Sample records for achondrites

  1. A Classification Table for Achondrites (United States)

    Chennaoui-Aoudjehane, H.; Larouci, N.; Jambon, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.


    Classifying chondrites is relatively easy and the criteria are well documented. It is based on mineral compositions, textural characteristics and more recently, magnetic susceptibility. It can be more difficult to classify achondrites, especially those that are very similar to terrestrial igneous rocks, because mineralogical, textural and compositional properties can be quite variable. Achondrites contain essentially olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclases, oxides, sulphides and accessory minerals. Their origin is attributed to differentiated parents bodies: large asteroids (Vesta); planets (Mars); a satellite (the Moon); and numerous asteroids of unknown size. In most cases, achondrites are not eye witnessed falls and some do not have fusion crust. Because of the mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility similarity with terrestrial igneous rocks for some achondrites, it can be difficult for classifiers to confirm their extra-terrestrial origin. We -as classifiers of meteorites- are confronted with this problem with every suspected achondrite we receive for identification. We are developing a "grid" of classification to provide an easier approach for initial classification. We use simple but reproducible criteria based on mineralogical, petrological and geochemical studies. We presented the classes: acapulcoites, lodranites, winonaites and Martian meteorites (shergottite, chassignites, nakhlites). In this work we are completing the classification table by including the groups: angrites, aubrites, brachinites, ureilites, HED (howardites, eucrites, and diogenites), lunar meteorites, pallasites and mesosiderites. Iron meteorites are not presented in this abstract.

  2. Bunburra Rockhole: A New Anomalous Achondrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bland, P.A.; Spurný, Pavel; Greenwood, R.C.; Towner, M.C.; Bevan, A.W.R.; Bottke jr., W.F.; Shrbený, Lukáš; McClafferty, T.; Vaughan, D.; Benedix, G.K.; Franchi, I.A.; Hough, R.M.


    Roč. 72, Supplement (2009), A34-A34 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /72./. Nancy, 13.06.2009-18.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Bunburra Rockhole * anomalous achondrite Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2009

  3. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites (United States)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.


    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  4. Geochemistry and chronology of the Bunburra Rockhole ungrouped achondrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spivak-Birndorf, L.J.; Bouvier, A.; Benedix, G.K.; Hammond, S.; Brennecka, G.A.; Howard, K.; Rogers, N.; Wadhwa, M.; Bland, P.A.; Spurný, Pavel; Towner, M.C.


    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2015), s. 958-975 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : early solar-system * MN-53-CR-53 systematics * basaltic achondrite Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.819, year: 2015

  5. A petrogenetic model of the relationships among achondritic meteorites (United States)

    Stolper, E.; Hays, J. F.; Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.


    Petrological evidence is used to support the hypothesis that although the magma source regions and parent bodies of basaltic achondrite, shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite meteorites are clearly distinct, they may be simply related. It is proposed that the peridotites which on partial melting generated the parent magmas of the shergottite meteorites differed from those which gave rise to eucritic magmas by being enriched in a component rich in alkalis and other volatiles. Similarly, the source regions of the parent magmas of the nakhlite and chassignite meteorites differed from those on the shergottite parent body by being still richer in this volatile-rich component. These regions could have been related by processes such as mixture of variable amounts of volatile-rich and volatile-poor components in planetary or nebular settings, or alternatively by variable varying degrees of volatile loss from volatile-rich materials.

  6. Cosmic-ray exposure age and preatmospheric size of the Bunburra Rockhole achondrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Welten, K.C.; Meier, M.M.M.; Caffee, M. W.; Laubenstein, M.; Nishizumi, K.; Wieler, R.; Bland, P.A.; Towner, M.C.; Spurný, Pavel


    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2012), s. 186-196 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Bunburra Rockhole * achondrites * parent bodies. Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.800, year: 2012

  7. Assessing the Formation of Ungrouped Achondrite Northwest Africa 8186: Residue, Crystallization Product, or Recrystallized Chondrite? (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Agee, C. B.


    The recent discoveries of primitive achondrites, metachondrites, and type 7 chondrites challenge the long held idea that all chondrites and achondrites form on separate parent bodies. These meteorites have experienced metamorphic temperatures above petrologic type 6 and have partially melted to various degrees. However, because of their isotopic and compositional similarities to both undifferentiated and differentiated groups, the provenance of these 'type 6+' meteorites remains largely unknown. CK and CV chondrites have recently been linked to a few achondrites due to their strong compositional, mineralogical, and isotopic similarities], suggesting a common origin between these meteorites. Although CVs have generally undergone low degrees of alteration near petrologic type 3, CKs have experienced a wide range of thermal alteration from petrologic type 3 to 6. Thermal evolution models on early accreting bodies predict that an early forming body can partially differentiate due to radiogenic heating, and, as a result, form radial layers of material increasing in thermal grade (types 3 to 6+) from the unmelted chondritic surface towards the differentiated core.Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is an ungrouped achondrite that provides compelling evidence for higher degrees of thermal processing and/or melting and differentiation on some CK/CV parent bodies. NWA 8186 plots on the CCAM line on a 3-oxygen isotope diagram directly with CK and CV chondrites and also plots with the CKs in regards to Cr isotopes. This meteorite is dominated by Nickel(II)Oxygen-rich olivine (less than 80%), lacks iron metal, and contains four oxide phases, indicating a high fOxygen (above FMQ) similar to the CKs. Additionally, NWA 8186 does not contain chondrules. We have further investigated the origins of NWA 8186 by examining and comparing the bulk composition of this CK-like achondrite with CK and CV chondrites, allowing us to assess the various scenarios in which NWA 8186 may have formed from


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Akane; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Makishima, Akio; Nakamura, Eizo


    The standard planetary formation models assume that primitive materials, such as carbonaceous chondrites, are the precursor materials of evolved planetesimals. Past chronological studies have revealed that planetesimals of several hundred kilometers in size, such as the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) parent body (Vesta) and angrite parent body, began their differentiation as early as ∼3 million years of the solar system formation, and continued for at least several million years. However, the timescale of planetesimal formation in distinct regions of the inner solar system, as well as the isotopic characteristics of the reservoirs from which they evolved, remains unclear. Here we present the first report for the precise 53 Mn- 53 Cr ages of monomict ureilites. Chemically separated phases from one monomict ureilite (NWA 766) yielded the Mn-Cr age of 4564.60 ± 0.67 Ma, identical within error to the oldest age preserved in other achondrites, such as angrites and eucrites. The 54 Cr isotopic data for this and seven additional bulk ureilites show homogeneous ε 54 Cr of ∼-0.9, a value distinct from other achondrites and chondrites. Using the ε 54 Cr signatures of Earth, Mars, and Vesta (HED), we noticed a linear decrease in the ε 54 Cr value with the heliocentric distance in the inner region of the solar system. If this trend can be extrapolated into the outer asteroid belt, the ε 54 Cr signatures of monomict ureilites will place the position of the ureilite parent body at ∼2.8 AU. These observations imply that the differentiation of achondrite parent bodies began nearly simultaneously at ∼4565 Ma in different regions of the inner solar system. The distinct ε 54 Cr value between ureilite and carbonaceous chondrite also implies that a genetic link commonly proposed between the two is unlikely.

  9. Vestas Pinaria Region: Original Basaltic Achondrite Material Derived from Mixing Upper and Lower Crust (United States)

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Frigeri, Alessandro; Stephan, Katrin; Longobardo, Andrea; Palomba, Ernesto; Tosi, Federico; Zambon, Francesca; Krohn, Katrin; hide


    Analysis of data from the Dawn mission shows that the Pinaria region of Vesta spanning a portion of the rim of the Rheasilvia basin is bright and anhydrous. Reflectance spectra, absorption band centers, and their variations, cover the range of pyroxenes from diogenite-rich to howardite and eucrite compositions, with no evidence of olivine in this region. By examining band centers and depths of the floor, walls and rims of six major craters in the region, we find a lane of diogenite-rich material next to howardite-eucrite material that does not follow the local topography. The source of this material is not clear and is probably ejecta from post-Rheasilvia impacts. Material of a howardite-eucrite composition originating from beyond the Rheasilvia basin is evident on the western edge of the region. Overall, the Pinaria region exposes the complete range of basaltic achondrite parent body material, with little evidence of contamination of non-basaltic achondrite material. With both high reflectance and low abundance of hydrated material, this region of Vesta may be considered the "Pinaria desert".

  10. Dynamic crystallization of a eucrite basalt. [achondrite textural features produced by superheating and differing cooling rates (United States)

    Walker, D.; Powell, M. A.; Hays, J. F.; Lofgren, G. E.


    The textural features produced in Stannern, a non-porpyritic representative of the eucrite basaltic achondrite class of meteorite, at differing cooling rates and various degrees of initial superheating were studied. Textures produced from mildly superheated melts were found to be fasciculate rather than porphyritic as the result of the cosaturated bulk chemistry of Stannern. The qualitative type of texture apparently depends mainly on the degree of initial superheating, whereas cooling rate exerts a strong influence on the coarseness of texture. Increasing the degree of superheating produces textures from intergranular/subophitic to fasciculate/porphyritic. With initial superheating to 1200 deg C the transition to quasi-porphyritic is controlled by cooling rate, but the development of phenocrysts is merely an overprint on the fasciculate background texture of the groundmass. The suppression of fasciculate texture is completed by a decrease of the degree of initial superheating below the plagioclast entry and suppression of quasi-porphyritic texture is completed by decrease of the degree of initial superheating below pyroxene entry; these qualitative changes do not seem to be produced by changes of cooling rate. A grain size/cooling rate dependence has been used to deduce the cooling rate of fasciculate-textured Stannern clasts (10.1 to 100 deg C/hr).

  11. Determination of primordial and cosmogenic radioactivity in achondritic meteorites by low-level, gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntean, R.A.


    A high-sensitivity, low-background gamma-ray spectrometer containing two 23 cm by 13 cm thallium-activated, sodium iodide detectors was used to measure long-lived primordial and cosmogenic radioactivity in a suite of achondritic meteorites. Potassium, thorium, uranium, and 26 Al abundances were established for sixteen brecciated eucrites, two unbrecciated eucrites, a nakhlite, a chassignite, and a unique meteorite from Antarctica by nondestructive counting techniques. In several cases, multiple samples of the same meteorite fall were examined. Concentrations ranged from 79.8 ppM to 1150 ppM for potassium, 55.6 ppb to 663 ppb for thorium, 18.1 ppb to 190 ppb for uranium, and 45.0 dpm/kg to 99.0 dpm/kg for 26 Al. In addition, a 137 Cs concentration of 264 dpm/kg was observed in the Allan Hills 77005,9 specimen

  12. Mineralogy of new Antarctic achondrites with affinity to Lodran and a model of their evolution in an asteroid (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Mori, Hiroshi; Hiroi, Takahiro; Saito, Jun


    We studied five new Antartic achondrites, MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 88177, Yamato (Y)74357, Y75274, Y791491 and Elephant Moraine (EET)84302 by mineralogical techniques to gain a better understanding of the mineral assemblages of a group of meteorites with an affinity to Lodran (stony-iron meteorite) and their formation processes. This group is being called lodranites. These meteorites contain major coarse-grained orthopyroxene (Opx) and olivine as in Lodran and variable amounts of FeNi metal and troilite etc. MAC88177 has more augite and less FeNi than Lodran; Y74357 has more olivine and contains minor augite; Y791491 contains in addition plagioclase. EET84302 has an Acapulco-like chondritic mineral assembladge and is enriched in FeNi metal and plagioclase, but one part is enriched in Opx and chromite. The EET84302 and MAC88177 Opx crystals have dusty cores as in Acapulco. EET84302 and Y75274 are more Mg-rich than other members of the lodranite group, and Y74357 is intermediate. Since these meteorites all have coarse-grained textures, similar major mineral assemblages, variable amounts of augite, plagioclase, FeNi metal, chromite and olivine, we suggest that they are related and are linked to a parent body with modified chondritic compositions. The variability of the abundances of these minerals are in line with a proposed model of the surface mineral assemblages of the S asteroids. The mineral assemblages can best be explained by differing degrees of loss or movements of lower temperature partial melts and recrystallization, and reduction. A portion of EET84302 rich in metal and plagioclase may represent a type of component removed from the lodranite group meteorites. Y791058 and Caddo County, which were studied for comparison, are plagioclase-rich silicate inclusions in IAB iron meteorites and may have been derived by similar process but in a different body.

  13. The Miller Range 090340 and 090206 meteorites: Identification of new brachinite-like achondrites with implications for the diversity and petrogenesis of the brachinite clan (United States)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne; Kita, Noriko T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Wirick, Sue; Gross, Juliane


    Miller Range (MIL) 090340 and MIL 090206 are olivine-rich achondrites originally classified as ureilites. We investigate their petrography, mineral compositions, olivine Cr valences, equilibration temperatures, and (for MIL 090340) oxygen isotope compositions, and compare them with ureilites and other olivine-rich achondrites. We conclude that they are brachinite-like achondrites that provide new insights into the petrogenesis of brachinite clan meteorites. MIL 090340,6 has a granoblastic texture and consists of 97 modal % by area olivine (Fo = molar Mg/[Mg+Fe] = 71.3 ± 0.6). It also contains minor to trace augite, chromite, chlorapatite, orthopyroxene, metal, troilite, and terrestrial Fe-oxides. Approximately 80% by area of MIL 090206,5 has a granoblastic texture of olivine (Fo 72.3 ± 0.1) plus minor augite and chromite, similar to MIL 090340 but also containing minor plagioclase. The rest of the section consists of a single crystal of orthopyroxene ( 11 × 3 mm), poikilitically enclosing rounded grains of olivine (Fo = 76.1 ± 0.6), augite, chromite, metal, and sulfide. Equilibration temperatures for MIL 090340 and MIL 090206, calculated from olivine-spinel, olivine-augite, and two-pyroxene thermometry range from 800 to 930 °C. In both samples, symplectic intergrowths of Ca-poor orthopyroxene + opaque phases (Fe-oxides, sulfide, metal) occur as rims on and veins/patches within olivine. Before terrestrial weathering, the opaques were probably mostly sulfide, with minor metal. All petrologic properties of MIL 090340 and MIL 090206 are consistent with those of brachinite clan meteorites, and largely distinct from those of ureilites. Oxygen isotope compositions of olivine in MIL 090340 (δ18O = 5.08 ± 0.30‰, δ17O = 2.44 ± 0.21‰, and Δ17O = -0.20 ± 0.12‰) are also within the range of brachinite clan meteorites, and well distinguished from ureilites. Olivine Cr valences in MIL 090340 and the granoblastic area of MIL 090206 are 2.57 ± 0.06 and 2.59 ± 0

  14. History of the Pasamonte achondrite: relative susceptibility of the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb systems to metamorphic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, D.M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Nakamura, N.


    The Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Pb systematics of the eucrite Pasamonte have been studied in order to investigate the relative susceptibility of the different systems to post-crystallization events and to determine the age and history of the meteorite. The Rb-Sr and 238 U- 206 Pb data of mineral separates do not define an isochron but the Sm-Nd data define an internal isochron which corresponds to the formation age of 4.58+-0.12 b.y. (10 9 years). The 207 Pb- 206 Pb data of mineral separates define an apparent age of 4.53+-0.03 b.y., however it is concluded that this age, while in agreement with the Sm-Nd age, is not strictly valid since the U-Pb data indicate at least three stages of evolution. The U-Pb data indicate that the parent body of the meteorite experienced brecciation shortly after the formation of the parent body surface (approximately 4.2-4.45 b.y. ago) and a recent disturbance (collision) 6+-30 m.y. ago. The latter age is within the range of cosmic ray exposure ages for achondrites. (Auth.)

  15. Titanium, vanadium and chromium valences in silicates of ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 and ureilite Y-791538 record highly-reduced origins (United States)

    Sutton, S. R.; Goodrich, C. A.; Wirick, S.


