Sample records for achromatic lesions

  1. Phenomenal transparency in achromatic checkerboards. (United States)

    Masin, S C


    The study explored the luminance relations that determine the occurrence of achromatic transparency in phenomenal surfaces on complex backgrounds. Let the luminances of the left and right parts of a transparent surface on a bipartite background and those of the left and right parts of the bipartite background be p and q and m and n, respectively. Metelli proposed that this surface looks transparent when the rule p q if m > n) is satisfied, and Masin and Fukuda that it looks transparent when the inclusion rule is satisfied, that is, when p epsilon (m, q) or q epsilon (p, n). These rules also apply to achromatic checkerboards formed by one checkerboard enclosed in another checkerboard. This study shows that only the inclusion rule correctly predicted the occurrence of transparency in these checkerboards.

  2. Achromatic optical diode in fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berent, Michal; Vitanov, Nikolay V


    We propose a broadband optical diode, which is composed of one achromatic reciprocal quarter-wave plate and one non-reciprocal quarter-wave plate, both placed between two crossed polarizers. The presented design of achromatic wave plates relies on an adiabatic evolution of the Stokes vector, thus, the scheme is robust and efficient. The possible simple implementation using fiber optics is suggested.

  3. Design of a fifth-order achromat

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, W


    A repetitive system free of all aberrations up to the fifth order was designed based on a recently developed analytical theory that, in principle, allows the design of such achromats to an arbitrary order (Wan and Berz, Phys. Rev. E, 54 (1996) 2870; Wan, Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University, 1995). It serves as an example to show that complete correction of aberrations is possible beyond order three, which is the highest order achieved before (Dragt, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 258 (1987) 339; F. Neri, in: Berz, McIntyre (Eds.), Proc. Workshop on High Order Effects). Instead of repetition of identical cells, which is widely used in achromat design based on normal form theory, we utilize cells which are obtained from the original ones through mirror imaging about the x-y plane, which corresponds to a reversion. In our design, the second half of the ring is the reversion of the first one, and two turns make a fifth-order achromat. A possible application of repetitive high-order achromats being time-of-flight sp...

  4. Simultaneous contrast and gamut relativity in achromatic color perception. (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony


    Simultaneous contrast refers to the respective whitening or blackening of physically identical image regions surrounded by regions of low or high luminance, respectively. A common method of measuring the strength of this effect is achromatic color matching, in which subjects adjust the luminance of a target region to achieve an achromatic color match with another region. Here I present psychophysical data questioning the assumption--built into many models of achromatic color perception--that achromatic colors are represented as points in a one-dimensional (1D) perceptual space, or an absolute achromatic color gamut. I present an alternative model in which the achromatic color gamut corresponding to a target region is defined relatively, with respect to surround luminance. Different achromatic color gamuts in this model correspond to different 1D lines through a 2D perceptual space composed of blackness and whiteness dimensions. Each such line represents a unique gamut of achromatic colors ranging from black to white. I term this concept gamut relativity. Achromatic color matches made between targets surrounded by regions of different luminance are shown to reflect the relative perceptual distances between points lying on different gamut lines. The model suggests a novel geometrical approach to simultaneous contrast and achromatic color matching in terms of the vector summation of local luminance and contrast components, and sets the stage for a unified computational theory of achromatic color perception.

  5. Achromatic beam transport of High Current Injector (United States)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.


    The high current injector (HCI) provides intense ion beams of high charge state using a high temperature superconducting ECR ion source. The ion beam is accelerated upto a final energy of 1.8 MeV/u due to an electrostatic potential, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a drift tube linac (DTL). The ion beam has to be transported to superconducting LINAC which is around 50 m away from DTL. This section is termed as high energy beam transport section (HEBT) and is used to match the beam both in transverse and longitudinal phase space to the entrance of LINAC. The HEBT section is made up of four 90 deg. achromatic bends and interconnecting magnetic quadrupole triplets. Two RF bunchers have been used for longitudinal phase matching to the LINAC. The ion optical design of HEBT section has been simulated using different beam dynamics codes like TRACEWIN, GICOSY and TRACE 3D. The field computation code OPERA 3D has been utilized for hardware design of all the magnets. All the dipole and quadrupole magnets have been field mapped and their test results such as edge angles measurements, homogeneity and harmonic analysis etc. are reported. The whole design of HEBT section has been performed such that the most of the beam optical components share same hardware design and there is ample space for beam diagnostics as per geometry of the building. Many combination of achromatic bends have been simulated to transport the beam in HEBT section but finally the four 90 deg. achromatic bend configuration is found to be the best satisfying all the geometrical constraints with simplified beam tuning process in real time.

  6. Achromatic THz absorption of conductive nanofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yin


    Full Text Available According to the theory, an ultrathin conductive film can achromatically dissipate electromagnetic waves with frequency ranging from radio to terahertz. A moderate absorption effect, which gives rise to a maximal absorbance of 50%, can be found if an impedance matching condition is satisfied. We have experimentally demonstrated the frequency-irrelevant, maximal absorption by employing a conductive nanofilm and launching terahertz waves at Brewster angle when the sheet (square resistance of the film meets the impedance matching condition. In the entire terahertz spectral range covered by our experiments, the frequency-independent optical properties were consistent with the theoretical calculations.

  7. An analytical study of double bend achromat lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhri, Ali Akbar, E-mail:; Kant, Pradeep; Singh, Gurnam; Ghodke, A. D. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)


    In a double bend achromat, Chasman-Green (CG) lattice represents the basic structure for low emittance synchrotron radiation sources. In the basic structure of CG lattice single focussing quadrupole (QF) magnet is used to form an achromat. In this paper, this CG lattice is discussed and an analytical relation is presented, showing the limitation of basic CG lattice to provide the theoretical minimum beam emittance in achromatic condition. To satisfy theoretical minimum beam emittance parameters, achromat having two, three, and four quadrupole structures is presented. In this structure, different arrangements of QF and defocusing quadruple (QD) are used. An analytical approach assuming quadrupoles as thin lenses has been followed for studying these structures. A study of Indus-2 lattice in which QF-QD-QF configuration in the achromat part has been adopted is also presented.

  8. An adjustable electron achromat for cathode lens microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, R.M., E-mail: [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Leiden Institute of Physics, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)


    Chromatic aberration correction in light optics began with the invention of a two-color-corrected achromatic crown/flint lens doublet by Chester Moore Hall in 1730. Such color correction is necessary because any single glass shows dispersion (i.e. its index of refraction changes with wavelength), which can be counteracted by combining different glasses with different dispersions. In cathode lens microscopes (such as Photo Electron Emission Microscopy – PEEM) we encounter a similar situation, where the chromatic aberration coefficient of the cathode lens shows strong dispersion, i.e. depends (non-linearly) on the energy with which the electrons leave the sample. Here I show how a cathode lens in combination with an electron mirror can be configured as an adjustable electron achromat. The lens/mirror combination can be corrected at two electron energies by balancing the settings of the electron mirror against the settings of the cathode lens. The achromat can be adjusted to deliver optimum performance, depending on the requirements of a specific experiment. Going beyond the achromat, an apochromat would improve resolution and transmission by a very significant margin. I discuss the requirements and outlook for such a system, which for now remains a wish waiting for fulfilment. - Highlights: • The properties of cathode objective lens plus electron mirror are discussed. • In analogy with light-optical achromats, cathode lens plus mirror can be configured as an electron achromat. • Unlike light optics, the electron achromat can be adjusted to best fulfill experimental requirements.

  9. A near-infrared zero-order achromatic retarder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arijit Saha; Kallol Bhattacharya; Ajoy Kumar Chakraborty


    Phase retarders normally show strong wavelength dependence. Achromatic retarders which exhibit nearly identical characteristics over a wide wavelength spectrum is used in polychromatic light. The present investigation deals with a technique to design and study the characteristics of an achromatic combination of birefringent plates in 800–2000 nm range. The retarder has been designed using calcite, crystalline quartz and ADP. The thicknesses of the plates are 19.38 m, 446.14 m and 12.57 m respectively. The new arrangement of three birefringent plates proposed has the promise of producing a zero-order quarter wave achromatic combination with fairly good accuracy.

  10. Achromatic Metasurface Lens at Telecommunication Wavelengths. (United States)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Aieta, Francesco; Kanhaiya, Pritpal; Kats, Mikhail A; Genevet, Patrice; Rousso, David; Capasso, Federico


    Nanoscale optical resonators enable a new class of flat optical components called metasurfaces. This approach has been used to demonstrate functionalities such as focusing free of monochromatic aberrations (i.e., spherical and coma), anomalous reflection, and large circular dichroism. Recently, dielectric metasurfaces that compensate the phase dispersion responsible for chromatic aberrations have been demonstrated. Here, we utilize an aperiodic array of coupled dielectric nanoresonators to demonstrate a multiwavelength achromatic lens. The focal length remains unchanged for three wavelengths in the near-infrared region (1300, 1550, and 1800 nm). Experimental results are in agreement with full-wave simulations. Our findings are an essential step toward a realization of broadband flat optical elements.

  11. Composite Functional Metasurfaces for Multispectral Achromatic Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Avayu, Ori; Prior, Yehiam; Ellenbogen, Tal


    Nanostructured metasurfaces offer unique capabilities for local control of the phase and amplitude of transmitted and reflected optical waves. Based on this potential, a large number of metasurfaces have been proposed in recent years as alternatives to standard optical elements. In most cases, however, these elements suffer from large chromatic aberrations, thus limiting their usefulness for multi-wavelength or broadband applications. Here, in order to alleviate and correct the chromatic aberrations of individual diffractive elements, we introduce dense vertical stacking of independent metasurfaces, where each layer comprises a different material, and is optimally designed for a different band within the visible spectrum. Using this approach, we demonstrate the first triply RGB achromatic metalens in the visible range and perform color imaging with this lens. We further demonstrate functional beam shaping by constructing a self-aligned integrated element for Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy and...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The standard definition for an achromat is a transport line having zero values for the spatial dispersion (R16) and the angular dispersion (RZ6). For a bunched beam with linear space charge this definition of achromaticity does not hold. The linear space charge in the presence of a bend provides coupling between (a) bunch spatial width and bunch length (R1.5) and (b) bunch angular spread and bunch length (R25). Therefore, achromaticity should be redefined as a line having zero values of the spatial dispersion (R16), the angular dispersion (R26), and matrix elements R15 and R25. These additional conditions (R15=R25=0) can be achieved, for example, with two small RF cavities at appropriate locations in the achromat, to cancel space charge effects. An example of the application of this technique to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) high energy beam transport line is presented.

  13. Gradient Index Polymer Optics: Achromatic Singlet Lens Design (United States)


    achromatic singlet lenses. The designs are based on gradient index lenses fabricated from nanolayered polymer materials. Raytraced results confirm the...fabricated from nanolayered polymer materials. Raytraced results confirm the achromatic performance of the designs. OCIS codes: (110.2760) Gradient...lenses in Zemax®. In order to model these lenses, user-defined surfaces had to be developed for the software. RL RG z y • • Δz • tc •n0 n1• Raytrace

  14. The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space. (United States)

    Chauhan, Tushar; Perales, Esther; Xiao, Kaida; Hird, Emily; Karatzas, Dimosthenis; Wuerger, Sophie


    An achromatic stimulus is defined as a patch of light that is devoid of any hue. This is usually achieved by asking observers to adjust the stimulus such that it looks neither red nor green and at the same time neither yellow nor blue. Despite the theoretical and practical importance of the achromatic locus, little is known about the variability in these settings. The main purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether achromatic settings were dependent on the task of the observers, namely the navigation direction in color space. Observers could either adjust the test patch along the two chromatic axes in the CIE u*v* diagram or, alternatively, navigate along the unique-hue lines. Our main result is that the navigation method affects the reliability of these achromatic settings. Observers are able to make more reliable achromatic settings when adjusting the test patch along the directions defined by the four unique hues as opposed to navigating along the main axes in the commonly used CIE u*v* chromaticity plane. This result holds across different ambient viewing conditions (Dark, Daylight, Cool White Fluorescent) and different test luminance levels (5, 20, and 50 cd/m(2)). The reduced variability in the achromatic settings is consistent with the idea that internal color representations are more aligned with the unique-hue lines than the u* and v* axes.

  15. Lightness dependence of achromatic loci in color-appearance coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro eKuriki


    Full Text Available Shifts in the appearance of color under different illuminant chromaticity are known to be incomplete, and fit nicely with a simple linear transformation of cone responses that aligns the achromatic points under two illuminants. Most chromaticity-transfer functions with von-Kries-like transformations use only one set of values to fit the color shifts from one illuminant to another. However, an achromatic point shifts its chromaticity depending on the lightness of the test stimulus. This lightness dependence of the achromatic-point locus is qualitatively similar to a phenomenon known as the Helson-Judd effect. The present study suggests that the lightness dependency of achromatic points appears to be a general trend, which is supported by the results from deriving the optimal von-Kries coefficients for different lightness levels that best fit the color shifts under different illuminant chromaticities. Further, we report that such a lightness dependence of the achromatic-point loci can be represented simply as a straight line in coordinates defined using color-appearance models such as CIECAM when normalized for daylight.

  16. Optical Design of Multilayer Achromatic Waveplate by Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ma; Jing-Shan Wang; Carsten Denker; Hai-Min Wang


    We applied a Monte Carlo method-simulated annealing algorithm-to carry out the design of multilayer achromatic waveplate. We present solutions for three-, six-and ten-layer achromatic waveplates. The optimized retardance settings are found to be 89°51'39"±0°33'37" and 89°54'46"±0°22'4" for the six-and ten-layer waveplates, respectively, for a wavelength range from 1000nm to 1800nm. The polarimetric properties of multilayer waveplates are investigated based on several numerical experiments. In contrast to previously proposed three-layer achromatic waveplate, the fast axes of the new six-and ten-layer achromatic waveplate remain at fixed angles, independent of the wavelength. Two applications of multilayer achromatic waveplate are discussed, the general-purpose phase shifter and the birefringent filter in the Infrared Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM) system of the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). We also checked an experimental method to measure the retardance of waveplates.

  17. Achromatic-chromatic colorimetric sensors for on-off type detection of analytes. (United States)

    Heo, Jun Hyuk; Cho, Hui Hun; Lee, Jin Woong; Lee, Jung Heon


    We report the development of achromatic colorimetric sensors; sensors changing their colors from achromatic black to other chromatic colors. An achromatic colorimetric sensor was prepared by mixing a general colorimetric indicator, whose color changes between chromatic colors, and a complementary colored dye with no reaction to the targeted analyte. As the color of an achromatic colorimetric sensor changes from black to a chromatic color, the color change could be much easily recognized than general colorimetric sensors with naked eyes. More importantly, the achromatic colorimetric sensors enable on-off type recognition of the presence of analytes, which have not been achieved from most colorimetric sensors. In addition, the color changes from some achromatic colorimetric sensors (achromatic Eriochrome Black T and achromatic Benedict's solution) could be recognized with naked eyes at much lower concentration ranges than normal chromatic colorimetric sensors. These results provide new opportunities in the use of colorimetric sensors for diverse applications, such as harsh industrial, environmental, and biological detection.

  18. An Investigation of the Eighteenth-Century Achromatic Telescope (United States)

    Jaecks, Duane H.


    The optical quality and properties of over 200 telescopes residing in museums and private collections have been measured and tested with the goal of obtaining new information about the early development of the achromatic lens (1757-1770). Quantitative measurements of the chromatic and spherical aberration of telescope objective lenses were made…

  19. Achromatic metasurface optical components by dispersive phase compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Aieta, Francesco; Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico


    The replacement of bulk refractive elements with flat ones enables the miniaturization of optical components required for integrated optical systems. This process comes with the limitation that planar optics suffers from large chromatic aberrations due to the dispersion of the phase accumulated by light during propagation. We show that this limitation can be overcome by compensating the dispersion of the propagation phase with the wavelength-dependent phase shift imparted by a metasurface. We demonstrate dispersion-free multi-wavelength dielectric metasurface deflectors in the near-infrared and design an achromatic flat lens in the same spectral region. Our design is based on low-loss coupled dielectric resonators, which introduce a dense spectrum of modes to enable dispersive phase compensation. Achromatic metasurfaces will find applications as multi-band-pass filters, lightweight collimators, and chromatically-corrected imaging lenses.

  20. Fresnel rhombs as achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry (United States)

    Mawet, D.; Hanot, C.; Lenaers, C.; Riaud, P.; Defrère, D.; Vandormael, D.; Loicq, J.; Fleury, K.; Plesseria, J. Y.; Surdej, J.; Habraken, S.


    We propose a new family of achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry. These key optical components can be seen as optimized Fresnel rhombs, using the total internal reflection phenomenon, modulated or not. The total internal reflection indeed comes with a phase shift between the polarization components of the incident light. We propose a solution to implement this vectorial phase shift between interferometer arms to provide the destructive interference process needed to disentangle highly contrasted objects from one another. We also show that, modulating the index transition at the total internal reflection interface allows compensating for the intrinsic material dispersion in order to make the subsequent phase shift achromatic over especially broad bands. The modulation can be induced by a thin film of a well-chosen material or a subwavelength grating whose structural parameters are thoroughly optimized. We present results from theoretical simulations! together with preliminary fabrication outcomes and measurements for a prototype in Zinc Selenide.

  1. Fresnel rhombs as achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry


    Mawet, D.; Hanot, Charles; Lenaers, C.; Riaud, Pierre; Defrere, Denis; Vandormael; Loicq, Jerôme; Fleury, K.; Plesseria, Jean-Yves; Surdej, Jean; Habraken, Serge


    We propose a new family of achromatic phase shifters for infrared nulling interferometry. These key optical components can be seen as optimized Fresnel rhombs, using the total internal reflection phenomenon, modulated or not. The total internal reflection indeed comes with a phase shift between the polarization components of the incident light. We propose a solution to implement this vectorial phase shift between interferometer arms to provide the destructive interference process needed to di...

  2. Achromatic Fresnel Lens with Improved Efficiency for PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario González Montes


    Full Text Available This work is aimed to design and evaluate different achromatic Fresnel lens solutions capable of operating as concentrators aimed at photovoltaic cells systems. Throughout this study, the theoretical parametric design of the achromatic lens will be shown together with a series of simulations to verify the performance of each lens topology. The results will be compared with a standard Fresnel lens to ascertain the validity and effectiveness of the obtained design. Finally, a novel kind of hybrid lens is proposed, which combines the advantages of each type of lens (standard and Fresnel according to the optimal operating region of each design. Efficiency and concentration ratios of each particular lens are shown, regarding lens dimension, light’s incidence angle, or wavelength. Through this innovative achromatic design concentration ratios above 1000 suns, which hardly reach standard Fresnel lenses. Furthermore chromatic dispersion is minimized and the efficiency rate is over 85% of efficiency for a wide spectral range (from 350 nm to 1100 nm.

  3. The diffractive achromat full spectrum computational imaging with diffractive optics

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan


    Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have recently drawn great attention in computational imaging because they can drastically reduce the size and weight of imaging devices compared to their refractive counterparts. However, the inherent strong dispersion is a tremendous obstacle that limits the use of DOEs in full spectrum imaging, causing unacceptable loss of color fidelity in the images. In particular, metamerism introduces a data dependency in the image blur, which has been neglected in computational imaging methods so far. We introduce both a diffractive achromat based on computational optimization, as well as a corresponding algorithm for correction of residual aberrations. Using this approach, we demonstrate high fidelity color diffractive-only imaging over the full visible spectrum. In the optical design, the height profile of a diffractive lens is optimized to balance the focusing contributions of different wavelengths for a specific focal length. The spectral point spread functions (PSFs) become nearly identical to each other, creating approximately spectrally invariant blur kernels. This property guarantees good color preservation in the captured image and facilitates the correction of residual aberrations in our fast two-step deconvolution without additional color priors. We demonstrate our design of diffractive achromat on a 0.5mm ultrathin substrate by photolithography techniques. Experimental results show that our achromatic diffractive lens produces high color fidelity and better image quality in the full visible spectrum. © 2016 ACM.

  4. Midinfrared broadband achromatic astronomical beam combiner for nulling interferometry. (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-kai; Winick, Kim A; Monnier, John D


    Integrated optic beam combiners offer many advantages over conventional bulk optic implementations for astronomical imaging. To our knowledge, integrated optic beam combiners have only been demonstrated at operating wavelengths below 4 μm. Operation in the midinfrared wavelength region, however, is highly desirable. In this paper, a theoretical design technique based on three coupled waveguides is developed to achieve fully achromatic, broadband, polarization-insensitive, lossless beam combining. This design may make it possible to achieve the very deep broadband nulls needed for exoplanet searching.

  5. The Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) MD part III

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, S; Goddard, B; Hofle, W; Jacquet, D; Kruk, G; Lamont, M; de Maria, R; Miyamoto, R; Mueller, G; Pojer, M; Ponce, L; Redaelli, S; Ryckx, N; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Vanbavinckhove, G; Wenninger, J


    This note highlights the results obtained during the third so-called ATS MD which took place in 2011. The goal of this MD was extremely challenging, targeting a pre-squeezed beta* of 40 cm in ATLAS and CMS, followed by a telescopic squeeze of these two insertions to finally reach a beta* of 10 cm both at IP1 and IP5. Due to the rather poor machine availability during the MD period, the time initially allocated to the ATS studies was hardly cut by a factor of 2, and "only" the achromatic pre-squeeze down to beta*=40 cm was demonstrated with beam.

  6. Ultra-broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Hu, Jingpei; Lin, Yu; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Xiaojun; Pu, Donglin; Chen, Linsen; Wang, Chinhua


    Diffractive optical elements suffer from large chromatic aberration due to the strong wavelength-dependent nature in diffraction phenomena, and therefore, diffractive elements can work only at a single designed wavelength, which significantly limits the applications of diffractive elements in imaging. Here, we report on a demonstration of a wavefront coded broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves. The broadband diffraction imaging is implemented with a wavefront coded pinhole pattern that generates equal focusing power for a wide range of operating wavelength in a single thin-film element without complicated auxiliary optical system. Experimental validation was performed using an UV-lithography fabricated wavefront coded photon sieves. Results show that the working bandwidth of the wavefront coded photon sieves reaches 28 nm compared with 0.32 nm of the conventional one. Further demonstration of the achromatic imaging with a bandwidth of 300 nm is also performed with a wavefront coded photon sieves integrated with a refractive element.

  7. Symmetric Achromatic Low-Beta Collider Interaction Region Design Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Vasiliy S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Fanglei [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)


    We present a new symmetry-based concept for an achromatic low-beta collider interaction region design. A specially-designed symmetric Chromaticity Compensation Block (CCB) induces an angle spread in the passing beam such that it cancels the chromatic kick of the final focusing quadrupoles. Two such CCB?s placed symmetrically around an interaction point allow simultaneous compensation of the 1st-order chromaticities and chromatic beam smear at the IP without inducing significant 2nd-order aberrations. We first develop an analytic description of this approach and explicitly formulate 2nd-order aberration compensation conditions at the interaction point. The concept is next applied to develop an interaction region design for the ion collider ring of an electron-ion collider. We numerically evaluate performance of the design in terms of momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture. The advantages of the new concept are illustrated by comparing it to the conventional distributed-sextupole chromaticity compensation scheme.

  8. Symmetric achromatic low-beta collider interaction region design concept

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, V S; Lin, F; Johnson, R P


    We present a new symmetry-based concept for an achromatic low-beta collider interaction region design. A specially-designed symmetric Chromaticity Compensation Block (CCB) induces an angle spread in the passing beam such that it cancels the chromatic kick of the final focusing quadrupoles. Two such CCBs placed symmetrically around an interaction point allow simultaneous compensation of the 1st-order chromaticities and chromatic beam smear at the IP without inducing significant 2nd-order aberrations to the particle trajectory. We first develop an analytic description of this approach and explicitly formulate 2nd-order aberration compensation conditions at the interaction point. The concept is next applied to develop an interaction region design for the ion collider ring of an electron-ion collider. We numerically evaluate performance of the design in terms of momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture. The advantages of the new concept are illustrated by comparing it to the conventional distributed-sextupole chr...

  9. The Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) MD part II

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, S; De Maria, R; Miyamoto, R; Mueller, G; Ponce, L; Redaelli, S; Strzelczyk, M; Tomas, R; Vanbavinckhove, G; Wenninger, J; Albert, M; Giachino, R; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Hagen, P; Hofle, W; Kain, V; Macpherson, A; Normann, L; Papotti, G; Steinhagen, R; Valuch, D; wollman, D


    This note describes the results obtained during the second so-called ATS MD where the record of Beta* was reached at IP1 and IP5 with a “pre-squeezed” Beta* of 1.2 m, while perfectly controlling the chromatic aberrations induced (non-linear chromaticity, off-momentum Beta-beating). Then, the ATLAS insertion was squeezed further down to the target of the former LHC Upgrade Project (Phase I), that is to Beta* = 30 cm, using the Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing techniques. In view of this major achievement, the bar is fixed even higher for the next ATS MD’s, with an ultimate Beta* targeted to 10 cm for the two high-luminosity insertions ATLAS and CMS.

  10. Precision, accuracy, and range of perceived achromatic transparency. (United States)

    Kasrai, R; Kingdom, F A


    How accurately do human observers perceive the properties of an achromatic transparent filter with both reflective and transmissive components? To address this question, a novel six-luminance stimulus was employed, consisting of three transparent layer luminances set against three background luminances, which satisfied the conventional constraints of perceptual transparency. In one experiment, subjects adjusted one of the three layer luminances to complete the impression of a uniform transparent disk. It was found that the luminance-based formulation of Metelli's episcotister model and a model based on ratios of Michelson contrasts best predicted the subjects' settings, which were both accurate and precise. In another experiment, pairs of stimuli selected from a range with various values of the adjustable layer luminance were presented in a series of forced-choice trials. A modified implementation of the pair comparisons method was employed to recover the distribution that describes each subject's preference pattern. Results showed that there exists a reasonably wide range of stimuli that give rise to at least some degree of perceived transparency.

  11. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan


    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  12. An infrared achromatic quarter-wave plate designed based on simulated annealing algorithm (United States)

    Pang, Yajun; Zhang, Yinxin; Huang, Zhanhua; Yang, Huaidong


    Quarter-wave plates are primarily used to change the polarization state of light. Their retardation usually varies depending on the wavelength of the incident light. In this paper, the design and characteristics of an achromatic quarter-wave plate, which is formed by a cascaded system of birefringent plates, are studied. For the analysis of the combination, we use Jones matrix method to derivate the general expressions of the equivalent retardation and the equivalent azimuth. The infrared achromatic quarter-wave plate is designed based on the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. The maximum retardation variation and the maximum azimuth variation of this achromatic waveplate are only about 1.8 ° and 0.5 ° , respectively, over the entire wavelength range of 1250-1650 nm. This waveplate can change the linear polarized light into circular polarized light with a less than 3.2% degree of linear polarization (DOLP) over that wide wavelength range.

  13. Achrotech: achromat cost versus performance for conventional, diffractive, and GRIN components (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey; Wolf, Greg; Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Sparrold, Scott


    An achromatic component shares a common focus at two wavelengths and is a commonly used device in optical assemblies. This work explores the cost versus performance tradeoff for several types of achromatic lenses: conventional doublets with homogenous glass elements, hybrid doublets with a diffractive surface, axial GRadient INdex (GRIN) lenses (where the index of refraction changes along the length of the lens), and radial GRIN lenses (where the index of refraction changes depending on radial position). First order achromatic principles will be reviewed and applied to each system as a starting point and refined through the use of ray trace software. Optical performance will be assessed in terms of focusing efficiency and imaging. Cost will then be evaluated by accounting for current manufacturing costs and retail price through several distributors.

  14. Wide-angle and high-efficiency achromatic metasurfaces for visible light

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zi-Lan; Wang, Guo Ping


    Recently, an achromatic metasurface was successfully demonstrated to deflect light of multiple wavelengths in the same direction and it was further applied to the design of planar lenses without chromatic aberrations [Science, 347, 1342(2015)]. However, such metasurface can only work for normal incidence and exhibit low conversion efficiency. Here, we present an ultrawide-angle and high-efficiency metasurface without chromatic aberration for wavefront shaping in visible range. The metasurface is constructed by multiple metallic nano-groove gratings, which support enhanced diffractions for an ultrawide incident angle range from 10o to 80o due to the excitations of localized gap plasmon modes at different resonance wavelengths. Incident light at these resonance wavelengths can be efficiently diffracted into the same direction with complete suppression of the specular reflection. This approach is applied to the design of an achromatic flat lens for focusing light of different wavelengths into the same position. ...

  15. Design study of a low-emittance lattice with a five-bend achromat (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Lin; Kim, Eun-San


    The multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice, which can provide a small horizontal emittance in the subnanometer range, shows promise for future storage-ring-based light-source facilities. We present the linear and the nonlinear properties of an optical design and the results of its optimization. The MBA lattice is designed as a five-bend achromat, and an emittance of 0.270 nm rad is achieved. The energy and the circumference of the designed ring are 3 GeV and 499.3 m, respectively. We investigated an injection system with a single-pulsed sextupole magnet in the storage ring. We describe the space allocation in the injection section and the particle dynamics of the injected beam. The investigation shows that our design exhibits a very low emittance and a sufficient dynamic aperture, and provides a suitable injection scheme for a 3-GeV light source.

  16. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Maria da Costa Brito Lacerda


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test—FM100. Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10–30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction.

  17. Chromatic-achromatic perimetry in four clinic cases: Glaucoma and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Cabezos


    Full Text Available Background: Some diseases that affect the visual system may show loss of chromatic-achromatic sensitivity before obvious physical signs appear in the usual examination of the eye′s posterior segment. A perimetric study has been conducted with four typical patients with glaucoma and diabetes, at different stages of the disease. Materials and Methods: In addition to the standard white-on-white (standard automated perimetry [SAP], a test battery has been used to study patient′s contrast sensitivity, using stimuli with different chromatic, spatial, and temporal content (multichannel perimetry. The choice of stimuli tries to maximize the response of different visual mechanisms: Achromatic (parvocellular and magnocellular origin; chromatic red-green (parvocellular origin; and chromatic blue-yellow (koniocellular origin. Results: The results seem to indicate losses in the achromatic-parvocellular perimetry and both chromatic perimetry tests, undetected by conventional SAP. Conclusions: Our results illustrate that our patients without visible retinal alterations show signs of suspicion in multichannel perimetry.

  18. Uncoupled achromatic condition of a dog-leg system with the presence of RF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Huiping


    To merge the beam from either of the two injectors to the main linac, a dog-leg system will be employed in the second Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT2) line of the China ADS driving accelerator. The achromatic condition has to be guaranteed to avoid beam center excursion against energy jitter. RF cavities were found indispensable to control the bunch length growth in the dog-leg system of MEBT2. The full uncoupling between transverse and longitudinal plane is desired to minimize the growth of projected rms emittances. The uncoupled achromatic condition of this dogleg system with the presence of RF bunching cavities will be deduced using the method of transfer matrixes. It is found that to fulfil the uncoupling condition, the distance between the bunching cavities is uniquely determined by the maximum energy gain of the RF cavities. The theoretical analysis is verified by the simulation code TraceWin. The space charge effect on the uncoupled achromatic condition and the beam emittance growth will also be di...

  19. Possibilities of achromatization of coaxial asymmetric phase shifters with an even number of reflections (United States)

    Kovalev, V. I.; Ali, M.; Kovalev, S. V.; Kovalev, V. V.


    Two types of coaxial phase shifters (PSs) are considered. They are designed for spectral ellipsometry, where achromatism is improved using a pair of parallel Al mirrors oriented at small angle θ2 with respect to the incident laser beam. In a phase device based on a fused silica Fresnel rhomb, a high degree of achromatism (Δ = 440° ± 0.4° in the wavelength range of 250-1000 nm) is obtained with the aid of two Al mirrors coated by a native oxide layer about 5 nm thick and tilted at θ2 = 18°. The achromatism of four-mirror PSs can be improved using two mirrors with a thin dielectric coating (Al2O3 or MgF2) 20-80 nm thick, for which phase shift Δ is close to 180° at small angles θ2 and there are fragments of spectrum Δ(λ) where Δ decreases with an increase in the light wavelength.

  20. Performance of an Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy (United States)

    Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan


    Coronagraph technology combined with wavefront control is close to achieving the contrast and inner working angle requirements in the lab necessary to observe the faint signal of an Earth-like exoplanet in monochromatic light. An important remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light. Coronagraph bandwidth is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask, which is responsible for blocking the stellar PSF. The size of a stellar PSF scales linearly with wavelength; ideally, the size of the focal plane mask would also scale with wavelength. A conventional hard-edge focal plane mask has a fixed size, normally sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. The conventional mask is oversized for shorter wavelengths and blocks useful discovery space. Recently we presented a solution to the size chromaticity challenge with a focal plane mask designed to scale its effective size with wavelength. In this paper, we analyze performance of the achromatic size-scaling focal plane mask within a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. We present results from wavefront control around the achromatic focal plane mask, and demonstrate the size-scaling effect of the mask with wavelength. The edge of the dark zone, and therefore the inner working angle of the coronagraph, scale with wavelength. The achromatic mask enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths compared with a conventional hard-edge occulter.

  1. Demonstration of Achromatic Cold-Neutron Microscope Utilizing Axisymmetric Focusing Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, D; Gubarev, M V; Ramsey, B D; Jacobson, D; Arif, M; Moncton, D E; Khaykovich, B


    An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, field of view, and depth of focus are measured and found consistent with ray-tracing simulations. Methods of increasing the resolution and magnification are discussed, as well as the scientific case for the neutron microscope. In contrast to traditional pinhole-camera neutron imaging, the resolution of the microscope is determined by the mirrors rather than by the collimation of the beam, leading to possible dramatic improvements in the signal rate and resolution.

  2. Achromatic parvocellular contrast gain in normal and color defective observers: Implications for the evolution of color vision. (United States)

    Lutze, Margaret; Pokorny, Joel; Smith, Vivianne C


    The PC pathway conveys both chromatic and achromatic information, with PC neurons being more responsive to chromatic (L-M) than to achromatic (L+M) stimuli. In considering the evolution of color vision, it has been suggested that the dynamic range of chromatic PC-pathway processing is tuned to the chromatic content of the natural environment. Anomalous trichromats, with reduced separation of their L- and M-cone spectral sensitivities, have diminished chromatic input to PC-pathway cells. Dichromats, with absent L or M cones, should have no chromatic input to PC-pathway cells. Therefore, the PC-pathway dynamic range of color defectives should be released from any constraint imposed by the chromatic environment. Here we ask whether this results in compensatory enhancement of achromatic PC-pathway processing in color defectives. This study employed a psychophysical method designed to isolate PC-pathway processing using achromatic stimuli. In a pulsed-pedestal condition, a four-square stimulus array appeared within a uniform surround. During a trial, one of the test squares differed from the other three, and the observer's task was to choose the square that was different. A four-alternative, forced-choice method was used to determine thresholds as a function of the contrast of the four-square array to the surround. Seven color defective and four normal observers participated. Results showed no systematic differences between normals and color defectives. There was no enhancement of achromatic processing as compensation for reduced chromatic processing in the PC-pathway system in color defectives. From physiological recordings, PC-pathway achromatic contrast gains of dichromatic and trichromatic New World primates and trichromatic Old World macaques have also been shown to be similar to each other. Our study and the animal studies imply that PC-pathway contrast gain parameters were regulated by factors other than the environmental chromaticity gamut, and may have arisen

  3. Achromatic and high-resolution full-field X-ray microscopy based on total-reflection mirrors. (United States)

    Matsuyama, Satoshi; Emi, Yoji; Kino, Hidetoshi; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto


    We developed an achromatic and high-resolution full-field X-ray microscope based on advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics that comprises two pairs of elliptical mirrors and hyperbolic mirrors utilizing the total reflection of X-rays. Performance tests to investigate the spatial resolution and chromatic aberration were performed at SPring-8. The microscope clearly resolved the pattern with ~100-nm feature size. Imaging the pattern by changing the X-ray energy revealed achromatism in the wide energy range of 8-11 keV.

  4. Differences in Brain Hemodynamics in Response to Achromatic and Chromatic Cards of the Rorschach (United States)


    Abstract. In order to investigate the effects of color stimuli of the Rorschach inkblot method (RIM), the cerebral activity of 40 participants with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness was scanned while they engaged in the Rorschach task. A scanned image of the ten RIM inkblots was projected onto a screen in the MRI scanner. Cerebral activation in response to five achromatic color cards and five chromatic cards were compared. As a result, a significant increase in brain activity was observed in bilateral visual areas V2 and V3, parietooccipital junctions, pulvinars, right superior temporal gyrus, and left premotor cortex for achromatic color cards (p < .001). For the cards with chromatic color, significant increase in brain activity was observed in left visual area V4 and left orbitofrontal cortex (p < .001). Furthermore, a conjoint analysis revealed various regions were activated in responding to the RIM. The neuropsychological underpinnings of the response process, as described by Acklin and Wu-Holt (1996), were largely confirmed. PMID:28239255

  5. The male blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, uses both chromatic and achromatic cues during mate choice. (United States)

    Baldwin, Jamie; Johnsen, Sönke


    In the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, claw color varies by sex, sexual maturity and individual. Males rely in part on color cues to select appropriate mates, and these chromatic cues may be perceived through an opponent interaction between two photoreceptors with maximum wavelength sensitivities at 440 and 508 nm. The range of color discrimination of this dichromatic visual system may be limited, however, and it is unclear whether male blue crabs are capable of discriminating the natural variations in claw color that may be important in mate choice. By testing males' innate color preferences in binary choice tests between photographs of red-clawed females and six variations of orange-clawed females, we examined both the chromatic (opponent interaction) and achromatic (relative luminance) cues used in male mate choice. Males significantly preferred red-clawed females to orange-clawed females, except when the test colors were similar in both opponency and relative luminance. Our results are unusual in that they indicate that male mate choice in the blue crab is not guided solely by achromatic or chromatic mechanisms, suggesting that both color and intensity are used to evaluate female claw color.

  6. Empirical modelling of the BLASTPol achromatic half-wave plate for precision submillimetre polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Angile, Francesco Elio; Benton, Steven; Devlin, Mark; Fissel, Laura; Gandilo, Natalie; Gundersen, Joshua; Matthews, Tristan; Netterfield, C Barth; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frederick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Soler, Juan; Spencer, Locke; Truch, Matthew; Tucker, Gregory; Zhang, Jin


    A cryogenic achromatic half-wave plate (HWP) for submillimetre astronomical polarimetry has been designed, manufactured, tested, and deployed in the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol). The design is based on the five-slab Pancharatnam recipe and it works in the wavelength range 200-600 micron, making it the most achromatic HWP built to date at submillimetre wavelengths. The frequency behaviour of the HWP has been fully characterised at room and cryogenic temperatures with incoherent radiation from a polarising Fourier transform spectrometer. We develop a novel empirical model, complementary to the physical and analytical ones available in the literature, that allows us to recover the HWP Mueller matrix and phase shift as a function of frequency and extrapolated to 4K. We show that most of the HWP non-idealities can be modelled by quantifying one wavelength-dependent parameter, the position of the HWP equivalent axes, which is then readily implemented in a map-makin...

  7. On-sky observations with an achromatic hybrid phase knife coronagraph in the visible

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Lyu; Vakili, Farrokh; Gay, Jean; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Dervaux, Sebastien; De Souza, Armando Domiciano


    CONTEXT: The four-quadrant phase mask stellar coronagraph, introduced by D. Rouan et al., is capable of achieving very high dynamical range imaging and was studied in the context of the direct detection of extra-solar planets. Achromatic four-quadrant phase mask is currently being developed for broadband IR applications. AIMS: We report on laboratory and on-sky tests of a prototype coronagraph in the visible. This prototype, the achromatic hybrid phase knife coronagraph, was derived from the four-quadrant phase mask principle. METHODS: The instrumental setup implementing the coronagraph itself was designed to record the pre- and post-coronagraphic images simultaneously so that an efficient real-time image selection procedure can be performed. We describe the coronagraph and the associated tools that enable robust and repeatable observations. We present an algorithm of image selection that has been tested against the real on-sky data of the binary star HD80081 (* 38 Lyn). RESULTS Although the observing conditi...

  8. The Role of Contrast in the Perception of Achromatic Transparency: Comment on Singh and Anderson (2002) and Anderson (2003) (United States)

    Albert, Marc K.


    M. Singh and B. L. Anderson proposed a perceptual theory of achromatic transparency in which the perceived transmittance of a perceived transparent filter is determined by the ratio of the Michelson contrast seen in the region of transparency to that of the background seen directly. Subsequently, B. L. Anderson, M. Singh, and J. Meng proposed that…

  9. Metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate for use at submillimeter wavelengths. (United States)

    Pisano, Giampaolo; Savini, Giorgio; Ade, Peter A R; Haynes, Vic


    A metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate (HWP) has been designed, manufactured, and tested for potential use in millimeter and submillimeter astronomical instruments. The prototype device presented here is based on a 12-grid Shatrow [IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 109 (1995)] recipe to operate over the frequency range of 120-180 GHz. Transmission line modeling and finite-element analysis [Ansoft HFSS website:] were used to optimize the design geometrical parameters in terms of the device transmission, reflection, absorption, phase-shift, and cross-polarization as a function of frequency. The resulting prototype device was constructed and characterized using incoherent radiation from a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer to explore its frequency and polarization behavior. These measurements are shown to be in excellent agreement with the models. Lists of the achieved HWP performance characteristics are reported.

  10. Visible-infrared achromatic imaging by wavefront coding with wide-angle automobile camera (United States)

    Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Sakita, Koichi; Shimano, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Takashi; Shibasaki, Susumu


    We perform an experiment of achromatic imaging with wavefront coding (WFC) using a wide-angle automobile lens. Our original annular phase mask for WFC was inserted to the lens, for which the difference between the focal positions at 400 nm and at 950 nm is 0.10 mm. We acquired images of objects using a WFC camera with this lens under the conditions of visible and infrared light. As a result, the effect of the removal of the chromatic aberration of the WFC system was successfully determined. Moreover, we fabricated a demonstration set assuming the use of a night vision camera in an automobile and showed the effect of the WFC system.

  11. Optimal Design of an Achromatic Angle-Insensitive Phase Retarder Used in MWIR Imaging Polarimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KiNG Guo-Guo; TAN Qiao-Feng; JIN Guo-Fan


    Dielectric gratings with period in the range from λ/10 to λ/4 with λ being the illumination wavelength not only exclude higher order diffractions but also exhibit strong dispersion of effective indices which are proportional to the wavelength. Moreover, they are insensitive to the incident angle of the illumination wave. With these features, we can design a true zero-order achromatic and angle-insensitive phase retarder which can be used as the polarization state analyzer in middle wave infrared (MWIR) imaging polarimetry. A design method using effective medium theory is described, and the performance of the designed phase retarder is evaluated by rigorous coupled wave analysis theory. The calculation results demonstrate that the retardance deviates from 45° by < ±1.6° within a field of view ±10° over the MWIR bandwidth (3-5μm).

  12. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by coherent synchrotron radiation in triple-bend achromat

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xiyang; Cui, Xiaohao; Xu, Gang


    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect at a bending path plays an important role in transverse emittance dilution in high-brightness light sources and linear colliders, where the electron beams are of short bunch length and of high peak current. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by CSR is essential and critical to preserve the beam quality and to help improve the machine performance. To evaluate the CSR effect analytically, we have proposed a novel method, which enabled us to obtain generic conditions of cancelling the CSR linear effect in a two-dipole achromat. In this paper, it illustrates that with this method the CSR-cancellation condition can be obtained for a TBA with symmetric layout, which is independent of concrete element parameters, and to a large extent, the initial beam distribution. Implementation of found condition in concrete optics design of a TBA is discussed, and the proposed condition is verified through numerical simulations.

  13. Two-stage reflective optical system for achromatic 10 nm x-ray focusing (United States)

    Motoyama, Hiroto; Mimura, Hidekazu


    Recently, coherent x-ray sources have promoted developments of optical systems for focusing, imaging, and interferometers. In this paper, we propose a two-stage focusing optical system with the goal of achromatically focusing pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), with a focal width of 10 nm. In this optical system, the x-ray beam is expanded by a grazing-incidence aspheric mirror, and it is focused by a mirror that is shaped as a solid of revolution. We describe the design procedure and discuss the theoretical focusing performance. In theory, soft-XFEL lights can be focused to a 10 nm area without chromatic aberration and with high reflectivity; this creates an unprecedented power density of 1020 W cm-2 in the soft-x-ray range.

