluble volatile fatty acids (W.I.V.F.A.) were much higher in goat's raw milk fat (23.24%) than in cows (6.34%) and buffaloes (5.25%) ones. Palmitic acid represents the predominant saturated fatty acid, while oleic acid represents the major unsaturated fatty acids in the three kinds of milk fat. Linoleic acid was present only in buffalo's and goat's raw milk fat. The exposure of buffalo's and goat's milk to 8-rays doses increased TSFA and decreased TUFA of their fats. Meanwhile the same doses induced a minor change in both TSFA and TUFA of cow's milk one. Also, 8-irradiation increased the relative percentage of Palmitic acid in the three types of milk fat, while linoleic acid decreased in buffalo's and goat's milk fat. Besides, W.I.V.F.A. showed a gradual decrease, when the three types of milk were exposed to ascendent doses of 8-rays

  6. Preparation of five 3-MCPD fatty acid esters, and the effects of their chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yizhen; Gao, Boyan; Wu, Pingping; Shi, Haiming; Sun, Xiangjun; Huang, Haiqiu; Wang, Thomas Ty; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2017-02-01

    3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPDEs) comprise a group of food toxicants formed during food processing. 3-MCPDEs have received increasing attention concerning their potential negative effects on human health. However, reports on the toxicity of 3-MCPD esters are still limited. To determine the effects of fatty acid substitutions on the toxicity of their esters, 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters of 3-MCPD were synthesized and evaluated with respect to their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice. 3-MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3-MCPD and fatty acid chlorides, and their purities and structures were characterized by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), infrared, 1 H and 13 C spectroscopic analyses. Medial lethal doses of 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters were 2973.8, 2081.4, 2016.3, 5000 and > 5000 mg kg -1 body weight. For the first time, 3-MCPDEs were observed for their toxic effects in the thymus and lung. In addition, major histopathological changes, as well as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, were examined for mice fed the five 3-MCPDEs. The results from the present study suggest that the degree of unsaturation, chain length, number of substitution and relative substitution locations of fatty acids might alter the toxicity of 3-MCPDEs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Cross-Sectional Imaging of Boundary Lubrication Layer Formed by Fatty Acid by Means of Frequency-Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tomoko; Kawamura, Ryota; Fujino, Keita; Matsuoka, Takashi; Komiya, Hiroshi; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2017-10-10

    To observe in situ the adsorption of fatty acid onto metal surfaces, cross-sectional images of the adsorption layer were acquired by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). Hexadecane and palmitic acid were used as the base oil and typical fatty acid, respectively. A Cu-coated silicon wafer was prepared as the target substrate. The solvation structure formed by hexadecane molecules at the interface between the Cu substrate and the hexadecane was observed, and the layer pitch was found to be about 0.6 nm, which corresponds to the height of hexadecane molecules. This demonstrates that hexadecane molecules physically adsorbed onto the surface due to van der Waals forces with lying orientation because hexadecane is a nonpolar hydrocarbon. When hexadecane with palmitic acid was put on the Cu substrate instead of pure hexadecane, an adsorption layer of palmitic acid was observed at the interface. The layer pitch was about 2.5-2.8 nm, which matches the chain length of palmitic acid molecules well. This indicates that the original adsorption layer was monolayer or single bilayer in the local area. In addition, a cross-sectional image captured 1 h after observation started to reveal that the adsorbed additive layer gradually grew up to be thicker than about 20 nm due to an external stimulus, such as cantilever oscillation. This is the first report of in situ observation of an adsorbed layer by FM-AFM in the tribology field and demonstrates that FM-AFM is useful for clarifying the actual boundary lubrication mechanism.

  8. Esterification of Fatty Acids with Short-Chain Alcohols over Commercial Acid Clays in a Semi-Continuous Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Frikha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid esters from stearic, oleic, and palmitic acids and short-chain alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol for the production of biodiesel was investigated in this work. A series of montmorillonite-based clays catalysts (KSF, KSF/0, KP10, and K10 were used as acidic catalysts. The influence of the specific surface area and the acidity of the catalysts on the esterification rate were investigated. The best catalytic activities were obtained with KSF/0 catalyst. The esterification reaction has been carried out efficiently in a semi-continuous reactor at 150°C temperature higher than the boiling points of water and alcohol. The reactor used enabled the continuous removal of water and esterification with hydrated alcohol (ethanol 95% without affecting the original activity of the clay.

  9. Stereoselective and nonstereoselective effects of ibuprofen enantiomers on mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freneaux, E.; Fromenty, B.; Berson, A.; Labbe, G.; Degott, C.; Letteron, P.; Larrey, D.; Pessayre, D. (Unite de Recherches de Physiolopathologie Hepatique (INSERM U-24), Hopital Beaujon, Clichy (France))

    1990-11-01

    The effects of the R-(-) and S-(+)ibuprofen enantiomers were first studied in vitro with mouse liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of various concentrations of exogenous coenzyme A. In the presence of a low concentration of coenzyme A (2.5 microM), the R-(-)enantiomer (which forms an acylcoenzyme A) inhibited stereoselectively the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid but not that of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitoyl-L-carnitine (which can directly enter the mitochondria). In the presence, however, of a concentration of coenzyme A (50 microM) reproducing that present in liver cell cytosol, both enantiomers (2 mM) slightly inhibited the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid and markedly inhibited the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)octanoic acid and (1-{sup 14}C)butyric acid. In vivo, both enantiomers (1 mmol.kg-1) similarly inhibited the formation of ({sup 14}C)CO{sub 2} from (1-{sup 14}C)fatty acids. Both enantiomers similarly decreased plasma ketone bodies. Both similarly increased hepatic triglycerides, and both produced mild microvesicular steatosis of the liver. We conclude that both ibuprofen enantiomers inhibit beta oxidation of fatty acids in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the R-(-)enantiomer may stereoselectively sequester coenzyme A; at low concentrations of coenzyme A in vitro, this may stereoselectively inhibit the mitochondrial uptake and beta oxidation of long chain fatty acids.