    Titanium, Cr, and V valences were determined by applying micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy methods to individual grains of olivine and pyroxene in the ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 and ureilite Y-791538, as well as to plagioclase in NWA 7325. The advantages of applying multiple, multivalent-element-based oxybarometers to individual grains are (1) the ability to cover the entire oxygen fugacity (fO2) range encountered in nature, and (2) the increased reliability from consistent results for semi-independent fO2 proxies. fO2 values were inferred from each mineral valence determination after correcting with available laboratory-experiment-derived, valence-specific partition coefficients to obtain melt valences and then calibrating with the fO2 values of the relevant equal species proportions points suggested for igneous (primarily basaltic) systems. The resulting olivine and pyroxene valences are highly reduced and similar in the two meteorites with substantial fractions of Cr2+, Ti3+ and V2+. The exception is Cr in NWA 7325 pyroxene which is much more oxidized than the Cr in its olivine. Chromium and Ti in plagioclase in NWA 7325 is relatively oxidized (V valence not determined). The anomalously oxidized Cr in NWA 7325 pyroxene may be due to a secondary reheating event that oxidized Cr in the pyroxene without similarly oxidizing Ti and V. Such a separation of the redox couples may be an effect of re-equilibration kinetics, where the valence of Cr would be more rapidly modified. These valences yielded similar mean fO2s for the two meteorites; IW-3.1 ± 0.2 for NWA 7325 and IW-2.8 ± 0.2 for Y-791538, consistent with an origin of NWA 7325 in either Mercury or an asteroid that experienced redox conditions similar to those on the ureilite parent body.

  16. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Bunburra Rockhole Achondrite Fall

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Welten, K.C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Meier, M.M.M.; Bland, P.A.; Spurný, Pavel


    Roč. 44, Supplement (2009), A216-A216 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /72./. Nancy, 13.06.2009-18.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Bunburra Rockhole * cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2009

  17. Moessbauer spectra of olivine-rich achondrites - Evidence for preterrestrial redox reactions (United States)

    Burns, R. G.; Martinez, S. L.


    Moessbauer spectral measurements at 4.2 K were made on several ureilites and the two shergottites found in Antarctica, as well as two ureilite falls, three SNC meteorite falls, and two finds in order to distinguish products of preterrestrial redox reactions from phases formed during oxidative weathering on the earth. The spectra indicated that several ureilites contain major proportions of metallic iron, much of which resulted from preterrestrial carbon-induced reduction of ferrous iron in the outermost 10-100 microns of olivine grains in contact with carbonaceous material in the ureilites. The cryptocrystalline nature of these Fe inclusions in olivine renders the metal extremely vulnerable to aerial oxidation, even in ureilites collected as falls. It is inferred that the nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides identified in Brachina and Lafayette were produced by terrestrial weather of olivines before the meteorites were found. The absence of goethite in two olivine-bearing Antarctic shergottites suggests that the 2 percent ferric iron determined in their Moessbauer spectra also originated from oxidation on Mars.

  18. Petrologic and Oxygen-Isotopic Investigations of Eucritic and Anomalous Mafic Achondrites (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Greenwood, R. C.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.; Berger, E. L.; Barrett, T. J.


    The most common asteroidal igneous meteorites are eucrite-type basalts and gabbros rocks composed of ferroan pigeonite and augite, calcic plagioclase, silica, ilmenite, troilite, Ca-phosphate, chromite and Fe-metal. These rocks are thought to have formed on a single asteroid along with howardites and diogenites (HEDs). However, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011 is mineralogically identical to eucrites, but has an O-isotopic composition distinct from them and was derived from a different asteroid. Modern analyses with higher precision have shown that some eucrites have smaller O-isotopic differences that are nevertheless well-resolved from the group mean.

  19. The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 103 (United States)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Grossman, Jeffrey; Bouvier, Audrey; Agee, Carl B.


    Meteoritical Bulletin 103 contains 2582 meteorites including 10 falls (Ardón, Demsa, Jinju, Križevci, Kuresoi, Novato, Tinajdad, Tirhert, Vicência, Wolcott), with 2174 ordinary chondrites, 130 HED achondrites, 113 carbonaceous chondrites, 41 ureilites, 27 lunar meteorites, 24 enstatite chondrites, 21 iron meteorites, 15 primitive achondrites, 11 mesosiderites, 10 Martian meteorites, 6 Rumuruti chondrites, 5 ungrouped achondrites, 2 enstatite achondrites, 1 relict meteorite, 1 pallasite, and 1 angrite, and with 1511 from Antarctica, 588 from Africa, 361 from Asia, 86 from South America, 28 from North America, and 6 from Europe. Note: 1 meteorite from Russia was counted as European. The complete contents of this bulletin (244 pages) are available on line. Information about approved meteorites can be obtained from the Meteoritical Bulletin Database (MBD) available on line at meteor/">

  20. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter. Volume 20 (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Satterwhite, Cecilia E.


    The availability of 116 new meteorites from the 1994-1996 collections is announced. There are 4 special chondrites, 2 carbonaceous chondrites, and 1 achondrite among the new meteorites. Also included is a redescription of Lodranite GRA95209.

  1. The Distinct Genetics of Carbonaceous and Non-Carbonaceous Meteorites Inferred from Molybdenum Isotopes (United States)

    Budde, G.; Burkhardt, C.; Kleine, T.


    Mo isotope systematics manifest a fundamental dichotomy in the genetic heritage of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous meteorites. We discuss its implications in light of the most recent literature data and new isotope data for primitive achondrites.

  2. Large-scale melting and impact mixing on early-formed asteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwood, Richard; Barrat, J.-A.; Scott, Edward Robert Dalton

    Large-scale melting of asteroids and planetesimals is now known to have taken place ex-tremely early in solar system history [1]. The first-generation bodies produced by this process would have been subject to rapid collisional reprocessing, leading in most cases to fragmentation and/or accretion...... the relationship between the different groups of achondrites [3, 4]. Here we present new oxygen isotope evidence con-cerning the role of large-scale melting and subsequent impact mixing in the evolution of three important achondrite groups: the main-group pallasites, meso-siderites and HEDs....

  3. Meteorites as space probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, A.L.


    Meteorites are a major source of information on evolution of the solar system. The BMR-Hollmayer meteorite collection consists mainly of chondrites but also includes a carbonaceous chondrite and a ureilite from the achondrite group. The mineralogy and chemical composition of the meteorites have been studied

  4. Curation and Allocation of the New Antarctic Nakhlite, MIL03346 (United States)

    McBride, K. M.; Righter, K.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Schwarz, C.; Robinson, P.


    In January 2004, the ANSMET reconnaissance field team (Fig. 1) working in the Miller Range of the Transantarctic Mountains discovered a 715 g achondrite that was instantly recognized as unique. Named MIL03346, initial processing (NASA Johnson Space Center or JSC) and classification (Smithsonian Institution or SI) revealed this achondrite to be a nakhlite (Fig. 2). MIL03346 is the seventh nakhlite recognized in world collections [2], the third nakhlite returned from Antartica, and the first nakhlite in the US Antarctic collection (Table 1). The following is a summary of the steps taken in the processing and allocating of MIL 03346 and some comparisons to some other lunar and martian meteorites processed and allocated at JSC.

  5. Ion probe analysis of plagioclase in three howardites and three eucrites (United States)

    Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.


    Ion microprobe data for plagioclase from a small group of achondrites are presented, and lunar data reported by Steele et al. (1980) are used as a basis for comparison. The elements are discussed in sequence, using observations on lunar plagioclase as a guide. Attention is given to lithium, potassium, strontium, barium, and titanium. The presented data provide encouragement regarding the significance of studies of the trace element content of plagioclase in the achondrites. It is pointed out that the trace-element signature should prove important in classifying and comparing the individual components of the polymict eucrites and howardites. Thus, the simple patterns in Jodzie contrast with the more complex patterns in Frankfort and particularly Brient.

  6. Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS): Stony Asteroids Abundant in the Background and Family Populations (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania


    The Hungaria region represents a "purgatory" for the closest, preserved samples of the material from which the terrestrial planets accreted. The Hungaria region harbors a collisional family of Xe-type asteroids, which are situated among a background of predominantly S-complex asteroids. Deciphering their surface composition may provide constraints on the nature of the primordial building blocks of the terrestrial planets. We hypothesize that planetesimals in the inner part of the primordial asteroid belt experienced partial- to full-melting and differentiation, the Hungaria region should retain any petrologically-evolved material that formed there.We have undertaken an observational campaign entitled the Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) to record near-infrared (NIR) spectra to characterize taxonomy, surface mineralogy, and potential meteorite analogs. We used NIR instruments at two ground-based facilities (NASA IRTF; TNG). Our data set includes spectra of 82 Hungaria asteroids (61 background; 21 family), 65 were observed during HARTSS. We compare S-complex background asteroids to calibrations developed via laboratory analyses of ordinary chondrites, and to our analyses (EPMA, XRD, VIS+NIR spectra) of 11 primitive achondrite (acapulcoite-lodranite clan) meteorites.We find that stony S-complex asteroids dominate the Hungaria background population (~80%). Background objects exhibit considerable spectral diversity, when quantified by spectral band parameter measurements, translates to a variety of surface compositions. Two main meteorite groups are represented within the Hungaria background: unmelted, nebular L chondrites (and/or L chondrites), and partially-melted primitive achondrites. H-chondrite mineralogies appear to be absent from the Hungaria background. Xe-type Hungaria family members exhibit spectral homogeneity, consistent with the hypothesis that the family was derived from the disruption of a parent body analogous to an enstatite

  7. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn


    This newsletter contains something for everyone! It lists classifications of about 440 meteorites mostly from the 1997 and 1998 ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) seasons. It also gives descriptions of about 45 meteorites of special petrologic type. These include 1 iron, 17 chondrites (7 CC, 1 EC, 9 OC) and 27 achondrites (25 HED, UR). Most notable are an acapoloite (GRA98028) and an olivine diogenite (GRA98108).

  8. Petrologic and Minerochemical Trends of Acapulcoites, Winonaites and Lodranites: New Evidence from Image Analysis and EMPA Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanni Moggi Cecchi


    Full Text Available A comprehensive classification of primitive achondrites is difficult due to the high compositional and textural variability and the low number of samples available. Besides oxygen isotopic analysis, other minerochemical and textural parameters may provide a useful tool to solve taxonomic and genetic problems related to these achondrites. The results of a detailed modal, textural and minerochemical analysis of a set of primitive achondrites are presented and compared with literature data. All the samples show an extremely variable modal composition among both silicate and opaque phases. A general trend of troilite depletion vs. silicate fraction enrichment has been observed, with differences among coarse-grained and fine-grained meteorites. In regard to the mineral chemistry, olivine shows marked differences between the acapulcoite-lodranite and winonaite groups, while a compositional equilibrium between matrix and chondrules for both groups, probably due to the scarce influence of metamorphic grade on this phase, was observed. The analysis of Cr and Mn in clinopyroxene revealed two separate clusters for the acapulcoite/lodranite and winonaite groups, while the analysis of the reduction state highlighted three separate clusters. An estimate of equilibrium temperatures for the acapulcoite-lodranite and winonaite groups is provided. Finally, proposals regarding the genetic processes of these groups are discussed.

  9. 35 seasons of US antarctic meteorites (1976-2010) a pictorial guide to the collection

    CERN Document Server

    Righter, Kevin; McCoy, Timothy; Harvey, Ralph; Harvey, Ralph


    The US Antarctic meteorite collection exists due to a cooperative program involving the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Smithsonian Institution.  Since 1976, meteorites have been collected by a NSF-funded field team, shipped for curation, characterization, distribution, and storage at NASA, and classified and stored for long term at the Smithsonian.  It is the largest collection in the world with many significant samples including lunar, martian, many interesting chondrites and achondrites, and even several unusual one-of-

  10. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.


    To better constrain their origin, we have performed systematic studies of the siderophile element distribution in metal from Enstatite achondrites and iron-rich meteorites linked to Enstatite achondrites. Humayun (2010) reported 20 siderophile elements in the metal of Horse Creek, Mt. Egerton and Tucson, three iron meteorites known for their high Si content in their metal. The Horse Creek and Mt. Egerton irons have elemental patterns identical to metallic solids derived from partially molten enstatite chondrites. Tucson has an unusual siderophile element pattern that is reminiscent of IVA irons, except for the most volatile siderophiles with condensation temperatures below that of Cu (Sb, Ge, Sn) which are more depleted. The origin of Tucson metal is likely linked to an impact involving a reduced chondritic body that provided the silicates, and IVA iron. In a related study, van Acken et al. (2010) reported siderophile element abundances in metal and sulfides from aubrites, chondritic inclusions in aubrites, and other enstatite achondrites (including a separate section of Mt. Egerton). They found that aubrite metal was linked to metal in enstatite chondrites by low degree partial melting forming sulfur-rich metallic liquids. A restite origin of aubrites is not consistent with these metal compositions. The link between the metal compositions and cumulate silicates is not simple. The metal must have been incorporated from enstatite chondritic material that was assimilated by the aubrite magma. A manuscript is in preparation (van Acken et al., 2010). In a related study, van Acken et al. (2010, submitted) reported new precise Os isotope ratios and highly siderophile element abundances in Enstatite chondrites, Enstatite achondrites, Rumurutite chondrites to explore the range of nucleosynthetic variation in s-process Os. They observed nucleosynthetic anomalies, deficiencies of s-process Os, in most primitive enstatite chondrites, but showed the Rumurutite chondrites have

  11. Indigenous Amino Acids in Iron Meteorites (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Johnson, N. M.


    Understanding the organic content of meteorites and the potential delivery of molecules relevant to the origin of life on Earth is an important area of study in astrobiology. There have been many studies of meteoritic organics, with much focus on amino acids as monomers of proteins and enzymes essential to terrestrial life. The majority of these studies have involved analysis of carbonaceous chondrites, primitive meteorites containing approx. 3-5 wt% carbon. Amino acids have been observed in varying abundances and distributions in representatives of all eight carbonaceous chondrite groups, as well as in ungrouped carbonaceous chondrites, ordinary and R chondrites, ureilites, and planetary achondrites [1 and references therein].

  12. Papike appointed Director of IOM (United States)

    James Papike was appointed director of the Institute of Meteoritics in the Department of Geology and Presidential Professor at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, on July 1, 1990. Papike succeeded Klaus Keil, who moved to the University of Hawaii to direct the Planetary Geoscience Division at the Hawaii Institute of Geosciences.The newly constituted IOM will emphasize planetary volcanic processes through the study of achondritic meteorites, the Moon, and Earth, and the origin of primitive solar system materials and planetary formation through the study of chondritic meteorites.

  13. Meteoritic basalts: the nakhlites, their parental magmas, cooling rates, and equivalents on Earth. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treiman, A.H.


    Proposed one-bar phase equilibrium experiments, designed to determine the compositions of the nakhlites' parental magmas, are in progress. Proposed field studies on Earth, designed to find occurrences of rocks like the nakhlites, were extraordinarily successful. Other work supported in the past year included: attendance at the 1986 national meeting of the Geological Society of America; attendance at the 18th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; completion and publication of a study of core formation in the SNC parent body; initiation of a study of the flux of SNC meteorites onto the Earth; and initiation of petrologic study of the Angra dos Reis achondrite

  14. Determination of the spallogenic radionuclides 26Al and 53Mn in Antartic meteorites with respect to cosmic ray exposure and terrestrial ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpers, U.; Sarafin, R.


    The spallogenic radionuclides 26 Al (T=7.18x10 5 a) and 53 Mn (T=3.8x10 6 a) were determined in 11 ordinary chondrites and 7 achondrites from Antarctica by nondestructive coincidence counting techniques and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The results are discussed with respect to exposure ages, terrestrial residence times and possible genetic relationships of the meteorites investigated. The high terrestrial ages of some specimens (up to 800 000 years) are of importance for the study of the ice flow in Antarctica. (author)

  15. PIXE and light element analysis (C,N) in glass inclusions trapped in meteorites with the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.E.; Mosbah, M.; Metrich, N.; Duraud, J.P.; Kurat, G.