  14. Signals for color and achromatic contrast in the goldfish inner retina. (United States)

    Burkhardt, Dwight A


    A moving stimulus paradigm was designed to investigate color contrast encoding in the retina. Recently, this paradigm yielded suggestive evidence for color contrast encoding in zebrafish but the significance and generality remain uncertain since the properties of color coding in the zebrafish inner retina are largely unknown. Here, the question of color contrast is pursued in the goldfish retina where there is much accumulated evidence for retinal mechanisms of color vision and opponent color-coding, in particular. Recordings of a sensitive local field potential of the inner retina, the proximal negative response, were made in the intact, superfused retina in the light-adapted state. Responses to color contrast and achromatic contrast were analyzed by comparing responses to a green moving bar on green versus red backgrounds. The quantitative form of the irradiance/response curves was distinctly different under a range of conditions in 32 retinas, thereby providing robust evidence for red-green color contrast. The color contrast is based on successive contrast, occurs in the absence of overt color opponency, and clearly differs from previous findings in the goldfish retina for simultaneous color contrast mediated by color-opponent neurons. The form of the irradiance/response curves suggests that successive color contrast is particularly important when achromatic contrast is low, as often occurs in natural environments. The present results provide a parallel with the well-known principle of human color vision, first proposed by Kirschmann as the third law of color contrast, and may also have implications for the evolution of vertebrate color vision.

  15. Lesiones laborales



    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  16. Design of a triple-bend isochronous achromat with minimum coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced emittance growth (United States)

    Venturini, M.


    Using a 1D steady-state free-space coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) model, we identify a special design setting for a triple-bend isochronous achromat that yields vanishing emittance growth from CSR. When a more refined CSR model with transient effects is included in the analysis, numerical simulations show that the main effect of the transients is to shift the emittance growth minimum slightly, with the minimum changing only modestly.

  17. Pink lesions. (United States)

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris


    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  18. First demonstration with beam of the Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stéphane


    The Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) scheme is a novel squeezing mechanism, which is (almost fully) compatible with the existing hardware of the LHC, and enables both the production and the chromatic correction of very low β*. The basic principles of the ATS scheme will be reminded together with its basic motivation which is to deliver a very ambitious β* of 10-15 cm in view of the even more ambitious performance commitments taken by the HL-LHC project. In this context, a few dedicated beam experiments were meticulously prepared and took place at the LHC in 2011. The results obtained will be highlighted, demonstrating already the viability of the scheme. The plans for 2012 will be discussed, with a few optics considerations which could already justify the implementation of the ATS scheme in the nominal machine, depending on which β* limits will be met first, and that the ATS can solve (e.g. optics matchability, chromatic aberrations) and obviously cannot: the aperture of the existing triplet.

  19. Achromatic telescopic squeezing scheme and application to the LHC and its luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, S


    A novel optics concept, the achromatic telescopic squeezing (ATS) scheme has been invented in the context of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade studies, and chosen as the baseline scheme for the optics and layout of the recently approved high luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC). This scheme offers an extremely powerful and flexible machinery in order to strongly reduce Beta* in a symmetric or asymmetric way (i.e. without necessarily imposing the same Beta* in both planes), while perfectly controlling the chromatic aberrations induced, namely the linear and nonlinear chromaticities, the off-momentum Beta beating, and the spurious dispersion from the large crossing angle which is required at small Beta* in the particular case of the (HL)-LHC. The initial motivations of the scheme will be reviewed, followed by a detailed description of its fundamental theoretical foundations. An effective construction of ATS optics will be given and its main features illustrated in the case of the LHC and HL-LHC.

  20. Transform-limited, achromatic injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, R; Minamide, H; Ito, H, E-mail: [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 519-1399, Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845 (Japan)


    A review to our effort on developing the transform-limited, frequency-agile terahertz-wave parametric generator (TPG) is presented. A frequency-agile THz-wave generation is realized by introducing the injection-seeding method and the optical design for the stationary dispersion-compensation The purity of the THz-wave frequency was dramatically improved to {Delta}v/v<10{sup -4}. Simultaneously, the THz-wave output was several hundred times higher than that of a conventional TPG. In addition, a wide frequency tuning with fast tuning speed were realized. The THz-wave frequency can be set randomly or scanned continuously over a frequency range from 0.6 THz to 2.4 THz with narrow linewidth of sub 100 MHz. Furthermore, a tabletop, high-performance THz-wave gas spectrometer based on this achromatic injection-seeded TPG was developed. To demonstrate the potential of this system, we performed the measurement of the absorption line due to rotational transitions of the water molecules and determined their pressure-broadening coefficient.

  1. Longitudinal transport measurements in an energy recovery accelerator with triple bend achromat arcs (United States)

    Jackson, F.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Saveliev, Y. M.; Williams, P. H.; Wolski, A.


    Longitudinal properties of electron bunches (energy spread and bunch length) and their manipulation are of importance in free electron lasers (FELs), where magnetic bunch length compression is a common feature of beam transport. Recirculating accelerators and energy recovery linac accelerators (ERLs) have been used as FEL drivers for several decades and control of longitudinal beam transport is particularly important in their magnet lattices. We report on measurements of longitudinal transport properties in an ERL-FEL, the ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers in Combined Experiments) accelerator at Daresbury Laboratory. ALICE is an energy recovery research accelerator that drives an infrared free electron laser. By measuring the time of arrival of electron bunches, the canonical longitudinal transport quantities were measured in the beam transport and bunch compression sections of the lattice. ALICE includes a four-dipole bunch compression chicane providing fixed longitudinal transport, and triple bend achromat arcs including sextupole magnets where the first and second order longitudinal transport can be adjusted. The longitudinal transport properties in these lattice sections were measured and compared with the theoretical model of the lattice. A reasonable level of agreement has been found. The effect of sextupoles in second order, as well as first order, longitudinal correction is considered, with the measurements indicating the level of alignment of the beam to the center of the sextupole.

  2. All-prism achromatic phase matching for tunable second-harmonic generation. (United States)

    Richman, B A; Bisson, S E; Trebino, R; Sidick, E; Jacobson, A


    Achromatic phase matching (APM) involves dispersing the light entering a nonlinear optical crystal so that a wide range of wavelengths is simultaneously phase matched. We constructed an APM apparatus consisting of six prisms, the final dispersion angle of which was optimized to match to second order in wavelength the type I phase-matching angle of beta barium borate (BBO). With this apparatus, we doubled tunable fundamental light from 620 to 700 nm in wavelength using a 4-mm-long BBO crystal. An analogous set of six prisms after the BBO crystal, optimized to second order in second-harmonic wavelength, realigned the output second-harmonic beams. Computer simulations predict that adjustment of a single prism can compensate angular misalignment of any or all the prisms before the crystal, and similarly for the prisms after the crystal. We demonstrated such compensation with the experimental device. The simulations also indicate that the phase-matching wavelength band can be shifted and optimized for different crystal lengths.

  3. Achromatic nested Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics for hard X-ray nanofocusing. (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E; Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu, Chian; Shi, Bing; Khachatryan, Ruben; Qian, Jun; Zschack, Paul; Tischler, Jonathan Z; Choi, J Y


    The first test of nanoscale-focusing Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors in the nested (or Montel) configuration used at a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline is reported. The two mirrors are both 40 mm long and coated with Pt to produce a focal length of 60 mm at 3 mrad incident angle, and collect up to a 120 µm by 120 µm incident X-ray beam with maximum angular acceptance of 2 mrad and a broad bandwidth of energies up to 30 keV. In an initial test a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions was achieved with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. The nested mirror geometry, with two mirrors mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, is significantly more compact and provides higher demagnification than the traditional sequential KB mirror arrangement. Ultimately, nested mirrors can focus larger divergence to improve the diffraction limit of achromatic optics. A major challenge with the fabrication of the required mirrors is the need for near-perfect mirror surfaces near the edge of at least one of the mirrors. Special polishing procedures and surface profile coating were used to preserve the mirror surface quality at the reflecting edge. Further developments aimed at achieving diffraction-limited focusing below 50 nm are underway.

  4. Design of a multi-bend achromat lattice for 3 GeV synchrotron light source (United States)

    Kim, Eun-San


    We present a lattice design for a low-emittance and high-brilliance 3 GeV synchrotron light source that has been widely investigated in the world. We show the design results for a MBA (Multi-Bend Achromat) lattice with an emittance of 1.3 nm and 282.4 m circumference. Each cell has 5 bending magnets that consist of outer two with bending angle of 4.5° and inner three with bending angle of 7°. The lattice is designed to be flexible and consists of 12 straight sections in which one straight section has a length of 5.9 m. We have studied the dynamic aperture in the lattice with machine errors. It is shown that the designed low-emittance lattice provides sufficient dynamic aperture after COD correction. We present the results of variations of emittance, energy spread and dynamic aperture due to in-vacuum undulators in the straight sections. We performed particle tracking after the beam injection to investigate the efficiency of the injection scheme. We show the designed results of an injection scheme that shows the space allocation in injection section and the particle motions of injected beam. Our designed lattice provides a good optimization in terms of the emittance and brilliance as a light source for 3 GeV energy and circumference of 28 m.

  5. Parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscalleda, J. [Hospital Sant Pau, Radiology Department, Neuroradiology, Barcelona (Spain)


    The sellar and parasellar region is an anatomically complex area that represents a crucial crossroad of important adjacent structures, e.g. orbits, cavernous sinus and its content, polygon of Willis, hypothalamus through the pituitary stalk and dural reflections forming the diaphragm sellae and the walls of the cavernous sinuses. Although the cavernous sinus represents the most relevant parasellar structure, from the practical and clinical point of view all the structures that surround the sella turcica can be included in the parasellar region. CT and, mainly, MRI are the imaging modalities to study and characterise the normal anatomy and the majority of processes in this region. We present a practical short review of the most relevant CT and MRI characteristics, such as location, nature of contrast enhancement and presence of cystic components, together with clinical findings, which permit differentiation of the most frequent and less common lesions found in the parasellar region. Learning objectives: A short review of the anatomy and clinical symptoms related to the parasellar region. Radiological characterisation, mainly by MRI, of the many lesions that alter the structure and function of sellar and parasellar anatomy. Description of the MRI features that permit differentiation among less common lesions. (orig.)

  6. Elemental mapping in achromatic atomic-resolution energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, B.D. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Houben, L. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Mayer, J. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Allen, L.J., E-mail: [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)


    We present atomic-resolution energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images obtained with the chromatic-aberration-corrected FEI Titan PICO at the Ernst-Ruska Centre, Jülich, Germany. We find qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation for the background-subtracted EFTEM images of the Ti–L{sub 2,3} and O–K edges for a specimen of SrTiO{sub 3} oriented down the [110] zone axis. The simulations utilize the transition potential formulation for inelastic scattering, which permits a detailed investigation of contributions to the EFTEM image. We find that energy-filtered images of the Ti–L{sub 2,3} and O–K edges are lattice images and that the background-subtracted core-loss maps may not be directly interpretable as elemental maps. Simulations show that this is a result of preservation of elastic contrast, whereby the qualitative details of the image are determined primarily by elastic, coherent scattering. We show that this effect places a constraint on the range of specimen thicknesses which could theoretically yield directly useful elemental maps. In general, interpretation of EFTEM images is ideally accompanied by detailed simulations. - Highlights: • Achromatic atomic-resolution EFTEM images were obtained for STO 〈110〉. • Simulations were in qualitative agreement with Ti–L{sub 2,3} and O–K edge maps. • The experimental EFTEM maps are not directly interpretable as elemental maps. • Image intensities are strongly determined by preservation of elastic contrast. • Interpretation of EFTEM images is ideally accompanied by detailed simulations.

  7. Differences in Brain Hemodynamics in Response to Achromatic and Chromatic Cards of the Rorschach: A fMRI Study. (United States)

    Ishibashi, Masahiro; Uchiumi, Chigusa; Jung, Minyoung; Aizawa, Naoki; Makita, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Yugo; Saito, Daisuke N


    In order to investigate the effects of color stimuli of the Rorschach inkblot method (RIM), the cerebral activity of 40 participants with no history of neurological or psychiatric illness was scanned while they engaged in the Rorschach task. A scanned image of the ten RIM inkblots was projected onto a screen in the MRI scanner. Cerebral activation in response to five achromatic color cards and five chromatic cards were compared. As a result, a significant increase in brain activity was observed in bilateral visual areas V2 and V3, parietooccipital junctions, pulvinars, right superior temporal gyrus, and left premotor cortex for achromatic color cards (p < .001). For the cards with chromatic color, significant increase in brain activity was observed in left visual area V4 and left orbitofrontal cortex (p < .001). Furthermore, a conjoint analysis revealed various regions were activated in responding to the RIM. The neuropsychological underpinnings of the response process, as described by Acklin and Wu-Holt (1996), were largely confirmed.

  8. Analysis of performance of three- and five-stack achromatic half-wave plates at millimeter wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Johnson, Bradley R; Jones, Terry J; Jonnalagadda, Prashanth


    We study the performance of achromatic half-wave plates (AHWP) as a function of their construction parameters, the detection bandwidth of a power detector operating in the millimeter wave band, and the spectral shape of the incident radiation. We focus particular attention on the extraction of the degree of incident polarization and its orientation angle from the intensity measured as a function of AHWP rotation angle, which we call the IVA (intensity versus angle). We quantify the phase offset of the IVA and point to potential systematic errors in the extraction of this offset in cases where the incident spectrum is not sufficiently well known. We show how the phase offset and modulation efficiency of the AHWP depend on the relative angles between the plates in the stack and find that high modulation efficiency can be achieved with alignment accuracy of few degrees.

  9. What visual illusions tell us about underlying neural mechanisms and observer strategies for tackling the inverse problem of achromatic perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBlakeslee


    Full Text Available Research in lightness perception centers on understanding the prior assumptions and processing strategies the visual system uses to parse the retinal intensity distribution (the proximal stimulus into the surface reflectance and illumination components of the scene (the distal stimulus – ground truth. It is agreed that the visual system must compare different regions of the visual image to solve this inverse problem; however, the nature of the comparisons and the mechanisms underlying them are topics of intense debate. Perceptual illusions are of value because they reveal important information about these visual processing mechanisms. We propose a framework for lightness research that resolves confusions and paradoxes in the literature, and provides insight into the mechanisms the visual system employs to tackle the inverse problem. The main idea is that much of the debate and confusion in the literature stems from the fact that lightness, defined as apparent reflectance, is underspecified and refers to three different types of judgments that are not comparable. Under stimulus conditions containing a visible illumination component, such as a shadow boundary, observers can distinguish and match three independent dimensions of achromatic experience: apparent intensity (brightness, apparent local intensity ratio (brightness-contrast, and apparent reflectance (lightness. In the absence of a visible illumination boundary, however, achromatic vision reduces to two dimensions and, depending on stimulus conditions and observer instructions, judgments of lightness are identical to judgments of brightness or brightness-contrast. Furthermore, because lightness judgments are based on different information under different conditions, they can differ greatly in their degree of difficulty and in their accuracy. This may, in part, explain the large variability in lightness constancy across studies.

  10. Plasmonic color-graded nanosystems with achromatic sub-wavelength architectures for light filtering and advanced SERS detection

    KAUST Repository

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo


    Plasmonic colour-graded systems are devices featuring a spatially variable plasmonic response over their surface. They are widely used as nanoscale colour filters; their typical size is small enough to allow integration with miniaturized electronic circuits paving the way to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Currently, most plasmonic colour-graded systems are intrinsically discrete, as their chromatic response exploits the tailored plasmon resonance of micro-architectures characterized by different size and/or geometry for each target colour. Here we report the realization of multifunctional plasmon-graded devices where continuously-graded chromatic response is achieved by smoothly tuning the composition of the resonator material while simultaneously maintaining an achromatic nanoscale geometry. The result is a new class of versatile materials: we show their application as plasmonic filters with a potential pixel size smaller than half of the exciting wavelength, but also as multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. Many more implementations, like photovoltaic efficiency boosters or colour routers await, and will benefit from the low fabrication cost and intrinsic plasmonic flexibility of the presented systems.

  11. Unique psoriatic lesion versus multiple lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the number of lesions of psoriasis and to find risk factors for multiple lesions. Material and Methods: 1,236 patients (male 54.13%, female 45.87% with psoriasis were seen over a period of 8 years in an Outpatient Clinic. Patients filled out questionnaires containing age at onset, number of lesions and location at the beginning of the disease, gender, type and localization of psoriasis at the time of clinical examination, psoriasis family history, previous treatment, comorbidities, and social status. Results: The number of psoriasis lesions correlates with: onset age of psoriasis (F=8.902, p=0.0029; age at the moment of clinical examination (F=8.902, p=0.0029; residence in rural area (χ2=8.589, p=0.00338, 95%CI; alcohol intake (χ2=16.47, p=0.00005, 95%CI; smoking (χ2=8.408, p=0.00373, 95%CI; occupation: workers/pupils/students (χ2=14.11, p=0.0069, 95%CI. Conclusions: There is a correlation between number of psoriatic lesions and some factors. Multiple lesions were observed in older patients, smokers and drinkers, coming from rural area and social active (workers and pupils/students. No correlation was statistically proved between number of lesions and gender, comorbidities and family history of psoriasis.

  12. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S;


    . The literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R...... in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  13. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh


    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  14. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.


    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  15. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L


    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  16. Andersson Lesion in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimegalai N, KrishnanKutty K, Panchapakesa Rajendran C, Rukmangatharajan S, Rajeswari S


    Full Text Available Andersson lesions are destructive foci that appear at the discovertebral junction in ankylosingspondylitis. We report three cases of ankylosing spondylitis with such lesions. These lesions simulatean infection and in our country, mimic spinal tuberculosis.

  17. Meniscal Ramp Lesions (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.


    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  18. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries



    El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participa...

  19. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A


    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  20. Immunopathology of skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora


    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 ± 1030.43 mg% and IgM (232.12 ± 136.98 mg% was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61± 77.35 mg% and 66.88 ± 6.59mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P<0.00 1 in various skin lesions (40.49±23.29 when compared with controls (17.68± 3.21, but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 ± 4.28. Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders.

  1. Traumatic plexus lesion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, R.T.M. van; Cohen, S.P.; Kleef, M. van; Mekhail, N.; Huygen, F.


    Pain, motor, and sensory deficits characterize patients with a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus. Frequently, more severe injuries co-exist that require immediate surgical attention. Early rehabilitation and physical therapy are the cornerstones of treatment. Pharmacological management can be

  2. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  3. Morel-Lavallee lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Fangjie; Lei Guanghua


    Objective To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity.Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses.It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice.Data sources A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords:Morel-Lavallee lesion,closed degloving injury,concealed degloving injury,Morel-Lavallee effusion,Morel-Lavallee hematoma,posttraumatic pseudocyst,posttraumatic soft tissue cyst.Study selection Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected.Their references were also reviewed.Results Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury.It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia.Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter,MLLs have been described in other parts of the body.The natural history of MLL has not yet been established.The lesion may decrease in volume,remain stable,enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern.Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed.Ultrasonography,computed tomography,and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL.Treatment of MLL has included compression,local aspiration,open debridement,and sclerodesis.No standard treatment has been established.Conclusions A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft,fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury.Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis.Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures,the condition of the lesion,symptom and desire of the patient.

  4. Electrophysiological correlates of associative visual agnosia lesioned in the ventral pathway. (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takao; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Arakawa, Kenji; Kuba, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yoshihisa; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Shida, Kenshiro; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Yamada, Takeshi; Kira, Jun-ichi


    Visual agnosia has been well studied by anatomical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. However, functional changes in the brain have been rarely assessed by electrophysiological methods. We carried out electrophysiological examinations on a 23-year-old man with associative visual agnosia, prosopagnosia and cerebral achromatopsia to evaluate the higher brain dysfunctions of visual recognition. Electrophysiological methods consisted of achromatic, chromatic and category-specific visual evoked potentials (CS-VEPs), and event-related potentials (ERPs) with color and motion discrimination tasks. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed large white matter lesions in the bilateral temporo-occipital lobes involving the lingual and fusiform gyri (V4) and inferior longitudinal fasciculi due to multiple sclerosis. Examinations including CS-VEPs demonstrated dysfunctions of face and object perception while sparing semantic word perception after primary visual cortex (V1) in the ventral pathway. ERPs showed abnormal color perception in the ventral pathway with normal motion perception in the dorsal pathway. These electrophysiological findings were consistent with lesions in the ventral pathway that were detected by clinical and neuroimaging findings. Therefore, CS-VEPs and ERPs with color and motion discrimination tasks are useful methods for assessing the functional changes of visual recognition such as visual agnosia.

  5. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions]. (United States)

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C


    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy.

  6. Lesiones en el deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Gimeno, Silvio


    Full Text Available Not available

    El incremento de la actividad física y del deporte, en las sociedades llamadas desarrolladas, ha traído consigo beneficios claros para la salud, reflejados en diferentes indicadores de salud. Simultáneamente, el deporte de competición obliga a una dedicación diaria a intensidad de entrenamiento, con objeto de obtener los elevados requerimientos físicos que exige la competición. Todo ello ha traído consigo la aparición de numerosas lesiones, fundamentalmente del sistema músculo- esquelético.
    Se exponen en este trabajo consideraciones históricas, la epidemiología de la lesión deportiva y se describen, concisamente, algunas de las lesiones más habituales y significativas que afectan a músculos, tendones y sistema esquelético.

  7. Meniscal Ramp Lesions



    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, ...

  8. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo;


    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  9. Acute periodontal lesions. (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano


    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  10. 基于蚁群算法的石英λ/4消色差复合波片优化设计%Design of quartz λ/4 achromatic composite wave plate based on the ant colony algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩彩; 宋连科; 刘前


    为了设计消色差性能优良的三元复合λ/4波片,根据复合波片原理,利用蚁群算法对三元复合波片进行了优化设计,即通过改变三波片的厚度和精确调整复合角,使消色差范围拓宽到500nm,相位延迟偏差在0.81%左右.这种优化设计对于拓宽消色差范围,提高延迟精度具有实用价值.%According to the composite wave - plate theory, I use ant colony algorithm to calculate composite Angle and three wave plate thickness then through matlab do simulation experiment and analysis the error . experimental result shows that the retardation deviation of this device is within 0. 81% covering the spectrum scope of 500nm. This paper supplies considerable theoretical premise to the design of composite achromatic wave - plate, and provides theoretical basis for wider achromatic spectral range and higher precision. So our work has very important pratical reference value. in order to design some high - quality infrared composite achromatic wave - plates.

  11. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick


    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  12. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching


    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  13. Atrichia with Papular Lesions


    Bansal, Manish; Manchanda, Kajal; Lamba, Sachin; Pandey, SS


    Atrichia with papular lesions (APL) is a rare autosomal recessive form of irreversible alopecia with onset at few months of age with papular keratin cysts over the body. It is associated with mutation in the Zinc finger domain of the human hairless gene on chromosome region 8p12. An eleven-year-old male presented with extensive alopecia starting at six months of age refractory to the treatment along with keratotic papules on the face and trunk. Biopsy from a papule showed mid-dermal keratin c...

  14. Lesiones en corredores amateurs


    Natale, Vanesa


    Se realizó un estudio tomando como muestra a 100 corredores amateurs de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, en la cual el objetivo general fue determinar cuáles son las patologías más frecuentes en corredores. Correr no es solo un deporte en si mismo sino que tiene elementos de otras actividades deportivas, es decir, que las lesiones de los corredores también son comunes en otros tipos de deportes. El número de deportistas aumenta diariamente y al mismo tiempo aumentan el número de per...

  15. Lesiones en el deporte



    Not available

    El incremento de la actividad física y del deporte, en las sociedades llamadas desarrolladas, ha traído consigo beneficios claros para la salud, reflejados en diferentes indicadores de salud. Simultáneamente, el deporte de competición obliga a una dedicación diaria a intensidad de entrenamiento, con objeto de obtener los elevados requerimientos físicos que exige la competición. Todo ello ha traído consigo la aparición de numerosas lesiones, fundamentalmen...

  16. Klatskin-Like Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Senthil Kumar


    Full Text Available Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5–15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature.

  17. Klatskin-like lesions. (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, M P; Marudanayagam, R


    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5-15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature.

  18. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum. (United States)

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S


    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses.

  19. Hybrid Refractive-Diffractive Achromatic System Design with Photon Sieve-Lens Combination%光子筛-透镜组合的折衍混合消色差系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何渝; 赵立新; 唐燕; 陈铭勇; 朱江平


    Photon sieve is a diffractive optical element with large chromatic aberration, which is not suitable for imaging in wide spectral. The focal length of photon sieve decreases when the incident wavelength increases, while the focal length of positive refractive lens increases when the incident wavelength increases. The design applying the method of hybrid refractive-diffractive into the photon sieve achromatic is proposed. These opposite dispersive characteristics are used in this method. A plano-convex len is placed close to side of a photon sieve in order to achieve achromatic design. Then the achromatic system is designed in the visible spectrum. The analysis shows that the system is achromatic and has a certain ability of secondary spectrum correction. The relative error between focal lengths of achromatic wavelength and centre wavelength is 0. 33%. The imaging spectral bandwidth is 20 nm. Compared with ordinary single photon sieve, the design broadens the imaging spectrum range. Compared with the hybrid refractive-diffractive system using zone plate, a smaller focusing spot can be achieved.%光子筛作为一种衍射光学元件,具有较大的色散,不适用于宽光谱成像.光子筛的焦距随着入射波长的增大而减小,而正的折射透镜焦距随着入射波长的增大而增大.应用了折衍混合方法进行光子筛消色差的设计.该设计利用二者相反的色散特性,在光子筛的一侧紧密放置一平凸透镜,从而实现光子筛的消色差设计.并针对可见光光谱进行了设计,分析表明该方法能够实现消色差,且具有一定校正二级光谱的能力,消色差波长与中心波长处焦距相对误差为0.33%,成像光谱带宽为20 nm.与普通单个光子筛相比,该方法有效拓宽了光子筛的成像光谱范围.与使用波带片的折衍混合系统相比,聚焦光斑更小.

  20. Design and development of an ambient-temperature continuously-rotating achromatic half-wave plate for CMB polarization modulation on the POLARBEAR-2 experiment (United States)

    Hill, Charles A.; Beckman, Shawn; Chinone, Yuji; Goeckner-Wald, Neil; Hazumi, Masashi; Keating, Brian; Kusaka, Akito; Lee, Adrian T.; Matsuda, Frederick; Plambeck, Richard; Suzuki, Aritoki; Takakura, Satoru


    We describe the development of an ambient-temperature continuously-rotating half-wave plate (HWP) for study of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization by the POLARBEAR-2 (PB2) experiment. Rapid polarization modulation suppresses 1/f noise due to unpolarized atmospheric turbulence and improves sensitivity to degree-angular-scale CMB fluctuations where the inflationary gravitational wave signal is thought to exist. A HWP modulator rotates the input polarization signal and therefore allows a single polarimeter to measure both linear polarization states, eliminating systematic errors associated with differencing of orthogonal detectors. PB2 projects a 365-mm-diameter focal plane of 7,588 dichroic, 95/150 GHz transition-edge-sensor bolometers onto a 4-degree field of view that scans the sky at 1 degree per second. We find that a 500-mm-diameter ambient-temperature sapphire achromatic HWP rotating at 2 Hz is a suitable polarization modulator for PB2. We present the design considerations for the PB2 HWP, the construction of the HWP optical stack and rotation mechanism, and the performance of the fully-assembled HWP instrument. We conclude with a discussion of HWP polarization modulation for future Simons Array receivers.

  1. The Impact of the Spectral Response of an Achromatic Half-Wave Plate on the Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, C; Baccigalupi, C; Didier, J; Hanany, S; Jaffe, A; Johnson, B R; Leach, S; Matsumura, T; Miller, A; O'Dea, D


    We study the impact of the spectral dependence of the linear polarization rotation induced by an achromatic half-wave plate on measurements of cosmic microwave background polarization in the presence of astrophysical foregrounds. We focus on the systematic effects induced on the measurement of inflationary gravitational waves by uncertainties in the polarization and spectral index of Galactic dust. We find that for the experimental configuration and noise levels of the balloon-borne EBEX experiment, which has three frequency bands centered at 150, 250, and 410 GHz, a crude dust subtraction process mitigates systematic effects to below detectable levels for 10% polarized dust and tensor to scalar ratio of as low as r = 0.01. We also study the impact of uncertainties in the spectral response of the instrument. With a top-hat model of the spectral response for each band, characterized by band-center and band-width, and with the same crude dust subtraction process, we find that these parameters need to be determi...

  2. Design and development of an ambient-temperature continuously-rotating achromatic half-wave plate for CMB polarization modulation on the POLARBEAR-2 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Charles A; Chinone, Yuji; Goeckner-Wald, Neil; Hazumi, Masashi; Keating, Brian; Kusaka, Akito; Lee, Adrian T; Matsuda, Frederick; Plambeck, Richard; Suzuki, Aritoki; Takakura, Satoru


    We describe the development of an ambient-temperature continuously-rotating half-wave plate (HWP) for study of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization by the POLARBEAR-2 (PB2) experiment. Rapid polarization modulation suppresses 1/f noise due to unpolarized atmospheric turbulence and improves sensitivity to degree-angular-scale CMB fluctuations where the inflationary gravitational wave signal is thought to exist. A HWP modulator rotates the input polarization signal and therefore allows a single polarimeter to measure both linear polarization states, eliminating systematic errors associated with differencing of orthogonal detectors. PB2 projects a 365-mm-diameter focal plane of 7,588 dichroic, 95/150 GHz transition-edge-sensor bolometers onto a 4-degree field of view that scans the sky at $\\sim$ 1 degree per second. We find that a 500-mm-diameter ambient-temperature sapphire achromatic HWP rotating at 2 Hz is a suitable polarization modulator for PB2. We present the design considerations for the PB...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran H. S


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Benign or malignant lesions presenting as mass in the breast causes anxiety to the patients and the family members. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To classify different types of lesions of breast, both benign and malignant. 2. Histomorphological study of various types of benign and malignant breast lesions. 3. To study spectrum of lesions associated with benign and malignant breast diseases. SETTING AND DESIGN All the breast biopsies, lumpectomies, and mastectomy specimens presenting to Department of Pathology of our institution between June 2012 to June 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS A sample size of 100 cases are included in this study. Clinical details are taken from records. The specimens of breast sent to the Department of Pathology are processed by routine histopathological techniques. Histopathological features are studied on haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Statistically, the test of proportion is used to obtain the frequency of all lesions. Chi-square test, which is used to find the association between the spectrum of lesions showed a p value of 0.0438 and hence the study was considered significant. RESULTS In our study, out of 100 cases, malignant breast lesions constituted the majority of the lesions comprising of 49 cases (49%, followed by benign lesions comprising 46 cases (46% and the inflammatory lesions comprising 5 cases (5%. Among benign lesions, fibrocystic disease was the predominant lesion comprising of 39 cases (41%, followed by fibroadenoma comprising 26 cases (28%, which is followed by 13 cases (14% of fibrocystic disease with columnar cell change and 8 cases (9% of sclerosing adenosis. Among malignant lesions, invasive ductal carcinoma (NST type was the most common lesion comprising 31 cases (61% followed by 11 cases (21% of invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS


    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  5. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu


    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  6. "Hybrid" lesion of the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sankaranarayanan


    Full Text Available Juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon benign but aggressive fibroosseous lesion that affects the craniofacial skeleton. Their distinct clinical and histopathological features warrant the lesion to be considered as a separate entity from other fibro-osseous group of lesions such as fibrous dysplasia and cemento ossifying fibroma. Concomitant development of secondary aneurysmal bone cyst may rarely occur, which makes the lesion more aggressive and difficult to treat. We report a case of a 6 year old girl who was diagnosed with aneurysmal bone cyst during her earlier presentation at a private hospital and was treated for the same. The lesion recurred within 6 months. The second incisional biopsy specimen revealed features of trabecular variant of juvenile ossifying fibroma along with areas of aneurysmal bone cyst.

  7. Pain in osteochondral lesions. (United States)

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Rasch, Helmut; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Valderrabano, Victor


    Pain is the key symptom of patients suffering from osteochondral lesions (OCLs) of the ankle joint. Routine radiographic imaging methods for diagnosis and staging of OCL fail to visualize the pain-inducing focus within the joint. SPECT-CT (Single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography) is a new hybrid imaging technique allowing exact digital fusion of scintigraphic and computer tomographic images. This allows precise localization and size determination of an OCL within the joint. Using this novel imaging method, we conducted a study to evaluate the correlation between pathological uptake within an OCL and pain experienced by patients suffering from this condition; 15 patients were assessed in the orthopaedic ambulatory clinic for unilateral OCL of the ankle joint. Pain status was measured with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A SPECT-CT was performed. All patients underwent CT-guided ankle injection with a local anesthetic and iodine contrast medium. The VAS score assessed immediately postinfiltration was compared with the preinterventional VAS score obtained in the outpatient clinic. Pain relief was defined as a reduction of the VAS score to ≤50% of the preinterventional score, if expected immediately after infiltration. Pain relief was found in all 15 patients. The results of our study show that there is a highly significant correlation between pain and pathological uptake seen on SPECT-CT, indicating that pathologically remodeled bone tissue is an important contributor to pain in OCL. Adequate addressing of involved bone tissue needs to be taken into consideration when choosing a surgical treatment method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad


    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  9. Factitious lesions of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kaempf de Oliveira


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of a lesion with atypical presentation, obscure clinical history, which does not improve with classic treatments, shall raise the red flag of the medical team. In such cases, the hypothesis of a factitious lesion shall be considered. Many times the correct diagnosis on the initial assessment may avoid high-cost diagnostic tests, unnecessary treatments, and time consumption of the medical team. We present here two classic cases of factitious lesions that, similar to those described in the literature, is difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat.

  10. Lesiones debido a un rayo


    Soraia Oliveira; Andriy Bal


    Lesiones debido a un rayo Mujer de 72 años, fue admitida en urgências con dolor abdominal y lipotimia después de ser golpeada por un rayo mientras abría una ventana. En la exploracion presentaba lesiones, localizadas en el tronco, dolorosas a la palpación. Las lesiones abdominales en forma de estrella eran muy sugestivas de imágenes de Lichtenberg (figura A), mientras en la región pélvica (figura B) y en la nalga derecha (figura C) eran más lineales y compatibles con quemaduras de pri...

  11. Lesions of the avian pancreas. (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R


    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  12. Pediatric sellar and suprasellar lesions. (United States)

    Schroeder, Jason W; Vezina, L Gilbert


    Masses arising in the sella turcica and the suprasellar region are common in children. The type and frequency of the various lesions encountered in childhood differ from the adult presentation. This article reviews the embryology of the pituitary gland and its normal appearance in childhood as well as the imaging and clinical findings of the common and some of the uncommon lesions arising in the sella turcica, the pituitary stalk, the suprasellar cistern and the lower third ventricle in the pediatric population.

  13. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali


    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  14. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation (United States)

    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh


    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  15. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin


    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  16. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Shamsuddin


    Full Text Available Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT, and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis.

  17. Nodular lesions and mesangiolysis in diabetic nephropathy. (United States)

    Wada, Takashi; Shimizu, Miho; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Yoshio; Kaneko, Shuichi; Furuichi, Kengo


    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure all over the world. Advanced human diabetic nephropathy is characterized by the presence of specific lesions including nodular lesions, doughnut lesions, and exudative lesions. Thus far, animal models precisely mimicking advanced human diabetic nephropathy, especially nodular lesions, remain to be fully established. Animal models with spontaneous diabetic kidney diseases or with inducible kidney lesions may be useful for investigating the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Based on pathological features, we previously reported that diabetic glomerular nodular-like lesions were formed during the reconstruction process of mesangiolysis. Recently, we established nodular-like lesions resembling those seen in advanced human diabetic nephropathy through vascular endothelial injury and mesangiolysis by administration of monocrotaline. Here, in this review, we discuss diabetic nodular lesions and its animal models resembling human diabetic kidney lesions, with our hypothesis that endothelial cell injury and mesangiolysis might be required for nodular lesions.

  18. [Percutaneous diagnostic angioscopy. Primary lesions]. (United States)

    Carlier, C; Foucart, H; Baudrillard, J C; Cécile, J P


    Efficacy of percutaneous treatments of arterial affections requires the correct choice of indications, necessitating precise knowledge of elementary arterial lesions. Arterial endoscopy appears to be more specific than angiography for this use, since it allows direct vision in vivo of the lesion, a histopathologic approach compared with the non univocal images produced by angiography (for example, an arterial obstruction can result from varied causes). Different accidents to the endothelial surface can be observed: golden yellow atheromatous elevations on a straw yellow background, intimal flaps, mobile intra-luminal vegetations. Established atheromatous stenosis are smooth and regular, or on the contrary ulcerated and edged with irregular flaps capable of provoking an eccentric residual lumen. The vegetating atheromatous lesions may project into the lumen, often as calcified and thus pearly white scales adhering to the wall, or as larger occlusive lesions. When capable of being isolated, a thrombus often completes the stenosis: its recognition is therefore fundamental since its removal exposes the subjacent lesions to be treated. The fresh clot is coral shaped, bright red and mobile in the blood flow. Established clots are compact and greenish brown. At an advanced stage of atheroma the surface of the occluding clot is covered with a regular straw yellow endothelium. In the presence of a dissecting vessel the fibroscope may be introduced into the false channel, no longer showing typical endothelium but a coagulated mass interspersed with fibrous bands. Prosthetic stenosis result from either intimal hyperplasia or a suturing fault with plication.

  19. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Ruohonen


    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  20. Pediatric Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions. (United States)

    Cruz, Aristides I; Shea, Kevin G; Ganley, Theodore J


    Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) can cause knee pain and dysfunction in children. The etiology of OCD remains unclear; theories on causes include inflammation, ischemia, ossification abnormalities, genetic factors, and repetitive microtrauma. Most OCD lesions in skeletally immature patients will heal with nonoperative treatment. The success of nonoperative treatment decreases once patients reach skeletal maturity. The goals of surgical treatment include maintenance of articular cartilage congruity, rigid fixation of unstable fragments, and repair of osteochondral defects with cells or tissues that can adequately replace lost or deficient cartilage. Unsalvageable OCD lesions can be treated with various surgical techniques.

  1. Lesiones frecuentes en atletas profesionales


    Doyel, Crevecoer


    Durante la práctica del atletismo frecuentemente ocurren lesiones, afectando principalmente a los miembros inferiores. Las causas que las originan son muy diversas y tienen diferentes características de acuerdo al tipo de modalidad realizada dentro del atletismo. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las lesiones más frecuentes en miembros inferiores, en atletas corredores profesionales, de diferentes distancias, de ambos sexos, de entre 18 y 40 años de edad, que practican atletismo en...

  2. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber


    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  3. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos


    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  4. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

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    Macarena Gompertz


    Full Text Available Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.

  5. Self-inflicted skin lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Smith, Matthias Nybro; Jemec, Gregor B E


    The current literature on the management of self-inflicted skin lesions points to an overall paucity of treatments with a high level of evidence (randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, or meta-analyses). In order to improve the communication between dermatologists and mental health...

  6. SLAP lesions: a treatment algorithm. (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Matthias; Tompkins, Marc; Kohn, Dieter M; Lorbach, Olaf


    Tears of the superior labrum involving the biceps anchor are a common entity, especially in athletes, and may highly impair shoulder function. If conservative treatment fails, successful arthroscopic repair of symptomatic SLAP lesions has been described in the literature particularly for young athletes. However, the results in throwing athletes are less successful with a significant amount of patients who will not regain their pre-injury level of performance. The clinical results of SLAP repairs in middle-aged and older patients are mixed, with worse results and higher revision rates as compared to younger patients. In this population, tenotomy or tenodesis of the biceps tendon is a viable alternative to SLAP repairs in order to improve clinical outcomes. The present article introduces a treatment algorithm for SLAP lesions based upon the recent literature as well as the authors' clinical experience. The type of lesion, age of patient, concomitant lesions, and functional requirements, as well as sport activity level of the patient, need to be considered. Moreover, normal variations and degenerative changes in the SLAP complex have to be distinguished from "true" SLAP lesions in order to improve results and avoid overtreatment. The suggestion for a treatment algorithm includes: type I: conservative treatment or arthroscopic debridement, type II: SLAP repair or biceps tenotomy/tenodesis, type III: resection of the instable bucket-handle tear, type IV: SLAP repair (biceps tenotomy/tenodesis if >50 % of biceps tendon is affected), type V: Bankart repair and SLAP repair, type VI: resection of the flap and SLAP repair, and type VII: refixation of the anterosuperior labrum and SLAP repair.

  7. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  8. Imaging of Chest Wall Lesions in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hekmatnia


    Full Text Available Chest wall lesions in childhood include a wide range of pathologies; Benign lesions include lipoma, neurofibroma, lymphangioma, hemangioma, and mesenchymal hamartoma."nMalignant lesions include Neuroblastoma, Rhabdo-myosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and Askin tumor."nSystemic diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and also infections such as tuberculosis, and actinomycosis may also cause chest wall lesions."nThe imaging characteristics of these lesions are re-viewed, but only a minority of the lesions shows diagnostic imaging features, and most of lesions re-quire biopsy and histopathological examination for "ndefinitive diagnosis."nThe role of different modalities is discussed with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging for demonstrating lesion morphology and local spread. Computed tomography and neuclear medicine being used mainly to assess remote disease."nIn this lecture, we discuss about imaging of chest wall lesions in children.

  9. Implant periapical lesion. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Venetis, Fotis Iordanidis, Paraskevi Giovani, Lambros Zouloumis


    Full Text Available Ιmplant periapical lesion (IPL is probably not a uniform entity in all cases presented in the literature. Asseptic bone necrosis may be a cause for some of the IPLs, whilst the presence of microorganisms is not always detectable with conventional methods. A case of IPL in a male patient who underwent an extraction of 12 tooth and an immediate implantation at this site is presented. Eight months postoperatively, an IPL was revealed on radiologic examination. After surgical exploration, the IPL was removed and examined histologically and microbiologically. The implant was replaced with a longer one and a bone regeneration procedure was simultaneously carried out. From the study of the lesion and the patient’s followup, infection cannot be considered as primary cause information of presented IPL, but literature data suggests that classic histology and microbiology cannot exclude infection from IPL causatives.

  10. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion (United States)


    the articulation between C1 and the os odontoideum on flexion imaging. The remainder of his cervical vertebral bodies had normal alignment with no...appears normal. Figure 3. Flexion view of plain cervical spine. This image shows abnormal translation of the articulation between C1 and the C2 os...worldwide. Peer Reviewed Title: Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion Journal Issue: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(4) Author: Robson

  11. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions (United States)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang


    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  12. Follicular-patterned thyroid lesions

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    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to determine the minimal cytopathologic criteria needed to make differential diagnosis in follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 56 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens which were reported as “suspicious for follicular-patterned lesions of thyroid” between years 2001 and 2005 in our hospital and their histological slides. Parameters for cytopathologic assesment are cellularity, colloid formation, multilayered rosette formation, follicular cell rings, monolayered sheets, intact follicles, hyperplastic papillae, hyaline stromal fragments, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, angulated nuclei, nucleoli, cerebriform nuclei, nuclear size, macrophages, flame cells and Hurthle cells. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 and Fisher's-exact tests and Kolmogorov-Simirnov test.Results: Four cytopathologic features–cerebriform nuclei, angulated nuclei, nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusion- were constantly observed in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (p< 0.05. Diluted colloid, monolayered sheet, nuclear size, macrophage and nucleoli were frequently seen in nodular hyperplasia (p< 0.05. The nuclear size was the sole differential cytopathologic criteria between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma (p<0.05.Conclusion: Detailed cytopathologic examination was found to be important in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from nodular hyperplasia. On the other hand, none of the cytopathologic findings were sufficient to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma. Therefore, cytopathologists should report such lesions as “follicular neoplasms”.

  13. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.


    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  14. Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.


    We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.

  15. Structure and mechanism for DNA lesion recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yang


    A fundamental question in DNA repair is how a lesion is detected when embedded in millions to billions of normal base pairs. Extensive structural and functional studies reveal atomic details of DNA repair protein and nucleic acid interactions. This review summarizes seemingly diverse structural motifs used in lesion recognition and suggests a general mechanism to recognize DNA lesion by the poor base stacking. After initial recognition of this shared struc-tural feature of lesions, different DNA repair pathways use unique verification mechanisms to ensure correct lesion identification and removal.

  16. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R


    AIM: To review the current evidence base of detecting and monitoring early carious lesions in children and adolescents and a rationale proposed to ensure that such lesions are identified and appropriately managed. METHODS: The systematic literature search identified initially a review by Gomez...... of existing visible and radiographical systems to monitor lesions over time. Using low-cost intra-oral cameras facilitates the recording of lesion appearance in the patient record and may be of significant benefit in monitoring early lesions over time following their detection. This benefit extends...

  17. Dieulafoy's lesion of duodenum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagholikar Gajanan D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon but important cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Extragastric location of Dieulafoy's lesion is rare. We report two cases of Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum and discuss the management of this extremely uncommon entity. Case presentation Two cases of massive upper gastro-intestinal bleeding in young adults due to Dieulafoy's lesion of the duodenum are reported. Endoscopic diagnosis was possible in both cases. Hemostasis was achieved successfully by endoscopic adrenaline injection. The endoscopic appearance, pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion are discussed. Conclusions Endoscopic diagnosis of extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion can be difficult because of the small size and obscure location of the lesion. Increased awareness and careful and early endoscopic evaluation following the bleeding episode are the key to accurate diagnosis. Adrenaline injection is one of the important endoscopic modalities for control of bleeding.