  10. Stereoselective and nonstereoselective effects of ibuprofen enantiomers on mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freneaux, E.; Fromenty, B.; Berson, A.; Labbe, G.; Degott, C.; Letteron, P.; Larrey, D.; Pessayre, D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the R-(-) and S-(+)ibuprofen enantiomers were first studied in vitro with mouse liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of various concentrations of exogenous coenzyme A. In the presence of a low concentration of coenzyme A (2.5 microM), the R-(-)enantiomer (which forms an acylcoenzyme A) inhibited stereoselectively the beta oxidation of [1- 14 C]palmitic acid but not that of [1- 14 C]palmitoyl-L-carnitine (which can directly enter the mitochondria). In the presence, however, of a concentration of coenzyme A (50 microM) reproducing that present in liver cell cytosol, both enantiomers (2 mM) slightly inhibited the beta oxidation of [1- 14 C]palmitic acid and markedly inhibited the beta oxidation of [1- 14 C]octanoic acid and [1- 14 C]butyric acid. In vivo, both enantiomers (1 mmol.kg-1) similarly inhibited the formation of [ 14 C]CO 2 from [1- 14 C]fatty acids. Both enantiomers similarly decreased plasma ketone bodies. Both similarly increased hepatic triglycerides, and both produced mild microvesicular steatosis of the liver. We conclude that both ibuprofen enantiomers inhibit beta oxidation of fatty acids in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the R-(-)enantiomer may stereoselectively sequester coenzyme A; at low concentrations of coenzyme A in vitro, this may stereoselectively inhibit the mitochondrial uptake and beta oxidation of long chain fatty acids

  11. New Approach to Solid Lipid Microparticles USING Biocompatible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tallowation refers to the modification of lipid molecules using tallow fat while P90Gylation is the modification of lipid molecules by one or more phospholipid chains. Phospholipon® 90G (P90G) contains about 94.0 % of phosphatidylcholine stabilized with 0.1 % ascorbyl palmitate and is parenterally safe (GRAS) FDA ...

  12. Expression of a fatty acid-binding protein in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, H.

    1991-06-01

    The unicellular eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transformed with a plasmid containing a cDNA fragment encoding bovine heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP C ) under the control of the inducible yeast GAL10 promoter, expressed FABP during growth on galactose. The maximum level of immunoreactive FABP, identical in size and isoelectric point to native protein, was reached after approximately 16 hours of induction. In contrast, transcription of the gene was induced within half an hour. Both, protein and mRNA were unstable and degraded within 1 h after repression of transcription. Analysis of subcellular fractions showed that FABP was exclusively associated with the cytosol. FABP expressed in yeast cells was functional as was demonstrated by its capacity to bind long chain fatty acids in an in vitro assay. Growth of all transformants on galactose as the carbon source showed no phenotype at temperatures up to 37 deg C, but the growth of FABP-expressing cells at 37 deg C was significantly retarded. Among the biochemical effects of FABP expression on lipid metabolism is a marked reduction of chain elongation and desaturation of exogenously added 14 C-palmitic acid. This effect is most pronounced in triacylglycerols and phospholipids when cells grow at 30 deg C and 37 deg C, respectively. In an in vitro assay determining the desaturation of palmitoyl CoA by microsomal membranes cytosol with or without exo- or endogenous FABP showed the same stimulation of the reaction. The desaturation of exogenously added 14 C-stearic acid, the pattern of unlabelled fatty acids (saturated vs. unsaturated) and the distribution of exogenously added radioactive fatty acids (palmitic, stearic or oleic acid) among lipid classes was not significantly affected. Using high concentrations (1 mM) the uptake of fatty acids was first stimulated and then inhibited when FABP was expressed. (author)

  13. Impact of climate changes and correlations on oil fatty acids in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onemli, F.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower oil is a major important vegetable oil because it is widely used in human nutrition and in many industrial productions depends on fatty acid composition. Field studies were conducted during in two years on the same soil to investigate changes of climate induced oil fatty acid composition of a traditional sunflower, and to obtain correlations among oil fatty acids. Seed oil content and twelve fatty acid percentages of sunflower oil were analyzed. Variations for years were significant for seed oil content and palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), miristic (C14:0) and eicosenoic acids (C20:1). Higher temperatures during seed development in 2010 resulted with 68.38 % increasing in oleic content of the traditional sunflower hybrid. The highest negative correlations (r= -0.99) were noted between oleic and linoleic acids. (author)

  14. Comparative Study of Fatty Acids Profile in Eleven Wild Mushrooms of Boletacea and Russulaceae Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Marija V; Mitic, Violeta D; Jovanovic, Olga P; Stankov Jovanovic, Vesna P; Nikolic, Jelena S; Petrovic, Goran M; Stojanovic, Gordana S