    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and light element analysis have been performed with the nuclear microprobe at the Laboratoire Pierre Suee (Saclay-France) in glass inclusions of the carbonaceous chondrites: Allende, Kaba and Renazzo, and in the achondrite meteorite: Chassigny. Carbon contents in olivine of chondrules are below the nuclear reactions analysis (NRA) detection limit, however, glasses from glass inclusions hosted by these grains, contain an appreciable and highly variable quantities of carbon (200-1600 ppm). This could indicate variable amounts of C trapped during glass inclusion formation. On the other hand, nitrogen is present in highly variable amounts in glasses of both, chondrites and achondrites minerals. Its abundance, correlated with depth from the section surface which suggests loss of N during analyses and therefore the possible existence of a very mobile (volatile?) species. A chondritic Rb/Sr and K/Rb ratio obtained by PIXE analyses in the glass-bearing inclusions of the Chassigny meteorite points towards a primitive source for the glass precursor of Chassigny inclusions

  16. Bunburra Rockhole: Exploring the Geology of a New Differentiated Basaltic Asteroid (United States)

    Benedix, G.K.; Bland, P. A.; Friedrich, J. M.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Sanborn, M. E.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Greenwood, R. C; Franchi, L. A.; Bevan, A. W. R.; Towner, M. C.; hide


    Bunburra Rockhole (BR) is the first recovered meteorite of the Desert Fireball Network. It was initially classified as a basaltic eucrite, based on texture, mineralogy, and mineral chemistry but subsequent O isotopic analyses showed that BR's composition lies significantly far away from the HED group of meteorites. This suggested that BR was not a piece of the HED parent body (4 Vesta), but other explanations could also account for the observed oxygen signatures. Possible scenarios include contamination by components from other bodies (chondrites or other achondrites) or that 4 Vesta may not be as equilibrated as hypothesized. After examining multiple pieces with different instruments (CT scans and x-ray maps), no obvious evidence of contamination was found. If BR is not from Vesta, a conundrum exists as no unusual features were found in mineral and bulk trace element chemistry as exist for other anomalous basaltic achondrites such as Ibitira or Asuka 881394. These meteorites have distinct petrological and geochemical characteristics, in addition to their anomalous O isotope compositions, that set them apart from eucrites. Thus, early results provided a somewhat ambiguous picture of BR's petrogenesis and parentage. To clarify the nature of the relationship, if any, between BR and eucrites, we have performed a correlated stable isotope and bulk chemical study of several lithologic fragments.

  17. Do L chondrites come from the Gefion family? (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.


    Ordinary chondrites (H, L, and LL chondrites) are the most common type of meteorites comprising 80 per cent of the meteorites that fall on Earth. The source region of these meteorites in the main asteroid belt has been a basis of considerable debate in the small bodies community. L chondrites have been proposed to come from the Gefion asteroid family, based on dynamical models. We present results from our observational campaign to verify a link between the Gefion asteroid family and L chondrite meteorites. Near-infrared spectra of Gefion family asteroids (1839) Ragazza, (2373) Immo, (2386) Nikonov, (2521) Heidi, and (3860) Plovdiv were obtained at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Spectral band parameters including band centres and the band area ratio were measured from each spectrum and used to constrain the composition of these asteroids. Based on our results, we found that some members of the Gefion family have surface composition similar to that of H chondrites, primitive achondrites, and basaltic achondrites. No evidence was found for L chondrites among the Gefion family members in our small sample study. The diversity of compositional types observed in the Gefion asteroid family suggests that the original parent body might be partially differentiated or that the three asteroids with non-ordinary chondrite compositions might be interlopers.

  18. Hungaria asteroid region telescopic spectral survey (HARTSS) I: Stony asteroids abundant in the Hungaria background population (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania


    different S-subtypes are represented therein, which translates to a variety of surface compositions. We identify the Gaffey S-subtype (Gaffey et al. [1993]. Icarus 106, 573-602) and potential meteorite analogs for 24 of these S-complex background asteroids. Additionally, we estimate the olivine and orthopyroxene mineralogy for 18 of these objects using spectral band parameter analysis established from laboratory-based studies of ordinary chondrite meteorites. Nine of the asteroids have band parameters that are not consistent with ordinary chondrites. We compared these to the band parameters measured from laboratory VIS+NIR spectra of six primitive achondrite (acapulcoite-lodranite) meteorites. These comparisons suggest that two main meteorite groups are represented among the Hungaria background asteroids: unmelted, nebular L- (and possibly LL-ordinary chondrites), and partially-melted primitive achondrites of the acapulcoite-lodranite meteorite clan. Our results suggest a source region for L chondrite like material from within the Hungarias, with delivery to Earth via leakage from the inner boundary of the Hungaria region. H chondrite like mineralogies appear to be absent from the Hungaria background asteroids. We therefore conclude that the Hungaria region is not a source for H chondrite meteorites. Seven Hungaria background asteroids have spectral band parameters consistent with partially-melted primitive achondrites, but the probable source region of the acapulcoite-lodranite parent body remains inconclusive. If the proposed connection with the Hungaria family to fully-melted enstatite achondrite meteorites (i.e., aubrites) is accurate (Gaffey et al. [1992]. Icarus 100, 95-109; Kelley and Gaffey [2002]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 37, 1815-1827), then asteroids in the Hungaria region exhibit a full range of petrologic evolution: from nebular, unmelted ordinary chondrites, through partially-melted primitive achondrites, to fully-melted igneous aubrite meteorites.

  19. Variability in Abundances of Meteorites in the Ordovician (United States)

    Heck, P. R.; Schmitz, B.; Kita, N.


    The knowledge of the flux of extraterrestrial material throughout Earth's history is of great interest to reconstruct the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. Here, we present a review of our investigations of the nature of the meteorite flux to Earth in the Ordovician, one of the best-studied time periods for extraterrestrial matter in the geological record [1]. We base our studies on compositions of extraterrestrial chromite and chrome-spinel extracted by acid dissolution from condensed marine limestone from Sweden and Russia [1-3]. By analyzing major and minor elements with EDS and WDS, and three oxygen isotopes with SIMS we classify the recovered meteoritic materials. Today, the L and H chondrites dominate the meteorite and coarse micrometeorite flux. Together with the rarer LL chondrites they have a type abundance of 80%. In the Ordovician it was very different: starting from 466 Ma ago 99% of the flux was comprised of L chondrites [2]. This was a result of the collisional breakup of the parent asteroid. This event occurred close to an orbital resonance in the asteroid belt and showered Earth with >100x more L chondritic material than today during more than 1 Ma. Although the flux is much lower at present, L chondrites are still the dominant type of meteorites that fall today. Before the asteroid breakup event 467 Ma ago the three groups of ordinary chondrites had about similar abundances. Surprisingly, they were possibly surpassed in abundance by achondrites, materials from partially and fully differentiated asteroids [3]. These achondrites include HED meteorites, which are presumably fragments released during the formation of the Rheasilvia impact structure 1 Ga ago on asteroid 4 Vesta. The enhanced abundance of LL chondrites is possibly a result of the Flora asteroid family forming event at 1 Ga ago. The higher abundance of primitive achondrites was likely due to smaller asteroid family forming events that have not been identified yet but that did

  20. A Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) Meteorite Compendium: Summarizing Samples of ASteroid 4 Vesta in Preparation for the Dawn Mission (United States)

    Garber, J. M.; Righter, K.


    The Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) suite of achondritic meteorites, thought to originate from asteroid 4 Vesta, has recently been summarized into a meteorite compendium. This compendium will serve as a guide for researchers interested in further analysis of HEDs, and we expect that interest in these samples will greatly increase with the planned arrival of the Dawn Mission at Vesta in August 2011. The focus of this abstract/poster is to (1) introduce and describe HED samples from both historical falls and Antarctic finds, and (2) provide information on unique HED samples available for study from the Antarctic Meteorite Collection at JSC, including the vesicular eucrite PCA91007, the olivine diogenite EETA79002, and the paired ALH polymict eucrites.

  1. A large planetary body inferred from diamond inclusions in a ureilite meteorite. (United States)

    Nabiei, Farhang; Badro, James; Dennenwaldt, Teresa; Oveisi, Emad; Cantoni, Marco; Hébert, Cécile; El Goresy, Ahmed; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Gillet, Philippe


    Planetary formation models show that terrestrial planets are formed by the accretion of tens of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos through energetic giant impacts. However, relics of these large proto-planets are yet to be found. Ureilites are one of the main families of achondritic meteorites and their parent body is believed to have been catastrophically disrupted by an impact during the first 10 million years of the solar system. Here we studied a section of the Almahata Sitta ureilite using transmission electron microscopy, where large diamonds were formed at high pressure inside the parent body. We discovered chromite, phosphate, and (Fe,Ni)-sulfide inclusions embedded in diamond. The composition and morphology of the inclusions can only be explained if the formation pressure was higher than 20 GPa. Such pressures suggest that the ureilite parent body was a Mercury- to Mars-sized planetary embryo.

  2. Early inner solar system origin for anomalous sulfur isotopes in differentiated protoplanets. (United States)

    Antonelli, Michael A; Kim, Sang-Tae; Peters, Marc; Labidi, Jabrane; Cartigny, Pierre; Walker, Richard J; Lyons, James R; Hoek, Joost; Farquhar, James


    Achondrite meteorites have anomalous enrichments in (33)S, relative to chondrites, which have been attributed to photochemistry in the solar nebula. However, the putative photochemical reactions remain elusive, and predicted accompanying (33)S depletions have not previously been found, which could indicate an erroneous assumption regarding the origins of the (33)S anomalies, or of the bulk solar system S-isotope composition. Here, we report well-resolved anomalous (33)S depletions in IIIF iron meteorites (solar system (solar system S-isotope composition was chondritic (consistent with IAB iron meteorites, Earth, Moon, and Mars). The range of mass-independent sulfur isotope compositions may reflect spatial or temporal changes influenced by photochemical processes. A tentative correlation between S isotopes and Hf-W core segregation ages suggests that the two systems may be influenced by common factors, such as nebular location and volatile content.

  3. Electron microprobe analysis (WDS EPMA) of Zhamanshin glass reveals the impactor and a common role of accretion in the origin of splash-form impact glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetvicka, I; Frank, J; Drtina, J


    Impact glass samples collected during expeditions to the Zhamashin and Lonar craters were subjected to a morphology survey and compared to Wabar, Henbury and Darwin impact glasses to reveal that the accretion of fibres and spherules is not exclusive for irghizites but occurs in other splash form glasses over the world. WDS EPMA and LA-ICP-MS assays of Zhamanshin and Lonar glasses enabled the definition of akmurynites as Zhamanshin glass of specific morphology, chemistry and absence of extraterrestrial contamination. However, extraterrestrial contamination in irghizites was verified and further WDS EPMA analyses led to the conclusion that the Zhamanshin crater had been formed by the impact of a primitive achondrite of Lodran chemistry.

  4. Low γ activity measurement of meteorites using HPGe–NaI detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombetti, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino – INAF, Torino (Italy); Taricco, C., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino – INAF, Torino (Italy); Bhandari, N. [Basic Sciences Research Institute, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad (India); Sinha, N. [Department of Science, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston (United States); Di Martino, M.; Cora, A. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino – INAF, Torino (Italy); Vivaldo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino (Italy)


    The radioactivity in natural samples like cosmogenic isotopes in meteorites, in Moon samples, in earth and ice in Antarctica, produced by protons, neutrons, μ mesons and other charged particles, is very low, usually below 0.001 disintegration per minute per gram. Therefore, very special techniques are required, particularly if the sample cannot be destroyed for chemical separation and system must have possibility of counting large amount of sample. For this purpose we have developed a highly selective Ge–NaI coincidence spectrometer, operating in the underground Laboratory of Monte dei Cappuccini (INAF) in Torino. We have then improved it by developing a multiparametric acquisition system, which allows better selectivity of the coincidence windows (e.g., in meteorites, to disentangle cosmogenic {sup 44}Ti signal from overlapping {sup 214}Bi, originated by naturally occurring {sup 238}U). Applications of this system to the study of meteorites (chondrite, achondrite and iron samples) are described.

  5. Pigeonholing planetary meteorites: The lessons of misclassification of EET87521 and ALH84001 (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.


    The last few years have provided two noteworthy examples of misclassifications of achondritic meteorites because the samples were new kinds of meteorites from planetary rather than asteroidal parent bodies. Basaltic lunar meteorite EET87521 was misclassified as a eucrite and SNC (martian) orthopyroxenite ALH84001 was misclassified as a diogenite. In classifying meteorites we find what we expect: we pigeonhole meteorites into known categories most of which were derived from the more common asteroidal meteorites. But the examples of EET8752 and ALH84001 remind us that planets are more complex than asteroids and exhibit a wider variety of rock types. We should expect variety in planetary meteorites and we need to know how to recognize them when we have them. Our intent here is to show that our asteroidal perspective is inappropriate for planetary meteorites.

  6. Elemental composition analysis of stony meteorites discovered in Phitsanulok, Thailand (United States)

    Loylip, T.; Wannawichian, S.


    A meteorite is a fragment of pure stone, iron or the mixture of stony-iron. The falling of meteorites into Earth’s surface is part of Earth’s accretion process from dust and rocks in our solar system. When these fragments come close enough to the Earth to be attracted by its gravity, they may fall into the Earth. Following the detection of objects that fall from the sky onto a home in Phitsanulok in June 27, the meteorites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) instruments. The results from SEM/EDS analysis show that the meteorites are mainly composed of Fe-Ni and Fe-s. The meteorite is Achondrite, a class of meteorite which does not contain Chondrule. The meteorites in this work are thought to be part of a large asteroid.

  7. In Situ Analysis of Orthopyroxene in Diogenites Using Laser Ablation ICP-MS (United States)

    Elk, Mattias; Quinn, J. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.


    Howardites, eucrites and diogenites (HED) form a suit of igneous achondrite meteorites that are thought to have formed on a single asteroidal body. While there have been many different models proposed for the formation of the HED parent asteroid they can be generalized into two end member models. One is the magma ocean model (e.g. [1]) in which the entire HED parent body was continuously fractionated from a planet wide magma ocean with diogenites representing the lower crust and eucrites being upper crustal rocks. The second model hypothesizes that diogenites and eucrites were formed as a series of intrusions and/or extrusions of partial melts of a primitive proto-Vesta [2]. We use in situ trace element analysis together with major and minor element analysis to try and distinguish between these different hypotheses for the evolution of the HED parent body.

  8. Mercury (Hg) in meteorites: Variations in abundance, thermal release profile, mass-dependent and mass-independent isotopic fractionation (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Cloquet, Christophe; Marty, Bernard


    We have measured the concentration, isotopic composition and thermal release profiles of Mercury (Hg) in a suite of meteorites, including both chondrites and achondrites. We find large variations in Hg concentration between different meteorites (ca. 10 ppb to 14,000 ppb), with the highest concentration orders of magnitude above the expected bulk solar system silicates value. From the presence of several different Hg carrier phases in thermal release profiles (150-650 °C), we argue that these variations are unlikely to be mainly due to terrestrial contamination. The Hg abundance of meteorites shows no correlation with petrographic type, or mass-dependent fractionation of Hg isotopes. Most carbonaceous chondrites show mass-independent enrichments in the odd-numbered isotopes 199Hg and 201Hg. We show that the enrichments are not nucleosynthetic, as we do not find corresponding nucleosynthetic deficits of 196Hg. Instead, they can partially be explained by Hg evaporation and redeposition during heating of asteroids from primordial radionuclides and late-stage impact heating. Non-carbonaceous chondrites, most achondrites and the Earth do not show these enrichments in vapor-phase Hg. All meteorites studied here have however isotopically light Hg (δ202Hg = ∼-7 to -1) relative to the Earth's average crustal values, which could suggest that the Earth has lost a significant fraction of its primordial Hg. However, the late accretion of carbonaceous chondritic material on the order of ∼2%, which has been suggested to account for the water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gas inventories of the Earth, can also contribute most or all of the Earth's current Hg budget. In this case, the isotopically heavy Hg of the Earth's crust would have to be the result of isotopic fractionation between surface and deep-Earth reservoirs.

