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Sample records for acid alleviates decreases

  1. Trivalent chromium alleviates oleic acid induced steatosis in SMMC-7721 cells by decreasing fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiaonan; Hu, Linlin; Fang, Zhijia; Huang, Zhiwei; Shi, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] has been shown as an essential trace element for human health. Previous studies depict that Cr(III) plays important roles in maintaining normal glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas its effect on the hepatic lipid metabolism is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of Cr on hepatic steatosis induced by oleic acid (OA) in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells. Hepatic steatosis model was co-administered with Cr. Indexes of lipid accumulation were determined and associated genes expression were analyzed. The data showed that OA could induce lipid accumulation and triglyceride (TG) content in SMMC-7721 cells, and significantly increase the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2). This steatosis effect of OA was ameliorated by Cr. The TG accumulation and up-regulation of CD36 and DGAT2 genes followed steatosis induction were inhibited by Cr. After the treatment of Cr, excessive intracellular OA content was also attenuated. Furthermore, Cr still performed inhibitory effect of DGAT2 expression at the presence of DGAT2 agonist or inhibitor, which indicated that the inhibitory effect of Cr on lipogenesis is associated with the downregulation of DGAT2 expression. These findings demonstrate that Cr alleviates hepatic steatosis via suppressing CD36 expression to prevent fatty acid uptake, as well as suppressing DGAT2 expression to inhibit TG synthesis. It suggests that CD36 and DGAT2 might become the novel drug targets for their properties in hepatic steatosis. Most importantly, Cr may be a potential anti-steatosis candidate to offer protective effects against liver damage. PMID:27497686

  2. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

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    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  3. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

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    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

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    Meda Anderson R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.

  5. Alleviation of Soil Acidity and Aluminium Phytotoxicity in Acid Soils by Using Alkaline-Stabilised Biosolids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study alleviation of soil acidity and Al toxicity by applying an alkaline-stabilised sewage sludge product (biosolids) to an acid clay sandy loam (pH 5.7) and a strongly acid sandy loam (pH 4.5). Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Forrester) was used as a test crop and was grown in the sewage sludge-amended (33.5 t sludge DM ha-1) and unamended soils. The results showed that the alkaline biosloids increased soil pH from 5.7 to 6.9 for the clay sandy loam and from 4.5 to 6.0 for the sandy loam. The sludge product decreased KCl-extractable Al from 0.1 to 0.0 cmol kg-1 for the former soil and from 4.0 to 0.1 cmol kg-1 for the latter soil. As a result, barley plants grew much better and grain yield increased greatly in the amended treatments compared with the unamended controls. These observations indicate that alkaline-stabilised biosolids can be used as a liming material for remedying Al phytotoxicity in strongly acid soils by increasing soil pH and lowering Al bioavailability.

  6. Cadmium Toxicity and Alleviating Effects of Exogenous Salicylic Acid in Iris hexagona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Chen, Gang; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxictity and possible role of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating Cd-induced toxicity were investigated on ornamental hydrophyte Iris hexagona. Compared to the control, treatments with 100 and 500 µM Cd for 7 days significantly decreased dry weight, the contents of chlorophyll, photosynthetic parameters, and increased the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. Pretreatment of the roots of I. hexagona seedlings with 1 µM SA before Cd exposure may increase dry weight, photosynthetic rate, activities of antioxidant enzymes, improve the cell ultrastructure and protect plants from Cd-induced oxidative stress damage. However, SA pretreatment had no significant effect on Cd concentrations in the leaves and roots. It is suggested that SA-induced Cd tolerances in I. hexagona are likely associated with increases in antioxidant enzyme activities and vacuolar compartmentation, rather than Cd uptake.

  7. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

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    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  8. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40 °C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in γ-glutamyl kinase (GK) and decrease in proline oxidase (PROX) activity, resulting in promotion of osmotic potential and water potential necessary for maintaining photosynthetic activity. Together with this, SA treatment restricted the ethylene formation in heat-stressed plants to optimal range by inhibiting activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). This resulted in improved proline metabolism, N assimilation and photosynthesis. The results suggest that SA interacts with proline metabolism and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat.

  9. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from ...

  10. Glycyrrhizic acid alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

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    Lili eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal form of interstitial lung disease that lacks effective therapies at present. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a natural compound extracted from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Glycyrrhiza glabra, was recently reported to benefit lung injury and liver fibrosis in animal models, yet whether GA has a therapeutic effect on pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of GA on pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model with bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The results indicated that GA treatment remarkably ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and attenuated BLM-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and activation of tansforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in the lungs. Further, we demonstrated that GA treatment inhibited proliferation of 3T6 fibroblast cells, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis in vitro, implying that GA-mediated suppression of fibroproliferation may contribute to the anti-fibrotic effect against BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary, our study suggests a therapeutic potential of GA in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Role of salicylic acid in alleviating oxidative damage in rice roots (Oryza sativa) subjected to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-dependent changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation were investigated in roots of rice (Oryza sativa) grown hydroponically with Cd, with or without pretreatment of salicylic acid (SA). Exposure to 50 μM Cd significantly decreased root growth, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), but increased the concentrations of H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and non-protein thiols (NPT). However, pretreatment with 10 μM SA enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants, but lowered the concentrations of H2O2 and MDA in the Cd-stressed rice compared with the Cd treatment alone. Pretreatment with SA alleviated the Cd-induced inhibition of root growth. The results showed that pretreatment with SA enhanced the antioxidant defense activities in Cd-stressed rice, thus alleviating Cd-induced oxidative damage and enhancing Cd tolerance. The possible mechanism of SA-induced H2O2 signaling in mediating Cd tolerance was discussed. - Pretreatment with SA enhanced the antioxidant defense activities in Cd-stressed rice, thus alleviating Cd-induced oxidative damage and enhancing Cd tolerance

  12. EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation improves spatial memory and alleviates the age-related decrease in hippocampal RXRγ and kinase expression in rats

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    Anne eLétondor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs. Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in a similar way. Therefore we investigated in middle-aged rats the behavioral and molecular effects of supplementations with EPA/DHA and vitamin A alone or combined. 18-month-old rats exhibited reference and working memory deficits in the Morris water maze, associated with a decrease in serum vitamin A and hippocampal EPA/DHA contents. RARα, RXRβ and RXRγ mRNA expression and CAMKII, AKT, ERK1/2 expression were decreased in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. A combined EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation had a beneficial additive effect on reference memory but not in working memory in middle-aged rats, associated with an alleviation of the age-related decrease in RXRγ, CAMKII, AKT and ERK1 expression in the hippocampus. This study provides a new combined nutritional strategy to delay brain aging.

  13. EPA/DHA and Vitamin A Supplementation Improves Spatial Memory and Alleviates the Age-related Decrease in Hippocampal RXRγ and Kinase Expression in Rats.

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    Létondor, Anne; Buaud, Benjamin; Vaysse, Carole; Richard, Emmanuel; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Alfos, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in a similar way. Therefore, we investigated in middle-aged rats the behavioral and molecular effects of supplementations with EPA/DHA and vitamin A alone or combined. 18-month-old rats exhibited reference and working memory deficits in the Morris water maze, associated with a decrease in serum vitamin A and hippocampal EPA/DHA contents. RARα, RXRβ, and RXRγ mRNA expression and CAMKII, AKT, ERK1/2 expression were decreased in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. A combined EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation had a beneficial additive effect on reference memory but not in working memory in middle-aged rats, associated with an alleviation of the age-related decrease in RXRγ, CAMKII, AKT, and ERK1 expression in the hippocampus. This study provides a new combined nutritional strategy to delay brain aging. PMID:27242514

  14. Exogenous application of salicylic acid to alleviate the toxic effects of insecticides in Vicia faba L.

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    Singh, Aradhana; Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) in protecting plants from insecticides toxicity. The seeds of Vicia faba var IIVR Selection-1 were treated with different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm) of the insecticides alphamethrin (AM) and endosulfan (ES) for 6 h with and without 12 h conditioning treatment of SA (0.01 mM). Insecticides treatment caused a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and induction of different types of chromosomal abnormalities in the meristematic cells of broad bean roots. Pretreatment of seeds with SA resulted in increased MI and significant reduction of chromosomal abnormalities. SA application also regulated proline accumulation and carotenoid content in the leaf tissues. SA resulted in the decrement of insecticides induced increase in proline content and increased the carotenoids content. These results illustrate the ameliorating effect of SA under stress conditions and reveal that SA is more effective in alleviating the toxic effects of insecticides at higher concentrations than that at lower concentrations.

  15. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Zhu, Xiao Fang [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jiang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Gui Jie [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 {mu}M for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, GA at 5 {mu}M improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd{sup 2+} increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd{sup 2+} absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd{sup 2+} uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  16. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:26998941

  17. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

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    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). PMID:26920276

  18. The Alleviation of Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms in Changbai Larch (Larix olgensis Seedlings by the Application of Exogenous Organic Acids

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    Jinfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous organic acids are beneficial in protecting plants from the stress of heavy metal toxins (e.g., Pb in soils. This work focuses on the potential role of organic acids in protecting Changbai larch (Larix olgensis seedlings from the stress of growing in nutrient deficient soil. The seedlings were planted in a nutrient rich or deficient soil (A1 horizon of a Haplic Cambisol without organic acid as the nutrient rich control, or fully-mixed A1 + B horizons in a proportion of 1:2 as deficient in pots in a greenhouse. In A1 + B horizons the seedlings were treated daily with concentrations of oxalic or citric acid (OA or CA at a rate approximately equivalent to 0, 0.04, 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0 mmol·kg−1 of soil for 10, 20, and 30 days. Nutrient deficiency stressed the seedlings as indicated by lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA content in leaves significantly increasing, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, proline, photosynthetic pigment contents, and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm decreasing. The stress increased in controls over the application periods. When nutrient deficient plants were exposed to an organic acid (especially 5.0 or 10.0 mmol·L−1 for 20 days, the stress as indicated by the physiological parameters was reversed, and survival rate of seedlings, and biomass of root, stem, and leaf significantly increased; CA was more effective than OA. The results demonstrate that exogenous organic acids alleviate nutrient deficiency-induced oxidative injuries and improve the tolerance of L. olgensis seedlings to nutrient deficiency.

  19. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’)

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR; Hassan BAYAT; Hossein NEAMATI

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA) plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs) of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM) and were ...

  20. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in rice seedlings better than magnesium and calcium by reducing aluminum uptake, suppressing oxidative damage and increasing antioxidative defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Dubey, R S

    2013-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative ameliorating effects of salicylic acid, Ca and Mg on Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Al treatment (0.5 mM AlCl3) caused decrease in plant vigour, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increased contents of O 2 (∙-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and decline in the level of protein thiol. Al treatment caused significant changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes in rice seedlings. Exogenously added salicylic acid (60 μM), Ca (1 mM) and Mg (0.25 mM) significantly alleviated Al toxicity effects in the seedlings marked by restoration of growth, suppression of Al uptake, restoration of root plasma membrane integrity and decline in O 2 (∙-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents. Salicylic acid, Ca and Mg suppressed Al-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while it elevated Al-induced decline in CAT activity. By histochemical staining of O 2 (∙-) using NBT and H2O2 using DAB, it was further confirmed that added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg decreased Al-induced accumulation of O 2 (∙-) and H2O2 in the leaf tissues. Results indicate that exogenously added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg alleviates Al toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Al uptake, restoring root membrane integrity, reducing ROS level and ROS induced oxidative damage and regulating the level of antioxidative enzyme activities. Further salicylic appears to be superior to Mg and Ca in alleviating Al toxicity effects in rice plants.

  1. Diets enriched in trans-11 vaccenic acid alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Borthwick, Faye; Mangat, Rabban; Uwiera, Richard; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Quiroga, Ariel D; Jacobs, René L; Lehner, Richard; Proctor, Spencer D; Nelson, Randal C

    2014-07-01

    Trans11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA) is one of the most predominant naturally occurring trans fats in our food chain and has recently been shown to exert hypolipidemic effects in animal models. In this study, we reveal new mechanism(s) by which VA can alter body fat distribution, energy utilization and dysfunctional lipid metabolism in an animal model of obesity displaying features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Obese JCR:LA-cp rats were assigned to a control diet that included dairy-derived fat or the control diet supplemented with 1% VA. VA reduced total body fat (-6%), stimulated adipose tissue redistribution [reduced mesenteric fat (-17%) while increasing inguinal fat mass (29%)] and decreased adipocyte size (-44%) versus control rats. VA supplementation also increased metabolic rate (7%) concomitantly with an increased preference for whole-body glucose utilization for oxidation and increased insulin sensitivity [lower HOMA-IR (-59%)]. Further, VA decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores (-34%) and reduced hepatic (-27%) and intestinal (-39%) triglyceride secretion relative to control diet, while exerting differential transcriptional regulation of SREBP1 and FAS amongst other key genes in the liver and the intestine. Adding VA to dairy fat alleviates features of MetS potentially by remodeling adipose tissue and attenuating ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of obesity and MetS. Increasing VA content in the diet (naturally or by fortification) may be a useful approach to maximize the health value of dairy-derived fats. PMID:24775093

  2. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations.

  3. Retinoic acid alleviates Con A-induced hepatitis and differentially regulates effector production in NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoo-A; Song, You Chan; Kim, Ga-Young; Choi, Gyeyoung; Lee, Yoon-Sook; Lee, Jung-Mi; Kang, Chang-Yuil

    2012-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a diverse regulator of immune responses. Although RA promotes natural killer T (NKT) cell activation in vitro by increasing CD1d expression on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), the direct effects of RA on NKT-cell responses in vivo are not known. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of RA on the severity of Con A-induced hepatitis and molecular changes of NKT cells. First, we demonstrated that Con A-induced liver damage was ameliorated by RA. In correlation with cytokine levels in serum, RA regulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-4 but not TNF-α by NKT cells without influencing the NKT-cell activation status. However, RA did not alleviate α-GalCer-induced liver injury, even though it reduced IFN-γ and IL-4 but not TNF-α levels in serum. This regulation was also detected when liver mononuclear cells (MNCs) or NKT hybridoma cells were treated with RA in vitro. The regulatory effect of RA on NKT cells was mediated by RAR-α, and RA reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK. These results suggest that RA differentially modulates the production of effector cytokines by NKT cells in hepatitis, and the suppressive effect of RA on hepatitis varies with the pathogenic mechanism of liver injury.

  4. Application of salicylic acid increases contents of nutrients and antioxidative metabolism in mungbean and alleviates adverse effects of salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA, a naturally occurring plant hormone, is an important signal molecule known to have diverse effects on biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Its growth-promoting effect on various plants has been shown, but the information on the response of mungbean, an important leguminous plant, to SA application under salt stress is limited. Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. cultivar Pusa Vishal plants grown with 50 mM NaCl were sprayed with 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mM SA and basic physiological processes were studied to substantiate our understanding of their role in tolerance to salinity-induced oxidative stress and how much such processes are induced by SA application. Treatment of plants with 0.5 mM SA resulted in a maximum decrease in the content of Na+, Cl-, H2O2, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and electrolyte leakage under saline conditions compared to the control. In contrast, this treatment increased N, P, K, and Ca content, activity of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, photosynthesis, and yield maximally under nonsaline and saline conditions. The application of higher concentration of SA (1.0 mM either proved inhibitory or was of no additional benefit. It was concluded that 0.5 mM SA alleviates salinity-inhibited photosynthesis and yield through a decrease in Na+, Cl-, H2O2, and TBARS content, and electrolyte leakage, and an increase in N, P, K, and Ca content, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and glutathione content.

  5. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Nina; De Bock, Katrien; Richter, Erik A.; Hespel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Brandt N, De Bock K, Richter EA, Hespel P. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E215-E224, 2010. First published May 18, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00098.2010.-Excess energy intake via a palatable low-fat diet (cafeteria diet) is known to induce obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptatio...

  6. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response.

  7. Tannic acid alleviates bulk and nanoparticle Nd2O3 toxicity in pumpkin: a physiological and molecular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangcai; Ma, Chuanxin; Mukherjee, Arnab; Musante, Craig; Zhang, Jianfeng; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-11-01

    The effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on nanoparticle toxicity to plants is poorly understood. In this study, tannic acid (TA) was selected as a DOM surrogate to explore the mechanisms of neodymium oxide NPs (Nd2O3 NPs) phytotoxicity to pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). The results from the tested concentrations showed that 100 mg L(-1) Nd2O3 NPs were significantly toxic to pumpkin in term of fresh biomass, and the similar results from the bulk particles and the ionic treatments were also evident. Exposure to 100 mg L(-1) of Nd2O3 NPs and BPs in 1/5 strength Hoagland's solution not only significantly inhibited pumpkin growth, but also decreased the S, Ca, K and Mg levels in plant tissues. However, 60 mg L(-1) TA significantly moderated the observed phytotoxicity, decreased Nd accumulation in the roots, and notably restored S, Ca, K and Mg levels in NPs and BPs treated pumpkin. TA at 60 mg L(-1) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in both roots (17.5%) and leaves (42.9%), and catalase (CAT) activity (243.1%) in the roots exposed to Nd2O3 NPs. This finding was confirmed by the observed up-regulation of transcript levels of SOD and CAT in Nd2O3 NPs treated pumpkin analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that TA alleviates Nd2O3 BPs/NPs toxicity through alteration of the particle surface charge, thus reducing the contact and uptake of NPs by pumpkin. In addition, TA promotes antioxidant enzymatic activity by elevating the transcript levels of genes involved in ROS scavenging. Our results shed light on the mechanisms underlying the influence of DOM on the bioavailability and toxicity of NPs to terrestrial plants. PMID:27308847

  8. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Hydrogen Sulfide Is Partially Related to the Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathway in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Han, Qiaoxia; Hou, Junfeng; Lu, Hongfang; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Little information is available describing the effects of exogenous H2S on the ABA pathway in the acquisition of drought tolerance in wheat. In this study, we investigated the physiological parameters, the transcription levels of several genes involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism pathway, and the ABA and H2S contents in wheat leaves and roots under drought stress in response to exogenous NaHS treatment. The results showed that pretreatment with NaHS significantly increased plant height and the leaf relative water content of seedlings under drought stress. Compared with drought stress treatment alone, H2S application increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced MDA and H2O2 contents in both leaves and roots. NaHS pretreatment increased the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and ABA reactivation genes in leaves; whereas the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and ABA catabolism genes were up-regulated in roots. These results indicated that ABA participates in drought tolerance induced by exogenous H2S, and that the responses in leaves and roots are different. The transcription levels of genes encoding ABA receptors were up-regulated in response to NaHS pretreatment under drought conditions in both leaves and roots. Correspondingly, the H2S contents in leaves and roots were increased by NaHS pretreatment, while the ABA contents of leaves and roots decreased. This implied that there is complex crosstalk between these two signal molecules, and that the alleviation of drought stress by H2S, at least in part, involves the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:27649534

  9. Alleviation of Drought Stress by Hydrogen Sulfide Is Partially Related to the Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathway in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyun; Ding, Huina; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Han, Qiaoxia; Hou, Junfeng; Lu, Hongfang; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Little information is available describing the effects of exogenous H2S on the ABA pathway in the acquisition of drought tolerance in wheat. In this study, we investigated the physiological parameters, the transcription levels of several genes involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism pathway, and the ABA and H2S contents in wheat leaves and roots under drought stress in response to exogenous NaHS treatment. The results showed that pretreatment with NaHS significantly increased plant height and the leaf relative water content of seedlings under drought stress. Compared with drought stress treatment alone, H2S application increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced MDA and H2O2 contents in both leaves and roots. NaHS pretreatment increased the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and ABA reactivation genes in leaves; whereas the expression levels of ABA biosynthesis and ABA catabolism genes were up-regulated in roots. These results indicated that ABA participates in drought tolerance induced by exogenous H2S, and that the responses in leaves and roots are different. The transcription levels of genes encoding ABA receptors were up-regulated in response to NaHS pretreatment under drought conditions in both leaves and roots. Correspondingly, the H2S contents in leaves and roots were increased by NaHS pretreatment, while the ABA contents of leaves and roots decreased. This implied that there is complex crosstalk between these two signal molecules, and that the alleviation of drought stress by H2S, at least in part, involves the ABA signaling pathway. PMID:27649534

  10. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid alleviates autistic-like behaviors resulting from maternal immune activation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Michael J; Mucha, Brittany; Denheyer, Heather; Atkinson, Devon; Schanz, Norman; Vassiliou, Evros; Benno, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders over the last several decades has risen at an alarming rate. Factors such as broadened clinical definitions and increased parental age only partially account for this precipitous increase, suggesting that recent changes in environmental factors may also be responsible. One such factor could be the dramatic decrease in consumption of anti-inflammatory dietary omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relative to the amount of pro-inflammatory omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and saturated fats in the Western diet. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principle n-3 PUFA found in neural tissue and is important for optimal brain development, especially during late gestation when DHA rapidly and preferentially accumulates in the brain. In this study, we tested whether supplementation of a low n-3 PUFA diet with DHA throughout development could improve measures related to autism in a mouse model of maternal immune activation. We found that dietary DHA protected offspring from the deleterious effects of gestational exposure to the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid on behavioral measures of autism and subsequent adulthood immune system reactivity. These data suggest that elevated dietary levels of DHA, especially during pregnancy and nursing, may help protect normal neurodevelopment from the potentially adverse consequences of environmental insults like maternal infection. PMID:26703213

  11. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  12. Short-Chain Fatty Acid Propionate Alleviates Akt2 Knockout-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Dysregulation of Akt has been implicated in diseases such as cancer and diabetes, although little is known about the role of Akt deficiency on cardiomyocyte contractile function. This study was designed to examine the effect of Akt2 knockout-induced cardiomyocyte contractile response and the effect of dietary supplementation of short-chain fatty acid propionate on Akt2 knockout-induced cardiac dysfunction, if any. Methods and Results. Adult male wild-type (WT and Akt2 knockout mice were treated with propionate (0.3 g/kg, p.o. or vehicle for 7 days. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. Cardiomyocyte contractile function and mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed. Expression of insulin-signaling molecules Akt, PTEN, GSK3β, and eNOS receptors for short-chain fatty acids GPR41, and GPR43 as well as protein phosphatase PP2AA, PP2AB, PP2C were evaluated using Western blot analysis. Our results revealed that Akt2 knockout led to overt glucose intolerance, compromised cardiomyocyte contractile function (reduced peak shortening and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening as well as prolonged relengthening, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased GPR41 and elevated GPR43 expression, all of which, with the exception of glucose intolerance and elevated GPR43 level, were significantly attenuated by propionate. Neither Akt2 knockout nor propionate affected the expression of protein phosphatases, eNOS, pan, and phosphorylated PTEN and GSK3β. Conclusions. Taken together, these data depicted that Akt2 knockout may elicit cardiomyocyte contractile and mitochondrial defects and a beneficial role of propionate or short-chain fatty acids against Akt2 deficiency-induced cardiac anomalies.

  13. Alleviation of Osmotic Stress Effects by Exogenous Application of Salicylic or Abscisic Acid on Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Cyganek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the role of salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings. This was accomplished by determining the impact of the acids applied exogenously on seedlings grown under osmotic stress in hydroponics. The investigation was unique in its comprehensiveness, examining changes under osmotic stress and other conditions, and testing a number of parameters simultaneously. In both drought susceptible (SQ1 and drought resistant (CS wheat cultivars, significant physiological and biochemical changes were observed upon the addition of SA (0.05 mM or ABA (0.1 μM to solutions containing half-strength Hoagland medium and PEG 6000 (−0.75 MPa. The most noticeable result of supplementing SA or ABA to the medium (PEG + SA and PEG + ABA was a decrease in the length of leaves and roots in both cultivars. While PEG treatment reduced gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content in CS, and osmotic potential, and conversely, increased lipid peroxidation, soluble carbohydrates in SQ1, proline content in both cultivars and total antioxidants activity in SQ1, PEG + SA or PEG + ABA did not change the values of these parameters. Furthermore, PEG caused a two-fold increase of endogenous ABA content in SQ1 and a four-fold increase in CS. PEG + ABA increased endogenous ABA only in SQ1, whereas PEG + SA caused a greater increase of ABA content in both cultivars compared to PEG. In PEG-treated plants growing until the harvest, a greater decrease of yield components was observed in SQ1 than in CS. PEG + SA, and particularly PEG + ABA, caused a greater increase of these yield parameters in CS compared to SQ1. In conclusion, SA and ABA ameliorate, particularly in the tolerant wheat cultivar, the harmful effects and after effects of osmotic stress induced by PEG in hydroponics through better osmotic adjustment achieved by an increase in proline and carbohydrate content as well as by an increase in antioxidant

  14. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity Be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphael, Youssef; Rea, Elvira; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bitterlich, Michael; Schwarz, Dietmar; Colla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Low-pH and aluminum (Al) stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition, and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. "Ekron") either non-grafted or grafted onto "P360" (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C) or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F). Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al, and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Experiment 1, 14 days) and pH 6, pH 3.5, and pH 3.5 + 0.75 mM Al (Experiment 2, 67 days). Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot, and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems) in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot, and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to (i) a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, (ii) a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, (iii) a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as (iv) the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage). Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber.

  15. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity Be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphael, Youssef; Rea, Elvira; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bitterlich, Michael; Schwarz, Dietmar; Colla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Low-pH and aluminum (Al) stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition, and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. "Ekron") either non-grafted or grafted onto "P360" (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C) or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F). Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al, and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Experiment 1, 14 days) and pH 6, pH 3.5, and pH 3.5 + 0.75 mM Al (Experiment 2, 67 days). Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot, and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems) in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot, and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to (i) a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, (ii) a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, (iii) a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as (iv) the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage). Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber. PMID:27621740

  16. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Rouphael

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-pH and aluminium (Al stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.‘Ekron’ either non-grafted or grafted onto ‘P360’ (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F. Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Exp. 1, 14 d and pH 6, pH 3.5 and pH 3.5 +0.75 mM Al (Exp. 2, 67 d. Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to i a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, ii a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, iii a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as iv the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage. Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber.

  17. Solvent-free preparation of polylactic acid fibers by melt electrospinning using umbrella-like spray head and alleviation of problematic thermal degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melt electrospinning is an even simpler and safer method compared with the solution electrospinning in the production of ultra-fine fibers. Polylactic acid (PLA is a biodegradable and resorbable aliphatic ester that has received significant attention in recent years. PLA is easily degradable at high temperature in the process of melt electrospinning. High efficient fibers were made using our designed umbrella-like spray head spinning facility in this work. To find how to alleviate the problematic degradation and what factors could be relevant to degradation, temperature, relative molecular mass, Differential Scanning Calorimeter and X-ray Diffraction patterns before and after spinning were investigated and compared with each other. Results showed that fibers were facile shorten and fractured when spun at 245°C while the relative molecular mass of PLA fibers decreased markedly as compared with that spun at 210°C. To hinder the degradation, couple of experimental efforts were implemented with adding antioxidants, raising spinning voltage, lowering temperature, and reducing residence time. After such efforts, it was observed that the relative molecular mass of the PLA fibers was higher than those without inputting any efforts. The effect of antioxidant 1010 was found the most promising on the alleviation of PLA problematic thermal degradation.

  18. Pomegranate extract decreases oxidative stress and alleviates mitochondrial impairment by activating AMPK-Nrf2 in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Yan, Chunhong; Frost, Bess; Wang, Xin; Hou, Chen; Zeng, Mengqi; Gao, Hongli; Kang, Yuming; Liu, Jiankang

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure, or “hypertension,” is associated with high levels of oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. While pomegranate extract is a known antioxidant that is thought to have antihypertensive effects, the mechanism whereby pomegranate extract lowers blood pressure and the tissue that mediates its antihypertensive effects are currently unknown. We have used a spontaneously hypertensive rat model to investigate the antihypertensive properties of pomegranate extract. We found that chronic treatment of hypertensive rats with pomegranate extract significantly reduced blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, pomegranate extract reduced oxidative stress, increased the antioxidant defense system, and decreased inflammation in the paraventricular nucleus of hypertensive rats. We determined that pomegranate extract reduced mitochondrial superoxide anion levels and increased mitochondrial function in the paraventricular nucleus of hypertensive rats by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and improving mitochondrial dynamics and clearance. We went on to identify the AMPK-nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway as a mechanism whereby pomegranate extract reduces oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus to relieve hypertension. Our findings demonstrate that pomegranate extract alleviates hypertension by reducing oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function in the paraventricular nucleus, and reveal multiple novel targets for therapeutic treatment of hypertension. PMID:27713551

  19. Decrease in neuroimmune activation by HSV-mediated gene transfer of TNFα soluble receptor alleviates pain in rats with diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, Kathryn L Maier; Chattopadhyay, Munmun

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms of diabetic painful neuropathy are complicated and comprise of peripheral and central pathophysiological phenomena. A number of proinflammatory cytokines are involved in this process. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is considered to be one of the major contributors of neuropathic pain. In order to explore the potential role of inflammation in the peripheral nervous system of Type 1 diabetic animals with painful neuropathy, we investigated whether TNF-α is a key inflammatory mediator to the diabetic neuropathic pain and whether continuous delivery of TNFα soluble receptor from damaged axons achieved by HSV vector mediated transduction of DRG would block or alter the pain perception in animals with diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic animals exhibited changes in threshold of mechanical and thermal pain perception compared to control rats and also demonstrated increases in TNFα in the DRG, spinal cord dorsal horn, sciatic nerve and in the foot skin, 6 weeks after the onset of diabetes. Therapeutic approaches by HSV mediated expression of p55 TNF soluble receptor significantly attenuated the diabetes-induced hyperalgesia and decreased the expression of TNFα with reduction in the phosphorylation of p38MAPK in the spinal cord dorsal horn and DRG. The overall outcome of this study suggests that neuroinflammatory activation in the peripheral nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of painful neuropathy in Type 1 diabetes which can be alleviated by local expression of HSV vector expressing p55 TNF soluble receptor.

  20. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  1. A high affinity kidney targeting by chitobionic acid-conjugated polysorbitol gene transporter alleviates unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Kim, Sanghwa; Firdous, Jannatul; Lee, Ah-Young; Hong, Seong-Ho; Seo, Min Kyeong; Park, Tae-Eun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Chae, Chanhee; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-09-01

    Aside from kidney transplantation - a procedure which is exceedingly dependent on donor-match and availability leading to excessive costs - there are currently no permanent treatments available which reverse kidney injury and failure. However, kidney-specific targeted gene therapy has outstanding potential to treat kidney-related dysfunction. Herein we report a novel kidney-specific targeted gene delivery system developed through the conjugation of chitobionic acid (CBA) to a polysorbitol gene transporter (PSGT) synthesized from sorbitol diacrylate and low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI) carrying hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene to alleviate unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. CBA-PSGT performed exceptionally well for targeted delivery of HGF to kidney tissues compared to its non-targeted counterparts (P type I and II), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and the expressions of ICAM-1, TIMP-1 and α-SMA which play a critical role in obstructive kidney functions. Therefore, CBA-PSGT should be further investigated because of its potential to alleviate UUO and kidney-related diseases using high affinity kidney targeting. PMID:27318934

  2. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of t...

  3. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  4. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  5. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms.

  6. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  7. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  8. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  9. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Alleviates Acute Inflammation and Promotes Lipid Mobilization During the Inflammatory Response in White Adipose Tissue of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Gao, Shixing; Liu, Zhiqing; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, white adipose tissue has been shown to exhibit immunological activity, and may play an important role in host defense and protection against bacterial infection. Αlpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) has been demonstrated to function as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent. However, its influence on the inflammatory response and metabolic changes in white adipose tissue remains unknown. We used male C57BL/6 mice as models to study the effect of α-LA on the inflammatory response and metabolic changes in white adipose tissue after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The non-esterified fatty acid content was measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer. The expression of inflammation-, lipid- and energy metabolism-related genes and proteins was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results indicated that α-LA significantly decreased the epididymis fat weight index and the non-esterified fatty acid content in plasma compared with the control group. LPS significantly increased the expression of inflammation genes and α-LA reduced their expression. The LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-κB protein was decreased by α-LA. Regarding lipid metabolism, α-LA significantly counteracted the inhibitory effects of LPS on the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase gene and protein. α-LA evidently increased the gene expression of fatty acid transport protein 1 and cluster of differentiation 36. Regarding energy metabolism, α-LA significantly increased the expression of most of mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes compared with the control and LPS group. Accordingly, α-LA can alleviate acute inflammatory response and this action may be related with the promotion of lipid mobilization in white adipose tissue.

  10. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-12-02

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13-16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  11. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13-16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM. PMID:26633482

  12. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chang Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The results show that vanillic acid (VA demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight at weeks 13–16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05, indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  13. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2016-01-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the ma...

  14. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP.

  15. Salicylic acid alleviates cadmium-induced inhibition of growth and photosynthesis through upregulating antioxidant defense system in two melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongping; Xu, Shuang; Yang, Shaojun; Chen, Youyuan

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread toxic heavy metal that usually causes deleterious effects on plant growth and development. Salicylic acid (SA), a naturally existing phenolic compound, is involved in specific responses to various environmental stresses. To explore the role of SA in the tolerance of melon (Cucumis melo L.) to Cd stress, the influence of SA application on the growth and physiological processes was compared in the two melon cultivars Hamilv (Cd-tolerant) and Xiulv (Cd-sensitive) under Cd stress. Under 400-μM Cd treatment, Hamilv showed a higher biomass accumulation, more chlorophyll (Chl), greater photosynthesis, and less oxidative damage compared to Xiulv. Foliar spraying of 0.1 mM SA dramatically alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition in the two melon genotypes. Simultaneously, SA pretreatment attenuated the decrease in Chl content, photosynthetic capacity, and PSII photochemistry efficiency in Cd-stressed plants. Furthermore, exogenous SA significantly reduced superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation, followed by increase in the activities of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and content of soluble protein and free proline in both the genotypes under Cd stress. The effect of SA was more conspicuous in Xiulv than Hamilv, reflected in the biomass, photosynthetic pigments, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that exogenous spray of SA can alleviate the adverse effects of Cd on the growth and photosynthesis of both the melon cultivars, mostly through promoting antioxidant defense capacity. It also indicates that SA-included protection against Cd damage is to a greater extent more pronounced in Cd-sensitive genotype than Cd-tolerant genotype.

  16. Salicylic acid alleviates cold-induced photosynthesis inhibition and oxidative stress in Jasminum sambac

    OpenAIRE

    CAI, HAN; He, Mengying; Ma, Kun; HUANG, YONGGAO; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a signal molecule that mediates many biotic and abiotic stress-induced physiological responses in plants. In the current study the protective effects of SA on cold stress-caused oxidative damage and photosynthesis inhibition in jasmine plants (Jasminum sambac) were examined. Jasmine seedlings were pretreated with 100 µM SA for 3 days and then subjected to cold stress (4 °C) for 15 days. The amounts of superoxide radicals (O_2^{-}) and hydrogen peroxide (H_{2}O_{2}) sign...

  17. Alleviation of Subsoil Acidity of Red Soil in Southeast China with Lime and Gypsum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNBO; R.MOREAU; 等

    1998-01-01

    Application of lime or gypsum is a common agricultrual practice to ameliorate soils with low pH which prohibits crop prduction,Its integrated effect on soil properties in a red soil derved from Quaternary red clay in Southeast China is discussed in this paper,Application of gypsum in the topsoil without leaching raised soil pH and promoted the production of soil NH4,but lime addition had a contrary effect.Generally,application of lime and /or gypsum has little on soil electrical properties.Gypsum had a little effect on soil exchange complex and its effect went down to 30 cm in depth ,The effect of lime reached only to 5 cm below its application layer.With leaching,Ca transferred from top soil to subsoil and decreased exchangeable Al in subsiol.Gypsum application led to a sharp decrease in soil exchangeable Mg but had no effect on K.

  18. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinpu; Shen, Lianju; Chen, Jinjun; Cao, Xining; Zhou, Yue; Weng, Huali; Long, Chunlan; Zhang, Deying; Tu, Shengfen; Zhang, Yan; He, Dawei; Lin, Tao; Wei, Guanghui

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu) and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley) pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10) and normal control group (n = 10). HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder.

  19. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpu Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10 and normal control group (n = 10. HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8 was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder.

  20. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver.

  1. The interaction of salicylic acid and Ca(2+) alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tu; You, Jiangfeng; Kong, Lingnan; Yu, Miao; Liu, Minghui; Yang, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Both calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and salicylic acid (SA) influence various stress responses in plants. In acidic soils, aluminum (Al) toxicity adversely affects crop yield. In this study, we determined the influences of Ca(2+) and SA on root elongation, Al accumulation, and citrate secretion in soybean plant. We also investigated the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Al-exposed soybean roots. Root elongation was severally inhibited when the roots were exposed to 30 μM Al. The Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was ameliorated by Ca(2+) and SA but aggravated by Ca(2+) channel inhibitor (VP), CaM antagonists (TFP), Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA), and SA biosynthesis inhibitor (PAC). Furthermore, 1.0 mM CaCl2 and 10 μM SA reduced the accumulation of Al in roots, but their inhibitors stimulated the accumulation of Al in roots. Citrate secretion from these roots increased with the addition of either 1.0 mM CaCl2 or 10 μM SA but did not increase significantly when treated with higher Ca(2+) concentration. Enzymatic analysis showed that Ca(2+) and SA stimulated the activities of superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in Al-treated roots. In addition, SA restored the inhibition of Ca(2+) inhibitors on root elongation and Al content. Thus, both Ca(2+) and SA contribute to Al tolerance in soybean. Furthermore, Ca(2+) supplements rapidly increased Al-induced accumulation of free-SA or conjugated SA (SAG), while Ca(2+) inhibitors delayed the accumulation of SA for more than 8 h. Within 4 h of treatment, SA increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in Al-treated roots, and upregulated the expression of four genes that possibly encode calmodulin-like (CML) proteins. These findings indicate that SA is involved in Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways in Al tolerance.

  2. Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najeeb, U.; Xu, L.; Ali, Shafaqat [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jilani, Ghulam, E-mail: jilani@uaar.edu.pk [Department of Soil Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46300 (Pakistan); Gong, H.J. [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shen, W.Q. [The University of Nottingham at Ningbo, Ningbo 315100 (China); Zhou, W.J., E-mail: wjzhou@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-10-30

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 {mu}M) alone, Mn (500 {mu}M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 {mu}M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed

  3. Alleviation effects of Ce3+on inhibition of photochemical activity caused by linolenic acid in spinach chloroplast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoqing; HUANG Hao; LIU Chao; MA Linglan; LIU Jie; YIN Sitao; HONG Fashui

    2008-01-01

    Linolenic acid has great effects on the structure and function of chloroplast. The function of Ce3+ on the improvement of chloro-plast photoreduction activity and oxygen evolution damaged by linolenic acid in spinach by in vitro investigation was studied. Results showed that adding Ce3+ to the linolenic acid treated chloroplast could greatly decrease the reduction linolenic acid exerted on the whole chain electron transport rate and the photoreduction activity of photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) and photosystem Ⅰ (PSⅠ) as well as the oxygen evolution rate of chloroplast. It indicated that Ce3+ had the ability to relieve the inhibition of the photochemical reaction of chloroplast caused by lino-lenic acid to some extent.

  4. Tannic acid alleviates lead acetate-induced neurochemical perturbations in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashafaq, Mohammad; Tabassum, Heena; Vishnoi, Shruti; Salman, Mohd; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Parvez, Suhel

    2016-03-23

    Oxidative stress has been projected as a promising mechanism involved in lead exposure. The lead predisposition catalyzes oxidative reactions and generates reactive oxygen species. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of tannic acid (TA) on behavioral deficit, antioxidative deterioration induced by lead acetate (LA) exposure on experimental rat brain. Male Wistar rats were treated with 50mg/kg body weight of LA and TA for three times a week for two weeks. Our data showed LA-induced profound elevation of ROS production and oxidative stress, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl observed in LA treated rats, whereas significant depletion in the activity of non-enzymatic antioxidants, enzymatic antioxidants, neurotoxicity biomarker and histological changes were observed in LA treated rat brain. However, TA administration restored antioxidant status of brain significantly when compared to control. Our results demonstrate that TA exhibits potent antioxidant properties and suppresses oxidative damages in rat brain induced by LA treatment. These findings were further supported by the neurotoxicity biomarker and histopathological findings in the brain tissue showed that TA protected tissue from deleterious effects of LA exposure. It is concluded, these data suggest that LA induces oxidative stress and supplementation of TA has a powerful antioxidant effect, and it protected rat brain from poisonous effect of LA exposure in experimental rat.

  5. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  6. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Prachaney, Parichat; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-08-04

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA) is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS) in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg) was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  7. Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Evans

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the major chemical processes leading to acid extremes in a small, moorland stream in mid-Wales, UK, which has been monitored since 1979. Results suggest that base cation (mainly calcium dilution, the "sea-salt effect", and elevated nitrate pulses, are the major causes of seasonal/episodic minima in acid neutralising capacity (ANC, and that the relative importance of these drivers has remained approximately constant during 25 years of decreasing acid deposition and associated long-term chemical recovery. Many of the chemical variations causing short-term reductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increases, are closely related to changes in water-flowpath and therefore to stream discharge. Changes in the observed pH-discharge relationship over time indicate that high-flow pH has increased more rapidly than mean-flow pH, and therefore that episodes have decreased in magnitude since 1980. However a two-box application of the dynamic model MAGIC, whilst reproducing this trend, suggests that it will not persist in the long term, with mean ANC continuing to increase until 2100, but the ANC of the upper soil (the source of relatively acid water during high-flow episodes stabilising close to zero beyond 2030. With climate change predicted to lead to an increase in maximum flows in the latter half of the century, high-flow related acid episodes may actually become more rather than less severe in the long term, although the model suggests that this effect may be small. Two other predicted climatic changes could also detrimentally impact on acid episodes: increased severity of winter "sea-salt" episodes due to higher wind speeds during winter storms; and larger sulphate pulses due to oxidation of reduced sulphur held in organic soils, during more extreme summer droughts. At the Gwy, the near-coastal location and relatively small extent of peat soils suggest that sea-salt episodes may have the

  8. Ferulic acid, a natural polyphenol, alleviates insulin resistance and hypertension in fructose fed rats: Effect on endothelial-dependent relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassossy, Hany; Badawy, Dina; Neamatallah, Thikryat; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2016-07-25

    Ferulic acid (FER) is a polyphenolic compound contained in various types of fruits. It has a substantial therapeutic effect inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. In this study, we examined the effect of FER on fructose-fed rats in comparison to a standard AR inhibitor, zopolrestat (ZOP). We determined the protective role of FER against metabolic syndrome by examining serum insulin/Glucose levels, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and advanced glycation end product (AGE) in rats supplied with 10% fructose drinking water. In addition, blood pressure, vascular reactivity of isolated thoracic aortas and acetylcholine-induced NO were all evaluated to estimate the cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with fructose feeding. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, (+10% fructose, Fru), zopolrestat-treated fructose fed (Fru-zop) and ferulic acid-treated fructose fed rats (Fru-Fer). After 12 weeks of FER treatment, we found significant reduction in both hyperinsulinemia and elevated diastolic blood pressure associated with fructose-fed to levels comparable to those achieved with ZOP. Both FER and ZOP significantly augmented the impaired relaxation associated with fructose-fed, whereas neither showed any significant effect on the developed vasoconstriction. Isolated aortas from fructose-fed rats incubated with either FER or ZOP, reinstated normal relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, isolated aortas showed attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production following the addition of (ACh), while both FER and ZOP restored normal induction of NO. Taken together, the current study shows that, FER alleviated insulin resistance and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome compared to the standard AR inhibitor (ZOP). This potential protective effect is at least mediated by restoring endothelial relaxation.

  9. Treatment with PPARδ agonist alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by modulating glucose and fatty acid metabolic enzymes in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuli; Li, Jin; Lu, Xiaolan; Ma, Huihui; Shi, Haitao; Li, Hong; Xie, Danhong; Dong, Lei; Liang, Chunlian

    2015-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common condition which is associated with certain features of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)δ is an important regulator of energy metabolism and insulin resistance in diabetes. However, the function of PPARδ in NAFLD has not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, in order to explore the function of PPARδ in NAFLD, we created a rat model of NALFD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated the rats with GW501516, a PPARδ agonist. We found that the lipid levels decreased, and hepatocellular ballooning and inflammatory cell infiltration were also significantly decreased following treatment of the rats with GW501516 compared to the untreated rats. Treatment with GW501516 also significantly decreased the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, as well as the low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. In addition, treatment with GW501516 increased the levels of insulin‑like growth factor‑1 (IGF-1) and high‑density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to the HFD group. Furthermore, the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma‑glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the HFD group were all restored to the normal control levels following treatment with GW501516. RT‑qPCR and immunohistochemical staining revealed that the expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein‑1c (SREBP‑1c) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT‑2) were both restored to normal control levels following treatment with GW501516. Also, the levels of enzymes related to lipid metabolism were increased following treatment with GW501516. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that treatment with GW501516 alleviates NAFLD by modulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism. PMID:26133486

  10. Solvent-free preparation of polylactic acid fibers by melt electrospinning using umbrella-like spray head and alleviation of problematic thermal degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yong; Zhao Fengwen; Zhang Chi; Zhang Jianming; Yang Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Melt electrospinning is an even simpler and safer method compared with the solution electrospinning in the production of ultra-fine fibers. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and resorbable aliphatic ester that has received significant attention in recent years. PLA is easily degradable at high temperature in the process of melt electrospinning. High efficient fibers were made using our designed umbrella-like spray head spinning facility in this work. To find how to alleviate the ...

  11. Branched-chain amino acids, arginine, citrulline alleviate central fatigue after 3 simulated matches in taekwondo athletes: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, I-Fan; Wu, Huey-June; Chen, Chung-Yu; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Background The decline in cognitive performance has been shown after fatiguing exercise. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been suggested to alleviate exercise-induced central fatigue. Arginine and citrulline could remove the excess NH3 accumulation accompanied with BCAA supplementation by increasing nitric oxide biosynthesis and/or urea cycle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the combined supplementation of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline on central fatigue after...

  12. Exercise pre‑conditioning alleviates brain damage via excitatory amino acid transporter 2 and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 following ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Min; Feng, Rui; Li, Wen-Bin; Ren, Shi-Qing; Zhang, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have reported that physical exercise may exert a neuroprotective effect in humans as well as animals. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of exercise has remained to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible signaling pathways involved in the protective effect of pre‑ischemic treadmill training for ischemic stroke in rats. A total of 36 male Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided at random into three groups as follows (n=12 for each): Sham surgery group; middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group; and exercise with MCAO group. Following treadmill training for three weeks, the middle cerebral artery was occluded for 90 min in order to induce ischemic stroke, followed by reperfusion. Following 24 h post‑reperfusion, six rats from each group were assessed for neurological deficits and then sacrificed to calculate the infarct volume. The remaining rats (n=6 for each group) were sacrificed and the expression levels of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT‑2) and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were detected using western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that rats that underwent pre‑ischemic exercise intervention had a significantly decreased brain infarct volume and neurological deficits; in addition, the pre‑ischemic exercise group showed decreased overexpression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and increased expression of EAAT‑2 following ischemic stroke. In conclusion, treadmill training exercise prior to ischemic stroke alleviated brain damage in rats via regulation of EAAT‑2 and ERK1/2. PMID:25370789

  13. Influence of sericin in alleviating the hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in silkworm Bombyx mori: role of the amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Micheal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sericin is an important peptide derived from silk fibre spun by the silkworm Bombyx mori and has various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to characterize the major constituents of sericin that are providing cytoprotective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage in midgut epithelial cells and hemocytes of silkworm. Extracted sericin was subjected to LCMS analysis for amino acid composition. Isolated cells of midgut and hemocytes were incubated with sericin or with mixture of serine and aspartic acid prior to suboptimal concentration of hydrogen peroxide treatment. Sericin as well as amino acid mixture reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes triggered by hydrogen peroxide, inhibited oxidative derivatives such as protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde and increased antioxidant capacity in both the cells studied. Furthermore, sericin and amino acid mixture significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species as assessed by fluorescent detection. These results suggest that major constituent amino acids of sericin defend midgut epithelial cells and hemocytes against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species rather than activating antioxidant enzyme system thereby inhibiting cell damage.