  18. Reactive Hyperplastic Lesions of the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Kadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Peripheral reactive lesions of soft tissue are common oral lesions that dentists face during routine examinations. Diagnosis and development of a treatment plan is difficult if dentists are not aware of the prevalence and clinical symptoms of these lesions. The frequency of these lesions differs across various populations. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of oral reactive lesions over a period of 7 years (2006–2012.   Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, available records from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Dental School and the two main hospitals in southeast of Iran (Zahedan over a period of 7 years (2006–2012 were reviewed. Information relating to the type of reactive lesion, age, gender and location was extracted and recorded on data forms. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software (V.18 using the chi-square and Fisher’s exact test.   Results: Of 451 oral lesions, 91 cases (20.2% were reactive hyperplastic lesions. The most common lesions were pyogenic granuloma and irritation fibroma, respectively. These lesions were more frequent in women (60% than men (40%. The most common locations of involvement were the gingiva and alveolar mucosa of the mandible, and lesions were more common in the 21–40-year age group. The relationship between age group and reactive lesions was statistically significant (P=0.01.   Conclusion:  The major findings in this study are broadly similar to the results of previous studies, with differences observed in some cases. However, knowledge of the frequency and distribution of these lesions is beneficial when establishing a diagnosis and treatment plan in clinical practice.

  19. Imaging findings of various calvarial bone lesions witha focus on osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Young Hee; Moon, Won Jin; An, Hyeong Su; Cho, Joon [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Myung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this review, we present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of various calvarial lesions on the basis of their imaging patterns and list the differential diagnoses of the lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 256 cases of calvarial lesion (122 malignant neoplasms, 115 benign neoplasms, and 19 non-neoplastic lesions) seen in our institutions, and classified them into six categories based on the following imaging features: generalized skull thickening, focal skull thickening, generalized skull thinning, focal skull thinning, single lytic lesion, and multiple lytic lesions. Although bony lesions of the calvarium are easily identified on CT, bone marrow lesions are better visualized on MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging or fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. Careful interpretation of calvarial lesions based on pattern recognition can effectively narrow a range of possible diagnoses.

  20. [Management of the meniscal lesion]. (United States)

    Baillon, B; Cermak, K; Vancabeke, M


    About 1,5 million arthroscopies are each year performed in the world, 50 % for meniscal affections. The menisci participate in the femoro-tibial load transmission and in the joint shock absorption; they contribute to the knee stability and play a role in the joint lubrication. The menisci are therefore important structures, and, in the case of a lesion, surgical abstention or repair should be favoured. When a meniscectomy has to be performed, it should be economical, preserving the meniscal wall. Meniscectomy is contra-indicated in the child and in the case of knee osteoarthrosis. Meniscal healing is compromised if the knee is unstable. If after total meniscectomy a patient presents symptomatic early osteoarthrosis, without marked loss of alignment, meniscal allografting is a therapeutic option, especially at the lateral compartment.

  1. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi


    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  2. Endo-periodontal lesion – endodontic approach


    Jivoinovici, R; Suciu, I; Dimitriu, B; Perlea, P; Bartok, R; Malita, M; C. Ionescu


    Endo-perio lesions might be interdependent because of the vascular and anatomic connections between the pulp and the periodontium. The aim of this study is to emphasise that primary endodontic lesion heals after a proper instrumentation, disinfection and sealing of the endodontic space. The primary endodontic lesion with a secondary periodontal involvement first requires an endodontic therapy and, in the second stage, a periodontal therapy. The prognosis is good, with an adequate root canal t...

  3. Hybrid Odontogenic Lesion: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Imani


    Full Text Available Hybrid tumors are very rare tumors composed of two different tumor entities, each of which conforms to an exactly defined tumor category. A 14-year-old boy was referred for an intraosseous painless lesion with a histopathological feature of multiple odontogenic lesions including calcifying odontogenic cyst, complex odontoma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. The final diagnosis considered to be a hybrid odontogenic lesion.

  4. The clinical spectrum of pigmented lesions. (United States)

    Schaffer, J V; Bolognia, J L


    This article presents the clinical features of a spectrum of pigmented lesions. It begins with benign lesions that may be confused with melanocytic nevi, such as lentigines, seborrheic keratoses, and dermatofibromas. The next section focuses on the various types of melanocytic nevi, including congenital, blue, and Spitz nevi. A description of atypical nevi is provided, followed by an outline of the clinical characteristics of each subtype of cutaneous melanoma. The clinical characteristics of various pigmented lesions are illustrated.

  5. Management of Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions


    Pineda, Carlos E.; Welton, Mark L.


    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is ...

  6. Obstructive Lesions of the Pediatric Subglottis


    Ida, Jonathan B.; Guarisco, J. Lindhe; Rodriguez, Kimsey H.; Amedee, Ronald G.


    Purpose: To compile information regarding obstructive subglottic lesions in children, including anatomy, pathogenesis, prevention, evaluation, and treatment options, required for implementation of a multi-faceted treatment plan.

  7. Comet Lesions in Patients with Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Tatlıpınar


    Full Text Available Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is a genetic multisystemic disorder affecting the skin, eyes and cardiovascular system. Basic fundoscopic findings in PXE result from Bruch’s membrane involvement. The most important fundoscopic findings are angioid streaks. Other significant ocular findings are peau d’orange appearance, optic disc drusen, pattern dystrophy-like macular appearance, comet lesions, and choroidal neovascularization. Comet lesions are a pathognomonic ocular finding for PXE. The presence of both angioid streaks in the fundus and typical skin lesions should alert clinicians to PXE. Herein, we present two PXE cases with comet lesions.

  8. Cortical Lesions as Determinants of White Matter Lesion Formation and Cognitive Abnormalities in MS (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0098 TITLE: Cortical Lesions as Determinants of White Matter Lesion Formation and Cognitive Abnormalities in MS...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cortical Lesions as Determinants of White Matter Lesion Formation and Cognitive Abnormalities in MS 5a. CONTRACT developed for these maps will also be used to enhance tract-based FA and mean-diffusivity measurements in FSL, as originally proposed. The

  9. [Asterixis in focal brain lesions]. (United States)

    Velasco, F; Gomez, J C; Zarranz, J J; Lambarri, I; Ugalde, J


    Asterixis is a motor control disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal movements of the lower limbs in the vertical plane during posture maintenance. Asterixis is usually bilateral and associated with toxic-metabolic metabolic encephalopathies. Unilateral asterixis is less frequent and it normally indicates focal brain damage. We report the cases of four patients (two males/two females), aged 57 to 83 years, suffering from uni or bilateral asterixis associated with focal brain damage. All patients underwent CT brain scan and a neurophysiological study (parietal EMG and/or PES). In addition, any toxic-metabolic cause that could be produced by this clinical phenomenon was ruled out with the appropriate testing. Unilateral asterixis is a clinical symptom that may indicate the presence of focal brain damage. Often, it is ignored or overlooked during routine neurological examinations. On the other hand, the presence of a bilateral asterixis is not always indicative of a toxic-metabolic encephalopathy.Rarely, such as in one of the cases herein presented, bilateral asterixis can also appear associated with structural brain lesions. Although asterixis diagnosis is fundamentally clinical, the neurophysiological study contributes to verify the diagnosis.

  10. Children's cranial lesions from Neolithic. (United States)

    Shbat, A; Smrcka, V


    In skeletal material from the neolithic settlement at Makotrasy, county Kladno, were analysed two children's craniums (identification numbers Ao 8218 and Ao 4184) with pathological cases. Case 1 (Object 127, Ao 8218) is the individual about 4 to 5 years old. There is oval aperture with the diameter 25 x 20 mm in the area of anthropometrical point bregma, with vertical, multiple knurled edges. Bevelled and rounded segment in the left frontal part of the aperture with diameter 10 mm is imitating healing process. We suggest this case is the trephination with the marks of the healing process in the period of 1 to 2 weeks after the surgery took over. Case 2 (Pit 25, Ao 4184) is child with age determined about 4 years old. Cranium was found buried separately. There is oval defect located at os occipitale and os parietale sin and goes through sutura lambdoidea. Caudal part of defect is missing. The edge of the defect is sharp and inward bevelled with exposed diploe. Traces of any vital reaction were not identified. Diameter is around 50 mm. Perimortal trephination leading to death, or postmortal taking of the trephinational amulet must be considered. There were several pathological lesions on the same skull. Defect of oval shape sized 8 x 12 mm is located at the os parietale dex. Defect interferes mostly with lamina externa and less with lamina interna. Exposed diploe is without any vital reaction.

  11. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah; A; Algarni; Abdullah; H; Alshuhri; Majed; M; Alonazi; Moustafa; Mabrouk; Mourad; Simon; R; Bramhal


    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a commonfinding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service.They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis,colorectal cancer,incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting.Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis;hepatitis,alcohol consumption,substance exposure or use of oral con-traceptive pills and metabolic syndromes.Full blood count,liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease.Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound.If available,contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible,safe,cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis.Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next.It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation.Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity.If doubt still remains,the options are biopsy or surgical excision.

  12. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A.


    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  13. [Mandibular lesions in multiple myeloma]. (United States)

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C


    A review was made of 237 cases of multiple myeloma seen at the Institute of Radiology and Hematology of the Ferrara University from 1984 through 1990. The results showed skeletal involvement of the mandible to be present in 25 patients (10.54%). The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was based on the following criteria: 1) increased number of abnormal, atypical or immature plasma cells in the bone marrow; 2) the presence of a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; 3) bone lesions consistent with those of myeloma. Symptoms include pain and swelling of the oral cavity, tooth mobility and loss, numbness along the inferior dental nerve, and paresthesia of the lower lip. The typical radiographic appearance is a well-defined "punched-out" lytic defect, solitary or multiple; sometimes, the defect enlarges and appears "bubbly" or septated. Permeative lytic areas, with blurred outlines, are a rare pattern, which is radiologically indistinguishable from skeletal metastases. The involvement of the oral cavity and jaw in multiple myeloma has been often reported in literature: nevertheless, if radiographs of the jaws had been systematically taken in all the cases, its incidence would probably have been much higher than previously suspected.

  14. Common oral lesions associated with HIV infection. (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Lucatorto, F


    More than 40 different lesions involving head and neck areas have been associated with HIV infection. The oral cavity may manifest the first sign of HIV infection. Early detection of these conditions can lead to early diagnosis of HIV infection and subsequent appropriate management. Signs, symptoms and management of the most common HIV-associated oral lesions are discussed.

  15. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  16. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E


    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  17. The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Buchholz, Noor; Farin, Erik


    The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS) offers a simple grading system for the description of ureteral lesions after ureteroscopy. In this article, we present the results of a video-based multicenter evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of clinically important PULS grades 0-3....

  18. Pediatric multifocal liver lesions evaluated by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Almotairi


    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to present our experience with MRI evaluation of multifocal liver lesions in children and describe the MRI characteristics of these lesions. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive MRI exams performed for the evaluation of multiple liver lesions between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 was done to note the number of lesions, the size of the largest lesion, MR signal characteristics, and background liver. Final diagnosis was assigned to each case based on pathology in the available cases and a combination of clinical features, imaging features, and follow-up in the remaining cases. Results: A total of 48 children (22 boys, 26 girls; age between 3 months and 18 years with average age 10.58 years and median age 11 years were included in the study. Totally 51 lesion diagnoses were seen in 48 children that included 17 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, 8 hemangiomas, 7 metastases, 6 regenerative nodules, 3 adenomas, 3 abscesses, and one each of angiomyolipoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, focal fatty infiltration, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic infarction, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and hepatic cyst. Background liver was normal in 33, cirrhotic in 10, fatty in 3, and siderotic in 2 children. Most FNH, hemangiomas, and regenerative nodules showed characteristic MRI features, while metastases were variable in signal pattern. Conclusion: Many commonly seen multifocal liver lesions in children have characteristic MRI features. MRI can help to arrive at reasonable differential diagnoses for multifocal liver lesions in children and guide further investigation and management.

  19. Pure Gerstmann's syndrome from a focal lesion. (United States)

    Roeltgen, D P; Sevush, S; Heilman, K M


    It is controversial whether a focal lesion can specifically induce Gerstmann's syndrome (dyscalculia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, and agraphia). Also, Gerstmann's tetrad has been attributed to other cerebral symptoms, particularly aphasia. We examined a patient who had all four symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome, without other symptoms or signs, and who had a discrete left parietal lesion.

  20. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions: part II--an approach to intradermal proliferations and horizontally oriented lesions. (United States)

    Sade, Shachar; Al Habeeb, Ayman; Ghazarian, Danny


    Melanocytic lesions show great morphological diversity in their architecture and the cytomorphological appearance of their composite cells. Whereas functional melanocytes show a dendritic cytomorphology and territorial isolation, lesional nevomelanocytes and melanoma cells typically show epithelioid, spindled or mixed cytomorphologies, and a range of architectural arrangements. Spindling is common to melanocytic lesions, and may either be a characteristic feature or a divergent appearance. The presence of spindle cells may mask the melanocytic nature of a lesion, and is often disconcerting, either due to its infrequent appearance in a particular lesion or its interpretation as a dedifferentiated phenotype. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions follow the full spectrum of potential biological outcomes, and difficulty may be experienced judging the nature of a lesion due to a lack of consistently reliable features to predict biological behaviour. Over time, recognition of numerous histomorphological features that may portend a more aggressive lesion have been identified; however, the translation of these features into a diagnostic entity requires a gestalt approach. Although most spindle cell melanocytic lesions may reliably be resolved through this standard approach, problem areas do exist for the surgical pathologist or dermatopathologist. With this review (part II of II), we complete our discussion of spindle cell melanocytic lesions, in order to: (1) model a systematic approach to such lesions; and (2) provide familiarity with those melanocytic lesions which either typically or occasionally display a spindled cytomorphology.

  1. Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen


    Purpose: This study aimed to make a nationwide clinicopathological study of oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region and to characterize their cytokeratin (CK) expression. Methods: All histologically diagnosed oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region registered in Denmark over a 25-year period...... were collected and re-evaluated using a monoclonal antimitochondrial antibody (MU213-UC). Clinical data were registered. Immunohistochemical characterization was performed with a panel of anti-CK antibodies. Results: A total of 34 oncocytic lesions were identified and reviewed. The incidence...... that required surgical intervention in the Danish population could be approximated to 0.3 lesions per million capita per year. Patient ages ranged from 45 years to 89 years, with a peak incidence in the eighth decade. Female patients were twice as common as male. Lesions were typically described as red...

  2. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions. (United States)

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C


    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  3. Colon preneoplastic lesions in animal models. (United States)

    Suzui, Masumi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Yoshimi, Naoki


    The animal model is a powerful and fundamental tool in the field of biochemical research including toxicology, carcinogenesis, cancer therapeutics and prevention. In the carcinogenesis animal model system, numerous examples of preneoplastic lesions have been isolated and investigated from various perspectives. This may indicate that several options of endpoints to evaluate carcinogenesis effect or therapeutic outcome are presently available; however, classification of preneoplastic lesions has become complicated. For instance, these lesions include aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF, flat ACF, β-catenin accumulated crypts, and mucin-depleted foci. These lesions have been induced by commonly used chemical carcinogens such as azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), methylnitrosourea (MUN), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Investigators can choose any procedures or methods to examine colonic preneoplastic lesions according to their interests and the objectives of their experiments. Based on topographical, histopathological, and biological features of colon cancer preneoplastic lesions in the animal model, we summarize and discuss the character and implications of these lesions.

  4. Sport lesions caused by athletics practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernandes Feitoza


    Full Text Available Being a highly physical demanding sports, athletics depends on efficient training to overcome all physical demands without lesions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the types of lesions and their causes. The sample was constituted by forty-three athletes, sixteen males and twenty-seven females, 23.2 years of average age. A questionnaire containing five open questions and five closed questions was used as an instrument to determine the major lesions caused by athletics practice. The results showed that 84% of the athletes had already had some kind of lesions: 77% of which occurred during training and 23% during contest. The most frequent lesions were distension, tendinitis, twisting, contraction and inflammation. Legs were the most affected parts: 85% for jumpers, 85% for runners and 60% for throwers. When the lesions occurred, 76% of the jumpers, 84% of the runners and 85% of the throwers had no other health problem, but 52.7% of the athletes were in a state of anxiety before the contest and 13.8% had difficulties in concentrating on the contest. As for treatment 55.5% went to see a physiotherapist, and 16.6% went to see the medical doctor and the physiotherapist. The consequences of the lesions for the athletes’ performance were the following: 75% missed important contest events and 70% missed training for several months while they recuperated from their lesions. The results led to the conclusion that the best means to prevent lesions is to use adequate sites and equipments, efficient and individualized training coached by qualified specialists.

  5. Neurovestibular Compensation following Ototoxic Lesion and Labyrinthectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanshenas, Hamed


    Full Text Available Introduction Unilateral labyrinthectomy and intra-tympanic gentamycin have been employed in the treatment of Ménière's disease, but the efficacy of these techniques has not been well established. Objective The objective of this study is to measure the time course of recovery from a unilateral labyrinthectomy either after ipsilateral topical treatment with gentamicin to the inner ear or without the previous insult. Methods Twenty-nine adult Mongolian gerbils were randomized into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 17 received a right ear gentamicin drug-induced lesion by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL. Group 2 (n = 12 only received a right unilateral labyrinthectomy lesion. We measured the horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses in gerbils before and after the lesion. The gerbils received an angular acceleration stimulus and their eye movements were recorded. Results The gentamicin lesion resulted in a quicker recovery. Experimental groups underwent a similar time course of recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Both groups displayed adaptation to the lesion by day 21, but long-term compensation did not completely revert to the original pre-lesion state. Conclusions In a lesion requiring both static and dynamic compensation as in UL, the need for a static compensation may alter pre-existing compensation from a previous dynamic insult and require a new compensation. A previous lesion and adaptation is not preserved for a second lesion and the subject has to re-compensate. Therefore, surgical treatment in Meniere's disease such as UL can be considered without prior gentamicin treatment. Static and dynamic compensations do not appear to be as independent as previous studies have suggested.

  6. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

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    Tyler, P.A., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Mohaghegh, P., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Foley, J., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexandra Parade, Glasgow G31 2ES (United Kingdom); Isaac, A., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Zavareh, A., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom); Thorning, C., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, East Surrey Hospital, Canada Avenue, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5RH (United Kingdom); Kirwadi, A., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Pressney, I., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Amary, F., E-mail: [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Rajeswaran, G., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department.

  7. Natural course of keratoacanthoma and related lesions after partial biopsy: clinical analysis of 66 lesions. (United States)

    Takai, Toshihiro; Misago, Noriyuki; Murata, Yozo


    There is some confusion regarding the classification of keratoacanthoma (KA) and related lesions that have crateriform architecture. We examined the clinical courses of 66 KA lesions and related lesions after a partial biopsy to clarify the nosological concept of KA. We histopathologically classified these lesions into five types: (i) KA at various stages (53 lesions); (ii) KA-like squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (3 lesions); (iii) KA with malignant transformation (3 lesions); (iv) infundibular SCC (5 lesions); and (v) crateriform SCC arising from solar keratosis (2 lesions). We analyzed the clinical course in each group. The regression rate of KA was 98.1% and that of KA-like SCC/KA with malignant transformation was 33.3%. No regression was observed in either infundibular SCC or crateriform SCC arising from solar keratosis. Thus, KA is a distinct entity that should be distinguished from other types of SCC with crateriform architecture based on the high frequency of regression. The regression rate of 33.3% in KA-like SCC/KA with malignant transformation indicated that KA lesions with an SCC component still have the potential for regression. However, this result also indicated that KA is biologically unstable, and some KA tend to evolve into conventional SCC with a gradual loss of the capacity for the spontaneous regression. Infundibular SCC and crateriform SCC arising from solar keratosis are fundamentally different from KA, not only according to the histopathological findings but also based on the biological properties.

  8. Influence of SLAP lesions on chondral lesions of the glenohumeral joint. (United States)

    Patzer, Thilo; Lichtenberg, Sven; Kircher, Jörn; Magosch, Petra; Habermeyer, Peter


    From 2004 to 2008 we evaluated 431 SLAP lesions during 3,395 shoulder arthroscopies and compared two groups of patients, one with SLAP lesion as group I and one without SLAP lesions as group II. Exclusion of type I SLAP lesions, rotator cuff tears and history of dislocation of the shoulder in both groups left 182 cases in group I, and additionally, exclusion of all-type SLAP lesions left 251 patients in group II. In group I, SLAP lesion-associated chondral lesions were present in 20% at the humerus (4% group II, p = 0.005), 18% at the glenoid (5% in group II, p = 0.05) and 14% glenohumeral (3% group II, p = 0.04). We observed a pattern of typical localization of SLAP-associated chondral lesions at the humerus underneath the biceps tendon (78%) and at the anterior half of the glenoid (63%) in group I in contrast to the central region of the humerus (82%) and the central region at the glenoid (55%) in group II. The association of SLAP and chondral lesions was not influenced by the presence of trauma or age of the patients. SLAP lesions seem to be a risk factor for subsequent early onset of osteoarthritis either caused by a bicipital chondral print or glenohumeral instability or a combination of both.

  9. Approximate Lesion Localization in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2009.00357.x


    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, automated analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. Border detection is often the first step in this analysis. Methods: In this article, we present an approximate lesion localization method that serves as a preprocessing step for detecting borders in dermoscopy images. In this method, first the black frame around the image is removed using an iterative algorithm. The approximate location of the lesion is then determined using an ensemble of thresholding algorithms. Results: The method is tested on a set of 428 dermoscopy images. The localization error is quantified by a metric that uses dermatologist determined borders as the ground truth. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the method presented here achieves both fast and accurate localization of lesions in dermoscopy images.

  10. Post-mortal lesions in freshwater environment. (United States)

    Vanin, Stefano; Zancaner, Silvano


    Postmortem animal feeding activity may cause considerable damage to bodies resulting in the modification of wounds, loss of identifying features and injury. Certain postmortem lesions may appear inflicted or non-inflicted antemortem injuries. At present, apart from cases in sea water, no data are available about post mortal lesions performed by aquatic organisms. This note that represents the first report concerning colonisation of a dead body by crustaceans a few hours after death, describes injuries caused by the amphipod Niphargus elegans on the face, and in particular on the eye region, of a young man dead by drowning. The lesions recorded in this case are comparable with the lesions caused by ants. The high plasticity in the food choice can allow Amphipoda to colonise drowning bodies in every moment after dead, however the benthonic behaviour of these animals suggests a more important role in the colonisation during post-mortem submersion periods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Achkasov


    Full Text Available The authors analyzed scientific literature in respect of various issues in treatment of athletes with peroneal muscles lesions starting from 1987 till 2016. Key search and publications selection was made in PubMed and russian national electronic scientific library eLIBRARY. Peroneal tendons pathology is not the major but the underestimated cause of pain in lateral and hindfoot as well as of foot dysfunction which is difficult to distinguish from lesions of lateral ligaments of the ankle joint. Untreated lesions of peroneal tendons can result in chronic ankle pain and significant functional disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to improve the current comprehension of anatomy, to identify factors contributing to pathology, to perform diagnostic evaluation of peroneal tendons and to review current treatment options of such lesions.

  12. [Traumatic and iatrogenic lesions of abdominal vessels]. (United States)

    Farah, I; Tarabula, P; Voirin, L; Magne, J L; Delannoy, P; Gattaz, F; Guidicelli, H


    Gravity of abdominal vessels traumatisms is secondary to multiple factors. It depends on the type of injured vessels, aetiology and associated lesions. Between September 1984 and March 1995, 22 abdominal vessel traumatisms in 16 patients (mean age: 39 years) were treated. At surgical exploration, 4 aortic and 2 renal vein lesions, 7 iliac artery and 3 renal artery contusions, 2 superior mesenteric artery dissections; 3 infra-renal vena cava ruptures and 1 superior mesenteric vein dilaceration were found. All lesions were caused by penetrant wounds secondary to firearm or blade injury or secondary to injuries due to ski or traffic accidents. In 5 cases, lesions were iatrogenic. There was no mortality in the post-operative period, 14 patients out of the 16 patients operated on have been followed during a period from 1 to 120 months.

  13. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Rajesh


    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

  14. Self-inflicted lesions in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieler, Uwe; Consoli, Sylvie G; Tomás-Aragones, Lucía;


    The terminology, classification, diagnosis and treatment of self-inflicted dermatological lesions are subjects of open debate. The present study is the result of various meetings of a task force of dermatologists, psychiatrists and psychologists, all active in the field of psychodermatology, aimed...... at clarifying the terminology related to these disorders. A flow chart and glossary of terms and definitions are presented to facilitate the classification and management of self-inflicted skin lesions. Several terms are critically discussed, including: malingering; factitious disorders; Münchausen's syndrome...... excoriations. Self-inflicted skin lesions are often correlated with mental disorders and/or patho-logical behaviours, thus it is important for dermatologists to become as familiar as possible with the psychiatric and psychological aspects underlying these lesions....

  15. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Oral Lesions


    Irani, Soussan; Monsef Esfahani, Alireza; Bidari Zerehpoush, Farahnaz


    Background and aims. Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic gram-negative spiral organism. It is recognized as the etiologic factor for peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Recently, it has been isolated from dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue. This study was designed to assess the association between H. pylori and oral lesions such as ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and primary lymphoma. Materials and methods. A total of 228 bio...

  16. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review* (United States)

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria


    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology. PMID:27828637

  17. Puncture of thoracic lesions under sonographic guidance.


    Afschrift, M; Nachtegaele, P; Voet, D; Noens, L.; Van Hove, W; Van der Straeten, M; Verdonk, G


    Thirty-six punctures of thoracic lesions have been performed with a compound B-scanner or a real-time linear-array scanner for guidance. Twenty-three fluid collections were punctured and aspiration biopsies were performed on 13 echogenic lesions. All the punctures were successful at the first attempt. No complications occurred. The results confirm the usefulness of sonography for guiding punctures of thoracic fluid effusions and solid masses. Usually a static B-scanner is sufficient, but when...

  18. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra


    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  19. Isolated plexiform neurofibroma mimicking a vascular lesion* (United States)

    Stefano, Paola Cecilia; Apa, Sebastian Nicolas; Lanoël, Agustina Maria; María, Josefina Sala; Sierre, Sergio; Pierini, Adrián Martin


    Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors originating from peripheral nerve sheaths, generally associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). They are diffuse, painful and sometimes locally invasive, generating cosmetic problems. This report discusses an adolescent patient who presented with an isolated, giant plexiform neurofibroma on her leg that was confused with a vascular lesion due to its clinical aspects. Once the diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy, excision of the lesion was performed with improvement of the symptoms. PMID:27192529

  20. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande


    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  1. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)


    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  2. Liver lesions in hepatitis B viral infection.


    Desmet, V J


    A review is made of the various histological lesions observed in hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases, including different forms of acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The elementary lesions discussed include acidophil necrosis (apoptosis), confluent lytic necrosis in its different patterns, piecemeal necrosis, focal necrosis, and dysplastic hepatocytes. Their pathogenesis is explained in the framework of recent developments in the immunopathology of hepa...

  3. Supraorbital eyebrow approach to skull base lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Yvens Barbosa


    Full Text Available We report our experience with a supraorbital eyebrow minicraniotomy. This technique is suitable to lesions situated in the region of the anterior fossa, suprasellar cisterns, parasellar region and Sylvian fissure. A 50 mm incision in the eyebrow and a supraorbital minicraniotomy is performed. Sixteem patients harboring different lesions were operated on with good postoperative and cosmetic results. We conclude that this approach is safe and useful in selected cases.

  4. SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete. (United States)

    Rokito, Steven E; Myers, Kevin R; Ryu, Richard K N


    The diagnosis and management of SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete remains a challenge for the sports medicine specialist due to variable anatomy, changes with aging, concomitant pathology, lack of dependable physical findings on examination, and lack of sensitivity and specificity with imaging studies. This article presents a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, relevant anatomy, proposed pathogenesis, diagnostic approach, and outcomes of nonoperative and operative management of SLAP lesions in the overhead athlete.

  5. Texture feature based liver lesion classification (United States)

    Doron, Yeela; Mayer-Wolf, Nitzan; Diamant, Idit; Greenspan, Hayit


    Liver lesion classification is a difficult clinical task. Computerized analysis can support clinical workflow by enabling more objective and reproducible evaluation. In this paper, we evaluate the contribution of several types of texture features for a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system which automatically classifies liver lesions from CT images. Based on the assumption that liver lesions of various classes differ in their texture characteristics, a variety of texture features were examined as lesion descriptors. Although texture features are often used for this task, there is currently a lack of detailed research focusing on the comparison across different texture features, or their combinations, on a given dataset. In this work we investigated the performance of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local Binary Patterns (LBP), Gabor, gray level intensity values and Gabor-based LBP (GLBP), where the features are obtained from a given lesion`s region of interest (ROI). For the classification module, SVM and KNN classifiers were examined. Using a single type of texture feature, best result of 91% accuracy, was obtained with Gabor filtering and SVM classification. Combination of Gabor, LBP and Intensity features improved the results to a final accuracy of 97%.

  6. Lesion load in unprotected carotid artery stenting

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    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Karp, K.; Krick, C.; Schieber, H.; Mueller, M.; Reith, W. [University of the Saarland, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Homburg (Germany); Fassbender, K.; Haass, A. [University of the Saarland, Division of Neurology, Homburg (Germany)


    The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of new ischemic lesions found on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in nonselected patients after unprotected carotid artery stent placement. We retrospectively reviewed a nonrandomized cohort of 197 patients presenting with carotid occlusive disease who underwent unprotected carotid artery stent placement between 2003 and 2006. Mean degree of stenosis was 86.94% {+-} 9.72. In all patients, DWI was obtained before and 24 h after stent placement. New lesions were evaluated according to size and location. In 59 of 197 patients (29.9%), new ischemic lesions were found on DWI in the vessel dependent area. In 23 of 197 patients (11.7%), new ischemic lesions were found in the vessel independent area. Combined stroke/death rate was 3.63%. In our series of unprotected carotid angioplasty with stent, we found new DWI lesions in 34% of the patients. Further studies should now show in how far protection devices can reduce these lesions. (orig.)

  7. Detection of low-contrast lesions in computed body tomography: an experimental study of simulated lesions. (United States)

    Meaney, T F; Raudkivi, U; McIntyre, W J; Gallagher, J H; Haaga, J R; Havrilla, T R; Reich, N E


    Observer accuracy in the identification of low-contrast objects in computed tomography (CT) was studied. Thresholds were established for detection of lesions of various sizes and attenuation differences in CT images produced at different radiation doses. Noise reduction was important in identifying certain types of lesions. Detection was not accurate when the standard deviation of the mean of an organ exceeded the difference in the means of the lesion and the surround region.

  8. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped. (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev


    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  9. Alcoholism and the Armanni-Ebstein lesion. (United States)

    Parai, Jacqueline L; Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Milroy, Christopher M; Pollanen, Michael S


    The Armanni-Ebstein lesion is a histological change in the kidney consisting of sub-nuclear vacuolation of the proximal tubules. It has been most associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. The vacuoles have been reported to contain glycogen. More recent studies show them to contain fat. Recent papers have associated the Armanni-Ebstein lesion with non-diabetic ketoacidosis. We present 11 cases of alcoholic ketoacidosis where the Armanni-Ebstein lesion was identified. None had a history of diabetes mellitus and none showed any changes of diabetic nephropathy. All 11 cases had raised acetone levels (3-67 mg/100 mL (mean 17.9 mg/100 mL and median value of 16 mg/100 mL). In addition a case of isopropanol poisoning was found to have the Armanni-Ebstein lesion. Isopropanol is converted to acetone but is not associated with acidosis. These results indicate that the Armanni-Ebstein lesion is not specific to diabetes mellitus.

  10. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chul Ju


    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases.

  11. Petrous apex lesions outcome in 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M


    Full Text Available Petrous apex lesions of temporal bone progress slowly. Most of the time not only destruct this area but also involve neighbouring element. The symptoms of the neighbouring neuro-vasculare involvement we can recognize these lesions. The most common symptoms of involvement of the petrous apex are: headache, conductive hearing loss or sensorineural type, paresthesia and anesthesia of the trigeminal nerve, paresia and paralysis of the facial nerve, abducent nerve. In retrospective study which has been in the ENT and HNS wards of Amiralam hospital, 148 patients have been operated due to temporal bone tumor; from these numbers, 21 (13.6% patients had petrous apex lesions of temporal bone. Eleven (52.9% patients of these 21 persons were men and the remaining 10 (47-6% were women. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The common pathology of these patients were glomus jugulare tumors, hemangioma, schwannoma, meningioma, congenital cholesteatoma, giant cell granuloma. The kind of operations that have been done on these patients were: infratemporal, translabyrinthine and middle fossa approaches. The conclusion of this study shows that petrous apex area is an occult site. The symptoms of this lesion are not characteristic, meticulous attention to the history and physical examination are very helpful to recognition of these lesions and it's extention.

  12. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Quinn


    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  13. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.


    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  14. Focal cerebral lesions and painting abilities. (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Anna; Sinforiani, Elena; Boller, François


    Focal lesions such as strokes significantly affect painting production in the vast majority of artists. In particular, painters, when they resume painting, show changes in their painting style. In exceptional cases, there may be an apparent improvement in style, but in most cases, the changes represent nothing short of deterioration. This, however, varies according to the hemisphere affected. Painters with left-hemisphere lesions tend to show an inability to deal adequately with perspective and also tend to use simplified colors with fewer nuances. One often witnesses an evolution toward simpler, often "naïve" techniques, and at times rigid geometric repetitive features. Painters with right-hemisphere lesions also become unable to represent tridimensionality. In addition, their figures are often drawn in very summary fashion, with lack of coordination between volumes and space and a chromatic impoverishment; their main problem, however, is visuospatial, leading to neglect of the left side of the canvas.

  15. Scintigraphic localization of bone lesions during surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harcke, H.T.; MacEwen, G.D.; Conway, J.J.; Tachdjian, M.O.; Dias, L.S.; Noble, H.B.; Weiss, S.


    Nuclear medicine provides several methods for increasing the accuracy of surgical removal of bone lesions with focally increased uptake. In this paper, three intraoperative procedures are discussed: remote control by imaging, intraoperative control by imaging, and intraoperative control by scintillation probe. All techniques require preoperative injection of bone imaging tracer. Remote operative control calls for a gamma camera to mark the skin over the lesion prior to surgery, providing optimal preoperative localization and imaging of the excised lesion to ensure complete removal. Intraoperative control procedures require that a portable camera or a scintillation probe be used in the operating room; these permit direct monitoring of localization and resection. Our experience with 18 procedures performed on 15 patients suggests that these techniques are worthy of continued use.

  16. Histopathologic Approach to Oral Cavity Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuyan Demirkesen


    Full Text Available Diseases of the oral cavity may be either a reflection of system or cutaneous diseases or can be seen as a primary oral lesion. These lesions are inflammatory reactions due to miscellaneous mechanisms, ulceration or erosion, reactive proliferative nodules, precancerous or neoplastic diseases. In this study, microscopic features of the most common diseases, together with their differential diagnosis are discussed. Some of the diseases of the oral cavity have overlapping histopathological findings. In these conditions, ancillary methods such as immunoflourescence or immunohistochemistry can be performed. Deep biopsies from representative areas are essential for proper histopathological diagnosis. Moreover, informing the pathologist about the exact anatomic localization of the biopsy, as well as the clinical findings of the lesion is crucial for a better approach.

  17. Rare lesions of the cerebellopontine angle. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cem; Altinors, Nur; Sonmez, Erkin; Gulsen, Salih; Caner, Hakan


    Vestibular schwannomas, meningiomas and epidermoids account for a vast majority of the lesions occurring in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies other than these tumors constitute 1% of all lesions located in the CPA. The aim of this study was to reveal our experience in the treatment of the rare lesions of the CPA. We have retrospectively reviewed the medical files and radiological data of all patients who underwent surgery involving any kind of pathology in the CPA. We have excluded those patients with a histopathological diagnosis of meningioma, schwannoma and epidermoids. Our research revealed a case of craniopharyngioma, a case of chloroma, a case of solitary fibrous tumor, a case of pinealoblastoma, a case of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, a case of an aneurysm, a case of hemorrhage and a case of abscess.

  18. Sellar lesion: Not always a pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee


    Full Text Available Inflammatory lesions of the hypophysis account for 0.5% of all symptomatic diseases of the pituitary, which include lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis with or without specific etiology and pituitary abscess. Sellar tuberculoma is a rare type of granulomatous hypophysitis. We document a case of a postmenopausal lady who presented with galactorrhea, headache and blurring of vision. Based on preliminary investigations, a clinical diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was made and the pituitary gland was surgically excised. Histopathological examination showed caseating granulomas, along with normal areas of preserved pituitary gland and a final diagnosis of tuberculous hypophysitis was made. This case is being documented due to the extremely rare involvement of the pituitary gland by granulomatous lesions such as tuberculosis and to emphasize the role of intraoperative consultation to obviate the need for radical surgery in such lesions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vasilenko


    Full Text Available Cameron syndrome is the ulcerative or erosive lesions of mucosal layer at the sac of hiatal hernia which can cause chronic occult or overt bleeding and iron-deficiency anemia. Hiatal hernia is a relatively frequent finding, which is in most cases asymptomatic or manifested by dyspeptic symptoms of varying severity. Despite of being a very important association of hiatal hernia Cameron syndrome is not widely represented in medical literature. That`s the reason of a lack of awareness among physicians, surgeons and endoscopists about that pathology. Cameron lesions are significant pathology because they can become a source of chronic occult as well as an acute life-threatening bleeding. Those lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract are often misinterpreted or overlooked during standard diagnostic procedures. It can lead to the misdiagnosis and false ways of treatment. The review focuses on the pathogenesis, main diagnostic problems and treatment options of that pathology. The diagnostics of the Cameron syndrome is difficult because sometimes the lesions can`t be seen on upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. The review describes the criteria by which the physician may suspect Cameron syndrome when endoscopy results are not certain. Clinical case represents an important problem which is often faced by the doctors — the severe iron-deficiency anemia refractory to the medication and blood transfusions in the patients with Cameron lesions. It`s very important for doctor to be aware of that complication to include Cameron syndrome into the diagnostic search for the sources of persistent blood loss. Cameron lesions can be asymptomatic as well as be manifested in the form of severe chronic anemia. And that`s the reason why there are an important issue about the proper treatment which have to be provided in each case. The review describes the effectiveness of different treatment options and makes the conclusion about the principles on which doctor can

  20. Decoding diffusivity in multiple sclerosis: analysis of optic radiation lesional and non-lesional white matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klistorner

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI has been suggested as a new promising tool in MS that may provide greater pathological specificity than conventional MRI, helping, therefore, to elucidate disease pathogenesis and monitor therapeutic efficacy. However, the pathological substrates that underpin alterations in brain tissue diffusivity are not yet fully delineated. Tract-specific DTI analysis has previously been proposed in an attempt to alleviate this problem. Here, we extended this approach by segmenting a single tract into areas bound by seemingly similar pathological processes, which may better delineate the potential association between DTI metrics and underlying tissue damage.Several compartments were segmented in optic radiation (OR of 50 relapsing-remitting MS patients including T2 lesions, proximal and distal parts of fibers transected by lesion and fibers with no discernable pathology throughout the entire length of the OR.Asymmetry analysis between lesional and non-lesional fibers demonstrated a marked increase in Radial Diffusivity (RD, which was topographically limited to focal T2 lesions and potentially relates to the lesional myelin loss. A relative elevation of Axial Diffusivity (AD in the distal part of the lesional fibers was observed in a distribution consistent with Wallerian degeneration, while diffusivity in the proximal portion of transected axons remained normal. A moderate, but significant elevation of RD in OR non-lesional fibers was strongly associated with the global (but not local T2 lesion burden and is probably related to microscopic demyelination undetected by conventional MRI.This study highlights the utility of the compartmentalization approach in elucidating the pathological substrates of diffusivity and demonstrates the presence of tissue-specific patterns of altered diffusivity in MS, providing further evidence that DTI is a sensitive marker of tissue damage in both lesions and NAWM. Our results suggest that, at

  1. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions. (United States)

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta


    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

  2. Computed tomography of the retrofascial space lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Hiroko; Kohno, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fumiko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))


    CT offers a unique method to evaluate anatomy of the retrofascial space. Retrofascial space which mainly consist of psoas and quadratus lumborum muscles locates behind the transversalis fascia. CT findings of 10 lesions, five with abscess and five with hematoma were reviewed. CT provided clinically useful information regarding the presence, size, extent and composition of the lesions and also their effects on adjacent structures. Abscesses revealed a well-defined low density with enhanced rim in the enlarged muscle. Hematoma showed an ill-defined low density area within the enlarged muscle. Abscesses can not be differentiated from hematomas and other retrofascial tumors by CT alone.

  3. Multispectral recordings and analysis of psoriasis lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising for furt......An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising...

  4. Annular, erythematous skin lesions in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit


    Full Text Available A 7-day-old premature female infant presented with rapidly progressive, erythematous, annular skin lesions from the 5 th day of life. She was diagnosed provisionally as a case of neonatal lupus erythematosus and was investigated accordingly. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy specimen revealed presence of hyphae of dermatophytes in the stratum corneum, and the diagnosis was changed to tinea corporis. Differential diagnosis of the annular erythema of infancy has been discussed and the importance of scraping a scaly lesion for KOH preparation in the diagnostic work-up of such a patient has been highlighted.

  5. Assessing Elementary Lesions in Gout by Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Christensen, Robin;


    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability of the consensus-based ultrasound (US) definitions of elementary gout lesions in patients. METHODS: Eight patients with microscopically proven gout were evaluated by 16 sonographers for signs of double contour (DC), aggregates, erosions, and tophi in the first......, respectively. The best reliability was seen for erosions (κ 0.74, 95% CI 0.65-0.81) and lowest for aggregates (κ 0.21, 95% CI 0.04-0.37). CONCLUSION: This is the first step to test consensus-based US definitions on elementary lesions in patients with gout. High intraobserver reliability was found when applying...

  6. Detection of pathological lesions in slaughtered rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli


    Full Text Available The slaughterhouse is considered an important control point for the monitoring of rabbit diseases. In our study, 59,440 rabbit carcasses were examined, but only 1% of pathological lesions were recorded at postmortem inspection. Mainly affected were tegumentary, digestive and urinary systems. The most consistent lesion was the subcutaneous abscess; nephritis, probably caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi, was also frequent. Pathological alterations of the liver, classified as “necrotizing hepatitis” and localized at the caudate lobe, were observed for the first time.

  7. Computed tomography of sellar and parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Mitsunori; Aoki, Hideo (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Neuroradiological modalities, particularly CT, for sellar and parasellar lesions were reviewed. Although accurate preoperative diagnosis is sometimes difficult, CT diagnosed 83% as far as pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma and meningioma were concerned and demonstrated abnormal findings in 95% of parasellar tumors. At the authors' department, CT visualized abnormalities in all cases, with the exception of suprasellar arachnoid cyst, but a histological diagnosis was possible only in 84%. Since lesions including tumors cannot be completely denied even if CT shows normal images, findings by modalities such as plain craniography, cerebral tomography, cerebral angiography and cisternography should be judged comprehensively.

  8. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J


    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  9. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez


    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  10. The wide spectrum of hyperechoic lesions of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda, A., E-mail: [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Zuiani, C.; Lorenzon, M.; Furlan, A.; Londero, V. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Machin, P. [Institute of Pathology, Ospedale De Gironcoli, Conegliano (Italy); Bazzocchi, M. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine (Italy)


    Although breast lesions are commonly detected because of their hypoechogenicity, some lesions may present with hyperechogenicity due to their histological components. Hyperechogenicity has been shown to be highly predictive of benignity; however, hyperechoic lesions can occasionally be malignant. This article reviews hyperechoic lesions of the breast, describes the underlying histological causes associated with hyperechogenicity, and the sonographic features useful for the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant hyperechoic lesions.

  11. Precancerous Lesions of the Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Gürbüz


    Full Text Available In this review of oral precancerous lesions, leukoplakia, erythroleukoplakia/erythroplakia and the least common variant proliferative verrucous leukoplakia will be focused with their clinical characteristics and their potential to develop oral squamous cell carcinoma and related factors will be discussed.

  12. Differential diagnosis of small solid pancreatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph Frank; Sahai, Anand Vasante; D'Onofrio, Mirko


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at a late stage. Little is known about the incidental finding of early-stage PDAC. The aim of the current study was to determine the etiology of small solid pancreatic lesions (≤15 mm) to optimize clinical managem...