  9. Geologic History of Asteroid 4 Vesta (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.


    Some types of meteorites - most irons, stony irons, some achondrites - hail from asteroids that were heated to the point where magmatism occurred within a very few million years of the formation of the earliest solids in the solar system. The largest clan of achondrites, the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites, represent the crust of their parent asteroid]. Diogenites are cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust whilst eucrites are basalts, diabases and cumulate gabbros from the upper crust. Howardites are impact-engendered breccias mostly of diogenites and eucrites. There remains only one large asteroid with a basaltic crust, 4 Vesta, which is thought to be the source of the HED clan. Differentiation models for Vesta are based on HED compositions. Proto-Vesta consisted of chondritic materials containing Al-26, a potent, short-lived heat source. Inferences from compositional data are that Vesta was melted to high degree (=50%) allowing homogenization of the silicate phase and separation of a metallic core. Convection of the silicate magma ocean allowed equilibrium crystallization, forming a harzburgitic mantle. After convective lockup occurred, melt collected between the mantle and the cool thermal boundary layer and underwent fractional crystallization forming an orthopyroxene-rich (diogenite) lower crust. The initial thermal boundary layer of chondritic material was replaced by a mafic upper crust through impact disruption and foundering. The mafic crust thickened over time as additional residual magma intrudes and penetrates the mafic crust forming plutons, dikes, sills and flows of cumulate and basaltic eucrite composition. This magmatic history may have taken only 2-3 Myr. This magma ocean scenario is at odds with a model of heat and magma transport that indicates that small degrees of melt would be rapidly expelled from source regions, precluding development of a magma ocean. Constraints from radiogenic Mg-26 distibutions

  10. Isotopic and chemical investigations on Angra dos Reis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserburg, G.J.; Tera, F.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Huneke, J.C.


    Extensive isotopic studies of Pb, Sr and Xe and chemical abundance measurements of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, Nd, Sm, U and Th for total meteorite and mineral separates of the Angra dos Reis achondrite are reported on. U-Pb, Th-Pb and Pb-Pb ages are concordant at 4.54 AE for the total meteorite and for high-purity whitlockite in Angra dos Reis. This establishes Angra dos Reis as an early planetary differentiate which has not been disturbed for these systems since 4.54 AE ago. Measured 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in pyroxene and whitlockite for Angra dos Reis (ADOR) are distinctly below BABI by two parts in 10 4 and only one part in 10 4 above the lowest 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (ALL) measured in an Allende inclusion. The difference in ADOR-ALL corresponds to an interval of condensation in the solar nebula of approximately 3 m.y. If 26 Al was the heat source for the magmatism on the parent planets of Angra dos Reis and the basaltic achondrites (BABI) then the relatively large difference in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, BABI - ALL, must be the result of planetary evolution rather than condensation over approximately 10 m.y. Xe isotopic measurements confirm the presence of large amounts of 244 Pu-produced fission Xe and show that 244 Pu was enriched in the whitlockite relative to the pyroxene by a factor of approximately 18. Chemical element enrichment factors between the whitlockite and the fassaitic pyroxene in Angra dos Reis are presented. The enrichment factors demonstrate close analogy between the rare earth elements and their actinide analogs. The enrichment factor for Pu is intermediate to the enrichment factors of Nd and Sm. (Auth.)

  11. Magnetic Evidence for a Partially Differentiated Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Body and Possible Implications for Asteroid 21 Lutetia (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin; Carporzen, L.; Elkins-Tanton, L.; Shuster, D. L.; Ebel, D. S.; Gattacceca, J.; Binzel, R. P.


    The origin of remanent magnetization in the CV carbonaceous chondrite Allende has been a longstanding mystery. The possibility of a core dynamo like that known for achondrite parent bodies has been discounted because chondrite parent bodies are assumed to be undifferentiated. Here we report that Allende's magnetization was acquired over several million years (Ma) during metasomatism on the parent planetesimal in a > 20 microtesla field 8-9 Ma after solar system formation. This field was present too recently and directionally stable for too long to have been the generated by the protoplanetary disk or young Sun. The field intensity is in the range expected for planetesimal core dynamos (Weiss et al. 2010), suggesting that CV chondrites are derived from the outer, unmelted layer of a partially differentiated body with a convecting metallic core (Elkins-Tanton et al. 2010). This suggests that asteroids with differentiated interiors could be present today but masked under chondritic surfaces. In fact, CV chondrites are spectrally similar to many members of the Eos asteroid family whose spectral diversity has been interpreted as evidence for a partially differentiated parent asteroid (Mothe-Diniz et al. 2008). CV chondrite spectral and polarimetric data also resemble those of asteroid 21 Lutetia (e.g., Belskaya et al. 2010), recently encountered by the Rosetta spacecraft. Ground-based measurements of Lutetia indicate a high density of 2.4-5.1 g cm-3 (Drummond et al. 2010), while radar data seem to rule out a metallic surface composition (Shepard et al. 2008). If Rosetta spacecraft measurements confirm a high density and a CV-like surface composition for Lutetia, then we propose Lutetia may be an example of a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body. Regardless, the very existence of primitive achondrites, which contain evidence of both relict chondrules and partial melting, are prima facie evidence for the formation of partially differentiated bodies.

  12. Khatyrka, a new CV3 find from the Koryak Mountains, Eastern Russia (United States)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Bindi, Luca; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.


    A new meteorite find, named Khatyrka, was recovered from eastern Siberia as a result of a search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. The meteorite occurs as clastic grains within postglacial clay-rich layers along the banks of a small stream in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of far eastern Russia. Some of the grains are clearly chondritic and contain Type IA porphyritic olivine chondrules enclosed in matrices that have the characteristic platy olivine texture, matrix olivine composition, and mineralogy (olivine, pentlandite, nickel-rich iron-nickel metal, nepheline, and calcic pyroxene [diopside-hedenbergite solid solution]) of oxidized-subgroup CV3 chondrites. A few grains are fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with mineral oxygen isotopic compositions again typical of such objects in CV3 chondrites. The chondritic and CAI grains contain small fragments of metallic copper-aluminum-iron alloys that include the quasicrystalline phase icosahedrite. One grain is an achondritic intergrowth of Cu-Al metal alloys and forsteritic olivine ± diopsidic pyroxene, both of which have meteoritic (CV3-like) oxygen isotopic compositions. Finally, some grains consist almost entirely of metallic alloys of aluminum + copper ± iron. The Cu-Al-Fe metal alloys and the alloy-bearing achondrite clast are interpreted to be an accretionary component of what otherwise is a fairly normal CV3 (oxidized) chondrite. This association of CV3 chondritic grains with metallic copper-aluminum alloys makes Khatyrka a unique meteorite, perhaps best described as a complex CV3 (ox) breccia.

  13. Photometry of the bright and dark terrains of Vesta and Lutetia with comparison to other asteroids (United States)

    Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Capaccioni, F.; De Sanctis, M.; Tosi, F.; Schroder, S.; Li, J.; Capria, M.; Ammannito, E.; Raymond, C.; Russell, C.


    -type asteroids show the lowest R30 and the highest PS due to their low albedo and the negligible role of multiple scattering. On the contrary, the E-type asteroid Steins has a larger R30 and a lower PS. The R30 and PS parameters found in bright material units on Vesta are similar to those found for Steins, evidencing a photometric analogy between achondritic surfaces. We argued that the different photometric behavior of achondrites compared to chondrites is driven by their optical properties (i.e., larger albedo and efficiency of multiple scattering). Based on physical properties, Vesta should have a PS value similar to S-type asteroids (because its grain size is similar on average) or a larger one (since roughness is larger on Vesta). Dark material units on Vesta show an intermediate behavior between achondrites and C-type asteroids, confirming the fact that these regions are characterized by mixtures of HED and carbonaceous chondrites. The photometric properties of Lutetia (low R30 and low PS) cannot be grouped within other asteroid spectral classes. Since Lutetia is commonly classified as a C-type or an E-type, its surface should present physical or optical properties significantly different from other asteroids of its same class.

  14. Chemistry and Ni-isotope composition of ureilites and their components (United States)

    Gabriel, A. D.; Quitté, G.; Pack, A.


    Ureilites are olivine-pigeonite bearing achondrites with interstitial carbonaceous material and metal. The latter is present as balance calculations assuming a chondritic parent body yield a metal core with 7 to 11 wt% Ni and 0.3 to 0.55 wt% Co. Thermodynamic calculations of Fe-Ni and Fe-Co exchange between olivine and vein metal show that vein metal cannot be in equilibrium with the olivine at any temperature. We conclude that the vein metal is genetically not linked to the ureilite olivine and may have been injected into the parent body by an impactor. Recently published data show a deficit in 60Ni of - 0.24+/-0.02 ɛ-units for various achondrites including ureilites [1]. This has been interpreted as evidence for a late injection of 60Fe after formation of these achondrites. However, our chemical data for vein metal, which is the dominant Ni host in ureilites, demonstrate that bulk Ni isotope data have little meaning with respect to the formation of ureilite silicates. In this work we present Ni isotope data for bulk samples but also vein material and the silicate phase of 4 ureilites (ALHA77257, EET87157, EET96041, Kenna). Bulk ureilites have a ɛ60 between -0.05+/-0.12 and 0.08+/-0.12; the vein metal gives ɛ60 = -0.05+/-0.13 to 0.11+/-0.16. No resolvable deficit in ɛ60 was found, in disagreement with results reported in Bizzarro et al. (2007). The vein material and the bulk samples have, within uncertainty, the same isotopic composition, confirming that the global Ni budget is controlled by the vein material. In ureilite silicates ɛ60 varies from -0.77+/-0.31 to -0.12+/-0.21. Due to the high Fe/Ni ratio of silicates, clear excesses of 60Ni (at least several ɛ-units) are expected if they formed early in the solar system. This is not observed. There is thus no evidence for life 60Fe in ureilites, which may be interpreted in different ways: either 60Fe was injected at a later time into the protoplanetary disk as suggested by [1] (but this is difficult to

  15. Asteroid 4 Vesta: A Fully Differentiated Dwarf Planet (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David


    One conclusion derived from the study of meteorites is that some of them - most irons, stony irons, some achondrites - hail from asteroids that were heated to the point where metallic cores and basaltic crusts were formed. Telescopic observations show that there remains only one large asteroid with a basaltic crust, 4 Vesta; present day mean radius 263 km. The largest clan of achondrites, the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites, represent the crust of their parent asteroid. Diogenites are cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust whilst eucrites are cumulate gabbros, diabases and basalts from the upper crust. Howardites are impact-engendered breccias of diogenites and eucrites. A strong case can be made that HEDs are derived from Vesta. The NASA Dawn spacecraft orbited Vesta for 14 months returning data allowing geological, mineralogical, compositional and geophysical interpretations of Vesta's surface and structure. Combined with geochemical and petrological observations of HED meteorites, differentiation models for Vesta can be developed. Proto-Vesta probably consisted of primitive chondritic materials. Compositional evidence, primarily from basaltic eucrites, indicates that Vesta was melted to high degree (>=50%) which facilitated homogenization of the silicate phase and separation of immiscible Fe,Ni metal plus Fe sulphide into a core. Geophysical models based on Dawn data support a core of 110 km radius. The silicate melt vigorously convected and initially followed a path of equilibrium crystallization forming a harzburgitic mantle, possibly overlying a dunitic restite. Once the fraction of crystals was sufficient to cause convective lockup, the remaining melt collected between the mantle and the cool thermal boundary layer. This melt undergoes fractional crystallization to form a dominantly orthopyroxenite (diogenite) lower crust. The initial thermal boundary layer of primitive chondritic material is gradually replaced by a

  16. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 20th, Houston, TX, Mar. 13-17, 1989, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpton, V.L.; Ryder, G.


    Topics discussed include the petrology and geochemistry of the moon, the geology of the moon, lunar regolith processes and resources, the petrology and geochemistry of achondrites, comets and interplanetary dust, shock and terrestrial cratering, the geology of Mars, and the geology of Venus. Papers are presented on silicate liquid immiscibility in isothermal crystallization experiments; highly evolved and ultramafic lithologies from Apollo 14 soils; the relationship between orbital, earth-based, and sample data for lunar landing sites; and the volcanotectonic evolution of Mare Frigoris. Attention is also given to glass variants and multiple HASP trends in Apollo 14 regolith breccias, the characterization of lunar ilmenite resources, the U-Th-Pb systematics of the Estherville mesosiderite, and the extraterrestrial halogen and sulfur contents of the stratosphere. Other papers are on argon-40/argon-39 dating of impact craters; the outliers of dust along the southern margin of the Tharsis region, Mars; and the geology of southern Guinevere Planitia, Venus, based on analyses of Goldstone radar data

  17. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Ureilites Including Almahata Sitta (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.


    Ureilites are a class of meteorites that lack chondrules (achondrites) but have relatively high carbon abundances, averaging approx.3 wt %. Using highly sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), it was recently determined that there are amino acids in. fragment 94 of the Almahata Sitta ureilite[l]. Based on the presence of amino acids that are rare in the Earth's biosphere, as well as the near-racemic enantiomeric ratios of marry of the more common amino acids, it was concluded that most of the detected amino acids were indigenous to the meteorite. Although the composition of the Almahata Sitta ureilite appears to be unlike other recovered ureilites, the discovery of amino acids in this meteorite raises the question of whether other ureilites rnav also contain amino acids. Herein we present the results of LC-FDlTo.F-MS analyses of: a sand sample from the Almahata Sitta strewn held, Almahata Sitta fragments 425 (an ordinary H5 chondrite) and 427 (ureilite), as well as an Antarctic ureilite (Allan lulls, ALHA 77257).

  18. Unmelted meteoritic debris in the Late Pliocene iridium anomaly - Evidence for the ocean impact of a nonchondritic asteroid (United States)

    Kyte, F. T.; Brownlee, D. E.


    Ir-bearing particles have been recovered from two piston cores in the Antarctic Basin in the southeastern Pacific. In core E13-3, the particles closely correspond to the Late Pliocene Ir anomaly and have a fluence of about 100 mg/cm sq. In core E13-4, 120 km to the southwest, the particle fluence is about 4 mg/cm sq. Particles with diameters from 0.5 to 4 mm contain at least 35 percent of the Ir in this horizon. Three types of particles have been identified: (1) vesicular, (2) basaltic, and (3) metal. The vesicular particles appear to be shock-melted debris derived from the oceanic impact of a howarditic asteroid containing a minor metal component. These particles have recrystallized from a melt and impact into the ocean has resulted in the incorporation of Na, K, Cl, and radiogenic Sr from the ocean water target. The basaltic clasts appear to be unmelted fragments of the original asteroid which may have separated from the main body prior to impact. Combined vesicular and basaltic particles are believed to have formed by collisions in the debris cloud. Estimates of the diameter of the projectile range from 100 to 500 m. By many orders of magnitude, this is the most massive achondrite sampled by a single meteorite fall.

  19. A Breccia of Ureilitic and C2 Carbonaceous Chondrite Materials from Almahata Sitta: Implications for the Regolith of Urelitic Asteroids (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Fioretti, A. M.; Zolensky, M.; Fries, M.; Shaddad, M.; Kohl, I.; Young, E.; Jenniskens, P.