  14. EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation improves spatial memory and alleviates the age-related decrease in hippocampal RXRγ and kinase expression in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Létondor, Anne; Buaud, Benjamin; Vaysse, Carole; Richard, Emmanuel; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Alfos, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in ...

  15. EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation improves spatial memory and alleviates the age-related decrease in hippocampal RXRγ and kinase expression in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Anne eLétondor; Benjamin eBuaud; Carole eVaysse; Emmanuel eRichard; Sophie eLaye; Véronique ePallet; Serge eAlfos

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in a...

  16. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant-plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2016-08-01

    Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant-plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant-plant-plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA. PMID:27131397

  17. Alleviation of kainic acid-induced brain barrier dysfunction by 4-o-methylhonokiol in in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Yi; Ahn, Sun-Young; Yoo, Jae Hyeon; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate whether 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH), a principal ingredient of Magnolia (M.) officinalis bark, alleviated acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) kainic acid- (KA-) induced brain blood barrier dysfunction (BBBD) via pathological examination and cytological analyses of the brain tissues of mice. KA (10-30 mg/kg) time- and dose-dependently increased the water content of brain tissues and induced edema and encephalopathy. However, pretreatment with MH (5 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the water content of the brain compared to that observed in the KA control group. Furthermore, MH significantly and dose-dependently reversed the remarkable variations in evan's blue dye (EBD) staining and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.). MH also decreased the elevated seizure scores that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice in a manner similar to scavengers such as DMTU and trolox. Additionally, MH significantly scavenged intracellular ROS and Ca2+ within hippocampal cells. The tight junction seals mediated by claudin (Cld-5) were also found to be modulated by MH. MH efficiently reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50, 52.4 mM) and •OH with an electron spin resonance (ESR) signal rate constant of 4×10(9) M(-1)·S(-1), which is close to the reactivity of the vitamin E analog trolox. Taken together, these results suggest that MH may enhance radical scavenging in lipid and hydrophobic environments, which may be important for the physiological activity of the barrier.

  18. Alleviation of Kainic Acid-Induced Brain Barrier Dysfunction by 4-O-Methylhonokiol in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yi Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to investigate whether 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH, a principal ingredient of Magnolia (M. officinalis bark, alleviated acute intraperitoneal (i.p. kainic acid- (KA- induced brain blood barrier dysfunction (BBBD via pathological examination and cytological analyses of the brain tissues of mice. KA (10–30 mg/kg time- and dose-dependently increased the water content of brain tissues and induced edema and encephalopathy. However, pretreatment with MH (5 and 20 mg/kg, i.p. significantly reduced the water content of the brain compared to that observed in the KA control group. Furthermore, MH significantly and dose-dependently reversed the remarkable variations in evan’s blue dye (EBD staining and malondialdehyde (MDA levels that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p.. MH also decreased the elevated seizure scores that were induced by KA (10 mg/kg, i.p. in mice in a manner similar to scavengers such as DMTU and trolox. Additionally, MH significantly scavenged intracellular ROS and Ca2+ within hippocampal cells. The tight junction seals mediated by claudin (Cld-5 were also found to be modulated by MH. MH efficiently reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (IC50, 52.4 mM and •OH with an electron spin resonance (ESR signal rate constant of 4×109 M-1·S-1, which is close to the reactivity of the vitamin E analog trolox. Taken together, these results suggest that MH may enhance radical scavenging in lipid and hydrophobic environments, which may be important for the physiological activity of the barrier.

  19. Resolvin D1, a Metabolite of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, Decreases Post-Myocardial Infarct Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Gilbert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that inflammation induced by myocardial ischemia plays a central role in depression-like behavior after myocardial infarction (MI. Several experimental approaches that reduce inflammation also result in attenuation of depressive symptoms. We have demonstrated that Resolvin D1 (RvD1, a metabolite of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA derived from docosahexaenoic acid, diminishes infarct size and neutrophil accumulation in the ischemic myocardium. The aim of this study is to determine if a single RvD1 injection could alleviate depressive symptoms in a rat model of MI. MI was induced in rats by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 40 min. Five minutes before ischemia or after reperfusion, 0.1 μg of RvD1 or vehicle was injected in the left ventricle cavity. Fourteen days after MI, behavioral tests (forced swim test and socialization were conducted to evaluate depression-like symptoms. RvD1 reduced infarct size in the treated vs. the vehicle group. Animals receiving RvD1 also showed better performance in the forced swim and social interaction tests vs. vehicle controls. These results indicate that a single RvD1 dose, given 5 min before occlusion or 5 min after the onset of reperfusion, decreases infarct size and attenuates depression-like symptoms.

  20. Alleviating Effect of Phenol Compounds on Cucumber Fusarium Wilt and Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; ZHANG Chun-lan; SHEN Qi-rong

    2003-01-01

    The amount of phenol compounds in the soil increased after adding organic material into the soil. It was found that p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and frulic acid alleviated Fusarium wilt of cucumber, the alleviating effect of p-hydroxybenzoic acid was the best, followed by p-coumaric acid and frulic acid. The total amount of bacterial, actinomyces and fungus in high phenol compounds treatment decreased than that of control treatment, while the microorganisms' amount in low phenol compounds treatment increased. Phenol compounds inhibit the growth of pathogen.

  1. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra;

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  2. FLZ alleviates the memory deficits in transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease via decreasing beta-amyloid production and tau hyperphosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Qi Bao

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia worldwide and mainly characterized by the aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau. FLZ is a novel synthetic derivative of natural squamosamide and has been proved to improve memory deficits in dementia animal models. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of FLZ's neuroprotective effect in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice and SH-SY5Y (APPwt/swe cells. The results showed that treatment with FLZ significantly improved the memory deficits of APP/PS1 transgenic mice and decreased apoptosis of SH-SY5Y (APPwt/swe cells. FLZ markedly attenuated Aβ accumulation and tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistic study showed that FLZ interfered APP processing, i.e., FLZ decreased β-amyloid precursor protein (APP phosphorylation, APP-carboxy-terminal fragment (APP-CTF production and β-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 expression. These results indicated that FLZ reduced Aβ production through inhibiting amyloidogenic pathway. The mechanistic study about FLZ's inhibitory effect on tau phosphorylation revealed t the involvement of Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β pathway. FLZ treatment increased Akt activity and inhibited GSK3β activity both in vivo and in vitro. The inhibitory effect of FLZ on GSK3β activity and tau phosphorylation was suppressed by inhibiting Akt activity, indicating that Akt/GSK3β pathway might be the possible mechanism involved in the inhibitory effect of FLZ on tau hyperphosphorylation. These results suggested FLZ might be a potential anti-AD drug as it not only reduced Aβ production via inhibition amyloidogenic APP processing pathway, but also attenuated tau hyperphosphoylation mediated by Akt/GSK3β.

  3. Decreased Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content Contributes to Increased Survival in Human Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Oraldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among diet components, some fatty acids are known to affect several stages of colon carcinogenesis, whereas others are probably helpful in preventing tumors. In light of this, our aim was to determine the composition of fatty acids and the possible correlation with apoptosis in human colon carcinoma specimens at different Duke's stages and to evaluate the effect of enriching human colon cancer cell line with the possible reduced fatty acid(s. Specimens of carcinoma were compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa: a significant decrease of arachidonic acid, PPARα, Bad, and Bax and a significant increase of COX-2, Bcl-2, and pBad were found. The importance of arachidonic acid in apoptosis was demonstrated by enriching a Caco-2 cell line with this fatty acid. It induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of PPARα that, in turn, decreased COX-2. In conclusion, the reduced content of arachidonic acid is likely related to carcinogenic process decreasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis.

  4. Arsenic induced toxicity in broiler chicks and its alleviation with ascorbic acid: a toxico-patho-biochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahrar; Sharaf, Rabia; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2013-01-01

    To find out toxico-pathological effects of arsenic (As) and ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C), broilers birds were administered 50 and 250 mg/kg arsenic and Vit C, respectively alone/in combination. As-treated birds exhibited severe signs of toxicity such as dullness, depression, increased thirst, open mouth breathing and watery diarrhea. All these signs were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. As-treated birds showed a significant decrease in serum total proteins while serum enzymes, urea and creatinine were significantly increased. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase completely whereas proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were partial ameliorated in birds treated with As+Vit C as compared to As-treated and control birds. Pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As-treated birds. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation while in kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed in As-treated birds. Pathological lesions were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. It can be concluded that arsenic induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially attenuated by Vit C.

  5. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25616451

  6. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  7. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, April D. [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Novak, Petr [Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice 37001 (Czech Republic); Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lu, Zhenqiang [The Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cherrington, Nathan J., E-mail: cherrington@pharmacy.arizona.edu [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  8. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26590355

  9. Nanomolar Caffeic Acid Decreases Glucose Uptake and the Effects of High Glucose in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Natarelli

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate and prolonged consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we report the effects of physiological concentrations of caffeic acid, easily achievable by normal dietary habits, in endothelial cells cultured in 25 mM of glucose (high glucose, HG. In HG, the presence of 10 nM caffeic acid was associated with a decrease of glucose uptake but not to changes of GLUT-1 membrane localization or mRNA levels. Moreover, caffeic acid countered HG-induced loss of barrier integrity, reducing actin rearrangement and FITC-dextran passage. The decreased flux of glucose associated to caffeic acid affected HG induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of initiator (caspase 8 and 9 and effector caspases (caspase 7 and 3 and by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Bcl-2. We also observed that caffeic acid in HG condition was associated to a reduction of p65 subunit nuclear levels with respect to HG alone. NF-κB activation has been shown to lead to apoptosis in HG treated cells and the analysis of the expression of a panel of about 90 genes related to NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that caffeic acid significantly influenced gene expression changes induced by HG. In conclusion, our results suggest that caffeic acid, decreasing the metabolic stress induced by HG, allows the activation of survival mechanisms mediated by a different modulation of NF-κB-related signaling pathways and to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins.

  10. Nanocellulose coated with various free fatty acids can adsorb fumonisin B1, and decrease its toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Mohammad Hossein Balal; Shahdadi, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adsorption and biological properties of nanocellulose coated with free fatty acids (NCCFFAs). At first, nanocellulose was synthesized by acid hydrolysis, and then separately coated with different free fatty acids (FFAs), including lauric acid, alpha linoleic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. Next, the serial concentrations of NCCFFAs (1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/mL) was separately added to fumonisin B1 (FB1) at 1000 μg/mL, and separately incubated at 37 °C for 1, 2, and 3h. Then, the percentage of adsorption was calculated. In the next experiment, the viability of mouse liver cells was measured when they exposed to serial concentrations of NCCFFAs, FFAs, and FB1. This study showed that the increase of incubation time and concentration of NCCFFAs led to increase of FB1 adsorption. Although FFAs and NCCFFAs had no remarkable toxicity, the high toxicity was observed for FB1. Importantly, the toxicity of FB1 was highly decreased, when incubated together with FFAs or NCCFFAs. These novel adsorbents, NCCFFAs, can be used together with different foodstuffs to remove FB1. PMID:26142625

  11. Salicylic acid and cysteine contribute to arbutin-induced alleviation of angular leaf spot disease development in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Wielanek, Marzena; Chwatko, Grażyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Piątek, Milena; Gajewska, Ewa; Skłodowska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Arbutin induced suppression of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber resulting from lower populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans in the infected tissues. This study provides insight into mechanisms that may potentially account for this effect. In the absence of the pathogen, exogenous arbutin-induced expression of PR1, the marker of salicylic acid signaling, increased the content of salicylic acid and modulated the cysteine pool. This suggested that arbutin promoted cucumber plants to a "primed" state. When challenged with the pathogen, the arbutin-treated plants showed strongly reduced infection symptoms 7 days after inoculation. At this time point, they were characterized by higher contents of free and protein-bound cysteine due to higher cysteine biosynthetic capacity related to increased activities of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase when compared with plants infected without arbutin treatment. Moreover, in the arbutin-treated and infected plants the contents of free salicylic acid and its conjugates were also increased, partly owing to its biosynthesis via the phenylpropanoid pathway. We suggest that arbutin-induced abrogation of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber could be mediated by salicylic acid and cysteine-based signaling. PMID:25955697

  12. Salicylic acid and cysteine contribute to arbutin-induced alleviation of angular leaf spot disease development in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Wielanek, Marzena; Chwatko, Grażyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Piątek, Milena; Gajewska, Ewa; Skłodowska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Arbutin induced suppression of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber resulting from lower populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans in the infected tissues. This study provides insight into mechanisms that may potentially account for this effect. In the absence of the pathogen, exogenous arbutin-induced expression of PR1, the marker of salicylic acid signaling, increased the content of salicylic acid and modulated the cysteine pool. This suggested that arbutin promoted cucumber plants to a "primed" state. When challenged with the pathogen, the arbutin-treated plants showed strongly reduced infection symptoms 7 days after inoculation. At this time point, they were characterized by higher contents of free and protein-bound cysteine due to higher cysteine biosynthetic capacity related to increased activities of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase when compared with plants infected without arbutin treatment. Moreover, in the arbutin-treated and infected plants the contents of free salicylic acid and its conjugates were also increased, partly owing to its biosynthesis via the phenylpropanoid pathway. We suggest that arbutin-induced abrogation of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber could be mediated by salicylic acid and cysteine-based signaling.

  13. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Brigandi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 (n-6 and omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were particularly decreased (p < 0.001. In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20 compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism.

  14. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 ± 4 cm and weight of 86 ± 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl2.H2O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl2.H2O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and taurine have potential to reduce

  15. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Puneet, E-mail: puneetbiochem@gmail.com [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Prasad, Y. [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Patra, A.K. [West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037 (India); Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C. [Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (India); Pal, Satya [Env. Eng. Lab., Deptt. of Civil Engineering, I.I.T., Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2009-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 {+-} 4 cm and weight of 86 {+-} 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and

  16. Depletion of hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid decreases the biliary excretion of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregus, Z; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Klaassen, C D

    1983-05-01

    Hepatic levels of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) in rats decreased substantially (greater than 80%) 40 min after galactosamine (GAL) (600 mg/kg i.p.) or after 1 hr of diethyl ether (DE) narcosis. Biliary excretion of several cholephils requiring glucuronidation before excretion was reduced by GAL 76, 62, 92, 90 and 97% for bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid, phenolphthalein and valproic acid, respectively. GAL treatment caused delayed plasma clearances of the parent compounds and reductions in plasma concentrations and biliary excretions of glucuronide conjugates. The degree of this reduction was related to the maximal excretion rate of the individual compounds. For phenolphthalein glucuronide and phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate, which do not undergo conjugation, GAL had no effect on their biliary excretion. DE-induced UDPGA depletion had no effect on phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion but reduced that of phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate 25%. DE did not affect the plasma elimination or biliary secretion of phenolphthalein. Of the other cholephils requiring conjugation, DE reduced the excretion of bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid and valproic acid by 41, 29, 76 and 28%, respectively. DE decreased the plasma elimination of the parent compounds and the appearance of the conjugates in both plasma and bile. Reduction of glucuronide excretion into bile was less pronounced at higher doses of the cholephilic anions. Neither treatment reduced in vitro hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward these substrates or substantially altered extrahepatic UDPGA concentrations. Thus, both GAL and DE decreased UDPGA to similar concentrations, but the biliary excretion of compounds requiring glucuronidation before secretion was depressed to a greater extent by GAL.

  17. Influence of sericin in alleviating the hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in silkworm Bombyx mori: role of the amino acids

    OpenAIRE

    AS Micheal; Subramanyam, M

    2014-01-01

    Sericin is an important peptide derived from silk fibre spun by the silkworm Bombyx mori and has various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to characterize the major constituents of sericin that are providing cytoprotective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage in midgut epithelial cells and hemocytes of silkworm. Extracted sericin was subjected to LCMS analysis for amino acid composition. Isolated cells of midgut and hemocytes were incubated with sericin o...

  18. Polymeric supported sorbents for decreasing hazardous metal ions content in wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedure for preparation of polymeric supported silica, and their usage for decreasing hazardous metal ion content in wet process phosphoric acid was developed. The procedure is based firstly on extraction silica from rice straw by alkaline treatment , secondly supporting the produced silica on binding polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The produced polymer based sorbent was used for decreasing hazardous metal ions (especially iron) present as inorganic impurities in crud Egyptian phosphoric acid (green acid). Different factors affecting the sorption equilibrium ( contact time, temperature , sorbent mass and batch factor ) were studied. Studying the sorption isotherm revealed that the adsorption data could favorably fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the dynamic study , the sorption capacity at (Cξ/Cο = 50%) was found to be 28.5 mg/g and the loaded column could be regenerated using 50ml of 0.15 M HNO3 . The regenerated column could undergo sorption regeneration cycles up to four cycles without significant decrease in the sorption capacity , weight loss or change in the physical properties of the sorbent

  19. Humic acid decreases acute toxicity and ventilation frequency in eastern rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida splendida) exposed to acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2014-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global problem leading to the acidification of freshwaters, as well as contamination by heavy metals. The ability of humic substances (HS) such as humic acid (HA) to decrease toxicity of heavy metals is widely known, whereas limited studies have examined the ability of HS to decrease toxicity linked with multiple stressors such as those associated with AMD. This study investigated the ability of HA to decrease acute toxicity defined as morbidity and ventilation frequency (measured via the time elapsed for ten operculum movements) in eastern rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida splendida) exposed to the multiple stressors of AMD-driven heavy metal concentrations, together with low pH. Water from the Mount Morgan open pit (a now closed gold and copper mine site), located at Mount Morgan, Central Queensland, Australia, was used as the AMD source. Fish were exposed to zero per cent (pH 7.3), two per cent (pH 6.7), three per cent (pH 5.7) and four per cent (pH 4.6) AMD in the presence of 0, 10 and 20mg/L Aldrich Humic Acid (AHA) over 96h. HA was shown to significantly decrease the acute toxicity of AMD and its adverse effects on ventilation frequency. These results are important in showing that HA can influence toxicity of metal mixtures and low pH, thus indicating a potential role for HA in decreasing toxicity of multiple environmental stressors more widely, and possible value as a rehabilitation aid. PMID:25173849

  20. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.

    2016-05-23

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids induce a decrease in pHi in Jurkat T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced rapid (t1/2=33 s) and dose-dependent decreases in pHi in BCECF-loaded human (Jurkat) T-cells. Addition of 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger, prolonged DHA-induced acidification as a function of time, indicating that the exchanger is implicated in pHi recovery. Other fatty acids like oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, but not palmitic acid, also induced a fall in pHi in these cells. To assess the role of calcium in the DHA-induced acidification, we conducted experiments in Ca2+-free (0% Ca2+) and Ca2+-containing (100% Ca2+) buffer. We observed that there was no difference in the degree of DHA-induced transient acidification in both the experimental conditions, though pHi recovery was faster in 0% Ca2+ medium than that in 100% Ca2+ medium. In the presence of BAPTA, a calcium chelator, a rapid recovery of DHA-induced acidosis was observed. Furthermore, addition of CaCl2 into 0% Ca2+ medium curtailed DHA-evoked rapid pHi recovery. In 0% Ca2+ medium, containing BAPTA, DHA did not evoke increases in [Ca2+]i, though this fatty acid still induced a rapid acidification in these cells. These observations suggest that calcium is implicated in the long-lasting DHA-induced acidosis. DHA-induced rapid acidification may be due to its deprotonation in the plasma membrane (flip-flop model), as suggested by the following observations: (1) DHA with a –COOH group induced intracellular acidification, but this fatty acid with a –COOCH3 group failed to do so, and (2) DHA, but not propionic acid, -induced acidification was completely reversed by addition of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin in these cells. These results suggest that DHA induces acidosis via deprotonation and Ca2+ mobilization in human T-cells. PMID:14645139

  2. Mangiferin decreases plasma free fatty acids through promoting its catabolism in liver by activation of AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucun Niu

    Full Text Available Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism.

  3. Poultry fat decreased fatty acid transporter protein mRNA expression and affected fatty acid composition in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jianmin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was undertaken to examine the effects of poultry fat (PF compared with those of soybean oil (SBO on intestinal development, fatty acid transporter protein (FATP mRNA expression, and fatty acid composition in broiler chickens. A total of 144 day-old male commercial broilers were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups (6 replicates of 12 chicks for each treatment and fed isocaloric diets containing 3.0% PF or 2.7% SBO at 0 to 3 wk and 3.8% PF or 3.5% SBO at 4 to 6 wk, respectively. Results PF had no influence on intestinal morphology, weight, or DNA, RNA, or protein concentrations at 2, 4, and 6 wk of age. However, compared with SBO, PF significantly decreased FATP mRNA abundance at 4 wk (P = 0.009 and 6 wk of age (P P = 0.039; and decreased C18:2 (P = 0.015, C18:3 (P P = 0.018, Σ-polyunsaturated fatty acids (Σ-PUFA (P = 0.020, and the proportion of PUFA (P P = 0.010, C18:3 (P P P = 0.005, and the proportion of PUFA (P  Conclusions PF decreases FATP and L-FABP mRNA expression and decreased the proportion of PUFA in the intestinal mucosa and breast muscle.

  4. Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids alleviate hyperlipidemia in B6 mice by modulating gut microbiota and bile acid pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kai; Hu, Yinran; Ma, Hang; Zou, Zongyao; Xiao, Yubo; Yang, Yong; Feng, Min; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) alkaloids exert their hypolipidemic effects primarily by targeting the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic mechanisms of RC alkaloids (at a daily dose of 140mg/kg for 35days) in high-fat and high-cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic B6 mice. After treatment, serum lipid parameters were determined, the expression of lipid metabolism related genes and pathways such as the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and bile acid signaling in mice were also investigated. Meanwhile, Illumina sequencing was used to investigate the differences in gut microbiota of B6 mice. The results indicated that RC alkaloids reduced the body weight gain and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acids (TBA) and lipopolysaccharide of B6 mice. Liver fat deposition and epididymal adipose cell size were also deceased in therapy group. RC alkaloids feeding significantly promoted the abundance of Sporobacter termitidis, Alcaligenes faecalis, Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut of mice, whereas, the abundance of Escherichia coli, Desulfovibrio C21_c20, Parabacteroides distasonis was suppressed. The observed antihyperlipidemic effects of RC alkaloids can also be attributed to their action as agonists of FXR and TGR5, activators for SREBP2, LDLR, UCP2 and CYP7A1, inhibitors of HMGCR, TXNIP, TLR4 and JNK. Therefore, this study expands current knowledge on hypolipidemic mechanisms of RC alkaloids and presents new evidence supporting a key role for RC alkaloids as regulators of lipid homeostasis by modulation gut microbiota and hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:27287254

  5. ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM Justicia gendarussa Burm. LEAVES ON DECREASING THE URIC ACID PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Iqbal Julian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Justicia gendarussa leaves extract has been investigated using oxonate-induced hyperuricemic malealbino rats. In this experiment thirty five male albino rats were divided randomly into seven groups. There were threegroup doses variations of J. gendarussa extract that were 1.3 g/kg bw, 2.6 g/kg bw and 5.2 g/kg bw; two comparisongroups that were allopurinol 0.68 g/kg bw and herbal “X” 0.85 g/kg bw; and two control groups that were inducedcontrol potassium oxonate 0.25 mg/kg bw and normal control CMC 0,5 %. Intraperitoneal administration of potassiumoxonate 0.25 mg/kg bw was given one hour before administration of test drugs in eight day and plasma uric acid wasmeasured in rats after two hours. Plasma uric acid was measured by spectrophotometric on 520 nm with enzymaticmethod. The results showed that all extracts could reduced uric acid level of rats. The decreasing potency of uric acidlevel was equal to doses increase, so the best result that can reduce uric acid level was J. gandarussa extract at a dose5.2 g/ kg bw. This results indicated that J. gendarussa leaves extract may be effective for the prevention and thetreatment of hyperuricemia.

  6. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress.

  7. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  8. Tranexamic Acid Decreases Incidence of Blood Transfusion in Simultaneous Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagsby, Deren T; Samujh, Christopher A; Vissing, Jacqueline L; Empson, Janene A; Pomeroy, Donald L; Malkani, Arthur L

    2015-12-01

    Blood management for simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients is more challenging than in unilateral arthroplasty. We examined if administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) to patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA would reduce blood loss and decrease allogeneic blood transfusion requirements. A retrospective review of 103 patients, 57 in the control and 46 in the TXA group, was performed. There was higher postoperative day 1 hemoglobin in patients receiving TXA (2.95±1.33 versus 4.33±1.19, Ptransfusion incidence with administration of TXA (17.4% versus 57.9%, Ptransfusion rates by almost 70% in simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty.

  9. Prednisolone-appended alpha-cyclodextrin: alleviation of systemic adverse effect of prednisolone after intracolonic administration in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, H; Hirayama, F; Arima, H; Uekama, K

    2001-12-01

    The titled compound is a cyclodextrin derivative in which prednisolone 21-succinate (PDsuc) is covalently bound to one of the secondary hydroxyl groups of alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CyD) via an ester linkage. In this study, the PDsuc-appended alpha-CyD ester conjugate (PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate) was intracolonically administered to rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulfonic acid-induced colitis, and its antiinflammatory and systemic adverse effects were compared with those of prednisolone (PD) alone and the PD/2-hydroxypropyl-beta-CyD complex (PD/HP-beta-CyD complex), which is a noncovalent inclusion complex. Colonic damage score, ratio of distal colon wet weight to body weight, and myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated as measures of the therapeutic effect of PD, whereas the ratio of thymus wet weight to body weight was evaluated as a measure of the side effect of PD. The local antiinflammatory activity increased in the order of PD alone approximately PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate keeps the local concentration in the colon at a low but constant level. The results suggest that the PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate can alleviate the systemic adverse effect of PD while maintaining the therapeutic activity of PD. This kind of knowledge will be useful in the rational design of steroid prodrugs for the colon-specific drug delivery system. PMID:11745769

  10. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1 in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM. Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants.

  11. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Qin, Yebo; Gill, Rafaqat A.; Ali, Shafaqat

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1) in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM). Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants. PMID:24683549

  12. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Qin Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg. Open-field test (OFT and forced swimming test (FST were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

  13. Decreased solubilization of Pu(IV) polymers by humic acids under anoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jinchuan; Lin, Jianfeng; Liang, Wei; Li, Mei; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2016-11-01

    Pu(IV) polymer has a very low solubility (log[Pu(IV)aq]total = -10.4 at pH 7.2 and I = 0). However, some aspects of their environmental fate remain unclear. Humic acids are able to complex with Pu4+ ions and their dissolved species (Pu(IV) to Pu(III)aq (log[Pu(III)aq]total = -5.3 at pH 7.2 and I = 0). Solubilization and reduction of the polymers can enhance their mobility in subsurface environments. Nevertheless, humic acids readily coat the surfaces of metal oxides via electrostatic interaction and ligand exchange mechanisms. The humic coatings are expected to prevent both solubilization and reduction of the polymers. Experiments were conducted under anoxic and slightly alkaline (pH 7.2) conditions in order to study whether humic acids have effects on stability of the polymers. The results show that the polymeric Pu(IV) was almost completely transformed into aqueous Pu(IV) in the presence of EDTA ligands. In contrast, the dissolved humic acids did not solubilize the polymers but in fact decreased their solubility by one order of magnitude. The humic coatings were responsible for the decreased solubilization. Such coatings limited the contact between the polymers and EDTA ligands, especially at the relatively high concentrations of humic acids (>0.57 mg/L). Solubilization of the humic-coated polymers was thus inhibited to a significant extent although EDTA, having the great complexation ability, was present in the humic solutions. Reduction of Pu(IV) polymers by the humic acids was also not observed in the absence of EDTA. In the presence of EDTA, the polymers were partially reduced to Pu(III)aq by the humic acids of 0.57 mg/L and the percentage of Pu(III)aq accounted for 51.7% of the total aqueous Pu. This demonstrates that the humic acids were able to reduce the aqueous Pu(IV), instead of the polymeric Pu(IV). Such a demonstration is supported by the very positive redox potential of aqueous Pu(IV)-EDTA complex: Eho ‧ (PuL24-/PuL25-) = 154.3 mV >>Eh (PuO2 (am

  14. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Decrease of CD33 Expression in Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs. Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H2O2 in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20 μM attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H2O2. These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  15. Mechanisms of Oxalic Acid Alleviating Chilling Injury in Harvested Mango Fruit Under Low Temperature Stress%草酸处理减轻术亡果采后果实冷害的机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛锡佳; 李佩艳; 宋夏钦; 沈玫; 郑小林

    2012-01-01

    Harvested mango fruit(Mangifera indica L.‘Zill’)were dipped in oxalic acid solution of 5 mmol · L^-1 for 10 min and then stored under low temperature stress(at 10℃± 0.5 ℃)for 27 days and thereafter at room temperature(about 25 ℃)for 4 days. The results showed that,as compared to control fruit,lower chilling injury index and relative membrane permeability were observed in treated fruit during storage. In addition,oxalic acid treatment not only decreased respiration rate and ethylene release,inhibited activities of peroxidase(POD)and polyphenoloxidase(PPO),and maintained higher flesh L* value during period of later storage,but also maintained higher contents of SSC,free proline and citric acid in fruit during storage. It was suggested that the effects of oxalic acid in enhancing membrane integrity,inhibiting activity of enzymatic browning,and maintaining higher level of osmotic substances including SSC,free proline and citric acid,could contribute to improve cold resistance,and thus alleviate chilling injury in mango fruit during cold storage.%杧果(Mangifera indica L.)‘Zill’果实采后经5 mmol · L^-1草酸溶液浸泡10 min后,在低温(10± 0.5)℃下贮藏27 d,再移至常温25℃贮藏4 d,冷害系数和质膜相对透性显著低于对照;草酸处理降低了果实在贮藏后期的呼吸速率和乙烯释放速率,抑制了多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性,维持了较高果肉亮度值(L*),可溶性固形物(SSC)、游离脯氨酸和柠檬酸含量。说明草酸处理可提高质膜稳定性,抑制褐变相关酶活性以及维持一些渗透调节物质含量来增加采后果实的抗冷性,缓解果实冷害症状。

  16. A dose-up of ursodeoxycholic acid decreases transaminases in hepatitis C patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuichi Sato; Tatsuya Miyake; Hiroshi Tobita; Naoki Oshima; Junich Ishine; Takuya Hanaoka; Yuji Amano; Yoshikazu Kinoshita

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To examine whether a dose-up to 900 mg of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) decreases transaminases in hepatitis C patients.METHODS:From January to December 2007,patients with chronic hepatitis C or compensated liver cirrhosis with hepatitis C virus (HCV) (43-80 years old) showing positive serum HCV-RNA who had already taken 600 mg/d of UDCA were recruited into this study.Blood parameters were examined at 4,8 and 24 wk after increasing the dose of oral UDCA from 600 to 900 mg/d.RESULTS:Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels were significantly decreased following the administration of 900 mg/d as compared to 600 mg/d.The decrease in ALT from immediately before the dose-up of UDCA to 8 wk after the dose-up was 14.3 IU/L,while that for AST was 10.5 IU/L and for GGT was 9.8 IU/L.Platelet count tended to increase after the dose-up of UDCA,although it did not show a statistically significant level (P=0.05).Minor adverse events were observed in 3 cases,although no drop-outs from the study occurred.CONCLUSION:Oral administration of 900 mg/d of UDCA was more effective than 600 mg/d for reducing ALT,AST,and GGT levels in patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease.

  17. Treatments of free fatty acids to prevent or decrease colour fixation in cottonseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy, H. E.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Some treatments have been investigated to prevent or remove colour fixation of cottonseed oil containing high level of free fatty acids without using excess of sodium hydroxide in the refining step. The treatments included use of sodium carbonate and ethanolamine before and after subjecting a crude cottonseed oil containing excess of free fatty acid to a colour fixation treatment.
    The results revealed that the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment improved the oil colour by decreasing the free fatty acids and gossypol in the oil, without using any excess of sodium hydroxide.
    Carrying out the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment on cottonseed oil with high levels of free fatty acid before colour fixation takes place is more recommended than carrying out the same treatment on the same oil after it has been fixed.

    Se han investigado algunos tratamientos para prevenir o eliminar la fijación del color de aceite de semilla de algodón que contienen alto nivel de ácidos grasos libres, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico en la etapa de refinación.
    Los tratamientos incluyeron el uso de carbonato sódico y etanolamina antes y después, sometiendo un aceite crudo de semilla de algodón que contiene exceso de ácidos grasos libres a tratamiento de fijación del color.
    Los resultados mostraron que el tratamiento carbonato/etanolamina mejoró el color del aceite por disminución de los ácidos grasos libres y gosipol en el aceite, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico.
    Llevar a cabo el tratamiento con carbonato/etanolamina sobre aceite de semilla de algodón con niveles altos de ácidos grasos libres antes que tenga lugar la fijación del color es más recomendable que llevar a cabo el mismo tratamiento sobre el mismo aceite después de que se haya fijado.

  18. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  19. Rice straw incorporated just before soil flooding increases acetic acid formation and decreases available nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldir Knoblauch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash; incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3-. Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days

  20. Pyrazinoic Acid Decreases the Proton Motive Force, Respiratory ATP Synthesis Activity, and Cellular ATP Levels▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, P.; Haagsma, A.C.; Pham, H.; Maaskant, J. J.; Mol, S; Lill, H.; Bald, D

    2011-01-01

    Pyrazinoic acid, the active form of the first-line antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide, decreased the proton motive force and respiratory ATP synthesis rates in subcellular mycobacterial membrane assays. Pyrazinoic acid also significantly lowered cellular ATP levels in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These results indicate that the predominant mechanism of killing by this drug may operate by depletion of cellular ATP reserves.

  1. Dopamine receptor alterations in female rats with diet-induced decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): interactions with reproductive status

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Paul F.; Ozias, Marlies K.; Carlson, Susan E.; Reed, Gregory A.; Winter, Michelle K; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Levant, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Decreased tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. This study examined the effects of a diet-induced loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status on dopaminergic parameters in adult female Long–Evans rats. An α-linolenic acid-deficient diet and breeding protocols were used to produce virgin and parous female rats with cortical phospholipid DHA levels 20–22% ...

  2. Dietary fish oil modulates macrophage fatty acids and decreases arthritis susceptibility in mice

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    B10.RIII and B10.G mice were transferred from a diet of laboratory rodent chow to a standard diet in which all the fat (5% by weight) was supplied as either fish oil (17% eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 12% docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 0% arachidonic acid [AA], and 2% linoleic acid) or corn oil (0% EPA, 0% DHA, 0% AA, and 65% linoleic acid). The fatty acid composition of the macrophage phospholipids from mice on the chow diet was similar to that of mice on a corn oil diet. Mice fed the fish oil d...

  3. Does folic acid use decrease the risk for spina bifida after in utero exposure to valproic acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, J.; Bakker, M.K.; Nijenhuis, C.M.; Wilffert, B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Women with child wish are advised to take folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for spina bifida. However, there is less evidence for this protective effect in women using valproic acid (VPA). We investigated the effect of folic acid in women exposed to VPA in the first trimester of preg

  4. Interleukin-6 markedly decreases skeletal muscle protein turnover and increases nonmuscle amino acid utilization in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit; Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: IL-6 is a key modulator of immune function and suggested to be involved in skeletal muscle wasting as seen in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the role of IL-6 in human in vivo systemic and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism and protein turnover. SUBJECTS AND METHODS...... synthesis was more suppressed than breakdown, causing a small increase in net muscle protein breakdown. Furthermore, rhIL-6 decreased arterial amino acid concentration with 20-40%, despite the increase net release from muscle. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that IL-6 profoundly alters amino acid turnover....... A substantial decrease in plasma amino acids was observed with a concomitant 50% decrease in muscle protein turnover, however, modest increase in net muscle degradation. We hypothesize that the profound reduction in muscle protein turnover and modest increase in net degradation are primarily caused...

  5. Isolation and characterization of yeast strains with ability to decrease volatile acidity of wines

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, A. Vilela; Schuller, Dorit; Faia, A. Mendes; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    The level of acetic acid, the main component of volatile acidity, is critical for wine quality. Its concentration in wines is approximately 0.5 g/L and, legally, must remain below 1.0g/L. Winemakers use a procedure called “remostagem” to lower acetic acid of wines with high volatile acidity (above 0.8g/L). The spoiled wine is mixed with freshly crushed grapes (1) in a proportion of no more than 20-30% (v/v). The volatile acidity of this mixture and of the newly made wine should not exceed...

  6. Effects of four soil conditioners on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil%4种土壤调理剂改良红壤铝毒害的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昂; 王旭; 范洪黎

    2014-01-01

    在温室条件下,采用植物盆栽试验,研究4种土壤调理剂不同施用量对酸性红壤铝毒害的缓解效果。结果表明,4种土壤调理剂均显著降低土壤中交换性铝含量及毒害性铝含量,显著提高玉米株高、生物量;各处理土壤中交换性铝含量与玉米株高及生物量之间呈显著相关性。牡蛎壳、白云石、钾长石、麦饭石4种土壤调理剂0.2%的施用量土壤交换性铝分别比对照下降了63.8%、70.5%、53.0%、12.3%;0.4%的施用量土壤交换性铝分别比对照下降了90.5%、92.0%、80.5%、23.4%。土壤中交换性铝、毒害性铝的含量随着4种土壤调理剂的施用量增加而降低,土壤中毒害性铝含量由低到高依次为白云石、牡蛎壳、钾长石、麦饭石。%A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of soil conditioner on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil. The result revealed that all the four soil conditioner could significantly reduce the exchangeable aluminum content and the toxic aluminum content in soil, increase maize height and biomass. Soil exchangeable aluminum content were significantly correlated with plant height and biomass in all treatments. When 0. 2% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable alumi-num of oyster shell, dolomite, potassium feldspar, maifan stone decreased by 63. 8%, 70. 5%, 53. 0%, 12. 3% respectively;and when 0. 4% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable aluminum decreased by 90. 5%, 92. 0%, 80. 5%, 23. 4%respectively. The exchangeable aluminum and toxic aluminum in soil decreased with the increase of the application of soil condi-tioner. The toxic aluminum content in soil was: dolomite

  7. Effects of four soil conditioners on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil%4种土壤调理剂改良红壤铝毒害的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昂; 王旭; 范洪黎

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of soil conditioner on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil. The result revealed that all the four soil conditioner could significantly reduce the exchangeable aluminum content and the toxic aluminum content in soil, increase maize height and biomass. Soil exchangeable aluminum content were significantly correlated with plant height and biomass in all treatments. When 0. 2% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable alumi-num of oyster shell, dolomite, potassium feldspar, maifan stone decreased by 63. 8%, 70. 5%, 53. 0%, 12. 3% respectively;and when 0. 4% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable aluminum decreased by 90. 5%, 92. 0%, 80. 5%, 23. 4%respectively. The exchangeable aluminum and toxic aluminum in soil decreased with the increase of the application of soil condi-tioner. The toxic aluminum content in soil was: dolomite

  8. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid...

  9. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.

  10. Long-term recovery of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York to decreases in acidic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Kristin; Driscoll, Charles; Lynch, Jason; Newcomb, Dani; Roy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    After years of adverse impacts to the acid-sensitive ecosystems of the eastern United States, the Acid Rain Program and Nitrogen Budget Program were developed to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions through market-based cap and trade systems. We used data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network (NTN) and the U.S. EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program to evaluate the response of lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. TIME is a long-term monitoring program designed to sample statistically selected subpopulations of lakes and streams across the eastern U.S. to quantify regional trends in surface water chemistry due to changes in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in wet sulfate deposition for the TIME lake-watersheds from 1991 to 2007 (-1.04 meq m -2-yr) generally corresponded with decreases in estimated lake sulfate flux (-1.46 ± 0.72 meq m -2-yr), suggesting declines in lake sulfate were largely driven by decreases in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in lake sulfate and to a lesser extent nitrate have generally coincided with increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) resulting in shifts in lakes among ANC sensitivity classes. The percentage of acidic Adirondack lakes (ANC metrics should theoretically show similar responses, ANC calc (+2.03 μeq L -1-yr) increased at more than twice the rate as ANC G (+0.76 μeq L -1-yr). This discrepancy has important implications for assessments of lake recovery and appears to be due to compensatory increases in concentrations of naturally occurring organic acids coincident with decreases in lake concentrations of strong acid anions, as evidenced by increases in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon.

  11. INHIBITION OF BILE ACID ACCUMULATION DECREASED THE EXCESSIVE HEPATOCYTE APOPTOSIS AND IMPROVED THE LIVER SECRETION FUNCTIONS ON OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Taher

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive hepatocyte apoptosis induced by bile acid accumulation occurred in severe obstructive jaundice, and impair the liver secretion function. The objective of this study is to determine whether the inhibition of bile acid accumulation through bile duct decompression affect the excessive hepatocyte apoptosis and caused improvement the liver secretion functions on human model. In this study we use a before and after study on severe obstructive jaundice patients due to extra hepatic bile duct tumor was decompressed. Bile duct decompression was performed as a model of the role of inhibition of bile acid accumulation inhibition bile acid accumulation and excessive hepatocyte apoptosis. Bile acid and marker of liver secretion functions were serially measured. Liver biopsy pre and post decompression was performed for Hepatocyte apoptosis pathologic examination by TUNEL fluorescing, which measured by 2 people in double blinded system. Total bile acid, and liver secretion functions were measured by automated chemistry analyzer. The result of this study shows that twenty one severe obstructive jaundice patients were included. After decompression the hepatocyte apoptosis index decreased from an average of 53.1 (SD 105 to 11.7 (SD 13.6 (p < 0.05. Average of bile acid serum decreased from 96.4 (SD 53.8 to 19.9 (SD 39.5 until 13.0 (SD 12.6 μmol/L (p < 0.05 Total ilirubin decreased from 20.0 (SD 8.9 to 13.3 (SD 5.0 until 6.2 (SD 4.0 mg/dL (p < 0.05, while the phosphates alkaline (ALP and γ-glutamil transpeptidase (γ-GT activities also decreased ignificantly. In conclusion, bile acids accumulation and excessive hepatocyte poptosis through bile duct decompression improve the liver secretion functions by inhibition mechanism.

  12. Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

  13. Decreased serum essential and aromatic amino acids in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krystian; Adrych; Marian; Smoczynski; Magdalena; Stojek; Tomasz; Sledzinski; Ewa; Slominska; Elzbieta; Goyke; Ryszard; Tomasz; Smolenski; Julian; Swierczynski

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the influence of chronic pancreatitis(CP) on serum concentrations of amino acids.METHODS:Thirty-five male patients with alcoholic CP and 21 healthy male subjects were examined.Serum concentrations of amino acids were assayed by ionpair high-performance liquid chromatography with mass detection.RESULTS:Serum glutamate concentration was increased in CP patients as compared to controls.In contrast,serum concentrations of glutamine,histidine,tyrosine,proline,tryptophan and threonine were sign...

  14. Formulating gels for decreased mucociliary transport using rheologic properties: Polyacrylic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ankur J; Donovan, Maureen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to identify the rheologic properties of polyacrylic acid gels necessary for optimal reductions in mucociliary clearance. The mucociliary transport of 2 bioadhesive polyacrylic acid polymers, polycarbophil and carbopol, was assessed in vitro by measuring their clerance rates across explants of ciliated bovine tracheal tissue. The viscoelastic properties of polymer gels were measured in the presence of mucus using controlled stress rheometry. Combinations of app...

  15. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  16. N-acetylcysteine and meso-2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid alleviate oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction induced by sodium arsenite in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu El-Saad AM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Abu El-Saad,1,4 Mohammed A Al-Kahtani,2 Ashraf M Abdel-Moneim3,4 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Environmental exposure to arsenic represents a serious challenge to humans and other animals. The aim of the present study was to test the protective effect of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC either individually or in combination with a chelating agent, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, against sodium arsenite oral toxicity in male rats. Five groups were used: control; arsenic group (orally administrated in a concentration of 2 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]; the other three groups were orally administrated sodium arsenite in a concentration of 2 mg/kg b.w. followed by either NAC (10 mg/kg b.w., intraperitoneally [i.p.], DMSA (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p. or NAC plus DMSA. Arsenic toxicity caused significant rise in serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin, and a significant decrease in total protein (TP and albumin levels after 3 weeks of experimental period. In addition, arsenic-treated rats showed significantly higher arsenic content in liver and significant rise in hepatic malondialdehyde level. By contrast, sharp decreases in glutathione content and catalase and glutathione reductase activities were discernible. NAC and/or DMSA counteracted most of these physiologic and biochemical defects. NAC monotherapy was more effective than DMSA in increasing TP, while DMSA was more effective in decreasing alanine aminotransferase. The combined treatment was superior over monotherapies in recovery of TP and glutathione. Biochemical data were well supported by histopathological and

  17. N-acetylcysteine and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid alleviate oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction induced by sodium arsenite in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Saad, Ahmed M; Al-Kahtani, Mohammed A; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2016-01-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic represents a serious challenge to humans and other animals. The aim of the present study was to test the protective effect of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) either individually or in combination with a chelating agent, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), against sodium arsenite oral toxicity in male rats. Five groups were used: control; arsenic group (orally administrated in a concentration of 2 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]); the other three groups were orally administrated sodium arsenite in a concentration of 2 mg/kg b.w. followed by either NAC (10 mg/kg b.w., intraperitoneally [i.p.]), DMSA (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) or NAC plus DMSA. Arsenic toxicity caused significant rise in serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin, and a significant decrease in total protein (TP) and albumin levels after 3 weeks of experimental period. In addition, arsenic-treated rats showed significantly higher arsenic content in liver and significant rise in hepatic malondialdehyde level. By contrast, sharp decreases in glutathione content and catalase and glutathione reductase activities were discernible. NAC and/or DMSA counteracted most of these physiologic and biochemical defects. NAC monotherapy was more effective than DMSA in increasing TP, while DMSA was more effective in decreasing alanine aminotransferase. The combined treatment was superior over monotherapies in recovery of TP and glutathione. Biochemical data were well supported by histopathological and ultrastructural findings. In conclusion, the combination therapy of NAC and DMSA may be an ideal choice against oxidative insult induced by arsenic poisoning.

  18. Decreased incidence of myelomeningocele at birth: effect of folic acid recommendations or prenatal diagnostics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Dorte; Thygesen, Mathias; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius;

    2011-01-01

    the potential negative effect of high dose folic acid consumption, we found a need to look into the effectiveness of these two strategies in our complete MMC population. Methods: All Spina Bifida patients born in the western part of Denmark are differentiated into proper subgroups based on MR-Imaging, giving us......Purpose: In Denmark prevention to reduce Spina bifida birth rate has focused in two areas: Folic acid supplementation (1997) and changes in national ultrasonography screening programme (2004). Myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most severe malformation among Spina Bifida. Taken into consideration...

  19. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; Vilaseca, M Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Artuch, Rafael; Corbella, Emili; Meco, José F; Vila, Ramon; Pujol, Ramon; Grinberg, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: At least 500 mug of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 mug of folate or with one 500 mug capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (pfoods decreased tHcy by 8.6% (95% CI: -15.9 to -1.2) and synthetic folic acid capsules by 8% (95% CI: -13.3 to -2.7). Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time in the literature, that a folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid capsules in decreasing plasma tHcy concentrations and adds further support to the recommendation of those diets to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  20. Coronatine alleviates water deficiency stress on winter wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwen; Shen, Xuefeng; Li, Jianmin; Eneji, Anthony Egrinya; Li, Zhaohu; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng

    2010-07-01

    With the aim to determine whether coronatine (COR) alleviates drought stress on wheat, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ChangWu134 (drought-tolerant) and Shan253 (drought-sensitive) were studied under hydroponic conditions. Seedlings at the three-leaf stage were cultured in a Hoagland solution containing COR at 0.1 microM for 24 h, and then exposed to 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Under simulated drought (SD), COR increased the dry weight of shoots and roots of the two cultivars significantly; the root/shoot ratio also increased by 30% for Shan253 and 40% for ChangWu134. Both cultivars treated with COR under SD (0.1COR+PEG) maintained significantly higher relative water content, photosynthesis, transpiration, intercellular concentration of CO(2) and stomatal conductance in leaves than those not treated with PEG. Under drought, COR significantly decreased the relative conductivity and malondialdehyde production, and the loss of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity in leaves was significantly alleviated in COR-treated plants. The activity of peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were adversely affected by drought. Leaves of plants treated with COR under drought produced less abscisic acid (ABA) than those not treated. Thus, COR might alleviate drought effects on wheat by reducing active oxygen species production, activating antioxidant enzymes and changing the ABA level. PMID:20590992

  1. Three Conazoles Increase Hepatic Microsomal Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Decrease Mouse Hepatic Retinoic Acid Levels In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with...