  13. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G


    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  14. Gamma knife radiosurgery for midline lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legat, J.; Mokry, M.; Leber, K.; Schroettner, O.; Pendl, G. [Karl-Franzens Univ., Graz (Austria)


    Surgery of midline lesions is difficult in many cases and often only partial removal is possible. Between May 1992 and April 1997, 81 patients with midline lesions were treated radiosurgically. The lesions were located in the hypothalamic region (25), thalamus (20), third ventricle (2), quadrigeminal plate (9), pons (13), fourth ventricle (4), pineal region (4) and other locations (4). Forty-eight patients were male and 33 were female. Histologically, there were 56 benign cases (13 arteriovenous malformations, 11 low grade gliomas, 20 craniopharyngiomas, 5 meningiomas, 3 hamartomas, 4 miscellaneous) and 25 malignant cases (10 metastases, 10 high grade gliomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 3 miscellaneous). Clinical and radiological follow-up was obtained in 71 patients (88%). In all patients the treatment was well tolerated. Radiographic response could be achieved in 39 of 68 tumor patients (57%). A complete obliteration was seen in 6 arteriovenous malformations (60%) 2 years after radiosurgery. A second radiosurgical procedure was necessary in 2 patients because of incomplete obliteration after 3 years. According to our experience, we can conclude that radiosurgery appears to be effective as adjuvant treatment or midline lesions. (author)

  15. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail:; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)


    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  16. Otoendoscopic treatment of hidden lesions in otomastoiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; SUN Jian-jun; LIN Yong-sheng; ZHAO Dan-heng; ZHAO Jing; LEI Fei


    Background Surgical treatments for chronic suppurative and cholesteatoma otitis media have been discussed for several decades, but recurrences still occur because of the complex dissection required and hidden lesions associated with otomastoiditis. This study investigated the technology and strategy behind the use of otoendoscopic-assisted otosurgery.Methods We reported on hidden lesions in 32 ears of patients with otomastoiditis between November 2006 and January 2009. All the patients were treated with the aid of an otoendoscope. The advantages of otoendoscopy, including multi-angle light scattering, aperture illumination, and magnification of the local operative field, were utilized in otologic microsurgery, and otoendoscopic operative techniques were introduced for operative sites such as the epitympanum, aditus of the antrum, facial recess, sinus tympani and the mastoid tip.Results All patients were followed up from 3 months to 2 years after surgery. All patients recovered well within 3 months following surgery, except for one case of epithelialization of the mastoid cavity occurring 6 months after surgery for cholesteatoma on the cerebellar surface and another case with Bezold's abscess, hyperplastic granulation tissue developed at the antrum.Conclusions Otoendoscopy can overcome the technical deficiency of rectilinearity of the visual axis associated with otomicroscopic illumination, which presents a problem when dealing with otomastoiditis lesions in hidden areas. This technique allows such lesions within the complex three-dimensional structure to be visualized and cleaned. Otoendoscopy thus has significant potential for improving the quality of surgery and reducing the risk of postoperative recurrence.

  17. Dermoscopic Features of Facial Pigmented Skin Lesions (United States)

    Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A. S.; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V.


    Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp demarcation, pigment pattern, follicular/epidermal pattern, and vascular pattern. In SK, the most specific dermoscopic features are follicular/epidermal pattern (cerebriform pattern; 100% of lesions, milia-like cysts; 50%, and comedo-like openings; 37.50%), and sharp demarcation (54.17%). AK and LM showed a composite characteristic pattern named “strawberry pattern” in 41.18% and 25% of lesions respectively, characterized by a background erythema and red pseudo-network, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo. However, in LM “strawberry pattern” is widely covered by psewdonetwork (87.5%), homogenous structureless pigmentation (75%) and other vascular patterns. In SL, structureless homogenous pigmentation was recognized in all lesions (100%). From the above mentioned data, we developed an algorithm to guide in dermoscopic features of FPSLs. PMID:23431466

  18. Missed Massive Morel-Lavallee Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Takahara


    Full Text Available A Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL involves posttraumatic fluid collection around the greater trochanter. Many cases of MLL are missed at the initial evaluation, and the treatment of MLL is not well established. We present two cases in which MLL was missed at the initial evaluation. Case 1. A 65-year-old man was run over by a parade float. There was subcutaneous hematoma around the left greater trochanter, and no fracture was found. We diagnosed this injury as MLL on the 7th day after the trauma. Although we performed percutaneous drainage, the injured area was infected. Case 2. A 57-year-old man was hit by a train in a factory. There was an iliac wing fracture, but an MLL was not initially recognized. On the 6th day after the trauma, when performing open reduction and internal fixation for the iliac fracture, we recognized the lesion and performed percutaneous drainage simultaneously. This lesion also became infected. In these two cases, the wounds finally healed after a long duration of treatment. We suggest that it is important to keep this injury in mind and debride the lesion early and completely in the treatment course.

  19. Oral lichenoid lesions - A review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath


    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. Aims and Objectives: This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included "oral lichen planus", "oral lichenoid lesions", "oral drug reactions", "lichenoid dysplasia", and "adverse effects of dental materials". Review Results: OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Conclusion: Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP.

  20. [Longitudinal stent deformation during bifurcation lesion treatment]. (United States)

    Mami, Z; Monsegu, J


    Longitudinal stent deformation is defined as a compression of stent length after its implantation. It's a rare complication but dangerous seen with several stents. We reported a case of longitudinal stent deformation during bifurcation lesion treatment with a Promus Element(®) and we perform a short review of this complication.

  1. Roentgenologic diagnostics of capsular ligament lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, C.J.; Jaeger, M.


    The X-ray diagnostic is of obvious importance and relevance in the detection of acute or old capsular ligament lesions of the limb joint. On the one hand it serves as the plain radiograph (roentgenogram without contrast medium) for the assessment of osseous secondary lesions, for the documentation of luxationary positions of the joint partners, and in old capsular ligament lesions for the detection of an already existing arthrosis. On the other hand the X-ray images are of main importance, which are made from the hand-held limb in order to permit a comparison of the two sides, and which beyond the clinical detection of a joint instability indicate the extent and the direction of this instability and which also document it, and which allow in adolescents to recognize a separation of the epiphysis as an alternative to the capsular ligament rupture. Only in particular cases arthrography can provide some additional information, so for example in the case of an isolated syndesmosis rupture, ruptures of the rosette of the rotator muscle or of a damaged triangular disk in the hand. Angiography is only required in cases of traumatic luxations of the knee in order to exclude an intimal lesion of the popliteal artery.

  2. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G


    elementary lesions. A group of 20 images was displayed twice to evaluate intra-reader reliability. RESULTS: A total of 32 participants responded to the questionnaires. Good agreement (>80%) was obtained for US definitions on DC, tophus, aggregates and erosion in the Delphi exercise after three rounds...

  3. Remineralization of caries lesions extending into dentin. (United States)

    ten Cate, J M


    Remineralization is one aspect of the overall process of tooth decay. However, it is primarily studied in shallow lesions. The aim of this study was to explore whether caries lesions in enamel and extending into the dentin can be remineralized. A single-section model was developed for the longitudinal and non-destructive monitoring of changes in enamel and dentin. Lesions at least 200 microm into dentin were formed in undersaturated acetate buffers. Next, the lesions were divided into groups (three treatment and one control) and remineralized. The treatments were: weekly immersion in 1,000 ppm fluoride, single treatment with methanehydroxybisphosphonate, and a constant level of 1 ppm fluoride. De- and remineralization was assessed by transverse microradiography. Remineralization was observed in enamel, but also in dentin, indicating that, deep into dentin, the pores become supersaturated to apatite formation. Treatments affected remineralization only in the outer part of enamel. Both findings are explained by a relatively fast diffusion of mineral ions, with precipitation being rate-limiting. The results suggest that dentin remineralization, underneath enamel, can be achieved and could possibly be used in clinical treatment strategies.

  4. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de


    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) develops following two different pathways, which have their own premalignant lesions. In the absence of human papilloma virus (HPV), vulvar SCC can develop in a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or both. Th

  5. Pleural Mass Lesion Containing Calcium Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Kurkcuoglu


    Full Text Available   A 30 year-old man was admitted with of chest pain. Had a x-ray and computed tomography showed calcified pleural mass . Lesions in the white-colored, dense mud was the consistency of the material.

  6. IDUS for Biliary and Pancreatic Duct Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao ltoi


    @@ In the recent decade, wire-guided intraductal US(IDUS), which can be passed through the working channel of standard duodenoscopes to provide high-frequency ultrasound images, has been developed as a newly diagnostic tool for biliary and pancreatic duct lesions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Breast lump is fairly common complaint in females for which patient seeks medical advice and becomes anxious about the diagnosis. Quick diagnosis by Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC relieves patient’s anxiety and assists in their pre - operative management a nd overall treatment . AIMS : To study the cytological spectrum of breast lesions in correlation with histological appearances to evaluate the utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of palpable breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Total of 180 cases were studied by FNAC of which 42 cases specimen was received for histopathology examination (HPE. Diagnostic accuracy was studied by statistical analysis. RESULTS : In this study of 42 cases of correlation , maximum cases were obtained for fibroadenoma followed by malignancy. FNAC diagnosis was consistent with HPE in 41 cases and inconsistent in one case. CONCLUSION : FNAC can reliably distinguish between benign and malignant conditions , neoplastic and non - neoplastic conditions. The result compared with other studies substantiate the findings of the series that FNAC of breast is a sensitive and specific modality that assist in diagnosis and management of breast lesions. KEYWORDS: FNAC ; breast lesions; HPE.

  8. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorsky Meir


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83% compared to the non chewing individuals (16% (P Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions.

  9. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions--part I: an approach to compound naevoidal pattern lesions with spindle cell morphology and Spitzoid pattern lesions. (United States)

    Sade, Shachar; Al Habeeb, Ayman; Ghazarian, Danny


    Melanocytic lesions show great morphological diversity in their architecture and the cytomorphological appearance of their composite cells. Whereas functional melanocytes reveal a dendritic cytomorphology and territorial isolation, lesional naevomelanocytes and melanoma cells typically show epithelioid, spindled or mixed cytomorphologies and a range of architectural arrangements. Spindling is common to melanocytic lesions, and may be either a characteristic feature or a divergent appearance. The presence of spindle cells may mask the melanocytic nature of a lesion, and is often disconcerting, either because of its infrequent appearance in a particular lesion or its interpretation as a dedifferentiated phenotype. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions follow the full spectrum of potential biological outcomes, and difficulty may be experienced judging the nature of a lesion because of a lack of consistently reliable features to predict biological behaviour. Over time, recognition of numerous histomorphological features that may portend a more aggressive lesion have been identified. However, the translation of these features into a diagnostic entity requires a gestalt approach. Although most spindle cell melanocytic lesions can reliably be resolved with this standard approach, problem areas do exist and cause no end of grief to the surgical pathologist or dermatopathologist. In this review, the authors present their algorithmic approach to spindle cell melanocytic lesions and discuss each entity in turn, in order to (1) model a systematic approach to such lesions, and (2) provide familiarity with those melanocytic lesions that either typically or occasionally display a spindled cytomorphology.

  10. Evaluating lesion segmentation on breast sonography as related to lesion type. (United States)

    Pons, Gerard; Martí, Joan; Martí, Robert; Ganau, Sergi; Vilanova, Joan Carles; Noble, J Alison


    Breast sonography currently provides a complementary diagnosis when other modalities are not conclusive. However, lesion segmentation on sonography is still a challenging problem due to the presence of artifacts. To solve these problems, Markov random fields and maximum a posteriori-based methods are used to estimate a distortion field while identifying regions of similar intensity inhomogeneity. In this study, different initialization approaches were exhaustively evaluated using a database of 212 B-mode breast sonograms and considering the lesion types. Finally, conclusions about the relationship between the segmentation results and lesions types are described.

  11. Photoacoustic characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions (United States)

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav


    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh (i.e., never frozen) porcine hearts was harvested within 24 hours of the animals' sacrifice. A THERMOCOOLR Ablation System (Biosense Webster, Inc.) operating at 40 W for 30-60 s was used to induce lesions through the endocardial and epicardial walls of the cardiac samples. Following lesion creation, the ablated tissue samples were placed in 25 °C saline to allow for multi-wavelength PA imaging. Samples were imaged with a VevoR 2100 ultrasound system (VisualSonics, Inc.) using a modified 20-MHz array that could provide laser irradiation to the sample from a pulsed tunable laser (Newport Corp.) to allow for co-registered photoacoustic-ultrasound (PAUS) imaging. PA imaging was conducted from 750-1064 nm, with a surface fluence of approximately 15 mJ/cm2 maintained during imaging. In this preliminary study with PA imaging, the ablated region could be well visualized on the surface of the sample, with contrasts of 6-10 dB achieved at 750 nm. Although imaging penetration depth is a concern, PA imaging shows promise in being able to reliably visualize RF ablation lesions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova


    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  13. Vascular lesions secondary to osteotomy by corticotomy. (United States)

    Spinelli, Francesco; Spinelli, Renato; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Mirenda, Francesco


    Management of vascular traumas is frequently delayed. Vascular injuries after elective operation for bone lengthening or correction of a deformity are very'rare situations. We describe 3 cases. Case 1: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for bone lengthening; immediately presented acute limb ischaemia due to a partial lesion of the popliteal artery, documented by U.S. After 7 h, direct reconstruction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 2: male, aged 27, undergoing directional osteotomy for genu varus correction. For 30 days, constant increase in leg volume and decrease in function. US showed an important haematoma at the popliteal level; arteriography documented a partial lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and a voluminous false aneurysm. Direct correction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 3: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for leg lengthening; immediately presented leg pain with decreased distal pulses. After 4h, there was an increase in leg volume, and arteriography showed a total lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and an arteriovenous fistula. Popliteo-tibial bypass with the contralateral greater saphenous vein and fasciotomies were performed. After 1 month endovascular closure of the fistula was obtained. All patients had recovered after two months with only minor leg insufficiency. Patency of the bypass and absence of infections or delayed false aneurysms were achieved. Vascular injuries after elective orthopaedic procedures are very rare situations. Such lesions are caused by an osteotomy via corticotomy performed percutaneously. The variety of clinical presentations accounts for the difficulty in diagnosing such lesions and for the delays in implementing treatment. It is very important to obtain an early diagnosis complete with an arteriography.

  14. Space Occupying Lesions in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani


    Full Text Available "nRadiology (imaging plays a pivotal role for the diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of focal liver lesions. The differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a focal liver lesion is broad. "nThe size of the liver mass is an important consideration in guiding the evaluation. Lesions smaller than approximately 1.0 cm are commonly benign incidental findings on imaging studies, and in most cases represent small cysts, hemangiomas, or biliary hamartomas. Furthermore, they are frequently difficult to definitively characterize by imaging methods, due to their small size, and difficult to biopsy percutaneously. Often clinical follow-up is the only recourse for these lesions. "nTo formulate a practical approach to these patients, several factors must be incorporated into a clinical decision-making algorithm (figure below, including: the particular clinical setting (e.g., known co-morbidities, underlying cirrhosis or a known primary neoplasm, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms, the results of laboratory tests, and the critical information provided by imaging studies. "nDue to a combination of high spatial resolution and inherent soft-tissue contrast, lack of ionizing radiation, low cost, and wide availability, ultrasonography (US is frequently the first-line imaging modality for the study of the liver. "nMulti-detector row CT (MDCT has become the most commonly used modality in the preoperative diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients with known or suspected hepatic tumors. "nTo maximize the detection and characterization of liver tumors, the CT protocol must be designed according to the diagnostic task. To increase the attenuation difference (i.e., conspicuity between the hepatic parenchyma and liver tumors,3 several injection factors need to be optimized, including the volume and iodine concentration of contrast media, the injection rate (4-5mL/s, and the scanning delay from the start of contrast

  15. Achromatic Vector Vortex Waveplates for Coronagraphy Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using small aperture telescopes for detecting exoplanets could have a significant impact on astronomy and other imaging and space communication systems. In this new...

  16. Achromatic Vector Vortex Waveplates for Coronagraphy Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diffractive waveplates are optical components made of thin films of anisotropic materials by modulating their optical axis orientation in the plane of the waveplate....

  17. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  18. Penile lesion from gunshot wound: a 43-case experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Andre G.


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the main aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 43 patients with gunshot wounds to the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of the lesion, the presence of associated lesions, the performance of complementary exams, surgical treatment, postoperative complications and long term follow-up of 43 patients with penile lesions from gunshot wounds were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 43 cases assessed, 41 were submitted to surgical exploration (95.3% and 2 were submitted to conservative treatment (4.7%. We found penile lesions involving the corpus cavernosum in 37 cases; the remaining 4 patients presented no lesions involving the corpus cavernosum, urethra or testicles but did in the superficial structures. Ten cases presented an association with testicular lesions and 14 cases association with anterior urethral lesions. CONCLUSION: Penile lesions from gunshot wounds should be treated with immediate surgical intervention. In exceptional situations featuring superficial lesions only conservative treatment may be applied.

  19. Yellowish lesions of the oral cavity. Suggestion for a classification. (United States)

    Gómez, Iria; Varela, Pablo; Romero, Amparo; García, María José; Suárez, María Mercedes; Seoane, Juan


    The colour of a lesion is due to its nature and to its histological substratum. In order to ease diagnosis, oral cavity lesions have been classified according to their colour in: white, red, white and red, bluish and/or purple, brown, grey and/or black lesions. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such a classification for yellow lesions. So, a suggestion for a classification of yellowish lesions according to their semiology is made with the following headings: diffuse macular lesions, papular, hypertrophic, or pustular lesions, together with cysts and nodes. This interpretation of the lesions by its colour is the first step to diagnosis. It should be taken into account that, as happens with any other classification, the yellowish group of lesions includes items with different prognosis as well as possible markers of systemic disorders.

  20. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions]. (United States)

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin


    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  1. Histochemical identification of malignant and premalignant lesions (United States)

    Liebow, Charles; Maloney, M. J.


    Malignant and transforming cells can be identified by biochemical parameters which can be used to localize lesions in situ for laser surgery. These cells express unique proteins, proteins in unusual quantities, or other biochemical alterations which can be utilized to image lesions of such cells. Several methods have been identified, both in vitro and in vivo, to identify such lesions. Several antibodies were examined for their properties of tissue identification, including CEA, F36/22, and AE1/AE3. F36/22, an antibody developed by M. T. Chu against human breast cancer cells, associated with two lines of oral cancer (KB and HCPC), and against two naturally occurring human oral squamous cell cancers. CEA, an antibody developed against human colon cancer, also reacted against both cell lines and both pathological samples. AE1/AE3, developed against normal fibrous components, also reacted against the samples, but in a much less regular manner. F36/22 associated with the histologically identifiably most dedifferentiated cells at the leading edge of the invading cancer. CEA, on the other hand, associated with more quiescent, older, established cancer cells. This demonstrates that antibodies developed against cancers of different organs can be used to identify a wide variety of cancers, and may have prognostic value. F36/22 coupled to fluorescein was used to identify oral cancer cells. Other properties of cancers and developing cancers can also be exploited to identify cancers, including their over-expression of tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase stimulating hormones such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). A model of premalignant lesion produced in the hamster buccal cheek pouch with 6 week application of DMBA over-expresses constitutive tyrosine kinase which can be demonstrated biochemically. This initiated lesion can be promoted to frank cancer by growth factors released in response to laser surgery. Preliminary results suggest that these lesions can be identified by

  2. The radio-pathological correlation of spleen lesions; Correlacion radioanatomopatologica de la lesion esplenica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, I.; Cespedes, M.; Camacho, F. I. [Hosptial Virgen de la Salud. Toledo (Spain)


    To review the spectrum of spleen lesions, by correlating the radiologic images with the anatomopathological findings. A retrospective study was carried out on 180 patients with splenic lesions, whose diagnosis had been confirmed by the anatomopathological unit. The iconography was studied, distinguishing between the following categories: inflammatory/infectious pathology, cystic and vascular lesions, benign diffuse infiltration illnesses, tumours and development abnormalities. We showed the distribution of the lesions observed in our series and the correlation of the radiologic images with those of the pathologic study of the most significant ones. The current imaging methods allow for a reliable diagnostic approach to the splenic processes, however, the anatomopathological correlation, when possible, has been proven o be very useful. Currently computed tomography is still the technique chosen to evaluate the spleen, especially due to its availability. The arrival of the helical computed tomography has significantly improved the characterisation and the detection of lesions. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be especially useful for small lesions and for some diffuse infiltrations, such as hemochromatosis. (Author) 36 refs.

  3. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian


    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  4. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated sample...... relied on the modified Rotterdam Progression Scale. The Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale global score and a composite score of specific executive function tests assessed longitudinal change in cognition. Sample size calculations were based on the assumption that treatment reduces WML progression by 1....... CONCLUSIONS: WML progression is an interesting outcome for proof-of-concept studies in cerebral small vessel disease. If cognitive outcome measures are added to protocols, then sample size estimates increase substantially. Our data support the use of an executive test battery rather than the Vascular Dementia...

  5. Proteome Profiling of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy


    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions. PMID:25207817

  6. Problems in outpatients with laryngeal hyperplastic lesions. (United States)

    Goldman, N C


    The care of outpatients with epithelial hyperplastic lesions of the larynx presents problems of classification, treatment, continued surveillance and prognosis. One hundred patients who underwent microlaryngoscopy and vocal cord stripping from 1990 through 1995 were studied retrospectively with a follow-up period of 8-156 months. Twenty-eight patients with biopsy proven epithelial hyperplastic lesions were given 21 different pathological diagnoses exclusive of invasive carcinoma following 52 operative microlaryngoscopies. Prognosis was inferred and treatment commenced primarily on the basis of the pathology report. Microlaryngoscopy and stripping with and without the carbon dioxide laser, "watchful waiting," radiation therapy, and partial laryngectomy were all used as treatment modalities. Controversy remains as of choice of treatment. Encouraging the patient to discontinue smoking is an integral part of treatment; however, most patients continue to smoke. Recent changes in the United States health care delivery system present additional problems in surveillance of the patient.

  7. [Vascular dementia: big effects of small lesions]. (United States)

    Gold, G; Kövari, E


    Vascular dementia due to multiple large strokes (multi-infarct dementia) is a well known entity. However, new clinicopathologic and neuroimaging data have highlighted the common occurrence of small vessel and microscopic vascular pathology in aging brains and recognized that vascular dementia due to small lesions is probably the most common form. In such cases, cortical microinfarcts are the strongest correlate of global cognitive function followed by basal ganglia and thalamic lacunes. Demyelination is only weekly associated with cognition and this relation is no longer significant after adjustement for the presence of lacunes. Awareness of the importance of small vascular lesions in brain aging, can improve diagnostic accuracy and help identify new targets, that could lead to novel therapeutic approaches in old age dementia.

  8. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002


    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...

  9. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  10. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill


    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  11. Deficits of Motor Intention following Parietal Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Gore


    Full Text Available Patients with lesions to the right parietal lobe were tested on their ability to reach to targets, or to respond verbally to targets. The targets occurred at the same two spatial locations -- to the left and right of the patient—with the task being cued by the color of the target. Patients were able to perform both tasks separately rapidly and without error. However, when the two tasks were interleaved, they had difficulty making a response in the left (contralesional field when this was different to a response that they had just made. These results suggest that lesions to the parietal cortex may cause a deficit in the coding for motor intention, as well as attention in the contralesional field.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of plantar aponeurosis lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, B. and others


    Exploration of sporting injuries to plantar aponeurosis (PA) has up to now been based mainly on clinical examination, from which the diagnosis was established. Imaging technics such as standard radiography and ultrasound scanning have limitations allowing diagnosis to be made usually only by elimination, the lesion being very rarely visualized directly. Ten patients with hyperalgic lesion of plantar arch and functional impotence were explored by MR imaging, and in all cases this examination provided superior data confirmed at operation. The examination is painless and little invasive and can be carried out during the acute phase. The plantar aponeurosis is visualized directly between the muscle mass of the plantar arch and the fatty cushion. All three spatial planes can be investigated, most interesting data being obtained from the sagittal (in the PA axis) and frontal (comparative) planes.

  13. Transient renal dysfunction with reversible splenial lesion. (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Matsuda, Tomoka; Kitagata, Ryoichi; Tajima, Iwao; Ono, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Keiko; Shirai, Masami; Endoh, Akira; Hongo, Teruaki


    We report the case of a 6-month-old boy with transient renal dysfunction who had an intensified signal in the splenium of the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging. He presented to hospital with fever and sudden disturbance of consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not show pleocytosis. The mild consciousness disturbance disappeared after 30 min, but the splenial signal persisted even after 8 days. Further, renal glucosuria, increased excretion of select amino acids, and abnormal fractional excretion of electrolytes were observed, indicating renal tubular dysfunction. The abnormal urinary findings spontaneously resolved by day 9 of hospitalization. The splenial lesion took 21 days to normalize. There were no signs of neurological complications 2 months later. This case suggests the possibility of renal involvement in splenial lesions.

  14. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr


    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  15. Myofibroblasts in oral lesions: A review


    Soujanya Pinisetti; Ravikanth Manyam; Babburi Suresh; Aparna, V


    Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal oral tissues and pathologic conditions like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the oral cavity. This article briefly review...

  16. Mediastinal Cystic Lesions; Experience of 77 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydogdu


    Full Text Available Aim: Cystic lesions of the mediastinum are rare. Most of them are congenital lesions and account for 20% to 30 % of all primary masses of the mediastinum. A retrospective study of primary mediastinal cystic lesions (PMCL was conducted to review their clinical, radiological, and pathological features, as well as the early and long-term results of surgical management.Material and Method: From January 1998 through July 2008, 77 patients—47 females and 30 males, aged 4–81 years—with PMCL were treated in our department. All of the patients were analysed acording to the age, gender, symptoms, types of cysts and type of surgery. Results: There were thirty male patients (40 %, aged 4–81 years with a mean age of 39.2, and forty-seven female (60 % patients, aged 16–65 with a mean age of 35.8. Some of the patients’ pathology slides who were diagnosed as benign cysts before are re-examined then reclassified with the new diagnosis. There were thirty-one bronchogenic cysts (44 %; 19 female, 12 males, eighteen  pericardial coelomic cysts (24 %; 7 female, 11 male, five mediastinal hydatid cysts (6 %; 4 female, 1 male, five enterogenous cysts (6 %; 3 female, 2 male,  eight thymic cysts (10 %; 7 female, 1 male, two cystic lymphangiomatosis (4 %; 1 female, 1 male, five teratogenous cysts (6 %;  4 female, 1 male, and three pleural cysts (2 female, 1 male. The main symptoms were pain, fever, dyspnea, and coughing. Twenty-three patients (30 % were asymptomatic. All of the patients underwent surgery. Mean stay in the hospital was 8 days. We did not have any deaths. Discussion: Most of the patients with PMCL were female. Most of the PMCL were foregut lesions. Despite varied location and histology, the clinical presentation of mediastinal cysts was similar. Surgery provides the best chance for cure in all cases of PMCL.

  17. Postinfectious encephalitis with multifocal white matter lesions. (United States)

    Boulloche, J; Parain, D; Mallet, E; Tron, P


    Two cases of multifocal white matter lesions occurring after viral illness are reported. Evoked potentials study and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (T2-weighted image) showed early abnormalities while CT scan was initially normal. Patients improved dramatically with steroid therapy. It would seem that because of a considerable responsiveness to steroids this affection should be differentiated from other types of encephalitis. Relations with multiple sclerosis are discussed.

  18. Vestibular perception following acute unilateral vestibular lesions.

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    Sian Cousins

    Full Text Available Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN acutely (2 days after onset and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks. Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s(2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s(2. We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any 'perceptual noise' added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced - asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of

  19. Multiple myeloma presenting as hepatic nodular lesion. (United States)

    de Vos, M; Druez, P; Nicaise, M; Ngendahayo, P; Sinapi, I; Mineur, P


    The diffuse infiltration by plasma cells in the liver is not uncommon in multiple myeloma (MM). However, a MM with hepatic mass is very unusual. We report a case of a 75-year-old male with hepatomegaly and a lesion occupying a voluminous space in the liver. A lambda light chain multiple myeloma was found in the check-up of this hepatic mass. We also provide a literature review.

  20. Implant periapical lesion: diagnosis and treatment


    Peñarrocha Diago, María; Maestre Ferrín, Laura; Cervera Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha Oltra, David


    The implant periapical lesion is the infectious-inflammatory process of the tissues surrounding the implant apex. It may be caused by different factors: contamination of the implant surface, overheating of bone during drilling, preparation of a longer implant bed than the implant itself, and pre-existing bone disease. Diagnosis is achieved by studying the presence of symptoms and signs such us pain, swelling, suppuration or fistula; in the radiograph an implant periapical radiolucency may app...

  1. Encephalitis with Prolonged but Reversible Splenial Lesion

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    Alena Meleková


    Full Text Available Introduction: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Case report: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever. Subsequently, he developed apathy, ataxia, and inability to walk, and therefore was admitted to the hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein elevation (0.9 g/l and pleocytosis (232/1 ul. A brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the middle of the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and subsequently, in combination with steroids. Two months later, the hyperintense lesions in the splenium and the basal ganglia had disappeared. Almost seven months since his hospitalization in the Department of Neurology, the patient has returned to his previous employment. He now does not exhibit any mental changes, an optic edema and urological problems have improved. In addition, he is now actively engaged in sports. Conclusion: We have described a case of a 32-year-old man with confusion, ataxia, and inability to stand and walk. The man developed a febrile meningeal syndrome and a hyperintense lesion of the splenium, which lasted for two months. Neurological changes, optic nerve edema, and urinary retention have resolved over the course of seven months. We think that the prolonged but transient lesion of the splenium may have been caused by encephalitis of viral origin.

  2. Cytopathologic diagnosis of liver mass lesions. (United States)

    Conrad, Rachel; Castelino-Prabhu, Shobha; Cobb, Camilla; Raza, Anwar


    The liver is a common site for metastatic malignancies, particularly from the gastrointestinal tract. It also may be involved by primary neoplasms, both benign and malignant. Cytopathologic examination of mass lesions of the liver with pertinent use of ancillary studies is a useful method of establishing a correct diagnosis for patient management. The authors reviewed the literature for articles pertaining to cytologic characteristics of specific tumor types, utility of immunohistochemical markers and pertinent molecular studies, differential diagnoses and pitfalls.

  3. Cytopathologic diagnosis of liver mass lesions


    Conrad, Rachel; Castelino-Prabhu, Shobha; Cobb, Camilla; Raza, Anwar


    The liver is a common site for metastatic malignancies, particularly from the gastrointestinal tract. It also may be involved by primary neoplasms, both benign and malignant. Cytopathologic examination of mass lesions of the liver with pertinent use of ancillary studies is a useful method of establishing a correct diagnosis for patient management. The authors reviewed the literature for articles pertaining to cytologic characteristics of specific tumor types, utility of immunohistochemical ma...

  4. Oral vesiculobullous lesions: Consider the platelets

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    Clare Steel


    Full Text Available Oral vesiculobullous lesions or "blood blisters" can be found on a routine dental examination and may have many causes. Trauma is often the first diagnosis followed by a variety of bullous conditions, such as pemphigus and pemphigoid. Using a case report, we highlight the other, more serious, possibility of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP to raise awareness to the General Dental Practitioners and the need for prompt treatment.

  5. [Corneal lesions in ichthyosis (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Hammerstein, W; Meiers, H G; Haensch, R


    The authors report about observations they made in two sisters. One sister showed a fibroid degeneration of the cornea, the other a band-shaped keratopathy respectively, together with an ichthyosis and an alopecia as a result of capillary fractures due to pili torti. An autosomal recessive hereditary transmission could be determined. The cutaneous lesion is either an ichthyosis vulgaris, the hereditary transmission of which could not yet be confirmed, or it is a transition form of ichthyosis vulgaris and congenita.

  6. Pemphigus vulgaris presenting with multiple lesion morphologies. (United States)

    Song, Philip In; Divito, Sherrie J; Kroshinsky, Daniela


    Pemphigus vulgaris is an uncommon intraepidermal blistering disorder that typically presents with flaccid bullae or erosions. We report a patient with pemphigus vulgaris who presented with several unusual clinical features: tense bullae with dependently layered pus, true target lesions coalescing into annular configurations, and diffuse desquamation that initially raised concern for toxic epidermal necrolysis. We discuss the differential diagnosis and implications of these morphological findings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Yevsyeyenko


    Full Text Available There is no agreement among experts on the classification of injury of o the long head tendon of biceps brachii in the area of its attachment to the shoulder blade. Some authors take the Snyder’s classification as basis; others describe it as a separate injury. The authors presented the review of existing classifications of the labrum shoulder injury (so-called SLAP lesions and traumas of the tendon of the long head biceps.

  8. Facial lesions in piglets with intact or grinded teeth

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    Hansson Monica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piglets are born with eight sharp teeth that during nursing can cause facial lesions on littermates and teat lesions on the sow. Teeth grinding in piglets is therefore often practiced to reduce these lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of grinding piglet teeth in regard to the occurrence of lesions. In this study the piglets' teeth were grinded in 28 litters, and in 36 litters the piglets' teeth were kept intact. Twice, one time during the first week and one time during the second week after birth facial lesions of the piglets were scored and the teats of the sows were examined for lesions. The facial lesion score accounted for the amount and severity of lesions. The individual observations on piglets in the litter were synthesized in a litter facial lesion score. Findings 69.8% and 43.5% of the piglets had facial lesions in week 1 and week 2 respectively. The effect of treatment was not significant on litter facial lesion score. The litter facial lesion score was higher in week 1 than in week 2 (p p = 0.003 than in small litters. Mortality between week 1 and week 2 was higher in litters with intact teeth (p = 0.02. Sow teat lesions only occurred if litters had intact teeth. Conclusions According to our results teeth grinding is only justifiable in large litters.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellopontine angle lesions

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    Pratiksha Yadav


    Full Text Available Background: Cerebellopontine angle (CPA tumors are usually benign, and they are divided into extra-axial, intra-axial, extradural, and petrous axis tumors. CPA pathologies can be asymptomatic or it may present with vertigo, tinnitus, or unilateral hearing loss depending upon the site of tumor origin and displacement of the neurovascular structure. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI aided with contrast-enhanced MRI as an imaging modality for diagnosis of CPA lesions. Materials and Methods: Analysis of 36 patients of CPA lesions over a period of 2 years was done. MRI was performed on Siemens 1.5 Tesla MAGNETOM Avanto Machine. Conclusion: There are spectrums of pathologies, which can present with these symptoms, which includes tumors, vascular malformations, and vascular loop compressing vestibulocochlear nerve or mastoid pathology so it is important to investigate the patient by MRI. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the most sensitive investigation in the evaluation of the CPA lesions, its characteristic, and its extent.

  10. [Symptoms and lesion localization in visual agnosia]. (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko


    There are two cortical visual processing streams, the ventral and dorsal stream. The ventral visual stream plays the major role in constructing our perceptual representation of the visual world and the objects within it. Disturbance of visual processing at any stage of the ventral stream could result in impairment of visual recognition. Thus we need systematic investigations to diagnose visual agnosia and its type. Two types of category-selective visual agnosia, prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia, are different from others in that patients could recognize a face as a face and buildings as buildings, but could not identify an individual person or building. Neuronal bases of prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia are distinct. Importance of the right fusiform gyrus for face recognition was confirmed by both clinical and neuroimaging studies. Landmark agnosia is related to lesions in the right parahippocampal gyrus. Enlarged lesions including both the right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri can result in prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia at the same time. Category non-selective visual agnosia is related to bilateral occipito-temporal lesions, which is in agreement with the results of neuroimaging studies that revealed activation of the bilateral occipito-temporal during object recognition tasks.

  11. Lesion mapping of social problem solving. (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H


    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease.

  12. Management of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. (United States)

    Pineda, Carlos E; Welton, Mark L


    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is unknown, there is significant evidence that untreated HSIL progresses to squamous cell carcinoma in 11% of patients and in up to 50% of patients with extensive disease and immunosuppression. Anal cytology and reflex HPV DNA testing are used to screen for disease, particularly among patients with the aforementioned risk factors. Evaluation of the patient should include physical examination and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) to evaluate for disease above and below the dentate line. Intervention is warranted and this can be achieved in many ways. The treatment option associated with the best outcomes is ablation directed with HRA, which can be performed in the office or in the operating room with minimal morbidity. This strategy is effective in patients with both low-volume and high-volume disease and is associated with a malignant progression rate of 0.4% in patients with treated HSIL.

  13. Tumefactive Fibroinflammatory Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma (United States)

    Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Sharma, Nisha; Bhargava, Shilpi; Singh, Virender


    Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesions (TFLs) are rare idiopathic benign fibrosclerosing lesions that clinically simulate a malignancy. TFLs are seen more frequently in males between 10 and 74 years of age. The usual site of involvement is the head and neck region, but rarely the extremities may be involved. Coexisting fibrosclerotic processes have been reported including retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing mediastinal fibrosis, and orbital pseudotumors. The etiology of this poorly understood entity remains unknown. Possible suggestions include exaggerated responses or autoimmune reactions to any chronic infection. The clinical and radiological appearance of TFLs is that of malignancy, but histopathology reveals them to be a benign process broadly classified under non-neoplastic, fibroinflammatory proliferations. The treatment strategies for these lesions are not well defined and variable and include steroids, surgery, and radiotherapy either alone or in combination. TFLs, albeit not fatal, have a high recurrence rate; patients should, therefore, be kept on long-term follow-up. We describe a young female patient presenting with a rapidly developing cheek swelling, which was diagnosed histopathologically as a TFLs.

  14. Precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer

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    Schreer, Ingrid [Breast Center, University Hospital Kiel, Kiel (Germany)]. E-mail:; Luettges, Jutta [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Kiel, Kiel (Germany)


    The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breast cancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breast cancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting field in both breast imaging and breast pathology. Especially the precursor lesions need to be diagnosed and defined precisely to understand their prognostic significance. In imaging, the morphologic appearance of precursor lesions is usually neither typical nor pathognomonic. They have to be assessed histologically using percutaneous interventions. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated various genetic alterations in the ductal epithelium, with the earliest onset in atypical ductal hyperplasia. The recent WHO classification, which is based on molecular data and histopathological features, attempts to define in particular the precursor lesions and low grade intraductal carcinomas. The clinical importance of the various grades has to be assessed. Intimate cooperation between diagnostic radiologist and pathologist is essential.

  15. Precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer. (United States)

    Schreer, Ingrid; Lüttges, Jutta


    The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breast cancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breast cancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting field in both breast imaging and breast pathology. Especially the precursor lesions need to be diagnosed and defined precisely to understand their prognostic significance. In imaging, the morphologic appearance of precursor lesions is usually neither typical nor pathognomonic. They have to be assessed histologically using percutaneous interventions. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated various genetic alterations in the ductal epithelium, with the earliest onset in atypical ductal hyperplasia. The recent WHO classification, which is based on molecular data and histopathological features, attempts to define in particular the precursor lesions and low grade intraductal carcinomas. The clinical importance of the various grades has to be assessed. Intimate cooperation between diagnostic radiologist and pathologist is essential.

  16. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Terminology. (United States)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L; Maltz, M; Manton, D J; Ricketts, D; Van Landuyt, K; Banerjee, A; Campus, G; Doméjean, S; Fontana, M; Leal, S; Lo, E; Machiulskiene, V; Schulte, A; Splieth, C; Zandona, A; Schwendicke, F


    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current words used in the literature for caries removal techniques, and 2) agreed terms and definitions, explaining how these were decided.Dental cariesis the name of the disease, and thecarious lesionis the consequence and manifestation of the disease-the signs or symptoms of the disease. The termdental caries managementshould be limited to situations involving control of the disease through preventive and noninvasive means at a patient level, whereascarious lesion managementcontrols the disease symptoms at the tooth level. While it is not possible to directly relate the visual appearance of carious lesions' clinical manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm dentine; 2)stepwise removal-including stage 1,selective removal to soft dentine, and stage 2,selective removal to firm dentine6 to 12 mo later; and 3)nonselective removal to hard dentine-formerly known ascomplete caries removal(technique no longer recommended). Adoption of these terms, around managing dental caries and its sequelae, will facilitate improved understanding and communication among researchers and within dental educators and the wider clinical dentistry community.

  17. Tuberous sclerosis complex diagnosed from oral lesions

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    Leonardo de Jesus Araujo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a genetic disease in the group known as neurocutaneous syndromes, with dominant autosomal inheritance. It is characterized by skin and adnexal lesions and central and peripheral nervous system tumors, with neurological and psychiatric findings. It may affect the heart, kidneys, eyes, face, bones, lungs, stomach and dentition. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 66-year-old man with dermatological signs that included hypopigmented maculae, confetti-like lesions, shagreen plaque, angiofibromas on nasolabial folds, neck and back, nail dystrophy and periungual fibromas on fingers and toes. An electroencephalogram produced normal results, but magnetic resonance imaging showed a nodular image measuring 1.2 x 1.0 cm close to the Monro foramen, which was similar to cerebral parenchyma and compatible with a subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma. A conservative approach was taken, through control imaging examinations on the lesion for seven years, with absence of any expansive process or neurological symptoms. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a solid, heterogenic and echogenic mass with a calcified focus, measuring 4.6 x 3.4 cm, in the rightkidney, compatible with angiomyolipoma. The patient was treated by means of complete nephrectomy because of malignant areas seen on histopathological examination and died one month after the procedure. This case report illustrates the importance of oral clinical findings such as dental enamel pits and angiofibromas in making an early diagnosis of TSC, with subsequent screening examinations, treatment and genetic counseling.

  18. A toolbox for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

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    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Valverde, Sergi; Llado, Xavier [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Cabezas, Mariano; Pareto, Deborah; Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Dept. of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain)


    Lesion segmentation plays an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). This task is very time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-rater variability. In this paper, we present a new tool for automated MS lesion segmentation using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Our approach is based on two main steps, initial brain tissue segmentation according to the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) performed in T1w images, followed by a second step where the lesions are segmented as outliers to the normal apparent GM brain tissue on the FLAIR image. The tool has been validated using data from more than 100 MS patients acquired with different scanners and at different magnetic field strengths. Quantitative evaluation provided a better performance in terms of precision while maintaining similar results on sensitivity and Dice similarity measures compared with those of other approaches. Our tool is implemented as a publicly available SPM8/12 extension that can be used by both the medical and research communities. (orig.)

  19. Widespread telomere instability in prostatic lesions. (United States)

    Tu, LiRen; Huda, Nazmul; Grimes, Brenda R; Slee, Roger B; Bates, Alison M; Cheng, Liang; Gilley, David


    A critical function of the telomere is to disguise chromosome ends from cellular recognition as double strand breaks, thereby preventing aberrant chromosome fusion events. Such chromosome end-to-end fusions are known to initiate genomic instability via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Telomere dysfunction and other forms of genomic assault likely result in misregulation of genes involved in growth control, cell death, and senescence pathways, lowering the threshold to malignancy and likely drive disease progression. Shortened telomeres and anaphase bridges have been reported in a wide variety of early precursor and malignant cancer lesions including those of the prostate. These findings are being extended using methods for the analysis of telomere fusions (decisive genetic markers for telomere dysfunction) specifically within human tissue DNA. Here we report that benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and prostate cancer (PCa) prostate lesions all contain similarly high frequencies of telomere fusions and anaphase bridges. Tumor-adjacent, histologically normal prostate tissue generally did not contain telomere fusions or anaphase bridges as compared to matched PCa tissues. However, we found relatively high levels of telomerase activity in this histologically normal tumor-adjacent tissue that was reduced but closely correlated with telomerase levels in corresponding PCa samples. Thus, we present evidence of high levels of telomere dysfunction in BPH, an established early precursor (PIN) and prostate cancer lesions but not generally in tumor adjacent normal tissue. Our results suggest that telomere dysfunction may be a common gateway event leading to genomic instability in prostate tumorigenesis. .

  20. Diverse Imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion

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    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S.; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju [Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the 'honeycomb' and 'sunburst' radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  1. Diverse imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion. (United States)

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju


    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated wih surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the "honeycomb" and "sunburst" radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  2. Predrakave spremembe materničnega vratu: Cervical precancerous lesions:


    Jančar, Nina; Vrtačnik-Bokal, Eda


    Cervical cancer evolves through several stages of precancerous lesions and can therefore be prevented by me ans of organized screening program and effective treatment of precancerous lesions. Persistent infection with high-risk or oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes has been accepted as thesingle necessary etiological factor for cervical precancerous lesions and cervi cal cancer. Histologicaly we divide cervical squamous cel1 precancerous lesions into three grad es; cervi cal intraepithe...