    The Almahata Sitta (AhS) polymict ureilite is the first meteorite to originate from a spectrally classified asteroid (2008 TC3) [1-3], and provides an unprecedented opportunity to correlate properties of meteorites with those of their parent asteroid. AhS is also unique because its fragments comprise a wide variety of meteorite types. Of approximately140 stones studied to-date, 70% are ureilites (carbon-rich ultramafic achondrites) and 30% are various types of chondrites [4,5]. None of these show contacts between ureilitic and chondritic lithologies. It has been inferred that 2008 TC3 was loosely aggregated, so that it disintegrated in the atmosphere and only its most coherent clasts fell as individual stones [1,3,5]. Understanding the structure and composition of this asteroid is critical for missions to sample asteroid surfaces. We are studying [6] the University of Khartoum collection of AhS [3] to test hypotheses for the nature of 2008 TC3. We describe a sample that consists of both ureilitic and chondritic materials.

  20. Petrology of chromite in ureilites: Deconvolution of primary oxidation states and secondary reduction processes (United States)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne; Harlow, George E.; Van Orman, James A.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Jercinovic, Michael J.; Mikouchi, Takashi


    Ureilites are ultramafic achondrites thought to be residues of partial melting on a carbon-rich asteroid. They show a trend of FeO-variation (olivine Fo from ∼74 to 95) that suggests variation in oxidation state. Whether this variation was established during high-temperature igneous processing on the ureilite parent body (UPB), or preserved from nebular precursors, is a subject of debate. The behavior of chromium in ureilites offers a way to assess redox conditions during their formation and address this issue, independent of Fo. We conducted a petrographic and mineral compositional study of occurrences of chromite (Cr-rich spinel) in ureilites, aimed at determining the origin of the chromite in each occurrence and using primary occurrences to constrain models of ureilite petrogenesis. Chromite was studied in LEW 88774 (Fo 74.2), NWA 766 (Fo 76.7), NWA 3109 (Fo 76.3), HaH 064 (Fo 77.5), LAP 03587 (Fo 74.9), CMS 04048 (Fo 76.4), LAP 02382 (Fo 78.6) and EET 96328 (Fo 85.2). Chromite occurs in LEW 88774 (∼5 vol.%), NWA 766 (event involved initial elevation of T (to 1300-1400 °C), followed by rapid decompression and drop in T (to exclusively in low-Fo samples supports the interpretation that the ureilite FeO-variation was established during igneous processing on the UPB.

  1. Asteroid 2008 TC3 Breakup and Meteorite Fractions (United States)

    Goodrich, C.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Fioretti, A. M.


    The recovery of meteorites from the impact of asteroid 2008 TC3 in the Nubian Desert of Sudan on October 7, 2008, marked the first time meteorites were collected from an asteroid observed in space by astronomical techniques before impacting. Search teams from the University of Khartoum traced the location of the strewn field and collected about 660 meteorites in four expeditions to the fall region, all of which have known fall coordinates. Upon further study, the Almahata Sitta meteorites proved to be a mixed bag of mostly ureilites (course grained, fine grained, and sulfide-metal assemblages), enstatite chondrites (EL3-6, EH3, EH5, breccias) and ordinary chondrites (H5-6, L4-5). One bencubbinite-like carbonaceous chondrite was identified, as well as one unique Rumuruti-like chondrite and an Enstatite achondrite. New analysis: The analysed meteorites so far suggest a high 30-40 percent fraction of non-ureilites among the recovered samples, but that high fraction does not appear to be in agreement with the meteorites in the University of Khartoum (UoK) collection. Ureilites dominate the meteorites that were recovered by the Sudanese teams. To better understand the fraction of recovered materials that fell to Earth, a program has been initiated to type the meteorites in the UoK collection in defined search areas. At this meeting, we will present some preliminary results from that investigation.

  2. A Martian origin for the Mars Trojan asteroids (United States)

    Polishook, D.; Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.; Aharonson, O.


    Seven of the nine known Mars Trojan asteroids belong to an orbital cluster1,2 named after its largest member, (5261) Eureka. Eureka is probably the progenitor of the whole cluster, which formed at least 1 Gyr ago3. It has been suggested3 that the thermal YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect spun up Eureka, resulting in fragments being ejected by the rotational-fission mechanism. Eureka's spectrum exhibits a broad and deep absorption band around 1 μm, indicating an olivine-rich composition4. Here we show evidence that the Trojan Eureka cluster progenitor could have originated as impact debris excavated from the Martian mantle. We present new near-infrared observations of two Trojans ((311999) 2007 NS2 and (385250) 2001 DH47) and find that both exhibit an olivine-rich reflectance spectrum similar to Eureka's. These measurements confirm that the progenitor of the cluster has an achondritic composition4. Olivine-rich reflectance spectra are rare amongst asteroids5 but are seen around the largest basins on Mars6. They are also consistent with some Martian meteorites (for example, Chassigny7) and with the material comprising much of the Martian mantle8,9. Using numerical simulations, we show that the Mars Trojans are more likely to be impact ejecta from Mars than captured olivine-rich asteroids transported from the main belt. This result directly links specific asteroids to debris from the forming planets.

  3. REE Partition Coefficients from Synthetic Diogenite-Like Enstatite and the Implications of Petrogenetic Modeling (United States)

    Schwandt, C. S.; McKay, G. A.


    Determining the petrogenesis of eucrites (basaltic achondrites) and diogenites (orthopyroxenites) and the possible links between the meteorite types was initiated 30 years ago by Mason. Since then, most investigators have worked on this question. A few contrasting theories have emerged, with the important distinction being whether or not there is a direct genetic link between eucrites and diogenites. One theory suggests that diogenites are cumulates resulting from the fractional crystallization of a parent magma with the eucrites crystallizing, from the residual magma after separation from the diogenite cumulates. Another model proposes that diogenites are cumulates formed from partial melts derived from a source region depleted by the prior generation of eucrite melts. It has also been proposed that the diogenites may not be directly linked to the eucrites and that they are cumulates derived from melts that are more orthopyroxene normative than the eucrites. This last theory has recently received more analytical and experimental support. One of the difficulties with petrogenetic modeling is that it requires appropriate partition coefficients for modeling because they are dependent on temperature, pressure, and composition. For this reason, we set out to determine minor- and trace-element partition coefficients for diogenite-like orthopyroxene. We have accomplished this task and now have enstatite/melt partition coefficients for Al, Cr, Ti, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb, and La.

  4. U-Pb Dating of Zircons and Phosphates in Lunar Meteorites, Acapulcoites and Angrites (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Zeigler, R. A.; Yin, Q. Z.; Korotev, R. L.; Joliff, B. L.; Amelin, Y.; Marti, K.; Wu, F. Y.; Li, X. H.; Li, Q. L.; hide


    Zircon U-Pb geochronology has made a great contribution to the timing of magmatism in the early Solar System [1-3]. Ca phosphates are another group of common accessory minerals in meteorites with great potential for U-Pb geochronology. Compared to zircons, the lower closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for apatite and merrillite (the most common phosphates in achondrites) makes them susceptible to resetting during thermal metamorphism. The different closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for zircon and apatite provide us an opportunity to discover the evolutionary history of meteoritic parent bodies, such as the crystallization ages of magmatism, as well as later impact events and thermal metamorphism. We have developed techniques using the Cameca IMS-1280 ion microprobe to date both zircon and phosphate grains in meteorites. Here we report U-Pb dating results for zircons and phosphates from lunar meteorites Dhofar 1442 and SaU 169. To test and verify the reliability of the newly developed phosphate dating technique, two additional meteorites, Acapulco, obtained from Acapulco consortium, and angrite NWA 4590 were also selected for this study as both have precisely known phosphate U-Pb ages by TIMS [4,5]. Both meteorites are from very fast cooled parent bodies with no sign of resetting [4,5], satisfying a necessity for precise dating.

  5. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Topics covered include: mass asymmetry and total kinetic energy release in the spontaneous fission of 262 105; calculation of spontaneous fission properties of very heavy nuclei - 98 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 106 and 150 less than or equal to N less than or equal to 164; energy losses for 84 Kr ions in nickel, aluminium and titanium; differences in compound nuclei formed with 40 Ar and 84 Kr projectiles; measurement of the energy division vs. mass in highly damped reactions; ambiguities in the inference of precompound emission from excitation function analysis; selective laser one-atom detection of neutral prompt fission fragments; laser induced nuclear polarization - application to the study of spontaneous fission isomers; quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations in the actinide nuclei; high-spin states in 164 Yb; contrasting behavior of h/sub 9/2/ and i/sub 13/2/ bands in 185 Au; multiple band crossings in 164 Er; recoil-distance measurement of lifetimes of rotational states in 164 Dy, lifetimes of ground-band states in 192 Pt and 194 Pt and application of the rotation-alignment model; coulomb excitation of vibrational nuclei with heavy ions; surface structure of deformed nuclei; valency contribution to neutron capture in 32 S; neutron capture cross section of manganese; search for superheavy elements in natural samples by neutron multiplicity counting; and gamma-ray studies on the geochemistry of achondritic meteorites

  6. Evidence for Reduced, Carbon-rich Regions in the Solar Nebula from an Unusual Cometary Dust Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6366, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Nittler, Larry R. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Kilcoyne, A. L. David, E-mail: [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 7R0222, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    Geochemical indicators in meteorites imply that most formed under relatively oxidizing conditions. However, some planetary materials, such as the enstatite chondrites, aubrite achondrites, and Mercury, were produced in reduced nebular environments. Because of large-scale radial nebular mixing, comets and other Kuiper Belt objects likely contain some primitive material related to these reduced planetary bodies. Here, we describe an unusual assemblage in a dust particle from comet 81P/Wild 2 captured in silica aerogel by the NASA Stardust spacecraft. The bulk of this ∼20 μ m particle is comprised of an aggregate of nanoparticulate Cr-rich magnetite, containing opaque sub-domains composed of poorly graphitized carbon (PGC). The PGC forms conformal shells around tiny 5–15 nm core grains of Fe carbide. The C, N, and O isotopic compositions of these components are identical within errors to terrestrial standards, indicating a formation inside the solar system. Magnetite compositions are consistent with oxidation of reduced metal, similar to that seen in enstatite chondrites. Similarly, the core–shell structure of the carbide + PGC inclusions suggests a formation via FTT reactions on the surface of metal or carbide grains in warm, reduced regions of the solar nebula. Together, the nanoscale assemblage in the cometary particle is most consistent with the alteration of primary solids condensed from a C-rich, reduced nebular gas. The nanoparticulate components in the cometary particle provide the first direct evidence from comets of reduced, carbon-rich regions that were present in the solar nebula.

  7. Studies on Al Kidirate and Kapoeta meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gismelseed, A.M.; Khangi, F.; Ibrahim, A.; Yousif, A.A.; Worthing, M.A.; Rais, A.; Elzain, M.E.; Brooks, C.K.; Sutherland, H.H.


    Moessbauer spectroscopy (20-300 K), magnetic susceptibility measurements (77-350 K), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on two meteorite samples: one from an old fall (Kapoeta) and another from a very recent fall (Al Kidirate). The two specimens differ in their mineralogy. Chondrules appear to be absent in Kapoeta and it is probably a pyroxene-plagioclase achondrite with ferrohypersthene as the most abundant mineral. On the other hand, the Al Kidirate meteorite is an ordinary chondrite and the specimen consists of olivine, orthopyroxene, troilite and kamacite. The Moessbauer measurements confirm the above characterization, showing a paramagnetic doublet for the Kapoeta sample and at least two paramagnetic doublets and magnetic sextets for the Al Kidirate specimens. The former were assigned to Fe in pyroxene sites, while the latter was assigned to Fe in pyroxene, olivine, Fe-S and Fe-Ni alloys. The difference in the mineralogy of the two meteorites has also been reflected in the temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility. The magnetization and the hyperfine interaction parameters will be discussed in relation to the mineralogy. (orig.)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, Martin; Paton, Chad; Bizzarro, Martin; Baker, Joel; Creech, John; Millet, Marc-Alban; Irving, Anthony


    Asteroid 4 Vesta has long been postulated as the source for the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) achondrite meteorites. Here we show that Al-free diogenite meteorites record variability in the mass-independent abundance of 26 Mg ( 26 Mg*) that is correlated with their mineral chemistry. This suggests that these meteorites captured the Mg-isotopic evolution of a large-scale differentiating magma body with increasing 27 Al/ 24 Mg during the lifespan of the short-lived 26 Al nuclide (t 1/2 ∼ 730,000 yr). Thus, diogenites and eucrites represent crystallization products of a large-scale magma ocean associated with the differentiation and magmatic evolution of the HED parent body. The 26 Mg* composition of the most primitive diogenites requires onset of the magma ocean crystallization within 0.6 -0.4 +0.5 Myr of solar system formation. Moreover, 26 Mg* variations among diogenites and eucrites imply that near complete solidification of the HED parent body occurred within the following 2-3 Myr. Thermal models predict that such rapid cooling and magma ocean crystallization could only occur on small asteroids (<100 km), implying that 4 Vesta is not the source of the HED meteorites.

  9. Indigenous abundances of siderophile elements in the lunar highlands: implications for the origin of the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, J.W.; Ringwood, A.E.


    Substantial indigeneous abundances of siderophile elements have been found to be present in the lunar highlands. The abundances of 13 siderophile elements in the parental magma were estimated by using a simple model. It is shown that metal/silicate fractionation within the Moon cannot have been the cause of the siderophile element abundances in the parental highlands magma and primitive, low-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundances of the indigenous siderophile elements in highlands and mare samples seem, instead, to be the result of complex processes which operated prior to the Moon's accretion. The abundances of the relatively involatile, siderophile elements in the parental highlands magma are strikingly similar to the abundances observed in terrestrial oceanic tholeiites. Furthermore, the abundances of the relatively volatile, siderophile elements in the parental highlands magma are also systematically related to the corresponding abundances in terrestrial oceanic tholeiites. In fact, the parental magma of the lunar highlands can be essentially regarded as having been a volatile-depleted terrestrial oceanic tholeite. The origin of the moon is discussed in the context of the results. The probability that depletion of siderophile elements occurred in an earlier generation of differentiated planetesimals similar to those which formed the basaltic achondrites, stony-irons, and irons is examined but can be dismissed on several grounds. It seems that the uniquely terrestrial 'siderophile signature' within the Moon can be explained only if the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle subsequent to core-formation. (Auth.)

  10. Problems of cosmic radiogeochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsukov, V.L.; Shukolyukov, Yu.A.


    Theses on heterogeneous accretion of the Earth primary substance and two t ypes of the Earth crust are consideredon the base of radioisotopic data. Prophound knowledge of the planet geochemistry is impossible without an account of all data on chemical composition of the Moon, Venus, Mars and other plane ts and meteorites. Primary nucleosynthesis turned out to be multistage, and thi s fact is reflected in isotopic and chemical heterogeneity of a protolanetary cl oud. An idea of isotopic space chemical heterogeneity of the evolutionary Sola r system inevitably leads to representations on heterogeneous accretion of the Earth in space and time: iron-nickel nucleus consolidation; later, consolidatio n of substance of achondrite composition; and at the latest stage, consideration of coaly hondrites c1-c2. Primary crust of the anorthitite composition formed i n a course of the Earth meteorite bombardment covered the whole Earth. During the following Earth expansion a part of primary crust turned out to be covered by a basalt bayer. Isotopic data confirm the above representations

  11. Age of meteorites, the Moon, the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikova, G.V.; Levskij, L.K.


    Review of modern data on age determination of meteorites and lunar rocks and review of papers dedicted to calculations of the Earth age as well are given. Analysis of the age present values, obtained by different methods of isotopic dating has allowed to build up the global events following succession: ∼ 4.8x10 9 years ago - the beginning of dust component condensation within protosolar cloud; ∼ 4.55x10 9 year - the end of cosmic bodies accretion; (4.5-4.4)x10 9 years - differentiation of large planetray bodies (the Moon, the Mars, the Earth) with isolation of the bed type protocrust. Substance differentiation is not typical for solar system small bodies (asteroid-size bodies). Development of the magnetism of main composition (achondrites) on the surface of these bodies is their peculiarity. Both differentiation and basalt volcanism at early periods of cosmic bodies existance are initiated by exogenous factors. Duration of endogenous basalt volcanism correlates with planetary body size

  12. Isotopic Dichotomy among Meteorites and Its Bearing on the Protoplanetary Disk (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Sanders, Ian S.