  2. Aspirin and salicylic acid decrease c-Myc expression in cancer cells: a potential role in chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Muley, Pratik; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between regular aspirin use and reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality; however, the pathways by which it exerts its anti-cancer effects are still not fully explored. We hypothesized that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may occur through downregulation of c-Myc gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decrease the c-Myc protein levels in human HCT-116 colon and in few other cancer cell lines. In total cell lysates, both drugs decreased the levels of c-Myc in a concentration-dependent fashion. Greater inhibition was observed in the nucleus than the cytoplasm, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed these observations. Pretreatment of cells with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, partially prevented the downregulatory effect of both aspirin and salicylic acid, suggesting that 26S proteasomal pathway is involved. Both drugs failed to decrease exogenously expressed DDK-tagged c-Myc protein levels; however, under the same conditions, the endogenous c-Myc protein levels were downregulated. Northern blot analysis showed that both drugs caused a decrease in c-Myc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that aspirin taken up by cells was rapidly metabolized to salicylic acid, suggesting that aspirin's inhibitory effect on c-Myc may occur through formation of salicylic acid. Our result suggests that salicylic acid regulates c-Myc level at both transcriptional and post-transcription levels. Inhibition of c-Myc may represent an important pathway by which aspirin exerts its anti-cancer effect and decrease the occurrence of cancer in epithelial tissues. PMID:26314861

  3. Effects of Ursolic Acid Derivatives on Caco-2 Cells and Their Alleviating Role in Streptozocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect and mechanism of a series of ursolic acid (UA derivatives on glucose uptake were investigated in a Caco-2 cells model. Their effect on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress were also demonstrated in streptozocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino]-2-deoxy-glucose (2-NBDG was used as a fluorescein in Caco-2 cells model to screen UA derivatives by glucose uptake and expression of glucose transporter protein (SGLT-1, GLUT-2. Moreover, STZ-induced diabetic rats were administered with these derivatives for 4 weeks of treatment. The fasting blood glucose (FBG, insulin levels, biochemical parameters, lipid levels, and oxidative stress markers were finally evaluated. The results of this study indicated that compounds 10 and 11 significantly inhibited 2-NBDG uptake under both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent conditions by decreasing SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 expression in the Caco-2 cells model. Further in vivo studies revealed that compound 10 significantly reduced hyperglycemia by increasing levels of serum insulin, total protein, and albumin, while the fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake were restored much closer to those of normal rats. Compounds 10 and 11 showed hypolipidemic activity by decreasing the total amounts of cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG. Furthermore, compound 10 showed antioxidant potential which was confirmed by elevation of glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD and reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. It was concluded that compound 10 caused an apparent inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells and hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia and augmented oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thus, compound 10 could be developed as a potentially complementary therapeutic or prophylactic agent for diabetics mellitus and its complications.

  4. Do omega-3 fatty acids decrease the incidence of atrial fibrillation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ofman, M.D., M.Sc; Adelqui Peralta, M.D.; Peter Hoffmeister, M.D; J. Michael Gaziano, M.D., M.P.H; Luc Djousse, M.D., M.P.H., Sc.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although atrial fibrillation is a very common medical problem in general population and has a high incidence in the setting of open heart surgery, currently there are very few therapies to prevent occurrence or recurrence of atrial fibrillation. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to change basic physiologic properties of the atrial tissue to make it less susceptible to atrial fibrillation. In this review, we first describe basic physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for these changes and then discuss epidemiological studies evaluating the use n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for primary and secondary prevention of atrial fibrillation in the general population, in subjects undergoing open heart surgery, and in special subgroups of patients.

  5. Decreased Consumption of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Improves Metabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fontana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein-restricted (PR, high-carbohydrate diets improve metabolic health in rodents, yet the precise dietary components that are responsible for these effects have not been identified. Furthermore, the applicability of these studies to humans is unclear. Here, we demonstrate in a randomized controlled trial that a moderate PR diet also improves markers of metabolic health in humans. Intriguingly, we find that feeding mice a diet specifically reduced in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs is sufficient to improve glucose tolerance and body composition equivalently to a PR diet via metabolically distinct pathways. Our results highlight a critical role for dietary quality at the level of amino acids in the maintenance of metabolic health and suggest that diets specifically reduced in BCAAs, or pharmacological interventions in this pathway, may offer a translatable way to achieve many of the metabolic benefits of a PR diet.

  6. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  7. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Chihiro; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  8. Decreased vitamin B 12 and folic acid concentrations in acne patients after isotretinoin therapy: A controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Gökalp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B 12 and folic acid. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Materials and Methods: Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. Results: In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B 12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002, but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566. A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Vitamin B 12 /folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases.

  9. Comparison of Intravenous Ranitidine with Pantoprazole in Decreasing Gastric Fluid Acidity in Emergency Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipour M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Peri-operative aspiration of gastric contents is a problem that causes certain respiratory problems including ARDS. Prophylaxis against aspiration of gastric contents is performed routinely in elective surgeries, but there is rare evidence on the efficacy of this method in emergency cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. 60 parturients undergoing emergency cesarean section were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each. They were allocated into two study and one placebo groups. The study group one and two received intravenous ranitidine (IV 50 mg or IV pantoprazole 40 mg, half an hour before induction of GA, respectively. The placebo group was administered just 5 ml of isotonic saline half an hour before GA induction. After intubation and confirmation of endotracheal tube insertion, the gastric contents were aspirated through a nasogastric tube for evaluation of acidity and volume. Results: A statistical difference between group one and two with the control group was observed in the acidity of gastric contents, but there was no difference in volume. Also, the PH level of gastric contents in patients receiving pantoprazole was significantly higher than the isotonic saline (p

  10. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  11. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chang Chang; James Swi-Bea Wu; Chen-Wen Chen; Po-Ling Kuo; Hsu-Min Chien; Yuh-Tai Wang; Szu-Chuan Shen

    2015-01-01

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highes...

  12. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  13. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  14. Chlorogenic acid decreases intestinal permeability and increases expression of intestinal tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ruan

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid, a natural phenolic acid present in fruits and plants, provides beneficial effects for human health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether chlorogenic acid (CHA could improve the intestinal barrier integrity for weaned rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge. Thirty-two weaned male Sprague Dawley rats (21 ± 1 d of age; 62.26 ± 2.73 g were selected and randomly allotted to four treatments, including weaned rat control, LPS-challenged and chlorogenic acid (CHA supplemented group (orally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body. Dietary supplementation with CHA decreased (P<0.05 the concentrations of urea and albumin in the serum, compared to the LPS-challenged group. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were lower (P<0.05 in the jejunal and colon of weaned rats receiving CHA supplementation, in comparison with the control group. CHA supplementation increased (P<0.05 villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosae under condictions of LPS challenge. CHA supplementation decreased (P<0.05 intestinal permeability, which was indicated by the ratio of lactulose to mannitol and serum DAO activity, when compared to weaned rats with LPS challenge. Immunohistochemical analysis of tight junction proteins revealed that ZO-1 and occludin protein abundances in the jejunum and colon were increased (P<0.05 by CHA supplementation. Additionally, results of immunoblot analysis revealed that the amount of occludin in the colon was also increased (P<0.05 in CHA-supplemented rats. In conclusion, CHA decreases intestinal permeability and increases intestinal expression of tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS.

  15. NO和ABA对辣椒幼苗自毒作用缓解的生理生化机制%Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide and Abscisic Acid on Alleviation to Autotoxicity in Pepper Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国斌; 郁继华; 冯致; 马彦霞; 吕剑

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to explore the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) and abscisic acid (ABA) on alleviation to autotoxicity in pepper seedlings ( Capsicum annuum L. 'Longjiao 2' ) . With soil and substrates extracts of 3 years continuous cropping pepper treated pepper seedlings, then the effects of SNP (150 μmol · L-1) and ABA (100 μmol · L-1) on antioxidant enzymes activity, antioxidant substances content, osmotic adjustment substance content, and membrane lipid peroxidation in pepper seedlings leaves were investigated. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) activities, and dehydroascorbate (DHA) content declined under all of soil and substrates extracts stress, while ascorbic acid (AsA), proline (Pro), soluble protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, relative conductivity and AsA/DHA ratio increased. Autotoxicity on pepper of soil extracts was serious greatly than that of substrates extracts. NO and ABA significantly increased SOD, POD and CAT activities, Pro and soluble protein contents, while reduced MDA content and relative conductivity significantly. At the same time, AsA/DHA ratio was significantly higher through promoting significantly to increase AsA content and decrease DHA content. Alleviate effect to autotoxicity of NO was significantly better than that of ABA in pepper seedlings. The above results suggested that NO and ABA effectively prevented malondialdehyde accumulation and electrolyte leakage, mitigated lipid peroxidation, through increasing antioxidant enzymes activities, osmotic adjustment substance content and AsA/DHA ratio in pepper seedlings under autoxicity stress.%为探究NO和ABA对辣椒幼苗自毒作用缓解的生理生化机制,以蛭石珍珠岩混合基质栽培的辣椒‘陇椒2号’幼苗为材料,用连作3年辣椒的土壤和基质浸提液浇灌幼苗,研究喷施外源SNP (NO供体,150 μmol·L-1)和ABA(100 μmol·L-1)对自毒作用下

  16. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat p...

  17. Decreased body weight and hepatic steatosis with altered fatty acid ethanolamide metabolism in aged L-Fabp -/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan M; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Fu, Jin; Piomelli, Daniele; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2012-04-01

    The tissue-specific sources and regulated production of physiological signals that modulate food intake are incompletely understood. Previous work showed that L-Fabp(-/-) mice are protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet, findings at odds with an apparent obesity phenotype in a distinct line of aged L-Fabp(-/-) mice. Here we show that the lean phenotype in L-Fabp(-/-) mice is recapitulated in aged, chow-fed mice and correlates with alterations in hepatic, but not intestinal, fatty acid amide metabolism. L-Fabp(-/-) mice exhibited short-term changes in feeding behavior with decreased food intake, which was associated with reduced abundance of key signaling fatty acid ethanolamides, including oleoylethanolamide (OEA, an agonist of PPARα) and anandamide (AEA, an agonist of cannabinoid receptors), in the liver. These reductions were associated with increased expression and activity of hepatic fatty acid amide hydrolase-1, the enzyme that degrades both OEA and AEA. Moreover, L-Fabp(-/-) mice demonstrated attenuated responses to OEA administration, which was completely reversed with an enhanced response after administration of a nonhydrolyzable OEA analog. These findings demonstrate a role for L-Fabp in attenuating obesity and hepatic steatosis, and they suggest that hepatic fatty acid amide metabolism is altered in L-Fabp(-/-) mice.

  18. 外源ABA缓解黄瓜幼苗中低温诱导的氧化损伤%Exogenous abscisic acid alleviates low temperature-induced oxidative damage in seedlings of Cucumis sativus.L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 蒋卫杰; 余宏军; 杨学勇

    2012-01-01

    electrolyte leakage was increased under chilling stress,whereas the TWC and chlorophyll content was decreased.The activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased,whereas the catalase (CAT) activity was decreased under chilling stress.Pretreatment with ABA alleviated the changes of physiological features in cucumber seedlings upon chilling stress.The CAT gene transcriptional level was down-regulated and the SOD gene transcriptional level was up-regulated under chilling stress.Pretreatment with ABA also mitigated the changes of gene expression.It demonstrated that ABA may play a role in alleviating the harm of chilling stress by balancing the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cucumber seedlings.The results will provide a reference for the application of ABA to enhance the resistance of cucumber to low-temperature stress.

  19. Dietary Alpha Lipoic Acid Improves Body Composition, Meat Quality and Decreases Collagen Content in Muscle of Broiler Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    El-Senousey, H. K.; Fouad, A. M.; Yao, J. H.; Zhang, Z.G.; Shen, Q. W.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 192 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the influence of dietary α-lipoic acid (ALA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens with the purpose of developing a strategy to prevent the occurrence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat and to improve the meat quality of broilers. At 22 d of age, birds were allocated to 4 ALA treatments (0, 400, 800, and 1200 ppm). The results showed that dietary ALA significantly decreased average feed inta...

  20. Asiatic Acid Alleviates Hemodynamic and Metabolic Alterations via Restoring eNOS/iNOS Expression, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poungrat Pakdeechote

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid isolated from Centella asiatica. The present study aimed to investigate whether asiatic acid could lessen the metabolic, cardiovascular complications in rats with metabolic syndrome (MS induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HCHF diet with 15% fructose in drinking water for 12 weeks to induce MS. MS rats were treated with asiatic acid (10 or 20 mg/kg/day or vehicle for a further three weeks. MS rats had an impairment of oral glucose tolerance, increases in fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and hindlimb vascular resistance; these were related to the augmentation of vascular superoxide anion production, plasma malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels (p < 0.05. Plasma nitrate and nitrite (NOx were markedly high with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression, but dowregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression (p < 0.05. Asiatic acid significantly improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress markers, plasma TNF-α, NOx, and recovered abnormality of eNOS/iNOS expressions in MS rats (p < 0.05. In conclusion, asiatic acid improved metabolic, hemodynamic abnormalities in MS rats that could be associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects and recovering regulation of eNOS/iNOS expression.

  1. Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) in Mice Results in Maintained Biliary Excretion of Bile Acids Despite a Marked Decrease of Bile Acids in Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickteig, Andrew J; Csanaky, Iván L; Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2016-06-01

    Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) protects against bile acid (BA)-induced liver injury. This study was performed to determine the effect of CAR activation on bile flow, BA profile, as well as expression of BA synthesis and transport genes. Synthetic CAR ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) was administered to mice for 4 days. BAs were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CAR activation decreases total BAs in livers of male (49%) and female mice (26%), largely attributable to decreases of the 12α-hydroxylated BA taurocholic acid (T-CA) (males (M) 65%, females (F) 45%). Bile flow in both sexes was increased by CAR activation, and the increases were BA-independent. CAR activation did not alter biliary excretion of total BAs, but overall BA composition changed. Excretion of muricholic (6-hydroxylated) BAs was increased in males (101%), and the 12α-OH proportion of biliary BAs was decreased in both males (37%) and females (28%). The decrease of T-CA in livers of males and females correlates with the decreased mRNA of the sterol 12α-hydroxylase Cyp8b1 in males (71%) and females (54%). As a response to restore BAs to physiologic concentrations in liver, mRNA of Cyp7a1 is upregulated following TCPOBOP (males 185%, females 132%). In ilea, mRNA of the negative feedback regulator Fgf15 was unaltered by CAR activation, indicating biliary BA excretion was sufficient to maintain concentrations of total BAs in the small intestine. In summary, the effects of CAR activation on BAs in male and female mice are quite similar, with a marked decrease in the major BA T-CA in the liver.

  2. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities.

  3. Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten alleviates pH pressure in acid soil and enhances the survival of Variovorax paradoxus HB44 and other bacteria in the mycosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazir, R.; Boersma, F. G. H.; Warmink, J. A.; van Elsas, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    In previous work. Variovorax paradoxus strain HB44, next to Burkholderia terrae BS001 and Dyella japonica BS003, were found to be selected in the mycosphere of the tricholomataceous fungi Laccaria proxima and Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten in an acid soil denoted G. V. paradoxus HB44 showed poor surv

  4. 碳化玉米芯缓解邻苯二甲酸对番茄幼苗生长和酶活性的抑制作用%Studies on Alleviation Effect of Carbonized Maize Cob to Phthalic Acid on Restraining Growth and Enzyme Activity of Tomato Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮亮; 李天来; 张恩平; 陈彬; 刘文娥; 吴正超

    2011-01-01

    以邻苯二甲酸作为番茄的连作障碍自毒物质,珍珠岩为基质进行盆栽试验,并就生物量、光合作用和保护酶活性等指标的变化研究不同浓度邻苯二甲酸对番茄幼苗生长抑制作用以及加入碳化玉米芯缓解邻苯二甲酸对番茄幼苗生长抑制作用的效果.结果表明:施用邻苯二甲酸对幼苗的光合作用指标、生物量及叶绿素b的含量具有显著的抑制作用.保护酶活性在处理初期提高,随着处理时间的延长,超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性先上升后下降,同时使幼苗体内MDA含量显著增加.加入碳化玉米芯显著提高了幼苗的生物量、光合作用指标及叶绿素b的含量,有效缓解了对保护酶活性的抑制作用,降低了保护酶活性变化的幅度及幼苗体内MDA含量.%We examined the effects of phthalic acid on the growth of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings, and its alleviation of applied carbonized maize cob was shown. The tomato seedlings were transplanted in the hydroponic system with perlite as substrate, and the biomass, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity were investigated. The results showed that phthalic acid could inhibit the biomass, photosynthesis and chlorophyll b contents of tomato seedlings. With the extension of treatment time, the activities of SOD, POD and CAT were increased at the initial stage, then decreased and the MDA content was increased by the treatment of phthalic acid. But the inhabitations were alleviated by applied carbonized maize cob. The biomass, photosynthesis index and chlorophyll b content were increased. The fluctuations of antioxidant enzymes were slight and MDA content was decreased.

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. PMID:26582037

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid decreases pro-inflammatory mediators in an in vitro murine adipocyte macrophage co-culture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A De Boer

    Full Text Available Paracrine interactions between adipocytes and macrophages contribute to chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue. Dietary strategies to mitigate such inflammation include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA acids, which act through PPARγ-dependent and independent pathways. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model designed to mimic the ratio of macrophages:adipocytes in obese adipose tissue, whereby murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with RAW 264.7 macrophages in direct contact, or separated by a trans-well membrane (contact-independent mechanism, with 125 µM of albumin-complexed DHA, EPA, palmitic acid (PA, or albumin alone (control. Thus, we studied the effect of physical cell contact versus the presence of soluble factors, with or without a PPARγ antagonist (T0070907 in order to elucidate putative mechanisms. After 12 hr, DHA was the most anti-inflammatory, decreasing MCP1 and IL-6 secretion in the contact system (-57%, -63%, respectively, p ≤ 0.05 with similar effects in the trans-well system. The trans-well system allowed for isolation of cell types for inflammatory mediator analysis. DHA decreased mRNA expression (p<0.05 of Mcp1 (-7.1 fold and increased expression of the negative regulator, Mcp1-IP (+1.5 fold. In macrophages, DHA decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory M1 polarization markers (p ≤ 0.05, Nos2 (iNOS; -7 fold, Tnfα (-4.2 fold and Nfκb (-2.3 fold, while increasing anti-inflammatory Tgfβ1 (+1.7 fold. Interestingly, the PPARγ antagonist co-administered with DHA or EPA in co-culture reduced (p ≤ 0.05 adiponectin cellular protein, without modulating other cytokines (protein or mRNA. Overall, our findings suggest that DHA may lessen the degree of MCP1 and IL-6 secreted from adipocytes, and may reduce the degree of M1 polarization of macrophages recruited to adipose tissue, thereby decreasing the intensity of pro-inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes

  7. Valproic acid exposure decreases Cbp/p300 protein expression and histone acetyltransferase activity in P19 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparter, Christina L; Winn, Louise M

    2016-09-01

    The teratogenicity of the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is well established and its inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) is proposed as an initiating factor. Recently, VPA-mediated HDAC inhibition was demonstrated to involve transcriptional downregulation of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which was proposed to compensate for the increased acetylation resulting from HDAC inhibition. Cbp and p300 are HATs required for embryonic development and deficiencies in either are associated with congenital malformations and embryolethality. The objective of the present study was to characterize Cbp/p300 following VPA exposure in P19 cells. Consistent with previous studies, exposure to 5mM VPA over 24h induced a moderate decrease in Cbp/p300 mRNA, which preceded a strong decrease in total cellular protein mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Nuclear Cbp/p300 protein was also decreased following VPA exposure, although to a lesser extent. Total cellular and nuclear p300 HAT activity was reduced proportionately to p300 protein levels, however while total cellular HAT activity also decreased, nuclear HAT activity was unaffected. Using the Cbp/p300 HAT inhibitor C646, we demonstrated that HAT inhibition similarly affected many of the same endpoints as VPA, including increased reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 cleavage, the latter of which could be attenuated by pre-treatment with the antioxidant catalase. C646 exposure also decreased NF-κB/p65 protein, which was not due to reduced mRNA and was not attenuated with catalase pre-treatment. This study provides support for an adaptive HAT response following VPA exposure and suggests that reduced Cbp/p300 HAT activity could contribute to VPA-mediated alterations. PMID:27381264

  8. Effect of Cinnamic Acid on Physiological Characteristics of Tomato Seedlings and Alleviation by Carbonized Maize Cob Application%碳化玉米芯缓解肉桂酸对番茄幼苗生长的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮亮; 李天来; 张恩平; 吴正超; 臧健; 陈彬; 刘文娥; 席联敏

    2012-01-01

    研究不同浓度肉桂酸对番茄苗期生长抑制作用以及加入碳化玉米芯缓解肉桂酸对番茄苗期生长抑制作用的效果.以肉桂酸作为番茄的连作障碍自毒物质,珍珠岩为基质进行盆栽试验,并就生物量、光合作用、根尖超微结构和MDA含量等指标的变化进行了讨论.结果表明,施用肉桂酸对幼苗的光合作用指标、生物量及叶绿素的含量具有显著的抑制作用.高浓度的肉桂酸处理使根尖的超微结构受到破坏.同时使幼苗体内MDA的含量显著增加.加入碳化玉米芯有效地缓解了肉桂酸对番茄幼苗的毒害作用.因此,施用碳化玉米芯可作为防止番茄连作障碍的措施之一.%We examined the effects of cinnamic acid on the growth of tomato seedlings, and its alleviation of applied carbonized maize cob was shown. The tomato seedlings were transplanted in the hydroponic system with perlite as substrate, and the biomass, photosynthesis, ultrastructure of root and MDA were investigated. The results showed that cinnamic acid inhibited the biomass, photosynthesis and chlorophyll contents of tomato seedlings. Deformation of the ultrastructures of root was observed and the MDA content was increased by the treatment of high content cinnamic acid. But the inhabitations were alleviated by applied carbonized maize cob. Carbonized corn cob can be used to prevent the plants from monocropping obstacles.

  9. Buffet Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  10. Decrease of Population Divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Browning Waters: Role of Fatty Acids and Foraging Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnweber, Kristin; Strandberg, Ursula; Karlsson, Konrad; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Due to altered biogeochemical processes related to climate change, highly colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from terrestrial sources will lead to a water "brownification" in many freshwater systems of the Northern Hemisphere. This will create deteriorated visual conditions that have been found to affect habitat-specific morphological variations in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a previous study. So far, potential drivers and ultimate causes of these findings have not been identified. We conducted a field study to investigate the connection between morphological divergence and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of perch from six lakes across a gradient of DOC concentration. We expected a decrease in the prevalence of PUFAs, which are important for perch growth and divergence with increasing DOC concentrations, due to the restructuring effects of DOC on aquatic food webs. In general, rate of morphological divergence in perch decreased with increasing DOC concentrations. Proportions of specific PUFAs (22:6n-3, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 20:4n-6) identified to primarily contribute to overall differences between perch caught in clear and brown-water lakes tended to be connected to overall decline of morphological divergence. However, no overall significant relationship was found, indicating no severe limitation of essential fatty acids for perch inhabiting brown water lakes. We further broaden our approach by conducting a laboratory experiment on foraging efficiency of perch. Therefore, we induced pelagic and littoral phenotypes by differences in habitat-structure and feeding mode and recorded attack rate in a feeding experiment. Generally, fish were less efficient in foraging on littoral prey (Ephemeroptera) when visual conditions were degraded by brown water color. We concluded that browning water may have a strong effect on the forager's ability to find particular food resources, resulting in the reduced development of evolutionary traits, such as

  11. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Xudong Liu,1,* Yuchao Zhang,1,* Jinquan Li,1 Dong Wang,1 Yang Wu,1 Yan Li,2 Zhisong Lu,3 Samuel CT Yu,4 Rui Li,1 Xu Yang1 1Laboratory of Environmental Biomedicine, Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 2Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; 3Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China; 4Division of Environment, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test, brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH], inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor a, interleukin-1β, and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3 in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of

  12. Decreased bile-acid synthesis in livers of hepatocyte-conditional NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-null mice results in increased bile acids in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xingguo; Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) is essential for the function of microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), including those P450s involved in bile acid (BA) synthesis. Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (H-Cpr-null) have been engineered to understand the in vivo function of hepatic P450s in the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. However, the impact of hepatic Cpr on BA homeostasis is not clear. The present study revealed that H-Cpr-null mice had a 60% decrease in total BA concentration in liver, whereas the total BA concentration in serum was almost doubled. The decreased level of cholic acid (CA) in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice is likely due to diminished enzyme activity of Cyp8b1 that is essential for CA biosynthesis. Feedback mechanisms responsible for the reduced liver BA concentrations and/or increased serum BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice included the following: 1) enhanced alternative BA synthesis pathway, as evidenced by the fact that classic BA synthesis is diminished but chenodeoxycholic acid still increases in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice; 2) inhibition of farnesoid X receptor activation, which increased the mRNA of Cyp7a1 and 8b1; 3) induction of intestinal BA transporters to facilitate BA absorption from the intestine to the circulation; 4) induction of hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein transporters to increase BA efflux from the liver to blood; and 5) increased generation of secondary BAs. In summary, the present study reveals an important contribution of the alternative BA synthesis pathway and BA transporters in regulating BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice.

  13. Respiratory plasticity is insufficient to alleviate blood acid-base disturbances after acclimation to ocean acidification in the estuarine red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, Andrew J; Ern, Rasmus; Nordi, Wiolene M; Johnson, Abbey S

    2016-01-01

    The changes in ocean chemistry stemming from anthropogenic CO2 release--termed ocean acidification (OA)--are predicted to have wide-ranging effects on fish and ultimately threaten global populations. The ability of fish to adapt to environmental change is currently unknown, but phenotypic plasticity has been highlighted as a crucial factor in determining species resilience. Here we show that red drum, a long-lived estuarine-dependent fish species native to the Gulf of Mexico, exhibit respiratory plasticity that increases CO2 excretion capacity when acclimated to OA conditions. Specifically, fish exposed to 14 days of 1000 µatm CO2 had a 32% reduction in branchial diffusion distance and increased expression of two putative CO2 channel proteins--rhag and rhcg1. No changes were observed in the erythrocyte CO2 transport pathways. Surprisingly, no significant changes in blood chemistry were observed between acclimated and acutely challenged animals; however, a non-significant 30 % drop in the magnitude of plasma C(CO2) elevation was observed. Reduced diffusion distance also comes with the cost of increased diffusive water loss, which would require greater osmoregulatory investment by the animal. OA exposure induced increased gill Na(+), K(+) ATPase activity and intestinal nkcc2 expression, supporting both the presumed osmotic stress and increased osmoregulatory investment. However, no differences in standard metabolic rate, maximum metabolic rate or aerobic scope were detected between control and OA acclimated individuals. Similarly, no differences in critical swim speed were detected between groups, suggesting the energetic cost related to respiratory plasticity is negligible against background metabolism. The current study demonstrated that red drum exhibit respiratory plasticity with only mild physiological trade-offs; however, this plasticity is insufficient to fully offset the OA-induced acid-base disturbance and as such is unlikely to impact species resilience.

  14. Betulinic acid alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting SREBP1 activity via the AMPK-mTOR-SREBP signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hai Yan; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Soo Jung; Jo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Go Woon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2013-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common liver disease in industrialized countries. The discovery of food components that can ameliorate NAFLD is therefore of interest. Betulinic acid (BA) is a triterpenoid with many pharmacological activities, but the effect of BA on fatty liver is as yet unknown. To explore the possible anti-fatty liver effects and their underlying mechanisms, we used insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, primary rat hepatocytes and liver tissue from ICR mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Oil Red O staining revealed that BA significantly suppressed excessive triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells and in the livers of mice fed a HFD. Ca(+2)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase (CAMKK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were both activated by BA treatment. In contrast, the protein levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase (S6K) were all reduced when hepatocytes were treated with BA for up to 24h. We found that BA activates AMPK via phosphorylation, suppresses SREBP1 mRNA expression, nuclear translocation and repressed SREBP1 target gene expression in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes, leading to reduced lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. These effects were completely abolished in the presence of STO-609 (a CAMKK inhibitor) or compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), indicating that the BA-induced reduction in hepatic steatosis was mediated via the CAMKK-AMPK-SREBP1 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that BA effectively ameliorates intracellular lipid accumulation in liver cells and thus is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of fatty liver disease. PMID:23435355

  15. The Decrease of n-3 Fatty Acid Energy Percentage in an Equicaloric Diet Fed to B6C3Fe Mice for Three Generations Elicits Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Hanbauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding mice, over 3 generations, an equicaloric diet in which α-linolenic acid, the dietary precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, was substituted by linoleic acid, the dietary precursor of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly increased body weight throughout life when compared with standard diet-fed mice. Adipogenesis observed in the low n-3 fatty acid mice was accompanied by a 6-fold upregulation of stearyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, whose activity is correlated to plasma triglyceride levels. In total liver lipid and phospholipid extracts, the sum of n-3 fatty acids and the individual longer carbon chain acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 were significantly decreased whereas arachidonic acid (20:4n6 was significantly increased. In addition, low n-3 fatty acid-fed mice had liver steatosis, heart, and kidney hypertrophy. Hence, reducing dietary α-linolenic acid, from 1.02 energy% to 0.16 energy% combined with raising linoleic acid intake resulted in obesity and had detrimental consequences on organ function.

  16. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1–LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1(−/−) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1(−/−) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1(−/−) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology. PMID:21569876

  17. Absence of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennero, Isabelle; Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sara; Conte-Auriol, Françoise; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Laurencin, Danielle; Rue, Jackie; Beton, Nicolas; Malet, Nicole; Mus, Marianne; Tokumura, Akira; Bourin, Philippe; Vico, Laurence; Brunel, Gérard; Oreffo, Richard O C; Chun, Jerold; Salles, Jean Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that acts in paracrine systems via interaction with a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA promotes cell growth and differentiation, and has been shown to be implicated in a variety of developmental and pathophysiological processes. At least 6 LPA GPCRs have been identified to date: LPA1-LPA6. Several studies have suggested that local production of LPA by tissues and cells contributes to paracrine regulation, and a complex interplay between LPA and its receptors, LPA1 and LPA4, is believed to be involved in the regulation of bone cell activity. In particular, LPA1 may activate both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, its role has not as yet been examined with regard to the overall status of bone in vivo. We attempted to clarify this role by defining the bone phenotype of LPA1((-/-)) mice. These mice demonstrated significant bone defects and low bone mass, indicating that LPA1 plays an important role in osteogenesis. The LPA1((-/-)) mice also presented growth and sternal and costal abnormalities, which highlights the specific roles of LPA1 during bone development. Microcomputed tomography and histological analysis demonstrated osteoporosis in the trabecular and cortical bone of LPA1((-/-)) mice. Finally, bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors from these mice displayed decreased osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that LPA1 strongly influences bone development both qualitatively and quantitatively and that, in vivo, its absence results in decreased osteogenesis with no clear modification of osteoclasis. They open perspectives for a better understanding of the role of the LPA/LPA1 paracrine pathway in bone pathophysiology.

  18. Lactic Acid Reduces LPS-Induced TNF- and IL-6 mRNA Levels Through Decreasing IB Phosphorylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-yong; JIANG Jin-qi; WANG Ming; LI Jie; SU Jing-liang; REN Xiao-ming

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects over time of lactic acid (LA) on IBαphosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-B) p65 protein expression, and on tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels in rat intestinal mucosa microvascular endothelial cells (RIMMVECs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). IB , phosphorylated IB (p-IB ) and p65 protein levels were monitored by Western blot analysis, and TNF- and IL-6 mRNA levels were analyzed using real-time PCR. LA treatment reduced TNF- and IL-6 mRNA levels in LPS-stimulated RIMMVECs, with the greatest effect being after 3 h. The highest inhibitory effect of LA on IB phosphorylation to prevent activation of NF-B was after 6 h. These results suggest that LA reduces TNF- and IL-6 mRNA levels through decreasing IB phosphorylation and blocking the dissociation of IKK complex, which prevents activation of NF-B.

  19. Clavulanic acid enhances glutamate transporter subtype I (GLT-1) expression and decreases reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae; John, Joel; Langford, Dianne; Walker, Ellen; Ward, Sara; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-03-01

    The β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CTX) reduces cocaine reinforcement and relapse in preclinical assays through a mechanism involving activation of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). However, its poor brain penetrability and intravenous administration route may limit its therapeutic utility for indications related to CNS diseases. An alternative is clavulanic acid (CA), a structural analog of CTX that retains the β-lactam core required for GLT-1 activity but displays enhanced brain penetrability and oral activity relative to CTX. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CA (1, 10 mg/kg ip) would enhance GLT-1 expression and decrease cocaine self-administration (SA) in mice, but at lower doses than CTX. Experiments revealed that GLT-1 transporter expression in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with repeated CA (1, 10 mg/kg) was enhanced relative to saline-treated mice. Repeated CA treatment (1 mg/kg) reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (0.56 mg/kg/inf) in mice maintained on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement but did not affect acquisition of cocaine SA under fixed-ratio responding or acquisition or retention of learning. These findings suggest that the β-lactamase inhibitor CA can activate the cellular glutamate reuptake system in the brain reward circuit and reduce cocaine's reinforcing efficacy at 100-fold lower doses than CTX.

  20. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Bai, Y.; Verwei, M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  1. Decreased arachidonic acid content and metabolism in tissues of NZB/W F1 females fed a diet containing 0. 45% dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, A.; Cottam, G.L.

    1987-05-01

    A diet containing 0.45% DHA fed to NZB/W mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, delays the time of onset, improves survival and decreases the formation of antibodies to ds-DNA. Essential fatty acid-deficient diets or inclusion of eicosapentaenoic acid have similar beneficial effects and led them to investigate arachidonic acid metabolism in response to feeding DHA. The arachidonic acid content of plasma cholesteryl ester decreased from 37.4 +/- 2.2 to 28.2 +/- 1.3 mg%. In total liver phospholipid the value decreased from 18.1 +/- 0.52 to 13.7 +/- 1.3 mg%, in total kidney phospholipid the value decreased from 24.10 +/- 0.87 to 20.7 +/- 0.32 mg% and in resident peritoneal macrophages the value decreased from 15.4 +/- 4.6 to 3.6 +/- 1.4 mg%. The metabolism of exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid by resident peritoneal macrophages in response to Zymosan stimulation for 2 hr was examined by extraction of metabolites and separation by HPLC. Cells isolated from DHA-fed animals produced less PGE2 than controls, yet similar amounts of 6-keto PGF1..cap alpha.. were produced. Arachidonic acid metabolites have significant effects on the immune system and may be a mechanism involved in the benefits obtained by inclusion of DHA in the diet.

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jing Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2∙- in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  3. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: At least 500 μg of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 μg of folate or with one 500 μg capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (p

  4. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kai; Qin, Chun Fu; Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption.

  5. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption. PMID:27611307

  6. Increased glutamate and homocysteine and decreased glutamine levels in autism: a review and strategies for future studies of amino acids in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids. PMID:24167375

  7. Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids.

  8. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  9. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany P. Cummings

    2013-03-01

    Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT and serial oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT. Tissues were collected at 1.5 and 4.5 months after surgery. Cell culture models were used to investigate interactions between bile acids and ER stress. IT-operated animals exhibited marked improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, with concurrent increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion during the OFTT and OGTTs, independently of food intake and body weight. Measurement of circulating bile acid profiles revealed increases in circulating total bile acids in IT-operated animals, with a preferential increase in circulating cholic acid concentrations. Gut microbial populations were assessed as potential contributors to the increases in circulating bile acid concentrations, which revealed proportional increases in Gammaproteobacteria in IT-operated animals. Furthermore, IT surgery decreased all three sub-arms of ER stress signaling in liver, adipose and pancreas tissues. Amelioration of ER stress coincided with improved insulin signaling and preservation of β-cell mass in IT-operated animals. Incubation of hepatocyte, adipocyte and β-cell lines with cholic acid decreased ER stress. These results suggest that postoperative increases in circulating cholic acid concentration contribute to improvements in

  10. EFFICACY OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN DECREASING BLOOD LOSS DURING AND AFTER CAESAREAN SECTION: A RANDOMIZED CASE CONTROL PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: To reduce maternal mortality and morbidity caused by bleeding, it is important to reduce the amount of bleeding during and after lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. Tranexamic acid helps to reduce bleeding during and after LSCS. OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy and safety of Tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after Lower segment Caesarean Section (LSCS. METHODS: A randomized case controlled prospective study was conducted on 200 women undergoing lower segment cesarean section. Hundreds of them that were given tranexamic acid immediately before LSCS were compared to hundred others to whom tranexamic acid was not given. Blood loss was collected and measured during the two periods, from plancental delivery to end of LSCS and second from end of LSCS to two hours postpartum. RESULTS: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to end of LSCS, 202.25ml in the study group vs392.20 ml in the control group (p<0.001; from the end of LSCS, to 2 hours postpartum 3.80ml in the study group versus 112.25ml in the control group (p<0.001; In totality, it significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to two hours postpartum i.e. 27.05ml in the study group versus 510.45ml in the control group (p < 0.001. No complications or side effects were noted. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the amount of blood loss during and after LSCS. Tranexamic acid can be used prophylactically; moreover it is safer and effective in women undergoing LSCS.

  11. Temperature Shift Experiments Suggest That Metabolic Impairment and Enhanced Rates of Photorespiration Decrease Organic Acid Levels in Soybean Leaflets Exposed to Supra-Optimal Growth Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Sicher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated growth temperatures are known to affect foliar organic acid concentrations in various plant species. In the current study, citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate decreased 40 to 80% in soybean leaflets when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organic acids were partially reversed three days after plants were transferred among optimal and supra-optimal growth temperatures. In addition, CO2 enrichment increased foliar malate, malonate and fumarate concentrations in the supra-optimal temperature treatment, thereby mitigating effects of high temperature on respiratory metabolism. Glycerate, which functions in the photorespiratory pathway, decreased in response to CO2 enrichment at both growth temperatures. The above findings suggested that diminished levels of organic acids in soybean leaflets upon exposure to high growth temperatures were attributable to metabolic impairment and to changes of photorespiratory flux. Leaf development rates differed among temperature and CO2 treatments, which affected foliar organic acid levels. Additionally, we report that large decreases of foliar organic acids in response to elevated growth temperatures were observed in legume species.

  12. Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Lignos, G.D.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160

  13. Maternal High Fat Diet Is Associated with Decreased Plasma n–3 Fatty Acids and Fetal Hepatic Apoptosis in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Wilmon F.; Gillingham, Melanie B.; Batra, Ayesha K; Fewkes, Natasha M.; Comstock, Sarah M.; Diana Takahashi; Theodore P Braun; Grove, Kevin L.; FRIEDMAN, Jacob E.; Marks, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD) contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's) and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR), we found signific...

  14. Islam, Globalization, and Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sulastyawati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is globab as well condition and situation, neither economically, politically, and socially. All countries that embrace open economic system have participated in the system of globalization. Today the world is under the influence of super power world. For instance, using dollar as the official currency for international transactions, so that dollar dominates in international transactions. As a result, the value of the debt of developing countries has increased due to the rising price of dollar. The increment of the debt value in developing countries led the government reduces subsidies for the community. Thus economic hardship perceived more and more for poor people. This resulted that poverty is hard to be alleviated. This article analyzes the various Islamic perspective and thoughts on the impact of globalization on poverty alleviation.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i2.2123

  15. 降低精对苯二甲酸溶剂系统醋酸消耗的研究%Research and Implementation of Decreasing the Acetic Acid Consumption in Purified Terephthalic Acid Solvent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐圆; 朱群雄

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the acetic acid consumption in purified terephthalic acid(PTA) solvent system has become a hot issue with common concern.In accordance with the technical features.the electrical conductivity is in direct proportion to the acetic acid content.General regression neural network(GRNN)is used to establish the model of electrical conductivity on the basis of mechanism analysis,and then particle swarm optimization (PSO)algorithm with the improvement of mertia weight and population diversity is proposed to regulate the operatmg conditions.Thus.the method of decreasing the acid lossS is derived and applied to PTA solvent system in a chemical plant.Cases studies show that the precision of modeling and optimization are higher.The results also provide the optimal operating conditions,which decrease the cost and improve the profit.

  16. Uric acid attenuates nitric oxide production by decreasing the interaction between endothelial nitric oxide synthase and calmodulin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: a mechanism for uric acid-induced cardiovascular disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yoon Mi; Hwang, Soojin; Cho, Du-Hyong; Kang, Duk-Hee; Jo, Inho

    2013-08-01

    The elevated level of uric acid in the body is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which is mediated by endothelial dysfunction. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood, although dysregulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production is likely to be involved. Using human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), we explored the molecular mechanism of uric acid on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. Although high dose of uric acid (12mg/dl for 24h treatment) significantly decreased eNOS activity and NO production, it did not alter eNOS expression and phosphorylations at eNOS-Ser(1177), eNOS-Thr(495) and eNOS-Ser(114). Under this condition, we also found no alterations in the dimerization and acetylation of eNOS, compared with the control. Furthermore, uric acid did not change the activity of arginase II, an enzyme degrading l-arginine, a substrate of eNOS, and intracellular level of calcium, a cofactor for eNOS activation. We also found that uric acid did not alter xanthine oxidase activity, suggesting no involvement of xanthine oxidase-derived O2(-) production in the observed inhibitory effects. In vitro and in cell coimmunoprecipitation studies, however, revealed that uric acid significantly decreased the interaction between eNOS and calmodulin (CaM), an eNOS activator, although it did not change the intracellular CaM level. Like in HUVEC, uric acid also decreased eNOS-CaM interaction in bovine aortic EC. Finally, uric acid attenuated ionomycin-induced increase in the interaction between eNOS and CaM. This study suggests firstly that uric acid decreased eNOS activity and NO production through reducing the binding between eNOS and CaM in EC. Our result may provide molecular mechanism by which uric acid induces endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease retinal neovascularization by adipose–endoplasmic reticulum stress reduction to increase adiponectin1234

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Zhongjie; Lofqvist, Chatarina A; Shao, Zhuo; Sun, Ye; Joyal, Jean-Sebastien; Hurst, Christian G.; Cui, Ricky Z; Evans, Lucy P.; Tian, Katherine; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chen, Jing; Ley, David; Hansen Pupp, Ingrid; Hellstrom, Ann; Smith, Lois EH

    2015-01-01

    Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease in premature infants. Serum adiponectin (APN) concentrations positively correlate with postnatal growth and gestational age, important risk factors for ROP development. Dietary ω-3 (n–3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFAs) suppress ROP and oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) in a mouse model of human ROP, but the mechanism is not fully understood.

  18. Maslinic acid-enriched diet decreases intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice through transcriptomic and metabolomic reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sánchez-Tena

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention is a pragmatic approach to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in western countries. In this regard, maslinic acid (MA, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from wax-like coatings of olives, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines without affecting normal intestinal cells. The present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of maslinic acid treatment on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice. Twenty-two mice were randomized into 2 groups: control group and MA group, fed with a maslinic acid-supplemented diet for six weeks. MA treatment reduced total intestinal polyp formation by 45% (P<0.01. Putative molecular mechanisms associated with suppressing intestinal polyposis in Apc(Min/+ mice were investigated by comparing microarray expression profiles of MA-treated and control mice and by analyzing the serum metabolic profile using NMR techniques. The different expression phenotype induced by MA suggested that it exerts its chemopreventive action mainly by inhibiting cell-survival signaling and inflammation. These changes eventually induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the metabolic changes induced by MA treatment were associated with a protective profile against intestinal tumorigenesis. These results show the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MA against intestinal tumor development in the Apc(Min/+ mice model, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against colorectal cancer.

  19. Bisphenol A alters n-6 fatty acid composition and decreases antioxidant enzyme levels in rat testes: a LC-QTOF-based metabolomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjian Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA and arachidonic acid (AA were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px as well as catalase (CAT also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity.

  20. Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.; Shewchuk, D. [Cariboo Pulp and Paper, Quesnel, BC (Canada); Van Heek, R. [Aker Kvaerner, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented the results of tests conducted to determine if the addition of waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing might decrease tall oil soap solubility in pine-beetle impacted wood from British Columbia (BC). The soap recovery and tall oil production at BC mills has fallen by 30 to 40 percent in recent years due to the pulping of high proportions of grey-stage beetle-impacted wood. Full-scale mill tests were conducted over a 4-day period. The study showed that the addition of tall oil fatty acids or waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing could decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase the soup skimming efficiency in mills pulping a large percentage of grey stage beetle-infested wood. The addition of fatty acids increased tall oil soap skimming efficiency from 50.2 percent in the baseline tests to 71.8 percent based on the total soap available, and from 76.7 percent in the baseline tests to 87.5 percent based on insoluble soap only. The economic analyses indicated that waste fatty acid addition could be economical when natural gas and oil prices are high. 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Imaging decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid metabolism and signaling in iPLA2β (VIA)-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Basselin, Mireille; Rosa, Angelo O.; Ramadan, Epolia; Cheon, Yewon; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Greenstein, Deanna; Wohltmann, Mary; Turk, John; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) selectively hydrolyzes docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in vitro from phospholipid. Mutations in the PLA2G6 gene encoding this enzyme occur in patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration plus brain iron accumulation and dystonia-parkinsonism without iron accumulation, whereas mice lacking PLA2G6 show neurological dysfunction and neuropathology after 13 months. We hypothesized that brain DHA metabolism and signaling would be reduced in 4-month-old ...

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassano Claudia F; Craigen Gerald; Eddy Bruce A; Dokucu Mehmet E; Sagduyu Kemal; Yıldız Ayşegül

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA) add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. S...

  3. A novel highly potent autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor produces prolonged decreases in plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation in vivo and regulates urethral tension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Saga

    Full Text Available Autotaxin, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2, is a secreted enzyme that has lysophospholipase D activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine to bioactive lysophosphatidic acid. Lysophosphatidic acid activates at least six G-protein coupled recpetors, which promote cell proliferation, survival, migration and muscle contraction. These physiological effects become dysfunctional in the pathology of cancer, fibrosis, and pain. To date, several autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitors have been reported; however, none were able to completely and continuously inhibit autotaxin/ENPP2 in vivo. In this study, we report the discovery of a highly potent autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor, ONO-8430506, which decreased plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation. The IC50 values of ONO-8540506 for lysophospholipase D activity were 6.4-19 nM for recombinant autotaxin/ENPP2 proteins and 4.7-11.6 nM for plasma from various animal species. Plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation during 1-h incubation was almost completely inhibited by the addition of >300 nM of the compound to human plasma. In addition, when administered orally to rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg, the compound demonstrated good pharmacokinetics in rats and persistently inhibited plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation even at 24 h after administration. Smooth muscle contraction is a known to be promoted by lysophosphatidic acid. In this study, we showed that dosing rats with ONO-8430506 decreased intraurethral pressure accompanied by urethral relaxation. These findings demonstrate the potential of this autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor for the treatment of various diseases caused by lysophosphatidic acid, including urethral obstructive disease such as benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassano Claudia F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. Subjects reported on the frequency and severity of irritability experienced during the preceding ten days; frequency was measured by way of percentage of days in which subjects experienced irritability, while severity of that irritability was rated on a Likert scale of 1 – 4 (if present. The irritability component of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS was also recorded quarterly on 13 of the 39 patients consistently. Patients had persistent irritability despite their ongoing pharmacologic and psychotherapy. Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day, add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability.