    2018-01-01

    Eleven species of wild mushrooms which belong to Boletaceae and Russulaceae families were examined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis for the presence of fatty acids. As far as we know, the fatty acid profiles of B. purpureus and B. rhodoxanthus were described for the first time. Twenty-six fatty acids were determined. Linoleic (19.5 - 72%), oleic (0.11 - 64%), palmitic (5.9 - 22%) and stearic acids (0.81 - 57%) were present in the highest contents. In all samples, unsaturated fatty acids dominate. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was used to display the correlation between the fatty acids and their relationships with the mushroom species. Based on the fatty acids profile in the samples, the mushrooms can be divided into two families: Boletaceae and Russulaceae families, using cluster analysis. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  16. PHOSPHOLIPIDS FROM PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata (Duch. Poir SEED KERNEL OIL AND THEIR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipids (PL of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata (Duch Poir seed kernel and their fatty acid composition were investigated. The crude oil was obtained by maceration with isopropanol followed by steps of extraction yielded polar lipids. The quantitative determination of PLs content of the dried pumpkin seed kernel and their polar lipids were calculated based on the elemental phosphorus (P contents which was determined by means of spectrophotometric methods. PL classes were separated from polar lipids via column chromatography. The fatty acid composition of individual PL was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The total of PL in the pumpkin seed kernels was 1.27% which consisted of phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidyletanolamine (PE. The predominant fatty acids of PL were oleic and palmitic acid in PC and PE while PS's fatty acid were dominantly consisted of oleic acid and linoleic acid.

  17. In vivo incorporation of labeled fatty acids in rat liver lipids after oral administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyton, J.; Drury, P.J.; Crawford, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Striking differences were found in the compartmentalization of fatty acids into liver lipid fractions. The saturated fatty acids--lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic--were incorporated into phosphoglycerides at faster rates with increasing chain lengths, while triglyceride incorporation was almost uniform. The degree of incorporation of the unsaturated fatty acids into phosphoglycerides (structural) compared to triglyceride (storage and energy) was the converse of their oxidation rates. The incorporation of oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids was mainly into triglyceride, whereas dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were preferentially incorporated into phosphoglycerides. The data suggest that distribution of each fatty acid is different depending on its destination for structural or energy function

  18. Determination of Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase, Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities and Fatty Acid Profiles of 10 Anatolian Klasea Cass. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsen Tel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In search of new natural fatty acid sources, extract of 10 different Turkish Klasea species were studies. Fatty acids of Klasea species were studied by GC and GC-MSD. Oleic acid (4.8-45.8%, palmitic acid (15.6-51.8%, linoleic acid (0.3-45.5%, palmitoleic acid (0.8-28.4% and linolenic acid (15.6-34.6% were the main fatty acids elucidated. All extracts were also subjected to acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH • scavenging, CUPRAC and ferrous ion-chelating ability activities. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were determined as quercetin and pyrocatechol equivalents. All extracts showed significant antioxidant activity in all tests, except hexane extracts of K. serratuloides and K. cerinthifolia that showed weak inhibition against BChE and AChE. The hexane extract of K. coriaceae and methanol extract of K. serratuloides exhibited notable tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

  19. Impact of time of initiation of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate in hospitalized Asian patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia: a post hoc analysis from the PREVAIL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huafang; Li, Yan; Feng, Yu; Zhuo, Jianmin; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Mathews, Maju; Tan, Wilson

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in efficacy and safety outcomes in acute exacerbating schizophrenia patients between 2 subgroups (≤1 week and >1 week), differing in time interval from hospitalization to time of initiation of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate. PREVAIL was a multicenter, single-arm, open-label, prospective Phase IV study in hospitalized Asian patients (either sex, aged 18-65 years) diagnosed with schizophrenia ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fourth Edition). Change from baseline to week 13 in primary (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total score), secondary endpoints (PANSS responder rate, PANSS subscale, PANSS Marder factor, Clinical Global Impression-Severity, and Personal and Social Performance scale scores, readiness for hospital discharge questionnaire) and safety were assessed in this post hoc analysis. Significant mean reduction from baseline to week 13 in the PANSS total score, 30% PANSS responder rates ( P ≤0.01), PANSS subscales (positive and general psychopathology; all P ≤0.01), PANSS Marder factor (positive symptoms, uncontrolled hostility, and excitement and anxiety/depression; all P ≤0.01), Personal and Social Performance scale scores ( P ≤0.05) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity categorical summary ( P ≤0.05) were significantly greater in the ≤1 week subgroup versus >1 week subgroup ( P ≤0.05). The readiness for hospital discharge questionnaire improved over time for the overall study population, but remained similar between subgroups at all-time points. Treatment-emergent adverse events were similar between the subgroups. Early initiation of once-monthly paliperidone palmitate in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia led to greater improvements in psychotic symptoms with comparable safety than treatment initiation following 1 week of hospitalization.

  20. Fatty acids bind tightly to the N-terminal domain of angiopoietin-like protein 4 and modulate its interaction with lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robal, Terje; Larsson, Mikael; Martin, Miina; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Lookene, Aivar

    2012-08-24

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4), a potent regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism, binds to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) through its N-terminal coiled-coil domain (ccd-Angptl4) inducing dissociation of the dimeric enzyme to inactive monomers. In this study, we demonstrate that fatty acids reduce the inactivation of LPL by Angptl4. This was the case both with ccd-Angptl4 and full-length Angptl4, and the effect was seen in human plasma or in the presence of albumin. The effect decreased in the sequence oleic acid > palmitic acid > myristic acid > linoleic acid > linolenic acid. Surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence, and chromatography measurements revealed that fatty acids bind with high affinity to ccd-Angptl4. The interactions were characterized by fast association and slow dissociation rates, indicating formation of stable complexes. The highest affinity for ccd-Angptl4 was detected for oleic acid with a subnanomolar equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)). The K(d) values for palmitic and myristic acid were in the nanomolar range. Linoleic and linolenic acid bound with much lower affinity. On binding of fatty acids, ccd-Angptl4 underwent conformational changes resulting in a decreased helical content, weakened structural stability, dissociation of oligomers, and altered fluorescence properties of the Trp-38 residue that is located close to the putative LPL-binding region. Based on these results, we propose that fatty acids play an important role in modulating the effects of Angptl4.