  3. Morel-Lavallee lesion in the knee: a case report

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    Pitrez, Eduardo Hennemann, E-mail: [Clinica Radiologica Osorio Lopes, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Roberto Campos; Silva, Mariana Eltz; Holz, Gustavo Garcia; Hertz, Felipe Teixeira [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas; Hoefel Filho, Joao Rubiao [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Center of Imaging Diagnosis


    Morel-Lavallee lesion is a degloving injury of the interface between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia. This lesion is characterized by the development of a fluid collection that, although originally described in the thigh, it has also been described in other anatomical sites. The authors report the case of a patient with Morel-Lavallee lesion in the knee after trauma and describe the main characteristics of the lesion. (author)

  4. Sonographic Findings of Morel-Lavalle'e Lesions

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    Oh, Yu Jin; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Jung, Ah Young; Jeh, Su Kyung [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We reviewed the sonographic features of Morel-Lavalle'e lesions by correlating the US image findings with a lesion's age. We obtained the sonography reports of 20 Morel-Lavalle'e lesions of the hip and extremities from 18 patients with a history of trauma. The US images were reviewed to characterize the echogenicity, shape, homogeneity, margins, location and size of the lesions. The results were correlated with the age of the lesions and the clinical histories. All the Morel-Lavalle'e lesions were hypoechoic or anechoic fluid collections located between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia. Regarding the shape of the fluid collections, the lobular shaped lesions were all less than 21 days for the lesion's age, and the flat fluid collections were all greater than 1 month of age. Regarding the homogeneity, the heterogeneous fluid collections were all less than 25 days of age, and the homogeneous fluid collections were all greater than 1 month of age. A Morel-Lavalle'e lesion is seen as a posttraumatic fluid collection in the potential space between the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia on an ultrasound examination. Acute Morel-Lavalle'e lesions tended to be heterogeneous and lobular, and they became more homogeneous and flat in shape as the lesions evolved. Awareness of these imaging findings will help us to properly diagnose Morel- Lavalle'e lesions

  5. Autofluorescence and Raman microspectroscopy of tissue sections of oral lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Veld, DCG; Schut, TCB; Skurichina, M; Witjes, MJH; Van der Wal, JE; Roodenburg, JLN; Sterenborg, HJCM


    Autofluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been suggested for lesion diagnostics. We investigate the information contained in autofluorescence and Raman spectra recorded from oral tissue slices of various lesion types. Thirty-seven human oral mucosa lesions were biopsied and freeze-dr

  6. Imaging Granulomatous Lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Banzhaf


    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors. Methods: Two patients with granulomas, tophi and granuloma annulare (GA, respectively, were photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied in the said order. Normal skin was OCT-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT images from each lesion were compared with their histologic images as well as with OCT images with similar characteristics obtained from nonmelanoma skin tumors. Results: The OCT images of the tophi showed hyperreflective, rounded cloud-like structures in dermis, their upper part sharply delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. The deeper areas appeared blurred. The crystalline structures were delineated by a hyporeflective fringe. OCT images of GA showed two different structures in dermis: a hyporeflective rounded one, and one that was lobulated and wing-like. Conclusion: Granulomatous tissue surrounding urate deposits appeared as a clear hyporeflective fringe surrounding a light, hyperreflective area. The urate crystals appeared as hyperreflective areas, shielding the deeper part of dermis, meaning OCT could only visualize the upper part of the lesions. The lobulated, wing-like structure in GA may resemble diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as seen on histology. The rounded structure in GA may represent an actual granuloma or either diffuse GA or a dense lymphocytic infiltrate as described above. This case suggests that OCT images granulomatous tissue as absorbent, hyporeflective areas, and urate crystals appear as reflective areas, obscuring the underlying tissue. In GA a new image shape looking like a wing has been found. The frequency, specificity and sensitivity of this new pattern in OCT imaging will require further studies.

  7. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)


    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  8. Synovial hemangioma: A rare benign synovial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of a 10-year-old female with complaints of pain and swelling of the right knee for the last 4 years along with the limitation of movement for last 1 year. Repeated fine needle aspirations yielded blood and a provisional diagnosis of hemarthrosis was suggested. Coagulation profile subsequently carried out was found to be within normal limits. Arthroscopic biopsy was performed and tissue was sent for histopathological examination. A diagnosis of synovial hemangioma was made. Subtotal synovectomy was performed and the lesion was completely excised. The patient is completely asymptomatic and shows no signs of recurrence at 1 year.

  9. Lesiones arteriales coronarias ajenas a aterosclerosis


    Alberto Rangel-Abundis


    La aterosclerosis es la causa más frecuente de cardiopatía isquémica. Actualmente se ha ampliado la lista de padecimientos ajenos a aterosclerosis que dañan las arterias coronarias, uniéndose al catálogo enfermedades autoinmunes que afectan las arterias epicárdicas y la microcirculación coronaria y lesiones observadas en la sala de cateterismo. Las enfermedades adquiridas ajenas a la aterosclerosis aparecen como anomalías primarias o como parte de un desorden multiorgánico que semeja a la ate...

  10. A lesion stabilization method for coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Normand; Komljenovic, Philip T; Grant, Ryan; Sussman, Marshall S; Rowlands, J A [Sunnybrook and Women' s Health Science Centre, University of Toronto, Room S632, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto M4N 3M5 (Canada)


    A method to make a coronary artery segment of interest appear stationary when viewing a sequence of angiographic images is proposed. The purpose of this method is to facilitate the assessment of lesions caused by coronary artery disease by improving detectability. A description of the stabilization algorithm based on template matching is given. Stabilization was performed on 41 clinical coronary angiograms exhibiting various stenoses and was successful in 39/41 cases. A quantitative analysis of stabilization errors was performed by introducing simulated moving vessels of decreasing contrast into sequences of clinical images.

  11. TCM Researches on Chronic Renal Tubulointerstitial Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hang; XIONG Jing; ZHOU Quan-rong


    @@ Researches in recent years show that progressive deterioration of the renal function caused by kidney diseases mainly relies on the severity of renal tubulointerstitial lesions (RTIL).Therefore,imp-ortance should be attached to RTIL.With its very complicated pathogenesis,RTIL is manifested as the local in flammation in renal interstitium at early stage,followed by secretion of cellular factor and then phenotype variation,apoptosis and excessive pro-liferation of renal tubular epithelial cell(RTEC),as well as increase in synthesis and decrease in degradation of extracellular matrix(ECM),causing excessive deposition of ECM and eventually-renal interstitial fibrosis(RIF).ws.

  12. [Ultrasound criteria of a meniscus lesion]. (United States)

    Sohn, C; Casser, H R; Swobodnik, W


    The tear in the meniscus interrupts the outline at which the sound-wave energy is reflected. This means that the sonogram shows an echo-rich, light reflection pattern. Degeneration also shows up as an echo-rich area, reflecting greater density of the tissue in the meniscus. This has been confirmed by experimental examination of knees of corpses, and also by clinical experience based on more than 2000 sonograms of the meniscus. A quota of more than 90% correct diagnoses can be obtained if the proper criteria are observed in case of a lesion of the meniscus, and if the technical equipment is adequate and the examiner has acquired sufficient skill.

  13. Periungual Lesion due to Secondary Syphilis. (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro; Gioia Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Cury Rezende, Flávia; Di Chiacchio, Nilton


    Several countries experience a new epidemic of syphilis, mainly due to the changes in risk behaviors. Dermatologists play an important role in the diagnosis, since cutaneous manifestations are frequent during disease progression. We report a rare case of secondary syphilis with periungual involvement. Syphilis, especially in the secondary form, may present with different clinical features, affecting different organs, and mimicking many diseases. Although nail apparatus lesions are more common in the primary form of the disease, they may also be present in the secondary and tertiary forms. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the diverse forms of syphilis presentation is important for an early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  14. Detection of endometrial lesions by degree of linear polarization maps (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Walsh, Joseph T.


    Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain and infertility and is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity. A novel laparoscopic polarization imaging system was designed to detect endometriosis by imaging endometrial lesions. Linearly polarized light with varying incident polarization angles illuminated endometrial lesions. Degree of linear polarization image maps of endometrial lesions were constructed by using remitted polarized light. The image maps were compared with regular laparoscopy image. The degree of linear polarization map contributed to the detection of endometriosis by revealing structures inside the lesion. The utilization of rotating incident polarization angle (IPA) for the linearly polarized light provides extended understanding of endometrial lesions. The developed polarization system with varying IPA and the collected image maps could provide improved characterization of endometrial lesions via higher visibility of the structure of the lesions and thereby improve diagnosis of endometriosis.

  15. Extrapleural Inner Thoracic Wall Lesions: Multidetector CT Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shik [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    The extrapleural space is external to the parietal pleura in the thorax. The structures within and adjacent to this region include the fat pad, endothoracic fascia, intercostal muscles, connective tissue, nerves, vessels, and ribs. Further, the space is divided into the inner and outer thoracic wall by the innermost intercostal muscle. Extrapleural lesions in the inner thoracic wall are classified as air-containing lesions, fat-containing lesions, and soft tissue-containing lesions according on their main component. Air-containing lesions include extrapleural air from direct chest trauma and extrapleural extension from pneumomediastinum. Prominent extrapleural fat is seen in decreased lung volume conditions, and can also be seen in normal individuals. Soft tissue-containing lesions include extrapleural extensions from a pleural or chest wall infection as well as tumors and extrapleural hematoma. We classify extrapleural lesions in the inner thoracic wall and illustrate their imaging findings

  16. [Crohn's disease associated with focal pulmonare lesion]. (United States)

    Tagle, Martín; Barriga, José; Piñeiro, Andrés


    40 year-old male recently diagnosed with Crohn's disease. A routine chest X ray showed a round, well defined opacity in right lung field. A chest CT scan confirmed the finding and also described bronchiectasis. Patient had no respiratory symptoms. He was prescribed with oral sulfasalazine and corticosteroids with rapid improvement of intestinal symptoms as well as resolution of the pulmonary opacity. We describe the clinical presentation of a male newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease who was found to have an asymptomatic pulmonary lesion on imaging studies. Pulmonary complications have been previously described in inflamatory bowel disease being more common in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease; these can involve the lung parenchyma, the tracheobronchial tree, and the pleura. The true prevalence and etiology of these lesions is currently unknown and are not necessarily associated with bowel disease activity. Abnormal pulmonary functions test have been reported during inflammatory bowel disease exacerbations, and although pulmonary findings can present with a variety of symptoms, subclinical presentations have also been described. Pulmonary manifestations are usually steoid-responsive, as was the case in our patients.

  17. Minimal treatment of the carious lesion. (United States)

    Mount, G J


    The development of reliable adhesive technology in the oral cavity has opened the way to an entirely new approach to the treatment of active carious lesions. The initial lesion, prior to complete penetration of the enamel, can often be controlled with remineralization techniques. However, once the dentine is breached, surgical intervention is required. With modern instrumentation, including fibre-optic lighting and magnification with binocular loupes, a more surgical approach has been developed, allowing removal of caries with very limited destruction of sound tooth structure. Experience over the last 5 years has led to the development of a classification of cavity designs as well as a reliable method of instrumentation and restoration based on the use of glass-ionomer cement and composite resin. The remineralization available through the glass-ionomer cements and the adhesion developed with both the cement and composite resin allows for maintenance of the original strength of the tooth along with a high resistance to further breakdown. The classification of cavity design is presented as well as a detailed description of the suggested instrumentation for the development of the cavities.

  18. [Ischaemic lesions of cerebral after carotid stenting]. (United States)

    Medvedev, R B; Tanashian, M M; Kuntsevich, G I; Lagoda, O V; Skrylev, S I; Krotenkova, M V; Koshcheev, A Iu; Suslin, A S; Gemdzhian, É G


    Carotid angioplasty with stenting is a reliable method of primary and secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke in patients with stenosing lesions of the internal carotid artery. However, carrying out such operations is sometimes associated with risk for the development of intraoperative impairments of cerebral circulation due to arterioarterial embolism in cerebral arteries, as well as vasospasm. Presented herein are the results of following up a total of 64 patients with pronounced atherosclerotic lesions of internal carotid arteries (>70%) - "symptomatic" and "asymptomatic", undergoing carotid stenting. Acute foci of ischaemia in the brain after stenting according to the findings of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance tomography were revealed in 40% of cases, and in only 6% of patients they manifested themselves by symptoms of acute cerebral circulatory impairment. We revealed a direct correlation between the number, size of infarctions in the brain, and the appearance of neurological symptomatology. Intraoperative monitoring of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery during stenting makes it possible to predict the appearance of acute foci of cerebral ischaemia, to specify the genesis of perioperative stroke, as well as to evaluate clinical significance of vasospasm and material microembolism. The obtained findings should concentrate neurologists' attention on active postoperative follow up of patients subjected to carotid angioplasty with stenting in order to perform adequate personified neuroprotective correction, including preventive one.

  19. Biceps Lesion Associated With Rotator Cuff Tears (United States)

    Jeong, Ho Yeon; Kim, Jung Youn; Cho, Nam Su; Rhee, Yong Girl


    Background: Various tenodesis methods are being used for long head of the biceps tendon lesions. However, there is no consensus on the most appropriate surgical method. Hypothesis: There are significant differences in incidence of cosmetic deformity and persistent bicipital pain between open subpectoral and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis groups. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This study included 72 patients who underwent biceps tenodesis and rotator cuff repair between January 2009 and May 2014 and who were followed for at least 1 year. Open subpectoral tenodesis was performed in 39 patients (group A), and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis was performed in 33 patients (group B). Results: In group A, the mean visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain during motion and mean University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Constant scores significantly improved from 4.6, 18.6, and 64.5 preoperatively to 1.9, 30.5, and 86.5 at last follow-up, respectively (P Popeye deformity was noted in 2 (5.2%) patients from group A and 5 (15.6%) patients from group B (P = .231). Additionally, persistent bicipital tenderness was noted in 1 (2.6%) patient from group A and 8 (24.2%) patients from group B (P = .012). Conclusion: Both open subpectoral tenodesis and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis show good clinical outcomes for long head of the biceps tendon lesions. However, open subpectoral tenodesis may be more appropriate, considering the low incidence of Popeye deformity and tenderness. PMID:27231699

  20. Cameron lesion: An unusual cause of anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Cameron lesions are linear gastric ulcers or erosions positioned on the crests of mucosal folds at the diaphragmatic impression, in patients with large hiatal hernia, and can cause iron deficiency anaemia. Case report. We present a case of a 56-year-old woman who was referred to our institution for further investigation after she was examined in gastroenterology emergency room (GER for signs and symptoms of severe hypochromic microcytic anemia without signs of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and with no obvious cause of chronic blood loss. Endoscopy showed linear ulceration at the level of diaphragm-Cameron lesions with large hiated hernia. She was treated with proton pump inhibitors and iron supplements. The laparoscopic fundoplication was done. Six months later she was asymptomatic. Conclusion. Large hiatus hernia may cause iron deficiency anemia due to occult bleeding from Cameron erosions. The current therapy concept includes the surgical reconstruction of the hiatus together with gastric fundoplication in combination with the proton pump inhibitor therapy.

  1. Current management of talar osteochondral lesions (United States)

    Gianakos, Arianna L; Yasui, Youichi; Hannon, Charles P; Kennedy, John G


    Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) occur in up to 70% of acute ankle sprains and fractures. OLT have become increasingly recognized with the advancements in cartilage-sensitive diagnostic imaging modalities. Although OLT may be treated nonoperatively, a number of surgical techniques have been described for patients whom surgery is indicated. Traditionally, treatment of symptomatic OLT have included either reparative procedures, such as bone marrow stimulation (BMS), or replacement procedures, such as autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT). Reparative procedures are generally indicated for OLT < 150 mm2 in area. Replacement strategies are used for large lesions or after failed primary repair procedures. Although short- and medium-term results have been reported, long-term studies on OLT treatment strategies are lacking. Biological augmentation including platelet-rich plasma and concentrated bone marrow aspirate is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of OLT to enhance the biological environment during healing. In this review, we describe the most up-to-date clinical evidence of surgical outcomes, as well as both the mechanical and biological concerns associated with BMS and AOT. In addition, we will review the recent evidence for biological adjunct therapies that aim to improve outcomes and longevity of both BMS and AOT procedures. PMID:28144574

  2. Structural brain lesions in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can; Dolapcioglu; Hatice; Dolapcioglu


    Central nervous system(CNS) complications or manifes-tations of inflammatory bowel disease deserve particular attention because symptomatic conditions can require early diagnosis and treatment, whereas unexplained manifestations might be linked with pathogenic me-chanisms. This review focuses on both symptomatic and asymptomatic brain lesions detectable on imaging studies, as well as their frequency and potential mecha-nisms. A direct causal relationship between inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and asymptomatic structural brain changes has not been demonstrated, but several possible explanations, including vasculitis, thromboembolism and malnutrition, have been proposed. IBD is associated with a tendency for thromboembolisms; therefore, cerebro-vascular thromboembolism represents the most frequent and grave CNS complication. Vasculitis, demyelinating conditions and CNS infections are among the other CNS manifestations of the disease. Biological agents also represent a risk factor, particularly for demyelination. Identification of the nature and potential mechanisms of brain lesions detectable on imaging studies would shed further light on the disease process and could improve patient care through early diagnosis and treatment.

  3. An updated histological classification system for multiple sclerosis lesions. (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Ludwin, Samuel; Prat, Alexandre; Antel, Jack; Brück, Wolfgang; Lassmann, Hans


    Multiple sclerosis is a complex and heterogeneous, most likely autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although a number of histological classification systems for CNS lesions have been used by different groups in recent years, no uniform classification exists. In this paper, we propose a simple and unifying classification of MS lesions incorporating many elements of earlier histological systems that aims to provide guidelines for neuropathologists and researchers studying MS lesions to allow for better comparison of different studies performed with MS tissue, and to aid in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. Based on the presence/absence and distribution of macrophages/microglia (inflammatory activity) and the presence/absence of ongoing demyelination (demyelinating activity), we suggest differentiating between active, mixed active/inactive, and inactive lesions with or without ongoing demyelination. Active lesions are characterized by macrophages/microglia throughout the lesion area, whereas mixed active/inactive lesions have a hypocellular lesion center with macrophages/microglia limited to the lesion border. Inactive lesions are almost completely lacking macrophages/microglia. Active and mixed active/inactive lesions can be further subdivided into lesions with ongoing myelin destruction (demyelinating lesions) and lesions in which the destruction of myelin has ceased, but macrophages are still present (post-demyelinating lesions). This distinction is based on the presence or absence of myelin degradation products within the cytoplasm of macrophages/microglia. For this classification of MS lesions, identification of myelin with histological stains [such as luxol fast blue-PAS] or by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against myelin basic-protein (MBP) or proteolipid-protein (PLP), as well as, detection of macrophages/microglia by, e.g., anti-CD68 is sufficient. Active and demyelinating lesions may be further

  4. Severe cervical glandular cell lesions and severe cervical combined lesions - Predictive value of the Papanicolaou smear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, AJMV; Smedts, FMM; Vooijs, GP


    BACKGROUND. The purpose of the current study was to determine the accuracy of routinely screened cervical smears to predict a glandular cell lesion in histologically confirmed cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA), adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQCA), and severe

  5. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Meyer


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand.

  6. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Kessner, Simon S.; Cheng, Bastian; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; De Bruyn, Nele; Peeters, Andre; Van Pesch, Vincent; Duprez, Thierry; Sunaert, Stefan; Schrooten, Maarten; Feys, Hilde; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand. PMID:26900565

  7. Digital Chromoendoscopy for Diagnosis of Diminutive Colorectal Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos Santos


    Full Text Available Introduction. To compare the accuracy of digital and real-time chromoendoscopy for the differential diagnosis of diminutive (<5 mm neoplastic and nonneoplastic colorectal lesions. Materials and Methods. This is a prospective randomized study comparing the Fujinon intelligent color enhancement (FICE system (65 patients/95 lesions and indigo carmine (69 patients/120 lesions in the analysis of capillary meshwork and pit pattern, respectively. All lesions were less than 5 mm in diameter, and magnification was used in both groups. Histopathology was the gold standard examination. Results. Of 215 colorectal lesions, 153 (71.2% were adenomas, and 62 were hyperplastic polyps (28.8%. Morphological analysis revealed 132 (61.4% superficial lesions, with 7 (3.3% depressed lesions, and 83 (38.6% protruding lesions. Vascular meshwork analysis using FICE and magnification resulted in 91.7% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, and 92.6% accuracy in differentiating neoplastic from nonneoplastic lesions. Pit pattern analysis with indigo carmine and magnification showed 96.5% sensitivity, 88.2% specificity, and 94.2% accuracy for the same purpose. Conclusion. Both magnifying virtual chromoendoscopy and indigo carmine chromoendoscopy showed high accuracy in the histopathological diagnosis of colorectal lesions less than 5 mm in diameter.

  8. Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra. (United States)

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Ceović, Romana; Stulhofer Buzina, Daška; Kostović, Krešimir


    Although frequently performed, laser removal of pigmented lesions still contains certain controversial issues. Epidermal pigmented lesions include solar lentigines, ephelides, café au lait macules and seborrheic keratoses. Dermal lesions include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi, drug induced hyperpigmentation and nevus of Ota and Ito. Some lesions exhibit both an epidermal and dermal component like Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, melasma and nevus spilus. Due to the wide absorption spectrum of melanin (500-1100 nm), several laser systems are effective in removal of pigmented lesions. These lasers include the pigmented lesion pulsed dye laser (510 nm), the Q-switched ruby laser (694 nm), the Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) and the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), which can be frequency-doubled to produce visible green light with a wavelength of 532 nm. The results of laser therapy are usually successful. However, there are still many controversies regarding the use of lasers in treating certain pigmented lesions. Actually, the essential question in removing pigmented lesions with lasers is whether the lesion has atypical features or has a malignant potential. Dermoscopy, used as a routine first-level diagnostic technique, is helpful in most cases. If there is any doubt whether the lesion is benign, then a biopsy for histologic evaluation is obligatory.

  9. Primary transpupillary thermotherapy of choroidal melanocytic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gündüz


    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the role of primary transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT in the treatment of choroidal melanocytic lesions. Materials and Methods : Retrospective chart review of 24 patients (24 eyes with choroidal melanocytic lesions, including 20 choroidal melanoma and four choroidal nevus treated with primary TTT. Choroidal nevus cases treated with primary TTT either demonstrated risk factors for growth into an early melanoma or had overlying choroidal neovascularization. Results : The mean initial tumor basal diameter was 6.6 (3.0-10.0 mm and the mean initial tumor thickness was 3.0 (1.0-5.0 mm. The mean number of TTT sessions was 2.5 (1-6. The mean decrease in tumor thickness was 1.2 mm (from 3.0 to 1.8 mm at a mean follow-up of 22.7 (range 3-90 months. On the LogMar scale, visual acuity was stable at 1.0. Complications occurred in 50% of eyes. The most frequent complications were vitreous hemorrhage [5 patients (20.8%], focal cataract [5 patients (20.8%], iris atrophy [4 patients (16.6%] and posterior synechia [4 patients (16.6%]. There was no significant difference in the complication rate with respect to tumor thickness >3 mm versus tumor thickness ≤3 mm and juxtapapillary versus nonjuxtapapillary location (Fisher′s exact test, P>0.05. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that 9% of eyes develop recurrence by 1 year and 27% develop recurrence by 5 years after primary TTT. Two eyes (8.3% were enucleated because of neovascular glaucoma and one eye (4.1% was exenterated because of extraocular tumor recurrence. Globe salvage was achieved in 21 patients (87.5%. One patient (4.1% with extraocular tumor recurrence developed liver metastasis and expired. Conclusions : Although TTT may be useful in the treatment of small choroidal melanocytic lesions, the high complication and recurrence rates warrant close monitoring of patients after primary TTT even when a flat chorioretinal scar has been achieved.

  10. Fate of diffusion restricted lesions in acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hsiung Tsai

    Full Text Available Diffusion-restricted lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI are detected in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. In this study, we aimed to determine the fate of DWI lesions in ICH patients and whether the presence of DWI lesions is associated with functional outcome in patients with ICH.This prospective study enrolled 153 patients with acute ICH. Baseline MRI scans were performed within 2 weeks after ICH to detect DWI lesions and imaging markers for small vessel disease (SVD. Follow-up MRI scans were performed at 3 months after ICH to assess the fate of the DWI lesions. We analyzed the associations between the characteristics of DWI lesions with clinical features and functional outcome.Seventeen of the 153 patients (11.1% had a total of 25 DWI lesions. Factors associated with DWI lesions were high initial systolic and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP at the emergency room, additional lowering of MAP within 24 hours, and the presence of white matter hyperintensity and cerebral microbleeds. Thirteen of the 25 DWI lesions (52% were not visible on follow-up T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and were associated with high apparent diffusion coefficient value and a sharper decease in MAP. The regression of DWI lesions was associated with good functional outcome.More than half of the DWI lesions in the ICH patients did not transition to visible, long-term infarction. Only if the DWI lesion finally transitioned to final infarction was a poor functional outcome predicted. A DWI lesion may be regarded as an ischemic change of SVD and does not always indicate certain cerebral infarction or permanent tissue injury.

  11. Morel-Lavallee lesion - radiological spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Sandeep Sharma; Priya Ramchandran; Narendar Kumar Magu; Mir Rizwan Aziz; Shilpa Singh


    Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) entity represents as a haemolymph mass as a result of closed degloving injury following focal trauma. The swelling can be mistaken as a tumor or simple hematoma formation, and it can be of concern as it gradually increases in size. It is important to diagnose the entity promptly as proper management can avoid skin necrosis and further complications. We present a 20-year-old female nursing student who fell down from a scooter and developed painful massive right thigh swelling over a 3-week course following trauma. She underwent plain radiography which was unremarkable. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the diagnosis of MLL and she was treated accordingly.

  12. Diaphragm paralysis from cervical disc lesions. (United States)

    Cloward, R B


    An opera singer, who "made her living with her diaphragm", developed a post-traumatic unilateral radiculopathy due to cervical disc lesions, C3 to C6. During one year of severe neck and left arm pain she gradually lost the ability to sing difficult operatic passages which brought an end to her music career. Following a three level anterior cervical decompression and fusion, the neck and arm pain was immediately relieved. One week later her voice and singing ability returned to its full strength and power permitting her to resume her activities as a vocalist. The diagnosis of paresis of the left hemi-diaphragm as part of the cervical disc syndrome was implied by postoperative retrospective inference.

  13. Sclerosing lesions of the orbit: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Lokdarshi


    Full Text Available Orbital sclerosing inflammation is a distinct group of pathologies characterized by indolent growth with minimal or no signs of inflammation. However, contrary to earlier classifications, it should not be considered a chronic stage of acute inflammation. Although rare, orbital IgG4-related disease has been associated with systemic sclerosing pseudotumor-like lesions. Possible mechanisms include autoimmune and IgG4 related defective clonal proliferation. Currently, there is no specific treatment protocol for IgG4-related disease although the response to low dose steroid provides a good response as compared to non-IgG4 sclerosing pseudotumor. Specific sclerosing inflammations (e.g. Wegener's disease, sarcoidosis, Sjogren's syndrome and neoplasms (lymphoma, metastatic breast carcinoma should be ruled out before considering idiopathic sclerosing inflammation as a diagnosis.

  14. Ameloblastomatous Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst: A Rare Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC is a unique and uncommon odontogenic cyst classified into four groups of cystic, odontoma producing, ameloblastomatous proliferating and neoplastic ones. Case Presentation A 34-year-old Iranian man complaining of a painless facial and palatal swelling of the left side of the maxilla persisted for approximately three years was referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, Hamadan University, Iran. Panoramic film revealed a well-defined multilocular mixed radiolucent and radioopaque lesion of the maxilla at the left side. An incisional biopsy was obtained. Based on the histopathologic findings, ameloblastomatous COC was diagnosed. Discussion We reported a rare case of COC. According to Praetorius et al. classification, this patient comes under the category of type 1C (ameloblastomatous proliferating. Many patients with ameloblastomatous COC should be reported to understand its biological behavior as possible.

  15. Psoralen-UVA-treated psoriatic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K. (Univ. of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences, Memphis); Kohda, H.; Kumakiri, M.; Blender, S.L.; Willis, I.


    Psoralen-ultraviolet light (PUVA)-treated psoriatic lesions were studied for ultrastructural changes. In early stages of treatment, sunburn cells in the epidermis and bizarre giant cells in the dermis were more frequently observed. When clinical improvement was apparent, these changes had subsided. Dermal abnormality in long-term therapy consisted of a thick perivascular cost of amorphous substance. No abnormality was found in the epidermal keratinocytes in long-term therapy, except a clustering and giant cell formation of melanocytes, a heavy melanization of keratinocytes, and hyperkeratosis. Low-dose initiation and slow increment of both 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA is probably a reasonable regimen for benign dermatoses such as psoriasis because it will allow enough time for the skin to become more protected, while the therapeutic results are as satisfactory as in a high-dose schedule.

  16. Framing effect following bilateral amygdala lesion. (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Hurlemann, René; Patin, Alexandra; Dolan, Raymond J


    A paradigmatic example of an emotional bias in decision making is the framing effect, where the manner in which a choice is posed--as a potential loss or a potential gain--systematically biases an ensuing decision. Two fMRI studies have shown that the activation in the amygdala is modulated by the framing effect. Here, contrary to an expectation based on these studies, we show that two patients with Urbach-Wiethe (UW) disease, a rare condition associated with congenital, complete bilateral amygdala degeneration, exhibit an intact framing effect. However, choice preference in these patients did show a qualitatively distinct pattern compared to controls evident in an increased propensity to gamble, indicating that loss of amygdala function does exert an overall influence on risk-taking. These findings suggest either that amygdala does contribute to decision making but does not play a causal role in framing, or that UW is not a pure lesion model of amygdala function.

  17. Testicular lesions of streptozotocin diabetic rats. (United States)

    Oksanen, A


    Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg body weight). The diabetes was allowed to stabilize for at least 15 days, whereafter the testicular and seminal vesicle histology was studied at various time intervals. Reduction in testis weights and tubule diameters was significant after 2 weeks of diabetes. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. The testicular histology of diabetic animals frequently greatly simulated the situation described following hypophysectomy. By subjective visual assessment the number of Leydig cells was found to be normal or reduced in all of the diabetic animals. Diabetes was also demonstrated to induce seminal vesicle atrophy, which did not show any correlation with the degree of testicular lesions. The possible etiology of testicular damage in diabetic animals is discussed.

  18. Sclerosing Lesions of the Orbit: A Review. (United States)

    Lokdarshi, Gautam; Pushker, Neelam; Bajaj, Mandeep S


    Orbital sclerosing inflammation is a distinct group of pathologies characterized by indolent growth with minimal or no signs of inflammation. However, contrary to earlier classifications, it should not be considered a chronic stage of acute inflammation. Although rare, orbital IgG4-related disease has been associated with systemic sclerosing pseudotumor-like lesions. Possible mechanisms include autoimmune and IgG4 related defective clonal proliferation. Currently, there is no specific treatment protocol for IgG4-related disease although the response to low dose steroid provides a good response as compared to non-IgG4 sclerosing pseudotumor. Specific sclerosing inflammations (e.g. Wegener's disease, sarcoidosis, Sjogren's syndrome) and neoplasms (lymphoma, metastatic breast carcinoma) should be ruled out before considering idiopathic sclerosing inflammation as a diagnosis.

  19. [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and preneoplasic lesions]. (United States)

    Rouquette Lassalle, Isabelle


    In the recently published 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the lungs, all neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs are presented for the first time in one single chapter. In this classification, high-grade small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) are differentiated from intermediate grade atypical carcinoids (AC) and low-grade typical carcinoids as well as from preinvasive lesion diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia DIPNECH. In the 2004 WHO classification, SCLC and carcinoids each had a separate chapter and LCNEC was listed in the chapter on large cell carcinoma of the lungs. The new WHO classification also gives some recommendations for the diagnosis on small biopsies. This review describes morphological, immunohistochemical, and genomic characteristic of these tumors according to the new classification.

  20. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Jass, Jeremy R


    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  1. Lesiones de hombro en jugadores de Handball


    D´arpa, Luciana


    Las lesiones no solo necesitan un correcto diagnóstico y un tratamiento adecuado, sino también una prevención que le brinde seguridad al jugador a la hora de realizar la práctica deportiva. El jugador de handball utiliza por su profesión todo el conjunto de su sistema músculo-esquelético, a veces al límite de sus propiedades, motivo por el que a menudo, por una serie de factores de tipos intrínsecos y/o extrínsecos pueden llevar a la lesión, por ende es de suma importancia iden...

  2. Acne image analysis: lesion localization and classification (United States)

    Abas, Fazly Salleh; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Bikowski, Joseph; Gurcan, Metin N.


    Acne is a common skin condition present predominantly in the adolescent population, but may continue into adulthood. Scarring occurs commonly as a sequel to severe inflammatory acne. The presence of acne and resultant scars are more than cosmetic, with a significant potential to alter quality of life and even job prospects. The psychosocial effects of acne and scars can be disturbing and may be a risk factor for serious psychological concerns. Treatment efficacy is generally determined based on an invalidated gestalt by the physician and patient. However, the validated assessment of acne can be challenging and time consuming. Acne can be classified into several morphologies including closed comedones (whiteheads), open comedones (blackheads), papules, pustules, cysts (nodules) and scars. For a validated assessment, the different morphologies need to be counted independently, a method that is far too time consuming considering the limited time available for a consultation. However, it is practical to record and analyze images since dermatologists can validate the severity of acne within seconds after uploading an image. This paper covers the processes of region-ofinterest determination using entropy-based filtering and thresholding as well acne lesion feature extraction. Feature extraction methods using discrete wavelet frames and gray-level co-occurence matrix were presented and their effectiveness in separating the six major acne lesion classes were discussed. Several classifiers were used to test the extracted features. Correct classification accuracy as high as 85.5% was achieved using the binary classification tree with fourteen principle components used as descriptors. Further studies are underway to further improve the algorithm performance and validate it on a larger database.

  3. Percutaneous acetabuloplasty for metastatic acetabular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logroscino Giandomenico


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteolytic metastases around the acetabulum are frequent in tumour patients, and may cause intense and drug-resistant pain of the hip. These lesions also cause structural weakening of the pelvis, limping, and poor quality of life. Percutaneous acetabuloplasty is a mini-invasive procedure for the management of metastatic lesions due to carcinoma of the acetabulum performed in patients who cannot tolerate major surgery, or in patients towards whom radiotherapy had already proved ineffective. Methods We report a retrospective study in 25 such patients (30 acetabuli who were evaluated before and after percutaneous acetabuloplasty, with regard to pain, mobility of the hip joint, use of analgesics, by means of evaluation forms: Visual Analog Scale, Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis (WOMAC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG. The results obtained were analysed using the χ2 Test and Fisher's exact test. Significance was sent at P Results Marked clinical improvement was observed in all patients during the first six post-operative months, with gradual a worsening thereafter from deterioration of their general condition. Complete pain relief was achieved in 15 of our 25 (59% of patients, and pain reduction was achieved in the remaining 10 (41% patients. The mean duration of pain relief was 7.3 months. Pain recurred in three patients (12% between 2 weeks to 3 months. No major complications occurred. There was transient local pain in most cases, and 2 cases of venous injection of cement without clinical consequences. Conclusion Percutaneous acetabuloplasty is effective in improving the quality of life of patients with osteolytic bone tumours, even though the improvement is observed during the first 6 months only. It can be an effective aid to chemo- and radiotherapy in the management of acetabular metastases.

  4. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota


    Full Text Available Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14% had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjay


    Full Text Available : Color Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive, non-ionising and rapid method for scrotal examination. The present study is carried out to evaluate clinically suspected cases of scrotal lesions, the sensitivity, specificity of color doppler. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study comprises 120 patients of different age groups with clinical suspicion of scrotal lesions. Color doppler ultrasound was done with 7.5MHz transducer. RESULTS: Of the total 120 cases, benign conditions 111 (92.5% is more common than malignant 9 (7.5%. In benign group commonest diagnoses were hydrocele, epididymo-orchitis, varicocele and epididymal cyst. In malignant group teratocarcinoma, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, lymphoma, embryonal cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor with teratocarcinoma. The sensitivity for diagnosing extratesticular lesions was 83.14% and for testicular lesions 88.57%. CONCLUSION: Color doppler ultrasound is helpful in differentiating extratesticular and intratesticular lesions. It should be performed in all patients with suspected scrotal lesions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmakanta Kumbhakar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diverse cytological patterns of thyroid lesions may occur in the thyroid gland for its various diseases. The thyroid lesions may be nonneoplastic lesions or neoplastic lesions. Most of the thyroid lesions clinically present as thyroid swellings either as thyroid nodules or as diffuse enlargement of the gland itself. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC is a rapid, easy to perform, minimally invasive and cost-effective first line high diagnostic accuracy test for cytological evaluation of thyroid lesions with minimum complications. The thyroid gland is easily accessible for Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA procedure due to its superficial location. The accurate cytological diagnosis of the thyroid lesions can direct the treatment modalities of the lesions and reduce unnecessary thyroid surgeries. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES A hospital-based study to determine the cytological patterns of thyroid lesions by FNAC and to correlate the cytological and histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was based on “FNAC analysis of 100 thyroid lesions presented as thyroid swellings” (study group in the period of two (02 years from June 1, 2014, to May 31, 2016, in the cytopathology section of the Pathology Department of Tezpur Medical College and Hospital, Tezpur, Assam. Histopathological correlation was done in the surgically treated thyroid lesions of the study group. RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS Female patients (87 comprised majority of thyroid lesions (87.00%, while male patients (13 were only 13.00% of thyroid lesions with a male and female patients’ ratio of 6.69:1 in the study group. Maximum patients with thyroid lesions, irrespective of sex in the study group were in the age group of 31-40 years. The youngest patient in the study group was a 7 years old girl diagnosed as lymphocytic thyroiditis and the oldest patient in the study group was a 73 years old female diagnosed as colloid goitre. Out of 100 thyroid

  7. Human growth hormone and the development of osteochondritis dissecans lesions. (United States)

    Hussain, Waqas M; Hussain, Haroon M; Hussain, Mohammed S; Ho, Sherwin S W


    No single etiology regarding the cause of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions is unanimously accepted. This report documents a novel case of multiple OCD lesions affecting the left knee and a solitary defect of the right elbow in a patient with acquired human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency and supplementation. hGH deficiency and hormone replacement may be related to the development of OCD lesions.

  8. Persisting asymmetries of vision after right side lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill


    Visual neglect and extinction are well-known effects of lesions in the right hemisphere. This study shows that even with minor or no clinical signs of these deficits, and in the stable phase of recovery, asymmetric visual perception is common after right side lesions. Whole, partial and colour re...... occurred selectively with bilateral stimulation. Overall, the study provided an overview of the cognitive structure and lesion anatomy of subtle visual asymmetries after right side stroke...

  9. Enlightening the Pink: Use of Confocal Microscopy in Pink Lesions. (United States)

    Gill, Melissa; González, Salvador


    Solitary pink lesions can pose a particular challenge to dermatologists because they may be almost or completely featureless clinically and dermoscopically, previously requiring biopsy to exclude malignancy. However, these lesions usually are not particularly challenging histopathologically. Thus, the incorporation of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy into the clinical practice, which allows for noninvasive examination of the skin at the cellular level revealing features previously seen only on histopathology, is particularly useful for this subset of clinically difficult lesions.

  10. Computerized Analysis of MR and Ultrasound Images of Breast Lesions (United States)


    Yearbook of Radiology) 3. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Huo Z, Vyborny CJ; Computer-aided diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound. Proceedings...International Workshop on Digital Mammography. Toronto, Canada, June, 2000. 4. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ: Automatic segmentation of breast...lesions on ultrasound. Medical Physics (in press). 5. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ: Computerized diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound

  11. Case Series: Cyclops lesion - extension loss after ACL reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanda Sunita


    Full Text Available Localized anterior arthrofibrosis (cyclops lesion is the second most common cause of extension loss after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. We present and discuss two patients with prior ACL reconstructions, who presented with pain and loss of extension following surgery. MRI and arthroscopy of the knee revealed typical features of a cyclops lesion. The patients showed significant symptomatic improvement following arthroscopic resection of these lesions.

  12. Clinical evaluation of stereoscopic DSA for vascular lesions


    大川,元臣; 児島, 完治; 影山,淳一; 日野, 一郎; 高島, 均; 玉井,豊理; 田邉,正忠; 大本, 尭史; 植田, 清隆; 藤原, 敬


    Seventy-one series of stereoscopic DSA utilized on thirty-nine patients with intracranial vascular lesions were evaluated by comparison with subtracted magnified angiograms or independently. All stereoscopic series had good or fairly good stereoscopic quality. Stereoscopic DSA was useful in the preoperative stereoscopic vascular analysis of vascular lesions such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cartotid-cavernous fistulas, obstructive or stenotic vascular lesions and vascular elonga...

  13. Imaging diagnosis of ectopic parathyroid lesions in patients with hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Itsuko; Kokubo, Takashi; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Maruno, Hirotaka; Murata, Hajime [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)


    We present 9 cases of ectopic parathyroid lesions in which histological diagnosis is confirmed. We analyze the findings of imaging modalities including {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy, Tl-Tc subtraction imaging, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and we assess the usefulness of those imagings in determination of the location of the ectopic parathyroid lesion. MIBI scintigraphy was thought to be most useful for detection of the ectopic parathyroid lesion. (author)

  14. Computer aided detection of oral lesions on CT images (United States)

    Galib, S.; Islam, F.; Abir, M.; Lee, H. K.


    Oral lesions are important findings on computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, a fully automatic method to detect oral lesions in mandibular region from dental CT images is proposed. Two methods were developed to recognize two types of lesions namely (1) Close border (CB) lesions and (2) Open border (OB) lesions, which cover most of the lesion types that can be found on CT images. For the detection of CB lesions, fifteen features were extracted from each initial lesion candidates and multi layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to classify suspicious regions. Moreover, OB lesions were detected using a rule based image processing method, where no feature extraction or classification algorithm were used. The results were validated using a CT dataset of 52 patients, where 22 patients had abnormalities and 30 patients were normal. Using non-training dataset, CB detection algorithm yielded 71% sensitivity with 0.31 false positives per patient. Furthermore, OB detection algorithm achieved 100% sensitivity with 0.13 false positives per patient. Results suggest that, the proposed framework, which consists of two methods, has the potential to be used in clinical context, and assist radiologists for better diagnosis.

  15. Multisegmental pneumatocysts of the lumbar spine mimic osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steingruber, I.E.; Buchberger, W. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Innsbruck (Austria); Bach, C.M.; Wimmer, C.; Nogler, M. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Innsbruck (Austria)


    Circumscribed radiolucencies within the vertebral bones can be due to a variety of changes including benign and malignant tumours or tumour-like lesions. Radiolucencies due to degenerative intraosseous pneumatocyst are very uncommon but have to be taken into the differential diagnosis in well-circumscribed lytic lesions of the vertebral bodies. We describe the first case of multisegmental pneumatocysts in the lumbar spine mimicking osteolytic lesions. On computed tomography, the air-equivalent attenuation values of the lesions and the close vicinity to the degenerated vertebral endplates with vacuum phenomenon led to the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Measuring femoral lesions despite CT metal artefacts: a cadaveric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malan, Daniel F. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Mediamatics, EEMCS, P.O. Box 5031, Delft (Netherlands); Botha, Charl P. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Mediamatics, EEMCS, P.O. Box 5031, Delft (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kraaij, Gert; Heide, Huub J.L. van der; Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Joemai, Raoul M.S. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Valstar, Edward R. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)


    Computed tomography is the modality of choice for measuring osteolysis but suffers from metal-induced artefacts obscuring periprosthetic tissues. Previous papers on metal artefact reduction (MAR) show qualitative improvements, but their algorithms have not found acceptance for clinical applications. We investigated to what extent metal artefacts interfere with the segmentation of lesions adjacent to a metal femoral implant and whether metal artefact reduction improves the manual segmentation of such lesions. We manually created 27 periprosthetic lesions in 10 human cadaver femora. We filled the lesions with a fibrotic interface tissue substitute. Each femur was fitted with a polished tapered cobalt-chrome prosthesis and imaged twice - once with the metal, and once with a substitute resin prosthesis inserted. Metal-affected CTs were processed using standard back-projection as well as projection interpolation (PI) MAR. Two experienced users segmented all lesions and compared segmentation accuracy. We achieved accurate delineation of periprosthetic lesions in the metal-free images. The presence of a metal implant led us to underestimate lesion volume and introduced geometrical errors in segmentation boundaries. Although PI MAR reduced streak artefacts, it led to greater underestimation of lesion volume and greater geometrical errors than without its application. CT metal artefacts impair image segmentation. PI MAR can improve subjective image appearance but causes loss of detail and lower image contrast adjacent to prostheses. Our experiments showed that PI MAR is counterproductive for manual segmentation of periprosthetic lesions and should be used with care. (orig.)

  17. CT imaging of mass-like renal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Y. [Children' s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)


    Mass-like renal lesions in children occur in a diverse spectrum of conditions including benign and malignant neoplasm, infection, infarction, lymphatic malformation, and traumatic injury. Although mass-like renal lesions can sometimes be suspected on plain radiographs and evaluated with US in children, subsequent CT is usually performed for the confirmation of diagnosis and further characterization. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the CT imaging findings of both common and uncommon mass-like renal lesions in pediatric patients. Understanding the characteristic CT appearance of mass-like renal lesions in children enables an accurate diagnosis and optimizes patient management. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging in characterization of cystic pancreatic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrasegaran, K., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Akisik, F.M.; Patel, A.A.; Rydberg, M. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cramer, H.M.; Agaram, N.P. [Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Schmidt, C.M. [Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)


    Aim: To evaluate whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can characterize or predict the malignant potential of cystic pancreatic lesions. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) database over a 2-year period revealed 136 patients with cystic pancreatic lesions. Patients with DWI studies and histological confirmation of cystic mass were included. In patients with known pancreatitis, lesions with amylase content of >1000 IU/l that resolved on subsequent scans were included as pseudocysts. ADC of cystic lesions was measured by two independent reviewers. These values were then compared to categorize these lesions as benign or malignant using conventional MRI sequences. Results: Seventy lesions were analysed: adenocarcinoma (n = 4), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN; n = 28), mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN; n = 9), serous cystadenoma (n = 16), and pseudocysts (n = 13). There was no difference between ADC values of malignant and non-malignant lesions (p = 0.06), between mucinous and serous tumours (p = 0.12), or between IPMN and MCN (p = 0.42). ADC values for low-grade IPMN were significantly higher than those for high-grade or invasive IPMN (p = 0.03). Conclusion: ADC values may be helpful in deciding the malignant potential of IPMN. However, they are not useful in differentiating malignant from benign lesions or for characterizing cystic pancreatic lesions.