  5. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  6. L-FABP T94A decreased fatty acid uptake and altered hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in Chang liver cells stably transfected with L-FABP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Qu, Xia; Yan, Jin; Huang, Qi; Yuan, Hao-Yong; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, FABP1) is a highly conserved key factor in lipid metabolism. This study was undertaken to verify whether the T94A mutation in the L-FABP gene affects fatty acid uptake and intracellular esterification into specific lipid pools. Candidate SNPs were recreated using site-directed mutagenesis and tested for physical function in stably transfected Chang liver cell lines. We found that the T94A mutant of L-FABP lowered FFA uptake but had no effect on FFA efflux. L-FABP T94A-expressing cells showed decreased triglyceride content and increased cholesterol accumulation compared to the wild-type control for cells incubated with an FFA mixture (oleate: palmitate, 2:1 ratio). In conclusion, our study provided additional indications of the functional relevance of the L-FABP T94A SNP in hepatic fatty acid and lipid metabolism in humans.

  7. Decreased mental time travel to the past correlates with default-mode network disintegration under lysergic acid diethylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Kaelen, Mendel; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the effects of LSD on mental time travel during spontaneous mentation. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study, incorporating intravenous administration of LSD (75 μg) and placebo (saline) prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Six independent, blind judges analysed mentation reports acquired during structured interviews performed shortly after the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (approximately 2.5 h post-administration). Within each report, specific linguistic references to mental spaces for the past, present and future were identified. Results revealed significantly fewer mental spaces for the past under LSD and this effect correlated with the general intensity of the drug's subjective effects. No differences in the number of mental spaces for the present or future were observed. Consistent with the previously proposed role of the default-mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory recollection and ruminative thought, decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the DMN correlated with decreased mental time travel to the past. These results are discussed in relation to potential therapeutic applications of LSD and related psychedelics, e.g. in the treatment of depression, for which excessive reflection on one's past, likely mediated by DMN functioning, is symptomatic.

  8. Decreased mental time travel to the past correlates with default-mode network disintegration under lysergic acid diethylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Kaelen, Mendel; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the effects of LSD on mental time travel during spontaneous mentation. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study, incorporating intravenous administration of LSD (75 μg) and placebo (saline) prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Six independent, blind judges analysed mentation reports acquired during structured interviews performed shortly after the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (approximately 2.5 h post-administration). Within each report, specific linguistic references to mental spaces for the past, present and future were identified. Results revealed significantly fewer mental spaces for the past under LSD and this effect correlated with the general intensity of the drug's subjective effects. No differences in the number of mental spaces for the present or future were observed. Consistent with the previously proposed role of the default-mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory recollection and ruminative thought, decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the DMN correlated with decreased mental time travel to the past. These results are discussed in relation to potential therapeutic applications of LSD and related psychedelics, e.g. in the treatment of depression, for which excessive reflection on one's past, likely mediated by DMN functioning, is symptomatic. PMID:26979587

  9. Folic acid deficiency enhances abeta accumulation in APP/PS1 mice brain and decreases amyloid-associated miRNAs expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Tian, Tian; Qin, Shanchun; Li, Wen; Zhang, Xumei; Wang, Xuan; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Recent efforts have revealed the microRNA (miRNA) pathways in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies have revealed an association between folic acid deficiency and AD risk. However, the effects of folic acid deficiency on miRNA expression in AD animals have not been observed. We aimed to find if folic acid deficiency may enhance amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition and regulate amyloid-associated miRNAs and their target genes expression in APP/PS1 mice. APP/PS1 mice and N2a cells were treated with folic acid-deficient diet or medium. Cognitive function of mice was assessed using the Morris water maze. miRNA profile was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Different expressional miRNAs were validated by real-time PCR. The deposition of Aβ plaques was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. APP and BACE1 proteins in mice brain and N2a cells were determined by Western blot. Folic acid deficiency aggravated amyloid pathology in AD mice. The AD+FD group showed shorter time spent in the target zone during the probe test. Analysis of miRNAs predicted to target these genes revealed several miRNA candidates that were differentially modulated by folic acid deficiency. In APP/PS1 mice brains and N2a cells with folic acid-deficient treatment, miR-106a-5p, miR-200b-3p and miR-339-5p were down-regulated, and their target genes APP and BACE1 were up-regulated. In conclusion, folic acid deficiency can enhance Aβ accumulation in APP/PS1 mice brain and decrease amyloid-associated miRNAs expression.

  10. Dynamics of the enhanced emissions of monoterpenes and methyl salicylate, and decreased uptake of formaldehyde, by Quercus ilex leaves after application of jasmonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filella, Iolanda; Peñuelas, Josep; Llusià, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a signalling compound with a key role in both stress and development in plants, and is reported to elicit the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here we studied the dynamics of such emissions and the linkage with photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. We sprayed JA on leaves of the Mediterranean tree species Quercus ilex and measured the photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductances, and emissions and uptake of VOCs using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and gas chromatography after a dark-light transition. Jasmonic acid treatment delayed the induction of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance by approx. 20 min, and decreased them 24 h after spraying. Indications were found of both stomatal and nonstomatal limitations of photosynthesis. Monoterpene emissions were enhanced (20-30%) after JA spraying. Jasmonic acid also increased methyl salicylate (MeSa) emissions (more than twofold) 1 h after treatment, although after 24 h this effect had disappeared. Formaldehyde foliar uptake decreased significantly 24 h after JA treatment. Both biotic and abiotic stresses can thus affect plant VOC emissions through their strong impact on JA levels. Jasmonic acid-mediated increases in monoterpene and MeSa emissions might have a protective role when confronting biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:16390425

  11. 水杨酸浸种对镉诱导两种豆科植物根活性氧产生的缓解及其机理%Alleviating Effect and Mechanism of Seed Soaking with Salicylic Acid on Reactive Oxygen Species Production Induced by Cadmium in the Roots of Two Legume Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜峰; 张红晓; 关天霞; 曾秀存; 张芬琴

    2015-01-01

    研究了水杨酸(SA)浸种对镉(Cd)耐性不同的两种豆科植物——绿豆和箭舌豌豆种子萌发及其幼苗生长的影响,以及Cd胁迫下SA浸种对两种豆科植物幼苗根内活性氧产生的缓解效应及其机理。结果表明:(1)与各自的对照相比,100µmol·L-1 SA浸种对两种豆科植物种子发芽率无明显影响,但使绿豆和箭舌豌豆幼苗根长分别增加了54.63%和32.94%;当SA浓度达1000µmol·L-1时,绿豆和箭舌豌豆种子的发芽率分别下降了5.33%和3.33%,根长分别下降了16.64%和27.76%;(2)50µmol·L-1 Cd处理明显增强了两种豆科植物根内过氧化氢(H2O2)和超氧阴离子(O2¯·)的产生,抑制了根的伸长;而Cd处理前的100µmol·L-1SA浸种使H2O2和O2¯·产生显著降低, Cd抑制根伸长生长的作用明显减轻。同时, SA浸种也明显增强了Cd胁迫下两种豆科植物根内超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性、降低了过氧化氢酶(CAT)的活性。结果说明: SA可缓解Cd诱导的活性氧产生,这种缓解效应可能与其上调SOD和APX活性有关。%Our study was carried out to explore the effect of seed soaking with salicylic acid (SA) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two legume species with different cadmium (Cd) tolerance, viz. mung bean and common vetch. The alleviating effect of seed soaking with SA on the reactive oxygen species production induced by Cd in the roots of two legume species, and its mechanism was also investigated. Our results show that: (1) compared with its control, the seed germination of two legume species was not signiifcantly affected by soaking with 100 µmol·L-1 SA, but the root length of mung bean was signiifcantly affected, increasing by 54.63% and of common vetch by 32.94%. The seed germination of mung bean and common vetch soaked with 1 000 µmol·L-1 SA decreased by 5.33% and 3.33%, respectively, and the root length of mung bean and common vetch decreased

  12. Potato chip intake increases ascorbic acid levels and decreases reactive oxygen species in SMP30/GNL knockout mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Rui; Ichisawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Katsuyuki; Kubo, Misako; Handa, Setsuko; Mugita, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Naoki; Koga, Hidenori; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-09-24

    Potato chips (PC) contain abundant amounts of the free radical scavenger ascorbic acid (AA) due to the rapid dehydration of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) that occurs during frying. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of PC, this study examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tissues from SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice that cannot synthesize AA and determined AA and ROS levels after the animals were fed 20 and 10% PC diets for 7 weeks. Compared with AA-sufficient mice, AA-depleted SMP30/GNL KO mice showed high ROS levels in tissues. SMP30/GNL KO mice fed a PC diet showed high AA and low ROS levels in the brain, heart, lung, testis, soleus muscle, plantaris muscle, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, eyeball, and epididymal fat compared with AA-depleted mice. The data suggest that PC intake increases AA levels and enhances ROS scavenging activity in tissues of SMP30/GNL KO mice, which are a promising model for evaluating the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25180784

  13. Manganese accumulation in membrane fractions of primary astrocytes is associated with decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, and is exacerbated by oleic acid and palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure interferes with GABA uptake; however, the effects of Mn on GABA transport proteins (GATs) have not been identified. We sought to characterize how Mn impairs GAT function in primary rat astrocytes. Astrocytes exposed to Mn (500 μM) had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake despite no change in membrane or cytosolic GAT3 protein levels. Co-treatment with 100 μM oleic or palmitic acids (both known to be elevated in Mn neurotoxicity), exacerbated the Mn-induced decline in (3)H-GABA uptake. Mn accumulation in the membrane fraction of astrocytes was enhanced with fatty acid administration, and was negatively correlated with (3)H-GABA uptake. Furthermore, control cells exposed to Mn only during the experimental uptake had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake, and the addition of GABA (50 μM) blunted cytosolic Mn accumulation. These data indicate that reduced GAT function in astrocytes is influenced by Mn and fatty acids accumulating at or interacting with the plasma membrane.

  14. Linolenic acid improves oocyte developmental competence and decreases apoptosis of in vitro-produced blastocysts in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veshkini, Arash; Khadem, Ali Akbar; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Alamouti, Ali Asadi; Soleimani, Masoud; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2016-08-01

    The effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) on developmental competence of oocytes in goats were evaluated in this study. Initially, the level of ALA in small and large antral follicles was determined to be in a range of 0.018-0.028 mg/ml (64.6-100.6 μM, respectively). In vitro maturation was performed in the presence of various concentrations (10, 50, 100, or 200 μM) of ALA. Cumulus expansion, meiotic maturation, levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH), embryonic cleavage, blastocyst formation following parthenogenetic activation (PA) and in vitro fertilization (IVF), number of total and apoptotic cells in blastocyst, and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 genes in blastocyst cells were determined. Compared with the control, no improvement was observed in cumulus expansion in ALA-treated groups. At 50 μM concentration, ALA increased meiotic maturation rate but had no effect on GSH level. When oocytes treated with 50 μM ALA were subsequently used for PA or IVF, a higher rate of blastocyst formation was observed, and these embryos had a higher total cell number and a lower apoptotic cell number. Expression analyses of genes in blastocysts revealed lesser transcript abundances for Bax gene, and higher transcript abundances for Bcl-2 gene in 50 μM ALA group. Expression of p53 gene was also less observed in ALA-treated blastocysts. Our results show that ALA treatment at 50 μM during in vitro maturation (IVM) had a beneficial effect on maturation of goat oocytes and this, in turn, stimulated embryonic development and regulated apoptotic gene expression. PMID:26584822

  15. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lin, Guoqing [Laboratory Center of Life Sciences, Co. Laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University and Carl Zeiss Far East, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen, Wenbiao, E-mail: wbshenh@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H{sub 2} in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H{sub 2} in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.

  16. Alleviating versus stimulating effects of bicarbonate on the growth of Vallisneria natans under ammonia stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yanyan; Wang, Baozhong; Chen, Liangyan; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-08-01

    Bicarbonate plays a crucial role in limiting the growth of submersed aquatic macrophytes in eutrophic lakes, and high ammonia is often toxic to macrophytes. In order to evaluate the combined effect of HCO3 (-) and total ammonia (i.e., the total of NH3 and NH4 (+)) on submersed macrophytes Vallisneria natans, the growth and physiological response of V. natans in the presence of HCO3 (-) and ammonia were studied. The results showed that with the increase of ammonia, morphological parameters of V. natans declined. In contrast, increased HCO3 (-) concentration stimulated the growth of V. natans, especially when the NH4 (+)-N/NO3 (-)-N ratio was 1:7. High ammonia concentration induced excess free amino acids (FAA) accumulation and soluble carbohydrates (SC) depletion in plant tissues. However, the elevated HCO3 (-) promoted the synthesis of SC and rendered the decrease of FAA/SC ratio. The results also suggested that HCO3 (-) could partially alleviate the stress of ammonia, as evidenced by the decrease of FAA/SC ratio and the growth enhancement of V. natans when the ammonia concentration was 0.58 mg L(-1). Given the fact that HCO3 (-) is probably the dominant available carbon source in most eutrophic lakes, the ability of V. natans to use HCO3 (-) for SC synthesis may explain the alleviating effect of HCO3 (-) on V. natans under ammonia stress. PMID:23381797

  17. Alleviation Effects of Rare Earth on Cd Stress to Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建军; 张淑侠; 朱京涛; 吴贺平

    2004-01-01

    Using rapes as test materials, the fastness expression and alleviation effect of rapes were studied under Cd stress condition, as the rapeseeds were dipped in the single element(La, Ce, Nd, Pr)and mixed rare earth(RE). The results indicate that, under Cd stress, the dry and fresh weight are increased by both the single element and mixed rare earth treatment, and the fastness of rape is improved.The single element of rare earth decreases the Cd content in rape roots and transmits Cd to the edible parts above the ground in which the alleviation effect of Ce is most significant.La treatment takes the second place, so that the poisonous effect of heavy metal Cd is eased.The mixed rare earth doesn't alleviate the assimilation of Cd in rape roots, but accelerates the transfer of Cd to the parts above the ground. The research puts forward that the alleviation of rare earth on Cd stress has connection with the decrease of Ca content.

  18. Folic acid deficiency during late gestation decreases progenitor cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in fetal mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Brown, Elliott C; Mar, Mei-Heng; Albright, Craig D; Nadeau, Marie R; Zeisel, Steven H

    2004-01-01

    In mice and rats, maternal dietary choline intake during late pregnancy modulates mitosis and apoptosis in progenitor cells of the fetal hippocampus and septum. Because choline and folate are interrelated metabolically, we investigated the effects of maternal dietary folate availability on progenitor cells in fetal mouse telencephalon. Timed-pregnant mice were fed a folate-supplemented (FS), control (FCT) or folate-deficient (FD) AIN-76 diet from d 11-17 of pregnancy. FD decreased the number of progenitor cells undergoing cell replication in the ventricular zones of the developing mouse brain septum (46.6% of FCT), caudate putamen (43.5%), and neocortex (54.4%) as assessed using phosphorylated histone H3 (a specific marker of mitotic phase) and confirmed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling of the S phase. In addition, 106.2% more apoptotic cells were found in FD than in FCT fetal septum. We observed 46.8% more calretinin-positive cells in the medial septal-diagonal band region of FD compared with pups from control dams. FS mice did not differ significantly from FCT mice in any of these measures. These results suggest that progenitor cells in fetal forebrain are sensitive to maternal dietary folate during late gestation. PMID:14704311

  19. Adipocyte Accumulation of Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Obesity is Multifactorial, Resulting from Increased Fatty Acid Uptake and Decreased Activity of Genes Involved in Fat Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewski, José L.; Ge, Fengxia; Gagner, Michel; Inabnet, William B.; Pomp, Alfons; Branch, Andrea D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic causes significant morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of cellular function and gene expression in obese adipose tissue will yield insights into obesity pathogenesis and suggest therapeutic targets. The aim of this work is to study the processes determining fat accumulation in adipose tissue from obese patients. Methods Omental fat was collected from two cohorts of obese bariatric surgery patients and sex-matched normal-weight donors. Isolated adipocytes were compared for cell size, volume, and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. Omental fat RNAs were screened by 10K microarray (cohort 1: three obese, three normal) or Whole Genome microarray (cohort 2: seven obese, four normal). Statistical differences in gene and pathway expression were identified in cohort 1 using the GeneSifter Software (Geospiza) with key results confirmed in cohort 2 samples by microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and pathway analysis. Results Obese omental adipocytes had increased surface area, volume, and Vmax for saturable LCFA uptake. Dodecenoyl-coenzyme A delta isomerase, central to LCFA metabolism, was approximately 1.6-fold underexpressed in obese fat in cohorts 1 and 2. Additionally, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics pathway analysis identified oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism pathways as having coordinate, nonrandom down-regulation of gene expression in both cohorts. Conclusions In obese omental fat, saturable adipocyte LCFA uptake was greater than in controls, and expression of key genes involved in lipolysis, β-oxidation, and metabolism of fatty acids was reduced. Thus, both increased uptake and reduced metabolism of LCFAs contribute to the accumulation of LCFAs in obese adipocytes. PMID:19866242

  20. Acetylation of Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein α-Subunit Enhances Its Stability To Promote Fatty Acid Oxidation and Is Decreased in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Zhou, Shui-Rong; Wei, Xiang-Bo; Liu, Yuan; Chang, Xin-Xia; Liu, Yang; Ge, Xin; Dou, Xin; Huang, Hai-Yan; Qian, Shu-Wen; Li, Xi; Lei, Qun-Ying; Gao, Xin; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2016-10-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disease, and decreased fatty acid oxidation is one of the important contributors to NAFLD. Mitochondrial trifunctional protein α-subunit (MTPα) functions as a critical enzyme for fatty acid β-oxidation, but whether dysregulation of MTPα is pathogenically connected to NAFLD is poorly understood. We show that MTPα is acetylated at lysine residues 350, 383, and 406 (MTPα-3K), which promotes its protein stability by antagonizing its ubiquitylation on the same three lysines (MTPα-3K) and blocking its subsequent degradation. Sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) has been identified as the deacetylase, deacetylating and destabilizing MTPα. Replacement of MTPα-3K with either MTPα-3KR or MTPα-3KQ inhibits cellular lipid accumulation both in free fatty acid (FFA)-treated alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) cells and primary hepatocytes and in the livers of high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet-fed mice. Moreover, knockdown of SIRT4 could phenocopy the effects of MTPα-3K mutant expression in mouse livers, and MTPα-3K mutants more efficiently attenuate SIRT4-mediated hepatic steatosis in HF/HS diet-fed mice. Importantly, acetylation of both MTPα and MTPα-3K is decreased while SIRT4 is increased in the livers of mice and humans with NAFLD. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of MTPα regulation by acetylation and ubiquitylation and a direct functional link of this regulation to NAFLD. PMID:27457618

  1. Mutations in the Arabidopsis Lst8 and Raptor genes encoding partners of the TOR complex, or inhibition of TOR activity decrease abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alena; Citerne, Sylvie; Jéhanno, Isabelle; Bersimbaev, Rakhmetkazhi I; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian; Leprince, Anne-Sophie

    2015-11-27

    The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates essential processes in plant growth and development by modulation of metabolism and translation in response to environmental signals. In this study, we show that abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism is also regulated by the TOR kinase. Indeed ABA hormone level strongly decreases in Lst8-1 and Raptor3g mutant lines as well as in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants treated with AZD-8055, a TOR inhibitor. However the growth and germination of these lines are more sensitive to exogenous ABA. The diminished ABA hormone accumulation is correlated with lower transcript levels of ZEP, NCED3 and AAO3 biosynthetic enzymes, and higher transcript amount of the CYP707A2 gene encoding a key-enzyme in abscisic acid catabolism. These results suggest that the TOR signaling pathway is implicated in the regulation of ABA accumulation in Arabidopsis.

  2. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels. PMID:27752492

  3. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perng-Kuang Chang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The saprophytic soil fungus Aspergillus flavus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. Pichia anomala, which is a biocontrol yeast and produces the major volatile 2-phenylethanol (2-PE, is able to reduce growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production when applied onto pistachio trees. High levels of 2-PE are lethal to A. flavus and other fungi. However, at low levels, the underlying mechanism of 2-PE to inhibit aflatoxin production remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the temporal transcriptome response of A. flavus to 2-PE at a subinhibitory level (1 μL/mL using RNA-Seq technology and bioinformatics tools. The treatment during the entire 72 h experimental period resulted in 131 of the total A. flavus 13,485 genes to be significantly impacted, of which 82 genes exhibited decreased expression. They included those encoding conidiation proteins and involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis. All genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster were also significantly decreased during the first 48 h treatment. Gene Ontology (GO analyses showed that biological processes with GO terms related to catabolism of propionate and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine were significantly enriched in the down-regulated gene group, while those associated with ribosome biogenesis, translation, and biosynthesis of α-amino acids were over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways negatively impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to those active at 30 °C, a condition conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. In contrast, metabolic pathways positively related to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C, which favors rapid fungal growth and is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The results showed that 2-PE at a low level stimulated active growth of A. flavus but concomitantly rendered decreased activities in branched-chain amino

  4. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Hua, Sui Sheng T; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L; Li, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    The saprophytic soil fungus Aspergillus flavus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. Pichia anomala, which is a biocontrol yeast and produces the major volatile 2-phenylethanol (2-PE), is able to reduce growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production when applied onto pistachio trees. High levels of 2-PE are lethal to A. flavus and other fungi. However, at low levels, the underlying mechanism of 2-PE to inhibit aflatoxin production remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the temporal transcriptome response of A. flavus to 2-PE at a subinhibitory level (1 μL/mL) using RNA-Seq technology and bioinformatics tools. The treatment during the entire 72 h experimental period resulted in 131 of the total A. flavus 13,485 genes to be significantly impacted, of which 82 genes exhibited decreased expression. They included those encoding conidiation proteins and involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis. All genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster were also significantly decreased during the first 48 h treatment. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that biological processes with GO terms related to catabolism of propionate and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine) were significantly enriched in the down-regulated gene group, while those associated with ribosome biogenesis, translation, and biosynthesis of α-amino acids OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 3888 were over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways negatively impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to those active at 30 °C, a condition conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. In contrast, metabolic pathways positively related to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C, which favors rapid fungal growth and is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The results showed that 2-PE at a low level stimulated active growth of A. flavus but concomitantly rendered decreased activities in

  5. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was increased by added Si in cucumber. The total content of organic acids was decreased in tomato leaves but increased in cucumber roots and leaves by Si application under Cd stress. Si application also increased the cell wall polysaccharide levels in the roots of both species under Cd toxicity. Si-mediated changes in levels of organic acids and cell wall polysaccharides might contribute to the differences in Cd transport in the two species. In addition, Si application also mitigated Cd-induced oxidative damage in both species. The results indicate that there were different mechanisms for Si-mediated decrease in shoot Cd accumulation: in tomato, Si supply decreased root-to-shoot Cd transport; whereas in cucumber, Si supply reduced the Cd uptake by roots. It is suggested that Si-mediated Cd tolerance is associated with different physiological responses in tomato and cucumber plants. PMID:26136764

  6. Focused grooming networks and stress alleviation in wild female baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Roman M; Crockford, Catherine; Lehmann, Julia; Whitten, Patricia L; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2008-06-01

    We examine the relationship between glucocorticoid (GC) levels and grooming behavior in wild female baboons during a period of instability in the alpha male rank position. All females' GC levels rose significantly at the onset of the unstable period, though levels in females who were at lower risk of infanticide began to decrease sooner in the following weeks. Three factors suggest that females relied on a focused grooming network as a coping mechanism to alleviate stress. First, all females' grooming networks became less diverse in the weeks following the initial upheaval. Second, females whose grooming had already focused on a few predictable partners showed a less dramatic rise in GC levels than females whose grooming network had been more diverse. Third, females who contracted their grooming network the most experienced a greater decrease in GC levels in the following week. We conclude that close bonds with a few preferred partners allow female baboons to alleviate the stress associated with social instability.

  7. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  8. Rapamycin-mediated CD36 translational suppression contributes to alleviation of hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Yan, Yong; Hu, Lin; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping; Moorhead, John F; Varghese, Zac; Chen, Yaxi; Ruan, Xiong Z

    2014-04-25

    Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-specific inhibitor, has the effect of anti-lipid deposition on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the mechanisms with which rapamycin alleviates hepatic steatosis are not fully disclosed. CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contribute to NAFLD progression. Hepatic CD36 expression is closely associated with hepatic steatosis, while mTOR pathway is involved in CD36 translational control. This study was undertaken to investigate whether rapamycin alleviates hepatic steatosis via the inhibition of mTOR pathway-dependent CD36 translation. Human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells were treated with palmitate and C57BL/6J mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) to induce hepatic steatosis. Hepatic CD36 protein expression was significantly increased with lipid accumulation in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells or HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Rapamycin reduced hepatic steatosis and CD36 protein expression, but it had no influence on CD36 mRNA expression. Rapamycin had no effect on CD36 protein stability, but it significantly decreased CD36 translational efficiency. We further confirmed that rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). This study demonstrates that rapamycin inhibits hepatic CD36 translational efficiency through the mTOR pathway, resulting in reduction of CD36 protein expression and alleviation of hepatic steatosis. PMID:24685479

  9. Potent PPARα activator derived from tomato juice, 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid, decreases plasma and hepatic triglyceride in obese diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-il Kim

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for development of several obesity-related diseases. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates energy metabolism. Previously, we reported that 9-oxo-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-oxo-ODA is presented in fresh tomato fruits and acts as a PPARα agonist. In addition to 9-oxo-ODA, we developed that 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-oxo-ODA, which is an isomer of 9-oxo-ODA, is present only in tomato juice. In this study, we explored the possibility that 13-oxo-ODA acts as a PPARα agonist in vitro and whether its effect ameliorates dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in vivo. In vitro luciferase assay experiments revealed that 13-oxo-ODA significantly induced PPARα activation; moreover, the luciferase activity of 13-oxo-ODA was stronger than that of 9-oxo-ODA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is a precursor of 13-oxo-ODA and is well-known as a potent PPARα activator. In addition to in vitro experiment, treatment with 13-oxo-ODA decreased the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides in obese KK-Ay mice fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, our findings indicate that 13-oxo-ODA act as a potent PPARα agonist, suggesting a possibility to improve obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis.

  10. Role of Ulva lactuca Extract in Alleviation of Salinity Stress on Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive materials that could represent useful leads in the alleviation of salinity stress. The effects of presoaking wheat grains in water extract of Ulva lactuca on growth, some enzymatic activities, and protein pattern of salinized plants were investigated in this study. Algal presoaking of grains demonstrated a highly significant enhancement in the percentage of seed germination and growth parameters. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT increased with increasing the algal extract concentration while activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR was decreased with increasing concentration of algal extract more than 1% (w/v. The protein pattern of wheat seedling showed 12 newly formed bands as result of algal extract treatments compared with control. The bioactive components in U. lactuca extract such as ascorbic acid, betaine, glutathione, and proline could potentially participate in the alleviation of salinity stress. Therefore, algal presoaking is proved to be an effective technique to improve the growth of wheat seedlings under salt stress conditions.

  11. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  12. The Ras antagonist, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS, decreases fibrosis and improves muscle strength in dy/dy mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram Nevo

    Full Text Available The Ras superfamily of guanosine-triphosphate (GTP-binding proteins regulates a diverse spectrum of intracellular processes involved in inflammation and fibrosis. Farnesythiosalicylic acid (FTS is a unique and potent Ras inhibitor which decreased inflammation and fibrosis in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis and ameliorated inflammatory processes in systemic lupus erythematosus, neuritis and nephritis animal models. FTS effect on Ras expression and activity, muscle strength and fibrosis was evaluated in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. The dy(2J/dy(2J mice had significantly increased RAS expression and activity compared with the wild type mice. FTS treatment significantly decreased RAS expression and activity. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK, a Ras downstream protein, was significantly decreased following FTS treatment in the dy(2J/dy(2J mice. Clinically, FTS treated mice showed significant improvement in hind limb muscle strength measured by electronic grip strength meter. Significant reduction of fibrosis was demonstrated in the treated group by quantitative Sirius Red staining and lower muscle collagen content. FTS effect was associated with significantly inhibition of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. We conclude that active RAS inhibition by FTS was associated with attenuated fibrosis and improved muscle strength in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  13. Short-term supplementation with alpha-ketoglutaric acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural does not prevent the hypoxia induced decrease of exercise performance despite attenuation of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatterer, H; Greilberger, J; Philippe, M; Faulhaber, M; Djukic, R; Burtscher, M

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are thought to partly be responsible for the hypoxia induced performance decrease. The present study evaluated the effects of a broad based antioxidant supplementation or the combined intake of alpha-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) on the performance decrease at altitude. 18 healthy, well-trained males (age: 25±3 years; height: 179±6 cm; weight: 76.4±6.8 kg) were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to a placebo group (PL), a α-KG and 5-HMF supplementation group (AO1) or a broad based antioxidant supplementation group (AO2). Participants performed 2 incremental exercise tests to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer; the first test under normoxia and the second under hypoxia conditions (simulated altitude, FiO2=13% ~ 4 300 m). Supplementation started 48 h before the hypoxia test. Maximal oxygen uptake, maximal power output, power output at the ventilatory and lactate threshold and the tissue oxygenation index (NIRS) were measured under both conditions. Oxidative stress markers were measured before the supplementation and after the hypoxia test. Under hypoxia conditions all performance parameters decreased in the range of 19-39% with no differences between groups. A significant change from normoxia to hypoxia (pextraction, as indicated by the tissue oxygenation index, might indicate that mitochondrial functioning was actually influenced by the supplementation. PMID:22893323

  14. Strategies to alleviate the incidence of ascites in broilers: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Aftab

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascites is a complex problem caused by many interacting factors such as genetics, environment and management. Many nutritional, medicinal and management strategies have been proposed to alleviate the problem. Higher levels of dietary vitamin C and E along with selenium yeast might be beneficial, presumably because of their role in improving cellular integrity. Oils rich in n-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce pulmonary hypertension and, consequently, ascites incidence. The potential use of flax oil has already been demonstrated, whereas the effects of other oils rich in n-3 fatty acids (fish, linseed and canola oils remain to be investigated. The assessment of the effects of dietary electrolyte balance on ascites incidence seems to be a promising field of research in broiler nutrition. In general, reducing the dietary level of salt (NaCl and adding bicarbonates to the diet and drinking water have been proposed as potential "cost-effective" methods to reduce ascites incidence. The use of nutrients/drug agents that increase the vascular capacity of the lungs or decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance may help to alleviate the problem, but economic and local feed regulations might restrict such use. Diuretics have also shown positive effects, presumably because there is a reduction of sodium and fluid retention in the body; litter humidity however must be closely monitored if diuretics are continuously administered. As the high metabolic rate (fast growth is a major factor contributing to the susceptibility of broilers to ascites, early-age feed or nutrient restriction (qualitative or quantitative or light restriction in order to slow down the growth rate seem practically viable methods, since final body weight is not compromised. Optimization of the house temperature and ventilation in cold weather seem helpful practices to decrease ascites incidence. Under practical conditions, it might be interesting to test the additive effects of

  15. An Advanced Buffet Load Alleviation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Jay K.; Pitt, Dale M.; White, Edward V.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced buffet load alleviation (BLA) system that utilizes distributed piezoelectric actuators in conjunction with an active rudder to reduce the structural dynamic response of the F/A-18 aircraft vertical tails to buffet loads. The BLA system was defined analytically with a detailed finite-element-model of the tail structure and piezoelectric actuators. Oscillatory aerodynamics were included along with a buffet forcing function to complete the aeroservoelastic model of the tail with rudder control surface. Two single-input-single-output (SISO) controllers were designed, one for the active rudder and one for the active piezoelectric actuators. The results from the analytical open and closed loop simulations were used to predict the system performance. The objective of this BLA system is to extend the life of vertical tail structures and decrease their life-cycle costs. This system can be applied to other aircraft designs to address suppression of structural vibrations on military and commercial aircraft.

  16. Decrease of urinary nerve growth factor but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome treated with hyaluronic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hong Jiang

    Full Text Available To investigate urinary nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS patients after hyaluronic acid (HA therapy.Thirty-three patients with IC/BPS were prospectively studied; a group of 45 age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. All IC/BPS patients received nine intravesical HA instillations during the 6-month treatment regimen. Urine samples were collected for measuring urinary NGF and BDNF levels at baseline and 2 weeks after the last HA treatment. The clinical parameters including visual analog scale (VAS of pain, daily frequency nocturia episodes, functional bladder capacity (FBC and global response assessment (GRA were recorded. Urinary NGF and BDNF levels were compared between IC/BPS patients and controls at baseline and after HA treatment.Urinary NGF, NGF/Cr, BDNF, and BDNF/Cr levels were significantly higher in IC/BPS patients compared to controls. Both NGF and NGF/Cr levels significantly decreased after HA treatment. Urinary NGF and NGF/Cr levels significantly decreased in the responders with a VAS pain reduction by 2 (both p < 0.05 and the GRA improved by 2 (both p < 0.05, but not in non-responders. Urinary BDNF and BDNF/Cr did not decrease in responders or non-responders after HA therapy.Urinary NGF, but not BDNF, levels decreased significantly after HA therapy; both of these factors remained higher than in controls even after HA treatment. HA had a beneficial effect on IC/BPS, but it was limited. The reduction of urinary NGF levels was significant in responders, with a reduction of pain and improved GRA.

  17. LITHOCHOLIC ACID DECREASES EXPRESSION OF UGT2B7 IN CACO-2 CELLS: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR A NEGATIVE FARNESOID X RECEPTOR RESPONSE ELEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yuan; Heydel, Jean-Marie; LI, XIN; Bratton, Stacie; Lindblom, Tim; Radominska-Pandya, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 is the major isoform catalyzing the glucuronidation of a variety of endogenous compounds including bile acids. To determine the role of bile acids in the regulation of UGT2B7 expression, Caco-2 cells were incubated with the natural human farnesoid X receptor (hFXR) ligand, chenodeoxycholic acid, as well as the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid, derived from chenodeoxycholic acid. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with lithocholic acid in the absence of...

  18. Seed storage-mediated dormancy alleviation in Fabaceae from campo rupestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Nativel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe studied the effects of seed storage on germination and dormancy alleviation in three species of Fabaceae endemic to campo rupestrein southeastern Brazil. Fresh seeds of Collaea cipoensis, Mimosa maguirei and Mimosa foliolosawere set to germinate and germination of seeds after four, five and 13 years of storage was tested. Seed viability was maintained for all species after the full storage period. Seed storage significantly increased germination percentage and decreased germination time for C. cipoensisand M. foliolosa, suggesting the alleviation of physical dormancy with storage. However, we did not find evidence of dormancy alleviation in M. maguirei since stored seeds showed a decrease in germination in comparison to that of fresh seeds. Our data indicate species-specific storage-mediated dormancy alleviation, which will have important implications for restoration of campo rupestre.

  19. Elevatated CO2 alleviates heat stress tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2014-01-01

    Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...... origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 µl l-1) and elevated (800 µl l-1) CO2 with a day/night temperature of 15/10°С. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40°С for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum...... to the combination of elevated CO2 and heat stress. The results show that heat stress tolerance in wheat is related to cultivar origin, the phenological stage of the plants and can be alleviated by elevated CO2. This confirms the complex interrelation between environmental factors and genotypic traits that influence...

  20. Association of decreased spermatozoa omega-3 fatty acid levels and increased oxidative DNA damage with varicocele in infertile men: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-Xin; Yuan, Dong-Juan; Wang, Qi-Ling; Jiang, Fang; Guo, Jian; Tang, Yun-Ge; Zheng, Li-Xin; Kang, Jing X

    2016-04-01

    Varicocele is commonly associated with male infertility because it impairs normal sperm morphology and activity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are important determinants of sperm cell structure and function, but their relationship with varicocele remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the PUFA composition in spermatozoa of infertile men with varicocele and to evaluate the potential relationship between PUFA and varicocele. This case control study recruited 92 infertile men with varicocele, 99 infertile men without varicocele and 95 fertile male control subjects. Semen morphology and activity parameters were assessed and seminal plasma 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content was determined by ELISA. Sperm concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. Infertile men with varicocele had lower concentrations of omega-3 PUFA, higher omega-6:omega-3 PUFA ratios and greater oxidative DNA damage in spermatozoa compared with infertile men without varicocele and normal subjects. The degree of varicocele and DNA damage was associated with decreased omega-3 PUFA concentrations and semen quality in infertile men with varicocele. The findings suggest that omega-3 PUFA deficiency could be implicated in varicocele-associated infertility, and highlight the need for intervention trials to test the usefulness of omega-3 supplementation in reducing sperm abnormalities in infertile men with varicocele. PMID:25405715

  1. The gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB receptor agonist baclofen inhibits morphine sensitization by decreasing the dopamine level in rat nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhenyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated morphine exposure can induce behavioral sensitization. There are evidences have shown that central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA system is involved in morphine dependence. However, the effect of a GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats is unclear. Methods We used morphine-induced behavioral sensitization model in rat to investigate the effects of baclofen on behavioral sensitization. Moreover, dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens was evaluated using microdialysis assay in vivo. Results The present study demonstrated that morphine challenge (3 mg/kg, s.c. obviously enhanced the locomotor activity following 4-day consecutive morphine administration and 3-day withdrawal period, which indicated the expression of morphine sensitization. In addition, chronic treatment with baclofen (2.5, 5 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of morphine sensitization. It was also found that morphine challenge 3 days after repeated morphine administration produced a significant increase of extracellular dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, chronic treatment with baclofen decreased the dopamine release induced by morphine challenge. Conclusions Our results indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid system plays an important role in the morphine sensitization in rat and suggested that behavioral sensitization is a promising model to study the mechanism underlying drug abuse.

  2. Surgical removal of visceral fat decreases plasma free fatty acid and increases insulin sensitivity on liver and peripheral tissue in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y W; Kim, J Y; Lee, S K

    1999-10-01

    In order to evaluate the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, we measured the fasting levels of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and insulin, glucose disappearance rate (Rd), and hepatic glucose production rate (HGP) after surgical removal of visceral (VF) or subcutaneous (SF) fat tissue in monosodium glutamate-obese (MSG-Ob) rats. Monosodium glutamate obesity was induced in rats by neonatal injection of MSG. Surgery to remove fat was done at 15 weeks of age. The experiments were done four weeks after the surgery. MSG-Ob rats showed increased levels of FFA, insulin, and HGP and decreased Rd compared to normal rats. In the VF group, the FFA level and HGP were decreased to normal values, Rd was partially normalized, but the level of insulin did not change significantly compared to MSG-Ob. In the SF group, FFA and Rd were partially normalized, but HGP was not suppressed significantly compared to MSG-Ob. These results suggest that visceral fat affects the insulin sensitivity of liver and FFA concentration more than subcutaneous fat; however, no significant difference was shown on whole body insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin concentration. PMID:10576150

  3. Tranexamic Acid in a Multimodal Blood Loss Prevention Protocol to Decrease Blood Loss in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cohort Study#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andreu, Miguel; Talavera, Gloria; Padilla-Eguiluz, Norma G.; Perez-Chrzanowska, Hanna; Figueredo-Galve, Reyes; Rodriguez-Merchán, Carlos E.; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify if blood loss and transfusion requirements can be decreased in revision knee surgery through a multimodal blood loss approach with tranexamic acid (TXA) Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was designed in 87 knees (79 patients) that received a knee revision between 2007 and 2013. To avoid heterogeneity in the surgical technique, only revisions with one single implant system were included. A treatment series of 44 knees that received TXA and other techniques in a multimodal blood loss protocol was compared to a control series of 43 knees that received neither TXA nor the rest of the multimodal blood loss protocol. No differences in the complexity of surgeries or case severity were detected. Results: A significant decrease was observed from 58% transfusion rate in the control group to 5% in the treated group. The postoperative haemoglobin drop was also significantly different. Although the use of a blood loss prevention approach including TXA was the most relevant factor in the transfusion risk (OR=15), longer surgical time also associated an increased risk of transfusion (OR=1.15). Conclusion: This study supports the use of a two-dose intravenous TXA under a multimodal blood loss prevention approach in revision knee replacement with significant reduction in the transfusion rate, postoperative blood loss and haemoglobin drop.

  4. Valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, decreases proliferation of and induces specific neurogenic differentiation of canine adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takehito; Sakaue, Motoharu; Murayama, Ohoshi; Miyazaki, Yoko; Onuki, Atsushi; Aoki, Takuma; Saito, Miyoko; Fujii, Yoko; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Takizawa, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) isolated from adult tissue have pluripotent differentiation and self-renewal capability. The tissue source of ADSCs can be obtained in large quantities and with low risks, thus highlighting the advantages of ADSCs in clinical applications. Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used antiepileptic drug, which has recently been reported to affect ADSC differentiation in mice and rats; however, few studies have been performed on dogs. We aimed to examine the in vitro effect of VPA on canine ADSCs. Three days of pretreatment with VPA decreased the proliferation of ADSCs in a dose-dependent manner; VPA concentrations of 4 mM and above inhibited the proliferation of ADSCs. In parallel, VPA increased p16 and p21 mRNA expression, suggesting that VPA attenuated the proliferative activity of ADSCs by activating p16 and p21. Furthermore, the effects of VPA on adipogenic, osteogenic or neurogenic differentiation were investigated morphologically. VPA pretreatment markedly promoted neurogenic differentiation, but suppressed the accumulation of lipid droplets and calcium depositions. These modifications of ADSCs by VPA were associated with a particular gene expression profile, viz., an increase in neuronal markers, that is, NSE, TUBB3 and MAP2, a decrease in the adipogenic marker, LPL, but no changes in osteogenic markers, as estimated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. These results suggested that VPA is a specific inducer of neurogenic differentiation of canine ADSCs and is a useful tool for studying the interaction between chromatin structure and cell fate determination.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants--A soil microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems. PMID:26761602

  6. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  7. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ruibing [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Lihui [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Luo, Zheng; Guo, Xiaolan [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Ming, E-mail: ymylh@163.com [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca{sup 2+} and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.

  8. 熊去氧胆酸减轻移植肝缺血再灌注损伤的临床前瞻性随机对照研究%A prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial of the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid alleviating ischemia/reperfusion injury in liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书云; 唐华美; 彭志海; 裘国强; 陈国庆; 徐军明; 钟林

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid(UDCA)alleviating ischemia/reperfusion injury(IRI)in liver transplantation. Methods Eighty adult patients with endstage liver diseases were randomly divided into two groups:UIXTA group(n=42)in which UDCA 38)in which UDCA was not administered.The two groups were statistically compared in liver biochemical parameters,rate of severe IRI-induced graft dysfunction,acute cellular rejection(ACR)episodes,drug-induced hepatotoxicity,viral hepatitis and recurrence of primary liver disease within posttransplant 3 weeks as well as rate of vascular,biliary complications and death within post-transplant 3 months.Results Warm ischemia time(WIT)and cold ischemia time(CIT)in UDCA group were respectively(3.33±0.92)min and(10.3±1.9)h,and those in control group were(3.68±1.16)min and(9.8±2.4)h.There were no significant differences in these two parameters between the two groups.In UDCA group,serum ALT levels on post-transplant day 7,14,21 were significantly lower than those in control group(P<0.05),and compared with control group,serum levels of AST and γ-GT on day 7 were also lower in UDCA group(P<0.05).The cases of severe IRI-induced graft dysfunction in UDCA group were fewer than those in control group with the difference being significant (9.5 % vs. 26.3 %,P<0.05).There were no significant difference between the two groups in rate of ACR episode,drug-induced hepatotoxicity within post-transplant 3 weeks as well as rate of vascu lar,biliary complications and death within post-transplant 3 months.Conclusion UDCA treatment can alleviate graft IRI early after liver transplantation. It significantly decreased incidence of severe IRI-induced graft dysfunction.Protective effects of bile duct by UIX2A were not shown when CIT was beneath 12 h.%目的 探讨熊去氧胆酸(UDCA)减轻移植肝缺血再灌注损伤(IRI)的临床效果.方法 将80例终末期肝病成人患者随机分为两组,一组42

  9. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent pressure overload-induced ventricular dilation and decrease in mitochondrial enzymes despite no change in adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shea Karen M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological left ventricular (LV hypertrophy frequently progresses to dilated heart failure with suppressed mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Dietary marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA up-regulate adiponectin and prevent LV dilation in rats subjected to pressure overload. This study 1 assessed the effects of ω-3 PUFA on LV dilation and down-regulation of mitochondrial enzymes in response to pressure overload; and 2 evaluated the role of adiponectin in mediating the effects of ω-3 PUFA in heart. Methods Wild type (WT and adiponectin-/- mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC and were fed standard chow ± ω-3 PUFA for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, echocardiography was performed to assess LV function, mice were terminated, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were evaluated. Results TAC induced similar pathological LV hypertrophy compared to sham mice in both strains on both diets. In WT mice TAC increased LV systolic and diastolic volumes and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activities, which were attenuated by ω-3 PUFA without increasing adiponectin. In contrast, adiponectin-/- mice displayed no increase in LV end diastolic and systolic volumes or decrease in mitochondrial enzymes with TAC, and did not respond to ω-3 PUFA. Conclusion These findings suggest ω-3 PUFA attenuates cardiac pathology in response to pressure overload independent of an elevation in adiponectin.

  10. Amelioration of glomerulosclerosis with all-trans retinoic acid is linked to decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and α-smooth muscle actin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia LIU; Lei L(U); Bei-bei TAO; Ai-ling ZHOU; Yi-chun ZHU

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To examine the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on renal morphology and function as well as on renal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression and plasmin activity in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy.Methods:Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were given 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. Renal function was measured 2 weeks later. The nephrectomized rats were assigned to groups matched for proteinuria and treated with vehicle or atRA (5 or 10 mg/kg by gastric gavage once daily) for the next 12 weeks. Rats with sham operation were treated with vehicle. At the end of the treatments,kidneys were collected for histological examination, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity measurements.Results:The 5/6 nephrectomy promoted hypertension, renal dysfunction, and glomerulosclerosis. These changes were significantly reduced in the atRA-treated group. The expressions of PAI-1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were significantly increased in the vehicle-treated nephrectomized rats. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced the expressions of PAI-1 and α-SMA. However, piasmin activity remained unchanged following atRA treatment.Conclusion:Treatment with atRA ameliorates glomerulosclerosis and improves renal function in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. This is associated with a decrease in PAI-1 and α-SMA, but not with a change in plasmin activity.

  11. Inhibition of para-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by Analogues of the Herbicide Nitisinone As a Strategy to Decrease Homogentisic Acid Levels, the Causative Agent of Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Marcella; Bernardini, Giulia; Dreassi, Elena; Millucci, Lia; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Marzocchi, Barbara; Botta, Maurizio; Manetti, Fabrizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare multisystem metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Currently, there is no treatment for AKU. The sole drug with some beneficial effects is the herbicide nitisinone (1), an inhibitor of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). 1 has been used as a life-saving drug in infants with type I tyrosinemia despite severe side effects due to the buildup of tyrosine. Four clinical trials of nitisinone to treat AKU have shown that 1 consistently decreases HGA levels, but also caused the accumulation of tyrosine in blood serum. Moreover, the human preclinical toxicological data for 1 are incomplete. In this work, we performed pharmacodynamics and toxicological evaluations of 1, providing the first report of LD50 values in human cells. Intracellular tyrosinemia was also evaluated. Three additional 4-HPPD inhibitors with a more favorable profile than that of 1 in terms of IC50 , LD50 , and tyrosine accumulation were also identified among commercially available compounds. These may be promising starting points for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AKU. PMID:26947423

  12. Inhibition of para-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by Analogues of the Herbicide Nitisinone As a Strategy to Decrease Homogentisic Acid Levels, the Causative Agent of Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Marcella; Bernardini, Giulia; Dreassi, Elena; Millucci, Lia; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Marzocchi, Barbara; Botta, Maurizio; Manetti, Fabrizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare multisystem metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Currently, there is no treatment for AKU. The sole drug with some beneficial effects is the herbicide nitisinone (1), an inhibitor of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). 1 has been used as a life-saving drug in infants with type I tyrosinemia despite severe side effects due to the buildup of tyrosine. Four clinical trials of nitisinone to treat AKU have shown that 1 consistently decreases HGA levels, but also caused the accumulation of tyrosine in blood serum. Moreover, the human preclinical toxicological data for 1 are incomplete. In this work, we performed pharmacodynamics and toxicological evaluations of 1, providing the first report of LD50 values in human cells. Intracellular tyrosinemia was also evaluated. Three additional 4-HPPD inhibitors with a more favorable profile than that of 1 in terms of IC50, LD50, and tyrosine accumulation were also identified among commercially available compounds. These may be promising starting points for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AKU.