  1. 3-MCPD 1-palmitate induced renal tubular cell apoptosis in vivo via JNK/p53 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) are a group of processing-induced food contaminants with nephrotoxicity, but the molecular mechanism(s) remains unclear. This study investigated whether and how the JNK/p53 pathway may play a role in the nephrotoxic effect of 3-MCPD este...

  2. Tannin, protein contents and fatty acid compositions of the seeds of several Vicia L. species from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kökten, Kağan; Koçak, Alpaslan; Bağci, Eyüp; Akçura, Mevlüt; Çelik, Sait

    2010-01-01

    The seedoils of six Vicia species (Leguminosae) were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of the seeds were found to be between 21.87%-31.33%. The tannin contents of the seeds were found to be between 0.13%-1.07%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by the GC of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The oilseeds of Vicia species contain palmitic and stear...

  3. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adeli, Khosrow [Division of Clinical Biochemistry, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Meshkani, Reza, E-mail: rmeshkani@tums.ac.ir [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway.

  4. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar; Adeli, Khosrow; Meshkani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway

  5. Majority of cellular fatty acid acylated proteins are localized to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, C.A.; Olson, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    The BC 2 Hl muscle cell line was previously reported to contain a broad array of fatty acid acylated proteins. Palmitate was shown to be attached to membrane proteins posttranslationally through thiol ester linkages, whereas myristate was attached cotranslationally, or within seconds thereafter, to soluble and membrane-bound proteins through amide linkages. The temporal and subcellular differences between palmitate and myristate acylation suggested that these two classes of acyl proteins might follow different intracellular pathways to distinct subcellular membrane systems or organelles. In this study, the authors examined the subcellular localization of the major fatty acylated proteins in BC 4 Hl cells. Palmitate-containing proteins were localized to the plasma membrane, but only a subset of myristate-containing proteins was localized to this membrane fraction. The majority of acyl proteins were nonglycosylated and resistant to digestion with extracellular proteases, suggesting that they were not exposed to the external surface of the plasma membrane. Many proteins were, however, digested during incubation of isolated membranes with proteases, which indicates that these proteins were, however, digested during incubation of isolated membranes with proteases, which indicates that these proteins face the cytoplasm. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled with [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 3 H]myristate revealed that individual proteins were modified by only one of the two fatty acids and did not undergo both N-linked myristylation and ester-linked palmitylation. Together, these results suggest that the majority of cellular acyl proteins are routed to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, and they raise the possibility that fatty acid acylation may play a role in intracellular sorting of nontransmembranous, nonglycosylated membrane proteins

  6. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis contributes significantly to establishment of a bioenergetically favorable environment for vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Greseth

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The poxvirus life cycle, although physically autonomous from the host nucleus, is nevertheless dependent upon cellular functions. A requirement for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis was implied by our previous demonstration that cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, impaired vaccinia virus production. Here we show that additional inhibitors of this pathway, TOFA and C75, reduce viral yield significantly, with partial rescue provided by exogenous palmitate, the pathway's end-product. Palmitate's major role during infection is not for phospholipid synthesis or protein palmitoylation. Instead, the mitochondrial import and β-oxidation of palmitate are essential, as shown by the impact of etomoxir and trimetazidine, which target these two processes respectively. Moreover, the impact of these inhibitors is exacerbated in the absence of exogenous glucose, which is otherwise dispensable for infection. In contrast to glucose, glutamine is essential for productive viral infection, providing intermediates that sustain the TCA cycle (anaplerosis. Cumulatively, these data suggest that productive infection requires the mitochondrial β-oxidation of palmitate which drives the TCA cycle and energy production. Additionally, infection causes a significant rise in the cellular oxygen consumption rate (ATP synthesis that is ablated by etomoxir. The biochemical progression of the vaccinia life cycle is not impaired in the presence of TOFA, C75, or etomoxir, although the levels of viral DNA and proteins synthesized are somewhat diminished. However, by reversibly arresting infections at the onset of morphogenesis, and then monitoring virus production after release of the block, we determined that virion assembly is highly sensitive to TOFA and C75. Electron microscopic analysis of cells released into C75 revealed fragmented aggregates of viroplasm which failed to be enclosed by developing virion membranes. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccinia

  7. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis contributes significantly to establishment of a bioenergetically favorable environment for vaccinia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greseth, Matthew D; Traktman, Paula

    2014-03-01

    The poxvirus life cycle, although physically autonomous from the host nucleus, is nevertheless dependent upon cellular functions. A requirement for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis was implied by our previous demonstration that cerulenin, a fatty acid synthase inhibitor, impaired vaccinia virus production. Here we show that additional inhibitors of this pathway, TOFA and C75, reduce viral yield significantly, with partial rescue provided by exogenous palmitate, the pathway's end-product. Palmitate's major role during infection is not for phospholipid synthesis or protein palmitoylation. Instead, the mitochondrial import and β-oxidation of palmitate are essential, as shown by the impact of etomoxir and trimetazidine, which target these two processes respectively. Moreover, the impact of these inhibitors is exacerbated in the absence of exogenous glucose, which is otherwise dispensable for infection. In contrast to glucose, glutamine is essential for productive viral infection, providing intermediates that sustain the TCA cycle (anaplerosis). Cumulatively, these data suggest that productive infection requires the mitochondrial β-oxidation of palmitate which drives the TCA cycle and energy production. Additionally, infection causes a significant rise in the cellular oxygen consumption rate (ATP synthesis) that is ablated by etomoxir. The biochemical progression of the vaccinia life cycle is not impaired in the presence of TOFA, C75, or etomoxir, although the levels of viral DNA and proteins synthesized are somewhat diminished. However, by reversibly arresting infections at the onset of morphogenesis, and then monitoring virus production after release of the block, we determined that virion assembly is highly sensitive to TOFA and C75. Electron microscopic analysis of cells released into C75 revealed fragmented aggregates of viroplasm which failed to be enclosed by developing virion membranes. Taken together, these data indicate that vaccinia infection, and in