    Whole rock Δ17O and nucleosynthetic isotopic variations for chromium, titanium, nickel, and molybdenum in meteorites define two isotopically distinct populations: carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) and some achondrites, pallasites, and irons in one and all other chondrites and differentiated meteorites in the other. Since differentiated bodies accreted 1–3 Myr before the chondrites, the isotopic dichotomy cannot be attributed to temporal variations in the disk. Instead, the two populations were most likely separated in space, plausibly by proto-Jupiter. Formation of CCs outside Jupiter could account for their characteristic chemical and isotopic composition. The abundance of refractory inclusions in CCs can be explained if they were ejected by disk winds from near the Sun to the disk periphery where they spiraled inward due to gas drag. Once proto-Jupiter reached 10–20 M ⊕, its external pressure bump could have prevented millimeter- and centimeter-sized particles from reaching the inner disk. This scenario would account for the enrichment in CCs of refractory inclusions, refractory elements, and water. Chondrules in CCs show wide ranges in Δ17O as they formed in the presence of abundant 16O-rich refractory grains and 16O-poor ice particles. Chondrules in other chondrites (ordinary, E, R, and K groups) show relatively uniform, near-zero Δ17O values as refractory inclusions and ice were much less abundant in the inner solar system. The two populations were plausibly mixed together by the Grand Tack when Jupiter and Saturn migrated inward emptying and then repopulating the asteroid belt with roughly equal masses of planetesimals from inside and outside Jupiter’s orbit (S- and C-type asteroids).

  13. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.


    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  14. Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous-chondrite Inclusions in the Kapoeta Meteorite: Discovery of Nanodiamonds with New Spectral Features and Astrophysical Implications (United States)

    Abdu, Yassir A.; Hawthorne, Frank C.; Varela, Maria E.


    We report the finding of nanodiamonds, coexisting with amorphous carbon, in carbonaceous-chondrite (CC) material from the Kapoeta achondritic meteorite by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. In the C–H stretching region (3100–2600 cm‑1), the FTIR spectrum of the Kapoeta CC material (KBr pellet) shows bands attributable to aliphatic CH2 and CH3 groups, and is very similar to IR spectra of organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites and the diffuse interstellar medium. Nanodiamonds, as evidenced by micro-Raman spectroscopy, were found in a dark region (∼400 μm in size) in the KBr pellet. Micro-FTIR spectra collected from this region are dramatically different from the KBr-pellet spectrum, and their C–H stretching region is dominated by a strong and broad absorption band centered at ∼2886 cm‑1 (3.47 μm), very similar to that observed in IR absorption spectra of hydrocarbon dust in dense interstellar clouds. Micro-FTIR spectroscopy also indicates the presence of an aldehyde and a nitrile, and both of the molecules are ubiquitous in dense interstellar clouds. In addition, IR peaks in the 1500–800 cm‑1 region are also observed, which may be attributed to different levels of nitrogen aggregation in diamonds. This is the first evidence for the presence of the 3.47 μm interstellar IR band in meteorites. Our results further support the assignment of this band to tertiary CH groups on the surfaces of nanodiamonds. The presence of the above interstellar bands and the absence of shock features in the Kapoeta nanodiamonds, as indicated by Raman spectroscopy, suggest formation by a nebular-condensation process similar to chemical-vapor deposition.

  15. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Asteroid(4) Vesta (United States)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Bodewits, Dennis; Feaga, Lori M.; Landsman, Wayne; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Mutchler, Max J.; Russell, Christopher T.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Raymond, Carol A.


    We report a comprehensive review of the UV-visible spectrum and rotational lightcurve of Vesta combining new observations by Hubble Space Telescope and Swift with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer observations. The geometric albedos of Vesta from 220 nm to 953 nm arc derived by carefully comparing these observations from various instruments at different times and observing geometries. Vesta has a rotationally averaged geometric albedo of 0.09 at 250 nm, 0.14 at 300 nm, 0.26 at 373 nm, 0.38 at 673 nm, and 0.30 at 950 nm. The linear spectral slope in the ultraviolet displays a sharp minimum ncar sub-Earth longitude of 20deg, and maximum in the eastern hemisphere. This is completely consistent with the distribution of the spectral slope in the visible wavelength. The uncertainty of the measurement in the ultraviolet is approx.20%, and in the visible wavelengths better than 10%. The amplitude of Vesta's rotational lightcurves is approx.10% throughout the range of wavelengths we observed, but is smaller at 950 nm (approx.6%) ncar the 1-micron mafic band center. Contrary to earlier reports, we found no evidence for any difference between the phasing of the ultraviolet and visible/ncar-infrared lightcurves with respect to sub-Earth longitude. Vesta's average spectrum between 220 and 950 nm can well be described by measured reflectance spectra of fine particle howardite-like materials of basaltic achondrite meteorites. Combining this with the in-phase behavior of the ultraviolet, visible. and ncar-infrared lightcurves, and the spectral slopes with respect to the rotational phase, we conclude that there is no global ultraviolet/visible reversal on Vesta. Consequently, this implies lack of global space weathering on Vesta. Keyword,: Asteroid Vesta; Spectrophotometry; Spectroscopy; Ultraviolet observations; Hubble Space Telescope observations

  16. Meteorite falls in Africa (United States)

    Khiri, Fouad; Ibhi, Abderrahmane; Saint-Gerant, Thierry; Medjkane, Mohand; Ouknine, Lahcen


    The study of meteorites provides insight into the earliest history of our solar system. From 1800, about the year meteorites were first recognized as objects falling from the sky, until December 2014, 158 observed meteorite falls were recorded in Africa. Their collected mass ranges from 1.4 g to 175 kg with the 1-10 kg cases predominant. The average rate of African falls is low with only one fall recovery per 1.35-year time interval (or 0.023 per year per million km2). This African collection is dominated by ordinary chondrites (78%) just like in the worldwide falls. The seventeen achondrites include three Martian meteorite falls (Nakhla of Egypt, Tissint of Morocco and Zagami of Nigeria). Observed Iron meteorite falls are relatively rare and represent only 5%. The falls' rate in Africa is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860, 80% of which were recovered during the period between 1910 and 2014. Most of these documented meteorite falls have been recovered from North-Western Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. They are concentrated in countries which have a large surface area and a large population with a uniform distribution. Other factors are also favorable for observing and collecting meteorite falls across the African territory, such as: a genuine meteorite education, a semi-arid to arid climate (clear sky throughout the year most of the time), croplands or sparse grasslands and possible access to the fall location with a low percentage of forest cover and dense road network.

  17. Experimental Constraints on a Vesta Magma Ocean (United States)

    Hoff, C.; Jones, J. H.; Le, L.


    A magma ocean model was devised to relate eucrites (basalts) and diogenites (orthopyroxenites), which are found mixed together as clasts in a suite of polymict breccias known as howardites. The intimate association of eucritic and diogenitic clasts in howardites argues strongly that these three classes of achondritic meteorites all originated from the same planetoid. Reflectance spectral evidence (including that from the DAWN mission) has long suggested that Vesta is indeed the Eucrite Parent Body. Specifically, the magma ocean model was generated as follows: (i) the bulk Vesta composition was taken to be 0.3 CV chondrite + 0.7 L chondrite but using only 10% of the Na2O from this mixture; (ii) this composition is allowed to crystallize at 500 bar until approx. 80% of the system is solid olivine + low-Ca pyroxene; (iii) the remaining 20% liquid crystallizes at one bar from 1250C to 1110C, a temperature slightly above the eucrite solidus. All crystallization calculations were performed using MELTS. In this model, diogenites are produced by cocrystallization of olivine and pyroxene in the >1250C temperature regime, with Main Group eucrite liquids being generated in the 1300-1250C temperature interval. Low-Ca pyroxene reappears at 1210C in the one-bar calculations and fractionates the residual liquid to produce evolved eucrite compositions (Stannern Trend). We have attempted to experimentally reproduce the magma ocean. In the MELTS calculation, the change from 500 bar to one bar results in a shift of the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary so that the 1250C liquid is now in the olivine field and, consequently, olivine should be the first-crystallizing phase, followed by low-Ca pyroxene at 1210C, and plagioclase at 1170C. Because at one bar the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary is a peritectic, fractional crystallization of the 1210C liquid proceeds with only pyroxene crystallization until plagioclase appears. Thus, the predictions of the MELTS calculation are clear and

  18. Australasian microtektites: Impactor identification using Cr, Co and Ni ratios (United States)

    Folco, L.; Glass, B. P.; D'Orazio, M.; Rochette, P.


    Impactor identification is one of the challenges of large-scale impact cratering studies due to the dilution of meteoritic material in impactites (typically ratios in a Co/Ni vs Cr/Ni space (46 microtektites analyzed in this work by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma -Mass Spectrometry and 31 from literature by means of Neutron Activation Analyses with Cr, Co and Ni concentrations up to ∼370, 50 and 680 μg/g, respectively). Despite substantial overlap in Cr/Ni versus Co/Ni composition for several meteorite types with chondritic composition (chondrites and primitive achondrites), regression calculation based on ∼85% of the studied microtektites best fit a mixing line between crustal compositions and an LL chondrite. However, due to some scatter mainly in the Cr versus Ni ratios in the considered dataset, an LL chondrite may not be the best fit to the data amongst impactors of primitive compositions. Eight high Ni/Cr and five low Ni/Cr outlier microtektites (∼15% in total) deviate from the above mixing trend, perhaps resulting from incomplete homogenization of heterogeneous impactor and target precursor materials at the microtektite scale, respectively. Together with previous evidence from the ∼35 Myr old Popigai impact spherules and the ∼1 Myr old Ivory Coast microtektites, our finding suggests that at least three of the five known Cenozoic distal impact ejecta were generated by the impacts of large stony asteroids of chondritic composition, and possibly of ordinary chondritic composition. The impactor signature found in Australasian microtektites documents mixing of target and impactor melts upon impact cratering. This requires target-impactor mixing in both the two competing models in literature for the formation of the Australasian tektites/microtektites: the impact cratering and low-altitude airburst plume models.

  19. Search for fullerenes in stone meteorites (United States)

    Oester, M. Y.; Kuechl, D.; Sipiera, P. P.; Welch, C. J.


    The possibility of identifying fullerenes in stony meteorites became apparent from a paper given by Radicati de Brozolo. In this paper it was reported that fullerenes were present in the debris resulting from a collision between a micrometeoroid and an orbiting satellite. This fact generated sufficient curiosity to initiate a search for the presence of fullerenes in various stone meteorites. In the present study seven ordinary chondrites (al-Ghanim L6 (find), Dimmitt H4 (find), Lazbuddie LL5 (find), New Concord H5 (fall), Silverton H4 (find), Springlake L6 (find), and Umbarger L3/6 (find)). Four carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 83100 C2 (find), ALH 83108 C30 (find), Allende CV3 (fall), and Murchison CM2 (fall), and one achondrite (Monticello How (find)) were analyzed for the presence of fullerenes. The analytical procedure employed was as follows: 100 mg of meteorite was ground up with a mortar and pestle; 10 mL of toluene was then added and the mixture was refluxed for 90 min; this mixture was then filtered through a short column of silica; a 50 microliter sample was then analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Buckyclutcher I column with a mobile phase consisting of equal volumes of toluene and hexane at a flow rate of 1.00 mg per minute, with detection at 330 and 600 nm. Three of the meteorites, Allende, Murchison, and al-Ghanim, gave HPLC traces containing peaks with similar retention times to the HPLC trace of an authentic fullerene C60. However, further analysis using an HPLC instrument equipped with a diode-array detector failed to confirm any of the substances detected in the three meteorites as C60. Additional analyses will be conducted to identify what the HPLC traces actually represent.

  20. Antarctic Martian Meteorites at Johnson Space Center (United States)

    Funk, R. C.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Righter, K.; Harrington, R.


    This past year marked the 40th anniversary of the first Martian meteorite found in Antarctica by the ANSMET Antarctic Search for Meteorites) program, ALH 77005. Since then, an additional 14 Martian meteorites have been found by the ANSMET program making for a total of 15 Martian meteorites in the U. S. Antarctic meteorite collection at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Of the 15 meteorites, some have been paired so the 15 meteorites actually represent a total of approximately 9 separate samples. The first Martian meteorite found by ANSMET was ALH 77005 (482.500 g), a lherzolitic shergottite. When collected, this meteorite was split as a part of the joint expedition with the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) Japan. Originally classified as an "achondrite-unique", it was re-classified as a Martian lherzolitic shergottite in 1982. This meteorite has been allocated to 137 scientists for research and there are 180.934 g remaining at JSC. Two years later, one of the most significant Martian meteorites of the collection at JSC was found at Elephant Moraine, EET 79001 (7942.000 g), a shergottite. This meteorite is the largest in the Martian collection at JSC and was the largest stony meteorite sample collected during the 1979 season. In addition to its size, this meteorite is of particular interest because it contains a linear contact separating two different igneous lithologies, basaltic and olivine-phyric. EET 79001 has glass inclusions that contain noble gas and nitrogen compositions that are proportionally identical to the Martian atmosphere, as measured by the Viking spacecraft. This discovery helped scientists to identify where the "SNC" meteorite suite had originated, and that we actually possessed Martian samples. This meteorite has been allocated to 205 scientists for research and 5,298.435 g of sample is available.

  1. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of chondrites and silicate planetary reservoirs (United States)

    Schoenberg, Ronny; Merdian, Alexandra; Holmden, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Haßler, Kathrin; Wille, Martin; Reitter, Elmar


    The depletion of chromium in Earth's mantle (∼2700 ppm) in comparison to chondrites (∼4400 ppm) indicates significant incorporation of chromium into the core during our planet's metal-silicate differentiation, assuming that there was no significant escape of the moderately volatile element chromium during the accretionary phase of Earth. Stable Cr isotope compositions - expressed as the ‰-difference in 53Cr/52Cr from the terrestrial reference material SRM979 (δ53/52CrSRM979 values) - of planetary silicate reservoirs might thus yield information about the conditions of planetary metal segregation processes when compared to chondrites. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of 7 carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, 5 HED achondrites and 2 martian meteorites determined by a double spike MC-ICP-MS method are within uncertainties indistinguishable from each other and from the previously determined δ53/52CrSRM979 value of -0.124 ± 0.101‰ for the igneous silicate Earth. Extensive quality tests support the accuracy of the stable Cr isotope determinations of various meteorites and terrestrial silicates reported here. The uniformity in stable Cr isotope compositions of samples from planetary silicate mantles and undifferentiated meteorites indicates that metal-silicate differentiation of Earth, Mars and the HED parent body did not cause measurable stable Cr isotope fractionation between these two reservoirs. Our results also imply that the accretionary disc, at least in the inner solar system, was homogeneous in its stable Cr isotopic composition and that potential volatility loss of chromium during accretion of the terrestrial planets was not accompanied by measurable stable isotopic fractionation. Small but reproducible variations in δ53/52CrSRM979 values of terrestrial magmatic rocks point to natural stable Cr isotope variations within Earth's silicate reservoirs. Further and more detailed studies are required to investigate whether silicate

  2. Stable chromium isotopic composition of meteorites and metal-silicate experiments: Implications for fractionation during core formation (United States)

    Bonnand, P.; Williams, H. M.; Parkinson, I. J.; Wood, B. J.; Halliday, A. N.