  13. Sargaquinoic Acid Inhibits TNF-α-Induced NF-κB Signaling, Thereby Contributing to Decreased Monocyte Adhesion to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Wi-Gyeong; Lee, Bonggi; Joung, Eun-Ji; Choi, Min-Woo; Yoon, Nayoung; Shin, Taisun; Oh, Chul-Woong; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-10-21

    Sargaquinoic acid (SQA) has been known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of SQA isolated from Sargassum serratifolium on the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). SQA decreased the expression of cell adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as well as chemotactic cytokines such as interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in TNF-α-treated HUVECs. As a result, SQA prevented monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-induced adhesion. SQA also inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) translocation into the nucleus by preventing proteolytic degradation of inhibitor κB-α. Overall, SQA protects against TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in HUVECs. These data suggest that SQA may be used as a therapeutic agent for vascular inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:26437568

  14. Cyclisation Increases the Stability of the Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2 but Decreases Its Activity at Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan D. Rash

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available APETx2 is a peptide isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. It is the most potent and selective inhibitor of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 and it is currently in preclinical studies as a novel analgesic for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain. As a peptide it faces many challenges in the drug development process, including the potential lack of stability often associated with therapeutic peptides. In this study we determined the susceptibility of wild-type APETx2 to trypsin and pepsin and tested the applicability of backbone cyclisation as a strategy to improve its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Cyclisation with either a six-, seven- or eight-residue linker vastly improved the protease resistance of APETx2 but substantially decreased its potency against ASIC3. This suggests that either the N- or C-terminus of APETx2 is involved in its interaction with the channel, which we confirmed by making N- and C-terminal truncations. Truncation of either terminus, but especially the N-terminus, has detrimental effects on the ability of APETx2 to inhibit ASIC3. The current work indicates that cyclisation is unlikely to be a suitable strategy for stabilising APETx2, unless linkers can be engineered that do not interfere with binding to ASIC3.

  15. Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway.

  16. Decreased concentrating capacity in children with febrile urinary tract infection and normal 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan:does medullonephritis exist?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Víctor García-Nieto; Silvia González-Cerrato; María Isabel Luis-Yanes; Margarita Monge-Zamorano; Beatriz Reyes-Millán

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (AP), sometimes it produces false results in children with clinical features of AP. There are no studies on the comparison of the sensitivity of DMSA and concentrating capacity test. Methods: Eighty-fi ve infants with AP of less than one year old were studied to evaluate whether they had real AP or not. Data were compared between infants with an abnormal (group A, n=64) and those with a normal DMSA scan (group B, n=21) respectively. A DDAVP test was performed for each infant. Results: All the infants in both groups presented a high level of C-reactive protein and fever (≥38ºC). There were no differences in clinical and analytical variables except C-reactive protein level in the two groups. Both groups exhibited a low urinary osmolality (87.5% in the group A vs. 85.7% in the group B). The patients with normal DMSA and decreased concentrating capacity have some renal parenchymal damage and not only a lower urinary infection. Of the infants with an abnormal DMSA scan, 33.9% showed renal scars after 6-12 months. No infant with a normal DMSA scan showed scars. The biochemical variables in both groups of infants were not related to vesicoureteral refl ux. Conclusion: Infants with AP, normal DMSA scan and low concentrating capacity may be characterized by a localized infection in the medulla (medullonephritis) or by a false negative DMSA scan.

  17. Alleviation of temperature-sensitive secretion defect of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, TliDEF, by a change of single amino acid in the ABC protein, TliD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Gyeong Tae; Oh, Joon Young; Park, Ji Hyun; Lim, Hye Jin; Lee, So Jeong; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Ji-Eun; Jegal, Jonggeon; Song, Bong Keun; Yu, Ju-Hyun; Song, Jae Kwang

    2016-09-01

    An ABC transporter, TliDEF, from Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1, mediates the secretion of its cognate lipase, TliA, in a temperature-dependent secretion manner; the TliDEF-mediated secretion of TliA was impossible at the temperatures over 33°C. To isolate a mutant TliDEF capable of secreting TliA at 35°C, the mutagenesis of ABC protein (TliD) was performed. The mutated tliD library where a random point mutation was introduced by error-prone PCR was coexpressed with the wild-type tliE, tliF and tliA in Escherichia coli. Among approximately 10,000 colonies of the tliD library, we selected one colony that formed transparent halo on LB-tributyrin plates at 35°C. At the growth temperature of 35°C, the selected mutant TliD showed 1.75 U/ml of the extracellular lipase activity, while the wild-type TliDEF did not show any detectable lipase activity in the culture supernatant of E. coli. Moreover, the mutant TliD also showed higher level of TliA secretion than the wild-type TliDEF at other culture temperatures, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. The mutant TliD had a single amino acid change (Ser287Pro) in the predicted transmembrane region in the membrane domain of TliD, implying that the corresponding region of TliD was important for causing the temperature-dependent secretion of TliDEF. These results suggested that the property of ABC transporter could be changed by the change of amino acid in the ABC protein. PMID:27033673

  18. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver. PMID:25036135

  19. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    HOSOMI, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding...

  20. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  1. The bioactive compounds alpha-chaconine and gallic acid in potato extracts decrease survival and induce apoptosis in LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddivari, Lavanya; Vanamala, Jairam; Safe, Stephen H; Miller, J Creighton

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that colored potato extracts and an anthocyanin rich fraction suppressed lymph-node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) and prostate cancer-3 (PC-3) prostate cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis via caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, catechin, malvidin, and glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine and solanine) have now been identified as the major bioactive components of potato, and their effects on LNCaP and PC-3 cell proliferation and apoptosis have been investigated. alpha-chaconine (5 microg/ml) and gallic acid (15 microg/ml) exhibited potent antiproliferative properties and increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 levels in both cell lines. Both alpha-chaconine and gallic acid induced poly [adenosine diphosphate (ADP)] ribose polymerase cleavage and caspase-dependent apoptosis in LNCaP cells; however, caspase-independent apoptosis through nuclear translocation of endonuclease G was observed in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells. alpha-chaconine and gallic acid activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and this response played a major role in induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis in LNCaP cells; whereas modulation of JNK and mitogen-activated protein kinase did not affect alpha-chaconine- and gallic acid-induced caspase-independent apoptosis. These results suggest that apoptosis induced by whole potato extracts in prostate cancer cell lines may be in part due to alpha-chaconine and gallic acid.

  2. Decreased expression of adipose CD36 and FATP1 are associated with increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids during prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The northern elephant seal undergoes a 2-3 month post-weaning fast during which it depends primarily on the oxidation of fatty acids to meet its energetic demands. The concentration of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) increases and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in late-fasted...

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Wheat Seed Germination and Alleviates Oxidative Damage against Copper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhang; Lan-Ying Hu; Kang-Di Hu; Yun-Dong He; Song-Hua Wang; Jian-Ping Luo

    2008-01-01

    With the enhancement of copper (Cu) stress, the germination percentage of wheat seeds decreased gradually. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cu stress in a dose-dependent manner; whereas little visible symptom was observed in germinating seeds and radicle tips cultured in NaHs solutions. It was verified that H2S or HS- rather than other sulfur-containing components derived from NaHs attribute to the potential role in promoting seed germination against Cu stress. Further studies showed that NaHS could promote amylase and esterase activities, reduce Cu-induced disturbance of plasma membrane integrity in the radicle tips, and sustain lower levels of malondialdehyde and H2O2 in germinating seeds. Furthermore, NaHs pretreatment increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and decreased that of lipoxygenase, but showed no significant effect on ascorbate peroxidase. Alternatively, NaHs prevented uptake of Cu and promoted the accumulation of free amino acids in seeds exposed to Cu. In addition, a rapid accumulation of endogenous H2S in seeds was observed at the early stags of germination, and higher level of H2S in NaHS-pretreated seeds. These data indicated that H2S was involved in the mechanism of germinating seeds' responses to Cu stress.

  4. Effects of Ce3+ on improvement of spectral characteristics and function of chloroplasts damaged by linolenic acid in spinach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoqing; ZE Yuguan; LIU Chao; ZHOU Min; LI Na; DUAN Yanmei; YIN Sitao; HONG Fashui

    2009-01-01

    Linolenic acid has great effects on the structure and function of chloroplast. We studied the effects of Ce3+ on the improvement of chloroplast spectral characteristics and oxygen evolution damaged by linolenic acid in spinach. Results showed that Ce3+ could decrease the light absorption increased by linolenic acid and promote the distribution of excitation energy to PS Ⅱ and alleviate the decrease of PS Ⅱ fluo-rescence yield caused by linolenic acid. The linolenic acid treatments in various concentrations reduced the oxygen-evolving rate of chloro-plasts, but the rate was accelerated since adding Ce3+.

  5. Silicon alleviates the adverse effects of salinity and drought stress on growth and endogenous plant growth hormones of soybean (glycine max L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural industry is subjected to enormous environmental constraints, particularly due to salinity and drought. We evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in alleviating salinity and drought induced physio-hormonal changes in soybean grown in perlite. The plant growth attributes i.e., shoot length, plant fresh weight and dry weight parameters of soybean improved with elevated Si nutrition, while they decreased with NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) application. The adverse effects of NaCl and PEG on plant growth were alleviated by adding 100 mg L/sup -1/ and 200 mg L/sup -1/ Si to salt and drought stressed treatments. It was observed that Si effectively mitigated the adverse effects of NaCl on soybean than that of PEG. The chlorophyll contents were found to be least affected as an insignificant increase was observed with Si application. Bioactive GA1 and GA4 contents of soybean leaves increased, when Si was added to control or stressed plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) contents sharply increased under salinity and drought stress but declined when the plants were supplemented with Si. Similarly, free salicylic acid (SA) level also increased with NaCl and PEG application. However, free SA level further increased with the addition of Si to salt treated plants, but decreased when Si was given to PEG treated plants. It was concluded that Si improves physio-hormonal attributes of soybean and mitigate adverse effects of salt and drought stress. (author)

  6. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Bethany P.; Ahmed Bettaieb; Graham, James L.; Jaehyoung Kim; Fangrui Ma; Noreene Shibata; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Cecilia Giulivi; Frederik Hansen; Jacob Jelsing; Niels Vrang; Mark Kowala; Chouinard, Michael L.; Haj, Fawaz G.; Havel, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increas...

  7. poverty and poverty alleviation in globalised cities

    OpenAIRE

    Verena Ast

    2014-01-01

    In the light of increasing "division of the cities" and its underlying process of socio-spatial segregation researches focus more and more on the consequences of this process: the development of advantaged and disadvantaged districts within contemporary cities. Thereby especially poverty alleviation respectively poverty eradication in disadvantaged districts becomes an emerging and central field of intervention in social policies. This is due to the broad impact of poverty like higher risk of...

  8. Alleviative Effect and Its Evaluation of LaCl3 Treatment on Acid Rain Stresses for Capsicum Seed Germination%LaCl3对辣椒种子酸雨胁迫的缓解效应及其评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边才苗; 王锦文

    2011-01-01

    Alleviative effects of LaCl3 on acid rain (AR) stresses for capsicum seed were analyzed using two evaluation systems. The results showed that the damage of AR (pH 3.5, 3.0 and 2.0) were alleviatedby treating the seeds with LaCl3 solution ( 10 mg·L-1 ).The alleviative effects were 14.48%, 19.24%,15.14% and 13.48% as a relative rate of vigor index. However, the vigor index in seeds treated with LaCl3 and AR (pH 3.5 and 3.0 ) was significantly higher than with only AR as its increment. Meanwhile, the destructions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) reduced notably, and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) reduced at pH ≤ 2.5; whereas these indexes did not change obviously at pH ≥ 3.0. This indicated that LaCl3 probably alleviated AR damage by improving the seed resistance at pH ≤2.5 and the seed tolerance at pH ≥3.0. The growth index was an indirect indicator of the resistance, so should not be used as main evaluation system. The activate oxygen metabolic indices had their threshold values, but should be evaluated based on possibility which the index felt within its threshold value range. This method just gave an approximate threshold values, but could show inner causes for improving growth of crop species.%采用两种评价系统分析了镧对酸雨胁迫下辣椒种子萌发的影响.结果表明,经10 mg·L-1的LaCl3浸种,可显著缓解酸雨(pH 3.5,3.0,2.5和2.0)对辣椒种子的伤害,以活力指数的增幅为标准,缓解能力依次为14.48%,19.24%,15.14%和13.48%;以指标值的增量为标准,只有pH 3.5和3.0时显著提高.同时,镧处理可提高酸雨胁迫下超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和过氧化酶的活性,减少丙二醛的积累,在pH≤2.5时,与酸雨处理差异显著,而pH≥3.0时没有明显变化,说明镧处理分别提高种子的抗性和耐受性.基于生长指标是间接的抗逆性指标,不宜作为评价的主体.活性氧代谢指标都有一个阈值,可依据

  9. Can we decrease the skin reaction in breast cancer patients using hyaluronic acid during radiation therapy? Results of phase III randomised trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radio-induced early skin reactions still remain a clinical challenge. Preliminary results with Hyaluronic acid, one of the most recent topical products used in this indication are proving interesting. To evaluate the efficacy of Hyaluronic acid compared to placebo. Material and methods: Breast cancer patients with grade 1-2 radio-induced dermatitis during postoperative radiotherapy were eligible. They were randomised to receive either hyaluronic acid (A) or a simple emollient (B). The primary endpoint was the clinical evaluation of the erythema (success versus failure). Secondary endpoints were the evaluation of skin colorimetry, pain, and quality of life. Results: Two-hundred patients were enroled (A = 99, B = 101). Ninety-five patients per treatment arm could be evaluated. Failures occurred in 23 patients (24%) in the hyaluronic acid arm, and 32 (34%) in the emollient arm (p = 0.15). Seventy-three patients (36.5%) prematurely stopped the treatment without any ensuing difference between the two arms. Body mass index and the size of the epithelitis were both independently associated with the failure of the local treatment. The relative reduction of colorimetric levels was 20% in the hyaluronic acid group, and 13% in the emollient group (p = 0.46). Concerning the quality of life assessment, there was a trend towards a lower level of pain in patients receiving hyaluronic acid (p = 0.053). Conclusions: The present study showed no significant difference between hyaluronic acid and simple emollient in the treatment of acute radio-induced dermatitis. There was however a trend towards an improvement in both pain level and skin colorimetry.

  10. Gynura procumbens Extract Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-In; Park, Mi Hwa; Han, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Gynura procumbens extract against carbohydrate digesting enzymes and its ability to ameliorate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. G. procumbens extract showed prominent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of G. procumbens extract against α-glucosidase and α-amylase was 0.092±0.018 and 0.084±0.027 mg/mL, respectively, suggesting that the α-amylase inhibition activity of the G. procumbens extract was more effective than that of the positive control, acarbose (IC50=0.164 mg/mL). The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly alleviated in the G. procumbens extract group than in the control group of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, the area under the curve significantly decreased with G. procumbens extract administration in STZ-induced diabetic mice. These results suggest that G. procumbens extract may help alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting carbohydrate digesting enzymes. PMID:27752493

  11. Alleviating effects of exogenous NO on tomato seedlings under combined Cu and Cd stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Jun; Dong, Yu-Xiu; Wang, Juan; Cui, Xiu-Min

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of NO on the different origin and regulation of oxidative stress of Cu and/or Cd, tomato seedlings were treated with Cu, Cd, or Cu + Cd in a nutrient solution culture system. The main effect of Cu(2+) was a significant reduction in root activity and nitrate reductase (NR) activity, which was similar to that under 50 μM Cd treatment, but promoted Cu accumulation. The supply of Cu under Cd treatment decreased Cd concentration, while not altered Cu concentration by contrast with Cu treatment, which is suggestive of a replacement of Cu(2+) with Cd(2+) and effective decrease in the boiotoxicity of 50 μM Cd(2+) to tomato seedlings. However, NO alleviated the restriction to NR activity significantly and made the biomass of tomato seedlings recover under Cd treatment, and also increased root activity under Cu and Cu + Cd treatment. Exogenous NO markedly reduced the absorption and transportation of Cu but did not obviously change the translocation of Cd to the aboveground parts under Cu + Cd treatment. Both metals induced lipid peroxidation via the decreasing activation of antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant enzyme system worked differently under Cu, Cd, or Cu + Cd stress. The activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were higher under single Cd stress than under the control. Meanwhile, Cu + Cd treatment decreased the activities of POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX). Exogenous NO increased POD and SOD activities in the leaves and roots, and CAT activity in the roots under combined Cu and Cd stress. These results suggest that a different response and regulation mechanism that involves exogenous NO is present in tomato seedlings under Cu and Cd stress.

  12. Retinol and Riboflavin Supplementation Decreases the Prevalence of Anemia in Chinese Pregnant Women Taking Iron and Folic Acid Supplements 1-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiguo, M.; Schouten, E.G.; Zhang, F.Z.; Kok, F.J.; Yang, F.; Jiang, D.C.; Sun, Y.Y.; Han, X.X.

    2008-01-01

    In rural China, many pregnant women in their third trimester suffer from anemia (48%) and iron deficiency (ID; 42%), often with coexisting deficiencies of retinol and riboflavin. We investigated the effect of retinol and riboflavin supplementation in addition to iron plus folic acid on anemia and su

  13. Major liver resection results in a changed plasma amino acid pattern as reflected by a decreased Fischer ratio which improves by bactericidal/permeability increasing protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveldt, RJ; Wiezer, MJ; Meijer, C; Prins, HA; Muller, MGS; Gouma, DJ; Teerlink, T; van Gulik, TM; Rinkes, IHMB; Tilanus, HW; van de Velde, CJH; Wiggers, T; Zoetmulder, FAN; Scotte, M; Cuesta, MA; Meijer, S; van Leeuwen, PAM

    2001-01-01

    Background/Aims: Major liver resection results in a high morbidity and mortality, and endotoxin plays a role in post-resection hepatic failure. Severe hepatic failure as seen in hepatitis and cirrhosis may be accompanied by hepatic encephalopathy and is characterized by a typical plasma amino acid p

  14. EFFICACY OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN DECREASING BLOOD LOSS DURING AND AFTER CAESAREAN SECTION IN MULTIGRAVIDA PARTURIENTS: A CASE CONTROLLED PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunavathi Kandappan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To study the efficacy of Tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after the lower segment caesarean section in Multigravida parturients. METHODOLOGY A case controlled prospective study was conducted in 50 multigravida parturient women undergoing elective lower segment caesarean section in our hospital after getting Institutional Ethical Committee approval, over a period of two months. 25 of them were given Tranexamic acid 15 mg/kg immediately before caesarean section. Blood loss was collected and measured during two periods. The first period was from placental delivery to end of LSCS and the second from the end LSCS to 2 hours postpartum. RESULTS Tranexamic acid significantly reduces the quantity of blood loss from the end of LSCS to 2 hours post-partum in multigravida parturients. No complications or side effects are noted in both the groups. CONCLUSION Tranexamic acid significantly reduces the amount of blood loss during and after the lower segment caesarean section in multigravida parturients and its use was not associated with any side effects or complications.

  15. A 19-base pair deletion polymorphism in dihydrofolate reductase is associated with increased unmetabolized folic acid in plasma and decreased red blood cell folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolate (THF). A 19-bp noncoding deletion allele maps to intron 1, beginning 60 bases from the splice donor site, and has been implicated in neural tube defects and cancer, presumably by influencing folate metabolism. T...

  16. Compound Formula Rehmannia alleviates levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Teng; Fang Hong; Chenguang Zhang; Jiancheng He; Haiying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Compound Formula Rehmannia has been shown to be clinically effective in treating Parkin-son’s disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia;however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we established a model of Parkinson’s disease dyskinesia in rats, and treated these animals with Compound Formula Rehmannia. Compound Formula Rehmannia inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits 1 and 2 and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter genes, and it inhibited the reduction in expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor B1, an inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter gene, in the corpus striatum. In addition, Compound Formula Rehmannia alleviated dyskinesia symptoms in the Parkinson’s disease rats. These experimental findings indicate that Compound Formula Rehmannia alleviates levodo-pa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease by modulating neurotransmitter signaling in the corpus striatum.

  17. Surgical removal of visceral fat decreases plasma free fatty acid and increases insulin sensitivity on liver and peripheral tissue in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, S K

    1999-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, we measured the fasting levels of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and insulin, glucose disappearance rate (Rd), and hepatic glucose production rate (HGP) after surgical removal of visceral (VF) or subcutaneous (SF) fat tissue in monosodium glutamate-obese (MSG-Ob) rats. Monosodium glutamate obesity was induced in rats by neonatal injection of MSG. Surgery to remove fat was done at 1...

  18. Transgenic Increase in n-3/n-6 Fatty Acid Ratio Protects Against Cognitive Deficits Induced by an Immune Challenge through Decrease of Neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Madore, Charlotte; Joffre, Corinne; Aubert, Agnès; Kang, Jing Xuan; Nadjar, Agnès; Layé, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) display immunomodulatory properties in the brain, n-3 PUFAs being able to reduce inflammation whereas n-6 PUFAs are more pro-inflammatory. It has been extensively demonstrated that exposure to a peripheral immune challenge leads to the production and release of inflammatory mediators in the brain in association with cognitive deficits. The question arises whether n-3 PUFA supplementation could downregulate the brain inflammatory response and subsequent cogn...

  19. Exposure to Salt and Organic Acids Increases the Ability of Listeria monocytogenes To Invade Caco-2 Cells but Decreases Its Ability To Survive Gastric Stress†

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Matthew R.; James, Karen E.; Callahan, Michelle C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of environmental stress exposure on Listeria monocytogenes growth and virulence-associated characteristics were investigated. Specifically, we measured the effects of temperature (7 or 37°C), pH (5.5 or 7.4), the presence of salt and organic acids (375 mM NaCl, 8.45 mM sodium diacetate [SD], 275 mM sodium lactate [SL], or a combination of NaCl, SD, and SL), and deletion of sigB, which encodes a key stress response regulator, on the ability of L. monocytogenes to grow, invade Caco-...

  20. Exogenous calcium alleviates low night temperature stress on the photosynthetic apparatus of tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxian Zhang

    Full Text Available The effect of exogenous CaCl2 on photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII activities, cyclic electron flow (CEF, and proton motive force of tomato leaves under low night temperature (LNT was investigated. LNT stress decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn, effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II], and photochemical quenching (qP, whereas CaCl2 pretreatment improved Pn, Y(II, and qP under LNT stress. LNT stress significantly increased the non-regulatory quantum yield of energy dissipation [Y(NO], whereas CaCl2 alleviated this increase. Exogenous Ca2+ enhanced stimulation of CEF by LNT stress. Inhibition of oxidized PQ pools caused by LNT stress was alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. LNT stress reduced zeaxanthin formation and ATPase activity, but CaCl2 pretreatment reversed both of these effects. LNT stress caused excess formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, whereas CaCl2 pretreatment decreased the said factor under LNT. Thus, our results showed that photoinhibition of LNT-stressed plants could be alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. Our findings further revealed that this alleviation was mediated in part by improvements in carbon fixation capacity, PQ pools, linear and cyclic electron transports, xanthophyll cycles, and ATPase activity.

  1. Alleviating Media Bias Through Intelligent Agent Blogging

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Aviles, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Consumers of mass media must have a comprehensive, balanced and plural selection of news to get an unbiased perspective; but achieving this goal can be very challenging, laborious and time consuming. News stories development over time, its (in)consistency, and different level of coverage across the media outlets are challenges that a conscientious reader has to overcome in order to alleviate bias. In this paper we present an intelligent agent framework currently facilitating analysis of the main sources of on-line news in El Salvador. We show how prior tools of text analysis and Web 2.0 technologies can be combined with minimal manual intervention to help individuals on their rational decision process, while holding media outlets accountable for their work.

  2. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  3. Oral carbohydrate loading with 18% carbohydrate beverage alleviates insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takahiko; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Koichi; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative 12.6% oral carbohydrate loading is an element of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol aimed at alleviating postoperative insulin resistance; however, in Japan, beverages with 18% carbohydrate content are generally used for preoperative carbohydrate loading. We investigated the effect of 18% carbohydrate loading on alleviating insulin resistance. Six healthy volunteers participated in this crossover-randomized study and were segregated into 2 groups: volunteers in the carbohydrate-loading group (group A) who fasted from after 9 pm and ingested 375 mL of a beverage containing 18% carbohydrate (ArginaidWaterTM; Nestle, Tokyo, Japan) between 9 pm and 12 pm, and 250 mL of the same liquid at 6:30 am. Volunteers in control group (group B) drank only water. At 8:30 am, a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp was initiated. Glucose infusion rate (GIR) and levels of ketone bodies and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) before clamping were evaluated. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Levels of blood glucose, insulin, and cytokines at the start of the clamp were similar in both the groups. The GIR in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (11.5±2.4 vs 6.2±2.2 mg/kg/min, p=0.005), while blood ketone body levels were significantly lower in group A (22±4 vs 124±119 μmol/L, p=0.04). Preoperative 18% carbohydrate loading could prevent the decrease in insulin sensitivity and suppress catabolism in healthy volunteers. Thus, carbohydrate loading with a beverage with 18% carbohydrate content might contribute to improvements in perioperative management. PMID:23353610

  4. Partial liquid ventilation decreases tissue and serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations in acute lung injury model of immature piglet induced by oleic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; FAN Xiang-ming; LI Xiao-feng; LI Zhi-qiang; WANG Qiang; SUN Li-zhong; LIU Ying-long

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury.Acute lung injury in children often results in high mortality.Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been shown to markedly improve oxygenation and reduce histologic evidence of injury in a number of lung injury models.This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that PLV would attenuate the production of local and systemic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in an immature piglet model of acute lung injury induced by oleic acid (OA).Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced acute lung injury by OA.The animals were randomly assigned to two groups of six animals,(1) conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) group and (2) PLV with 10 ml/kg FC-77 group.Results Compared with MV group,the PLV group had better cardiopulmonary variables (P <0.05).These variables included heart rate,mean blood pressure,blood pH,partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2),PaO2/inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2).PLV reduced TNF-α levels both in plasma and tissue compared with MV group (P <0.05).Conclusion PLV provides protective effects against TNF-a response in OA-induced acute lung injury in immature piglets.

  5. Neuronal degeneration and a decrease in laminin-like immunoreactivity is associated with elevated tissue-type plasminogen activator in the rat hippocampus after kainic acid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, N; Urano, T; Endo, A; Takahashi, H; Takada, Y; Takada, A

    1999-02-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease that converts the inactive precursor plasminogen to the active protease plasmin. In the central nervous system, tPA has been suggested to participate in plasticity, memory and the neuronal degeneration caused by excitotoxins, but its precise functions during these processes are still unclear. We show in this report that tPA antigen level and extracellular tPA activity increased in the hippocampus during the early stages of neuronal degeneration in the CA3 region following the injection of kainic acid (KA) into the lateral cerebral ventricles. The increase in tPA antigen level was transient and its peak was at 4 h after the injection. tPA activity was also increased 4 h after the injection, but it remained at a high level for more than 8 h. Histological zymography showed that the increase in tPA activity was mainly localized in the CA3 region. In the same region, the disappearance of interneuronal laminin-like immunoreactivity and atrophic changes in pyramidal neurons were observed 4 h after the injection of KA. These results suggested that such focal and transient increases in tPA synthesis and release, which result in the proteolysis of laminin through plasminogen activation, could be involved in the neuronal degeneration in the CA3 region after the injection of KA.

  6. Bioaccessibility of folic acid and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate decreases after the addition of folate-binding protein to yogurt as studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkbåge, Karin; Verwei, Miriam; Havenaar, Robert; Witthöft, Cornelia

    2003-11-01

    Milk products are only moderate sources of folate. Nevertheless, they are of interest due to their content of folate-binding proteins (FBP), which in some studies have been reported to increase folate bioavailability. The effect of FBP on folate bioavailability has been widely discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccessibility of folic acid and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-H4folate) from fortified yogurt using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model (TIM). In addition, the effect of FBP on folate bioaccessibility and the stability of FBP added to yogurt during gastrointestinal passage were investigated. Folate bioaccessibility was 82% from yogurt fortified with folic acid and 5-CH3-H4folate. The addition of FBP to yogurt decreased (P folic acid (34% folate bioaccessibility) than from yogurt fortified with 5-CH3-H4folate (57% folate bioaccessibility). After gastrointestinal passage, 17% of the FBP in yogurt fortified with 5-CH3-H4folate and 34% of the FBP in yogurt fortified with folic acid were recovered. No difference in folate bioaccessibility was found between folate-fortified yogurt and folate-fortified pasteurized milk (P = 0.10), whereas the lowering effect of FBP was (P folic acid and 5-CH3-H4folate, yogurt without active FBP can be considered to be an appropriate food matrix for folate fortification.

  7. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  8. Alleviation Effect of Lanthanum on Cadmium Stress in Seedling Hydroponic Culture of Kidney Bean and Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaohua; Zhou Qing

    2006-01-01

    The seedling hydroponic culture experiment of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and corn (Zea mays) was conducted to investigate the alleviation effect of lanthanum on Cd stress.It is found that growth is seriously inhibited and metabolism is maladjusted in the two crops under 30 and 300 μmol·L-1 Cd2+ stress.Plant height, taproot length, leaf area, and fresh or dry weight of root, stem, and leaf are all obviously decreased.Further, chlorophyll content decreases, membrane permeability, malonydialdehyde (MDA) content, activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) increases under Cd stress, as compared with the control.The damage to these two crops becomes more conspicuous with the prolongation of Cd stress.It is suggested that lanthanum might help kidney bean and corn seedlings alleviate Cd stress by improving the photosynthetic capacity, reducing membrane permeability and MDA content, and maintaining the activities of CAT and POD of these two crops.

  9. Alleviating energy poverty for the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. The dependence of these households on traditional forms of energy leads to significant health impacts as well as other major disbenefits, yet there has been little progress in meeting this challenge. This viewpoint argues for an 'energy-poverty alleviation' fund to help provide modern energy services to these households. It also proposes an approach through which to create such a fund, namely by introducing an incremental levy on petroleum. Notably, this scheme does not need a global agreement since a levy could be introduced by major oil-exporting countries. The implementation of this mechanism would result in a climate-friendly outcome (even before taking into account the elimination of products of incomplete combustion resulting from the traditional household use of biomass-based fuels) while providing immense socio-economic benefits to the world's poor. Such an approach would allow significant progress on the sustainable development front while reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore is very much consistent with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  10. An Online Alternative to Alleviate Communication Apprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyit Ahmet Çapan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is an affective factor commonly associated with one’s overall performance in a foreign language. As a component of foreign language anxiety, communication apprehension specifically correlates with successful oral production. A plethora of research (Bailey, Onwuegbuzie & Daley, 2003; Foss & Reitzel, 1988 has indicated that high levels of communication apprehension negatively affects one’s L2 communication abilities. Thus, this study intends to remedy negative effects of communication apprehension on EFL learners by virtual meetings held through computer-mediated communication. The participants (N: 18 in this study were selected through purposive sampling. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative techniques. To analyze the data collected, a non-parametric test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, was utilized. The results indicated that computer-mediated communication via voice over IP tools made a significant contribution to alleviate communication apprehension levels in the participants with varying degrees of apprehension levels. The study yielded the most drastic reduction in the high apprehension group, since the participants in this group made a significant progress and ended up with moderate levels of communication apprehension. Also, the participants’ self-reports revealed that computer-mediated communication yielded remarkably positive changes in their attitudes towards communicating in the target language. Moreover, the study revealed that computer-mediated communication helped to increase their intercultural awareness. Finally, participants provided a bunch of practical suggestions as possible solutions for reducing communication apprehension.Keywords: apprehension, communication, computer-mediated, attitudes

  11. Systemic administration of kainic acid induces selective time dependent decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I, [125I]insulin-like growth factor II and [125I]insulin receptor binding sites in adult rat hippocampal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of kainic acid evokes acute seizure in hippocampal pathways that results in a complex sequence of functional and structural alterations resembling human temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural alterations induced by kainic acid include selective loss of neurones in CA1-CA3 subfields and the hilar region of the dentate gyrus followed by sprouting and permanent reorganization of the synaptic connections of the mossy fibre pathways. Although the neuronal degeneration and process of reactive synaptogenesis have been extensively studied, at present little is known about means to prevent pathological conditions leading to kainate-induced cell death. In the present study, to address the role of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and insulin in neuronal survival as well as synaptic reorganization following kainate-induced seizure, the time course alterations of the corresponding receptors were evaluated. Additionally, using histological preparations, the temporal profile of neuronal degeneration and hypertrophy of resident astroglial cells were also studied. [125I]Insulin-like growth factor I binding was found to be decreased transiently in almost all regions of the hippocampal formation at 12 h following treatment with kainic acid. The dentate hilar region however, exhibited protracted decreases in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I receptor sites throughout (i.e. 30 days) the study. [125I]Insulin-like growth factor II receptor binding sites in the hippocampal formation were found to be differentially altered following systemic administration of kainic acid. A significant decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor II receptor sites was observed in CA1 subfield and the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn at all time points studied whereas the hilar region and the stratum radiatum did not exhibit alteration at any time. A kainate-induced decrease in [125I]insulin receptor binding was noted at all time points in the molecular layer of the dentate

  12. [THE EFFECT OF SATINS: ACTIVATION OF LIPOLYSIS AND ABSORPTION BY INSULIN-DEPENDED CELLS LIPOPROTEINS OF VERY LOW DENSITY, INCREASING OF BIO-AVAILABILITY OF POLYENOIC FATTY ACIDS AND DECREASING OF CHOLESTEROL OF LIPOPROTEINS OF LOW DENSITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Malyshev, P P; Amelyushkina, V A; Aripovsky, A V; Smirnov, G P; Polevaya, T Yu; Kabo, S I; Kukhartchuk, V V

    2015-10-01

    The Russian cardiologic R&D production complex of Minzdrav of Russia, 121552 Moscow, Russia The statins are synthetic xenobiotics alien to animal cells. They are unlikely capable to manifest pleiotropic effect. It is feasible to evaluate effect of statins by stages: a) initially a specific inhibition of synthesis of cholesterol alcohol; b) further indirect activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density; c) nonspecific activation of cells' receptor absorption of palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density and then d) linoleic and linolenic lipoproteins of low density with all polyenoic fatty acids. On balance, statins activate absorption ofpolyenoic fatty acids by cells. Just they manifest physiological, specific pleiotropic effect. The statins inhibit synthesis of pool of cholesterol alcohol-lipoproteins of very low density condensed between phosphatidylcholines in polar mono-layer phosphatidylcholines+cholesterol alcohol on surface oftriglycerides. The low permeability of mono-layer separates substrate-triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density and post-heparin lipoprotein lipase in hydrophilic blood plasma. The higher is ratio cholesterol alcohol/phosphatidylcholines in mono-layer of lipoproteins of very low density the slower is lipolysis, formation of ligand lipoproteins of very low density and their absorption by cells under apoB-100-endocytosis. The statins normalize hyperlipemia by force of a) activation of absorption oflipoproteins of very low density by insulin-depended cells and b) activation of absorption of lipoproteins of low density by all cells, increasing of bio-availability of polyenoic fatty acids, activation of apoB-100-endocytosis. The limitation in food of content of palmitic saturated fatty acid and increasing of content of ω-3 polyenoic fatty acids improve "bio-availability" of polyenoic fatty acids and their absorption by cells and also decreases cholesterol alcohol/phosphatidylcholines and

  13. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content of caffeoylquinic acids, trigonelline and N-methylpyridinium, and reduction of DNA damage by decreasing spontaneous DNA strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21 and reduction of DNA damage by decreasing spontaneous DNA strand breaks. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. Coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content...... intervention study showed that daily consumption of coffee C21 (750 ml/day) for four weeks decreased spontaneous DNA strand breaks in habitual coffee drinkers after coffee withdrawal over the previous four weeks, but that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided......, and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which coffee (including coffee C21) could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content of caffeoylquinic acids, trigonelline...

  15. Pomegranate Alleviates Oxidative Damage and Neurotransmitter Alterations in Rats Brain Exposed to Aluminum Chloride and/or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum and gamma radiation, both are potent neurotoxins and have been implicated in many human neuro degenerative diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the role of pomegranate in alleviating oxidative damage and alteration of neurotransmitters in the brain of rats exposed to aluminum chloride (AlCl3), and/or gamma radiation (IR). The results revealed that rats whole body exposed to γ- rays, (1 Gy/week up to 4 Gy), and/or administered aluminum chloride (35 mg/kg body weight), via gavages for 4 weeks, resulted in brain tissue damage, featuring by significant increase of the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), associated with significant decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) content indicating occurrence of oxidative stress. A significant decrease of serotonin (5-HT) level associated with a significant increase of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), in addition to a significant decrease in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) contents recorded at the 1st, 7th and 14th day post-irradiation, indicating alterations in the metabolism of brain monoamines. On the other hand, the results exhibited that, supplementation of rats with pomegranate, via gavages, at a dose of 3 ml /kg body weight/ day, for 4 weeks along with AlCl3 with or without radiation has significantly ameliorated the changes occurred in the mentioned parameters and the values returned close to the normal ones. It could be concluded that pomegranate, by its antioxidant constituents might antagonize brain oxidative damage and minimize the severity of aluminum (Al), and/or radiation-induced neurotransmitters disorders

  16. Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 alleviates salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2016-05-01

    Mutual interactions between plant and rhizosphere bacteria facilitate plant growth and reduce risks of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study demonstrates alleviation of salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. perkinensis (Chinese cabbage) by Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 isolated from rhizosphere soil of Phragmites australis. The strain was capable of producing plant beneficial factors, such as auxin, siderophore, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Treatment of strain GW103 on Chinese cabbage under salt stress increased K(+)/Na(+) ratio in roots generating balance in the ratio of ion homeostasis and consequently contributed to the increase of biomass. In addition, root colonization potential of the strain was observed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagging approach. These results strongly suggest the beneficial impact of strain GW103 by inducing the alleviation of salt stress and development of stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage via plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26358119

  17. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan GU; Xiao-xiao SUN; Ji-ming YE; Li HE; Shou-sheng YAN; Hao-hao ZHANG; Li-hong HU; Jun-ying YUAN; Qiang YU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG),a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae),against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established.Cell viability was measured using MTT assay.PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression.Silencing of the CaMKKβ,LKB1,and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi).An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels.Results:ATG (2.5,5,and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L).ATG (1,5,and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p7OS6K signaling and eEF2 activity,which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi.ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration.Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress.Furthermore,ATG (2.5 and 5μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells.Conclusion:ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator,which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK,thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load.

  18. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  19. Effectiveness of Zakah Targeting in Alleviating Poverty in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatina A Kasri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zakah is a unique Islamic institution targeted to eight groups of recipients with the aim to redistribute income, reduce poverty and achieve social welfare. However, the impacts and effectiveness of zakah targeting in reducing poverty is rarely measured. This is the main objective of the study. To achieve it, a survey was conducted to collect primary data from zakah recipients in Greater Jakarta Indonesia. The data were subsequently analysed by using descriptive and poverty index analyses. The main results suggest that the incidence, depth and severity of poverty amongst the recipients have decreased due to the contributions from zakah organizations. There are also indications that zakah has been distributed to the most disadvantaged people such as the uneducated and unemployed. The findings provide empirical evidence regarding positive contribution and effectiveness of zakah targeting in reducing poverty in Indonesia. Some policy implications of the findings are also highlighted to enrich discourses on the role of zakah in alleviating poverty in Muslim societies.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.3005

  20. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    essential and could hold the key to making gains toward alleviating the burden of global poverty.

  1. Stratification requirements for seed dormancy alleviation in a wetland weed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis G Boddy

    Full Text Available Echinochloaoryzicola(syn.E. phyllopogon is an exotic weed of California rice paddies that has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides. Elimination of seedlingsthroughcertain weed control methods can limit the spread of this weed, but is contingent on accurate predictions of germination and emergence timing, which are influenced by seed dormancy levels.In summer annuals, dormancy can often be relieved through stratification, a period of prolonged exposure to cold and moist conditions.We used population-based threshold models to quantify the effects of stratification on seed germination of four E. Oryzicola populations at a range of water potential (Ψ and oxygen levels. We also determined how stratification temperatures, moisture levels and durations contributed to dormancy release. Stratification released dormancy by decreasing base Ψ and hydrotimerequired for germination and by eliminating any germination sensitivity to oxygen. Stratification also increased average germination rates (GR, which were used as a proxy for relative dormancy levels. Alternating temperatures nearly doubled GR in all populations, indicating that seeds could be partially dormant despite achieving high final germination percentages. Stratification at Ψ = 0 MPa increased GR compared to stratification at lower water potentials, demonstrating that Ψ contributed to regulating dormancy release. Maximum GR occurred after 2-4 weeks of stratification at 0 MPa; GR were often more rapid for herbicide-resistant than for herbicide-susceptible seeds, implying greater dormancy in the latter. Manipulation of field conditions to promote dormancy alleviation of E. oryzicola seeds might improve the rate and uniformity of germination for seed bank depletion through seedling weed control. Our results suggest field soil saturation in winter would contribute towards E. oryzicola dormancy release and decrease the time to seedling emergence.

  2. Dormancy alleviation by NO or HCN leading to decline of protein carbonylation levels in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Ciacka, Katarzyna; Dębska, Karolina; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2014-08-15

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos can be overcome by short-term pre-treatment with nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Dormancy alleviation of embryos modulated by NO or HCN and the first step of germination depend on temporary increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Direct oxidative attack on some amino acid residues or secondary reactions via reactive carbohydrates and lipids can lead to the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives. Protein carbonylation is a widely accepted covalent and irreversible modification resulting in inhibition or alteration of enzyme/protein activities. It also increases the susceptibility of proteins to proteolytic degradation. The aim of this work was to investigate protein carbonylation in germinating apple embryos, the dormancy of which was removed by pre-treatment with NO or HCN donors. It was performed using a quantitative spectrophotometric method, while patterns of carbonylated protein in embryo axes were analyzed by immunochemical techniques. The highest concentration of protein carbonyl groups was observed in dormant embryos. It declined in germinating embryos pre-treated with NO or HCN, suggesting elevated degradation of modified proteins during seedling formation. A decrease in the concentration of carbonylated proteins was accompanied by modification in proteolytic activity in germinating apple embryos. A strict correlation between the level of protein carbonyl groups and cotyledon growth and greening was detected. Moreover, direct in vitro carbonylation of BSA treated with NO or HCN donors was analyzed, showing action of both signaling molecules as protein oxidation agents.

  3. [Alleviation of salt stress during maize seed germination by presoaking with exogenous sugar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke-jun; Li, Zuo-tong; Zhao, Chang-jiang; Xu, Jing-yu; Hu, Xue- wei; Shi, Xin-xin; Ma, Li-feng

    2015-09-01

    The maize variety Kenyu 6 was used to study the effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on salt tolerance of maize seeds at germination stage under 150 mmol · L(-1) NaCl treatment. Results showed that under salt stress condition, 0.5 mmol · L(-1) exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could promote seed germination and early seedling growth. Compared with the salt treatment, Glc presoaking increased the shoot length, radicle length and corresponding dry mass up to 1.5, 1.3, 2.1 and 1.8 times, and those of the Suc presoaking treatment increased up to 1.7, 1.3. 2.7 and 1.9 times, respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking resulted in decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of maize shoot under salt stress, which were lowered by 24.9% and 20.6% respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and induce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity of maize shoot under salt stress. Compared with the salt treatment. Glc presoaking increased the activity of SOD, APX, GPX, GR and G6PDH by 66.2%, 62.9%, 32.0%, 38.5% and 50.5%, and those of the Suc presoaking increased by 67.5%, 59.8%, 30.0%, 38.5% and 50.4%, respectively. Glc and Suc presoaking also significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH), ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. The G6PDH activity was found closely related with the strong antioxidation capacity induced by exogenous sugars. In addition, Glc and Suc presoaking enhanced K+/Na+ in maize shoot by 1.3 and 1.4 times of water soaking salt treatment, respectively. These results indicated that exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could improve antioxidation capacity of maize seeds and maintain the in vivo K+/Na+ ion balance to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on maize seed germination. PMID:26785556

  4. [Alleviation of salt stress during maize seed germination by presoaking with exogenous sugar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke-jun; Li, Zuo-tong; Zhao, Chang-jiang; Xu, Jing-yu; Hu, Xue- wei; Shi, Xin-xin; Ma, Li-feng

    2015-09-01

    The maize variety Kenyu 6 was used to study the effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on salt tolerance of maize seeds at germination stage under 150 mmol · L(-1) NaCl treatment. Results showed that under salt stress condition, 0.5 mmol · L(-1) exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could promote seed germination and early seedling growth. Compared with the salt treatment, Glc presoaking increased the shoot length, radicle length and corresponding dry mass up to 1.5, 1.3, 2.1 and 1.8 times, and those of the Suc presoaking treatment increased up to 1.7, 1.3. 2.7 and 1.9 times, respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking resulted in decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of maize shoot under salt stress, which were lowered by 24.9% and 20.6% respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and induce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity of maize shoot under salt stress. Compared with the salt treatment. Glc presoaking increased the activity of SOD, APX, GPX, GR and G6PDH by 66.2%, 62.9%, 32.0%, 38.5% and 50.5%, and those of the Suc presoaking increased by 67.5%, 59.8%, 30.0%, 38.5% and 50.4%, respectively. Glc and Suc presoaking also significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH), ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. The G6PDH activity was found closely related with the strong antioxidation capacity induced by exogenous sugars. In addition, Glc and Suc presoaking enhanced K+/Na+ in maize shoot by 1.3 and 1.4 times of water soaking salt treatment, respectively. These results indicated that exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could improve antioxidation capacity of maize seeds and maintain the in vivo K+/Na+ ion balance to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on maize seed germination.