  8. Targeted association mapping demonstrating the complex molecular genetics of fatty acid formation in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-hui; Reif, Jochen C; Ma, Yan-song; Hong, Hui-long; Liu, Zhang-xiong; Chang, Ru-zhen; Qiu, Li-juan

    2015-10-23

    The relative abundance of five dominant fatty acids (FAs) (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) is a major factor determining seed quality in soybean. To clarify the currently poorly understood genetic architecture of FAs in soybean, targeted association analysis was conducted in 421 diverse accessions phenotyped in three environments and genotyped using 1536 pre-selected SNPs. The population of 421 soybean accessions displayed significant genetic variation for each FA. Analysis of the molecular data revealed three subpopulations, which reflected a trend depending on latitude of cultivation. A total of 37 significant (p seed quality of soybean with benefits for human health and for food processing.

  9. Scalable preparation of high purity rutin fatty acid esters following enzymatic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into expanded uses of modified flavonoids are often limited by the availability of these high purity compounds. As such, a simple, effective and relatively fast method for isolation of gram quantities of both long and medium chain fatty acid esters of rutin following scaled......-up biosynthesis reactions was established. Acylation reactions of rutin and palmitic or lauric acids were efficient in systems containing dried acetone and molecular sieves, yielding from 70–77% bioconversion after 96 h. Thereafter, high purity isolates (>97%) were easily obtained in significant quantities...

  10. The role of topically applied L-ascorbic acid in ex-vivo examination of burn-injured human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielesz, Anna; Biniaś, Dorota; Bobiński, Rafał; Sarna, Ewa; Paluch, Jadwiga; Waksmańska, Wioletta

    2017-10-01

    Wound treatment and healing is complex and is comprised of an elaborate set of processes including cellular, spectroscopic and biochemical ones as well as the ;reaction; of local tissue to thermal injury. Vitamin C as L-ascorbic acid (LA) prevents injurious effects of oxidants because it reduces reactive oxygen species to stable molecules, it becomes oxidized to the short-lived ascorbyl radical. As a result, antioxidant treatment may contribute to minimizing injury in burn patients. The aim of this study is to assess changes in molecular structure of collagen extracted from human epidermis burn wound scab during incubation of the epidermis in L-ascorbic acid solution. The study will be performed using FTIR and FT Raman spectroscopies. During this research it was observed that the intensity of Raman peaks increased where healing was being modified by LA. The intensity of the amide III band at 1247 cm- 1 relative to the intensity at 1326 cm- 1 was used to test tissue repair degree at the incision site. FTIR spectra were recorded from frozen specimens of serum modified by LA; an analysis of shifts in the amide I band position was conducted. The appearance of a new band for frozen samples modified by LA was observed around 1149-1220 cm- 1. The above conclusions confirmed the creation of hydrogen bonds between Nsbnd H stretch and Cdbnd O. Samples being incubated in solutions of L-ascorbic acid demonstrated the absence of electrophoretic bands of albumin. Alterations in the surface of the skin incubated in L-ascorbic acid were investigated with the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A decrease in external symptoms of burn injury was noted in the damaged epidermis incubated in L-ascorbic acid.

  11. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO 2 in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO 2 and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and ω-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by β-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the ω-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the β-ketothiolase step of the β-oxidation pathway. The [ 14 C]acetoacetate formed from the [1- 14 C]labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the [ 14 C]acetoacetate formed from the (ω-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1

  12. Physicochemical properties and analysis of Malaysian palm fatty acid distilled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaah, Majd Ahmed; Yusoff, Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad; Salimon, Jumat

    2018-04-01

    Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is cheap and valuable byproduct of edible oil processing industries. This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical properties of Malaysian palm fatty acid distilled (PFAD). The physicochemical properties showed that the free fatty acid (FFA %), acid value, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, hydroxyl value, specific gravity at 28°C, moisture content, viscosity at 40°C and colour at 28°C values were 87.04± 0.1 %, 190.6± 1 mg/g, 53.3±0.2 mg/g, 210.37±0.8 mg/g, 1.5±0.1%, 47±0.2 mg/g, 0.87 g/ml, 0.63 %, 30 cSt and yellowish respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition in PFAD. The fatty acids were found to be comprised mostly with 48.9 % palmitic acid (C16:0), 37.4 % oleic acid (C18:1), 9.7 % linoleic acid (C18:2), 2.7 % stearic acid (C18:0) and 1.1 % myristic acid (C14:0). The analysis of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has resulted with 99.2 % of FFA, while diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol were 0.69 and 0.062 % respectively.