    We present new mass independent and mass dependent Cr isotope compositions for meteorites measured by double spike thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Small differences in both mass independent 53Cr and 54Cr relative to the Bulk Silicate Earth are reported and are very similar to previously published values. Carbonaceous chondrites are characterised by an excess in 54Cr compared to ordinary and enstatite chondrites which make mass independent Cr isotopes a useful tool for distinguishing between meteoritic groups. Mass dependent stable Cr isotope compositions for the same samples are also reported. Carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites are identical within uncertainty with average δ53 Cr values of - 0.118 ± 0.040 ‰ and - 0.143 ± 0.074 ‰ respectively. The heaviest isotope compositions are recorded by an enstatite chondrite and a CO carbonaceous chondrite, both of which have relatively reduced chemical compositions implying some stable Cr isotope fractionation related to redox processes in the circumstellar disk. The average δ53 Cr values for chondrites are within error of the estimate for the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) also determined by double spiking. The lack of isotopic difference between chondritic material and the BSE provides evidence that Cr isotopes were not fractionated during core formation on Earth. A series of high-pressure experiments was also carried out to investigate stable Cr isotope fractionation between metal and silicate and no demonstrable fractionation was observed, consistent with our meteorites data. Mass dependent Cr isotope data for achondrites suggest that Cr isotopes are fractionated during magmatic differentiation and therefore further work is required to constrain the Cr isotopic compositions of the mantles of Vesta and Mars.

  3. 40 Years of Processing Pieces of Space (United States)

    Satterwhite, C. E.; Funk, R. C.; Righter, K.; Harrington, R. H.


    This year marks the 40th year anniversary for the Antarctic Search for Meteorite (ANSMET) program. In 1976, the ANSMET program led the first expedition to Antarctica. The ANSMET program is a US-led field-based science project that recovers meteorite samples from Antarctica. Once a year from late November to late January, a field team consisting of 8 to 12 people, spends 6-8 weeks camping on the ice and collecting meteorites. Since 1976, more than 22,000 meteorite samples have been recovered. These meteorites come from asteroids, planets and other bodies of the solar system. Once collected, the Antarctic meteorites are shipped to NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) Houston, TX. in a refrigerated truck and are kept frozen to minimize oxidation until they are ready for initial processing. In Antarctica each meteorite is given a field tag which consists of numbers, once in the lab, this is replaced by an official tag, consisting of the Antarctic field location and year collected. The types and numbers of meteorites that have been classified include 849 carbonaceous chondrites, 135 enstatites, 512 achondrites, 64 stony, 115 irons, 48 others (27 R chondrites, 7 ungrouped), 6,161 H chondrites, 7,668 L chondrites, and 4,589 LL chondrites. Although 80-85 percent of the collected meteorites fall in the ordinary chondrite group, the other approximately 15 percent represent rare types of achondrites and carbonaceous chondrites. These rare meteorites include 25 lunar meteorites, 15 Martian meteorites, scores of various types of carbonaceous chondrites, and unique achondrites. The Antarctic meteorites that have been collected are processed in the Meteorite Processing Lab at JSC in Houston, TX. Initial processing of the meteorites begins with thawing/drying the meteorites in a nitrogen glove box for 24 to 48 hours. The meteorites are then photographed, measured, weighed and a description of the interior and exterior of each meteorite is written. The meteorite is broken and a

  4. Meteorite Source Regions as Revealed by the Near-Earth Object Population (United States)

    Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Burt, Brian J.; Polishook, David; Burbine, Thomas H.; Bus, Schelte J.; Tokunaga, Alan; Birlan, Mirel


    Spectroscopic and taxonomic information is now available for 1000 near-Earth objects, having been obtained through both targeted surveys (e.g. [1], [2], [3]) or resulting from all-sky surveys (e.g. [4]). We determine their taxonomic types in the Bus-DeMeo system [5] [6] and subsequently examine meteorite correlations based on spectral analysis (e.g. [7],[8]). We correlate our spectral findings with the source region probabilities calculated using the methods of Bottke et al. [9]. In terms of taxonomy, very clear sources are indicated: Q-, Sq-, and S-types most strongly associated with ordinary chondrite meteorites show clear source signatures through the inner main-belt. V-types are relatively equally balanced between nu6 and 3:1 resonance sources, consistent with the orbital dispersion of the Vesta family. B- and C-types show distinct source region preferences for the outer belt and for Jupiter family comets. A Jupiter family comet source predominates for the D-type near-Earth objects, implying these "asteroidal" bodies may be extinct or dormant comets [10]. Similarly, near-Earth objects falling in the spectrally featureless "X-type" category also show a strong outer belt and Jupiter family comet source region preference. Finally the Xe-class near-Earth objects, which most closely match the spectral properties of enstatite achondrite (aubrite) meteorites seen in the Hungaria region[11], show a source region preference consistent with a Hungaria origin by entering near-Earth space through the Mars crossing and nu6 resonance pathways. This work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant 0907766 and NASA Grant NNX10AG27G.[1] Lazzarin, M. et al. (2004), Mem. S. A. It. Suppl. 5, 21. [2] Thomas, C. A. et al. (2014), Icarus 228, 217. [3] Tokunaga, A. et al. (2006) BAAS 38, 59.07. [4] Hasselmann, P. H., Carvano, J. M., Lazzaro, D. (2011) NASA PDS, EAR-A-I0035-5-SDSSTAX-V1.0. [5] Bus, S.J., Binzel, R.P. (2002). Icarus 158, 146. [6] DeMeo, F.E. et al. (2009), Icarus

  5. Paleomagnetic evidence for a partially differentiated H chondrite parent planetesimal (United States)

    Bryson, J. F. J.; Weiss, B. P.; Scholl, A.; Getzin, B. L.; Abrahams, J. N. H.; Nimmo, F.


    The texture, composition and ages of chondrites have all been used to argue that the parent bodies of these meteorites did not undergo planetary differentiation. Without a core, these planetesimals could not have generated planetary magnetic fields, hence chondrites are predicted to be unmagnetized. Here, we test this hypothesis by applying synchrotron x-ray microscopy to the metallic melt veins in the metamorphosed H chondrite breccia Portales Valley. We find that tetrataenite nanostructures in these veins are uniformly magnetized, suggesting that the H chondrite parent body generated a stable, 10 µT ancient field. We also performed alternating field (AF) demagnetization on bulk silicate-rich portions of Portales Valley, finding that both the large grain size of the metal in these subsamples and the presence of tetrataenite hinder the reliable interpretation of these measurements. Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating and the metallographic cooling rate, we propose that this field inferred from x-ray microscopy was generated 100 Myr after solar system formation and lasted >5 Myr. These properties are consistent with a dynamo field generated by core solidification, implying that the H chondrite parent body was partially differentiated. This conclusion is supported by our analyses of the H4 chondrite Forest Vale, which show that H chondrite magnetization is unlikely to be a relic signature of early nebular or solar wind fields (Getzin et al., this meeting; Oran et al., this meeting). We propose that partial differentiation could result form prolonged accretion over millions of years, possibly in two stages. In this scenario, the earliest accreted material melted from the radioactive decay of abundant 26Al, forming a core and rocky achondritic mantle, while the later accreted material was less metamorphosed, forming an undifferentiated crust. We demonstrate that, with the inclusion of an insulating regolith, the thermal evolution of such a body is consistent with the measured

  6. Meteorites for K-12 Classrooms: NASA Meteorite Educational Materials (United States)

    Lindstrom, M.; Allen, J.


    The fall of a new meteorite is an event that catches the interest of the public in matters of science. The threat of a huge impact like last year's comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 gives us all reason to evaluate such potential risks. NASA's meteorite educational materials use our natural interest in rocks from space to present classroom activities on planetary science. The meteorite educational package includes a meteorite sample disk, a teachers's guide and a slide set. The sample disk is a lucite disk containing chips of six different kinds of meteorites (3 chondrites, achondrite, iron, stony-iron). EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERIES is a teacher's guide with background information and 19 hands-on or heads-on activities for grades 4-12. It was prepared in a partnership of planetary scientists and teachers. The slide set consists of 48 slides with captions to be used with the activities. The materials will be available in Fall 1995. Teachers may obtain a loan of the whole package from NASA Teacher Resource Centers; researchers may borrow them from the JSC meteorite curator. The booklet is available separately from the same sources, and the slide set will be available from NASA CORE. EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERIES is an interdisciplinary planetary science unit which teaches basic science concepts and techniques together with math, reading, writing and social studies The activities are done in a variety of different teaching styles which emphasize observation, experimentation and critical thinking. The activities are ideal for middle schools where teaming makes interdisciplinary units desireable, but most of the activities can be easily modified for grade levels from upper elementary through high school. Meteorites are a natural subject for interdisciplinary teaching because their study involves all fields of science and offers fascinating historical accounts and possibilities for creative expression. Topics covered in EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERES are centered around basic

  7. Book reviews - Catalogue of Meteorites, 5th ed., revised and enlarged, by Monica M. Grady. Cambridge University Press, 2000, 689 pp., US $150.00 (ISBN 0521-66303-2) (United States)

    Ivanova, Marina A.


    The Catalogue of Meteorites has a long tradition and is one of the most important reference publications for meteorite researchers and cosmochemists. The first Guide to the Catalogue of Meteorites was published in 1881 by Lazarus Fletcher, Keeper of Minerals at the British Museum (Natural History), and contained a description of the nature of meteorites and a list of the 361 samples then in the museum's collection. Over the past century, this list was expanded to include more than just the meteorites that were in the possession of the British Museum; an attempt was made to include names, location, and other information on all meteorites known at the time. Thus, the first Catalogue of Meteorites was published in 1923 by G. T. Prior. His successor at the British Museum was Max H. Hey, who published appendixes to Prior's Catalogue, as well as the second and third editions of the Catalogue of Meteoritesin 1953 and 1966. An appendix to the third edition was published in 1977. Traditionally, the Catalogue contained a listing of all the specimens in any of the world's meteorite collections, in museums or otherwise. With the discovery of large numbers of meteorites in Antarctica, starting in 1969, the publishers of the Catalogue encountered some problems, as hundreds-even thousands-of specimens, many of which may be paired, were brought back from Antarctica from the 1970s onward. The fourth edition of the Catalogue, published in 1985 by Andrew Graham, Alex Bevan, and Robert Hutchison, was the first to deal with this sudden inflation of the number of meteorites. Because most of the thousands of Antarctic meteorites (except the obviously more unusual types, such as irons and certain achondrites) had not been studied in any detail, the fourth edition of the Catalogue wisely limited the entries of these meteorites (in some cases, only those with masses larger than 500 g were included in the Catalogue). The fourth edition of the Catalogue was a handsome and handy reference book

  8. Highly Reducing Partitioning Experiments Relevant to the Planet Mercury (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.


    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface Space ENvironment GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER on the planet's surface suggests a low oxygen fugacity of the present planetary materials. Estimates of the oxygen fugacity for Mercurian magmas are approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (Fe-FeO) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from such as the Earth, Moon, or Mars. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions are available in our collections (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites). With this limited amount of material, we must perform experiments to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements as a function of decreasing oxygen fugacity. Experiments are being conducted at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were selected for the final run products to contain metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity is controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, using the Si-SiO2 oxygen buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the Fe-FeO oxygen buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt compositional is diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. Elements detected on Mercury

  9. Early planetary metamorphism in chondritic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, B.B.; Tilton, G.R.


    Lead isotope relations were studied in whole rock and separated phases of Mezoe-Madaras (L3) and Sharps (H3) chondrites in order to study the record of early events in the solar system and to seek further information on the isotopic composition of primordial lead. The internal 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are 4.480+-0.011 AE (1 AE=10 9 years) for Mezoe-Madaras and 4.472+-0.005 AE for Sharps. The ages are not significantly changed when Canyon Diablo troilite lead is included in the data sets, suggesting that the initial Pb isotopic composition in both meteorites was the same as that in the troilite. U-Pb data from both meteorites plot along chords in concordia diagrams that indicate recent disturbances in U/Pb ratios. The chords are poorly defined owing to the relatively non-radiogenic character of the lead isotopes. Rb-Sr measurements on Sharps likewise fail to yield an isochron, in agreement with the U-Pb data. Data from the literature indicate a similar disturbance in the Rb-Sr system for Mezoe-Madaras. The 4.48 AE ages could be caused by pre-analysis contamination with terrestrial lead, however statistical comparison of isotope correlations between the acid-washes of analyzed samples and the residual washed samples suggests that the ages are real and not due to terrestrial contamination. The 4.48 AE age, which is distinctly younger than the well-established ages of 4.54-4.56 AE for the Allende chondrite and Angra dos Reis achondrite, appears to date an early metamorphic event rather than the formation of the chondrites. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar ages in support of the 4.48 AE metamorphic event are reviewed. Such a metamorphic age is not necessarily in conflict with 129 I/ 129 Xe data which indicate that the parent material of most chondrites, including those of type 3, cooled through temperatures sufficient to retain radiogenic Xe within a time interval of ca. 0.02 AE. (orig.)

  10. Vesta and Ceres by the light of Dawn (United States)

    Russell, Christopher T.


    Ceres and Vesta are the most massive bodies in the main asteroid belt. They both appear to be intact protoplanets whose growth may have been drastically altered by the concomitant formation of Jupiter.. These two bodies have witnessed 4.6 Ga of solar system history, much, but not all, of which has been recorded in their surfaces. Dawn’s objective is to interview these two witnesses to learn as much as possible about the early epoch. These bodies are protoplanets, our best archetypes of the early building blocks of the terrestrial planets. In particular, siderophile elements in the Earth’s core were probably first segregated in Vesta-like bodies, and its water was likely first condensed in Ceres-like bodies.Many of the basaltic achondrites originated from a common parent body. Dawn verified that Vesta was consistent with that parent body. hence strengthening geochemical inferences from these samples on the formation and evolution of the solar system and supporting hypotheses for their delivery from Vesta to Earth. Ceres has not revealed itself with a meteoritic record. While the surface is scarred with craters, it is probable that the ejecta from the crater-forming event created little competent material from the icy crust and any such ejected projectiles that reached Earth might have disintegrated upon entry into the Earth’s atmosphere.Ceres’ surface differs greatly from Vesta’s. Plastic or fluidized mass wasting is apparent, as are many irregularly shaped craters, including many polygonal crater forms. There are many central-pit craters possibly caused by volatilization of the crust in the center of the impact. There are also many central-peak craters, which were made by rebound or pingo-like formation processes. Bright deposits dot the landscape, which are possibly salt-rich, suggesting fluvial activity beneath the crust. Observations of the brightest spots on Ceres could suggest sublimation from the surface of the bright area, which may be water vapor

  11. Oxygen and Magnesium Isotopic Compositions of Asteroidal Materials Returned from Itokawa by the Hayabusa Mission (United States)

    Yurimoto, H; Abe, M.; Ebihara, M.; Fujimura, A.; Hashizume, K.; Ireland, T. R.; Itoh, S.; Kawaguchi, K.; Kitajima, F.; Mukai, T.; hide


    The Hayabusa spacecraft made two touchdowns on the surface of Asteroid 25143 Itokawa on November 20th and 26th, 2005. The Asteroid 25143 Itokawa is classified as an S-type asteroid and inferred to consist of materials similar to ordinary chondrites or primitive achondrites [1]. Near-infrared spectroscopy by the Hayabusa spacecraft proposed that the surface of this body has an olivine-rich mineral assemblage potentially similar to that of LL5 or LL6 chondrites with different degrees of space weathering [2]. The spacecraft made the reentry into the Earth s atmosphere on June 12th, 2010 and the sample capsule was successfully recovered in Australia on June 13th, 2010. Although the sample collection processes on the Itokawa surface had not been made by the designed operations, more than 1,500 grains were identified as rocky particles in the sample curation facility of JAXA, and most of them were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin, and definitely from Asteroid Itokawa on November 17th, 2010 [3]. Although their sizes are mostly less than 10 microns, some larger grains of about 100 microns or larger were also included. The mineral assembly is olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, iron sulfide and iron metal. The mean mineral compositions are consistent with the results of near-infrared spectroscopy from Hayabusa spacecraft [2], but the variations suggest that the petrologic type may be smaller than the spectroscopic results. Several tens of grains of relatively large sizes among the 1,500 grains will be selected by the Hayabusa sample curation team for preliminary examination [4]. Each grain will be subjected to one set of preliminary examinations, i.e., micro-tomography, XRD, XRF, TEM, SEM, EPMA and SIMS in this sequence. The preliminary examination will start from the last week of January 2011. Therefore, samples for isotope analyses in this study will start from the last week of February 2011. By the time of the LPSC meeting we will have measured the oxygen and

  12. The Acapulco Parent Planetesimal: An Early Collisional History in the Solar System (United States)

    Marti, K.; Kim, Y.