  5. Scutellarin Alleviates Behavioral Deficits in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis, Possibly Through Protecting Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Lu, Lin; Bao, Tian-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Miao; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Wei; Wang, Shu-Fen; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Scutellarin, a flavonoid extracted from an herbal medication (Erigeron breviscapus Hand-Mazz), has been shown to protect neurons against damage and to promote neurogenesis, and thus has therapeutic potential in the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Since neural stem cells (NSCs) could differentiate into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, we speculate that scutellarin could also be used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS). In the current study, we examined potential effects of scutellarin using a mouse model of MS. Briefly, adult C57BL/6 mice exposed to cuprizone (8 mg/day through diet, for 6 consecutive weeks) randomly received scutellarin (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 10 consecutive days. In the scutellarin-treated group, rotarod testing at the end of the treatment showed significant improvement of motor function (increased time to fall); myelin basic protein (MBP) staining of the corpus callosum revealed decreased demyelination; TUNEL staining followed by Nestin or Sox2 staining revealed increased number of NSCs and decreased rate of NSC apoptosis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles (LV). In a series of experiments using cultured NSCs subjected to cuprizone injury, we confirmed the protective effects of scutellarin. At 30 μM, scutellarin increased the commitment of NSCs to the oligodendrocyte and neuronal lineages, as evidenced by NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (NG2) and doublecortin (DCX) staining. Differentiation into astrocytes (as revealed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining) was decreased. Maturation of the NSCs committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage, as evidenced by oligodendrocyte marker O4 antibody (O4) staining and MBP staining, was also promoted by scutellarin. Further analysis revealed that scutellarin might suppress the phosphorylation of p38 in cuprizone-induced NSCs. In summary, scutellarin could alleviate motor deficits in a mouse model for MS, possibly by inhibiting NSC apoptosis and

  6. Scutellarin Alleviates Behavioral Deficits in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis, Possibly Through Protecting Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Lu, Lin; Bao, Tian-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Miao; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Wei; Wang, Shu-Fen; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Scutellarin, a flavonoid extracted from an herbal medication (Erigeron breviscapus Hand-Mazz), has been shown to protect neurons against damage and to promote neurogenesis, and thus has therapeutic potential in the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Since neural stem cells (NSCs) could differentiate into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, we speculate that scutellarin could also be used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS). In the current study, we examined potential effects of scutellarin using a mouse model of MS. Briefly, adult C57BL/6 mice exposed to cuprizone (8 mg/day through diet, for 6 consecutive weeks) randomly received scutellarin (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 10 consecutive days. In the scutellarin-treated group, rotarod testing at the end of the treatment showed significant improvement of motor function (increased time to fall); myelin basic protein (MBP) staining of the corpus callosum revealed decreased demyelination; TUNEL staining followed by Nestin or Sox2 staining revealed increased number of NSCs and decreased rate of NSC apoptosis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles (LV). In a series of experiments using cultured NSCs subjected to cuprizone injury, we confirmed the protective effects of scutellarin. At 30 μM, scutellarin increased the commitment of NSCs to the oligodendrocyte and neuronal lineages, as evidenced by NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (NG2) and doublecortin (DCX) staining. Differentiation into astrocytes (as revealed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining) was decreased. Maturation of the NSCs committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage, as evidenced by oligodendrocyte marker O4 antibody (O4) staining and MBP staining, was also promoted by scutellarin. Further analysis revealed that scutellarin might suppress the phosphorylation of p38 in cuprizone-induced NSCs. In summary, scutellarin could alleviate motor deficits in a mouse model for MS, possibly by inhibiting NSC apoptosis and

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress RSV infection and alleviate virus-induced airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiuqin; Su, Zhonglan; Song, Shiyu; Χu, Hui; Zhang, Bin; Yi, Long; Tian, Man; Wang, Hongwei

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. However, the majority of RSV-infected patients only show mild symptoms. Different severities of infection and responses among the RSV-infected population indicate that epigenetic regulation as well as personal genetic background may affect RSV infectivity. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is an important epigenetic regulator in lung diseases. The present study aimed to explore the possible connection between HDAC expression and RSV-induced lung inflammation. To address this question, RSV-infected airway epithelial cells (BEAS‑2B) were prepared and a mouse model of RSV infection was established, and then treated with various concentrations of HDAC inhibitors (HDACis), namely trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Viral replication and markers of virus-induced airway inflammation or oxidative stress were assessed. The activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways was evaluated by western blot analysis. Our results showed that RSV infection in airway epithelial cells (AECs) significantly decreased histone acetylation levels by altering HDAC2 expression. The treatment of RSV-infected AECs with HDACis significantly restricted RSV replication by upregulating the interferon-α (IFN-α) related signaling pathways. The treatment of RSV-infected AECs with HDACis also significantly inhibited RSV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8] and oxidative stress-related molecule production [malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrogen monoxide (NO)]. The activation of NF-κB, COX-2, MAPK and Stat3, which orchestrate pro‑inflammatory gene expression and oxidative stress injury, was also significantly inhibited. Our in vivo study using a mouse model of

  8. Research Progress of Tourism-oriented Poverty Alleviation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing; HUANG; Pengfei; XIE

    2013-01-01

    Through systematic summary of domestic research documents about China’s tourism-oriented poverty alleviation in recent 10 years,it is found that researches mainly focus on 5 aspects:effect of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation,model and development strategy,benefit of poverty stricken people,practice of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation in specific region,and other related problems.At present,academic circle mainly has weak points of research content,method,object and region in tourism-oriented poverty alleviation.Finally,it points out key research interests:(1)Strengthening combination of qualitative and quantitative researches;(2)Expanding research fields and scope and promoting in-depth researches;(3)Analyzing benefiting mechanism of poverty-stricken people participating in tourism development in depth with poverty-stricken people as research objects;(4)Increasing scale development of perception research on effect of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation and research on measurement testing,to make subsequent research have reliability and comparability.

  9. Alleviating anemia and thrombocytopenia in myelofibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Francisco; Correa, Juan-Gonzalo; Hernandez-Boluda, Juan Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Anemia and thrombocytopenia are frequent clinical manifestations of myelofibrosis as well as important prognostic factors of the disease. Concerning the treatment of anemia, the first step should be the correction of reversible contributing factors, such as possible iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Then, treatment options include erythropoiesis stimulating agents, androgens, immunomodulating drugs, corticosteroids, and splenectomy. Anemia responses may also be observed in some patients treated with JAK inhibitors. However, most patients eventually fail to such therapies and become transfusion dependent. Some of the aforementioned therapies can also improve thrombocytopenia, but the responses are usually observed in patients with moderate platelet count decrease. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the only curative treatment of myelofibrosis, can be an alternative for selected patients with cytopenias who are refractory to conventional therapies. However, for the majority of patients, the management of anemia and severe thrombocytopenia remains an unmet need. PMID:26891375

  10. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen.

  11. Reduced glutathione alleviates the toxic effect of 6-hydroxydopamine on bone marrow stromal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henghui Wang; Weifeng Luo; Xiaoxia Wang; Xiaoling Qin; Shiyao Bao

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of reduced glutathione on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which shows a toxic effect on dopaminergic neurons.The proliferation of BMSCs treated with 6-OHDA decreased, while that of BMSCs treated with reduced glutathione increased.The proliferation of BMSCs treated with both 6-OHDA and reduced glutathione was significantly higher compared with that treated with 6-OHDA alone.These findings indicate that reduced glutathione alleviates the toxic effect of 6-OHDA on BMSCs.

  12. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  13. Foliar application with nano-silicon alleviates Cd toxicity in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihua; Wang, Fayuan; Gao, Shuangcheng

    2015-02-01

    Nanofertilizers may be more effective than regular fertilizers in improving plant nutrition, enhancing nutrition use efficiency, and protecting plants from environmental stress. A hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the role of foliar application with 2.5 mM nano-silicon in alleviating Cd stress in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv Youyou 128) grown in solution added with or without 20 μM CdCl2. The results showed that Cd treatment decreased the growth and the contents of Mg, Fe, Zn, chlorophyll a, and glutathione (GSH), accompanied by a significant increase in Cd accumulation. However, foliar application with nano-Si improved the growth, Mg, Fe, and Zn nutrition, and the contents of chlorophyll a of the rice seedlings under Cd stress and decreased Cd accumulation and translocation of Cd from root to shoot. Cd treatment produced oxidative stress to rice seedlings indicated by a higher lipid peroxidation level (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and a lower GSH content. However, those nano-Si-treated plants had lower MDA but higher GSH content and different antioxidant enzyme activities, indicating a higher Cd tolerance in them. The results suggested that nano-Si application alleviated Cd toxicity in rice by decreasing Cd accumulation, Cd partitioning in shoot and MDA level and by increasing content of some mineral elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn) and antioxidant capacity. PMID:25217281

  14. Experimental investigations on wake vortices and their alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaş, Ömer

    2005-05-01

    Recent wake vortex research in the laboratory has benefited considerably from concurrent analytical and numerical research on the instability of vortex systems. Tow tank, with dye flow visualization and particle image velocimetry is the most effective combination for laboratory research. Passive and active wake alleviation schemes have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The passive alleviation systems exploit the natural evolution of vortex instabilities while the active systems rely on hastening selected instabilities by forcing the vortices individually or as a system. Their practical applicability, however, will have to meet further criteria beyond those dictated by fluid dynamics. To cite this article: Ö. Savaş, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  15. Periodontal Probe Improves Exams, Alleviates Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Dentists, comedian Bill Cosby memorably mused, tell you not to pick your teeth with any sharp metal object. Then you sit in their chair, and the first thing they grab is an iron hook!" Conventional periodontal probing is indeed invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and the results can vary greatly between dentists and even for repeated measurements by the same dentist. It is a necessary procedure, though, as periodontal disease is the most common dental disease, involving the loss of teeth by the gradual destruction of ligaments that hold teeth in their sockets in the jawbone. The disease usually results from an increased concentration of bacteria in the pocket, or sulcus, between the gums and teeth. These bacteria produce acids and other byproducts, which enlarge the sulcus by eroding the gums and the periodontal ligaments. The sulcus normally has a depth of 1 to 2 millimeters, but in patients with early stages of periodontal disease, it has a depth of 3 to 5 millimeters. By measuring the depth of the sulcus, periodontists can have a good assessment of the disease s progress. Presently, there are no reliable clinical indicators of periodontal disease activity, and the best available diagnostic aid, periodontal probing, can only measure what has already been lost. A method for detecting small increments of periodontal ligament breakdown would permit earlier diagnosis and intervention with less costly and time-consuming therapy, while overcoming the problems associated with conventional probing. The painful, conventional method for probing may be destined for the archives of dental history, thanks to the development of ultrasound probing technologies. The roots of ultrasound probes are in an ultrasound-based time-of-flight technique routinely used to measure material thickness and length in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Laboratory at Langley Research Center. The primary applications of that technology have been for corrosion detection and bolt tension

  16. Does a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge hold promise for contributing to alleviating oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Minnaar, Amanda; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2014-08-15

    The effect of compositing red non-tannin sorghum with cream-coloured cowpea and porridge preparation on phenolic profile and radical scavenging activity was studied. A maize-soybean composite porridge representing a similar product on the South African market was used as reference sample. UPLC-QToF-MS-ESI was used to determine phenolic composition of the grain flours, their composites and porridges. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging activity was determined using the ABTS, DPPH and NO radical scavenging assays. Four benzoic acid derivatives and five cinnamic acid derivatives were identified in the samples. The predominant flavonoid subclasses identified in sorghum were flavan-3-ols, flavanones and flavones while cowpea had mainly flavan-3-ols and flavonols with soybean having mainly isoflavones. Compositing the cereals with legumes significantly (pporridge showed better promise in contributing to alleviating radical induced oxidative stress than maize-soybean composite porridge.

  17. Urban agriculture and urban poverty alleviation: South African debates

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerson, Christian M.

    1998-01-01

    Growing international attention has focussed on the potential role of urban agriculture in poverty alleviation. The aim in this paper is to analyse the existing challenge of urban poverty in South Africa and examine the potential role of urban agriculture as a component of a pro-poor urban development strategy.

  18. Training Teachers as Key Players in Poverty Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Ana; Ralambomanana, Stangeline; Mbanze, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several questions, reflections and suggestions on pre-service and in-service teacher training that arose during the project "Curricular innovation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa". While recognizing that the situation in the nine countries taking part in the project, and in many other countries in the southern…

  19. Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickels, John W.; Dobbs, Rhonda R.

    2007-01-01

    This study, Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistics Classes, investigated whether undergraduate students' anxiety about statistics changed when statistics is taught using computers compared to the traditional method. Two groups of students were questioned concerning their anxiety about statistics. One group was taught…

  20. Elder Abuse and Neglect Risk Alleviation in Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Rizzo, Victoria M; Courtney, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about conditions associated with favorable elder mistreatment (EM) case outcomes. The fundamental goal of EM protective service programs is to alleviate risk associated with substantiated cases of elder abuse and neglect. Using the EM socio-cultural model, this study examined victim, perpetrator, victim-perpetrator relationship, social embeddedness, and socio-cultural factors predicting risk alleviation of EM cases. Data from a random sample of EM protective social service cases (n = 250) at a large community agency in New York City were collected and coded by multiple, independent raters. Multinomial and binary logistic regression were used to examine undifferentiated risk alleviation for the entire sample of EM cases as well as differentiated financial, emotional, and physical abuse sub-types. Undifferentiated EM risk alleviation was associated with male victim gender, older victim age, previous community help-seeking, and victim-perpetrator dyads characterized by a separate living arrangement and shorter term abuse longevity. Financial abuse cases with younger perpetrators were less likely to have risk reduction. Physical abuse risk reduction was less likely when the perpetrator was male and the victim-perpetrator dyad included different genders. Distinct findings across EM sub-types suggest a need to develop targeted practice strategies with clients experiencing different forms of EM. Findings highlight a need to develop EM protective service infrastructure around perpetrator rehabilitation. PMID:24407144

  1. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  2. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  3. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  4. Overexpression of violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene alleviates photoinhibition of PSII and PSI in tomato during high light and chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han; Gao, Shan; Li, Bin; Dong, Xin-Chun; Feng, Hai-Long; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2010-02-15

    A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (LeVDE) was isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence of LeVDE showed high identities with violaxanthin de-epoxidase in other plant species. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the mRNA accumulation of LeVDE in the wild-type (WT) was regulated by diurnal rhythm and temperature. RNA and protein gel blot analyses confirmed that the sense LeVDE was transferred into the tomato genome and overexpressed under the control of 35S-CaMV. The ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) and the values of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were higher in transgenic plants than those in WT under high light and chilling stress (4 degrees C). The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased markedly in WT compared to transgenic lines under high light stress. The maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic plants decreased more slowly during stresses and recovered faster than that in WT under optimal conditions. The oxidizable P700 in transgenic plants was higher than that in WT under chilling stress. These results suggest that overexpression of LeVDE increased the function of the xanthophyll cycle and alleviated photoinhibition of PSII and PSI in tomato during high light and chilling stress with low irradiance.

  5. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on growth characteristics and biochemical content of wheat seeds under arsenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Fikriye

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the phytotoxic effect of As on wheat seedlings and pre-application of salicylic acid in alleviating toxic effect of arsenic. Wheat seedlings treated with different concentrations (50-400 μM) of arsenic decreased the germination rate (34.7% and 86.9%), root and coleptile length, fresh and dry weight of roots and coleoptile, chlorophyll (67%) and protein content (27.1%), while increased proline and MDA content. However, pretreatment with 1mM saliycilic acid partially alleviated the toxic effect of arsenic on germination parameters and significantly reduced the proline (181.2%) and MDA (80%) content thereby increasing chlorophyll and protein content in As stressed wheat plants (p arsenic toxicity.

  6. Metformin increases hepatic leptin receptor and decreases steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuemei; Li, Jingwen; Xiang, Wei; Cui, Ye; Xie, Bin; Wang, Xiaodong; Xu, Zihui; Gan, Lixia

    2016-08-01

    In addition to the ascertained efficacy as antidiabetic drug, metformin is increasingly being used as weight-loss agent in obesity, and as insulin sensitizer in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggest metformin as leptin sensitizer to mediate the weight-loss effect in the brain. In this study, we investigated effects of metformin on expression of leptin receptors in liver and kidney in mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed with chow diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HF) for 5months. Afterward, mice were treated with metformin (50mg/kg or 200mg/kg) for 15days. Metabolic parameters and hepatic gene expression were analyzed at the end of the treatment. We also tested the effects of metformin on plasma-soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, and assessed its effect on hepatosteatosis in mice. Results showed that metformin upregulates the expression of leptin receptors (OB-Ra, -Rb, -Rc, and -Rd) in liver but not kidney. The stimulation effect is dose-dependent in both chow and HF mice. Upregulation of OB-Rb, long signaling isoform, needs a relatively higher dose of metformin. This effect was paralleled by increased sOBR levels in mice and T2DM patients, and decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and lipogenic gene expression, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1). Taken together, these data identify hepatic leptin receptor as target gene being upregulated by metformin which may enhance leptin sensitivity in liver to alleviate steatosis. PMID:27288055

  7. Lutein alleviates arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice via Nrf2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S G; Xu, S Z; Niu, Q; Ding, Y S; Pang, L J; Ma, R L; Jing, M X; Wang, K; Ma, X M; Feng, G L; Liu, J M; Zhang, X F; Xiang, H L; Li, F

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the mechanisms involved in the action of lutein (LU) alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity using mice model. Forty male Kunming mice were received following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control), arsenic trioxide (ATO; 5 mg/kg/day), LU (40 mg/kg/day), and ATO + LU (5 mg/kg/day + 40 mg/kg/day). At the end, the mice were killed by cervical dislocation and weighed. Pathological examination was done on the testis. The biomedical parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability, malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) in testis were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We found that there was a decrease in sperm count; testis somatic index; the activities of SOD, GSH, total antioxidative capacity (p treated mice, while there was an increase in the levels of sperm abnormalities, MDA, and 8-OHdG than control (p treated with ATO + LU showed recovery of the measured parameters between those of ATO or saline-treated group. The antagonized interaction between ATO and LU was statistically significant (p treated with ATO + LU also showed greater mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and GST than ATO or saline-treated groups. These findings suggest that LU alleviates reproductive toxicity induced by arsenic in male mice via Nrf2 signaling, which implicates a possible mechanism of LU in preventing the reproductive injury, and elucidates that consuming the rich plant sources of LU will alleviate the reproductive toxicity induced by chemicals.

  8. Alleviating α quenching by solar wind and meridional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, D.; Moss, D.; Tavakol, R.; Brandenburg, A.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We study the ability of magnetic helicity expulsion to alleviate catastrophic α-quenching in mean field dynamos in two-dimensional spherical wedge domains. Methods: Motivated by the physical state of the outer regions of the Sun, we consider α^2Ω mean field models with a dynamical α quenching. We include two mechanisms which have the potential to facilitate helicity expulsion, namely advection by a mean flow ("solar wind") and meridional circulation. Results: We find that a wind alone can prevent catastrophic quenching, with the field saturating at finite amplitude. In certain parameter ranges, the presence of a large-scale meridional circulation can reinforce this alleviation. However, the saturated field strengths are typically below the equipartition field strength. We discuss possible mechanisms that might increase the saturated field.

  9. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... applied without power loss for wind speeds above rated wind speed. In deterministic inflow, it is shown that the range of the steady-state blade load variations can be reduced by up to 70%. For turbulent inflows, it is shown that the potential blade fatigue load reductions depend on the turbulence level...

  10. Sensor comparison study for load alleviating wind turbine pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    of angle of attack and relative velocity at a radial position of the blades, and upstream inflow measurements from a spinner mounted light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor that enables preview of the incoming flow field. The results show that for stationary inflow conditions, the three different......As the size of wind turbines increases, the load alleviating capabilities of the turbine controller are becoming increasingly important. Load alleviating control schemes have traditionally been based on feedback from load sensor; however, recent developments of measurement technologies have enabled...... measurement types yield similar load reductions, but for varying inflow conditions, the LiDAR sensor-based controller yields larger load reductions than the two others. The results also show that the performance of the LiDAR sensor-based controller is very sensitive to uncertainties relating to the inflow...

  11. Alleviating alpha quenching by solar wind and meridional flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Tavakol, Reza; Brandenburg, Axel

    2010-01-01

    We study the ability of magnetic helicity expulsion to alleviate catastrophic $\\alpha$-quenching in mean field dynamos in two--dimensional spherical wedge domains. Motivated by the physical state of the outer regions of the Sun, we consider $\\alpha^2\\Omega$ mean field models with a dynamical $\\alpha$ quenching. We include two mechanisms which have the potential to facilitate helicity expulsion, namely advection by a mean flow (``solar wind'') and meridional circulation. We find that a wind alone can prevent catastrophic quenching, with the field saturating at finite amplitude. In certain parameter ranges, the presence of a large-scale meridional circulation can reinforce this alleviation. However, the saturated field strengths are typically below the equipartition field strength. We discuss possible mechanisms that might increase the saturated field.

  12. The Role of Forests in Poverty Alleviation: Dealing with Multiple Millennium Development Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A.F.

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief summarises the present state of scientific understanding of the potential contribution of tropical forests to poverty alleviation and highlights the implications of this knowledge for forest-based poverty alleviation policies

  13. Application of Active Flow Control Technique for Gust Load Alleviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaoping; ZHU Xiaoping; ZHOU Zhou; FAN Ruijun

    2011-01-01

    A new gust load alleviation technique is presented in this paper based on active flow control.Numerical studies are conducted to investigate the beneficial effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of the quasi “Global Hawk” airfoil using arrays of jets during the gust process.Based on unsteady Navier-Stokes equations,the grid-velocity method is introduced to simulate the gust influence,and dynamic response in vertical gust flow perturbation is investigated for the airfoil as well.An unsteady surface transpiration boundary condition is enforced over a user specified portion of the airfoil's surface to emulate the time dependent velocity boundary conditions.Firstly,after applying this method to simulate typical NACA0006 airfoil gust response to a step change in the angle of attack,it shows that the indicial responses of the airfoil make good agreement with the exact theoretical values and the calculated values in references.Furthermore,gust response characteristic for the quasi “Global Hawk” airfoil is analyzed.Five kinds of flow control techniques are introduced as steady blowing,steady suction,unsteady blowing,unsteady suction and synthetic jets.The physical analysis of the influence on the effects of gust load alleviation is proposed to provide some guidelines for practice.Numerical results have indicated that active flow control technique,as a new technology of gust load alleviation,can affect and suppress the fluid disturbances caused by gust so as to achieve the purpose of gust load alleviation.

  14. ANTIANGIOGENESIS STRATEGIES REVISITED: FROM STARVING TUMORS TO ALLEVIATING HYPOXIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Ten antiangiogenic drugs targeting VEGF or its receptors are approved for cancer treatment. However, these agents, intended to block tumors’ blood supply, may cause hypoxia, which may fuel tumor progression and treatment resistance. Emerging clinical data suggest that patients whose tumor perfusion or oxygenation increases in response to these agents may actually survive longer. Hence, strategies aimed at alleviating tumor hypoxia while improving perfusion may enhance the outcome of radiother...

  15. Enhancement of Urban Poverty Alleviation Process in Dhaka City

    OpenAIRE

    Akharuzzaman, Mohammad; Deguchi, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Slums in Dhaka City have different types of physical, social, and environmental problems because of the lack of local people's consciousness of them and a lack of government facilities in the urban informal settlements. However, the development projects try to improve the life quality of the urban poor by providing physical infrastructure, social grants, and environmental support. The objective seeks to clarify the poverty alleviation process in the urban area of Dhaka City. This study organi...

  16. A reconceptualization of social value creation as social constraint alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkovics, Noemi; Rudolf R Sinkovics; Hoque, Samia; Czaban, Laszlo; Sinkovics, Noemi; Sinkovics, Rudolf R; Hoque, Samia; Czaban, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has two interconnected objectives. The first is to provide a reconceptualisation of social value creation as social constraint alleviation. The second is to respond to the call put forward by Giuliani and Macchi (2014) to produce synergies between bodies of literature exploring the development impact of businesses. The paper focuses on ideas from the global value chain/global production networks (GVC/GPN), business and human rights, corporate social responsibility (CSR), ...

  17. Alleviation of high-fat diet-induced fatty liver damage in group IVA phospholipase A2-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Shintaro; Tsutsumi, Kae; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Sato, Takashi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Akiba, Satoshi

    2009-12-01

    Hepatic fat deposition with hepatocellular damage, a feature of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is mediated by several putative factors including prostaglandins. In the present study, we examined whether group IVA phospholipase A(2) (IVA-PLA(2)), which catalyzes the first step in prostanoid biosynthesis, is involved in the development of fatty liver, using IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Male wild-type mice on high-fat diets (20% fat and 1.25% cholesterol) developed hepatocellular vacuolation and liver hypertrophy with an increase in the serum levels of liver damage marker aminotransferases when compared with wild-type mice fed normal diets. These high-fat diet-induced alterations were markedly decreased in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Hepatic triacylglycerol content was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice under normal dietary conditions. Although high-fat diets increased hepatic triacylglycerol content in both genotypes, the degree was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Under the high-fat dietary conditions, IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice had lower epididymal fat pad weight and smaller adipocytes than wild-type mice. The serum level of prostaglandin E(2), which has a fat storage effect, was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice, irrespective of the kind of diet. In both genotypes, high-fat diets increased serum leptin levels equally between the two groups, but did not affect the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, glucose, or insulin. Our findings suggest that a deficiency of IVA-PLA(2) alleviates fatty liver damage caused by high-fat diets, probably because of the lower generation of IVA-PLA(2) metabolites, such as prostaglandin E(2). IVA-PLA(2) could be a promising therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  19. EFFECTS OF SILICON ON ALLEVIATING ARSENIC TOXICITY IN MAIZE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airon José da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a metalloid highly toxic to plants and animals, causing reduced plant growth and various health problems for humans and animals. Silicon, however, has excelled in alleviating stress caused by toxic elements in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Si in alleviating As stress in maize plants grown in a nutrient solution and evaluate the potential of the spectral emission parameters and the red fluorescence (Fr and far-red fluorescence (FFr ratio obtained in analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in determination of this interaction. An experiment was carried out in a nutrient solution containing a toxic rate of As (68 μmol L-1 and six increasing rates of Si (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mmol L-1. Dry matter production and concentrations of As, Si, and photosynthetic pigments were then evaluated. Chlorophyll fluorescence was also measured throughout plant growth. Si has positive effects in alleviating As stress in maize plants, evidenced by the increase in photosynthetic pigments. Silicon application resulted in higher As levels in plant tissue; therefore, using Si for soil phytoremediation may be a promising choice. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis proved to be a sensitive tool, and it can be successfully used in the study of the ameliorating effects of Si in plant protection, with the Fr/FFr ratio as the variable recommended for identification of temporal changes in plants.

  20. Trichoderma spp. alleviate phytotoxicity in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Antonio G; Sommella, Alessia; Lorito, Matteo; Lombardi, Nadia; Azam, Shah M G G; Pigna, Massimo; Ruocco, Michelina

    2014-09-15

    The influence of two strains of Trichoderma (T. harzianum strain T22 and T. atroviride strain P1) on the growth of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with As-contaminated water, and their effect on the uptake and accumulation of the contaminant in the plant roots and leaves, were studied. Accumulation of this non-essential element occurred mainly into the root system and reduced both biomass development and net photosynthesis rate (while altering the plant P status). Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) of both Trichoderma species alleviated, at least in part, the phytotoxicity of As, essentially by decreasing its accumulation in the tissues and enhancing plant growth, P status and net photosynthesis rate. Our results indicate that inoculation of lettuce with selected Trichoderma strains may be helpful, beside the classical biocontrol application, in alleviating abiotic stresses such as that caused by irrigation with As-contaminated water, and in reducing the concentration of this metalloid in the edible part of the plant.

  1. Thymoquinone Alleviates the Experimental Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy by Modulation of Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Li, Bing; Chen, Biqin; Shao, Yiye; Luo, Qiong; Shi, Xiaohong; Chen, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    Thymoquinone has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammation plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This study investigated the effects of TQ on proliferation and apoptosis of Schwann cells exposed to high glucose conditions and electrophysiological and morphological changes of the sciatic nerve in a DPN rat model as well as relevant inflammatory mechanism. Cell proliferation and apoptosis of Schwann cells were measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry. DPN model was established in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nerve conduction velocity was measured before and after treatment. Morphologic changes were observed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy. COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and Caspase-3 expression was investigated by western blotting and Bio-Plex Pro(TM) Assays. Finally, TQ alleviated the inhibition of Schwann cell proliferation and protected against Schwann cell apoptosis. It improved nerve conduction velocity, and alleviated the DPN-induced morphological changes and demyelination of the sciatic nerve. COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and Caspase-3 expression in sciatic nerve or isolated cultured Schwann cells, were also decreased by TQ. These results indicate TQ has a protective effect on peripheral nerves in a DPN rat model. The mechanism may be mediated partly by the modulation of the inflammatory reaction. PMID:27545310

  2. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate liver fibrosis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ning-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Chen, Si-Wen; Fan, Ke-Xing; Linghu, En-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transplantation in the treatment of liver fibrosis. METHODS: Cultured human UC-MSCs were isolated and transfused into rats with liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). The effects of UC-MSCs transfusion on liver fibrosis were then evaluated by histopathology; serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 levels were also measured. Furthermore, Kupffer cells (KCs) in fibrotic livers were isolated and cultured to analyze their phenotype. Moreover, UC-MSCs were co-cultured with KCs in vitro to assess the effects of UC-MSCs on KCs’ phenotype, and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were measured in cell culture supernatants. Finally, UC-MSCs and KCs were cultured in the presence of IL-4 antibodies to block the effects of this cytokine, followed by phenotypical analysis of KCs. RESULTS: UC-MSCs transfused into rats were recruited by the injured liver and alleviated liver fibrosis, increasing serum IL-4 and IL-10 levels. Interestingly, UC-MSCs promoted mobilization of KCs not only in fibrotic livers, but also in vitro. Co-culture of UC-MSCs with KCs resulted in increased production of IL-4 and IL-10. The addition of IL-4 antibodies into the co-culture system resulted in decreased KC mobilization. CONCLUSION: UC-MSCs could increase IL-4 and promote mobilization of KCs both in vitro and in vivo, subsequently alleviating the liver fibrosis induced by DMN.

  3. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Alleviates Arsenic-induced Oxidative Reproductive Toxicity in Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu Gang; GUO Shu Xia; DING Yu Song; NIU Qiang; XU Shang Zhi; PANG Li Juan; MA Ru Lin; JING Ming Xia; FENG Gang Ling; LIU Jia Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. Methods Sixty male Kunming mice received the following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control); arsenic trioxide (ATO; 4 mg/kg); GSPE (400 mg/kg); ATO+GSPE (100 mg/kg);ATO+GSPE (200 mg/kg) and ATO+GSPE (400 mg/kg). Thereafter, the mice were sacrificed and weighed, and the testis was examined for pathological changes. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) expression in the testis was detected by real-time PCR. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. Results ATO-treated mice showed a significantly decreased sperm count and testis somatic index and activity levels of SOD, GSH, and T-AOC than control group. Compared to the ATO-treated group, ATO+GSPE group showed recovery of the measured parameters. Mice treated with ATO+high-dose GSPE showed the highest level of mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO, NQO1, and GST. Conclusion GSPE alleviates oxidative stress damage in mouse testis by activating Nrf2 signaling, thus counteracting arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

  4. Traditional Chinese medicine "Qing Yi Tang" alleviates oxygen free radical injury in acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    AIM To observe the changes in oxygen free radical (OFR) and the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine "Qing Yi Tang" in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP).METHODS After induction of ANP by injection of sodium taurocholate into pancreatic duct, 16 dogs were randomly divided into control group and Chinese medicine group. Serum amylase, SOD and MDA were determined on postoperative day 1, 2, 4 and 7. The animals were sacrificed on day 7. SOD and MDA in organs were determined, and pathological changes in pancreas were observed.RESULTS As compared with control group, the serum level of amylase (734U/L vs 2783U/L) and MDA (7.8nmol/ml vs 14.8nmol/ml) in Chinese medicine group were decreased on day 7 (P<0.05), while SOD increased significantly (281nU/ml vs 55nU/ml, P<0.01), and similar changes occurred in MDA and SOD in organs, especially in the pancreas; the pathological changes in the pancreas were alleviated as well.CONCLUSION "Qing Yi Tang" is effective in clearing OFRs and alleviating pathological changes in ANP.

  5. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.;

    2013-01-01

    Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...... origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 µl l-1) and elevated (800 µl l-1) CO2 with a day/night temperature of 15/10°С. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40°С for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum...... to the combination of elevated CO2 and heat stress. The results show that heat stress tolerance in wheat is related to cultivar origin, the phenological stage of the plants and can be alleviated by elevated CO2. This confirms the complex interrelation between environmental factors and genotypic traits that influence...

  6. VPA alleviates neurological deficits and restores gene expression in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixiang Guo

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs once in every 10,000-15,000 live female births. Despite intensive research, no effective cure is yet available. Valproic acid (VPA has been used widely to treat mood disorder, epilepsy, and a growing number of other disorders. In limited clinical studies, VPA has also been used to control seizure in RTT patients with promising albeit somewhat unclear efficacy. In this study we tested the effect of VPA on the neurological symptoms of RTT and discovered that short-term VPA treatment during the symptomatic period could reduce neurological symptoms in RTT mice. We found that VPA restores the expression of a subset of genes in RTT mouse brains, and these genes clustered in neurological disease and developmental disorder networks. Our data suggest that VPA could be used as a drug to alleviate RTT symptoms.

  7. Application of citrate as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, prevents diabetic-induced heart damages in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Liang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that application of citrate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, might alleviate cardiac dysfunction by reducing cardiac inflammation, apoptosis, and increasing cardiac EC.

  8. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems.

  9. Does supplemental 18:0 alleviate fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2016-02-01

    Supplementation of dairy ewe diet with marine lipids may be an effective strategy for modulating milk fatty acid composition but induces milk fat depression (MFD). This syndrome has been associated with a shortage of 18:0 for uptake and Δ(9)-desaturation that may impair the capacity of the mammary gland to achieve an adequate fluidity for milk fat secretion. On this basis, it was suggested that supplemental 18:0 may contribute to alleviate marine lipid-induced MFD in sheep. To test this hypothesis, 12 lactating ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 lots and used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 28 d each and 3 experimental treatments: a total mixed ration without lipid supplementation (control) or supplemented with 20 g/kg of DM of fish oil alone (FO) or in combination with 20 g/kg of DM of 18:0 (FOSA). Diets were offered ad libitum, and animal performance and rumen and milk fatty acid composition were studied at the end of each period. After completing the Latin square trial and following a change-over design, the in vivo digestibility of supplemental 18:0 was estimated using 6 lactating sheep. As expected, diet supplementation with fish oil increased the milk content of some potentially health-promoting fatty acids (e.g., cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11 18:1, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), but reduced milk fat concentration and yield (-20% in both FO and FOSA treatments). Thus, although reductions in milk 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 output caused by FO (-81 and -51%, respectively) were partially reversed with FOSA diet (-49 and -27%, respectively), the addition of 18:0 to the diet did not prove useful to alleviate MFD. This response, which could not be fully accounted for by the low digestibility coefficient of supplemental 18:0, may challenge the theory of a shortage of this fatty acid as a mechanism to explain fish oil-induced MFD in sheep. Effects of FO and FOSA on rumen and milk fatty acid composition would support that increases in the concentration of some

  10. Does supplemental 18:0 alleviate fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2016-02-01

    Supplementation of dairy ewe diet with marine lipids may be an effective strategy for modulating milk fatty acid composition but induces milk fat depression (MFD). This syndrome has been associated with a shortage of 18:0 for uptake and Δ(9)-desaturation that may impair the capacity of the mammary gland to achieve an adequate fluidity for milk fat secretion. On this basis, it was suggested that supplemental 18:0 may contribute to alleviate marine lipid-induced MFD in sheep. To test this hypothesis, 12 lactating ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 lots and used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 28 d each and 3 experimental treatments: a total mixed ration without lipid supplementation (control) or supplemented with 20 g/kg of DM of fish oil alone (FO) or in combination with 20 g/kg of DM of 18:0 (FOSA). Diets were offered ad libitum, and animal performance and rumen and milk fatty acid composition were studied at the end of each period. After completing the Latin square trial and following a change-over design, the in vivo digestibility of supplemental 18:0 was estimated using 6 lactating sheep. As expected, diet supplementation with fish oil increased the milk content of some potentially health-promoting fatty acids (e.g., cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11 18:1, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), but reduced milk fat concentration and yield (-20% in both FO and FOSA treatments). Thus, although reductions in milk 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 output caused by FO (-81 and -51%, respectively) were partially reversed with FOSA diet (-49 and -27%, respectively), the addition of 18:0 to the diet did not prove useful to alleviate MFD. This response, which could not be fully accounted for by the low digestibility coefficient of supplemental 18:0, may challenge the theory of a shortage of this fatty acid as a mechanism to explain fish oil-induced MFD in sheep. Effects of FO and FOSA on rumen and milk fatty acid composition would support that increases in the concentration of some

  11. Both decrease in ACL1 gene expression and increase in ICL1 gene expression in marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica expressing INU1 gene enhance citric acid production from inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Madzak, Catherine; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-02-01

    In this study, some of the ATP-citrate lyase genes (ACL1) were deleted and the copy number of the iso-citrate lyase gene (ICL1) was increased in the marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b displaying the recombinant inulinase. It was found that lipid content and iso-citric acid in the transformant 30 obtained were greatly reduced and citric acid production was greatly enhanced. It was also found that the ACL1 gene expression and ATP-citrate lyase activity in the transformant 30 were declined and the ICL1 gene expression and iso-citrate lyase activity were promoted. During the 2-l fermentation, 84.0 g/l of citric acid and 1.8 g/l of iso-citric acid in the fermented medium were attained from 10.0 % of inulin by the transformant 30 within 214 h. The results showed that only 0.36 % of the residual reducing sugar and 1.0 % of the residual total sugar were left in the fermented medium, suggesting that 89.6 % of the total sugar was used for citric acid production and cell growth by the transformant 30.

  12. Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development: The Role of Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries are facing dilemmas such as un-sustainability, and poverty, (especially rural poverty. Poor people are often seen as compelled to exploit their surrounding for short-term survival and are assumed to be the ones most exposed to natural resources degradation. In order that at the first; we review the extensive theoretical literature on social capital, poverty and sustainability and demonstrate the nuanced treatment these concepts have received in this literature. Problem Statement: Current research and observations indicate that (these dilemmas un-sustainability and rural poverty are linked. The only feasible way out of current crisis is to integrate resources. The linkage among environment/agriculture, poverty and social capital are complex and in many cases, poorly understood. The developing countries have been criticized for their inability to reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable agricultural development. Approach: there is a need for improving of social capital to integrate environment and people to alleviate poverty and receive to sustainable development. Social capital has come to be defined in a variety of ways, all of which have been linked to collective norms, values and relationships reflecting the involvement of human individuals in a common life based on family and community. Results: This study argue that social capital as a concept has over the last decade or more been gaining significance in relation to a number of linked fields of analyses, including the identification of factors influencing educational attainment, explanations of differing levels of participation, rural development and poverty alleviation. Conclusions/Recommendations: social capital enhancement appears to have direct links with farmer education in that community development is generally defined as a social learning process which serves to empower people and to involve them as citizens in collective activities aimed at socio- economic

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 788), changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to partially hydrolysed guar gum and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract, changes in bowel function, and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort...... hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG). The Panel considers that partially hydrolysed guar gum is sufficiently characterised....

  14. Determination of tolerable fatty acids and cholera toxin concentrations using human intestinal epithelial cells and BALB/c mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamari, Farshad; Tychowski, Joanna; Lorentzen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The positive role of fatty acids in the prevention and alleviation of non-human and human diseases have been and continue to be extensively documented. These roles include influences on infectious and non-infectious diseases including prevention of inflammation as well as mucosal immunity to infectious diseases. Cholera is an acute intestinal illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It occurs in developing nations and if left untreated, can result in death. While vaccines for cholera exist, they are not always effective and other preventative methods are needed. We set out to determine tolerable concentrations of three fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and cholera toxin using mouse BALB/C macrophages and human intestinal epithelial cells, respectively. We solubilized the above fatty acids and used cell proliferation assays to determine the concentration ranges and specific concentrations of the fatty acids that are not detrimental to human intestinal epithelial cell viability. We solubilized cholera toxin and used it in an assay to determine the concentration ranges and specific concentrations of cholera toxin that do not statistically decrease cell viability in BALB/C macrophages. We found the optimum fatty acid concentrations to be between 1-5 ng/μl, and that for cholera toxin to be < 30 ng per treatment. This data may aid future studies that aim to find a protective mucosal role for fatty acids in prevention or alleviation of cholera infections. PMID:23748896

  15. Load alleviation on wind turbine blades using variable geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basualdo, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    ) wind turbines, which mainly operate under this flow condition. The results show evident reductions in the airfoil displacements by using simple control strategies having the airfoil position and its first and second derivatives as input, especially at the system's eigenfrequency. The use of variable...... airfoil geometry is an effective means of reducing the vibration magnitudes of an airfoil that represents a section of a wind turbine blade, when subject to stochastic wind signals. The results of this investigation encourage further investigations with 3D aeroelastic models to predict the reduction...... in loads in real wind turbines. Keywords: Variable Geometry, Wind Turbine, Load Alleviation, Fatigue Load, Trailing Edge Flap....

  16. Silicon alleviates iron deficiency in cucumber by promoting mobilization of iron in the root apoplast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, Jelena; Samardzic, Jelena; Maksimović, Vuk;

    2013-01-01

    the period of Fe deprivation was extended, these reactions further decreased as a consequence of Si-induced enhancement of the Fe status of the plants. This work provides new evidence for the beneficial role of Si in plant nutrition and clearly indicates that Si-mediated alleviation of Fe deficiency includes......Root responses to lack of iron (Fe) have mainly been studied in nutrient solution experiments devoid of silicon (Si). Here we investigated how Si ameliorates Fe deficiency in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) with focus on the storage and utilization of Fe in the root apoplast. A combined approach....... Under Fe-deficient conditions, Si also increased the accumulation of Fe-mobilizing compounds in roots. Si supply stimulated root activity of Fe acquisition at the early stage of Fe deficiency stress through regulation of gene expression levels of proteins involved in Fe acquisition. However, when...

  17. Toxic Effect of Cd2+ on Potamogeton crispus Alleviated by Exogenous Nd3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The mitigation of toxic effect of Cd2 + on Potamogeton crispus L. by exogenous Nd3 + was studied. The result shows that activity of antioxidase (SOD, CAT, POD) is decreased, and the content of MDA increased. The content of different concentrations of Nd3 + for 5 d significantly improved the activity of SOD, POD and CAT in comparison with toxicity of Cd2+ , and ranged from 14.0% ~ 30.0%, 8.8% ~ 47.3%, 4.6% ~ 15.1% respectively. The degradation of chlorophyll and protein is alleviated, and generation of MDA reduced . But with the higher concentration of Nd3 + , such ability of Nd3+ is weakened. The optimum concentration of Nd3+ is 10 ~ 15 mg·L-1.

  18. Electrical stimulation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis alleviates severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, L; Hendrickx, S; Raymaekers, S; Gabriëls, L; Nuttin, B

    2016-09-01

    In 1998, we proposed deep brain stimulation as a last-resort treatment option for patients suffering from severe, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, 24 OCD patients were included in a long-term follow-up study to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation in the anterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). We find that electrical stimulation in the ALIC/BST area is safe and significantly decreases obsessions, compulsions, and associated anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improves global functioning in a blinded crossover trial (n=17), after 4 years (n=18), and at last follow-up (up to 171 months, n=24). Moreover, our data indicate that BST may be a better stimulation target compared with ALIC to alleviate OCD symptoms. We conclude that electrical stimulation in BST is a promising therapeutic option for otherwise treatment-resistant OCD patients. PMID:26303665

  19. A progress report on the Malaga Bend Experimental Salinity Alleviation Project, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, E.R.; Havens, J.S.

    1965-01-01

    At Malaga Bend on the Pecos River in Eddy County, New Mexico, a brine aquifer about 1950 feet below the stream channel has a pressure head about 10 feet above the river bed. This aquifer normally discharges about 430 tons of dissolved minerals daily into the river of which about 370 tons was sodium chloride. The Malaga Bend Experimental Salinity Alleviation Project, authorized by the U.S. Congress in 1958, Public Law 85-333,is an attempt to determine if the salinity content of the Pecos River below Malaga Bend can be decreased by reducing the inflow of saline water into the river at Malaga Bend by pumping from the brine aquifer. Construction for the project was supervised by the Bureau of Reclamation, and the collection of data and its interpretation were the responsibility cooperatively of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Pecos River Commission.

  20. Low molecular weight fucoidan modulates P-selectin and alleviates diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingjie; Zhang, Quanbin; Luo, Dali; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication that can lead to chronic and end-stage renal failure. It is understood that inflammation is associated with the onset and process of DN. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) isolated from Saccharina japonica has anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the mechanism of LMWF in DN model induced by streptozotocin. The biochemical indices levels showed LMWF reduced the DN diagnostic indices to protect renal function. The HE stained sections exhibited LMWF protected normal morphological structures and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the kidneys of DN rats. Furthermore, the levels of P-selectin and selectin-dependent inflammatory cytokines resulting from LMWF were obviously decreased at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Thus, our results found that LMWF protected the renal function in DN rats and alleviated inflammation through the modulation of P-selectin and inflammatory cytokines. LMWF may have therapeutic potential against DN.

  1. Hesperidin alleviates acetaminophen induced toxicity in Wistar rats by abrogation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Arjumand, Wani; Nafees, Sana; Seth, Amlesh; Ali, Nemat; Rashid, Summya; Sultana, Sarwat

    2012-01-25

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, but at high dose it leads to undesirable side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The present study demonstrates the comparative hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of hesperidin (HD), a naturally occurring bioflavonoid against APAP induced toxicity. APAP induces hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as was evident by abnormal deviation in the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, APAP induced renal damage by inducing apoptotic death and inflammation in renal tubular cells, manifested by an increase in the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, NFkB, iNOS, Kim-1 and decrease in Bcl-2 expression. These results were further supported by the histopathological examination of kidney. All these features of APAP toxicity were reversed by the co-administration of HD. Therefore, our study favors the view that HD may be a useful modulator in alleviating APAP induced oxidative stress and toxicity.

  2. The pathogenesis mechanism of diabetic cardiomyopathy and alleviation of simvastatin combined benazepril

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Jie Zhou; Bin Hu; Jian-Min Liu; Han-Min Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pathogenesis mechanism of diabetic cardiomyopathy and alleviation of simvastatin combined benazepril.Methods: SD rats were divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic group, SP00125 group and simvastatin combined benazepril group. The cardiac function and serum MDA, SOD, HLD and LDL were detected. The expression of JNK signaling pathway key proteins were analyzed by Western Blotting.Results:The content of HDL and SOD was decreased while MDA and LDL were increased in diabetic group. The expression of JNK and pJNK was also found increased in diabetic group. Simvastatin combined benazepril medication can normalize those abnormalities greatly.Conclusion:Over-activated JNK signaling pathway was involved in diabetic cardiomyopathy and simvastatin combined benazepril exert function by inhibiting JNK pathway.

  3. Roles of meditation on alleviation of oxidative stress and improvement of antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahagita, Chitrawina

    2010-11-01

    According to MEDLINE/Pubmed search to December 2009, the modulation effects of meditation on oxidative stress have been increasingly investigated for acute, short and long-term effects. Both invasive and noninvasive measurements have been utilized. Long-term transcendental and Zen meditators have been showed to diminish oxidative stress seen by a reduction of lipid peroxidation and biophoton emission. Glutathione level and activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) have been facilitated in Yoga and Sudarshan Kriya practitioners. One year of Tai Chi training has been reported to promote superoxide dismutase activity and lessen lipid peroxidation. Performing diaphragmatic breathing after exhaustive exercise has attenuated oxidative stress faster than control. These data suggest possible roles of meditation and meditation-based techniques on the decrease of oxidative stress which may assist to prevent and/or alleviate deterioration of related diseases. However, further research needs to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms which remain challenge to accomplish.

  4. Low molecular weight fucoidan modulates P-selectin and alleviates diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingjie; Zhang, Quanbin; Luo, Dali; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication that can lead to chronic and end-stage renal failure. It is understood that inflammation is associated with the onset and process of DN. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) isolated from Saccharina japonica has anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the mechanism of LMWF in DN model induced by streptozotocin. The biochemical indices levels showed LMWF reduced the DN diagnostic indices to protect renal function. The HE stained sections exhibited LMWF protected normal morphological structures and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the kidneys of DN rats. Furthermore, the levels of P-selectin and selectin-dependent inflammatory cytokines resulting from LMWF were obviously decreased at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Thus, our results found that LMWF protected the renal function in DN rats and alleviated inflammation through the modulation of P-selectin and inflammatory cytokines. LMWF may have therapeutic potential against DN. PMID:27234491

  5. Alleviating effects of morin against experimentally-induced diabetic osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuohashish Hatem M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant flavonoids are emerging as potent therapeutic drugs effective against a wide range of aging diseases particularly bone metabolic disorders. Morin (3,5,7,20,40-pentahydroxyflavone, a member of flavonols, is an important bioactive compound by interacting with nucleic acids, enzymes and protein. The present study was designed to investigate the putative beneficial effect of morin on diabetic osteopenia in rats. Methods Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic model was used by considering 300 mg/dl fasting glucose level as diabetic. Morin (15 and 30 mg/kg was treated for five consecutive weeks to diabetic rats. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, deoxypyridinoline cross links (DPD, osteocalcin (OC, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated. Femoral bones were taken for micro CT scan to measure trabecular bone mineral density (BMD and other morphometric parameters. Results Significant bone loss was documented as the level of bone turnover parameters including DPD, OC, BALP and CTX were increased in serum of diabetic rats. Morin treatment significantly attenuated these elevated levels. Bone micro-CT scan of diabetic rats showed a significant impairment in trabecular bone microarchitecture, density and other morphometric parameters. These impairments were significantly ameliorated by morin administration. Serum levels of glucose, TBARS, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated, while the level of insulin and GSH was decreased in diabetic rats. These serum changes in diabetic rats were bring back to normal values after 5 weeks morin treatment. Conclusion These findings revealed the protective effect of morin against diabetic induced osteopenia. We believed that this effect is through its both the anti

  6. Folic acid supplementation attenuates hyperhomocysteinemia-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Yan Cui; Jing Ge; Meijing Ma

    2012-01-01

    Folic acid participates in the metabolism of homocysteine and lowers plasma homocysteine levels directly or indirectly. To establish a hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rat model, 2 mL of DL-homocysteine was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 200 mg/kg from day 10 to day 19 of gestation. Folic acid was administered by intragastric administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg during the period of preeclampsia induction. Results showed that systolic blood pressure, proteinuria/creatinine ratio, and plasma homocysteine levels in the hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats increased significantly, and that body weight and brain weight of rat pups significantly decreased. Folic acid supplementation markedly reversed the above-mentioned abnormal changes of hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats and rat pups. These findings suggest that folic acid can alleviate the symptoms of hyperhomocysteinemia- induced preeclampsia in pregnant rats without influencing brain development of rat pups.