  13. Conversion of polar and non-polar algae oil lipids to fatty acid methyl esters with solid acid catalysts--A model compound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Martta; Munter, Tony; Linnekoski, Juha

    2015-09-01

    Bio-based fuels are becoming more and more important due to the depleting fossil resources. The production of biodiesel from algae oil is challenging compared to terrestrial vegetable oils, as algae oil consists of polar fatty acids, such as phospholipids and glycolipids, as well as non-polar triglycerides and free fatty acids common in vegetable oils. It is shown that a single sulphonated solid acid catalyst can perform the esterification and transesterification reactions of both polar and non-polar lipids. In mild reaction conditions (60-70 °C) Nafion NR50 catalyst produces methyl palmitate (FAME) from the palmitic acid derivatives of di-, and tri-glyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipid with over 80% yields, with the glycolipid derivative giving nearly 40% yields of FAME. These results demonstrate how the polar and non-polar lipid derivatives of algal oil can be utilised as feedstocks for biodiesel production with a single catalyst in one reaction step. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative analysis of myocardial kinetics of 15-p-[iodine-125] iodophenylpentadecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrado, T.R.; Holden, J.E.; Ng, C.K.; Raffel, D.M.; Gatley, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Myocardial extraction and the characteristic tissue clearance of radioactivity following bolus injections of a radioiodinated ( 125 I) long chain fatty acid (LCFA) analog 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) were examined in the isolated perfused working rat heart. Radioactivity remaining in the heart was monitored with external scintillation probes. A compartmental model which included nonesterified tracer, catabolite, and complex lipid compartments successfully fitted tissue time-radioactivity residue curves, and gave a value for the rate of IPPA oxidation 1.8 times that obtained from steady-state release of tritiated water from labeled palmitic acid. The technique was sensitive to the impairment of LCFA oxidation in hearts of animals treated with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor, 2[5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA). IPPA or similar modified fatty acids may be better than 11 C-labeled physiological fatty acids such as palmitate in this type of study, because efflux of unoxidized tracer and catabolite(s) from the heart are kinetically more distinct, and their contributions to the early data can be reliably separated. This technique may be suitable for extension to in vivo measurements with position tomography and appropriate modified fatty acids

  15. Quantitative analysis of myocardial kinetics of 15-p-(iodine-125) iodophenylpentadecanoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrado, T.R.; Holden, J.E.; Ng, C.K.; Raffel, D.M.; Gatley, S.J.

    1989-07-01

    Myocardial extraction and the characteristic tissue clearance of radioactivity following bolus injections of a radioiodinated (/sup 125/I) long chain fatty acid (LCFA) analog 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) were examined in the isolated perfused working rat heart. Radioactivity remaining in the heart was monitored with external scintillation probes. A compartmental model which included nonesterified tracer, catabolite, and complex lipid compartments successfully fitted tissue time-radioactivity residue curves, and gave a value for the rate of IPPA oxidation 1.8 times that obtained from steady-state release of tritiated water from labeled palmitic acid. The technique was sensitive to the impairment of LCFA oxidation in hearts of animals treated with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor, 2(5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl)oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA). IPPA or similar modified fatty acids may be better than /sup 11/C-labeled physiological fatty acids such as palmitate in this type of study, because efflux of unoxidized tracer and catabolite(s) from the heart are kinetically more distinct, and their contributions to the early data can be reliably separated. This technique may be suitable for extension to in vivo measurements with position tomography and appropriate modified fatty acids.

  16. Quantitative analysis of myocardial kinetics of 15-p-[iodine-125] iodophenylpentadecanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrado, T R; Holden, J E; Ng, C K; Raffel, D M; Gatley, S J

    1989-07-01

    Myocardial extraction and the characteristic tissue clearance of radioactivity following bolus injections of a radioiodinated (125I) long chain fatty acid (LCFA) analog 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) were examined in the isolated perfused working rat heart. Radioactivity remaining in the heart was monitored with external scintillation probes. A compartmental model which included nonesterified tracer, catabolite, and complex lipid compartments successfully fitted tissue time-radioactivity residue curves, and gave a value for the rate of IPPA oxidation 1.8 times that obtained from steady-state release of tritiated water from labeled palmitic acid. The technique was sensitive to the impairment of LCFA oxidation in hearts of animals treated with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor, 2[5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA). IPPA or similar modified fatty acids may be better than 11C-labeled physiological fatty acids such as palmitate in this type of study, because efflux of unoxidized tracer and catabolite(s) from the heart are kinetically more distinct, and their contributions to the early data can be reliably separated. This technique may be suitable for extension to in vivo measurements with position tomography and appropriate modified fatty acids.

  17. Study on fatty acids composition of lipid class in fish oil, proximate analysis and calorie value of kijar in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 14.00 This aim of this research was to determine fatty acids and raw proximate composition and calorie value of fish Kijar in Iran. The fatty acids and proximate composition Kijar was determined. The established AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemist, USA methods were followed for composition bio chemical of fish. Mean moisture, fat, protein, ash, carbohydrate contents and calorie value of raw fish were 70.81%, 5.88%, 17.80%, 3.41%, 2.1% and 132.52 kcal, respectively. Among fatty acids, palmitic acid was a major fatty acid while stearic acid was the other major constituent. Unsaturated monoenoic fatty acids (oleic and palmitoleic acids were major constituents. Important unsaturated fatty acids such as EPA and DHA, were also identified. percentage composition of fatty acids in the lipid classes of oil of Saurida undosquamis which the saturated fatty acids ranges from 58% to 72.14%. Palmitic acid is predominant and its composition ranges 38.64% to 48.98% while stearic acid ranges from 11.35% to 19.50%. Among unsaturated fatty acids, monoenoic are the major fatty acids. Oleic acid ranges from 12.15% to 27.48%. It is concluded that fish kijar found as health seafood for Iranian southern peoples form point of view of nutritional values and valuable fatty acids. Therefore it is recommended people put this fish in diet basket and it consumed three times in the week. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  18. Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanida Lamaisri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of alkyl esters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid compositions in the oils used as feedstock can influence quality of the biodiesel. In the present study, oil content and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and kernel oil were examined from nine commercial oil palm Elaeis guineensis cultivars. Saponification number, iodine value and cetane number were calculated from palm oil fatty acid methyl ester compositions. Fruits of tenera oil palm were collected from a farmer’s plantation in Dan Makham Tia District, Kanchanaburi Province in 2009. Variation between cultivars was observed in oil content and fatty acid profile of mesocarp oil rather than kernel oil. The percentage of oil in dry mesocarp ranged from 63.8% to 74.9%. The mesocarp oil composed of 41.5 - 51.6% palmitic acid, 3.58-7.10% stearic acid, 32.8-42.5% oleic acid and 9.3-13.0% linoleic acid. Likewise saponification number, iodine value and cetane number of mesocarp oil fatty acid methyl ester showed more variation among cultivars, ranging from 196.5-198.9, 45.7-54.6 and 61.8-63.6, respectively. While those of kernel oil fatty acid methyl ester showed no different among cultivars, ranging from 229-242, 13.6-16.4 and 65.3-66.5, respectively. The cetane number of fatty acid methyl ester positively correlated with contents of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids in palm oil and saponification number of biodiesel, but negatively correlated with iodine value