  19. [Natural history of intestinal lesions in inflammatory bowel disease]. (United States)

    Beaugerie, Laurent


    Crohn's disease may involve any part of the digestive tract from mouth to anus, but affects mainly the distal ileum and the,colon. At diagnosis, perianal lesions are observed in 20% of the cases. During the disease course, strictures develop in the majority of patients with ileal disease, while penetrating lesions (fistulas and abscesses) develop in half of the patients. Only one third of patients with colonic involvement will develop structuring or penetrating lesions. Intestinal lesions of ulcerative colitis involve constantly the rectum and may extend continuously throughout the colon. At diagnosis, lesions involve the rectum, the left colon and most of the colon in similar proportions. Subsequent extension of the lesions over 20 years is observed in half of the patients. In Crohn's disease, 40%-50% of the patients require intestinal resection at 10 years. The risk of colectomy in ulcerative colitis is about 1% per year Dysplasia and cancer may complicate longstanding extensive colonic lesions in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Malignant transformation of chronic inflammatory lesions may also occur in patients with longstanding lesions of the small bowel in Crohn's disease.

  20. Adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting with atypical cystic brain lesions (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo; Costa, Rubens B; Bacchi, Carlos; Sarinho, Filipe


    Brain metastases occur in up to 10–30% of patients with cancer. Metastatic lesions are usually diagnosed as multiple mass lesions at the junction of the grey and white matter with associated perilesional vasogenic oedema. Cysticercosis is an endemic disease in underdeveloped countries of Africa, Central and South America and is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. The classical radiological finding of neurocysticercosis is cystic lesions showing the scolex in the brain parenchyma. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting with cystic brain lesions mimicking neurocysticercosis. PMID:24717598

  1. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R


    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process...

  2. Prevención de lesiones de isquiotibiales en futbolistas


    Gutiérrez Villar, Rául


    Las lesiones en los isquiotibiales son el tipo de lesiones más frecuentes en el ámbito deportivo, sobre todo futbolístico. La mayoría de estas lesiones son producidas por el esfuerzo y producen una significativa pérdida de tiempo de entrenamiento y afecta a la calidad de vida de los deportistas lesionados El objetivo principal de esta revisión sistemática es verificar la eficacia de los métodos de entrenamiento a la hora de prevenir lesiones en los músculos isquiotibiales. ...

  3. Congenital granular cell lesion: A rare tumor of new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Congenital granular cell tumor (CGCT, or congenital epulis, is an uncommon benign soft tissue lesion that usually arises from the alveolar mucosa of neonates and may cause respiratory and feeding problems. The histogenesis and clinical history of the lesion remains obscure. Treatment involves surgical excision and recurrences are rare. The present report describes a case of congenital granular cell lesion (CGCL in the anterior segment of maxillary alveolar ridge of a 2-month-old female. This lesion was causing feeding problem and was excised under local anesthesia, with no recurrence even after 3 years.

  4. Achieving Control of Lesion Growth in CNS with Minimal Damage

    CERN Document Server

    Raja, Mathankumar


    Lesions in central nervous system (CNS) and their growth leads to debilitating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's etc. We developed a model earlier which shows how the lesion growth can be arrested through a beneficial auto-immune mechanism. The success of the approach depends on a set of control parameters and their phase space was shown to have a smooth manifold separating the uncontrolled lesion growth region from the controlled. Here we show that an optimal set of parameter values exist which minimizes system damage while achieving control of lesion growth.

  5. Imaging of Soft Tissue Lesions of the Foot and Ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi


    Full Text Available Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot may be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions may suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensity, and the enhancement pattern. Knowledge of the incidence of specific neoplasms of the foot and ankle based on patient age aids in providing a limited differential diagnosis

  6. Automated detection of multiple sclerosis lesions in serial brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llado, Xavier; Ganiler, Onur; Oliver, Arnau; Marti, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi [University of Girona, Computer Vision and Robotics Group, Girona (Spain); Valls, Laia [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Girona (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Magnetic Resonance Center, Girona (Spain); Ramio-Torrenta, Lluis [Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica de Girona, Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology Unit, Girona (Spain); Rovira, Alex [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious disease typically occurring in the brain whose diagnosis and efficacy of treatment monitoring are vital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in serial brain imaging due to the rich and detailed information provided. Time-series analysis of images is widely used for MS diagnosis and patient follow-up. However, conventional manual methods are time-consuming, subjective, and error-prone. Thus, the development of automated techniques for the detection and quantification of MS lesions is a major challenge. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the approaches which deal with the time-series analysis of brain MRI for detecting active MS lesions and quantifying lesion load change. We provide a comprehensive reference source for researchers in which several approaches to change detection and quantification of MS lesions are investigated and classified. We also analyze the results provided by the approaches, discuss open problems, and point out possible future trends. Lesion detection approaches are required for the detection of static lesions and for diagnostic purposes, while either quantification of detected lesions or change detection algorithms are needed to follow up MS patients. However, there is not yet a single approach that can emerge as a standard for the clinical practice, automatically providing an accurate MS lesion evolution quantification. Future trends will focus on combining the lesion detection in single studies with the analysis of the change detection in serial MRI. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of Diode and Argon Laser Lesions in Rabbit Retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhang; Xiaoxin Li; Bin Li; Jiping Da


    Purpose: To compare the histological alteration of retina with various spot intensities between diode and argon lasers in order to instruct the clinical use of 810 nm diode laser.Methods: Transpupillary retinal photocoagulations were performed on 42 eyes of 27pigmented rabbits. Histopathologic alteration of lesions in different intensities and different time intervals after irradiation produced by diode and argon laser was observed and compared using light microscopy. Areas of various lesions measured by image analysis system (CMIAS) were compared quantitatively.Results: Histopathologically, two-week-old grade 2 lesions produced by diode laser induced the disappearance of outer nuclear cells. More than a half of all showed reduction in number of outer nuclear layer cells in argon. Fibroblasts appeared in the diode grade 3lesions 5 days after irradiation. CMIAS data showed that all the areas of diode lesions immediately after photocoagulation were to be larger than those of argon laser lesions in the same spot intensity (P < 0.05). However, twenty-four hours after photocoagulation, the area of the diode lesions increased less than that of the argon laser lesions (8%vs.23%).Conclusion: The acute histological effect caused by 810 nm diode laser and argon green laser is similar,while the expansion of lesion area 24 hours after photocoagulation was less with the diode laser compared to the argon. This may be the first report in the literature regarding quantitative analysis of the delayed reaction of argon green lasers.

  8. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Ossani


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  9. Hyperdense lesions in CT of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Lesiones hiperdensas en TC en la toxoplamosis cerebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiones Tapia, D.; Ramos Amador, A.; Monereo Alonso, A.


    We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with stage IV C[sub 1] AIDS who presented hyperdense CT images 13 days after beginning antitoxoplasma treatment. These lesions could be caused by calcifications or blood. The attenuation values lead us to believe that they are calcium. Intracranial calcification in adult cerebral toxoplasmosis is an uncommon finding. Its presence in AIDS patients should not suggest any etiology other than toxoplasmosis. (Author) 16 refs.

  10. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)


    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  11. Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae. (United States)

    van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje


    A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely.

  12. Dieulafoy's lesion: A case series study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RS Walmsley; Yuk-Tong Lee; Joseph JY Sung


    AIM: Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) accounts for 1-5.8% of cases of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Its mortality is high, approaching 20%, despite recent advances in endoscopic therapy. We aimed to report our experience in the treatment of DL.METHODS: A retrospective case study of all patients with DL between January 1993 and January 2003 was done. Characteristics, treatment methods, success rates and 30-d mortality of the patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were noted to have DL in the study period. Thirty-three records were available for assessment in which 35 DL were identified. The median age of the patients was 67 years with male to female ratio of 5.6:1. Significant comorbidities existed in 69% of the patients. Eighty-nine percent of the DL was found at first endoscopy, three DL at laparotomy. Significant coexistent endoscopic findings existed in 23%. Hemostasis was achieved in 88% by using adrenaline injection, or in combination with heater probe application at first endoscopy. Four cases had re-bleeding, all were successfully treated endoscopically. The 30-d mortality rate was 23%.CONCLUSION: Successful endoscopic hemostasis could be achieved in 100% of cases of DL. The overall mortality may still remain high, mainly due to the comorbidities and age of these patients.

  13. [Brodie abscess. Primarily misinterpreted as traumatic lesion]. (United States)

    Nicolajsen, K; Jørgensen, P S; Tørholm, C


    Two case histories are presented. In the first, a 49 year-old man fell on his right hip. He was able to walk, but because of pain he came to our emergency room. Radiographics gave an impression of an undislocated intertrochanteric fracture, scintigraphy confirmed the suspicion. There were no signs of infection. On starting osteosynthesis with the drilling of a hole in the lateral cortex, discharge of pus was observed and curettage of the abscess cavity was performed. In the second, a 21 year-old man hit his right knee against a table. Because of pain he was admitted to hospital. Primary signs of a lesion of the lateral meniscus were found and arthroscopy was scheduled. When readmitted we found signs of an infection and X-ray revealed a Brodie's abscess in the proximal tibia. The abscess cavity was opened and curettage was performed. Radiographics, scintigraphics, blood parameters and pathological and microbiological investigations revealed primary chronic osteomyelitis in both patients. Antibiotic therapy was instituted and six weeks after primary operation bone transplantation was performed. The further course was uncomplicated.

  14. A general approach to liver lesion segmentation in CT images (United States)

    Cao, Li; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Huang, Lidong; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.


    Lesion segmentation has remained a challenge in different body regions. Generalizability is lacking in published methods as variability in results is common, even for a given organ and modality, such that it becomes difficult to establish standardized methods of disease quantification and reporting. This paper makes an attempt at a generalizable method based on classifying lesions along with their background into groups using clinically used visual attributes. Using an Iterative Relative Fuzzy Connectedness (IRFC) delineation engine, the ideas are implemented for the task of liver lesion segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images. For lesion groups with the same background properties, a few subjects are chosen as the training set to obtain the optimal IRFC parameters for the background tissue components. For lesion groups with similar foreground properties, optimal foreground parameters for IRFC are set as the median intensity value of the training lesion subset. To segment liver lesions belonging to a certain group, the devised method requires manual loading of the corresponding parameters, and correct setting of the foreground and background seeds. The segmentation is then completed in seconds. Segmentation accuracy and repeatability with respect to seed specification are evaluated. Accuracy is assessed by the assignment of a delineation quality score (DQS) to each case. Inter-operator repeatability is assessed by the difference between segmentations carried out independently by two operators. Experiments on 80 liver lesion cases show that the proposed method achieves a mean DQS score of 4.03 and inter-operator repeatability of 92.3%.

  15. Measurement and meaning of oxidatively modified DNA lesions in urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, Marcus S; Olinski, Ryszard; Loft, Steffen


    and cell death have minimal, if any, influence upon urinary levels of 8-oxodG and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, although this should be assessed on a lesion-by-lesion basis. Broadly speaking, there is consensus between chromatographic techniques; however, ELISA approaches continue to overestimate 8-oxod...

  16. Benign Proliferative Breast Lesions and Risk of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erel


    Full Text Available Benign breast lesions (BBL includes a wide variety of histologic entities, which have been broadly classified into non-proliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia, and hyperplasia with atypia. With the increased use of mammography, more benign lesions are being detected, and in order to estimate the risk of breast cancer for specific histologic categories is of great importance to guide clinical management. Women with proliferative lesions without atypia are at slightly increased risk of subsequent breast cancer, whereas women with proliferative lesions with atypia have a higher risk. The risk is 1.5- 2-fold in women with proliferative lesions without atypia, 4-5-fold in women with proliferative lesions with atypia, and 8-10 fold in women with ductal carcinoma in situ. Age at diagnosis of BBL, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative, and time since BBL diagnosis on risk of breast cancer are important for risk evaluation. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(3.000: 155-167

  17. Choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus simulating an inflammatory lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuray Tuncer


    Full Text Available Choroidal nevi are the most common benign pigmented lesions of the fundus. Choroidal neovascularization is a rare complication of choroidal nevi. We report herein a young patient managed successfully with intravitreal bevacizumab injections for juxtapapillary choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal nevus simulating an inflammatory lesion.

  18. A study on the mixed jaw lesions associated with teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    1. Retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of tentative diagnosis or impression from the clinico-radiographic materials of jaw lesions which showed mixed lesions associated with teeth. 2. To observe the diagnostic importance of the calcified part of the lesions which appear as radiopaque areas. 14 cases of jaw lesions which showed mixed lesions associated with teeth were reviewed. These lesions were mostly diagnosed as adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (6 cases) or calcifying odontogenic cysts with (4 cases) or without odontomas (4 cases). The calcified elements of the lesions which demonstrated various sizes and patterns of radiopaque shadows resembled odontoid tissues in some cases but could not be defined in some other cases radiographically. The final histopathologic diagnosis confirmed adenomatoid odontogenic tumors in 4 of the 6 cases. The remaining 2 cases turned out to be odontoma and ameloblastic fibroodontoma. The 4 cases of calcifying odontogenic cysts with odontomas were correct in 3 cases but remaining 1 case was just odontoma. The 4 cases of calcifying odontogenic cysts were proved to be odontogenic keratocyst, calcified peripheral fibroma, unicystic ameloblastoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The diagnostic accuracy of the adenomatoid odontogenic tumors and calcifying odontogenic cysts were high when the lesions show typical appearance. The calcifications which show radiopaque areas could be odontomas or dystrophic calficifations or remnants of bone fragments from resorption.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundari Devi


    Full Text Available AIM: To study the incidence of different testicular lesions both neoplastic and non - neoplastic lesions in orchidectomy specimens at Gandhi Hospital, Hyderabad A.P. OBJECTIVE: To study the various morphological patterns of neoplastic and non - neoplastic lesions of testis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and nineteen orchidectomy specimens were received in the Pathology Department of Gandhi Medical College from July 2008 to June 2013. The patients clinical details were noted. The gross examination findings of the excised specimens along with the histopathological findings were analysed. RESULTS: Out of 119 orchidectomy specimens 7 are neoplastic lesions& 112 non - neoplastic lesions. Among non - neoplastic lesions 24 are chronic non - specific epididymo orchitis, 5 - caseating granulomatous orchitis, 1 - filarial orchitis, 1 - syphilitic orchitis, 20 acute suppurative epididymo orchitis (pyoceole, 16 – torsions, 4 - traumatic, 6 - atrophic, 10 - maturation arrests and 25 showed normal histology. Neoplastic lesions included 2 - seminomas, 1 - spermatocytic seminoma, 1 - yolk sac tumor, 1 - mixed germ cell tumor and 2 - Non Hodgkins lymphomas. CONCLUSION: The results of the study show a relatively low frequency of testicular tumours compared to non - neoplastic lesions in patients treated at Gandhi Hospital.

  20. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Alpizar


    Full Text Available Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. The square chi tests and the analysis of relative risk were use to determine the association between the variables, also we used a logistical regression model to determine the independent relationship of each factor with the presence of the lesions. Results: We was a 12% of the people with stomatitis sub prosthesis, 8% presented lesions growth hyperplasic and 5,6% they were have angular queilitis. The lesions in the oral mucosa increased in people with prosthesis in not well state, bad hygiene this and in the female sex. Conclusion: the chronic lesions were the more prevalence in this study and they were very related with factors like: state of the conservation the prosthesis, time use, hygiene this and sex of the individual; but when determining the independent influence from each factor with the presence lesions, we established that only the state of conservation of the prosthesis and their hygiene affected of the important way to the old men of this study.

  1. Spectrum of vulvar lesions: a clinicopathologic study of 170 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Mohan


    Conclusion: Early recognition of vulvar lesions and a prompt biopsy diagnosis for all lesions with suspicious changes is of great significance. The term leukoplakia is imprecise and should be replaced by a precise histological description. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 175-180


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarth Shukla


    Full Text Available AIMS: To establish a significant predominance of thyroid lesions in and around Wardha district, and to establish specific etiological link for the predominance the thyroid lesions. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : This was a hospital based analytical prospective study, conducted in Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital (A.V.B.R.H. involving 108 patients. The study was carried over a duration of 1 year January 2010 to December 2010. Patients attending endocrinological clinics and the newly detected cases of thyroid lesions, within set parameters of study, were the subjects of this study. OBSERVATION: Thyroid lesions which we came across in the course of the study were Thyrotoxicosis, Myxoedema, Thyroiditis, Diffuse goitre, Nodular Goitre and Carcinoma Thyroid . These were correlated with epidemiological factors like Age, Sex, Region, Diet and Iodine Intake. Significant relationship between thyroid function, age of patient, diet was seen in comparison to individual thyroid lesions. CONCLUSION : G oitre was the commest pathology encountered . Almost all of the thyroid lesions were of hypothyroid in their function with exception of thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma. Thyroid lesions were found predominantly in females, Age related lesion pathology was significant, and vegetarian and non - vegetarian diets along with low and high iodine salt uptake had obvious pathological effects on thyroid

  3. Fluorescence investigations to classify malignant laryngeal lesions in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydell, Roland; Eker, Charlotta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan;


    BACKGROUND: The extent of surgical resection for malignant laryngeal lesions influences voice quality. An instrument to estimate histopathologic grading of dysplasia in vivo may spare normal tissue without increasing the risk of local failure. METHODS: Laryngeal lesions (N = 39; 21 after...

  4. Imaging features of complex sclerosing lesions of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myong, Joo Hwa; Choi, Byung Gil; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, Ah Won; Song, Byung Joo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of complex sclerosing lesions of the breast and to assess the rate of upgrade to breast cancer. From March 2008 to May 2012, seven lesions were confirmed as complex sclerosing lesions by ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy. Final results by either surgical excision or follow-up imaging studies were reviewed to assess the rate of upgrade to breast cancer. Two radiologists retrospectively analyzed the imaging findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System classification. Five lesions underwent subsequent surgical excision and two of them revealed ductal carcinoma in situ (n=1) and invasive ductal carcinoma (n=1). Our study showed a breast cancer upgrade rate of 28.6% (2 of 7 lesions). Two lesions were stable on imaging follow-up beyond 1 year. The mammographic features included masses (n=4, 57.1%), architectural distortion (n=2, 28.6%), and focal asymmetry (n=1, 14.3%). Common B-mode ultrasonographic features were irregular shape (n=6, 85.7%), spiculated margin (n=5, 71.4 %), and hypoechogenicity (n=7, 100%). The final assessment categories were category 4 (n=6, 85.7%) and category 5 (n=1, 14.3%). The complex sclerosing lesions were commonly mass-like on mammography and showed the suspicious ultrasonographic features of category 4. Due to a high underestimation rate, all complex sclerosing lesions by core needle biopsy should be excised.

  5. Quantification of gut lesions in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholamiandehkordi, Ahmad R.; Timbermont, Leen; Lanckriet, Anouk


    . Semi-quantitative histological lesion scoring was done to evaluate gut damage in gut sections of animals in which no gross necrotic lesions were detected. This included scoring of hyperaemia, haemorrhages, the amount of red blood cells and protein precipitate in the lumen, villus fusion and epithelial...

  6. Sealing occlusal caries lesions in adults referred for restorative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshandeh, Azam; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim R


    treatment by senior lecturers at School of Dentistry, Copenhagen, Denmark were included. In case the patient had more than one occlusal caries lesion, randomization between sealing and restoration was made; otherwise, the lesion was sealed. In total, 60 resin sealants and 12 composite restorations were made...

  7. Nonpalpable breast lesions : challenges in diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorntje, L.E.


    The aim of this thesis was to address pitfalls and concerns of the diagnostic evaluation of nonpalpable breast lesions, in an attempt to further improve preoperative diagnostic assessment, as well as surgical strategies of nonpalpable breast lesions. Chapter 1 presents an overview of current methods

  8. Dynamics of and diagnostic methods for detecting small carious lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pine, CM; tenBosch, JJ


    This paper reviews and discusses the dynamics of carious lesions and diagnostic methods for their detection. Summary data are presented on progression rates of differing lesion types with differing initial severity. Among the non-invasive techniques, fibre-optic transillumination, used appropriately

  9. Pediatric Mediastinal Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions. (United States)

    Singh, Achint K; Sargar, Kiran; Restrepo, Carlos S


    This article reviews the imaging findings of pediatric mediastinal tumors and tumor-like lesions. The classification of the mediastinum is discussed with normal imaging appearance of the thymus in pediatric age group followed by a discussion on multiple mediastinal lesions in different compartments with emphasis on their imaging characteristics.

  10. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity (United States)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  11. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker;


    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain......, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort...... hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler...

  12. MRI of optic nerve lesion in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Koichi; Uehara, Masako; Ashikaga, Ryuuichirou; Inoue, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu; Nakao, Yuzou; Miyakoshi, Keizou (Kinki Univ., Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine)


    We evaluated the ability of MRI using short TI inversion recovery (STIR) to detect optic nerve lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Eleven patients with MS were studied with MRI at 0.5 T. STIR images revealed high signal lesions in all of 14 nerves in 11 patients with previous and recurrent attack of optic neuritis. In addition, two of seven asymptomatic nerves also showed high intensity on STIR images. The high signal lesions on STIR images seemed to reflect demyelination in the nerves with some attacks and to show occult lesions in the nerves without any attack. STIR method was concluded to be a potentially useful procedure in detection of optic nerve lesions in MS. (author).

  13. Predicting endoscopic verified organic lesions in the dyspeptic patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Hans Chr; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christensen, Bo

    , 11% (6/55) for ulcer, 25% (23/93) for oesophagitis, 0% (0/1) for malignant disease and 30% (44/149) for all organic lesions (ulcer, oesophagitis or malignancy). The sensitivity of the GPs clinical judgement was 39 % (67/172 for functional dyspepsia, 38% (6/16) for ulcer, 55% (23/42) for oesophagitis......, 0% (0/3) for malignant disease and 72% (44/61) for all organic lesions. The GPs assessed organic lesion three times more common than revealed by endoscopy, but even then ¼ of the organic lesion was overlooked. Concerning reflux/oesophagitis both predicative value and sensitivity was even lower...... despite reflux should be the easiest organic dyspeptic lesion to asses clinical.      Conclusion: Clinical judgement of endoscopic diagnosis in the dyspeptic patients by GPs does not satisfactorily predict endoscopic verified diagnosis. -- page break --     The General Practitioners clinical judgement...

  14. MRI of peripheral nerve lesions of the lower limbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacour-Petit, M.C.; Ducreux, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Bicetre, Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Lozeron, P. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Bicetre, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)


    Our aim is to illustrate the contribution of MRI to diagnosis of lesions of the lower-limb nerve trunks. We report six patients who had clinical and electrophysiological examination for a peroneal or tibial nerve palsy. MRI of the knee showed in three cases a nonenhancing cystic lesion of the peroneal nerve suggesting an intraneural ganglion cyst, confirmed by histological study in one case. One patient with known neurofibromatosis had an enhancing nodular lesion of the peroneal nerve compatible with a neurofibroma. Two patients had diffuse hypertrophy with high signal on T2-weighted images, without contrast enhancement of the sciatic nerve or its branches. These lesions were compatible with localised hypertrophic neuropathy. In one case, biopsy of the superficial branch of the peroneal nerve showed insignificant axonal degeneration. MRI can provide information about the size and site of the abnormal segment of a nerve before treatment and can be used to distinguish different patterns of focal lesion. (orig.)

  15. Biopsy results of Bosniak 2F and 3 cystic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, René; Hørlyck, Arne; Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard;

    Purpose: The distinction between benign and malignant complex cystic renal lesions remains a challenge. Bosniak 2F lesions are often followed with repeated CT for a minimum of five years, often entailing a high exposure to radiation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether biopsy could...... be helpful in clinical decisions. Material and Methods: From March 2013 - December 2014 a total of 295 percutaneous ultrasound guided biopsies from 287 patients with a suspected malignant renal lesion were performed at our institution. All cases were reviewed in PACS by (RR) and lesions presenting...... with a cystic change were re-evaluated and re-categorized after the Bosniak classification system. The re-evaluation and re-categorization was performed in consensus by a junior radiologist (RR) and an uro-radiological expert (OG). Results: Biopsies from eighteen Bosniak 2F cystic lesions were pathologically...

  16. High rate of benign histology in radiologically suspect renal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindkvist Pedersen, Christina; Winck-Flyvholm, Lili; Dahl, Claus;


    or radical nephrectomy between November 2010 and July 2013. All patients underwent a multiphase helical computed tomography (CT), which revealed suspected renal malignancy. The exclusion criteria were cystic tumours, biopsy before surgery, and disseminated and locally advanced disease. Lesions were defined......INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of benign renal lesions for clinically localised renal masses and the need for new diagnostic procedures to assess these lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included patients who underwent partial.......4% of patients with intermediate tumours, p renal masses ≤ 4 cm even though CT revealed a suspect renal lesion. The need for new diagnostic approaches for clinically localised renal lesions is evident. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  17. Midline and far lateral approaches to foramen magnum lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma B


    Full Text Available Twenty patients with foramen magnum lesions were operated upon in the last 5 years at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. The common presenting features were quadriparesis, quadriplegia, diminished sensations, neck pain and respiratory insufficiency. The lesions encountered were meningiomas, neurofibromas, posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms, neurenteric cyst and chordoma. Patients with posterior or posterolaterally placed lesions were operated by the midline posterior approach while those with anterior or anterolateral lesions were managed by the far lateral approach. All mass lesions were excised completely and the aneurysms were clipped. Seventeen patients made good neurological recovery while three died. The latter three patients presented very late. The merits of various surgical approaches to the foramen magnum are discussed.

  18. Skin lesion image segmentation using Delaunay Triangulation for melanoma detection. (United States)

    Pennisi, Andrea; Bloisi, Domenico D; Nardi, Daniele; Giampetruzzi, Anna Rita; Mondino, Chiara; Facchiano, Antonio


    Developing automatic diagnostic tools for the early detection of skin cancer lesions in dermoscopic images can help to reduce melanoma-induced mortality. Image segmentation is a key step in the automated skin lesion diagnosis pipeline. In this paper, a fast and fully-automatic algorithm for skin lesion segmentation in dermoscopic images is presented. Delaunay Triangulation is used to extract a binary mask of the lesion region, without the need of any training stage. A quantitative experimental evaluation has been conducted on a publicly available database, by taking into account six well-known state-of-the-art segmentation methods for comparison. The results of the experimental analysis demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly accurate when dealing with benign lesions, while the segmentation accuracy significantly decreases when melanoma images are processed. This behavior led us to consider geometrical and color features extracted from the binary masks generated by our algorithm for classification, achieving promising results for melanoma detection.

  19. Development and resolution of radiographic lesions in canine heartworm disease. (United States)

    Rawlings, C A; Losonsky, J M; Lewis, R E; McCall, J W


    Thoracic radiography of 7 Beagles was performed before heartworm infection, during a 1-year heartworm infection, and for 1 year following appropriate treatment. Cardiac and vascular lesions on thoracic radiographs were compared with angiographic changes. Within 3 months of obstructed blood flow in the caudal lobar arteries, associated increased focal parenchymal densities were detected. These lesions were regarded as characteristic of heartworm disease. Although the most severe arteriographic changes were in the caudal lobar arteries, lobar arterial changes on a lateral view were best detected in the right cranial lobar artery. These arteries increased in size during infection and decreased in size after treatment. It was concluded that the dorsoventral view is best for evaluation of the caudal lobar arteries. The most marked parenchymal lesions were detected during the first 6 months following adulticide treatment. These lesions and the other radiographic alterations then decreased in severity. Persistence of the parenchymal lesions were related to persistence of heartworm infection.

  20. Simulation of Spread and Control of Lesions in Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, T R Krishna


    A simulation model for the spread and control of lesions in the brain is constructed using a planar network (graph) representation for the Central Nervous System (CNS). The model is inspired by the lesion structures observed in the case of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a chronic disease of the CNS. The initial lesion site is at the center of a unit square and spreads outwards based on the success rate in damaging edges (axons) of the network. The damaged edges send out alarm signals which, at appropriate intensity levels, generate programmed cell death. Depending on the extent and timing of the programmed cell death, the lesion may get controlled or aggravated akin to the control of wild fires by burning of peripheral vegetation. The parameter phase space of the model shows smooth transition from uncontrolled situation to controlled situation. The simulations show that the model is capable of generating a wide variety of lesion growth and arrest scenarios.

  1. Evaluation of the orofacial lesions in treated leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Pooja


    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is primarily a disease of developmental countries. About 4 million people have or are disabled by leprosy. Eighty-six percent of leprosy patients reside in Southeast Asia and Brazil. India accounts for up to 70% of total cases. Aim: To evaluate the incidence of orofacial lesions in treated leprosy patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty treated leprosy patients were examined clinically and the percentage of orofacial lesions were evaluated. Results: On evaluating the orofacial lesions, incidence of hypopigmentation on face and oral mucosa were highest (63% followed by depressed nasal bridge and fissured tongue (33%. The incidence of crenated tongue was seen to be the lowest (3.3%. Conclusion: Orofacial lesions in leprosy patients develop insidiously, generally are asymptomatic and are secondary to nasal changes. Oral lesions may contribute to the diagnosis of the disease and be attributed to involvement of Mycobacterium leprae.

  2. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions. (United States)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R


    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most recommended additional method available for daily clinical practice.

  3. SLAP lesions: Anatomy, clinical presentation, MR imaging diagnosis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Debra [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 W. Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States); MedRay Imaging and Fraser Health Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)], E-mail:; Mohana-Borges, Aurea; Borso, Maya; Chung, Christine B. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 W. Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States)


    ABSTRACT: Superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) tears are an abnormality of the superior labrum usually centered on the attachment of the long head of the biceps tendon. Tears are commonly caused by repetitive overhead motion or fall on an outstretched arm. SLAP lesions can lead to shoulder pain and instability. Clinical diagnosis is difficult thus imaging plays a key diagnostic role. The normal anatomic variability of the capsulolabral complex can make SLAP lesions a diagnostic challenge. Concurrent shoulder injuries are often present including rotator cuff tears, cystic changes or marrow edema in the humeral head, capsular laxity, Hill-Sachs or Bankart lesion. The relevant anatomy, capsulolabral anatomic variants, primary and secondary findings of SLAP tears including MR arthrography findings, types of SLAP lesions and a practical approach to labral lesions are reviewed.

  4. Bacterial biofilm in chronic lesions of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, H C; Bay, L; Nilsson, M


    BACKGROUND: Chronic non-healing or recurrent inflammatory lesions, reminiscent of infection but recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy generally characterize biofilm driven-diseases. Chronic lesions of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) exhibit several aspects, which are compatible with well-known biofilm...... Acid (PNA) - Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) in combination with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). In addition, corresponding histopathological analysis in hematoxylin and eosin slides were performed. RESULTS: Biofilms were seen in 67% of the samples of chronic lesions and in 75......% of the perilesional samples. The mean diameter of aggregates in lesional skin was significantly greater than in perilesional skin (p=0.01). Biofilms exceeding 50 μm in diameter were found in 42% of lesional samples and only in only 5% of the perilesional samples (p=0.009). The majority of the large biofilms...

  5. Clinical analysis of bone scanning in solitary lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A rational analysis procedure for solitary lesions on whole bone scan-ning was offered. This study was undertaken to analyze retrospectively solitary le-sions which obtained final diagnose through the following aspects: (1) diagnosis ofbone metastasis, (2) the incidence of bone metastasis in different tumor, (3) the mostpossible lesion sites indicating bone metastasis, (4) morphological analysis of solitarylesions. The results are: (1) The incidence of solitary lesions in 2465 cases on wholebone scanning is 15.3%. (2) The rate of bone metastasis is 24.8% in 282 patientswith primary malignancy. The rate of bone metastasis is 6.3% in 64 patients withoutprimary malignancy, and the total diagnostic rate of bone metastasis is 21.4% in 346patients. (3) In patients with primary malignancy, the incidence of bone metastasis ofsolitary lesions is as follows respectively: bronchi cancer 36.1%(22/61); breast cancer23.8%(20/84); prostate gland 17.2%(5/29); other urinary system cancer 22.2%(4/18):G.I. system cancer 16.9%(10/59); others 29.0%(9/31). There is no significant differ-ence in different cancer. (4) In patients without primary malignancy, 93.7%(60/64) ofsolitary lesions are benign. (5) From anatomical point of view, we found the diagnos-tic rate of bone metastasis is as follow: 30% in spine; 34.2% in pelvis; 36.4% in skull;10.8% in other bones. There are significant differences in four groups. It is concludedthat: (1) The diagnostic rate of bone metastasis in solitary lesions is 21.4%. (2) Themost possible solitary lesions indicating osseous tumor spread are at spine, pelvic andskull. (3) Special attention to "cold" and streak like lesions should be paid. (4) Aclinical analysis procedure for diagnosis of solitary lesions has been summarized outhere.``

  6. Effects of sirolimus-eluting stent on calcified coronary lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-jun; WU Yong-jian; YUAN Jin-qing; CHEN Jue; YOU Shi-jie; DAI Jun; XIA Ran; GAO Run-lin; XU Bo; YANG Yue-jin; CHEN Ji-lin; QIAO Shu-bing; MA Wei-hua; QIN Xue-wen; YAO Min; LIU Hai-bo


    Background Calcified coronary lesions carry the risk of suboptimal stent expansion, subsequently leading to restenosis. The effectiveness of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) for the treatment of calcified lesion has not been fully investigated. In the present study, therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of SES Implantation for the treatment of calcified coronary lesions.Mothods A total of 333 consecutive patients with 453 lesions were enrolled in this study. They were divided into two groups according to whether the lesion treated with SES was calcified or not; no calcification group (n=264) and calcification group (n=189). Lesions treated with SES were subjected to quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) immediately and 8 months following stenting.Results Baseline clinical, demographic or angiographic characteristics were well balanced in both groups. Angiographic follow-up at 8 months, the in-stent restenosis and in-segment restenosis rates were not significantly different between the two groups; in-stent restenosis: 3.8% vs 4.2%; P=0.081; in-segment restenosis: 8.7% vs 10.6%, P=0.503. The target lesion revascularization (TLR) was also not significantly different between the two groups; 4.9% vs 6.9%, P=0.378. In addition, the in-stent late loss was similar in both groups; (0.16±0.40) mm vs (0.17±0.33) mm, P>0.05. Meantime, overall thrombosis rates were also similar in both groups; 1.6% vs 1.6%, P>0.05.Conclusion Although calcified coronary lesion was hard to stent, successful percutaneous coronary intervention with SES stenting for calcified lesions was conferred by the similar favorable results that were seen when comparing non-calcified and calcified coronary lesions.

  7. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions (United States)



    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  8. Placental lesions and outcome in preterm born children : the relation between placental lesions, neonatal morbidity and neurological development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roescher, Annemiek


    The placenta is the link between the mother and her fetus during pregnancy and plays a crucial role in fetal growth and development. A less than optimal placental function as a result of placental lesions, may lead to maternal and or fetal problems. It is known that placental lesions are an importan

  9. Increased transepidermal water loss and decreased ceramide content in lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with atopic dermatitis. (United States)

    Shimada, Kenichiro; Yoon, Ji-Seon; Yoshihara, Toru; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Nishifuji, Koji


    This study evaluated changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and intercorneal lipid content in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). TEWL and skin hydration were measured in the inguinal skin of 10 dogs with AD and 30 normal dogs. TEWL was significantly higher in both lesional skin (94.3 +/- 38.8 g/m(2)/h) and non-lesional skin (28.8 +/- 9.5) of dogs with AD than healthy controls (12.3 +/- 2.3) (P skin of dogs with AD (15.8 +/- 7.0 AU) was significantly lower than that of controls (24.2 +/- 8.8) (P skin of dogs with AD and controls. To compare the lipid content between lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls, intercorneal lipids, extracted from the stratum corneum, were quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The relative amounts of ceramides in the lesional skin (24.4 +/- 5.6%) and non-lesional skin (25.6 +/- 3.8%) of dogs with AD were significantly lower than those in controls (31.4 +/- 6.9%) (P ceramides, but not those of cholesterols and FFA, in both lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD. These results strongly suggest that decreased ceramide content accelerates TEWL in dogs with AD, similar to the situation seen in the corresponding human disease.

  10. Colposcopy: Gynecological vision in viewing oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh Nayyar


    Full Text Available Context: The diagnosis of malignant and potentially malignant epithelial lesions of the oral mucosa cannot be based solely on clinical findings. The histologic evaluation of a representative biopsy specimen thus becomes necessary. The site for biopsy however is always a subjective choice that sometimes raises doubts about its representativeness. So far, no simple and reliable method is available for the selection of the most appropriate area for biopsy. Colposcopy is helpful in the selection of these sites of epithelial dysplasia depending upon the vascular patterns. Aims: This study was planned to assess the role of Colposcopic examination in the selection of biopsy site in patients with varying grades of oral epithelial dysplasia at various sites. Settings and Design: One hundred and eighty patients between the ages of 30 and 60 years clinically diagnosed with leukoplakia and carcinoma buccal mucosa were included in the study. Materials and Methods: For each of the subjects, a thorough clinical examination followed by Colposcopic assessment was carried out for the selection of biopsy site from the involved mucosa. The histopathological findings were then compared in the two cases and results analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Results: In our study, sensitivity and specificity for the selection of biopsy site by Colposcopic examination was found to be higher for leukoplakia than for carcinoma buccal mucosa. Conclusions: It was concluded that Colposcopic examination was found to be significant in the selection of biopsy site for leukoplakia while clinical criterion was found to be more appropriate for carcinoma buccal mucosa cases.

  11. Distribution and correlates of plantar hyperkeratotic lesions in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar hyperkeratotic lesions are common in older people and are associated with pain, mobility impairment and functional limitations. However, little has been documented in relation to the frequency or distribution of these lesions. The aim of this study was to document the occurrence of plantar hyperkeratotic lesions and the patterns in which they occur in a random sample of older people. Methods A medical history questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 301 people living independently in the community (117 men, 184 women aged between 70 and 95 years (mean 77.2, SD 4.9, who also underwent a clinical assessment of foot problems, including the documentation of plantar lesion locations, toe deformities and the presence and severity of hallux valgus. Results Of the 301 participants, 180 (60% had at least one plantar hyperkeratotic lesion. Those with plantar lesions were more likely to be female (χ2 = 18.75, p 2 = 6.15, p vs 36.3 ± 8.4°; t = 2.68, df = 286, p vs 4.8 ± 1.3 hours, t = -2.46, df = 299, p = 0.01. No associations were found between the presence of plantar lesions and body mass index, obesity, foot posture, dominant foot or forefoot pain. A total of 53 different lesions patterns were observed, with the most common lesion pattern being "roll-off" hyperkeratosis on the medial aspect of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ, accounting for 12% of all lesion patterns. "Roll-off" lesions under the 1st MPJ and interphalangeal joint were significantly associated with moderate to severe hallux valgus (p p Conclusion Plantar hyperkeratotic lesions affect 60% of older people and are associated with female gender, hallux valgus, toe deformity, increased ankle flexibility and time spent on feet, but are not associated with obesity, limb dominance, forefoot pain or foot posture. Although there are a wide range of lesion distribution patterns, most can be classified into medial, central or lateral groups. Further

  12. Does kainic acid induce partial brain lesion in an invertebrate model: sepia officinalis? Comparison with electrolytic lesion. (United States)

    Graindorge, Nicolas; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile


    The present study investigates the feasibility of excitotoxic lesions in the cuttlefish in the mapping of brain functions in Cephalopods. Adult animals were injected locally with a neurotoxin, kainic acid. The brain region receiving the neurotoxin was the vertical lobe, a key brain structure for learning and memory processes. Brain damage induced by these injections was evaluated using different histological stainings: hematoxilin-eosin, Fink-Heimer and DAPI. The results were compared with histological changes after electrolytic lesion of the vertical lobe. Neurodegeneration was revealed in and around the injection site: an intense area of proliferative cells, degenerating terminal axon ramifications and cell death. In comparison with electrolytic lesion, excitotoxic lesion displays important advantages, since fibres of passage are not destroyed by kainic acid injection, which induces only a restricted lesion and so is an appropriate method of investigating the role of the vertical lobe or other brain regions in a Cephalopod model, Sepia officinalis.

  13. Fistulizing Crohn's Disease Presenting After Surgery on a Perianal Lesion. (United States)

    Singer, Andrew A M; Gadepalli, Samir K; Eder, Sally J; Adler, Jeremy


    Perianal skin lesions, such as skin tags, can be an early presenting sign of Crohn's disease. Surgical intervention on these lesions may increase the risk of fistula development and lead to worse outcomes. This case series examined 8 patients who underwent surgical intervention on what appeared to be benign perianal skin lesions, only to reveal fistulas leading to the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. This patient population comprised 20% of all pediatric patients with Crohn's disease who had perianal fistula present at diagnosis. The initial type of perianal lesion varied from case to case and included skin tags, hemorrhoids, and perianal abscesses. All of the patients had other presenting features that, in retrospect, may have been attributed to Crohn's disease. None presented solely with a perianal lesion. Four patients had weight loss or growth failure. Most of the remainder had abnormal laboratory test results. These findings should raise the awareness of primary care providers that perianal lesions can be the first presenting sign of possible Crohn's disease in otherwise healthy appearing children. Such children should undergo a thorough evaluation for Crohn's disease before surgical intervention on perianal lesions because surgical procedures may be associated with worse outcomes.

  14. Nora's lesion, a distinct radiological entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondt, E.; Oudenhoven, L.; Khan, S.; Kroon, H.M.; Hogendoorn, P.C.; Nieborg, A.; Bloem, J.L.; Schepper, A. de [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Pathology, RC Leiden (Netherlands)


    To describe the radiological findings of ''Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation''(BPOP) - otherwise known as Nora's lesion, to describe the natural evolution of BPOP and to assess radiologically if BPOP is indeed part of a spectrum of reactive lesions including florid reactive periostitis and turret exostosis. Four experienced musculoskeletal radiologists studied plain radiographs and other imaging documents of histologically-proven Nora's lesions, looking for soft-tissue changes, periosteal reaction/calcification and calcified/ossified pseudotumours, and compared those findings with findings on pathology reviewed by a peer group of pathologists. Twenty-four Nora's lesions originating from a series of 200 consecutive, histologically-verified bone (pseudo)tumours of the hand, seen by the ''Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumours'' for review and second opinion. Nora's lesions have a recognised presentation on radiographs without specific MR characteristics. Natural evolution could be assessed retrospectively in four cases. Recurrent lesions were seen in seven cases and are difficult to differentiate from primary Lesions. (orig.)

  15. Degos-Like Lesions Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (United States)

    Jang, Min Soo; Park, Jong Bin; Yang, Myeong Hyeon; Jang, Ji Yun; Kim, Joon Hee; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Geun Tae; Hwangbo, Hyun


    Degos disease, also referred to as malignant atrophic papulosis, was first described in 1941 by Köhlmeier and was independently described by Degos in 1942. Degos disease is characterized by diffuse, papular skin eruptions with porcelain-white centers and slightly raised erythematous telangiectatic rims associated with bowel infarction. Although the etiology of Degos disease is unknown, autoimmune diseases, coagulation disorders, and vasculitis have all been considered as underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Approximately 15% of Degos disease have a benign course limited to the skin and no history of gastrointestinal or central nervous system (CNS) involvement. A 29-year-old female with history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presented with a 2-year history of asymptomatic lesions on the dorsum of all fingers and both knees. The patient had only skin lesions and no gastrointestinal or CNS vasculitis symptoms. Her skin lesions were umbilicated, atrophic porcelain-white lesions with a rim of erythema. On the basis of clinical, histologic, and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of Degos-like lesions associated with SLE was made. The patient had been treated for SLE for 7 years. Her treatment regimen was maintained over a 2 month follow-up period, and the skin lesions improved slightly with no development of new lesions. PMID:28392651

  16. Analysis on Pathogenesis of 50 Cases of Bladder Proliferative Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 蓝儒竹; 叶章群; 杨为民


    In order to study the pathogenesis, clinical and pathological characteristics of prolifera-tive lesions of the bladder, 50 cases of proliferative lesions of the bladder from 150 patients withcomplaints of frequency, urgency, hematuria and dysuria were subjected to cystoscopic biopsy ofthe suspicious foci in the bladder. In combination with the symptoms, urine routine and urodynam-ics, the relationship of proliferative lesions of the bladder to the inflammation and obstruction of thelower urinary tract was analyzed. Of the 50 cases of proliferative bladder lesions, 44 cases (88%)had lower urinary tract infection and 29 (58%) lower urinary tract obstruction. The patients withlower urinary tract obstruction were all complicated with infection. Three cases were associatedwith transitional cell carcinoma. Malignant cells were detected in 1 case by urinary cytologic exami-nation. Proliferative lesions of the bladder, especially those without other obvious mucosa changesunder cystoscopy, are common histological variants of urothelium in the patients with chronic in-flammation and obstruction of the lower urinary tract. Chronic inflammation and obstruction of thelower urinary tract might be the causes for proliferative lesions of the bladder. It is suggested thatdifferent treatments should be applied according to the scope and histological type of the prolifera-tive lesions.