  7. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  8. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:27423629

  9. Puerarin Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments, and partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Puerarin, the main constituent of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, has been used extensively in China to treat hypertension and tumor. The current study examined the effects of puerarin on neuropathic pain using two most commonly used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI and diabetic neuropathy. We found that consecutive intrathecal administration of puerarin (4–100 nM for 7 days inhibited the mechanical and thermal nociceptive response induced by CCI and diabetes without interfering with the normal pain response. Meanwhile, in both models puerarin inhibited the activation of microglia and astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn. Puerarin also reduced the upregulated levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in the spinal cord. In summary, puerarin alleviated CCI- and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, and its effectiveness might be due to the inhibition of neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. The anti-inflammation effect of puerarin might be related to the suppression of spinal NF-κB activation and/or cytokines upregulation. We conclude that puerarin has a significant effect on alleviating neuropathic pain and thus may serve as a therapeutic approach for neuropathic pain.

  10. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  11. Low-Dose Aspirin Treatment Alleviates Gamma Irradiation Impaired Fertility in Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy γ- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant

  12. Long-Term Persistence of Infection in Chimpanzees Inoculated with an Infectious Hepatitis C Virus Clone Is Associated with a Decrease in the Viral Amino Acid Substitution Rate and Low Levels of Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Javier; Taylor, Deborah; Morhardt, Duncan R.; Mihalik, Kathleen; Puig, Montserrat; Rice, Charles M.; Feinstone, Stephen M.; Major, Marian E.

    2004-01-01

    Two chimpanzees, 1535 and 1536, became persistently infected following inoculation with RNA transcripts from cDNA clones of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Analysis of the HCV genomes from both animals showed an accumulation of amino acid substitutions over time. The appearance of substitutions in the envelope genes was associated with increased antienvelope antibody titers. However, extensive mutations were not incorporated into hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). A comparison of the nonsynonymous subst...

  13. D-Aspartate drinking solution alleviates pain and cognitive impairment in neuropathic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Enza; Luongo, Livio; Guida, Francesca; Marabese, Ida; Romano, Rosaria; Iannotta, Monica; Rossi, Francesca; D'Aniello, Antimo; Stella, Luigi; Marmo, Federica; Usiello, Alessandro; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Maione, Sabatino; de Novellis, Vito

    2016-07-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is a free D-amino acid detected in multiple brain regions and putative precursor of endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) acting as agonist at NMDA receptors. In this study, we investigated whether D-Asp (20 mM) in drinking solution for 1 month affects pain responses and pain-related emotional, and cognitive behaviour in a model of neuropathic pain induced by the spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve in mice. SNI mice developed mechanical allodynia and motor coordination impairment 30 days after SNI surgery. SNI mice showed cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour, reduced sociability in the three chamber sociability paradigm, increased expression of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor and Homer 1a in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The expression of (post synaptic density) PSD-95 and Shank 1was instead unaffected in the mPFC of the SNI mice. Treatment with D-Asp drinking solution, started right after the SNI (day 0), alleviated mechanical allodynia, improved cognition and motor coordination and increased social interaction. D-Asp also restored the levels of extracellular D-Asp, Homer 1a and NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor to physiological levels and reduced Shank1 and PSD-95 protein levels in the mPFC. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant used also to alleviate neuropathic pain in humans, reverted mechanical allodynia and cognitive impairment, and unlike D-Asp, was effective in reducing depression and anxiety-like behaviour in the SNI mice and increased PSD protein level. Altogether these findings demonstrate that D-Asp improves sensorial, motor and cognitive-like symptoms related to chronic pain possibly through glutamate neurotransmission normalization in neuropathic mice. PMID:27115160

  14. Nitric oxide alleviates arsenic-induced toxic effects in ridged Luffa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2013-10-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether exogenous addition of nitric oxide (NO) as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates arsenic (As) toxicity in Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. seedlings. Arsenic (5 and 50 μM) declined growth of Luffa seedlings which was accompanied by significant accumulation of As. SNP (100 μM) protected Luffa seedlings against As toxicity as it declined As accumulation significantly. The photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Fm/F0 and qP were decreased while NPQ was raised by As. However, the toxic effects of As on photosynthesis were significantly ameliorated by SNP. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As, however, these oxidative indices were diminished significantly in the presence of SNP. As treatment stimulated the activities of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST, and AsA content and AsA/DHA ratio were decreased. Upon SNP addition, along with further rise in SOD and CAT activity, APX and GST activity, and levels of AsA and AsA/DHA ratio were restored considerably. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, APX and GST activities and decreased AsA content, hence led to the oxidative stress. However, the addition of SNP protected seedlings against As stress by regulating As accumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.

  15. The alleviative effect of xanthan gum on pain%黄原胶对疼痛的缓解作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵华荣; 韩冠英; 凌沛学; 赵丽娟; 张天民

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the alleviative effect of xanthan gum(XG)on pain. Methods Pain models were induced through the mice intraperitoneal injected with acetic acid and the left knees of the rats intra-articularly injected with monosodium iodoacetate ( MIA ), respectively. The alleviative effect of XG on pain was evaluated through pain related behaviors tests. Results XG significantly prolonged the initial appearance of writhing response,and meanwhile it reduced the times of writhing response within 15 min after exposure of the mice to acetic acid. Intra-articular injection of XG significantly increased the paw withdrawal threshold and weight bearing of the MIA-treated limbs. Conclusion XG had obvious alleviative effect on pain.%目的 研究黄原胶对疼痛的缓解作用.方法 分别采用小鼠腹腔注射醋酸及大鼠左后肢关节腔注射碘乙酸钠诱导疼痛模型,前者以小鼠扭体反应潜伏期和扭体次数为指标,后者以大鼠左后肢机械缩足阈值和承重分布为指标,评价黄原胶对疼痛的缓解作用.结果 与生理盐水组相比,黄原胶可明显延长小鼠扭体反应的潜伏期并减少扭体次数,显著抑制碘乙酸钠诱导的大鼠左后肢机械缩足阈值及承重分布的降低.结论 黄原胶可显著缓解疼痛.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  17. Thermal treatment and leaching of biochar alleviates plant growth inhibition from mobile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nigel V; Sackett, Tara E; Thomas, Sean C

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of plant responses to biochar boast positive average effects of between 10 and 40%. Plant responses, however, vary greatly across systems, and null or negative biochar effects are increasingly reported. The mechanisms responsible for such responses remain unclear. In a glasshouse experiment we tested the effects of three forestry residue wood biochars, applied at five dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 t/ha) to a temperate forest drystic cambisol as direct surface applications and as complete soil mixes on the herbaceous pioneers Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens. Null and negative effects of biochar on growth were found in most cases. One potential cause for null and negative plant responses to biochar is plant exposure to mobile compounds produced during pyrolysis that leach or evolve following additions of biochars to soil. In a second glasshouse experiment we examined the effects of simple leaching and heating techniques to ameliorate potentially phytotoxic effects of volatile and leachable compounds released from biochar. We used Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to qualitatively describe organic compounds in both biochar (through headspace extraction), and in the water leachates (through direct injection). Convection heating and water leaching of biochar prior to application alleviated growth inhibition. Additionally, growth was inhibited when filtrate from water-leached biochar was applied following germination. SPME-GC-MS detected primarily short-chained carboxylic acids and phenolics in both the leachates and solid chars, with relatively high concentrations of several known phytotoxic compounds including acetic acid, butyric acid, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and benzoic acid. We speculate that variable plant responses to phytotoxic organic compounds leached from biochars may largely explain negative plant growth responses and also account for strongly species-specific patterns of plant

  18. beta-oxidation modulates metabolic competition between eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid regulating prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in rat hepatocytes-Kupffer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Tao; Winterthun, Synnøve;

    2010-01-01

    and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for PGE(2) synthesis in a rat hepatocyte-Kupffer cell (HPC/KC) co-culture system when the cellular oxidation capacity was enhanced by exogenous l-carnitine. We demonstrate that in the absence of l-carnitine, 1) beta-oxidation rates of EPA and AA were comparable in HPCs and in KCs; 2) AA......) significantly increased beta-oxidation of EPA in HPCs, but only marginally elevated the oxidation of AA in HPCs and the oxidation of both fatty acids in KCs; 2) decreased the esterification, but did not alter the preferential incorporation of AA into glycerolipids; and 3) alleviated the significant competitive...... and not EPA was preferentially incorporated into glycerolipids; and 3) addition of EPA significantly decreased AA-dependent PGE(2) synthesis in HPCs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in co-cultured HPCs/KCs. However, enhancing the cellular oxidation capacity by the addition of l-carnitine 1...

  19. Absence of functional alternative complement pathway alleviates lupus cerebritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jessy J; Jacob, Alexander; Vezina, Paul; Sekine, Hideharu; Gilkeson, Gary S; Quigg, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    The complement inhibitor, Crry, which blocks both the classical and alternative pathways, alleviates CNS disease in the lupus model, MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr (MRL/lpr) mice. To understand the role of the alternative pathway, we studied mice deficient in a key alternative pathway protein, complement factor B (fB). Immune deposits (IgG and C3) were reduced in the brains of MRL/lpr fB-deficient (fB-/-MRL/lpr) compared to fB-sufficient (MRL/lpr) mice, indicating reduced complement activation. Reduced neutrophil infiltration (22% of MRL/lpr mice) and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity was reduced to 33% of MRL/lpr mice) in these mice indicates that the absence of the alternative pathway was neuroprotective. Furthermore, expression of phospho (p)-Akt (0.16+/-0.02 vs. 0.35+/-0.13, pcerebritis. PMID:17523212

  20. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature. PMID:26602678

  1. Personality and Coping in Peruvian volunteers for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.

  2. Music-reading training alleviates crowding with musical notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Wong, Alan C-N

    2016-06-01

    Crowding refers to the disrupted recognition of an object by nearby distractors. Prior work has shown that real-world music-reading experts experience reduced crowding specifically for musical stimuli. However, it is unclear whether music-reading training reduced the magnitude of crowding or whether individuals showing less crowding are more likely to learn and excel in music reading later. To examine the first possibility, we tested whether crowding can be alleviated by music-reading training in the laboratory. Intermediate-level music readers completed 8 hr of music-reading training within 2 weeks. Their threshold duration for reading musical notes dropped by 44.1% after training to a level comparable with that of extant expert music readers. Importantly, crowding was reduced with musical stimuli but not with the nonmusical stimuli Landolt Cs. In sum, the reduced crowding for musical stimuli in expert music readers can be explained by music-reading training. PMID:27322085

  3. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B; Zhao, Z G; Zhang, L M; Li, S G; Niu, C Y

    2015-07-01

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H2S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H2S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H2S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H2S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H2S and H2S-mediated inflammation.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Li, S.G.; Niu, C.Y. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei Zhangjiakou (China)

    2015-04-28

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H{sub 2}S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H{sub 2}S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H{sub 2}S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H{sub 2}S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}S-mediated inflammation.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage, and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage. Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H2S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, interleukin (IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H2S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H2S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H2S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H2S and H2S-mediated inflammation.

  6. Ginkgolide B functions as a determinant constituent of Ginkgolides in alleviating lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fugen; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Guojun; Yao, Hongyi; Xu, Chengyun; Xiao, Weiqiang; Wu, Junsong; Wu, Ximei

    2016-07-01

    Ginkgolides are the major bioactive components of Ginkgo biloba extracts, however, the exact constituents of Ginkgolides contributing to their pharmacological effects remain unknown. Herein, we have determined the anti-inflammatory effects of Ginkgolide B (GB) and Ginkgolides mixture (GM) at equivalent dosages against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. RAW 264.7 cell culture model and mouse model of LPS-induced lung injury were used to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of GB and GM, respectively. In RAW 264.7 cells, GB and GM at equivalent dosages exhibit an identical capacity to attenuate LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein expression and subsequent NO production. Likewise, GB and GM possess almost the same potency in attenuating LPS-induced expression and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (p65) and subsequent increases in tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels. In LPS-induced pulmonary injury, GB and GM at the equivalent dosages have equal efficiency in attenuating the accumulation of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages, and in improving the histological damage of lungs. Moreover, GB and GM at equivalent dosages decrease the exudation of plasma protein to the same degree, whereas GM is superior to GB in alleviating myeloperoxidase activities. Finally, though GB and GM at equivalent dosages appear to reduce LPS-induced IL-1β mRNA and protein levels and IL-10 protein levels to the same degree, GM is more potent than GB to attenuate the IL-10 mRNA levels. Taken together, this study demonstrates that GB functions as the determinant constituent of Ginkgolides in alleviating LPS-induced lung injury. PMID:27261579

  7. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H2S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H2S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H2S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H2S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H2S and H2S-mediated inflammation

  8. The mechanism underlying alpinetin-mediated alleviation of pancreatitis-associated lung injury through upregulating aquaporin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xingsi; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Quan; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Biao; Li, Bo; Wei, Yangchao; Zhai, Run; Liang, Zhiqing; He, Songqing; Tang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by its acute onset, critical condition, poor prognosis, and high mortality rate, severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause multiple organ failure at its early stage, particularly acute lung injury (ALI). The pathogenesis of ALI is diffuse alveolar damage, including an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability, a decrease in compliance, and invasion of many inflammatory cells. Corticosteroids are the main treatment method for ALI; however, the associated high toxicity and side effects induce pain in patients. Recent studies show that the effective components in many traditional Chinese medicines can effectively inhibit inflammation with few side effects, which can decrease the complications caused by steroid consumption. Based on these observations, the main objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of alpinetin, which is a flavonoid extracted from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, on treating lung injury induced by SAP and to explore the mechanism underlying the alpinetin-mediated decrease in the extent of ALI. In this study, we have shown through in vitro experiments that a therapeutic dose of alpinetin can promote human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. We have also shown via in vitro and in vivo experiments that alpinetin upregulates aquaporin-1 and, thereby, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α expression as well as reduces the degree of lung injury. Overall, our study shows that alpinetin alleviates SAP-induced ALI. The likely molecular mechanism includes upregulated aquaporin expression, which inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α and, thus, alleviates SAP-induced ALI. PMID:26966354

  9. In vitro precultivation alleviates post-implantation inflammation and enhances development of tissue-engineered tubular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Xusong; Zhou Guangdong; Liu Wei; Zhang Wenjie; Cui Lei; Cao Yilin [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Cen Lian, E-mail: guangdongzhou@126.co, E-mail: yilincao@yahoo.co [National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Tissue-engineered tubular cartilage is a promising graft for tracheal reconstruction. But polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid (PLA/PGA) fibers, the frequently used scaffolds for cartilage engineering, often elicit an obvious inflammation response following implantation into immunocompetent animals. We propose that the inflammation could be alleviated by in vitro precultivation. In this study, after in vitro culture for either 2 days (direct implantation group (DI)) or for 2 weeks (precultivation implantation group (PI)), autologous tubular chondrocyte-PLA/PGA constructs were subcutaneously implanted into rabbits. In the PI group, after 2 weeks of precultivation, most of the fibers were found to be completely embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by the chondrocytes. Importantly, no obvious inflammatory reaction was observed after in vivo implantation and homogeneous cartilage-like tissue was formed with biomechanical properties close to native tracheal cartilage at 4 weeks post-implantation. In the DI group, however, an obvious inflammatory reaction was observed within and around the cell-scaffold constructs at 1 week implantation and only sporadic cartilage islands separated by fibrous tissue were observed at 4 weeks. These results demonstrated that the post-implantation inflammatory reaction could be alleviated by in vitro precultivation, which contributes to the formation of satisfactory tubular cartilage for tracheal reconstruction.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content of caffeoylquinic acids, trigonelline and N-methylpyridinium, and reduction of DNA damage by decreasing spontaneous DNA strand breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following an application from Tchibo GmbH, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21 and reduction of DNA damage by decreasing spontaneous DNA strand breaks. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health ...

  11. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd{sup 2+} concentration and rescued Cd{sup 2+}-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd{sup 2+} stress conditions, NAA increased Cd{sup 2+} retention in the roots and most Cd{sup 2+} in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd{sup 2+}, whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd{sup 2+} retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd{sup 2+} concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd{sup 2+} or NAA + Cd{sup 2+} treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd{sup 2+} in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd{sup 2+} toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd{sup 2+} fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd{sup 2+} from roots to shoots.

  12. Glutamine treatment decreases plasma and lymph cytotoxicity during sepsis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemin Wang; Ying Xue; Menfan Liang; Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine (Gin) is considered as a conditionally essential amino acid.Pharmacological supplementation of Gln helps to maintain the intestinal mucosal barrier,modulate cytokine production,and prevent organ injury during sepsis.Our previous study demonstrated the different effects of Gln on macrophage cytokine production in vitro or in vivo.The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mechanism of Gln treatment to protect cells and modulate inflammation during sepsis in vivo.The results showed that administration of Gln significantly attenuated plasma-induced macrophage cytokine production and endothelial cell necrosis after cecal ligation and puncture in rats.In addition,it preserved human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) viability and migration ability. Gln treatment also reduced lymph cytotoxicity by restoring macrophage tumor necrosis factor-α production, maintainingHUVEC viability,and decreasing endothelial cell necrosis.Mesenteric lymph duct ligation did not alleviate plasma cytotoxicity. Plasma lipopolysaccharide and D-lactate levels were suppressed after Gln treatment.Taken together,these results indicated that Gin administration can protect cells by attenuating the cytotoxicity of plasma and mesenteric lymph during sepsis.

  13. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits the recruitment of ARNT to DNA, resulting in the decrease of CYP1A1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Marumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori [Laboratory of Toxicology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N18 W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Ishizuka, Mayumi, E-mail: ishizum@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N18 W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AHR and ARNT transcriptionally regulate genes related to metabolisms such as CYP1A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on the function of AHR/ARNT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA inhibited the recruitment of ARNT, not AHR, to the regulatory region of CYP1A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It resulted in a reduction of constitutive expression of CYP1A1 to less than half. -- Abstract: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are well-conserved transcription factors among species. However, there are a very limited number of reports on the physiological function of AHR, particularly on the regulation of AHR by endogenous compounds. We hence investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene transcription as a model of AHR-regulated transcription mechanisms in HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced transactivation and expression of CYP1A1 mRNA to less than half of its control value, and this inhibitory effect was mediated by RAR{alpha}. The result of chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that treatment with atRA at 1-100 nM drastically inhibited the recruitment of ARNT to DNA regions containing xenobiotic responsive elements. In conclusion, atRA at physiological concentrations could reduce AHR-mediated gene transcription via the inhibition of recruitment of ARNT to relevant DNA regions.

  14. Cobalt alleviates GA-induced programmed cell death in wheat aleurone layers via the regulation of H2O2 production and heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhu; Li, Jiale; Wang, Fangquan; Li, Feng; Yang, Jun; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  15. Cobalt Alleviates GA-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Wheat Aleurone Layers via the Regulation of H2O2 Production and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA-induced programmed cell death (PCD in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO or bilirubin (BR, two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX, substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  16. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model.This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3-0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days.The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis.Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response.

  17. Assessing the Effects of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme on Alleviating the Health Payment-Induced Poverty in Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianmin; Zhou, Zhongliang; Yan, Jue; Lai, Sha; Xu, Yongjian; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease has become one of the key causes of falling into poverty in rural China. The poor households are even more likely to suffer. The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) has been implemented to provide rural residents financial protection against health risks. This study aims to assess the effect of the NCMS on alleviating health payment-induced poverty in the Shaanxi Province of China. Methods The data was drawn from the 5th National Health Service Survey of Shaanxi Province, conducted in 2013. In total, 41,037 individuals covered by NCMS were selected. Poverty headcount ratio (HCR), poverty gap and mean positive poverty gap were used for measuring the incidence, depth and intensity of poverty, respectively. The differences on poverty measures pre- and post- insurance reimbursement indicate the effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty under NCMS. Results For the general insured, 5.81% of households fell below the national poverty line owing to the health payment; this HCR dropped to 4.84% after insurance reimbursement. The poverty HCRs for the insured that had hospitalization in the past year dropped from 7.50% to 2.09% after reimbursement. With the NCMS compensation, the poverty gap declined from 42.90 Yuan to 34.49 Yuan (19.60% decreased) for the general insured and from 57.48 Yuan to 10.01 Yuan (82.59% decreased) for the hospital admission insured. The mean positive poverty gap declined 3.56% and 37.40% for two samples, respectively. Conclusion The NCMS could alleviate the health payment-induced poverty. The effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty is greater for hospital admission insured than for general insured, mainly because NCMS compensates for serious diseases. Our study suggests that a more comprehensive insurance benefit package design could further improve the effectiveness of poverty alleviation. PMID:27380417

  18. Assessing the Effects of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme on Alleviating the Health Payment-Induced Poverty in Shaanxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yang

    Full Text Available Disease has become one of the key causes of falling into poverty in rural China. The poor households are even more likely to suffer. The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS has been implemented to provide rural residents financial protection against health risks. This study aims to assess the effect of the NCMS on alleviating health payment-induced poverty in the Shaanxi Province of China.The data was drawn from the 5th National Health Service Survey of Shaanxi Province, conducted in 2013. In total, 41,037 individuals covered by NCMS were selected. Poverty headcount ratio (HCR, poverty gap and mean positive poverty gap were used for measuring the incidence, depth and intensity of poverty, respectively. The differences on poverty measures pre- and post- insurance reimbursement indicate the effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty under NCMS.For the general insured, 5.81% of households fell below the national poverty line owing to the health payment; this HCR dropped to 4.84% after insurance reimbursement. The poverty HCRs for the insured that had hospitalization in the past year dropped from 7.50% to 2.09% after reimbursement. With the NCMS compensation, the poverty gap declined from 42.90 Yuan to 34.49 Yuan (19.60% decreased for the general insured and from 57.48 Yuan to 10.01 Yuan (82.59% decreased for the hospital admission insured. The mean positive poverty gap declined 3.56% and 37.40% for two samples, respectively.The NCMS could alleviate the health payment-induced poverty. The effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty is greater for hospital admission insured than for general insured, mainly because NCMS compensates for serious diseases. Our study suggests that a more comprehensive insurance benefit package design could further improve the effectiveness of poverty alleviation.

  19. Alleviation of membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor with electrochemical oxidation mediated by in-situ free chlorine generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chong Min; Tobino, Tomohiro; Cho, Kangwoo; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The control of membrane fouling is still the biggest challenge that membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment faces with. In this report, we evince that an in-situ electrochemical free chlorine generation is effective for membrane fouling mitigation. An electrochemical oxidation (EO) apparatus with perforated Ti/IrO2 anodes and Ti/Pt cathodes was integrated into a conventional MBR with microfiltration module (EO-MBR). The membrane fouling characteristics of EO-MBR fed with synthetic wastewater were monitored for about 2 months in comparison to control MBRs. In the EO-MBR at a direct current density of 0.4 mA/cm(2), the frequency of membrane fouling when the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) reached 30 kPa was effectively reduced by 40% under a physical membrane cleaning regime. The evolution patterns of TMP together with hydraulic resistance analysis based on resistance-in-series model indicated that the electrochemically generated active chlorine alleviated the physically irremovable membrane fouling. Further analysis on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of sludge cake layer (SCL) revealed significant reductions of protein contents in soluble EPS and fluorescence emission intensities from humic acids and other fluorophores in bound EPS, which in-turn would decrease the hydrophobic accumulation of organic foulants on membrane pores. The chlorine dosage from the EO apparatus was estimated to be 4.7 mg Cl2/g MLVSS/day and the overall physicochemical properties (bio-solids concentration, floc diameter, zeta-potential) as well as the microbial activity in terms of specific oxygen utilization rate and removal efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (>97%) were not affected significantly. A T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis suggested noticeable shifts in microbial community both in mixed liquor and sludge cake layer. Consequently, our electrochemical chlorination would be an efficient fouling control strategy in membrane

  20. Polyhydroxyfullerene binds cadmium ions and alleviates metal-induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Arunava; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Seena, Sahadevan; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2014-09-01

    The water-soluble polyhydroxyfullerene (PHF) is a functionalized carbon nanomaterial with several industrial and commercial applications. There have been controversial reports on the toxicity and/or antioxidant properties of fullerenes and their derivatives. Conversely, metals have been recognized as toxic mainly due to their ability to induce oxidative stress in living organisms. We investigated the interactive effects of PHF and cadmium ions (Cd) on the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by exposing cells to Cd (≤5 mg liter(-1)) in the absence or presence of PHF (≤500 mg liter(-1)) at different pHs (5.8 to 6.8). In the absence of Cd, PHF stimulated yeast growth up to 10.4%. Cd inhibited growth up to 79.7%, induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and promoted plasma membrane disruption in a dose- and pH-dependent manner. The negative effects of Cd on growth were attenuated by the presence of PHF, and maximum growth recovery (53.8%) was obtained at the highest PHF concentration and pH. The coexposure to Cd and PHF decreased ROS accumulation up to 36.7% and membrane disruption up to 30.7% in a dose- and pH-dependent manner. Two mechanisms helped to explain the role of PHF in alleviating Cd toxicity to yeasts: PHF decreased Cd-induced oxidative stress and bound significant amounts of Cd in the extracellular medium, reducing its bioavailability to the cells.

  1. Mechanisms involved in alleviation of intestinal inflammation by bifidobacterium breve soluble factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Heuvelin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Soluble factors released by Bifidobacterium breve C50 (Bb alleviate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells, but their effect on intestinal epithelium remains elusive. To decipher the mechanisms accounting for the cross-talk between bacteria/soluble factors and intestinal epithelium, we measured the capacity of the bacteria, its conditioned medium (Bb-CM and other Gram(+ commensal bacteria to dampen inflammatory chemokine secretion. METHODS: TNFalpha-induced chemokine (CXCL8 secretion and alteration of NF-kappaB and AP-1 signalling pathways by Bb were studied by EMSA, confocal microscopy and western blotting. Anti-inflammatory capacity was also tested in vivo in a model of TNBS-induced colitis in mice. RESULTS: Bb and Bb-CM, but not other commensal bacteria, induced a time and dose-dependent inhibition of CXCL8 secretion by epithelial cells driven by both AP-1 and NF-kappaB transcription pathways and implying decreased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and IkappaB-alpha molecules. In TNBS-induced colitis in mice, Bb-CM decreased the colitis score and inflammatory cytokine expression, an effect reproduced by dendritic cell conditioning with Bb-CM. CONCLUSIONS: Bb and secreted soluble factors contribute positively to intestinal homeostasis by attenuating chemokine production. The results indicate that Bb down regulate inflammation at the epithelial level by inhibiting phosphorylations involved in inflammatory processes and by protective conditioning of dendritic cells.

  2. Alleviation of capsular formations on silicone implants in rats using biomembrane-mimicking coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Ung; Ham, Jiyeon; Kim, Sukwha; Seo, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Lee, Seonju; Min, Hye Jeong; Choi, Sunghyun; Choi, Ra Mi; Kim, Heejin; Oh, Sohee; Hur, Ji An; Choi, Tae Hyun; Lee, Yan

    2014-10-01

    Despite their popular use in breast augmentation and reconstruction surgeries, the limited biocompatibility of silicone implants can induce severe side effects, including capsular contracture - an excessive foreign body reaction that forms a tight and hard fibrous capsule around the implant. This study examines the effects of using biomembrane-mimicking surface coatings to prevent capsular formations on silicone implants. The covalently attached biomembrane-mimicking polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), prevented nonspecific protein adsorption and fibroblast adhesion on the silicone surface. More importantly, in vivo capsule formations around PMPC-grafted silicone implants in rats were significantly thinner and exhibited lower collagen densities and more regular collagen alignments than bare silicone implants. The observed decrease in α-smooth muscle actin also supported the alleviation of capsular formations by the biomembrane-mimicking coating. Decreases in inflammation-related cells, myeloperoxidase and transforming growth factor-β resulted in reduced inflammation in the capsular tissue. The biomembrane-mimicking coatings used on these silicone implants demonstrate great potential for preventing capsular contracture and developing biocompatible materials for various biomedical applications.

  3. Sublethal concentrations of salicylic acid decrease the formation of reactive oxygen species but maintain an increased nitric oxide production in the root apex of the ethylene-insensitive never ripe tomato mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, Irma; Poór, Péter; Gémes, Katalin

    2011-09-01

    The pattern of salicylic acid (SA)-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were different in the apex of adventitious roots in wild-type and in the ethylene-insensitive never ripe (Nr) mutants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Ailsa Craig). ROS were upregulated, while NO remained at the control level in apical root tissues of wildtype plants exposed to sublethal concentrations of SA. In contrast, Nr plants expressing a defective ethylene receptor displayed a reduced level of RO S and a higher NO content in the apical root cells. In wild-type plants NO production seems to be RO S(H2O2)-dependent at cell death-inducing concentrations of SA, indicating that ROS and NO may interact to trigger oxidative cell death. In the absence of significant RO S accumulation, the increased NO production caused moderate reduction in cell viability in root apex of Nr plants exposed to 10(-3) M SA. This suggests that a functional ethylene signaling pathway is necessary for the control of ROS and NO production induced by SA.

  4. Active gust load alleviation system for flexible aircraft: Mixed feedforward/feedback approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Hromcik, Martin; Hanis, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft concept seems as a highly promising configuration for future high capacity airliners which suffers from reduced stiffness for disturbance loads such as gusts. A robust feedforward gust load alleviation system (GLAS) was developed to alleviate...

  5. Efficacy of mineral and organic adsorbent in alleviating harmful effects of zearalenone on pig blood serum protein status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of zearalenone on blood serum protein status and the feasibility of utilizing a modified clinoptilolite and esterified glucomannan to alleviate its harmful effects was examined in two trials, 31 and 29 days long, conducted on a total of 64 pigs (32 each 60 days old, divided into four groups, each containing 8 pigs. Control groups (K received noncontaminated feed, while experimental groups received feed supplemented with 3.84 mg/kg in the first trial and 5.12 mg/kg of zearalenone in the second trial. Pigs in the first experimental groups (O-I were given feed with toxin only. Modified clinoptilolite in the amount of 0.2% and esterified glucomannan in the amount of 0.1% were introduced in contaminated feed of the second (O-II and the third experimental groups (O-III of both trials. With the use of contaminated feed, a declining trend of the A/G ratio was observed: decrease of albumin content and increase of globulin content on account of the _ globulin fraction. A decrease of the _ globulin fraction was detected at the same time. Total protein concentration was also lower. The application of adsorbents successfully alleviated harmful effects of the F-2 toxin on the affected biochemical parameters in blood serum.

  6. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gust load alleviation (GLA tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and verified. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compensating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude saturations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  7. 扶贫研究概述%On Poverty Alleviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖立新

    2011-01-01

    贫困是一个伴随着人类生存和发展的历史性问题;同时,贫困也是一个存在于发达国家和发展中国家的世界性问题。2011年起,我国对农村低收入人口全面实施扶贫政策,实行新的扶贫标准,新标准提高到人均1500元,扶贫对象覆盖9000万人左右,标志着我国扶贫开发进入一个新阶段。但这也意味着我国扶贫工作的长期性、艰巨性。为此,作者对贫困、扶贫的国内外研究现状进行梳理,以期为相关的研究和扶贫实践提供理论借鉴和实践借鉴。%Poverty is a historical problem that accompanied by survival and development of humankind.Meanwhile,poverty is also a world-wide problem that exists in developed and developing countries.Since 2011,China has carried out policies of poverty alleviation on

  8. Icam-1 targeted nanogels loaded with dexamethasone alleviate pulmonary inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carme Coll Ferrer

    Full Text Available Lysozyme dextran nanogels (NG have great potential in vitro as a drug delivery platform, combining simple chemistry with rapid uptake and cargo release in target cells with "stealth" properties and low toxicity. In this work, we study for the first time the potential of targeted NG as a drug delivery platform in vivo to alleviate acute pulmonary inflammation in animal model of LPS-induced lung injury. NG are targeted to the endothelium via conjugation with an antibody (Ab directed to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM-NG, whereas IgG conjugated NG (IgG-NG are used for control formulations. The amount of Ab conjugated to the NG and distribution in the body after intravenous (IV injection have been quantitatively analyzed using a tracer isotope-labeled [125I]IgG. As a proof of concept, Ab-NG are loaded with dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory therapeutic, and the drug uptake and release kinetics are measured by HPLC. In vivo studies in mice showed that: i ICAM-NG accumulates in mouse lungs (∼120% ID/g vs ∼15% ID/g of IgG-NG; and, ii DEX encapsulated in ICAM-NG, but not in IgG-NG practically blocks LPS-induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory cell adhesion molecules including ICAM-1 in the pulmonary inflammation.

  9. Alleviating bias leads to accurate and personalized recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Wang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chen, Guang

    2013-11-01

    Recommendation bias towards objects has been found to have an impact on personalized recommendation, since objects present heterogeneous characteristics in some network-based recommender systems. In this article, based on a biased heat conduction recommendation algorithm (BHC) which considers the heterogeneity of the target objects, we propose a heterogeneous heat conduction algorithm (HHC), by further taking the heterogeneity of the source objects into account. Tested on three real datasets, the Netflix, RYM and MovieLens, the HHC algorithm is found to present better recommendation in both the accuracy and diversity than two benchmark algorithms, i.e., the original BHC and a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), while not requiring any other accessorial information or parameter. Moreover, the HHC algorithm also elevates the recommendation accuracy on cold objects, referring to the so-called cold-start problem. Eigenvalue analyses show that, the HHC algorithm effectively alleviates the recommendation bias towards objects with different level of popularity, which is beneficial to solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma.

  10. Alleviating the tension at low multipole through Axion Monodromy

    CERN Document Server

    Meerburg, P Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There exists some tension on large scales between the Planck data and the LCDM concordance model of the Universe, which has been amplified by the recently claimed discovery of non-zero tensor to scalar ratio $r$. At the same time, the current best-fit value of $r$ suggests large field inflation delta phi>M_p, which requires a UV complete description of inflation. A very promising working example that predicts large tensor modes and can be UV completed is axion monodromy inflation. This realization of inflation naturally produces oscillating features, as consequence of a broken shift symmetry. We analyse a combination of Planck, ACT, SPT, WMAP low l polarization and BICEP2 data, and show a long wavelength feature from a periodic potential can alleviate the tension at low multipoles with an improvement delta chi^2 ~2.5-4 per degree of freedom, depending on the level of foreground subtraction. As with an introduction of running, one expects that any scale dependence should lead to a worsened fit at high multipol...

  11. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Bo; Wu Zhigang; Yang Chao

    2016-01-01

    Gust load alleviation (GLA) tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and veri-fied. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compen-sating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude sat-urations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  12. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  13. Endogenous nitric oxide mediates alleviation of cadmium toxicity induced by calcium in rice seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhang; Zhen Chen; Cheng Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on rice seedling growth under cadmium chloride (CdCl2) stress,as well as the possible role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in this process,was studied.The growth of rice seedlings was seriously inhibited by CdCl2,and the inhibition was significantly mitigated by CaCl2.However,hemoglobin (Hb) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) weakened the promotion effect of CaCl2.The resuhs of NO fluorescence localization suggest that growth accelerated by CaCl2 might be associated with elevated NO levels.The content of Cd,protein thiols (PBT),and nonprotein thiols (NPT) in cell walls,cell organelles,and soluble fractions,respectively,of rice seedlings decreased considerably in the presence of CaCl2,whereas the content of pectin,hemicellulose 1 (HC1),and hemicellulose 2 (HC2) increased significantly.Elimination of endogenous NO in Cd+Ca treatment could promote the transportation of Cd2+ to cell organelles and soluble fractions and increase the content of NPT and PBT in leaves.In addition,transportation of Cd2+ to cell organelles and soluble fractions was retarded in roots,the content of NPT increased,and the content of PBT decreased.With elimination of endogenous NO in Cd+Ca treatment,the content of pectin,HC 1,and HC2 decreased significantly.Thus,Ca may alleviate Cd toxicity via endogenous NO with variation in the levels of NPT,PBT,and matrix polysaccharides.

  14. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fiebich, Bernd L.; Amaya G. Vinuesa; Gonzalo Sanchez-Duffhues; Juan A. Collado; Thorsten Rose; Jörn Menthe; Eduardo Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce...

  15. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Openshaw, Keith [2430 Shenandoah St., Vienna, VA 22180 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  16. Cellular Recycling of Proteins in Seed Dormancy Alleviation and Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Krystyna; Stawska, Marlena

    2016-01-01

    Each step of the seed-to-seed cycle of plant development including seed germination is characterized by a specific set of proteins. The continual renewal and/or replacement of these biomolecules are crucial for optimal plant adaptation. As proteins are the main effectors inside the cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partially achieved by specific proteolytic pathways via multicatalytic protease complexes defined as 20S and 26S proteasomes. In plants, the 20S proteasome is responsible for degradation of carbonylated proteins, while the 26S being a part of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is known to be involved in proteolysis of phytohormone signaling regulators. On the other hand, the role of translational control of plant development is also well-documented, especially in the context of pollen tube growth and light signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in seed biology, the sequence of cellular events that determine if the seed can germinate or not are still far from complete understanding. The role and mechanisms of regulation of proteome composition during processes occurring in the plant's photosynthetic tissues have been well-characterized since many years, but in non-photosynthetic seeds it has emerged as a tempting research task only since the last decade. This review discusses the recent discoveries providing insights into the role of protein turnover in seed dormancy alleviation, and germination, with a focus on the control of translation and proteasomal proteolysis. The presented novel data of translatome profiling in seeds highlighted that post-transcriptional regulation of germination results from a timely regulated initiation of translation. In addition, the importance of 26S proteasome in the degradation of regulatory elements of cellular signaling and that of the 20S complex in proteolysis of specific carbonylated proteins in hormonal- and light-dependent processes occurring in seeds is discussed. Based on the

  17. INTRATHYMIC INOCULATION OF LIVER SPECIFIC ANTIGEN ALLEVIATES LIVER TRANSPLANT REJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾长库; 郑树森; 朱有法

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of liver specific antigen (LSA) on liver allotransplantation rejection. Methods Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in this study. Group Ⅰ: syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ: acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar). Group Ⅲ: thymic inoculation of SD rat LSA day 7 before transplantation. The observation of general condition and survival time, rejection grades and the NF-κB activity of splenocytes were used to analyze severity of acute rejection and immune state of animals in different groups. Results The general condition of group Ⅰ was fair post transplantation with no sign of rejection. All recipients of group Ⅱ died within days 9 to 13 post transplantation with median survival time of 10.7 ±1.37 days. As for group Ⅲ, 5 out of 6 recipients survived for a long period with remarkably better general condition than that of group Ⅱ. Its rejection grades were significantly lower than group Ⅱ (P< 0.05).NF-κB activity was only detected in group Ⅰ between days 5 and 7 after transplantation, whereas high activity of NF-κB was detected at all points in group Ⅱ and low NF-κB activity was detected in group Ⅲ which was significantly lower than that of group Ⅱ (P < 0.05). Conclusions LSA is an important transplantation antigen directly involved in the immunorejection of liver transplantation. Intrathymic inoculation of LSA can alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation,grafts survive for a period of time thereby, allowing a novel way to liver transplantation immunotolerance.

  18. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  19. Building synergies between climate change mitigation and energy poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though energy poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation are inextricably linked policy goals, they have remained as relatively disconnected fields of research inquiry and policy development. Acknowledging this gap, this paper explores the mainstream academic and policy literatures to provide a taxonomy of interactions and identify synergies and trade-offs between them. The most important trade-off identified is the potential increase in energy poverty levels as a result of strong climate change action if the internalisation of the external costs of carbon emissions is not offset by efficiency gains. The most significant synergy was found in deep energy efficiency in buildings. The paper argues that neither of the two problems – deep reductions in GHG emissions by mid-century, and energy poverty eradication – is likely to be solved fully on their own merit, while joining the two policy goals may provide a very solid case for deep efficiency improvements. Thus, the paper calls for a strong integration of these two policy goals (plus other key related benefits like energy security or employment), in order to provide sufficient policy motivation to mobilise a wide-scale implementation of deep energy efficiency standards. - Highlights: ► A taxonomy of interactions between climate change and energy poverty is offered. ► Energy poverty levels may increase as a result of strong climate change action. ► However, strong synergies are offered by deep improvements of energy efficiency. ► Access to modern energy carriers is a key requirement in developing countries. ► Sufficiently solving both problems requires the integration of policy goals.

  20. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian [Department of Pathobiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahzamani, Mehran [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, E-mail: dr-ashrafzadeh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Amin [Department of Surgery, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khansari, Mohammadreza [Department of Physiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  1. Running Exercise Alleviates Pain and Promotes Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls. The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF and nucleus pulposus (NP. Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use.

  2. Optogenetic Silencing of Nav1.8-Positive Afferents Alleviates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Ihab; Beaudry, Hélène; Ase, Ariel R; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Séguéla, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel transgenic mouse model in which the terminals of peripheral nociceptors can be silenced optogenetically with high spatiotemporal precision, leading to the alleviation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Inhibitory archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) proton pumps were delivered to Nav1.8(+) primary afferents using the Nav1.8-Cre driver line. Arch expression covered both peptidergic and nonpeptidergic nociceptors and yellow light stimulation reliably blocked electrically induced action potentials in DRG neurons. Acute transdermal illumination of the hindpaws of Nav1.8-Arch(+) mice significantly reduced mechanical allodynia under inflammatory conditions, while basal mechanical sensitivity was not affected by the optical stimulation. Arch-driven hyperpolarization of nociceptive terminals was sufficient to prevent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-mediated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in double-transgenic Nav1.8-ChR2(+)-Arch(+) mice. Furthermore, prolonged optical silencing of peripheral afferents in anesthetized Nav1.8-Arch(+) mice led to poststimulation analgesia with a significant decrease in mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity under inflammatory and neuropathic conditions. These findings highlight the role of peripheral neuronal inputs in the onset and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity, demonstrate the plasticity of pain pathways even after sensitization has occurred, and support the involvement of Nav1.8(+) afferents in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Together, we present a selective analgesic approach in which genetically identified subsets of peripheral sensory fibers can be remotely and optically inhibited with high temporal resolution, overcoming the compensatory limitations of genetic ablations. PMID:27022626

  3. Environmental enrichment to alleviate maze performance deficits in rats with microcephaly induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant rats received 150 R of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched (EC), standard colony (SC) or impoverished conditions (IC) for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. The effects of X-irradiation and environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores and running time. Further analysis revealed that both EC-SC and EC-IC differences in initial, repetitive and total error scores were significant in X-irradiated animals, whereas only the EC-IC difference in initial and total error scores was significant in sham-irradiated control animals. Total protein, protein/g cortex, total benzodiazepine and muscarine cholinergic receptor bindings, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding/mg protein in the cerebral cortex were decreased in X-irradiated groups, compared to controls, but the effect of environment was not significant in these items. The results confirmed that environmental enrichment is a useful tool to alleviate the learning decrements in prenatally X-irradiated microcephalic rats. (author)

  4. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR causes both remote organ and local injuries. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Methods: Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham, Group II (IR, and Group III (IR + tramadol. Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. Results: The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05. In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05, and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05 compared with Group II. Conclusion: From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  5. Alleviation of silver toxicity by calcium chloride (CaCl2) in Lemna gibba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; Gaudreault, Marie-Hélène; Pirastru, Laura; Popovic, Radovan

    2013-10-01

    The toxicity effects of silver (Ag) and the protective role of calcium chloride (CaCl2) was studied in Lemna gibba L. (L. gibba) plants. Silver speciation showed that silver toxicity in L. gibba culture medium can be attributed to free ionic Ag(+) concentration. Frond abscission, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and intracellular uptake of Ag(+) were investigated when L. gibba plants were exposed to AgNO3 concentrations (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μM) supplemented or not by 10 μM CaCl2. An increase in frond abscission, intracellular ROS and intracellular uptake of Ag(+) were detected in L. gibba plants for all tested concentrations of AgNO3 after 24 h treatment. However, addition of 10 μM CaCl2 to the L. gibba culture medium reduced the toxic effects of Ag by decreasing silver uptake into the plant and intracellular ROS formation. The results suggest that Ag-induced toxicity was attributed to Ag(+) accumulation and chloride was able to protect L. gibba plants against Ag toxicity by formation of complexes with Ag and then alleviation of the metal induced oxidative stress. PMID:23974355

  6. Plant species coexistence alleviates the impacts of lead on Zea mays L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruyi Yang; Ling Liu; Shuting Zan; Jianjun Tang; Xin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Whether plant coexistence can reduce the impacts of lead(Pb)on crops in agroecosystems has not been well understood.We conducted a factorial experiment to investigate the effects of weeds coexisting with maize(Zea mays L.)on Pb accumulation in maize and soil microbes at two Pb levels(ambient and 300 mg/kg).Elevated Pb tended to increase the Pb concentration in maize and decreased soil microbial activity(indicated by the average well color development,AWCD),functional group diversity,as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)colonization and vesicle number of maize.Compared to the monoculture,weeds coexisting with maize reduced the Pb concentrations in the root,leaf,sheath and stem of maize at both seedling and mature stages.In maize-weed mixtures,soil microbial activity and functional group diversity tended to increase for both Pb treatments relative to the monoculture.Furthermore,principal component analysis revealed that the soil microbial community structure changed with the introduction of weeds.The highest Pb accumulation in weeds occurred for the elevated Pb treatment in a three species mixture.The results suggest that multiple plant species coexistence could reduce lead accumulation in crop plants and alleviate the negative impacts on soil microbes in polluted land,thereby highlighting the significance of plant diversity in agroecosystems.

  7. The Approaches of Islamic and Conventional Microfinancing for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Livelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Bashar Bhuiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the main illness for sustainable livelihood because it destroyed human basic rights for surviving with minimum opportunities especially political, social stability and economic processes, literature and environment. The aims of this study are to discuss about existing approaches of poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihood. The study found throughout the discussion of the theoretical sources i.e., participatory approaches have determined as a good way of poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihood especially zakat based Islamic mode of financing and Qard-al-Hasan on the basis of spiritual values as an alternative model for poverty alleviation and ensuring sustainable livelihood."