  19. Composition of fatty acids in the Varroa destructor mites and their hosts, Apis mellifera drone-prepupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Raczkowski, Marek; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profile of lipids extracted from the Varroa destructor parasitic mite and its host, drone-prepupae of Apis mellifera, was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were generally similar in parasites and their hosts. Fatty acids were arranged in the following descending order based on their content: MUFAs (ca. 52-55%), SFAs (ca. 41%) and PUFAs (ca. 3%). The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (46% in mites, 44% in prepupae) and palmitic acid (23% and 30%, respectively). Varroa parasites differed from their hosts in the quantity of individual FAs and in their FA profiles. Three PUFAs noted in the host were not observed in parasitic mites, whereas the presence of C21:0, C24:0 and C22:1 FAs was reported in mites, but not in drones.

  20. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5

  1. Characterization of cider apples on the basis of their fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Mangas Alonso, Juan J; Margolles Cabrales, Inmaculada; Arias Abrodo, Pilar

    2002-02-27

    In the current study, the fatty acids composition of 30 monovarietal apple juices from six cider apple varieties belonging to two categories was analyzed. The different apple juices were obtained from three consecutive harvests (1997, 1998, and 1999). The fatty acids concentration in apple juice together with chemometric techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed us to differentiate apple juices on the basis of the sweet or sharp category to which the cider apple variety belongs. Fatty acids such as the unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids, and saturated caprylic, capric, stearic, and palmitic acids were related to the sweet cider apple category, while pentadecanoic acid is related to the sharp class.

  2. Comparative study of different cooking methods on nutritional attributes and fatty acid profile of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A. I.; Chatha, S. A. S.; Iqbal, T.; Zahoor, A. F.; Arshad, M. U.; Afzal, S.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different cooking methods (boiling, grilling, frying and microwave roasting) on the nutritional quality of chicken meat were assessed by measuring quality parameters i.e. moisture, ash, protein, fat and fiber contents. The fatty acid composition of chicken fat was analyzed by GC-FID. The chicken fat was found to contain high levels of oleic acid (38.0-47.3%) followed by linolenic acid (13.3-28.0%) and palmitic acid (2.0-13.6%). Different cooking methods exhibited significant effect (p<=0.05) on the fatty acid composition and other nutritional parameters of meat samples. Generally, fried meat had lower saturated fatty acid contents. It can be concluded from this study that boiling and frying are healthy cooking practices while grilling and microwave roasting show some negative effects. (author)

  3. Lipid and fatty acid composition microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using photobioreactor and open pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, M. I.; Kawaroe, M.; Effendi, H.

    2018-03-01

    Microalgae contain lipids and fatty acids that can be the raw materials of biofuel. Previous studies have been known of using cultivation systems to obtain biomass of C. vulgaris which can be extracted to obtain lipid and fatty acid content. The observational step was observed ten days in photobioreactor and open pond for harvesting biomass using NaOH, lipid extraction using hexane and methanol, and fatty acid analysis using Gas Chromatography. Lipid content of microalgae biomass in photobioreactor and open pond was 2.26 ± 0.51% and 3.18 ± 0.80%, respectively. Fatty acid content ranged between 0.7-22.8% and 0.9-22.6% and the dominant fatty acids in both cultivating system was palmitic acid.

  4. Exploitation of genetic resources for improvement of unsaturated fatty acid in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, U.A.; Mehmood, K.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five inbred lines (Cytoplasmic male sterile and 12 fertility restorer) annuus synthesized at the oilseeds research institute Faisalabad. Pakistan were analyzed on gas chromatograph for their fatty acid status. The palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid ranged form 5.62-11.02% 1.09-3.08%, 21.40-50.70% and 40.60-69.10% respectively. The saturate fatty acid may increase the cholesterol level in the blood. This deposition of cholestrol in the blood vesels is a major cause of heart attack. By screening our germplasm on the basis of fatty acid profile, we can use their inbred lines having low percentage of saturated high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids which may benefit sunflower industry through increased consumer performance for a low saturated fatty acid sunflower products. RL-58, RL-52, ORI-85 and ORI-2 are recommended for the development of commercial hybrids with quality edible oil. (author)