  17. Differential points of mediastinal cystic lesion in chest computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Baek, Jang Mi; Song, Jang Hyeon; Seon, Hyun Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)


    To find differential diagnostic imaging findings of mediastinal cystic lesions in chest computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed imaging findings of 70 patients with histopathologically proven mediastinal cystic lesions. They were 33 male and 37 female patients. Among 70 cases, 49 cases were in the anterior mediastinum, 12 cases were in the middle mediastinum, and 9 cases were in the posterior mediastinum. 19 patients had symptoms. Chest discomfort was the most common symptom. When the cystic lesion was located in the anterior mediastinum, and unilocular, the possibility of thymic cyst was the most likely (p < 0.0027). When the cystic lesion was located in the anterior mediastinum and was multilocular with a relatively thick wall, the possibility of a mature cystic teratoma was the most likely (p < 0.001). When the lesion was a high attenuation cystic lesion located around the air-way, the possibility of a bronchogenic cyst was the most likely (p < 0.001). Chest CT gives information about the location, loculation, wall thickness and internal attenuation of mediastinal cystic lesions. And certain details seen on CT imaging can help with the correct diagnosis, especially in the cases of thymic cyst, mature cystic teratoma and bronchogenic cyst.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Olmedilla Zafra


    Full Text Available Desde hace algunos años, muchos estudios epidemiológicos indican la gran importancia y el constante aumento de la lesión en el fútbol intentando, algunos de ellos, determinar qué factores de riesgo son los más importantes y de qué manera operan en la incidencia de lesiones del futbolista. El objetivo del presente trabajo es, por un lado, describir las lesiones (tipo y gravedad sufridas por futbolistas jóvenes; y por otro, analizar las relaciones entre la categoría deportiva y el tipo de lesión, la gravedad de la lesión y el lugar de ocurrencia de la lesión. La muestra está formada por 72 futbolistas, de edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 24 años, con una media de 17,2 años (± 2,7. La información relativa a los datos deportivos y a las lesiones se recogió mediante un cuestionario de auto-informe. Los resultados muestran que las lesiones producidas durante los entrenamientos duplican a las producidas en partidos, y que las lesiones más frecuentes son de tipo muscular y de carácter leve o moderado. Además, en un primer análisis aparece que la categoría deportiva parece influir en las lesiones muy graves, en las lesiones en los partidos y en las lesiones en los entrenamientos, aunque sólo se encuentran diferencias significativas entre la categoría juvenil y la tercera división respecto a las lesiones producidas en los partidos.

  19. Role of dental restoration materials in oral mucosal lichenoid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Sharma


    Full Text Available Background: Dental restorative materials containing silver-mercury compounds have been known to induce oral lichenoid lesions. Objectives: To determine the frequency of contact allergy to dental restoration materials in patients with oral lichenoid lesions and to study the effect of removal of the materials on the lesions. Results: Forty-five patients were recruited in three groups of 15 each: Group A (lesions in close contact with dental materials, Group B (lesions extending 1 cm beyond the area of contact and Group C (no topographic relationship. Thirty controls were recruited in two groups of 15 individuals each: Group D (oral lichenoid lesions but no dental material and Group E (dental material but no oral lichenoid lesions. Patch tests were positive in 20 (44.5% patients. Mercury was the most common allergen to elicit a positive reaction in eight patients, followed by nickel (7, palladium (5, potassium dichromate (3, balsam of Peru, gold sodium thiosulphate 2 and tinuvin (2 and eugenol (1, cobalt chloride (1 and carvone (1. Seven patients elicited positive response to more than one allergen. In 13 of 20 patients who consented to removal of the dental material, complete healing was observed in 6 (30%, marked improvement in 7 (35% and no improvement in 7 (35% patients. Relief of symptoms was usually observed 3 months after removal. Limitations: Limited number of study subjects and short follow up after removal/replacement of dental restoration materials are the main limitations of this study. Conclusion: Contact allergy to amalgam is an important etiologic factor in oral lichenoid lesions and removal of restorative material should be offered to patients who have lesions in close proximity to the dental material.

  20. Assessment of spatial information for hyperspectral imaging of lesion (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling


    Multiple diseases such as breast tumor poses a great threat to women's health and life, while the traditional detection method is complex, costly and unsuitable for frequently self-examination, therefore, an inexpensive, convenient and efficient method for tumor self-inspection is needed urgently, and lesion localization is an important step. This paper proposes an self-examination method for positioning of a lesion. The method adopts transillumination to acquire the hyperspectral images and to assess the spatial information of lesion. Firstly, multi-wavelength sources are modulated with frequency division, which is advantageous to separate images of different wavelength, meanwhile, the source serves as fill light to each other to improve the sensitivity in the low-lightlevel imaging. Secondly, the signal-to-noise ratio of transmitted images after demodulation are improved by frame accumulation technology. Next, gray distributions of transmitted images are analyzed. The gray-level differences is constituted by the actual transmitted images and fitting transmitted images of tissue without lesion, which is to rule out individual differences. Due to scattering effect, there will be transition zones between tissue and lesion, and the zone changes with wavelength change, which will help to identify the structure details of lesion. Finally, image segmentation is adopted to extract the lesion and the transition zones, and the spatial features of lesion are confirmed according to the transition zones and the differences of transmitted light intensity distributions. Experiment using flat-shaped tissue as an example shows that the proposed method can extract the space information of lesion.

  1. Dermatology of the head and neck: skin cancer and benign skin lesions. (United States)

    Halem, Monica; Karimkhani, Chanté


    Skin lesions are extremely common, and early detection of dangerous lesions makes skin cancer one of the most highly curable malignancies. By simply becoming aware of common lesions and their phenotypic presentation, dental professionals are empowered to detect suspicious dermatologic lesions in unaware patients. This article serves as an introduction to skin cancer and benign skin lesions for dental professionals.

  2. A Contemporary Approach to Classify Ghost Cells Comprising Oral Lesions (United States)

    Yadav, Sumit Kumar; Narwal, Anjali; Devi, Anju


    Ghost cells are swollen eosinophilic epithelial cells that have lost their nuclei but retain the cellular and nuclear outline. Pathologic ghost cell formation could be the process of aberrant keratinization or the result of coagulative necrosis. Ghost cells have been described in several odontogenic lesions, which include calcifying epithelial odontogenic cysts or tumours like odontomas, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, and ameloblastomas. This article present a view on the formation of ghost cells with proposal/introduction of a classification for ghost cell lesions of the oral cavity in an attempt to organize these lesions for the better understanding and academic purpose. PMID:26501039

  3. Ring-Enhancing Lesions in the Brain: A Diagnostic Dilemma


    SHETTY, Guruprasada; Avabratha, Kadke Shreedhara; RAI, Boodyar Sanjeev


    How to Cite This Article: Shetty G, Avabratha K.S, Rai B.S. Ring-Enhancing Lesions in the Brain: A Diagnostic Dilemma. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3): 61-64.AbstractThe most common radiological abnormality seen in young Indian patients with epilepsy is single small enhancing (ring/disc) computed tomographic (CT) lesions. The two most common differential diagnosis of this lesion in clinical practice include neurocysticercosis (NCC) and tuberculomas. They have similar clinical and neuroi...

  4. Lesion size in relation to ablation site during radiofrequency ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, A;


    convective cooling by induction of a flow around the electrode tip increases lesion dimensions and power consumptions. Furthermore we conclude that for the given target temperature the power consumption is positively correlated with lesion volume (p ...This study was designed to investigate the effect of the convective cooling of the tip of the ablation electrode during temperature controlled radiofrequency ablation. In vivo two different application sites in the left ventricle of anaesthetised pigs were ablated and in vitro ablation...... larger for septal applications than apical applications (p convective cooling by induction of flow yielded larger lesion volume, depth and width (p

  5. Prevalence of dental resorptive lesions in Swedish cats. (United States)

    Pettersson, A; Mannerfelt, T


    Ninety-six, randomly selected Swedish cats were evaluated for the presence of dental resorptive lesions. All cats were examined while receiving general anesthesia. Diagnosis was based on oral examination and full-mouth, intraoral dental radiographs. Information concerning age, sex, vaccination status, eating habits, food type, environment (indoor or outdoor housing), oral, discomfort, dental care, and medical treatment was recorded. Hematologic samples included analysis for FeLV, FIV, and calcivirus. Of the cats examined in this study, 32% had gross or radiographic signs of dental resorptive lesions. There was a positive relationship between the occurrence of dental resorptive lesions and increasing age.

  6. Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis and Associated Disorders. (United States)

    Frederick, Meredith C; Cameron, Michelle H


    Tumefactive demyelinating lesions are rare consequences of central nervous system (CNS) idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Tumefactive demyelinating lesions pose a diagnostic challenge because they can mimic tumors and abscesses and because they can be caused by a heterogeneous range of disorders. This article reviews the recent literature on the clinical presentation; radiographic features; prognosis; and management of tumefactive demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and the rare variants of multiple sclerosis including Schilder's disease, Marburg acute multiple sclerosis, and Balo's concentric sclerosis.

  7. Noninvasive spectroscopic diagnosis of superficial ocular lesions and corneal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourant, J.R.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gritz, D.C.; Storey-Held, K. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology


    The potential of a rapid noninvasive diagnostic system to detect tissue abnormalities on the surface of the eye has been investigated. The optical scatter signal from lesions and normal areas on the conjunctival sclera of the human eye were measured in vivo. It is possible to distinguish nonpigmented pingueculas from other lesions. The ability of the system to detect malignancies could not be tested because none of the measured and biopsied lesions were malignant. Optical scatter and fluorescence spectra of bacterial and fungal suspensions, and corneal irritations were also collected. Both scattering and fluorescence show potential for diagnosing corneal infections.

  8. [Pulmonary lesion in electric injury: report of a case]. (United States)

    Goldenberg, D C; Bringel, R W; Fontana, C; Teixeira, T L; de Almeida, P C; de Faria, J C; Ferreira, M C


    Major electrical injuries constitute approximately 5% of all admissions to Burn Units. Visceral complications are associated with a high mortality rate. The most common visceral lesions associated to electric burns are cardiac lesions. Pulmonary compromise is rare, if compared to inhalation injuries in termical burns. Although, when the entry or exit ports are the toracic wall, pleural effusion, hemotorax and pneumonitis may occur. A rare case of high-voltage electrical injury with massive pulmonary lesion is presented, regarding to clinical course and roentgenographic patterns.

  9. Treatment options for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. (United States)

    Long, Stephanie; Leeman, Lawrence


    The introduction of testing for high-risk HPV types and P16 immunostaining of CIN2 histologic specimens allows for determination of the risk of progression versus regression for a woman with a particular cytologic or histologic specimen. Observation with serial cytological or colposcopic examinations is now appropriate for women with low-grade histologic lesions as well as pregnant and young women with certain high-grade histologic lesions. Current recommendations for management of high-grade lesions, the efficacy of treatment options (cryotherapy and LEEP), and the immediate (bleeding, infection) and longer term complications (cervical incompetence, preterm delivery) of cervical dysplasia treatment are presented.

  10. Rare case of dual lesion: nonossifying fibroma and osteochondroma. (United States)

    Grimshaw, Charles S; Zawin, Joan; Brink, David S; Greenberg, David D


    In this paper, we offer radiographic and pathologic evidence of a unique coexisting dual lesion. A 14-year-old boy presented for evaluation of a painful right knee after sustaining a twisting injury. The patient was found to have a torn anterior cruciate ligament, in addition to incidental finding of distal femoral dual lesion composed of tissue consistent with a nonossifying fibroma and an osteochondroma. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature of a dual lesion containing both an osteochondroma and nonossifying fibroma.

  11. Hyperechoic breast lesions: anatomopathological correlation and differential sonographic diagnosis* (United States)

    Medeiros, Marcelo Menezes; Graziano, Luciana; de Souza, Juliana Alves; Guatelli, Camila Souza; Poli, Miriam Rosalina B.; Yoshitake, Rafael


    Hyperechoic lesions are not a frequent finding at breasts ultrasonography, and most of times are associated with benign pathologies that do not require further evaluation. However, some neoplasms such as invasive breast carcinomas and metastases may present with hyperechogenicity. Thus, the knowledge about differential diagnoses and identification of signs of lesion aggressiveness are of great relevance to avoid unnecessary procedures or underdiagnosis, and to support the correct clinical/surgical approach. On the basis of such concepts, the present essay describes and illustrates the main features of hyperechoic lesions at breast ultrasonography in different cases, with anatomopathological correlation. PMID:26929460

  12. Lesion presenting with a “blue amber” pattern (United States)

    Pagliarello, Calogero; Peccerillo, Francesca; Zucchi, Alfredo; Tortorella, Rocco Giuseppe; Ricci, Roberto; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Feliciani, Claudio; Di Nuzzo, Sergio


    Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a spindle cell neoplasm with low metastatic potential but high tendency to recur after surgery. Because of the rarity of this lesion and its aspecific clinical features, AFX could be easily misdiagnosed and undertreated by many clinicians who encounter them. Dermoscopy represents a valuable tool for easily assessing skin lesions, even though histological examination is required for final diagnosis. We report a case of a cheek lesion with dermoscopic “blue amber pattern”, easily recognisable and not observed in others skin tumours, which could represent an additional feature useful in differentiating this tumour from other skin neoplasms. PMID:27803916

  13. Fibro-osseous lesions of jaws: Analysis of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgadevi Pancharethinam


    Full Text Available Fibro-osseous lesions (FOL represent a varied group of entities in which the normal bone is replaced by cellular fibrous tissue containing mineralized foci that may vary in amount and appearance.These group of lesions predominantly affects the jaws and craniofacial bones. According to Waldron 1993, FOL includes three major groups namely fibrous dysplasia, cemento-osseous dysplasia, and ossifying fibroma. FOL show considerable overlapping in the clinical, radiographic and histological features, and so a thorough knowledge of these lesions is mandatory for interpretation and appropriate diagnosis. This article documents the clinical, radiographic and histological features of three cases of FOL and discusses the considerations related to diagnosis.

  14. Imaging techniques in the study of lipomatous neck lesions; Tecnicas de imagen en el estudio de las lesiones lipomatosas cervicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, M. M.; Herrero, C.; Garcia, M. J.; Sanchez-Lafuente, J. [Complejo Hospitalario Carlos Haya. Malaga (Spain)


    Lipomas of the neck are uncommon lesions. Those situated in deep locations and diffuse lipomatosis of the neck can be clinically mis diagnosed. We reviewed the 20 lipomatous neck lesions treated in our hospital over a 15-year period (1985-1999). Computed tomography was diagnostic in nearly 100% of cases and, this, is the method of choice for the detection and characterization of lipomatous tumors. It also provides data that aid in planning the surgical approach and enables the follow-up of clinically stable lesions that do not require surgical treatment. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Gallium-67 uptake in cutaneous lesions of mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimi, L.; Chen, D.C.; Ansari, A.N.; Siegel, M.E.


    The literature on gallium imaging in mycosis fungoides is limited and conflicting. A case of mycosis fungoides with increased uptake of Ga-67 in clinically noninfected skin lesions is reported. The literature regarding mycosis fungoides and gallium imaging is reviewed.

  16. Endocarditis-associated Brain Lesions in Slaughter Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstrup, C.C.; Jensen, H.E.; Aalbæk, B.;


    Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs). The br......Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs......). The brains of 20 slaughter pigs with spontaneously arising LSVE and 11 controls were examined by sectioning half of a formalin-fixed brain into 4mm slices for histological examination. The aetiology of the endocarditis was determined by bacteriological and, in some cases, by fluorescence in...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available : Benign laryngeal lesions are commonly encountered causes of dysphonia and are often surgically correctable. A prospective study on 62 cases selected for videolaryngoscopic surgery was undertaken in a single unit in the department of ENT, Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. The male: female ratio was 1.8:1 and the most common affected age group was 35-45 yrs. The most common benign lesion was vocal polyp. Preoperative voice assessment and 70 degree endoscopy was done. Follow up visits were done at 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks and voice assessment and laryngoscopic appearances were noted. 98% reported excellent improvement of voice. The varieties of benign lesions which cause hoarseness are sources of concern and worry as it can affect the self esteem of a person. Thus videolaryngoscopic surgery (VLS coupled with voice therapy offers cost effective and safe management in benign laryngeal lesions

  18. Dental lesions in the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnelund, Karen B.; Jonsson, Lena M.; Kortegaard, Hanne Ellen;


    Dental ailments, mandibular swelling, and dentoalveolar abscesses are common in tapirs, but knowledge about prevalence or etiology of these lesions in the Tapiridae family in general, and in lowland tapirs ( Tapirus terrestris ) in particular, is scarce. A recent study identified resorptive lesions...... of unknown etiology as a common problem in the Malayan tapir ( Tapirus indicus ). In order to investigate the type and prevalence of dental lesions occurring in lowland tapirs, and to compare these with findings with the Malayan tapir, skulls and teeth from 46 deceased lowland tapirs were visually...... and radiographically examined. The specimens were divided into subpopulations according to age (juveniles, young adults, adults) and origin (free-range or captive). Dental lesions were identified in 24% (11/46) of the study population. The most common pathologic findings were complicated dental fractures...

  19. Cystic lesions of the pineal region - MRI and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, U. [Department of Neuropathology, Benjamin-Franklin-Klinikum, Faculty of Medicine, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Gottschalk, S.; Niehaus, L.; Lehmann, R. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Radiological Diagnosis, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); May, C.; Vogel, S. [Neurosurgical Clinic, St. Gertraud' s Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Jaenisch, W. [Department of Neuropathology, Landesklinik Brandenburg (Germany)


    Pineal lesions are rare. Tumours in this location comprise 0.4-1% of intracranial tumours. They grow mainly as solid-mass lesions, and cystic tumours are not common. On MRI, a cystic configuration is associated usually with non-neoplastic pineal lesions rather than with a tumour, but analysis does not allow cystic pineal tumours to be distinguished from glial cysts with certainty. We compared neuroradiological and pathological data from 13 cystic pineal lesions, analysing preoperative MRI. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens were stained routinely and immunocytochemically, using the streptavidin-biotin-complex method. Histology revealed six pineocytomas, four glial cysts, an arachnoid cyst, a low-grade astrocytoma and a teratoma. Signal characteristics of pineocytomas were similar in many respects to those of glial pineal cysts. Histomorphological analysis allowed unambiguous discrimination between pineocytomas and glial pineal cysts. (orig.)

  20. Collagenous spherulosis: An interesting cytological finding in breast lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Puri


    Full Text Available Collagenous spherulosis (CS is a rare and interesting entity associated with benign breast lesions. CS is an incidental finding picked up only on 0.2% of cytology specimen. Typically cytologically of CS of breast consists of central spherical hyaline spherule surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The central hyaline spherule has been found to be basement membrane material histochemically and immunohistochemically. The importance of recognizing CS of breast lies in the fact that similar hyaline globules can occur in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast (ACCB. The two lesions need to be differentiated on cytology failing which inappropriate treatment can be given for either of the two lesions. We present here a case of CS associated with benign breast lesion and a case of ACCB to describe their cytological features and key points to differentiate them cytologically.

  1. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female (United States)

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S.; Lodish, Maya B.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Quezado, Martha M.


    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI. PMID:24129100

  2. Painful Lytic Lesions of the Foot : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vaishya


    Full Text Available The presence of lytic lesions in the bones of foot raises a number of diagnostic possibilities ranging from infection, inflammatory pathology to neoplastic conditions. Although the radiological picture is not pathognomonic of any pathology, clinical history and histopathological examination can help to clinch the diagnosis. We present a case of multiple lytic lesions of the foot and discuss possible differential diagnoses. The patient was diagnosed as a case of madura foot and the lesions responded to surgical debridement and anti-fungal treatment with a good functional outcome. Madura foot is an uncommon, chronic granulomatous fungal or bacterial infection with a predilection in people who walk barefoot. Although known for a specific geographical distribution, madura foot should be kept as a possible diagnosis in patients presenting with lytic lesions of the foot due to population emigration across the world.

  3. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female. (United States)

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S; Lodish, Maya B; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J; Quezado, Martha M; Stratakis, Constantine A


    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI.

  4. [Appendicular ureteroplasty to repair a ureteric lesion during disk surgery]. (United States)

    Joual, Abdenbi; Taha, Abdellatif; Querfani, Badereddine; Sahnoun, Abderrazak; Hamid, Fekak; El Mrini, Mohamed


    Extensive ureteric lesions raise difficult problems of surgical repair. This is also the case for upper ureteric lesions that often require replacement of the damaged segment or even autologous transplantation. The authors report a case of iatrogenic ureteric lesion resulting in a large defect in a patient operated 6 months previously for an L4-L5 disk hernia, which was treated successfully by interposition of an appendicular graft between the two ureteric stumps. In the light of this case, the authors discuss the various appearances of iatrogenic ureteric lesions with particular emphasis on the value of appendicular ureteroplasty due to its simplicity and low morbidity, while waiting for progress in the field of biocompatible substitutes.

  5. Anterior superior instability with rotator cuff tearing: SLAC lesion. (United States)

    Savoie, F H; Field, L D; Atchinson, S


    Anterosuperior instability of the shoulder may occur from a variety of pathologic lesions. We describe a specific entity, the SLAC (superior labrum, anterior cuff) lesion that involves an association of anterior-superior labral tear with a partial supraspinatus tear. We retrospectively isolated a group of 40 patients with this lesion. The presenting complaints, physical examination findings, surgical findings, and results were isolated. Overhead activities were the most common etiology; load and shift instability testing and whipple rotator cuff testing were the most common physical examination findings. Surgical repair was successful in 37 of the 40 patients. The SLAC lesion is a definable clinical entity with predictable history, examination, surgical pathology, and satisfactory results from surgery.

  6. The continuum of spreading depolarizations in acute cortical lesion development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Shuttleworth, C William; Kirov, Sergei A;


    A modern understanding of how cerebral cortical lesions develop after acute brain injury is based on Aristides Leão's historic discoveries of spreading depression and asphyxial/anoxic depolarization. Treated as separate entities for decades, we now appreciate that these events define a continuum...... of spreading mass depolarizations, a concept that is central to understanding their pathologic effects. Within minutes of acute severe ischemia, the onset of persistent depolarization triggers the breakdown of ion homeostasis and development of cytotoxic edema. These persistent changes are diagnosed....... The causal role of these waves in lesion development has been proven by real-time monitoring of electrophysiology, blood flow, and cytotoxic edema. The spreading depolarization continuum further applies to other models of acute cortical lesions, suggesting that it is a universal principle of cortical lesion...

  7. Isolated paroxysmal dysarthria caused by a single demyelinating midbrain lesion. (United States)

    Codeluppi, Luca; Bigliardi, Guido; Chiari, Annalisa; Meletti, Stefano


    Paroxysmal dysarthria is an unusual condition characterised by brief episodes of dysarthria with the sudden onset and frequent recurrence. It has been mainly reported in multiple sclerosis and an association with midbrain lesions has been claimed; however, most of the reported patients had multiple brain alterations so it was difficult to associate this symptom with a specific lesion site. We illustrate the cases of two patients with an isolated demyelinating midbrain lesion presenting paroxysmal dysarthria as the only symptom; both participants had oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid and an unremarkable follow-up. Both patients had benefit from carbamazepine treatment, similarly to previously reported cases. Our report confirms that a demyelinating midbrain lesion is sufficient to provoke paroxysmal dysarthria. It is noteworthy that an erroneous diagnosis of psychogenic disorders was initially made in both cases, highlighting the importance not to underestimate isolated paroxysmal symptoms in clinical practice.

  8. Multiple Metastasis-Like Bone Lesions in Scintigraphic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang


    Full Text Available Multiple benign osteolytic lesions are very hard to differentiate from disseminated bone metastasis. Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP demonstrates multiple lesions with increased uptake in any bone involved. Even combined with medical history and multiple imaging results, such as MRI and CT, the clinical diagnosis of metastasis lesion remains as a challenge. These clinical characteristics are similar to multiple malignant bone metastases and therefore affect the following treatment procedures. In this paper, we analyzed multiple benign osteolytic lesions, like eosinophilic granuloma (EG, multiple myeloma (MM, disseminated tuberculosis, fibrous dysplasia, or enchondroma, occurring in our daily clinical work and concluded that additional attention should be paid before giving the diagnosis of multiple bone metastases.

  9. Condylomatous genital lesions in cynomolgus macaques from Mauritius. (United States)

    Harari, Ariana; Wood, Charles E; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Chen, Zigui; Domaingue, Marie Claire; Elmore, David; Koenig, Patricia; Wagner, Janice D; Jennings, Ryan N; Burk, Robert D


    Genital condyloma-like lesions were observed on male and female cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating from the island of Mauritius. Cytobrush and/or biopsy samples were obtained from lesions of 57 affected macaques. Primary histologic features included eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic penile and vulvar inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia with acanthosis, and increased collagenous stroma. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays to amplify viral DNA revealed the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) DNA but not papillomavirus or poxvirus DNA. Subsequent DNA analyses of 3 genomic regions of LCV identified isolates associated with lesions in 19/25 (76%) biopsies and 19/57 (33%) cytology samples. Variable immunolabeling for proteins related to the human LCV Epstein Barr Virus was observed within intralesional plasma cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells. Further work is needed to characterize the epidemiologic features of these lesions and their association with LCV infection in Mauritian-origin macaques.

  10. Grading of liver lesions caused by Echinococcus granulosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozanes, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Acunas, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Celik, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Haydarpasa Numune Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Acarli, K. [Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit, Dept. of General Surgery, Istanbul Medical Faculty (Turkey); Sayi, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Minareci, Oe. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Alper, A. [Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit, Dept. of General Surgery, Istanbul Medical Faculty (Turkey); Emre, A. [Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit, Dept. of General Surgery, Istanbul Medical Faculty (Turkey); Ariogul, O. [Hepatobiliary Surgery Unit, Dept. of General Surgery, Istanbul Medical Faculty (Turkey); Goekmen, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)


    We have proposed a new scheme in which lesions are graded 1-5 according to the morphology of the cyst and the presence of findings in favour of cyst rupture. Ultrasound (US), CT and cholangiographic findings in 214 hydatid liver lesions in 152 patients who underwent surgery within 15 days of their radiological examinations were evaluated retrospectively. Results of the radiological classification were correlated with surgical data. We found that purely cystic unilocular lesions never ruptured, that dilatation of biliary canaliculi around a lesion with a complex morphological appearance is a non-specific finding and that there was no reliable radiological sign for a simple biliary communication. US, CT and cholangiography were reliable in diagnosing intra-biliary and direct ruptures. (orig.)

  11. Lesion detection and quantitation of positron emission mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.


    A Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) scanner dedicated to breast imaging is being developed at our laboratory. We have developed a list mode likelihood reconstruction algorithm for this scanner. Here we theoretically study the lesion detection and quantitation. The lesion detectability is studied theoretically using computer observers. We found that for the zero-order quadratic prior, the region of interest observer can achieve the performance of the prewhitening observer with a properly selected smoothing parameter. We also study the lesion quantitation using the test statistic of the region of interest observer. The theoretical expressions for the bias, variance, and ensemble mean squared error of the quantitation are derived. Computer simulations show that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo results for both lesion detection and quantitation.

  12. [White spot lesions and orthodontic treatment. Prevention and treatment]. (United States)

    Morrier, Jean-Jacques


    Decalcification of the enamel surface adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances, in the form of white spot lesions, is a common and frequent well-known side-effect of orthodontic treatment. Fixed appliances and the bonding materials increase the retention of biofilm and encourage the formation of white spot lesions. Management of these lesions begins with a good oral hygiene regime and needs to be associated with use of fluoride agents (fluoridated toothpaste, fluoride containing mouth rinse, gel, varnish, bonding materials, elastic ligature), CPP-ACP, antiseptics, LASER, tooth whitening, resin infiltration, micro-abrasion. The purpose of this review is to access the direct evidence regarding the prevention and management of white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment.

  13. Autoimmune control of lesion growth in CNS with minimal damage (United States)

    Mathankumar, R.; Mohan, T. R. Krishna


    Lesions in central nervous system (CNS) and their growth leads to debilitating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's etc. We developed a model earlier [1, 2] which shows how the lesion growth can be arrested through a beneficial auto-immune mechanism. We compared some of the dynamical patterns in the model with different facets of MS. The success of the approach depends on a set of control parameters and their phase space was shown to have a smooth manifold separating the uncontrolled lesion growth region from the controlled. Here we show that an optimal set of parameter values exist in the model which minimizes system damage while, at once, achieving control of lesion growth.

  14. Adaptive lesion formation using dual mode ultrasound array system (United States)

    Liu, Dalong; Casper, Andrew; Haritonova, Alyona; Ebbini, Emad S.


    We present the results from an ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound platform designed to perform real-time monitoring and control of lesion formation. Real-time signal processing of echogenicity changes during lesion formation allows for identification of signature events indicative of tissue damage. The detection of these events triggers the cessation or the reduction of the exposure (intensity and/or time) to prevent overexposure. A dual mode ultrasound array (DMUA) is used for forming single- and multiple-focus patterns in a variety of tissues. The DMUA approach allows for inherent registration between the therapeutic and imaging coordinate systems providing instantaneous, spatially-accurate feedback on lesion formation dynamics. The beamformed RF data has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity to tissue changes during lesion formation, including in vivo. In particular, the beamformed echo data from the DMUA is very sensitive to cavitation activity in response to HIFU in a variety of modes, e.g. boiling cavitation. This form of feedback is characterized by sudden increase in echogenicity that could occur within milliseconds of the application of HIFU (see for an example). The real-time beamforming and signal processing allowing the adaptive control of lesion formation is enabled by a high performance GPU platform (response time within 10 msec). We present results from a series of experiments in bovine cardiac tissue demonstrating the robustness and increased speed of volumetric lesion formation for a range of clinically-relevant exposures. Gross histology demonstrate clearly that adaptive lesion formation results in tissue damage consistent with the size of the focal spot and the raster scan in 3 dimensions. In contrast, uncontrolled volumetric lesions exhibit significant pre-focal buildup due to excessive exposure from multiple full-exposure HIFU shots. Stopping or reducing the HIFU exposure upon the detection of such an


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer of breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. In the present era, late marriage, late child birth, shorter period of breast feeding and nulliparity or low parity have contributed to increase in the number of cases. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is a useful method for initial evaluation and diagnosis of breast cancers and it has the ability of providing necessary prognostic predictive information. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to evaluate t he accuracy of FNAC of breast lesions with histopathological correlation. To study the cytomorphological features of palpable breast lumps. To study the various cytological patterns in aspirates from breast lesions and to classify them into non - neoplastic, benign and malignant lesions. To correlate the cytology findings with subsequent histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. To establish accuracy and efficacy of aspiration cytology as an early and preoperative diagnostic aid. To compare the statistic al analysis of present study with other contemporary studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study includes the study of aspiration smears of all cases referred to the Department of Pathology, Andhra medical college, Visakhapatnam from various outpatient departments from King George Hospital, with a palpable breast lesion. True cut Biopsy and Mastectomy specimens for Histopathological correlation RESULTS: Out of 952 analyzed cases benign lesions were 691 (72.58%, malignant lesions were 146 (15. 33%,non - neoplastic lesions were common in the age group of 21 - 30 years, benign lesions in 21 - 30 years, and malignant lesions were common in the age group of 41 - 50 years. Majority of the patients were female with 913 (95.90% and male patents are 39 (4 .09%.The results of sensitivity (97.18%, specificity (98.74%, positive predictive value (97.18% and negative predictive value (98.74% with diagnostic accuracy of 98.26%. CONCLUSION: FNAC

  16. Change detection in registered psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    The M.A.D. Transform is applied to pairs of registered psoriasis lesion patterns within and between weekly sessions. Color band contribution to the first M.A.D. component is analyzed.......The M.A.D. Transform is applied to pairs of registered psoriasis lesion patterns within and between weekly sessions. Color band contribution to the first M.A.D. component is analyzed....

  17. Strain Assessment in Surgically Resected Inflammatory and Neoplastic Bowel Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havre, R F; Leh, S; Gilja, O H;


    or stenotic lesions from Crohn's disease were prospectively examined with ultrasonography using a Hitachi HV 900 US scanner with real-time elastography (RTE). Three different methods were applied to assess tissue strain: A four-level categorical visual classification, a continuous visual analog scale (VAS, 0...... methods. All adenocarcinomas had significantly higher strain ratios than adenomas. The categorical classification differentiated poorly between Crohn's lesions, adenocarcinomas and adenomas. Categorical evaluation and VAS score showed fair interobserver agreement. SR measurements provided semi...

  18. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly


    Beatriz García Alpizar; Mikhail Benet Rodíguez; Eduardo Enrique Castillo Betancourt


    Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship...

  19. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L{sub 0}) is 0.940 {+-} 0.361 and that of normal area (N{sub 0}) is 1.186 {+-} 0.727 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 6 months after endodontic treatment (L{sub 1}) is 1.076 {+-} 0.069 and that of normal area (N{sub 1}) is 1.192 {+-} 0.055 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 1 year after endodontic treatment (L{sub 2}) is 1.163 {+-} 0.074 and that of normal area (N{sub 2}) is 1.225 {+-} 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  20. Cerebral multicystic lesions in a child with neurofibromatosis


    İsikay, Sedat; Yilmaz, Kutluhan


    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome, with frequent involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). As well as abnormal cellular differentiation, disordered cell migration during development is the most common cause of the various brain lesions. Cystic lesions are rarely observed in neurocutaneous diseases, and the origin of the cysts is not known. This paper presents a rare case, a child at the age of 3, who was diagnosed as NF-1 and was observed ...

  1. A combined alignment and registration scheme of psoriasis lesion |images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    A two-stage registration scheme of psoriasis lesion patterns is proposed. In the first stage, global rotation and translation effects of assumed equally scaled psoriasis lesion patterns are removed. In the second stage, only local translation effects are removed. In both stages a novel algorithm ...... for extreme value detection is applied. The output of each stage is evaluated with the M.A.D. transform and the correlation coefficient. Results are shown for real examples...

  2. An Endocrine Jaw Lesion: Dentist Perspective in Diagnosis (United States)

    Kalapala, Lavanya; Babburi, Suresh; Venigalla, Aparna; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Ganipineni, Kiranmai


    Brown tumor is a rare nonneoplastic focal giant cell lesion that occurs in hyperparathyroidism patients with a prevalence rate of 0.1% in jaws. We report an extremely rare case of brown tumor in mandible of a 40-year-old female patient that presented as the first clinical manifestation of hyperparathyroidism. Dentist played a pivotal role in the present case by the early diagnosis of lesion and its intervention. PMID:27974979

  3. Dysplastic lesions of the cervix evolution after conservative excision


    G. Costăchescu; Alina Melinte-Popescu


    This study analyzes the evolution of dysplastic lesions after conservative excision treatment (Large Loop Excision Transformation Zone – LLETZ and conization). METHODS: We performed an observational study on a group of 332 patients, diagnosed and treated for cervical dysplasia at „Cuza Vodă” Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic Hospital Suceava between 2006 and 2011. RESULTS: High grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) accounted for 88 patients (26.5%), low grade cervical squamous ...

  4. Getting to the heel of the problem: plantar fascia lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeswani, T. [Department of Radiology, Worthing and Southlands Hospitals, West Sussex (United Kingdom); Morlese, J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Free Hospital, Pond street, London, NW3 2QG (United Kingdom); McNally, E.G. [Department of Radiology, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    Heel pain is a frequent disabling symptom. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult with a large range of possible diagnoses. Lesions of the plantar fascia form an important group. We present a review describing the common lesions of the plantar fascia, including plantar fasciitis, plantar fascia rupture, plantar fibromatosis, and plantar xanthoma, and illustrate them with appropriate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound imaging. We also address foreign-body reactions, enthesopathy, and diabetic fascial disease.

  5. Getting to the heel of the problem: plantar fascia lesions. (United States)

    Jeswani, T; Morlese, J; McNally, E G


    Heel pain is a frequent disabling symptom. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult with a large range of possible diagnoses. Lesions of the plantar fascia form an important group. We present a review describing the common lesions of the plantar fascia, including plantar fasciitis, plantar fascia rupture, plantar fibromatosis, and plantar xanthoma, and illustrate them with appropriate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound imaging. We also address foreign-body reactions, enthesopathy, and diabetic fascial disease.

  6. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las lesiones viales

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Este podcast, que forma parte de la iniciativa Proteja a sus seres queridos, aborda las medidas que pueden tomar los padres de familia para ayudar a proteger a sus niños de las lesiones viales, una de las principales causas de lesiones infantiles.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/1/2009.

  7. Brainstem cysticercose simulating cystic tumor lesion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter O. Arruda


    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a 37 year-old man with a solitary cysticercus cyst in the brainstem (pons successfully removed through a suboccipital craniectomy. Surgery in neurocysticercosis has been indicated in patients with hydrocephalus and/or large cystic lesions. Cystic lesions in the brainstem and spinal cord may have indication for surgery for two reasons: (1 diagnosis; and (2 treatment. Aspects related to differential diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives are discussed.

  8. Classic metaphyseal lesion following external cephalic version and cesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysack, John T.; Soboleski, Don [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Queen' s University, Kingston General Hospital, 76 Stuart Street, K7L 2V7, Kingston, Ont. (Canada)


    We report a case of an otherwise healthy neonate diagnosed at birth with a classic metaphyseal lesion of the proximal tibia following external cephalic version for frank breech presentation and a subsequent urgent cesarean section. Although the classic metaphyseal lesion is considered highly specific for infant abuse, this case demonstrates the importance of obtaining a history of obstetric trauma for neonates presenting to the imaging department for suspected non-accidental injury. (orig.)

  9. Unusual lesions that distend the knee joint: pictorial essay* (United States)

    de Lima, Luana T. Barros; de Albuquerque Filho, Eolo Santana; Batista, Laecio Leitão; de Moraes, Talita Peixoto; Pereira, Bruno Perez Guedes


    The high number of knee imaging exams at radiology clinics, together with the wide variety of knee disorders, calls for expanding the knowledge about the less common lesions seen in routine diagnostic practice. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to illustrate unusual lesions that distend the knee joint, selected by relevance and evaluated with multiple imaging modalities, including X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature. PMID:27818547

  10. Optimal therapy for adults with Langerhans cell histiocytosis bone lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Cantu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is little data on treatment of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH in adults. Available data is on small numbers of patients with short follow-up times and no comparison of results from different treatment regimens. We analyzed the responses of adult LCH patients with bone lesions to three primary chemotherapy treatments to define the optimal one. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifty-eight adult patients with bone lesions, either as a solitary site or as a component of multisystem disease, were analyzed for disease location and response to surgery, curettage, steroids, radiation, vinblastine/prednisone, 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA, or cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C. The mean age of patients was 32 years, with equal gender distribution. Twenty-nine patients had 1 lesion; 16, 2 lesions; 5, 3 lesions; and 8 had 4 or more. Most bone lesions were in the skull, spine, or jaw. Chemotherapy, surgery, curettage, or radiation, but not steroids alone, achieved improvement or resolution of lesions in a majority of patients. Comparison of the three chemotherapy regimens revealed 84% of patients treated with vinblastine/prednisone either did not respond or relapsed within a year, whereas 59% of patients treated with 2-CdA and 21% treated with ARA-C failed. Toxicity was worse with the vinblastine/prednisone group as 75% had grade 3-4 neuropathy. Grade 3-4 cytopenias occurred in 37% of the 2-CdA -treated patients and 20% of the ARA-C-treated patients. The major limitation of this study is it is retrospective and not a clinical trial. CONCLUSIONS: ARA-C is an effective and minimally toxic treatment for LCH bone lesions in adults. In contrast, vinblastine/prednisone results in poor overall responses and excessive toxicity.

  11. Useful MRI findings for differential diagnosis of sublingual mass lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, Mizue; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Yoshino, Norio; Tetumura, Akemi; Honda, Eiichi; Ohbayashi, Naoto; Sasaki, Takehito; Enomoto, Shoji; Amagasa, Teruo [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Graduate School


    The purpose of this study is to identify useful MRI findings for differentiating sublingual mass lesions. MR images of 29 patients with sublingual swelling were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to their final diagnoses: cysts, benign tumors, inflammation and malignant tumors. Clinical symptoms and MRI findings of the patients in each diagnostic category were investigated. Of 29 patients, 6 had benign tumors, 6 had ranula, 6 had inflammation, 11 had malignant tumors. Eighteen patients (62%) were correctly diagnosed as one of 4 disease categories by clinical findings alone. Signal intensity of lesions compared to the muscle and the normal sublingual space (SLS) was not characteristic for any of the diagnostic categories. Only ranulas showed homogenous signal intensity within the lesion on T2 images. Hemangiomas were easily diagnosed by the characteristic contour and architecture including flow void. All lesions with ragged boundaries were either inflammatory or malignant masses. The lesions with ragged boundaries accompanied by expansion of the SLS were inflammatory masses. The lesions with smooth boundaries and a capsule-like rim were either cysts or benign tumors. Utilizing these MRI findings, 25 of 29 patients (86%) were correctly categorized into one of 4 diagnostic categories. Four lesions without a capsule-like rim confined within SLS could not be correctly categorized. These were 2 cases of inflammatory mass and 2 cases of malignant salivary gland tumor. MRI findings were efficient for differentiation of sublingual mass lesions. However, some cases of malignant salivary gland tumor originating from the sublingual gland could not be differentiated on MRI findings from cases of chronic inflammation. (author)

  12. A Retrospective Analysis on the Proper Size of Tissue Expanders to Treat Scalp Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Aya, MD


    Conclusions: Expanders that generate functional skin at least more than 2.5 times the width of the lesion and have a volume more than 7 ml/cm2 lesion are necessary to cover scalp lesions without complications.

  13. Optical coherence tomography accurately identifies patients with penile (pre malignant lesions: A single center prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronni Wessels


    Conclusion: In this preliminary study, qualitative and quantitative analysis of OCT-images of suspicious penile lesions shows differences between benign lesions and (pre malignant lesions. These results encourage further research in a larger study population.

  14. Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Lesions of the Central Nervous System (United States)

    ... Malformations and Other Vascular Lesions of the Central Nervous System Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump ... other types of vascular lesions affect the central nervous system? What causes vascular lesions? How are AVMs and ...

  15. Measuring border irregularities of skin lesions using fractal dimensions (United States)

    Ng, Vincent T. Y.; Lee, Tim K.


    Malignant melanoma is the most common cancer in people less than 35 years of age and incident rates are increasing by approximately 5 percent per annum in many white populations, including British Columbia, Canada. In 1994, a clinical study has been established to digitize melanocytic lesions under a controlled environment. Lesions are digitized from patients who are referred to the Colored Pigment Lesion Clinic in the University of British Columbia. In this paper, we investigate how to use fractal dimensions (FDs) in measuring the irregularity of a skin lesion. In a previous project, we have experimented with 6 different methods to calculate fractal dimensions on a small number of images of skin lesions, and the simple box-counting method performed the best. However, the method did not exploit the intensity information of the images. With the new set of images which are digitized under the controlled environment, we utilize the differential box counting method to exploit such information. Four FD measures, including the direct FD, the horizontal and the vertical smoothing FDs, and the multi- fractal dimension of order two, are calculated based on the original color images. In addition, these 4 FD features are repeatedly calculate for the blue band of the images. This paper reports the different features through the calculations of the fractal dimensions and compares their differentiation power in the use of diagnosis of images of skin lesions.

  16. Evaluation of the various hepatic lesions with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chul Ju


    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 27 patients with focal liver lesions (6 patients with HCC, 5 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 9 patients with liver metastasis, 2 patients with hemangioma, 3 patients with liver abscess, and 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. The concordance rates between CT and PET images were 57 % (4/7) for HCC, 83 % (5/6) for CC, 89% (8/9) for metastatic liver cancer, 100 % (6/6) for benign liver lesions. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC of liver metastasis. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these disease.