  8. Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kefei; Ma, Jiexian; Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Han, Tao; Wang, Shiyuan; Xie, Youhua; Xie, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in allergic airway diseases, and upregulation of Treg cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-associated cytokines. We also designed a long-acting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 and demonstrated that the optimal dosage form is IL-2(PEG) plus budesonide, which can upregulate Treg cells and ameliorate asthma at a lower dose. The therapeutic effect was faster than treatment with dexamethasone and was effective at a low dose suitable for humans that could last for at least 6 weeks. This study unveils a new therapeutic regimen and suggests that such endogenous Treg therapy could be a useful tool to persistently alleviate asthma. PMID:27527926

  9. Melatonin combined with exercise cannot alleviate cerebral injury in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seunghoon Lee; Kyu-Tae Chang; Yonggeun Hong; Jinhee Shin; Minkyung Lee; Yunkyung Hong; Sang-Kil Lee; Youngjeon Lee; Tserentogtokh Lkhagvasuren; Dong-Wook Kim; Young-Ae Yang

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin combined with exercise can alleviate secondary damage after spinal cord injury in rats. Therefore, it is hypothesized that melatonin combined with exercise can also alleviate ischemic brain damage. In this study, adult rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion after receiving 10 mg/kg melatonin or vehicle subcutaneously twice daily for 14 days. Forced exercise using an animal treadmill was performed at 20 m/min for 30 minutes per day for 6 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion. After middle cerebral artery occlusion, each rat received melatonin combined with exercise, melatonin or exercise alone equally for 7 days until sacrifice. Interestingly, rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise exhibited more severe neurological deficits than those receiving melatonin or exercise alone. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α mRNA in the brain tissue was upregulated in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. Similarly, microtubule associated protein-2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in rats receiving melatonin alone. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (NG2) mRNA expression was significantly decreased in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise as well as in rats receiving exercise alone. Furthermore, neural cell loss in the primary motor cortex was significantly reduced in rats receiving melatonin or exercise alone, but the change was not observed in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. These findings suggest that excessive intervention with melatonin, exercise or their combination may lead to negative effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage.

  10. CDM: is it a ''Win-Win'' strategy for rural poverty alleviation in India?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirohi, S. [Dept. of Economics, Statistics and Management, National Dairy Research Inst., Karnal (Haryana) (India)

    2005-07-01

    This paper seeks to examine whether CDM can merge as an important development strategy to dent poverty in India. The study focuses specifically on rural poverty, due to higher incidence of rural poverty in India and urban poverty being largely, a spill-over of rural poverty. The sustainable development commitment of the CDM projects as specified in their Project Design Document (PDD) are examined for their effectiveness to alleviate poverty in light of the empirical evidence on the factors, policies and strategies that have been instrumental, in the past, in decreasing rural poverty in India. The first section discusses the status of CDM projects in India to get a broad view of the type of projects in the CDM portfolio, followed by an overview of socio-economic development commitments of CDM projects in the second section. The third section acquaints the readers with the dimensions of rural poverty in India to be able to appreciate the discussion on critical issues in poverty alleviation initiatives of CDM projects in the fourth section. The last section presents the conclusions of the paper. (orig.)

  11. Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kefei; Ma, Jiexian; Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Han, Tao; Wang, Shiyuan; Xie, Youhua; Xie, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in allergic airway diseases, and upregulation of Treg cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-associated cytokines. We also designed a long-acting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 and demonstrated that the optimal dosage form is IL-2(PEG) plus budesonide, which can upregulate Treg cells and ameliorate asthma at a lower dose. The therapeutic effect was faster than treatment with dexamethasone and was effective at a low dose suitable for humans that could last for at least 6 weeks. This study unveils a new therapeutic regimen and suggests that such endogenous Treg therapy could be a useful tool to persistently alleviate asthma. PMID:27527926

  12. Resveratrol increases nephrin and podocin expression and alleviates renal damage in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing-Rong; Ren, Yan-Long; Zhu, Jia-Jia; Hu, Yan-Jin; Zheng, Jin-Su; Fan, Hui; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang; Liu, Wen-Xian

    2014-07-14

    Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol). Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  13. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Rong Pan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol. Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and superoxide dismutase (SOD, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression.

  14. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione pathway which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance under salt stress. The increase in leaf sulfur content through higher activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl transferase (SAT) by SA application was associated with the increased accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and lower levels of oxidative stress. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analog, 2,6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and 1 mM GSH treatment produced similar results on rubisco, photosynthesis and growth of plants establishing that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the enzyme activity of ascorbate-glutathione pathway and increased GSH production. Thus, SA/GSH could be a promising tool for alleviation of salt stress in mustard plants.

  15. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  16. Masoprocol decreases rat lipolytic activity by decreasing the phosphorylation of HSL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, M S; Azhar, R K; Kraemer, F B; Reaven, G M; Azhar, S

    2000-09-01

    Masoprocol (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), a lipoxygenase inhibitor isolated from the creosote bush, has been shown to decrease adipose tissue lipolytic activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present study was initiated to test the hypothesis that the decrease in lipolytic activity by masoprocol resulted from modulation of adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. The results indicate that oral administration of masoprocol to rats with fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased their serum free fatty acid (FFA; P HSL activity were significantly lower (P HSL protein. Incubation of masoprocol with adipocytes from chow-fed rats significantly inhibited isoproterenol-induced lipolytic activity and HSL activity, associated with a decrease in the ability of isoproterenol to phosphorylate HSL. Masoprocol had no apparent effect on adipose tissue phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, but okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, blocked the antilipolytic effect of masoprocol. The results of these in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that the antilipolytic activity of masoprocol is secondary to its ability to inhibit HSL phosphorylation, possibly by increasing phosphatase activity. As a consequence, masoprocol administration results in lower serum FFA and TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic rodents.

  17. Magnetic field can alleviate toxicological effect induced by cadmium in mungbean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-ping; Li, Ran; He, Jun-Min

    2011-06-01

    To alleviate toxicological effect induced by cadmium in mungbean seedlings, seeds were divided into four groups: The controls groups (CK, without treatment), magnetic field treated groups (MF), cadmium treated groups (CS), and magnetic field treated followed by cadmium treated groups (MF + CS).The results showed: (i) Compared with the controls, cadmium stress resulted in enhancing in the concentration of malondialdehyde, H(2)O(2) and O(2-), and the conductivity of electrolyte leakage while decreasing in the nitrice oxide synthase (NOS) activity, the concentration of nitrice oxide (NO), chlorophyll and total carbon and nitrogen, the net photosynthetic rate, the stomatal conductance, the transpiration rate, the water use efficiency, the lateral number and seedlings growth except for intercellular CO(2) concentration increase. However, the seedlings treated with 600 mT magnetic field followed by cadmium stress the concentration of malondialdehyde, H(2)O(2) and O(2-), and the conductivity of electrolyte leakage decreased, while the above mentioned NO concentration, NOS activity, photosynthesis and growth parameters increased compared to cadmium stress alone. (ii) Compared with the cadmium stress (CS), the seedling growth were inhibited when the seeds were treated with NO scavenger (hemoglobin, HB) and inhibition of NO generating enzyme (sodium tungstate, ST), conversely, the seedling growth were improved by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and CaCl(2). In the case of the HB and ST treatment followed by magnetic field and then the seedling subjected to CS, the seedlings growth was better than that of hemoglobin (HB) followed by CS and ST followed by CS. The seeds were treated with SNP and CaCl(2) followed by MF, and then subjected to CS, the seedlings growth were better than that of SNP followed by CS, and CaCl(2) followed by CS. These results suggested that magnetic field compensates for the toxicological effects of cadmium exposure are related to NO signal.

  18. Transgenerational effects alleviate severe fecundity loss during ocean acidification in a ubiquitous planktonic copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Peter; Dupont, Sam

    2015-06-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by anthropogenic CO2 emission is projected for thousands of years to come, and significant effects are predicted for many marine organisms. While significant evolutionary responses are expected during such persistent environmental change, most studies consider only short-term effects. Little is known about the transgenerational effects of parental environments or natural selection on the capacity of populations to counter detrimental OA effects. In this study, six laboratory populations of the calanoid copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes were established at three different CO2 partial pressures (pCO2 of 400, 900 and 1550 μatm) and grown for two generations at these conditions. Our results show evidence of alleviation of OA effects as a result of transgenerational effects in P. acuspes. Second generation adults showed a 29% decrease in fecundity at 900 μatm CO2 compared to 400 μatm CO2 . This was accompanied by a 10% increase in metabolic rate indicative of metabolic stress. Reciprocal transplant tests demonstrated that this effect was reversible and the expression of phenotypic plasticity. Furthermore, these tests showed that at a pCO2 exceeding the natural range experienced by P. acuspes (1550 μatm), fecundity would have decreased by as much as 67% compared to at 400 μatm CO2 as a result of this plasticity. However, transgenerational effects partly reduced OA effects so that the loss of fecundity remained at a level comparable to that at 900 μatm CO2 . This also relieved the copepods from metabolic stress, and respiration rates were lower than at 900 μatm CO2 . These results highlight the importance of tests for transgenerational effects to avoid overestimation of the effects of OA.

  19. 1-Deoxynojirimycin Alleviates Liver Injury and Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpu Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ on liver injury and hepatic glucose metabolism in db/db mice. Mice were divided into five groups: normal control, db/db control, DNJ-20 (DNJ 20 mg·kg−1·day−1, DNJ-40 (DNJ 40 mg·kg−1·day−1 and DNJ-80 (DNJ 80 mg·kg−1·day−1. All doses were treated intravenously by tail vein for four weeks. DNJ was observed to significantly reduce the levels of serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and liver TG, as well as activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate transaminase (AST; DNJ also alleviated macrovesicular steatosis and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in liver tissue. Furthermore, DNJ treatment significantly increased hepatic glycogen content, the activities of hexokinase (HK, pyruvate kinase (PK in liver tissue, and decreased the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, glycogen phosphorylase (GP, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Moreover, DNJ increased the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K on p85, protein kinase B (PKB on Ser473, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β on Ser9, and inhibited phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS on Ser645 in liver tissue of db/db mice. These results demonstrate that DNJ can increase hepatic insulin sensitivity via strengthening of the insulin-stimulated PKB/GSK-3β signal pathway and by modulating glucose metabolic enzymes in db/db mice. Moreover, DNJ also can improve lipid homeostasis and attenuate hepatic steatosis in db/db mice.

  20. Decrease in membrane phospholipid unsaturation induces unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyama, Hiroyuki; Kono, Nozomu; Matsuda, Shinji; Inoue, Takao; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-16

    Various kinds of fatty acids are distributed in membrane phospholipids in mammalian cells and tissues. The degree of fatty acid unsaturation in membrane phospholipids affects many membrane-associated functions and can be influenced by diet and by altered activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes such as fatty acid desaturases. However, little is known about how mammalian cells respond to changes in phospholipid fatty acid composition. In this study we showed that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) knockdown increased the amount of saturated fatty acids and decreased that of monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids without affecting the amount or the composition of free fatty acid and induced unfolded protein response (UPR), evidenced by increased expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) mRNAs and splicing of Xbox-binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA. SCD1 knockdown-induced UPR was rescued by various unsaturated fatty acids and was enhanced by saturated fatty acid. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3), which incorporates preferentially polyunsaturated fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine, was up-regulated in SCD1 knockdown cells. Knockdown of LPCAT3 synergistically enhanced UPR with SCD1 knockdown. Finally we showed that palmitic acid-induced UPR was significantly enhanced by LPCAT3 knockdown as well as SCD1 knockdown. These results suggest that a decrease in membrane phospholipid unsaturation induces UPR.

  1. Predictive Gust Load Alleviation Control Using Leading Edge Stagnation Point Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc proposes an R&D effort to develop a Gust Load Alleviation (GLA) control system using a novel Leading Edge Stagnation Point (LESP) sensor...

  2. Use Of Dynamic Distortion To Predict And Alleviate Loss Of Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of this project is to develop and validate means to alert, constrain and thereby alleviate loss of control (LOC) associated with unfavorable...

  3. Use Of Dynamic Distortion To Predict And Alleviate Loss Of Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improvements to aviation safety will be made by the development and validation of means to alleviate, alert, and inhibit loss of control associated with unfavorable...

  4. Alleviation of Severe Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Symptoms by Cigarette Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Oksenberg, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is in general considered an aggravating factor for restless legs syndrome (RLS). The author presents a case in which cigarette smoking has produced for many years a consistent and effective alleviation of RLS symptoms.

  5. Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Klemke, Roland; Westera, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Klemke, R., & Westera, W. (2011, 20-21 October). Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools. Presentation at 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning, Athens, Greece.

  6. Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Tourism Development in Nepal: Marketing Strategy Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Kafle, Jagannath

    2011-01-01

    This research has been conducted through desk study as well as by field visit and collected the opinion of Finnish tour operators who have been operating tour in Nepal. It has aimed to study the role and importance of sustainable tourism marketing in alleviating poverty in Nepal. The research has been taken three major objectives. They are: to evaluate Nepal’s current tourism marketing strategy and to what extend it takes poverty alleviation through tourism into account; to evaluate whether t...

  7. Analysis of Poverty Alleviation Model of Advancing Entire Villages——A Case Study of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development-oriented poverty alleviation of advancing entire villages in Ningxia, and then relates the implementation of "1 000-village poverty alleviation program" of Ningxia by stages as follows: at the first stage (2005-2006), 203 villages began to implement the first development-oriented poverty alleviation program of advancing entire villages; at the second stage (2007-2008), the second development-oriented poverty alleviation program of advancing entire villages was implemented. By empirical analysis, the main experience in the process of implementing poverty alleviation model of advancing entire villages is generalized as follows: strengthen the support and help degree and frame feasible implementation planning; develop characteristic industries and expand export of labor services; support poor areas by using technology. Through five years of support, the poverty alleviation model of advancing entire villages achieves initial results: the specific sample survey shows that in the poor villages with smooth development of advancing entire villages and great investments, the farmers’ income per capita in whole village can be increased by more than 50% within one year or two years; due to the improvement of road, communication and other conditions, many poor villages can explore new possibilities for production, and better give play to the comparative advantages; the improvement of infrastructure also promotes export of labor services in the poor villages, so as to indirectly increase the income of farmers in poor villages.

  8. Alleviation of fermi-level pinning effect at metal/germanium interface by the insertion of graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Seo, Yu-Jin; Oh, Joong Gun; Albert Park, Min Gyu; Bong, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Seong Jun; Lee, Seok-Hee, E-mail: seokheelee@ee.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Minsu; Park, Seung-young [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 169-148 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byong-Guk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-18

    In this paper, we report the alleviation of the Fermi-level pinning on metal/n-germanium (Ge) contact by the insertion of multiple layers of single-layer graphene (SLG) at the metal/n-Ge interface. A decrease in the Schottky barrier height with an increase in the number of inserted SLG layers was observed, which supports the contention that Fermi-level pinning at metal/n-Ge contact originates from the metal-induced gap states at the metal/n-Ge interface. The modulation of Schottky barrier height by varying the number of inserted SLG layers (m) can bring about the use of Ge as the next-generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor material. Furthermore, the inserted SLG layers can be used as the tunnel barrier for spin injection into Ge substrate for spin-based transistors.

  9. Effect of Maca Extracts on Alleviating Physical Fatigue in Mice%玛咖提取物对缓解小鼠体力疲劳的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查圣华; 许楠; 赵庆生; 刘璐翾; 赵兵; 王强; 张宏

    2015-01-01

    To explore the bioactive effect of maca extracts on alleviating physical fatigue in exercise mice ,160 healthy male mice were randomly divided into 4 batches to examine load swimming time, blood urea nitrogen, hepatic glycogen, and blood lactic acid, respectively. Each batch of mice was randomly divided into 4 groups:the control group, and maca extracts groups at different dosages of low, middle and high levels, that were 0,0.13,0.27,0.80 g/(kg·bw·d). 10 mice in each group were correspondingly gavaged for 30 days, and then the indicators were determined. Maca extracts at high dosage group 0.80 g/(kg·bw·d) could significantly prolong weight-loaded swimming duration, decrease blood urea nitrogen, and blood lactic acid of mice. Hepatic glycogen was not changed significantly. Maca extracts could alleviate physical fatigue in mice.%探讨玛咖提取物对运动小鼠的缓解疲劳生物功效性.将160只健康雄性小鼠随机分为4批,分别进行负重游泳、血浆尿素测定、肝糖原及血乳酸的测定实验,每批动物再随机分为正常对照组、低剂量组、中剂量组和高剂量组,分别为0、0.13、0.27、0.80 g/(kg·bw·d),每组10只,连续灌胃30 d后,测定各项指标.玛咖提取物高剂量组0.80 g/(kg· bw·d)能显著延长小鼠负重游泳时间、降低游泳后血浆尿素和血乳酸含量,不能显著提高小鼠肝糖原储备.玛咖提取物具有明显的缓解疲劳作用.

  10. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalel Mahouachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain” subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA and cinnamic acids (CA were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  11. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Pisum sativum L. Seedlings by Calcium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the role of calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance and reducing cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings. Some treatment with 1 and 5 mM CaCl2 mitigated cadmium stress by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities: catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid (ASA, tocopherol and carotenoids. On the other hand, total carbohydrate and total soluble proteins decreased with increasing cadmium concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, total phenol, total free amino acids, proline and lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium acetate. Electrophoretic studies of protein revealed that cadmium treatments alone or in combination with calcium chloride were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of new bands in pea seedlings. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase and acid phosphatase isozymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities.

  12. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p ...) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p

  13. Lactococcus lactis expressing food-grade β-galactosidase alleviates lactose intolerance symptoms in post-weaning Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjie; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Chuan; Yu, Qian; Dai, Ruirui; Pei, Xiaofang

    2012-12-01

    The endogenous β-galactosidase expressed in intestinal microbes is demonstrated to help humans in lactose usage, and treatment associated with the promotion of beneficial microorganism in the gut is correlated with lactose tolerance. From this point, a kind of recombinant live β-galactosidase delivery system using food-grade protein expression techniques and selected probiotics as vehicle was promoted by us for the purpose of application in lactose intolerance subjects. Previously, a recombinant Lactococcus lactis MG1363 strain expressing food-grade β-galactosidase, the L. lactis MG1363/FGZW, was successfully constructed and evaluated in vitro. This study was conducted to in vivo evaluate its efficacy on alleviating lactose intolerance symptoms in post-weaning Balb/c mice, which were orally administered with 1 × 10⁶ CFU or 1 × 10⁸ CFU of L. lactis MG1363/FGZW daily for 4 weeks before lactose challenge. In comparison with naïve mice, the mice administered with L. lactis MG1363/FGZW showed significant alleviation of diarrhea symptoms in less total feces weight within 6 h post-challenge and suppressed intestinal motility after lactose challenge, although there was no significant increase of β-galactosidase activity in small intestine. The alleviation also correlated with higher species abundance, more Bifidobacterium colonization, and stronger colonization resistance in mice intestinal microflora. Therefore, this recombinant L. lactis strain effectively alleviated diarrhea symptom induced by lactose uptake in lactose intolerance model mice with the probable mechanism of promotion of lactic acid bacteria to differentiate and predominantly colonize in gut microbial community, thus making it a promising probiotic for lactose intolerance subjects.

  14. Epoetin beta pegol alleviates oxidative stress and exacerbation of renal damage from iron deposition, thereby delaying CKD progression in progressive glomerulonephritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Michinori; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Aizawa, Ken; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Endo, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    The increased deposition of iron in the kidneys that occurs with glomerulopathy hinders the functional and structural recovery of the tubules and promotes progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we evaluated whether epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator: CERA), which has a long half-life in blood and strongly suppresses hepcidin-25, exerts renoprotection in a rat model of chronic progressive glomerulonephritis (cGN). cGN rats showed elevated urinary total protein excretion (uTP) and plasma urea nitrogen (UN) from day 14 after the induction of kidney disease (day 0) and finally declined into end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), showing reduced creatinine clearance with glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. A single dose of CERA given on day 1, but not on day 16, alleviated increasing uTP and UN, thereby delaying ESKD. In the initial disease phase, CERA significantly suppressed urinary 8-OHdG and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a tubular damage marker. CERA also inhibited elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels and alleviated subsequent iron accumulation in kidneys in association with elevated urinary iron excretion and resulted in alleviation of growth of Ki67-positive tubular and glomerular cells. In addition, at day 28 when the exacerbation of uTP occurs, a significant correlation was observed between iron deposition in the kidney and urinary L-FABP. In our study, CERA mitigated increasing kidney damage, thereby delaying CKD progression in this glomerulonephritis rat model. Alleviation by CERA of the exacerbation of kidney damage could be attributable to mitigation of tubular damage that might occur with lowered iron deposition in tubules. PMID:26634903

  15. Epoetin beta pegol alleviates oxidative stress and exacerbation of renal damage from iron deposition, thereby delaying CKD progression in progressive glomerulonephritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Michinori; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Aizawa, Ken; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Endo, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    The increased deposition of iron in the kidneys that occurs with glomerulopathy hinders the functional and structural recovery of the tubules and promotes progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we evaluated whether epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator: CERA), which has a long half-life in blood and strongly suppresses hepcidin-25, exerts renoprotection in a rat model of chronic progressive glomerulonephritis (cGN). cGN rats showed elevated urinary total protein excretion (uTP) and plasma urea nitrogen (UN) from day 14 after the induction of kidney disease (day 0) and finally declined into end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), showing reduced creatinine clearance with glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. A single dose of CERA given on day 1, but not on day 16, alleviated increasing uTP and UN, thereby delaying ESKD. In the initial disease phase, CERA significantly suppressed urinary 8-OHdG and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a tubular damage marker. CERA also inhibited elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels and alleviated subsequent iron accumulation in kidneys in association with elevated urinary iron excretion and resulted in alleviation of growth of Ki67-positive tubular and glomerular cells. In addition, at day 28 when the exacerbation of uTP occurs, a significant correlation was observed between iron deposition in the kidney and urinary L-FABP. In our study, CERA mitigated increasing kidney damage, thereby delaying CKD progression in this glomerulonephritis rat model. Alleviation by CERA of the exacerbation of kidney damage could be attributable to mitigation of tubular damage that might occur with lowered iron deposition in tubules.

  16. The Role of Apelin on the Alleviative Effect of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction-Induced Renal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Nishida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apelin is a selective endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, which genetically has closest identity to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT-1. The effects of the apelin/APJ system on renal fibrosis still remain unclear. Methods: We examined the effects of the apelin/APJ system on renal fibrosis during AT-1 blockade in a mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model. Results: We obtained the following results: (1 At UUO day 7, mRNA expressions of apelin/APJ and phosphorylations of Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in the UUO kidney were increased compared to those in the nonobstructed kidney. (2 AT-1 blockade by the treatment with losartan resulted in a further increase of apelin mRNA as well as phosphorylations of Akt/eNOS proteins, and this was accompanied by alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis, decreased myofibroblast accumulation, and a decreased number of interstitial macrophages. (3 Blockade of the APJ receptor by the treatment with F13A during losartan administration completely abrogated the effects of losartan in the activation of the Akt/eNOS pathway and the amelioration of renal fibrosis. (4 Inhibition of NOS by the treatment with L-NAME also resulted in a further increase in renal fibrosis compared to the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that increased nitric oxide production through the apelin/APJ/Akt/eNOS pathway may, at least in part, contribute to the alleviative effect of losartan in UUO-induced renal fibrosis.

  17. Preconditioning with associated blocking of Ca2+ inflow alleviates hypoxia-induced damage to pancreatic β-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuheng Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Beta cells of pancreatic islets are susceptible to functional deficits and damage by hypoxia. Here we aimed to characterize such effects and to test for and pharmacological means to alleviate a negative impact of hypoxia. METHODS AND DESIGN: Rat and human pancreatic islets were subjected to 5.5 h of hypoxia after which functional and viability parameters were measured subsequent to the hypoxic period and/or following a 22 h re-oxygenation period. Preconditioning with diazoxide or other agents was usually done during a 22 h period prior to hypoxia. RESULTS: Insulin contents decreased by 23% after 5.5 h of hypoxia and by 61% after a re-oxygenation period. Preconditioning with diazoxide time-dependently alleviated these hypoxia effects in rat and human islets. Hypoxia reduced proinsulin biosynthesis ((3H-leucine incorporation into proinsulin by 35%. Preconditioning counteracted this decrease by 91%. Preconditioning reduced hypoxia-induced necrosis by 40%, attenuated lowering of proteins of mitochondrial complexes I-IV and enhanced stimulation of HIF-1-alpha and phosphorylated AMPK proteins. Preconditioning by diazoxide was abolished by co-exposure to tolbutamide or elevated potassium (i.e. conditions which increase Ca(2+ inflow. Preconditioning with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, partly reproduced effects of diazoxide. Both diazoxide and nifedipine moderately reduced basal glucose oxidation whereas glucose-induced oxygen consumption (tested with diazoxide was unaffected. Preconditioning with diaxoxide enhanced insulin contents in transplants of rat islets to non-diabetic rats and lowered hyperglycemia vs. non-preconditioned islets in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Preconditioning of human islet transplants lowered hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Prior blocking of Ca(2+ inflow associates with lesser hypoxia-induced damage, 2 preconditioning affects basal mitochondrial metabolism and accelerates

  18. Role of silicon in alleviation of iron deficiency and toxicity in hydroponically-grown rice (Oryza sativa L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdol Zadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si nutrition may alleviate biotic and abiotic stresses including heavy metal deficiency and toxicity in plants. Iron deficiency and toxicity are important limiting factors in growth of rice. In the present study, role of Si nutrition on alleviation of iron deficiency and toxicity was investigated in rice plants. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse in hydroponics, using Yoshida solution, under different iron treatments (0, 2, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 250 mg/L as Fe- EDTA and Si nutrition (0 and 1.5 mM as sodium silicate. Results revealed that both iron deficiency and toxicity imposed significant reduction in fresh and dry weight and length of plants. The activity of catalase was decreased in shoots due to iron deficiency. Activity of catalase in roots and cell wall peroxidase in shoots increased under iron toxicity compared with control plants. Si nutrition increased Si content in plants and improved plant growth in both iron deficiency (not in the absence of iron and toxicity. Application of Si increased the activity of catalase in shoots and polyphenol oxidase in both roots and shoots under iron deficiency. Also, the activity of catalase in roots and polyphenol oxidase in shoots raised following iron toxicity. This in turn may reduce the oxidative stress in plants. In addition, increase of lignin in extreme iron toxicity due to Si nutrition may enhance sites of iron absorption in plant cell walls and decrease iron toxicity. The results indicated that Si nutrition could ameliorate harmful effects of iron deficiency and toxicity in rice plants possibly through improvement of antioxidant enzyme activity and reduction of oxidative stress.

  19. Complex zero strip decreasing operators

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of linear differential operators coming from the Laguerre-Polya class that act on functions in the extended Laguerre-Polya class with zeros in a horizontal strip in the complex plane. These operator decrease the size of the strip containing the zeros.

  20. [Folic acid: Primary prevention of neural tube defects. Literature Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas Centeno, M J; Miguélez Lago, C

    2016-03-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations of the nervous system, they have a multifactorial etiology, are caused by exposure to chemical, physical or biological toxic agents, factors deficiency, diabetes, obesity, hyperthermia, genetic alterations and unknown causes. Some of these factors are associated with malnutrition by interfering with the folic acid metabolic pathway, the vitamin responsible for neural tube closure. Its deficit produce anomalies that can cause abortions, stillbirths or newborn serious injuries that cause disability, impaired quality of life and require expensive treatments to try to alleviate in some way the alterations produced in the embryo. Folic acid deficiency is considered the ultimate cause of the production of neural tube defects, it is clear the reduction in the incidence of Espina Bifida after administration of folic acid before conception, this leads us to want to further study the action of folic acid and its application in the primary prevention of neural tube defects. More than 40 countries have made the fortification of flour with folate, achieving encouraging data of decrease in the prevalence of neural tube defects. This paper attempts to make a literature review, which clarify the current situation and future of the prevention of neural tube defects.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to polydextrose and changes in bowel function (ID 784), changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract (ID 784), decreasing, potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 785) and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 784) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to polydextrose and changes in bowel function, changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort. The scientific substantiation...

  2. Glycine Betaine and Salicylic Acid Induced Modification in Water Relations and Productivity of Drought Wheat Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of parameters associated with adjustments in internal water balance, namely: diurnal variation in transpiration rate, stomatal opening area, relative water content, water use efficiency, hormonal level of wheat flag leaves in relation to grain yield is presented. Drought induced marked decreases in diurnal and mean daily values of transpiration rate, stomatal pore areas (on upper and lower sides, relative water content, water use efficiency, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, cytokinins (CKs and grain yield but led to a significant increase in the abscisic acid (ABA concentration in flag leaves of the wheat cultivars. Grain presoaking in salicylic acid or foliar application with glycine betaine alleviated the stress by keeping water within leaves and consequently recover the turgidity of stressed plants by restricting the transpiration rate, stomatal closure, decreasing the ABA level and enhancing the growth promoters particularly (IAA, GA3 & CKs particularly with the sensitive cultivar. Furthermore, the effect was more pronounced with glycine betaine + salicylic acid treatment. The grain yield appeared to be positively correlated with IAA, GA3, CK, RWC, WUEG and WUEB but negatively correlated with ABA, SWD, transpiration rate and stomatal areas on both wheat cultivars.

  3. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats’ rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats’ endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (p<0.01). However, the endotoxin concentration of the YC treatment was higher than that of the VE treatment (p<0.01). Both VE and YC supplementation decreased heat stressed dairy goats’ absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01). The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01). The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats’ superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01). The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats’ malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (p<0.05). The addition of VE decreased MDA concentration during thermo-neutral period. On the contrast, the addition of VE increased dairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (p<0.01). The

  4. Brain glycogen decreases during prolonged exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Soya, Shingo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Brain glycogen could be a critical energy source for brain activity when the glucose supply from the blood is inadequate (hypoglycaemia). Although untested, it is hypothesized that during prolonged exhaustive exercise that induces hypoglycaemia and muscular glycogen depletion, the resultant hypoglycaemia may cause a decrease in brain glycogen. Here, we tested this hypothesis and also investigated the possible involvement of brain monoamines with the reduced levels of brain glycogen. For this purpose, we exercised male Wistar rats on a treadmill for different durations (30–120 min) at moderate intensity (20 m min−1) and measured their brain glycogen levels using high-power microwave irradiation (10 kW). At the end of 30 and 60 min of running, the brain glycogen levels remained unchanged from resting levels, but liver and muscle glycogen decreased. After 120 min of running, the glycogen levels decreased significantly by ∼37–60% in five discrete brain loci (the cerebellum 60%, cortex 48%, hippocampus 43%, brainstem 37% and hypothalamus 34%) compared to those of the sedentary control. The brain glycogen levels in all five regions after running were positively correlated with the respective blood and brain glucose levels. Further, in the cortex, the levels of methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), potential involved in degradation of the brain glycogen, increased during prolonged exercise and negatively correlated with the glycogen levels. These results support the hypothesis that brain glycogen could decrease with prolonged exhaustive exercise. Increased monoamines together with hypoglycaemia should be associated with the development of decreased brain glycogen, suggesting a new clue towards the understanding of central fatigue during prolonged exercise. PMID:21521757

  5. The Effects of Ferulic Acid Against Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Formaldehyde-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin, Fethullah; Erman, Hayriye; Erboga, Mustafa; Sener, Umit; Yilmaz, Ahsen; Seyhan, Hatice; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the protective effects of ferulic acid (FA) on formaldehyde-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring some routine biochemical parameters, cytokine levels, and oxidative stress-related parameters in addition to YKL-40 in male Wistar albino rats. Tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Also, serum YKL-40, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin concentrations, and AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH activities were measured. Histological specimens were examined in light microscopy. Formaldehyde significantly increased tissue MDA, and serum cytokine levels and also decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes. FA treatment decreased MDA and cytokine levels and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes. FA also alleviated degeneration due to formaldehyde toxicity. We suggested that FA can be used as a promising hepatoprotective agent against formaldehyde toxicity because of the obvious beneficial effects on oxidative stress parameters. PMID:27235018

  6. Lentivirus-TAZ Administration Alleviates Osteoporotic Phenotypes in the Femoral Neck of Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhai Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is characterized by impairment of bone mass, strength, and microarchitecture, leading to the susceptibility to fragility fractures, especially in femoral neck region. Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ facilitates osteogenesis while suppressing adipogenesis via regulation of transcriptional activities of runt-related transcription factor 2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Here, we validated the role of TAZ in vivo using an ovariectomized (OVX rat model of osteoporosis. Methods: Serum alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride, cholesterol and urinary hydroxyproline were measured on an automatic analyzer using diagnostic reagent kits. Serum OCN and C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen were measured using ELISA. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray scanner. Mechanical parameters were detected by three-point bending assays. Bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV, trabecular thickness (Tb. Th, trabecular number (Tb. No, and trabecular separation (Tb. Sp were measured by MicroCT. The mRNA and protein levels were quantified by Realtime PCR and Western Blotting respectively. Results: After injections of lentivirus overexpressing TAZ into the femoral neck region, bone mineral density, ultimate force, stiffness, BV/TV, Tb. Th, and Tb. No were significantly increased, whereas Tb. Sp was dramatically decreased. In the TAZ-overexpression region in the femoral neck of OVX rats, the mRNA levels of Runx2 and osteocalcin were obviously elevated, whereas that of PPARγ and adipocyte protein 2 were downregulated. Conclusion: Lentivirus-mediated TAZ gene therapy alleviated the osteoporotic phenotypes in the femoral neck of OVX rats, providing an alternative strategy for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and prevention of osteoporotic fracture.

  7. Adenosine can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by radiotherapy. Therapeutic strategies alleviating protumor ADO activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By studying the bioenergetic status we could show that the development of tumor hypoxia is accompanied, apart from myriad other biologically relevant effects, by a substantial accumulation of adenosine (ADO). ADO has been shown to act as a strong immunosuppressive agent in tumors by modulating the innate and adaptive immune system. In contrast to ADO, standard radiotherapy (RT) can either stimulate or abrogate antitumor immune responses. Herein, we present ADO-mediated mechanisms that may thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. An overview of the generation, accumulation, and ADO-related multifaceted inhibition of immune functions, contrasted with the antitumor immune effects of RT, is provided. Upon hypoxic stress, cancer cells release ATP into the extracellular space where nucleotides are converted into ADO by hypoxia-sensitive, membrane-bound ectoenzymes (CD39/CD73). ADO actions are mediated upon binding to surface receptors, mainly A2A receptors on tumor and immune cells. Receptor activation leads to a broad spectrum of strong immunosuppressive properties facilitating tumor escape from immune control. Mechanisms include (1) impaired activity of CD4 + T and CD8 + T, NK cells and dendritic cells (DC), decreased production of immuno-stimulatory lymphokines, and (2) activation of Treg cells, expansion of MDSCs, promotion of M2 macrophages, and increased activity of major immunosuppressive cytokines. In addition, ADO can directly stimulate tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. ADO mechanisms described can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. Therapeutic strategies alleviating tumor-promoting activities of ADO include respiratory hyperoxia or mild hyperthermia, inhibition of CD39/CD73 ectoenzymes or blockade of A2A receptors, and inhibition of ATP-release channels or ADO transporters. (orig.)

  8. Sodium nitrate alleviates functional muscle ischaemia in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael D; Rosenberry, Ryan; Barresi, Rita; Tsimerinov, Evgeny I; Rader, Florian; Tang, Xiu; Mason, O'Neil; Schwartz, Avery; Stabler, Thomas; Shidban, Sarah; Mobaligh, Neigena; Hogan, Shomari; Elashoff, Robert; Allen, Jason D; Victor, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a progressive X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. BMD is caused by in-frame mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a structural cytoskeletal protein that also targets other proteins to the sarcolemma. Among these is neuronal nitric oxide synthase mu (nNOSμ), which requires specific spectrin-like repeats (SR16/17) in dystrophin's rod domain and the adaptor protein α-syntrophin for sarcolemmal targeting. When healthy skeletal muscle is exercised, sarcolemmal nNOSμ-derived nitric oxide (NO) attenuates α-adrenergic vasoconstriction, thus optimizing perfusion. In the mdx mouse model of dystrophinopathy, this protective mechanism (functional sympatholysis) is defective, resulting in functional muscle ischaemia. Treatment with a NO-donating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) alleviates this ischaemia and improves the murine dystrophic phenotype. In the present study, we report that, in 13 men with BMD, sympatholysis is defective mainly in patients whose mutations disrupt sarcolemmal targeting of nNOSμ, with the vasoconstrictor response measured as a decrease in muscle oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) to reflex sympathetic activation. Then, in a single-arm, open-label trial in 11 BMD patients and a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in six patients, we show that acute treatment with oral sodium nitrate, an inorganic NO donor without a NSIAD moiety, restores sympatholysis and improves post-exercise hyperaemia (Doppler ultrasound). By contrast, sodium nitrate improves neither sympatholysis, nor hyperaemia in healthy controls. Thus, a simple NO donor recapitulates the vasoregulatory actions of sarcolemmal nNOS in BMD patients, and constitutes a putative novel therapy for this disease. PMID:26437761

  9. Berberine alleviates postoperative cognitive dysfunction by suppressing neuroinflammation in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Li, Xiuhua; Li, Fayin; An, Lijun

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant cause of morbidity after surgery, especially for the elderly. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of POCD. Thus, we hypothesized that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effects, could improve surgery-induced cognitive impairment. Twenty-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to exploratory laparotomy with isoflurane anesthesia to mimic the clinical human abdominal surgery. For the interventional studies, mice received berberine (10mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneally. For the in vitro study, we examined the effects of berberine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediators by cultured BV2 cells. Behavioral tests, expressions of IBA1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were performed at the indicated time points. In the present study, we showed that surgery impaired the contextual fear memory, as evidenced by the significantly decreased freezing time to the context. This behavioral change coincided with marked increases in IBA1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus only at 24h but not 7 d after surgery. In BV2 cells, LPS induced significantly increased TNF-α and IL-1β expressions. Notably, berberine treatment rescued surgery-induced cognitive impairment and inhibited the release of IBA1, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the hippocampus. In line with the in vivo study, berberine treatment suppressed LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-1β in BV2 cells. In conclusion, our study suggests that berberine could alleviate POCD by suppressing neuroinflammation in aged mice. PMID:27376853

  10. Ligustrazine alleviates gastric mucosal injur y in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Chun Dang; Jian-Xin Zhang; Jian-Guo Qu; Xue-Qing Wang; Xin Fan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) leads to a systemic inlfammatory response characterized by widespread leukocyte activation and, as a consequence, distant organ injury. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between gastric microcirculatory impairment and inlfammatory mediators released in rats and to evaluate the therapeutic effect of ligustrazine extracted from Rhizoma ligusticum wallichii on gastric mucosa injury in a rat model of ANP. METHODS: Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (group C);ANP without treatment (group P); and ANP treated with ligustrazine (group T). The ANP model was induced by injection of 50 g/L sodium taurocholate under the pancreatic membrane (4 ml/kg). Group C was given isovolumetric injection of 9 g/L physiological saline by the same route. Group T was injected with ligustrazine (10 ml/kg) via the portal vein. The radioactive biomicrosphere technique was used to measure the blood lfow 2 and 12 hours after the induction of ANP. Samples of the pancreas and stomach were taken to assess pathological changes by a validated histology score;meanwhile, the levels of serum interleukin-1β(IL-1β) were determined. Gastric tissues were also used to measure the level of myeloperoxidase (MPO), which is expressed intracellularly in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils. RESULTS: Blood lfow in group P was signiifcantly lower than that in group C (P CONCLUSIONS: Decreased gastric blood lfow and increased inlfammatory mediators can be seen early in ANP, and both are important factors for gastric and mucosal injury. Ligustrazine can ameliorate microcirculatory disorder and alleviate the damage to the pancreas and stomach.

  11. IGF-1 alleviates ox-LDL-induced inflammation via reducing HMGB1 release in HAECs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Yu; Chunyan Xing; Yinghua Pan; Housheng Ma; Jie Zhang; Wenjun Li

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis,a multifactorial chronic inflammatory response,is closely associated with oxidatively modified lowdensity lipoprotein (ox-LDL).High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein,which upon release from cells exhibits potent inflammatory action.Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) can elicit a repertoire of cellular responses including proliferation and anti-apoptosis.However,the role of IGF-1 in inflammation is still unclear.In the present study,we aimed to investigate the role of IGF-1 in inflammation and the underlying mechanism.Human aortic endothelial cells were stimulated by ox-LDL (50 μg/ml) to induce inflammation.The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was assessed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence.The release of HMGB1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis.IGF-1R phosphorylation was determined by western blot analysis.Ox-LDL stimulation reduced IGF-1R mRNA and protein expression but increased HMGB1 release.IGF-1 treatment decreased oxLDL-induced ICAM-1 expression potentially through reducing HMGB1 release,while picropodophyllin,an IGF-1R specific inhibitor,increased the inflammatory response.In conclusion,IGF-1 can alleviate ox-LDL-induced inflammation by reducing HMGB1 release,suggesting an unexpected beneficial role of IGF-1 in inflammatory disease.

  12. Effects of Application of Nitrogen, Potassium and Glycinebetaine on Alleviation of Water Stress to Summer Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under water deficit and adequate water-supplied conditions with two maize genetypic varieties (Shaandan 9 and Shaandan 911) to study the effects of nitrogen, potassium and glycinebetaine (GlyBet) on the dry matter and grain yields as well as water use efficiency (WUE). Determinations were made at different stages of the two varieties for revealing the function of these factors in increasing plant resistance to drought. Results showed that under a water-stressed condition, dry matter and grain yield were significantly reduced. However, the response of the two varieties to water stress was different: Shaandan 9 was significantly higher in dry matter and grain yields, and therefore could be regarded as a drought-resistant variety compared to Shaandan 911.Application of nitrogen, potassium and glycinebetaine raised dry matter and grain yield to different levels, and thereby alleviated the water stress and increased water use efficiency. These effects were higher for Shaandan 911 than for Shaandan 9. Under water-stressed conditions, application of N fertilizer, either at low rate or at high rate, significantly increased dry matter, grain yield and water use efficiency.A significant different effect was found for Shaandan 911 between N rates, but not so for Shaandan9. However,with supplemental water supply, effects of N fertilization were obviously decreased, showing that in addition to supplying nutrient, N fertilizer has a function in increasing drought-resistance of the crop. Potassium and glycinebetaine exhibited a remarkable function in increasing dry matter and grain yields as well as water use efficiency under water stress while such effects were obviously declined, even vanished, with supplemental water supply, indicating the important contribution of these factors in rise of drought-resistance ability of a crop.

  13. Lidocaine alleviates propofol related pain much better than metoprolol and nitroglycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asutay Goktug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Injection pain after propofol administration is common and maydisturb patients' comfort. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of intravenous(iv nitroglycerin, lidocaine and metoprolol applied through the veins on the dorsum of hand orantecubital vein on eliminating propofol injection pain.METHOD: There were 147 patients and they were grouped according to the analgesic adminis-tered. Metoprolol (n = 31, Group M, lidocaine (n = 32, Group L and nitroglycerin (n = 29, GroupN were applied through iv catheter at dorsum hand vein or antecubital vein. Pain was evalu-ated by 4 point scale (0 - no pain, 1 --- light pain, 2 --- mild pain, 3 --- severe pain in 5, 10, 15and 20th seconds. ASA, BMI, patient demographics, education level and the effect of pathwaysfor injection and location of operations were analyzed for their effect on total pain score.RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups in terms of total pain score (p = 0.981.There were no differences in terms of total pain score depending on ASA, education level,location of operation. However, lidocaine was more effective when compared with metoprolol(p = 0.015 and nitroglycerin (p = 0.001 among groups. Although neither lidocaine nor metopro-lol had any difference on pain management when applied from antecubital or dorsal hand vein(p > 0.05, nitroglycerin injection from antecubital vein had demonstrated statistically lowerpain scores (p = 0.001.CONCLUSION: We found lidocaine to be the most effective analgesic in decreasing propofolrelated pain. We therefore suggest iv lidocaine for alleviating propofol related pain at operations.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Alleviates Wheat Seed Germination Inhibition and Counteracts Lipid Peroxidation Mediated by Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Xu; Zhi-Sheng Sa; Ze-Yu Cao; Wei Xuan; Ben-Kai Huang; Teng-Fang Ling; Qiong-Ying Hu; Wen-Biao Shen

    2006-01-01

    Recently in animals, endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide, was implicated as another important physiological messenger or bioactive molecule. However, little information is known about the physiological roles of CO in the whole plant. In the present study, we report that different concentrations of the CO donor hematin (0.1,1.0 and 10.0μmol/L) alleviated wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Yangmai 158) seed germination inhibition caused by 250 mmol/L NaCl stress in a dose-dependent manner. These responses were also proved by the addition of different gaseous CO aqueous solutions from 0.1% to 100.0% of saturation.Among these treatments, the effect of 1.0 μmol/L hematin and 1.0% saturation of CO aqueous solution were the most obvious. Furthermore, compared with non-hematin treatment, the degradation of storage reserves In wheat seeds was also accelerated. Time-course analyses showed that application of hematin dose-dependently increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase activities, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating wheat seed subjected to saltstress. Meanwhile, the responses of hematin were specific for CO because the addition of the CO scavenger hemoglobin (0.2 g/L) blocked the various actions of 1.0 μ mol/L hematin. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that CO, at a Iow concentration, is able to attenuate the seed germination inhibition produced by salinity stress and counteract the lipid peroxidation in germinating wheat seeds.

  15. Altered distribution of regulatory lymphocytes by oral administration of soy-extracts exerts a hepatoprotective effect alleviating immune mediated liver injury, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Tawfik; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Shabat, Yehudit; Zolotarovya, Lidya; Snir, Ram; Ilan, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the immune-modulatory and the hepatoprotective effects of oral administration of two soy extracts in immune mediated liver injury and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Two soy extracts, M1 and OS, were orally administered to mice with concanavalin A (ConA) immune-mediated hepatitis, to high-fat diet (HFD) mice and to methionine and choline reduced diet combined with HFD mice. Animals were followed for disease and immune biomarkers. RESULTS: Oral administration of OS and M1 had an additive effect in alleviating ConA hepatitis manifested by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels. Oral administration of the OS and M1 soy derived fractions, ameliorated liver injury in the high fat diet model of NASH, manifested by a decrease in hepatic triglyceride levels, improvement in liver histology, decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides and improved insulin resistance. In the methionine and choline reduced diet combined with the high fat diet model, we noted a decrease in hepatic triglycerides and improvement in blood glucose levels and liver histology. The effects were associated with reduced serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and alteration of regulatory T cell distribution. CONCLUSION: Oral administration of the combination of OS and M1 soy derived extracts exerted an adjuvant effect in the gut-immune system, altering the distribution of regulatory T cells, and alleviating immune mediated liver injury, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. PMID:26139990

  16. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  17. Riboflavin alleviates cardiac failure in Type I diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a common and serious comorbidity of diabetes. Oxidative stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications including cardiomyopathy. The ability of antioxidants to inhibit injury has raised the possibility of new therapeutic treatment for diabetic heart diseases. Riboflavin constitutes an essential nutrient for humans and animals and it is an important food additive. Riboflavin, a precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, enhances the oxidative folding and subsequent secretion of proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of riboflavin in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 30 rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ (70 mg /kg. Riboflavin (20 mg/kg was orally administered to animals immediately after induction of diabetes and was continued for eight weeks. Rats were examined for diabetic cardiomyopathy by left ventricular (LV remadynamic function. Myocardial oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 protein level. Myocardial connective tissue growth factor (CTGF level was measured by Western blot in all rats at the end of the study. In the untreated diabetic rats, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP rate of pressure rose (+dp/dt, and rate of pressure decay (−dp/dt were depressed while left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP was increased, which indicated the reduced left ventricular contractility and slowing of left ventricular relaxation. The level of SOD decreased, CTGF and HO-1 protein expression and MDA content rose. Riboflavin treatment significantly improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in diabetic rats, there were persistent increases in significant activation of SOD and the level of HO-1 protein, and a decrease in the level of CTGF. These results suggest

  18. Alterations in cytosol free calcium in horseradish roots simultaneously exposed to lanthanum(III) and acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Anhua; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    The extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased their environmental levels. REE pollution concomitant with acid rain in many agricultural regions can affect crop growth. Cytosol free calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play an important role in almost all cellular activities. However, no data have been reported regarding the role of cytosol free Ca(2+) in plant roots simultaneously exposed to REE and acid rain. In this study, the effects of exposures to lanthanum(III) and acid rain, independently and in combination, on cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, root activity, metal contents, biomass, cytosol pH and La contents in horseradish roots were investigated. The simultaneous exposures to La(III) and acid rain increased or decreased the cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, depending on the concentration of La(III), and these effects were more evident than independent exposu