  5. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  6. Inhibition of carnitine-acyl transferase I by oxfenicine studied in vivo with [11C]-labeled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsten, Gertrud; Valind, Sven; Takalo, Reijo; Neu, Henrik; Meurling, Staffan; Langstroem, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Anesthetized pigs were studied with [ 11 C]-labeled fatty acids (FAs) with carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 16 carbon atoms, during control conditions and during inhibition of carnitine-palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) with oxfenicine. The myocardial uptake of [ 11 C]-FAs from blood was measured together with the relative distribution of [ 11 C]-acyl-CoA between rapid mitochondrial oxidation and incorporation into slow turnover lipid pools in the heart. Results: During baseline conditions, the fractional oxidative utilization of palmitate was almost as high as that of carnitine-independent short-chain FAs, unless the carnitine shuttle was inhibited by high levels of lactate. Inhibition of CPT I almost completely blocked the oxidative pathway for palmitic acid and reduced the fractional oxidative utilization, while the rate of oxidative metabolism of acyl-CoA was unaffected. Conclusions: [ 11 C]-Labeled FAs allow rapid oxidation to be well separated from esterification into slow turnover lipid pools in the heart of anaesthetized pigs. The fractional oxidative utilization of [ 11 C]-palmitate serves well to characterize, in vivo, the carnitine-dependent transfer of long-chain FAs

  7. Inhibition of carnitine-acyl transferase I by oxfenicine studied in vivo with [{sup 11}C]-labeled fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angsten, Gertrud [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Children' s Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: gertrud.angsten@surgsci.uu.se; Valind, Sven [Uppsala University PET Centre, Uppsala University, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Takalo, Reijo [Uppsala University PET Centre, Uppsala University, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Clinical Physiology, University Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Neu, Henrik [Uppsala University PET Centre, Uppsala University, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, S-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Meurling, Staffan [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Children' s Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Langstroem, Bengt [Uppsala University PET Centre, Uppsala University, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Organic Chemistry, Uppsala University, S-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Methods: Anesthetized pigs were studied with [{sup 11}C]-labeled fatty acids (FAs) with carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 16 carbon atoms, during control conditions and during inhibition of carnitine-palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) with oxfenicine. The myocardial uptake of [{sup 11}C]-FAs from blood was measured together with the relative distribution of [{sup 11}C]-acyl-CoA between rapid mitochondrial oxidation and incorporation into slow turnover lipid pools in the heart. Results: During baseline conditions, the fractional oxidative utilization of palmitate was almost as high as that of carnitine-independent short-chain FAs, unless the carnitine shuttle was inhibited by high levels of lactate. Inhibition of CPT I almost completely blocked the oxidative pathway for palmitic acid and reduced the fractional oxidative utilization, while the rate of oxidative metabolism of acyl-CoA was unaffected. Conclusions: [{sup 11}C]-Labeled FAs allow rapid oxidation to be well separated from esterification into slow turnover lipid pools in the heart of anaesthetized pigs. The fractional oxidative utilization of [{sup 11}C]-palmitate serves well to characterize, in vivo, the carnitine-dependent transfer of long-chain FAs.

  8. Extending the basic function of lattice oxygen in lepidocrocite titanate - The conversion of intercalated fatty acid to liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluangnont, Tosapol; Arsa, Pornanan; Sooknoi, Tawan

    2017-12-01

    We report herein the basicity of the external and internal lattice oxygen (OL) in lepidocrocite titanates with respect to CO2 and palmitic acid, respectively. Several compositions have been tested with different types of the metal M aliovalently (co)substituted for Ti, K0.8[MyTi2-y]O4 (M = Li, Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cu/Ni and Cu/Zn). The low CO2 desorption peak temperature (70-100 °C) suggests that the external OL sites are weakly basic similar to TiO2. However, the internal OL sites are sufficiently basic to deprotonate palmitic acid, forming the intercalated potassium palmitate at the interlayer spaces. The latter serves as a two-dimensional (2D) molecular reactor for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels via deoxygenation under atmospheric N2. A relationship has been observed between the yield of the liquid products vs the partial charge of the lattice oxygen (δO). Since the deoxygenation pathway is highly dependent on the metal substitution, the redox-active sites might also play some roles. The co-substituted K0.8[Cu0.2Ni0.2]Ti1.6O4 produced 68.0% yield of the liquid products, with 51% saturated and 15% unsaturated C15 hydrocarbons at 350 °C.

  9. Berberine Attenuates Development of the Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Lipid Metabolism Disorder in Type 2 Diabetic Mice and in Palmitate-Incubated HepG2 Cells through Suppression of the HNF-4α miR122 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Yang; Lan, Xiaoxin; Yao, Fan; Yan, Xin; Chen, Li; Hatch, Grant M

    2016-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) has been shown to exhibit protective effects against diabetes and dyslipidemia. Previous studies have indicated that BBR modulates lipid metabolism and inhibits hepatic gluconeogensis by decreasing expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF-4α). However, the mechanism involved in this process was unknown. In the current study, we examined the mechanism of how BBR attenuates hepatic gluconeogenesis and the lipid metabolism alterations observed in type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice and in palmitate (PA)-incubated HepG2 cells. Treatment with BBR for 4 weeks improve all biochemical parameters compared to T2D mice. Treatment of T2D mice for 4 weeks or treatment of PA-incubated HepG2 cells for 24 h with BBR decreased expression of HNF-4α and the microRNA miR122, the key gluconeogenesis enzymes Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and the key lipid metabolism proteins Sterol response element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), Fatty acid synthase-1 (FAS-1) and Acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCα) and increased Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1(CPT-1) compared to T2D mice or PA-incubated HepG2 cells. Expression of HNF-4α in HepG2 cells increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes and BBR treatment or knock down of miR122 attenuated the effect of HNF-4α expression. In contrast, BBR treatment did not alter expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes in HepG2 cells with knockdown of HNF-4α. In addition, miR122 mimic increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes in HepG2 cells with knockdown of HNF-4α. These data indicate that miR122 is a critical regulator in the downstream pathway of HNF-4α in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. The effect of BBR on hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism is mediated through HNF-4α and is regulated downstream of miR122. Our data provide new evidence to support HNF-4α and miR122