  17. HSF2 expression in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Rong Zeng; Peng-Fei Chen; Wen-Bin Wei


    Objective:To study the expression of HSF2 in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue and its value for diagnosis and assessment of the disease.Methods:A total of 40 cases with ulcerative colitis were included for study and divided into remission stage, mild activity stage, moderate activity stage and severe activity stage by Sutherland disease activity index. Lesion tissue and normal tissue were collected to detect HSFs, NOX1, ROS, COX2, PGE2, IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, TLRs and SOCSs contents.Results: HSF2 contents in lesion tissue were higher than those in normal tissue, and HSF1, HSF3 and HSF4 contents were not different from those of normal tissue; TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, MyD88, NF-kB, NOX1, ROS, COX2, PGE2, IL-6, JAK2 and STAT3 contents in lesion tissue were higher than those in normal tissue and positively correlated with HSF2 content; SOCS2 and SOCS3 contents in lesion tissue were lower than those in normal tissue and negatively correlated with HSF2 content, and SOCS1, SOCS4, SOCS5, SOCS6 and SOCS7 contents were not different from those of normal tissue.Conclusions:HSF2 expression abnormally increases in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue and is closely related to the activity of the disease, and HSF2 can regulate the expression of inflammatory signal molecules, TLRs and SOCSs to enhance inflammatory response.

  18. Inflammatory features of melasma lesions in Asian skin. (United States)

    Noh, Tai Kyung; Choi, Seok Joo; Chung, Bo Young; Kang, Jin Soo; Lee, Jong Hee; Lee, Mi Woo; Chang, Sung Eun


    Melasma is triggered by various factors including ultraviolet radiation and estrogen; however, its pathogenesis is unclear. To investigate the inflammatory features of melasma lesions as triggers for this disorder, 197 women with melasma who attended Asan Medical Center and Kangskin Clinic, Seoul, from June 2011 to October 2011 completed a questionnaire concerning triggering or aggravating factors. These cases were divided into "non-inflammatory" and "inflammatory" groups. Skin biopsies and immunostaining for CD68, CD117, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA) were performed in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of ten cases in the non-inflammatory group and nine cases in the inflammatory group. Among the 197 subjects (mean age, 41.5 years; mean age of melasma onset, 33.8 years), 50 patients (25.4%) were categorized into the inflammatory group. This group comprised cases that had inflammatory symptoms and events that triggered the melasma lesions. The lesional dermis contained more CD68(+) melanophages, CD117(+) mast cells, and LCA(+) leukocytes in the inflammatory group than in the non-inflammatory group. Inflammatory clinical features and an increased number of inflammatory cells in the lesion may be involved in the development of melasma in Asian skin.

  19. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))


    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  20. Automated delineation of stroke lesions using brain CT images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline R. Gillebert


    Full Text Available Computed tomographic (CT images are widely used for the identification of abnormal brain tissue following infarct and hemorrhage in stroke. Manual lesion delineation is currently the standard approach, but is both time-consuming and operator-dependent. To address these issues, we present a method that can automatically delineate infarct and hemorrhage in stroke CT images. The key elements of this method are the accurate normalization of CT images from stroke patients into template space and the subsequent voxelwise comparison with a group of control CT images for defining areas with hypo- or hyper-intense signals. Our validation, using simulated and actual lesions, shows that our approach is effective in reconstructing lesions resulting from both infarct and hemorrhage and yields lesion maps spatially consistent with those produced manually by expert operators. A limitation is that, relative to manual delineation, there is reduced sensitivity of the automated method in regions close to the ventricles and the brain contours. However, the automated method presents a number of benefits in terms of offering significant time savings and the elimination of the inter-operator differences inherent to manual tracing approaches. These factors are relevant for the creation of large-scale lesion databases for neuropsychological research. The automated delineation of stroke lesions from CT scans may also enable longitudinal studies to quantify changes in damaged tissue in an objective and reproducible manner.

  1. The local immune response in ulcerative lesions of Buruli disease (United States)

    Kiszewski, A E; Becerril, E; Aguilar, L D; Kader, I T A; Myers, W; Portaels, F; Hernàndez Pando, R


    Buruli disease (BU) is a progressive necrotic and ulcerative disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU is considered the third most common mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. Three clinical stages of the cutaneous lesions have been described in BU: pre-ulcerative, ulcerative and healed lesions. In this study we used immunohistochemistry and automated morphometry to determine the percentage of macrophages and of CD4/CD8 lymphocytes and their expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Expression of these cytokines was correlated with the inflammatory response evaluated by histopathology. All the studied BU ulcerative cases showed extensive necrosis and chronic inflammation. The most important feature was the presence or absence of granulomas co-existing with a mixed pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. When granulomas were present significantly higher expression of IFN-γ was seen, whereas in ulcerative lesions without granulomas there was increased expression of IL-10 and significantly higher bacillary counts. These features correlated with the chronicity of the lesions; longer-lasting lesions showed granulomas. Thus, granulomas were absent from relatively early ulcerative lesions, which contained more bacilli and little IFN-γ, suggesting that at this stage of the disease strong suppression of the protective cellular immune response facilitates proliferation of bacilli. PMID:16487243

  2. Lesion strength control by automatic temperature guided retinal photocoagulation (United States)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Baade, Alexander; Birngruber, Reginald; Roider, Johann; Brinkmann, Ralf


    Laser photocoagulation is an established treatment for a variety of retinal diseases. However, when using the same irradiation parameter, the size and strength of the lesions are unpredictable due to unknown inter- and intraindividual optical properties of the fundus layers. The aim of this work is to investigate a feedback system to generate desired lesions of preselectable strengths by automatically controlling the irradiation time. Optoacoustics were used for retinal temperature monitoring. A 532-nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser was used for photocoagulation. A 75-ns/523-nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser simultaneously excited temperature-dependent pressure transients, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. The temperature data were analyzed during the irradiation by a LabVIEW routine. The treatment laser was switched off automatically when the required lesion strength was achieved. Five different feedback control algorithms for different lesion sizes were developed and tested on rabbits in vivo. With a laser spot diameter of 133 μm, five different lesion types with ophthalmoscopically visible diameters ranging mostly between 100 and 200 μm, and different appearances were achieved by automatic exposure time control. The automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

  3. Noninvasive Identification of Ischemic Lesion in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Tysler


    Full Text Available A method for noninvasive identification of heart lesions with changed repolarization caused by local ischemia was proposed and tested on a model and on a group of patients. It evaluates changes in QRST integral maps measured on a chest surface of known geometry and computes an equivalent dipole representing the position, size and orientation of the lesion. Testing on a computer model indicated ability of the method to localize small  subendocardial and subepicardial lesions with an error less about 1 cm. From 11 patients with single vessel stenosis mapped before and after the percutaneous cardiac intervention, differences in QRST integral maps could be represented by a dipole in 8 patients. 6 LAD and 1 RCA lesion were identified successfully, localization of 1 RCA lesion failed. Results of the study suggest that difference QRST integral maps can help in identification of small ischemic regions on the epicardial or endocardial surface by estimating parameters of an equivalent dipole characterizing the lesion

  4. Putaminal alteration in multiple sclerosis patients with spinal cord lesions. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Hilga; Rolfsnes, Hans O; Montag, Swantje; Wilting, Janine; Droby, Amgad; Reuter, Eva; Gawehn, Joachim; Zipp, Frauke; Gröger, Adriane


    Typical multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions occur in the brain as well as in the spinal cord. However, two extreme magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes appear occasionally: those with predominantly spinal cord lesions (MS + SL) and those with cerebral lesions and no detectable spinal lesions (MS + CL). We assessed whether morphological differences can be found between these two extreme phenotypes. We examined 19 patients with MS + SL, 18 with MS + CL and 20 controls. All subjects were examined using magnetic resonance imaging, including anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging sequences. Voxel-based morphologic and regions of interest-based analyses and tract-based spatial statistics were performed. Patients also underwent neuropsychological testing. Demographic, clinical and neuropsychological characteristics did not differ between MS + SL and MS + CL patients. Patients with MS + SL showed significantly larger putamen volumes than those with MS + CL which correlated negatively with disability. Compared to controls, only MS + CL revealed clear cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, which correlated with cerebral lesion volume. Additionally, extensive white matter microstructural damage was found only in MS + CL compared to MS + SL and controls in the tract-based spatial statistics. Higher putamen volumes in MS + SL could suggest compensatory mechanisms in this area responsible for motor control. Widely reduced fractional anisotropy values in MS + CL were caused by higher cerebral lesion volume and thus presumably stronger demyelination, which subsequently leads to higher global gray matter atrophy.

  5. MR imaging features of focal liver lesions in Wilson disease. (United States)

    Dohan, Anthony; Vargas, Ottavia; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Woimant, France; Hamzi, Lounis; Boudiaf, Mourad; Poujois, Aurelia; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Soyer, Philippe


    Hepatic involvement in Wilson disease (WD) manifests as a diffuse chronic disease in the majority of patients. However, in a subset of patients focal liver lesions may develop, presenting with a wide range of imaging features. The majority of focal liver lesions in patients with WD are benign nodules, but there are reports that have described malignant liver tumors or dysplastic nodules in these patients. Because of the possibility of malignant transformation of liver nodules, major concerns have been raised with respect to the management and follow-up of patients with WD in whom focal liver lesions have been identified. The assessment of liver involvement in patients with WD is generally performed with ultrasonography. However, ultrasonography conveys limited specificity so that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often performed to improve lesion characterization. This review was performed to illustrate the spectrum of MR imaging features of focal liver lesions that develop in patients with WD. It is assumed that familiarity with the MR imaging presentation of focal liver lesions in WD may help clarify the actual nature of hepatic nodules in patients with this condition.

  6. Multiple effects of prefrontal lesions on task-switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Shallice


    Full Text Available This study examined the performance of 41 patients with focal prefrontal cortical lesions and 38 healthy controls on a task-switching procedure. Three different conditions were evaluated: single tasks without switches and two switching tasks with the currently relevant task signalled either 1500 ms (Long Cue or 200 ms (Short Cue before the stimulus. Patients with Superior Medial lesions showed both a general slowing of reaction time (RT and a signifi cantly increased switch cost as measured by RT. No other prefrontal group showed this increased reaction time switch cost. Increased error rates in the switching conditions, on the other hand, were observed in patients with Inferior Medial lesions and, to a lesser extent, ones with Superior Medial lesions. Patients with left dorsolateral lesions (9/46v showed slower learning of the task as indicated by a high error rate early on. Several different processes are involved in task-switching and these are selectively disrupted by lesions to specifi c areas of the frontal lobes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The imprint cytology is one of the rapid diagnostic tools in the field of diagnostic pathology. This method not only helps us to examine the individual cells but also aids in analyzing the patterns of particular lesion. Differentiating between benign and malignant lesions prior to or during surgery, helps the surgeon to decide on the extent of surgery. AIMS : The present study was conducted to know the accuracy of intraoperative imprint smears and to compare the results with that of histopathological sections in all breast tumors. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : This was a descriptive study on 100 cases of breast lesions comprising of inflammatory, benign & malignant. Results were compared with histopathology. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value an d negative predictive value . RESULTS : Out of 100 cases, 50 cases were diagnosed as benign and 50 cases as malignant lesions on imprint smear . Fibroadenoma (26% was the most common benign lesion and invasive ductal carcinoma ( 38% was the most common malig nant lesion. The sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology were 98% and 96.1% respectively. 96% PPV, 98% NPV and 97% overall diagnostic accuracy was observed for imprint cytology in the present study. CONCLUSIONS: Imprint cytology is a simple, accurate, rapid & cost effective diagnostic tool used intra operatively, where in facilities for frozen sections are not available. KEYWORDS : Imprint; histopathology; benign ; malignant; breast.

  8. Progressive oil-spot-like lesion in multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Petrescu, A


    The demyelinating lesion in MS being characterised by an evolutive polymorphism, led to different opinions about the identification of the hypercellularity. The present work deals with data concerning the abundance and the early appearance of macrophages (M) within the lesion, studied with lipid histochemistry methods. The disposition of 3 various types of previously described M, with different lipid content, demonstrates the progressive centrifugal evolution of the recent lesion. At the edge the M are filled exclusively with intensely Baker (phospholipids) stained myelinic granules whereas inside they have a mixed myelinic and sudano-osmiophylic (esterocholesterolic) composition as revealed by Sudan red, Oil rd, Otan and Schultz methods. Surrounding vessels, in the centre of the lesion, M contain exclusively sudano-osmiophylic (esterocholesterolic) granules and crystals. This arrangement of M as to AGE is due to the progressive disintegrative cycle of phagocyted myelin: the youngest at the edge and those undergoing myelin disintegration towards the centre. It is demonstrative for the progressive and centrifugally oil-spot-like extension of the lesion and might explain the round-shape of the small lesions which stop their extension without any morphological correlations.

  9. Visuospatial attention deficit in patients with local brain lesions. (United States)

    Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue; Huang, Dong-Feng; Rao, De-Zhong; Pei, Zhong; Chen, Ling; Zeng, Jin-Sheng


    The disability of visuospatial attention can lead to poor volitional movement and functional recovery in patients with brain lesions. However, the accurate clinical method to assess visuospatial attention is limited. The frontoparietal network including the posterior parietal cortex and the frontal eye fields has been shown to involve in visuospatial attention. The Attention Network Test provided measures for three different components of visuospatial attention: alerting, orienting and executive control. This study was to probe the deficit and relationship of visuospatial attention using Attention Network Test paradigm in patients with frontoparietal network lesions. During this task, patients responded significantly slower on each cue condition and target type than controls, and showed deficits in the alerting and orienting networks. The efficiency of resolving conflict was decreased in patients with frontal lesions whereas this was increased in patients with parietal lesions. These findings suggest that the frontoparietal network is involved in the alerting and orienting attentional function and the executive function is possibly selectively associated with the frontal lobe. The Attention Network Test paradigm produces sensitive, valid and reliable subject estimates of visuospatial attention function in patients with brain lesions, and may be useful for clinical rehabilitation strategy selection for patients with the frontoparietal network lesions.

  10. The Relation of Endodontic-Periodontal Lesion and Therapy

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    Trijani Suwandi


    Full Text Available The correlation between endodontic-periodontal lesion has been documented well be researches. Endodontic lesion originates from pulp, while periodontal lesion originates from periodontal tissues. Anatomically they are connected by apical foramen, lateral canal and accessories, as well as dentin tubules. The correlation appeared as the endodontic defect can be from periodontal lesion, or a periodontal defect is from a pulp tissue. Together they can emerge and form a combination lesion. Endodontic infections have been highly correlated with deeper periodontal pockets and furcation involvement in mandibular, the causal relationship between the two pathoses has not yet been established. This consensus supports the influence of degenerated or inflamed pulp that can happen on the periodontium; but not all researchers agree about the effect of periodontal disease on the pulp. Conclusion: The mechanism of endo-perio lesion need to taken care in order to have appropriate diagnostic so that the right therapy would be able to keep the teeth in the oral cavity.

  11. Visual recognition of complex medical lesions using 2D shape (United States)

    Chodorowski, Artur; Gustavsson, Tomas; Mattsson, Ulf


    Different shape representation and classification methods for complex medical lesions were compared using oral lesions as a case study. The problem studied was the discrimination between potentially cancerous lesions, called leukoplakia, and other usually harmless lesions, called lichenoid reactions, which can appear in human oral cavities. The classification problem is difficult because these lesions vary in shape within classes and there are no easily recognizable characteristics. The representations evaluated were the centroidal profile function, the curvature function, and polar and complex coordinate functions. From these representations, translation, scale and rotation independent features were derived using Fourier transformations, auto-regressive modeling, and Zernike moments. A nonparametric kNN classifier with the leave-one-out cross-validation method was used as a classifier. An overall classification accuracy of about 84% was achieved using only the shape properties of the lesions, compared with a human visual classification rate of 65%. The best results were obtained using complex representation and Fourier/Zernike methods. In clinical practice, the preliminary diagnosis is based mainly on the visual inspection of the oral cavity, using both color, shape and texture as differentiating parameters. This study showed that machine analysis of shape could also play an important part in diagnosis and decisions regarding future treatment.

  12. Imaging simulated secondary caries lesions with cross polarization OCT (United States)

    Stahl, Jonathan; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel


    The clinical diagnosis of secondary caries has been found to account for the replacement of the majority of intra-coronal restorations. Current methods to diagnose the presence of these lesions at early stages are considered insufficient due to their low sensitivity. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging studies have confirmed its effectiveness for imaging carious subsurface lesions in enamel and dentin. The objective of this study was to determine if PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively image demineralization through resin restorations on extracted teeth with both simulated and natural lesions. Simulated secondary caries lesions were created by exposing cavity preparations made in extracted human teeth to a demineralizing solution for 48 hours and subsequently restoring with resin. Negative control restorations were also prepared on each tooth. Optical changes in demineralized versus control preparations beneath restorations were measured as a function of depth using PS-OCT. PS-OCT images indicated that a significant increase in reflectivity and depth occurred in the simulated lesions compared with the control preparations. This study suggests that PS-OCT is well-suited to nondestructively detect early caries lesions in enamel beneath composite restorations.

  13. Affinity cytochemistry analysis of mast cells in skin lesions: a possible tool to assess the timing of lesions after death. (United States)

    Bonelli, A; Bacci, S; Norelli, G A


    The histamine content in vital wounds is known to increase, with a zenith after 3 h, and then decrease until 24 h after wounding. We addressed whether this biochemical alteration has a morphological counterpart. Since the main source of skin histamine are mast cells, the distribution and number of these cells was assessed upon labeling with fluorescent avidin and with antibodies to the mast cell specific enzymes, chymase and tryptase. Analyses were performed on skin from 15 healthy controls (from surgical biopsies), from 15 post-mortem lesions and 75 vital lesions, obtained at autopsy from subjects who had survived from a few seconds to 24 h. The number of mast cells per unit area of section surface increased progressively with survival time, up to a maximum in subjects who survived 1-3 h ( pdeath ( paffinity cytochemistry can help to discriminate vital from post-mortem lesions and to estimate survival time after lesions.

  14. Dental prosthesis and buccal lesions in the elderly Prótesis dentales y lesiones mucosas en el adulto mayor

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    Eduardo Enrique Castillo Betancourt


    Full Text Available Fundament: Buccal lesions in the elderly are very frequent and they constitute a problem of health due to the consequences that cause. Objective: to describe the characteristics of the removable prosthesis used by the population of 60 and more years age and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. Methods: We carried out a study descriptive of cross section in 125 elderly with oral prosthesis. The characteristics of the removable prosthesis were described and their relationship with the lesions of the oral mucosa. The square chi tests and the analysis of relative risk were use to determine the association between the variables, also we used a logistical regression model to determine the independent relationship of each factor with the presence of the lesions. Results: We was a 12% of the people with stomatitis sub prosthesis, 8% presented lesions growth hyperplasic and 5,6% they were have angular queilitis. The lesions in the oral mucosa increased in people with prosthesis in not well state, bad hygiene this and in the female sex. Conclusion: the chronic lesions were the more prevalence in this study and they were very related with factors like: state of the conservation the prosthesis, time use, hygiene this and sex of the individual; but when determining the independent influence from each factor with the presence lesions, we established that only the state of conservation of the prosthesis and their hygiene affected of the important way to the old men of this study.Fundamento: las lesiones bucales en los ancianos son muy frecuentes y constituyen un problema de salud debido a las consecuencias que provocan. Objetivo: describir las características de las prótesis removibles usadas por la población de 60 y más años de edad y su relación con las lesiones de la mucosa oral. Métodos: se realiz

  15. What affects detectability of lesion–deficit relationships in lesion studies?

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    Kayo Inoue


    Our simulations offer a quantitative basis for interpreting lesion studies in cognitive neuroscience. We suggest ways in which lesion simulation and analysis frameworks could be productively extended.

  16. Cystic Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Multimodality Imaging with Pathologic Correlations

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    Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Shin, Bong Kyung; Lee, Soon Jin; Choi, Dong Il [Korea University College of Medicine Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kee Taek [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The cystic lesions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract demonstrate the various pathologic findings. Some lesions may present a diagnostic challenge because of non-specific imaging features; however, other lesions are easily diagnosed using characteristic radiologic features and anatomic locations. Cystic masses from the GI tract can be divided into several categories: congenital lesions, neoplastic lesions (cystic neoplasms, cystic degeneration of solid neoplasms), and other miscellaneous lesions. In this pictorial review, we describe the pathologic findings of various cystic lesions of the GI tract as well as the radiologic features of GI cystic lesions from several imaging modalities including a barium study, transabdominal ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging

  17. Predictive value of ADC mapping in discriminating probably benign and suspicious breast lesions

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    Mohamed Hamed Abowarda


    Conclusion: Including the ADC diffusion coefficient in the diagnostic work up of patients with indeterminate breast lesions can help in the differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions.

  18. Diagnostic value of diffuse and peripheral lung lesions by transbronchial lung biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志红; 魏霞; 卫小红; 朱柏


    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of transbronchial lung biopsy(TBLB)via bronchoscope for lung diffuse lesions and peripheral pulmonary lesions.Methods The results of TBLB were retrospectively analyzed from 256 diagnoses of unknown patients with lung diffuse lesions or peripheral lung lesions.Results Eighty-nine final diagnosis cases via TBLB only once,the diagnostic rate of double lung diffuse lesions was the highest,[51.06%(24/47)],local non-nodule lesions,nodule lesions,cavity lesions were 33.33...

  19. Human aortic fibrolipid lesions. Progenitor lesions for fibrous plaques, exhibiting early formation of the cholesterol-rich core. (United States)

    Bocan, T. M.; Guyton, J. R.


    The early development of the lipid-rich core and other features of atherosclerotic fibrous plaques has been elucidated by examining discrete, small regions of raised intima in human aorta, which often bear a resemblance to both fatty streaks and fibrous plaques. Approximately one-fourth of small raised lesions (less than 16 sq mm of surface area) contained little or no stainable lipid, while three-fourths had a characteristic appearance, which included a superficial layer of foam cells, a core of noncrystalline and/or crystalline lipid, and a developed or developing collagenous cap. Total intimal volumes of the lipid-containing lesions, termed "fibrolipid lesions," ranged from 3 to 43 microliters, with the majority less than 16 microliters. Core lipid in the smallest lesions was located in the musculoelastic layer of the intima. In larger lesions the core extended luminally into the elastic hyperplastic layer, and cholesterol crystals were found more frequently. Total cholesterol concentration in fibrolipid lesions was similar to that in fatty streaks; however, the ratio of unesterified to total cholesterol was relatively high, similar to that found in fibrous plaques. It is concluded that 1) the formation of a lipid-rich core and cholesterol crystallization are early events in the development of many raised lesions; 2) the consistent association between the superficial layer of foam cells and the deep-lying lipid-rich core raises the possibility of an influence, possibly indirect, of foam-cell lipid metabolism on core formation; and 3) the fibrolipid lesion may represent one stage in a potential transitional morphologic sequence between fatty streak and fibrous plaque. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:4025509

  20. Comparison of functional recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral spinal cord lesion or motor cortex lesion in adult macaque monkeys

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    Florence eHoogewoud


    Full Text Available In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots, in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n=6 or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n=6. In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n=3 were treated for 30 days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n=3 represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed.For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion, post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (true recovery led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex.

  1. Prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer among patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examination, without visible lesion


    Fernanda Rangel da Veiga; Fábio Bastos Russomano; Maria José de Camargo; Aparecida Cristina Sampaio Monteiro; Aparecida Tristão; Gabriela Villar e Silva


    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is a serious public health problem in Brazil. For patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, but with cervical cytological tests suggesting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), the national recommendation is to repeat cervical cytological tests after three months. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of HSIL and cancer among patients with initial cervical cytological tests suggestive of HSIL but with unsa...

  2. MS cortical lesions on DIR: not quite what they seem?

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    Varun Sethi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Accurate identification and localization of cortical gray matter (CGM lesions in MS is important when determining their clinical relevance. Double inversion recovery (DIR scans have been widely used to detect MS CGM lesions. Phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR scans have a higher signal to noise, and can therefore be obtained at a higher resolution within clinically acceptable times. This enables detection of more CGM lesions depicting a clearer cortical and juxtacortical anatomy. In this study, we systematically investigated if the use of high resolution PSIR scans changes the classification of CGM lesions, when compared with standard resolution DIR scans. METHODS: 60 patients [30 RR(Relapsing remitting and 15 each with PP(Primary progressive and SP(Secondary progressive MS] were scanned on a 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner. Images acquired included DIR (1×1×3 mm resolution and PSIR (0.5×0.5×2 mm. CGM lesions were detected and classified on DIR as intracortical (IC or leucocortical (LC. We then examined these lesions on corresponding slices of the high resolution PSIR scans and categorized them as IC, LC, Juxtacortical white matter (JC-WM, abutting but not entering cortex and other white matter (WM, not juxtacortical. Classifications using both scans were noted. RESULTS: 282 IC and 483 LC were identified on DIR. Of the IC lesions, 61% were confirmed as IC on PSIR, 35.5% were reclassified as LC and 3.5% as JC-WM or other WM only. Of the LC DIR lesions, 43.9% were confirmed at LC on PSIR, 16.1% were reclassified as IC and 40% as JC-WM or other WM only. Overall, 50% (381/765 of CGM lesions seen on DIR were reclassified, and 26.5% (203/765 affected WM only. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with higher resolution PSIR, a significant proportion of lesions classified as involving CGM on DIR appear to either contain more white matter than expected or to not involve CGM at all.

  3. Evaluation of coronary arterial stenotic lesion with magnetic resonance imaging

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    Handa, Satoshi [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)


    Although coronary arteriography (CAG) is an invasive method, it is widely used to diagnose the ischemic heart disease (IHD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive method and could be useful as a screening method for IHD. As coronary artery (CA) can be depicted as high intensity with a new pulse sequence of MRI, segmented k-space turboFLASH (STFL), we contrived a means to visualize CA and investigated the usefulness of this method to diagnose the stenotic lesion of CA. We compared the image quality of CA with body coil and spine surface coil in 24 normal volunteers using MRI. The quality was better with surface coil than with body coil. With surface coil, the segment no.1, no.2, no.5, no.6 of CA were visualized in all cases and the segment no.3, no.7, no.11 were in more than 70% of the cases. We investigated the figure of depicting the stenotic lesion with STFL method in 33 angina pectoris patients with more than 50% stenosis of CA in segment no.1, no.2, no.3, no.5, no.6, no.7, no.11 (41 lesions). The figures of depicting the stenotic lesion of CA were divided into three patterns as follows, the abruption of signal intensity of CA, the narrowing of signal intensity, the focal decreased signal intensity. The severe stenotic lesion (more than 90% stenosis) was showed as an abruption of signal intensity, and mild stenotic lesion (50% stenosis) was showed as a narrowing of signal intensity or focal decreased signal intensity. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing the stenotic lesions were calculated in consequent 27 angina pectoris patients having more than 25% stenosis in the segment no.1, no.2, no.3, no.5, no.6, no.7, no.11 of CA. The CAG study was analyzed accordingly to the American Heart Association CA stenosis classification, and in MRI the segments were classified into normal, abruption of signal intensity, narrowing of signal intensity and focal decreased signal intensity. When the abruption of signal intensity was recognized in MRI

  4. Aquaporin-4 deficiency attenuates acute lesions but aggravates delayed lesions and microgliosis after cryoinjury to mouse brain

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    Wen-Zhen Shi; Chun-Zhen Zhao; Bing Zhao; Xiao-Liang Zheng; San-Hua Fang; Yun-Bi Lu; Wei-Ping Zhang; Zhong Chen; Er-Qing Wei


    Objective To determine whether aquaporin-4 (AQP4) regulates acute lesions,delayed lesions,and the associated microglial activation after cryoinjury to the brain.Methods Brain cryoinjury was applied to AQP4 knockout (KO)and wild-type mice.At 24 h and on days 7 and 14 after cryoinjury,lesion volume,neuronal loss,and densities of microglia and astrocytes were determined,and their changes were compared between AQP4 KO and wild-type mice.Results Lesion volume and neuronal loss in AQP4 KO mice were milder at 24 h following cryoinjury,but worsened on days 7 and 14,compared to those in wild-type mice.Besides,microglial density increased more,and astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation were attenuated on days 7 and 14 in AQP4 KO mice.Conclusion AQP4 deficiency ameliorates acute lesions,but worsens delayed lesions,perhaps due to the microgliosis in the late phase.

  5. Tratamiento de lesiones de caries interproximales mediante el uso de infiltrantes Treatment of approximal caries lesions using infiltrants

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    ML Marró Freitte


    Full Text Available Basados en el respeto por la estructura dentaria junto a un adecuado tratamiento y detención de las lesiones de caries, se ha desarrollado ICON®, un sistema que penetra los tejidos afectados con una resina de baja viscosidad fotopolimerizable (infiltrante sin necesidad de la apertura mecánica de una cavidad. De este modo se introducen los “infiltrantes” como herramientas para el tratamiento de las lesiones proximales. El “infiltrante” actúa bloqueando la progresión de la lesión de caries y estabilizando la estructura dentaria. En este reporte se muestra la técnica de infiltración con el uso del kit ICON®, mediante la presentación de un caso clínico de lesión proximal extendida al tercio externo de la dentina.Based on the respect for the tooth structure with adequate treatment and arrest of carious lesions, ICON ® has been developed. This system enters the affected tissue with a low-viscosity light-curing resin (infiltrant with no need for mechanical opening of a cavity. This will introduce the infiltrants as tools for the treatment of proximal lesions. The “infiltrant” works by blocking the progression of caries lesion and stabilizing tooth structure. This report shows the technique with the use of the ICON ® kit, by presenting a case of proximal carious lesion extended to the outer third of dentin.

  6. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment? (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg


    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  7. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

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    Sigurd Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort. The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84 after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of

  8. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers. (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar


    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  9. Thalamus lesions in chronic and acute seizure disorders

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    Tschampa, Henriette J.; Greschus, Susanne; Urbach, Horst [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Bonn (Germany); Sassen, Robert; Bien, Christian G. [University of Bonn, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany)


    Transient signal changes in the pulvinar have been described following status epilepticus. However, we observed persistent thalamus changes after seizures. The purpose of this study was to characterize thalamus changes in patients with seizure disorders and to correlate imaging findings with clinical features. We searched among 5,500 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed in patients with seizures and identified 43 patients. The MRI scans of these patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical data. We identified four patterns of thalamus lesions: (a) fluid attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense pulvinar lesions (20 patients), as known from status epilepticus. Ten patients in this group had a status epilepticus. Among the remaining patients, three had frequent seizures and seven had sporadic seizures. Twelve patients had follow-up exams for a median of 11 months. The lesions had persisted in 11/12 cases in the last available exam and were reversible in one case only. In seven cases, cone-shaped thalamus atrophy resulted, (b) linear defects in the medial and anterior thalamus (five patients), accompanied by atrophy of the mamillary body and the fornix in patients with chronic epilepsy, (c) extensive bilateral thalamus lesions in two patients with a syndrome caused by mutation in the mitochondrial polymerase gamma, and (d) other thalamus lesions not associated with the seizure disorder (16 patients). The spectrum of thalamus lesions in patients with seizure disorders is wider than previously reported. Postictal pulvinar lesions can persist and may result in thalamic atrophy. Linear defects in the anterior thalamus are associated with limbic system atrophy. (orig.)

  10. Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions in Multislice Myelin Water Imaging.

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    Tobias Djamsched Faizy

    Full Text Available To assess neuroprotection and remyelination in Multiple Sclerosis (MS, we applied a more robust myelin water imaging (MWI processing technique, including spatial priors into image reconstruction, which allows for lower SNR, less averages and shorter acquisition times. We sought to evaluate this technique in MS-patients and healthy controls (HC.Seventeen MS-patients and 14 age-matched HCs received a 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI examination including MWI (8 slices, 12 minutes acquisition time, T2w and T1mprage pre and post gadolinium (GD administration. Black holes (BH, contrast enhancing lesions (CEL and T2 lesions were marked and registered to MWI. Additionally, regions of interest (ROI were defined in the frontal, parietal and occipital normal appearing white matter (NAWM/white matter (WM, the corticospinal tract (CST, the splenium (SCC and genu (GCC of the corpus callosum in patients and HCs. Mean values of myelin water fraction (MWF were determined for each ROI.Significant differences (p≤0.05 of the MWF were found in all three different MS-lesion types (BH, CEL, T2 lesions, compared to the WM of HCs. The mean MWF values among the different lesion types were significantly differing from each other. Comparing MS-patients vs. HCs, we found a significant (p≤0.05 difference of the MWF in all measured ROIs except of GCC and SCC. The mean reduction of MWF in the NAWM of MS-patients compared to HCs was 37%. No age, sex, disability score and disease duration dependency was found for the NAWM MWF.MWF measures were in line with previous studies and lesions were clearly visible in MWI. MWI allows for quantitative assessment of NAWM and lesions in MS, which could be used as an additional sensitive imaging endpoint for larger MS studies. Measurements of the MWF also differ between patients and healthy controls.


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    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and remains a major public health problem among women. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is a reliable diagnostic tool to assess the nature of palpable breast lesions . AIMS : To assess cytomorphological study of breast lesions, to classify smears into C1 - C5 and to correlate FNAC with biopsy, ultrasonography and mammography when available . MATERIALS AND METHODS : FNAC was done on 170 cases of breast lesions from September 2005 to Oct 2006 in the Department of Pathology , NSCB medical college, Jabalpur. Cases presenting with complaints of lump and pain were subjected to FNAC. Aspirations were done with 10ml syringe with a 22 gauge needle. Aspirates were smeared and air dried for MGG staining. RESULTS: Of the 170 cases malignancy accounted for 37.1%, benign lesion made up 50% and 10% constituted the gray zone (category C3 and C4.Most common benign lesion was fibroadenoma (48.8% followed by fibrocystic disease (13.3% and in malignant cases majority (80.9% ha d infiltrating duct carcinoma followed by lobular carcinoma and medullary carcinoma. Mammography and sonography was done in 74 cases prior to FNAC. Diagnostic accuracy with mammography was 81.8%. 5 malignant cases on histology were reported as suspicious o n radiology and 1 case was wrongly diagnosed as benign . CONCLUSION : Cytologic examination can confirm the presence of clinically suspected malignancies and classify the nature of atypical or suspicious lesion found on mammography. Active use of FNAC and so nomammography could cut down the number of surgical biopsies of benign breast lesions.

  12. Characterization of lesions in dense breasts: Does tomosynthesis help?

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    Krithika Rangarajan


    Full Text Available Context: Mammography in dense breasts is challenging due to lesion obscuration by tissue overlap. Does tomosynthesis offers a solution? Aims: To study the impact of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT in characterizing lesions in breasts of different mammographic densities. Settings and Design: Prospective blinded study comparing mammography in two views with Mammography + Tomosynthesis. Methods and Material: Tomosynthesis was performed in 199 patients who were assigned Breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS categories 0, 3, 4, or 5 on two-dimensional (2D mammogram. Mammograms were first categorized into one of 4 mammographic breast densities in accordance with the American College of Radiology (ACR. Three radiologists independently analyzed these images and assigned a BIRADS category first based on 2D mammogram alone, and then assigned a fresh BIRADS category after taking mammography and tomosynthesis into consideration. A composite gold-standard was used in the study (histopathology, ultrasound, follow-up mammogram, magnetic resonance imaging. Each lesion was categorized into 3 groups—superior categorization with DBT, no change in BIRADS, or inferior BIRADS category based on comparison with the gold-standard. The percentage of lesions in each group was calculated for different breast densities. Results: There were 260 lesions (ages 28–85. Overall, superior categorization was seen in 21.2% of our readings on addition of DBT to mammography. DBT was most useful in ACR Densities 3 and 4 breasts where it led to more appropriate categorization in 27 and 42% of lesions, respectively. DBT also increased diagnostic confidence in 54.5 and 63.6% of lesions in ACR Densities 3 and 4, respectively. Conclusions: In a diagnostic setting, the utility of tomosynthesis increases with increasing breast density. This helps in identifying the sub category of patients where DBT can actually change management.

  13. Microbial community succession on developing lesions on human enamel

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    Lino Torlakovic


    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in the world. However, our understanding of how the microbial community composition changes in vivo as caries develops is lacking.An in vivo model was used in a longitudinal cohort study to investigate shifts in the microbial community composition associated with the development of enamel caries.White spot lesions were generated in vivo on human teeth predetermined to be extracted for orthodontic reasons. The bacterial microbiota on sound enamel and on developing carious lesions were identified using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM, which permits the detection of about 300 of the approximate 600 predominant bacterial species in the oral cavity.After only seven weeks, 75% of targeted teeth developed white spot lesions (8 individuals, 16 teeth. The microbial community composition of the plaque over white spot lesions differed significantly as compared to sound enamel. Twenty-five bacterial taxa, including Streptococcus mutans, Atopobium parvulum, Dialister invisus, and species of Prevotella and Scardovia, were significantly associated with initial enamel lesions. In contrast, 14 bacterial taxa, including species of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Kingella, and Capnocytophaga, were significantly associated with sound enamel.The bacterial community composition associated with the progression of enamel lesions is specific and much more complex than previously believed. This investigation represents one of the first longitudinally-derived studies for caries progression and supports microbial data from previous cross-sectional studies on the development of the disease. Thus, the in vivo experiments of generating lesions on teeth destined for extraction in conjunction with HOMIM analyses represent a valid model to study succession of supragingival microbial communities associated with caries development and to study efficacy of prophylactic and restorative treatments.

  14. IL-17/Th17 pathway is activated in acne lesions.

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    Hanna-Leena Kelhälä

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19 were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20, Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ, T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18 were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy.

  15. Category-specific visual agnosia: lesion to semantic memory versus extra-lesional variables in a case study and a connectionist model. (United States)

    Barbeau, E; Giusiano, B


    There is a current debate on the causes of category-specific agnosia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of lesional and extra-lesional variables on object recognition. Extra-lesional variables, such as visual complexity or familiarity, are factors that influence recognition. Using a connectionist model based on study, we provide evidence that extra-lesional variables can yield dissociations in the recognition rate of different categories. Furthermore, it is shown that lesional and extra-lesional variables can interact (p agnosia might thus result from complex interactions.

  16. Standard guidelines of care: Lasers for tattoos and pigmented lesions

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    Aurangabadkar Sanjeev


    Full Text Available Introduction: Lasers have revolutionized the treatment of pigmentary disorders and have become the mainstay of therapy for many of them. Machines: Though different laser machines are used, Quality-switched (QS lasers are considered as the gold standard for treatment of pigmented lesions. Proper knowledge of the physics of laser machine, methodology, dosage schedules, etc., is mandatory. Physician Qualification: Laser may be administered by a dermatologist, who has received adequate background training in lasers during postgraduation or later at a center that provides education and training in lasers, or in focused workshops which provide such trainings. He should have adequate knowledge of the machines, parameters, cooling systems, and aftercare. Facility: The procedure may be performed in the physician′s minor procedure room. Indications: Epidermal lesions: Cafι au lait macules (CALM, lentigines, freckles, solar lentigo, nevus spilus, pigmented seborrheic keratosis, dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN. Dermal lesions: Nevus of Ota, Blue nevus, Hori′s nevus (acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules. Tattoos: Amateur, professional, cosmetic, medicinal, and traumatic. Mixed epidermal and dermal lesions: Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH, nevus spilus, periorbital and perioral pigmentation, acquired melanocytic nevi (moles, melasma and Becker′s Nevus. Contraindications: Absolute: Active local infection, photo-aggravated skin diseases and medical conditions, tattoo granuloma, allergic reactions to tattoo pigment, unstable vitiligo and psoriasis. Relative: Keloid and keloidal tendencies, patient on isotretinoin, history of herpes simplex, patient who is not co-operative or has unrealistic expectation. Patient selection: Proper patient selection is important. Investigations to identify any underlying cause for pigmentation are important; concurrent topical and systemic drug therapy may be needed. History of scarring, response to previous


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    Juan Antonio Lugo Machado


    Full Text Available Congenital nasofrontal lesions of the midline are rare congenital abnormalities such as dermoid cysts, nasal gliomas and encephaloceles, with an occurrence of 1: 20,000 to 40,000 births. Its importance lies in the connection to the central nervous system. The biopsy of the lesions with intracranial communication, produce cerebrospinal fluid leaks or meningitis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of midline nasofrontal lesions in a tertiary hospital of regional referral and it´s relationship with other malformations. Material and Methods: Study Design: Transversal retrospective. Male and female patients aged 1 month to 13 years of age with congenital lesions of the nasofrontal midline, treated at Children's Hospital from 1990 to 2005. Sample: was obtained by a non-probabilistic sample of consecutive cases. Through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 which included descriptive statistics: median as a measure of central tendency and frequency distribution and proportion as a measure of dispersion. Results: a review of clinical records was conducted from 1990 to 2005, finding 38 of 67 records reviewed, 29 files were excluded because they correspond to the diagnosis of occipital encephalocele. Prevalence was 38 cases in 15 years. The gender distribution of nasofrontal midline lesions was slightly higher in females with 22 cases and 16 cases in males. The midline nasofrontal lesions found were midline encephalocele, gliomas and dermoid cysts. In our review most encephaloceles were not associated with the central nervous system and 11 cases did have an associated disorder; 5 cases with hydrocephalus and / or temporal or occipital cysts and 6 cases with nondevelopment of the corpus callosum plus hydrocephalus. Conclusion: Our prevalence was 38 cases in 15 years. Nasofrontal midline lesion disgnosis are usually made in the first months of life. Among the types of midline nasofrontal lesions, the most common type found

  18. Spectrum of Oral Lesions in A Tertiary Care Hospital (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashok; Kumar, Parbodh


    Aim The present study was undertaken to study the spectrum and pattern of various oral cavity lesions in a tertiary care hospital in Rohilkhand region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Background Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for tumour and tumour like lesions especially in males. It has been observed that benign lesions are more common than malignant ones. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital during the period of two years from June 2012 to May 2014. The study included 133 cases of oral cavity lesions. The parameters included in the study were age, gender, site of the lesion and histopathological diagnosis. Special stains and Immunohistochemical markers were applied as and when required. Data collected were analysed. Results A total of 133 cases were included in the present study. The age ranged from 8 to 80 years. Males were affected more often than females with a Male: Female ratio of 3.3:1. The most common involved site was tongue 39 (29.32%) followed by tonsil in 30 (22.56%), buccal mucosa 27(20.32%), floor of mouth 14 (10.53%), palate 12(9.02%), lower lip 8 (6.02%), upper lip 2(1.50%) and vestibule in 1 (0.75%) cases. Of the 133 cases, 63 cases (47.36%) were malignant, 52 non-neoplastic (39.10%) and 18 cases (13.53%) of benign neoplasias. The various lesions included - Squamous cell carcinoma, Verrucous carcinoma, Carcinoma-in-situ, Leukoplakia, Fibroma, Lipoma, Squamous cell papilloma, Lymphoid hyperplasia, Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, Haemangioma, Schwannoma, Atypical Pleomor -phic adenoma, Pleomorphic adenoma, Epidermal cyst, Retention cyst, Parasitic infestation, Tubercular pathology, Granulation tissue, Chronic Sialadenitis and Chronic non-specific inflammatory pathology. A larger epidemiopathological study in this region needs to be carried out for detailed statistical analysis. Conclusion Benign lesions were the predominant pathology. Squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest malignant

  19. Ulcerative umbrellar lesions in captive moon jelly (Aurelia aurita) medusae. (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Garner, M M; Wynne, J; Fish, S; Adams, L


    Over a period of 6 months, dozens of moon jelly (Aurelia aurita) medusae from a single-species exhibit at the California Science Center (CSC) developed exumbrellar ulcers. Ulcers were progressive, causing umbrellar creases that expanded radially to the bell rim and occasional adoral erosions that extended into gastrovascular cavities. Husbandry interventions, including addition of ultraviolet light sterilizers, repopulation with fresh cultures, and enclosure disinfection, did not arrest the recurrence of lesions. Biopsies or whole specimens representing 17 medusae (15 affected and 2 grossly unaffected) from CSC and 2 control medusae from Aquarium of the Pacific were submitted to a private diagnostic laboratory and processed for light and electron microscopy. Microscopic lesions were present in all CSC medusae and were not observed or negligible in control medusae. Lesions included ulceration, necrosis, and hyperplasia in all umbrellar layers, with most severe lesions in the exumbrella and amoebocyte infiltration in the underlying mesoglea. Special stains, electron microscopy, and fungal culture did not associate microorganisms with the lesions. Bacterial cultures from the CSC population consistently grew Shewanella and Vibrio spp, both of which were considered commensal. Trauma and environmental stress are proposed as possible causes for the ulcers.

  20. Thermal modeling of lesion growth with radiofrequency ablation devices

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    Nguyen Uyen D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature is a frequently used parameter to describe the predicted size of lesions computed by computational models. In many cases, however, temperature correlates poorly with lesion size. Although many studies have been conducted to characterize the relationship between time-temperature exposure of tissue heating to cell damage, to date these relationships have not been employed in a finite element model. Methods We present an axisymmetric two-dimensional finite element model that calculates cell damage in tissues and compare lesion sizes using common tissue damage and iso-temperature contour definitions. The model accounts for both temperature-dependent changes in the electrical conductivity of tissue as well as tissue damage-dependent changes in local tissue perfusion. The data is validated using excised porcine liver tissues. Results The data demonstrate the size of thermal lesions is grossly overestimated when calculated using traditional temperature isocontours of 42°C and 47°C. The computational model results predicted lesion dimensions that were within 5% of the experimental measurements. Conclusion When modeling radiofrequency ablation problems, temperature isotherms may not be representative of actual tissue damage patterns.