    The Acapulco, Mexico, meteorite was recovered in 1976 from a crater of approx. 30 cm diameter. An old crystallization age of 4.60 (error 0.03) Ga (Prinzhofer et al., 1992) establishes that its parent object is one of the oldest known planetesimals in the solar system, although not in a pristine form. Other dating systems indicated somewhat younger ages and isotopic variabilities in several elements documented a complex early history. The younger ages date the closure times in secondary minerals. The initial parent object was in a partially molten state when isotopically distinct foreign matter invaded the chondritic parent and some of the isotopic signatures survived. Nitrogen in the primitive achondrite Acapulco was found to have distinct isotopic signatures for the metal and silicate phases and also in different morphologies of graphites (El Goresy, 1995, 2005). The delayed collisional event probably disrupted the parent object, as Acapulco cooled very rapidly. Nitrogen in the injected metal and graphite did not isotopically exchange with the host silicates. We observed nitrogen isotopic signatures of several separated mineral phases which cover a range of delta 15N values from -150 permil to +13 permil. The lightest nitrogen signatures observed in metal separates are comparable to those in some morphologies of Acapulco graphites. The heavy N signatures observed in several silicate minerals are consistent with each other, while nitrogen in chromite is distinctly light (delta 15N of -80 permil), intermediate between those of metal and silicates. The incipient rapid cooling history is well documented down to approx. 120° C, as recorded by U/Th-4He ages in phosphates (Min et al., 2003). The history of the Acapulco parent object was uneventful after its early evolution in an environment where no perturbation by collisions occurred, until the meteorite's recent (6.0 Ma ago) injection into an earth-crossing orbit. References: El Goresy, A., Zinner, E., and Marti, K

  13. Curie's hypotheses concerning radioactivity and the origin of the elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, P.K.


    Pierre Curie gave two hypotheses at first; (1) It can be supposed that the radioactive substances borrow the energy, which they release, from an external radiation, and their radiation would then be a secondary radiation, (2) It can be supposed that the radioactive substances draw from themselves the energy which they release. The second hypothesis has shown the more fertile in explaining the properties of the radioactive substances. Consequently, the first hypothesis became more or less forgotten. It appears, however, the first hypothesis should play an important role in explaining the phenomena concerning the origin of the elements. The Oklo Phenomenon has demonstrated that a nuclear fire had once existed on our planet earth and formation of heavy elements was occurring in nature. The author pointed out that the difference in the isotopic compositions of xenon found in meteorites, lunar samples and in the earth's atmosphere can only be explained as due to the alterations of the isotropic compositions of xenon by combined effect of (a) mass-fractionation, (b) spallation, and (c) stellar temperature neutron-capture reactions. The strange xenon components are not isotopically pure substance. Instead, xenon-HL is a mixture of the {sup 244}Pu fission xenon and the xenon whose isotopic compositions is severely altered by a combined effect of the processes (a), (b) and (c) mentioned above. These results also indicate that C1 carbonaceous chondrites, which is generally as the most primitive sample of the solar system material, began to retain its xenon 5.1 billion years ago, when the plutonium to uranium ratio in the solar system was as high as almost 0.6 (atom/atom), while the C2 carbonaceous chondrite began to retain their xenon about 150 million years later and the ordinary chondrites and achondrite about 500 to 600 million years later. This means that the birth of the solar system began soon after the last supernova exploded about 5.1 billion years ago, and the

  14. Curie's hypotheses concerning radioactivity and the origin of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, P.K.


    Pierre Curie gave two hypotheses at first; (1) It can be supposed that the radioactive substances borrow the energy, which they release, from an external radiation, and their radiation would then be a secondary radiation, (2) It can be supposed that the radioactive substances draw from themselves the energy which they release. The second hypothesis has shown the more fertile in explaining the properties of the radioactive substances. Consequently, the first hypothesis became more or less forgotten. It appears, however, the first hypothesis should play an important role in explaining the phenomena concerning the origin of the elements. The Oklo Phenomenon has demonstrated that a nuclear fire had once existed on our planet earth and formation of heavy elements was occurring in nature. The author pointed out that the difference in the isotopic compositions of xenon found in meteorites, lunar samples and in the earth's atmosphere can only be explained as due to the alterations of the isotropic compositions of xenon by combined effect of (a) mass-fractionation, (b) spallation, and (c) stellar temperature neutron-capture reactions. The strange xenon components are not isotopically pure substance. Instead, xenon-HL is a mixture of the 244 Pu fission xenon and the xenon whose isotopic compositions is severely altered by a combined effect of the processes (a), (b) and (c) mentioned above. These results also indicate that C1 carbonaceous chondrites, which is generally as the most primitive sample of the solar system material, began to retain its xenon 5.1 billion years ago, when the plutonium to uranium ratio in the solar system was as high as almost 0.6 (atom/atom), while the C2 carbonaceous chondrite began to retain their xenon about 150 million years later and the ordinary chondrites and achondrite about 500 to 600 million years later. This means that the birth of the solar system began soon after the last supernova exploded about 5.1 billion years ago, and the generally

  15. Advances in high-resolution synchrotron micro-XANES for constraining the redox evolution of terrestrial and extraterrestrial magma (United States)

    Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S. R.; Dyar, M. D.; McCanta, M. C.; Head, E.


    Quantifying the redox evolution of geological materials is of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Earth and terrestrial planets. Microfocused, synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) provides direct, in-situ analyses of the valence state for elements that can be used as proxies for oxygen fugacity (Fe, V, Cr, Ti, S, Eu, and Ce). Such proxies span the entire fO2 range of solar system evolution, covering at least 16 log units. Recent technical improvements at the Advanced Photon Source 13-ID-E microspectroscopy beamline have improved the energy, spatial resolution and detection sensitivity for XAS. The application of multiple valence state oxybarometers to individual mineral grains is valuable as demonstrated in a study of Ti, V and Cr valence in olivine and pyroxene of the ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 [1], results which yielded a very reduced fO2 estimate of IW-3 and suggested a likely origin of NWA 7325 in a parent body with similar redox conditions to the ureilite parent body. Simultaneously, we have made advances using multivariate prediction models to more precisely measure ever-smaller variations in elemental valence [2]. Applied to V XAS spectra in glasses, we have developed an MVA calibration model that directly relates the measured spectra to predicted fO2, improving the precision in calculating fO2 with more robust error analysis. These machine learning based algorithms also allow for XAS to be collected in an imaging modality to spatially map elemental redox states within samples. For example for imaging changes in Fe oxidation state in natural lunar picritic glasses [3] that may be related to magmatic degassing. This presentation highlights recent examples of this research at 13-ID-E, including application of Fe, S and V valence state oxybarometers in the analysis of terrestrial volcanic glasses and melt inclusions for looking at long term evolution of oxygen fugacity of magmas. [1] Sutton S. et al. (2017) GCA, 211, 115

  16. Differentiation and magmatic activity in Vesta evidenced by 26Al-26Mg dating in eucrites and diogenites (United States)

    Hublet, G.; Debaille, V.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q.-Z.


    The 26Al-26Mg short-lived chronometer has been widely used for dating ancient objects in studying the early Solar System. Here, we use this chronometer to investigate and refine the geological history of the asteroid 4-Vesta. Ten meteorites widely believed to come from Vesta (4 basaltic eucrites, 3 cumulate eucrites and 3 diogenites) and the unique achondrite Asuka 881394 were selected for this study. All samples were analyzed for their δ26Mg∗ and 27Al/24Mg ratios, in order to construct both whole rock and model whole rock isochrons. Mineral separation was performed on 8 of the HED's in order to obtain internal isochrons. While whole rock Al-Mg analyses of HED's plot on a regression that could be interpreted as a vestan planetary isochron, internal mineral isochrons indicate a more complex history. Crystallization ages obtained from internal 26Al-26Mg systematic in basaltic eucrites show that Vesta's upper crust was formed during a short period of magmatic activity at 2.66-0.58+1.39 million years (Ma) after Calcium-Aluminum inclusions (after CAI). We also suggest that impact metamorphism and subsequent age resetting could have taken place at the surface of Vesta while 26Al was still extant. Cumulate eucrites crystallized progressively from 5.48-0.60+1.56 to >7.25 Ma after CAI. Model ages obtained for both basaltic and cumulate eucrites are similar and suggest that the timing of differentiation of a common eucrite source from a chondritic body can be modeled at 2.88-0.12+0.14 Ma after CAI, i.e. contemporaneously from the onset of the basaltic eucritic crust. Based on their cumulate texture, we suggest cumulate eucrites were likely formed deeper in the crust of Vesta. Diogenites have a more complicated history and their 26Al-26Mg systematics show that they likely formed after the complete decay of 26Al and thus are younger than eucrites. This refined chronology for eucrites and diogenites is consistent with a short magma ocean stage on 4-Vesta from which the

  17. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury (United States)

    Rowland, R. L., II; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Danielson, L. R.


    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850°C. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-SiO2 buffer, which is 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of the fate of

  18. Proceedings of the 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (United States)


    ; Seek Out and Explore: Upcoming and Future Missions; Mars: Early History and Impact Processes; Mars Analogs II: Chemical and Spectral; Achondrites and their Parent Bodies; and Planning for Future Exploration of the Moon The poster sessions were: Lunar Missions: Results from Kaguya, Chang'e-1, and Chandrayaan-1; LRO and LCROSS; Geophysical Analysis of the Lunar Surface and Interior; Remote Observation and Geologic Mapping of the Lunar Surface; Lunar Spectroscopy; Venus Geology, Geophysics, Mapping, and Sampling; Planetary Differentiation; Bunburra and Buzzard Coulee: Recent Meteorite Falls; Meteorites: Terrestrial History; CAIs and Chondrules: Records of Early Solar System Processes; Volatile and Organic Compounds in Chondrites; Crashing Chondrites: Impact, Shock, and Melting; Ureilite Studies; Petrology and Mineralogy of the SNC Meteorites; Martian Meteorites; Phoenix Landing Site: Perchlorate and Other Tasty Treats; Mars Polar Atmospheres and Climate Modeling; Mars Polar Investigations; Mars Near-Surface Ice; Mars: A Volatile-Rich Planet; Mars: Geochemistry and Alteration Processes; Martian Phyllosilicates: Identification, Formation, and Alteration; Astrobiology; Instrument Concepts, Systems, and Probes for Investigating Rocks and Regolith; Seeing is Believing: UV, VIS, IR, X- and Gamma-Ray Camera and Spectrometer Instruments; Up Close and Personal: In Situ Analysis with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry; Jupiter and Inscrutable Io; Tantalizing Titan; Enigmatic Enceladus and Intriguing Iapetus; Icy Satellites: Cryptic Craters; Icy Satellites: Gelid Geology/Geophysics; Icy Satellites: Cool Chemistry and Spectacular Spectroscopy; Asteroids and Comets; Comet Wild 2: Mineralogy and More; Hypervelocity Impacts: Stardust Models, LDEF, and ISPE; Presolar Grains; Early Nebular Processes: Models and Isotopes; Solar Wind and Genesis: Measurements and Interpretation; Education and Public Outreach; Mercury; Pursuing Lunar Exploration; Sources and Eruptionf

  19. Trace elements record complex histories in diogenites (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.


    Diogenite meteorites are cumulate rocks composed mostly of orthopyroxene and chemically linked to eucrites (basaltic) and howardites (brecciated mixtures of diogenites and eucrites). Together, they represent the largest single family of achondrite meteorites delivered to Earth, and have been spectrally linked to the asteroid 4 Vesta, the largest remaining basaltic protoplanet. However, this spectral link is non-unique as many basaltic asteroids likely formed and were destroyed in the early solar system. Recent work suggested that Vesta may be an unlikely parent body for the diogenites based on correlations between trace elements and short-lived isotope decay products, which would be unlikely to survive on a body as large as Vesta due to its long cooling history [1]. Recent analyses of terrestrial and martian olivines have demonstrated that trace element spatial distributions can preserve evidence of their crystallization history even when major elements have been homogenized [2]. We have mapped minor elements including Cr, Al, and Ti in seemingly homogeneous diogenite orthopyroxenes and found a variety of previously unobserved textures. The pyroxenes in one sample (GRA 98108) are seemingly large grains of variable shapes and sizes, but the trace elements reveal internal grain boundaries between roughly-equal sized original subgrains, with equilibrated metamorphic triple junctions between them and trace element depletions at the boundaries. These trends suggest extraction of trace elements by a magma along those relict grain boundaries during a reheating event. Two other samples show evidence of fracturing and annealing, with trace element mobility within grains. One sample appears to have remained a closed system during annealing (MET 01084), while the other has interacted with a fluid or magma to move elements along annealed cracks (LEW 88679). These relict features establish that the history of diogenite pyroxenes is more complex than their homogeneous major

  20. Evolution of asteroid (4) Vesta in the light of Dawn (United States)

    Thangjam, Guneshwar; Mengel, Kurt; Nathues, Andreas; Schmidt, Kai H.; Hoffmann, Martin


    Asteroid (4) Vesta has been visited by the NASA Dawn spacecraft in 2011/12. The combination of compositional/elemental information from the three onboard instruments with mineralogical information from the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) clan of stony achondrites has shed new light on the surface lithologic heterogeneity and the early evolution. Although petrologic/chemical models have tried to unravel the evolutionary processes, inconsistencies exist for some chemical major element/phase [e.g., 1, 2]. A revised evolutionary model is presented here [3]. The three oxygen isotope signature of HEDs and, thus, of proto-Vesta is best met by a mixture of 80% ordinary plus 20 % CV chondrites. Assuming a 27Al-triggered magma ocean within the first MA after accretion and taking into account the reliable major element data of the silicate fraction of the chondritic mixture results a crystallization sequence that differs from the earlier models [1, 2, 3]. The crystallized phase obtained by 'MELTS' software [4] starts with olivine and continues with minor olivine plus orthopyroxene until the liquid reaches a Kd value (partition coefficient) of 0.31 where the fractionated melt is in equilibrium with the residual liquid [5]. The abundance of minerals and rocks formed in this model are converted in volume proportions assuming a spherical shape of early Vesta (262 km radius) with a core (FeNi, FeNiS) radius of 110 km [6]. Two scenarios are considered to describe the early bulk silicate Vesta. First, the early-crystallized olivine accumulated at the base of the silicate shell is accounted for a dunitic lower mantle having a thickness of 46 km while the later crystallized phases form an orthopyroxenitic upper mantle and a crust of thickness 84 and 22 km, respectively. Second, an olivine-rich lower mantle that gradually changes to orthopyroxene-rich upper mantle is expected having an overall shell thickness of 137 km, with a 15 km thick crust. An important result is that the deep

  1. Martian Pyroxenes in the Shergottite Meteorites; Zagami, SAU005, DAG476 and EETA79001 (United States)

    Stephen, N.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P.; Hamilton, V. E.


    The geology and surface mineralogy of Mars is characterised using remote sensing techniques such as thermal emission spectroscopy (TES) from instruments on a number of spacecraft currently orbiting Mars or gathered from roving missions on the Martian surface. However, the study of Martian meteorites is also important in efforts to further understand the geological history of Mars or to interpret mission data as they are believed to be the only available samples that give us direct clues as to Martian igneous processes [1]. We have recently demonstrated that the spectra of Martian-specific minerals can be determined using micro-spectroscopy [2] and that these spectra can be reliably obtained from thin sections of Martian meteorites [3]. Accurate modal mineralogy of these meteorites is also important [4]. In this study we are using a variety of techniques to build upon previous studies of these particular samples in order to fully characterise the nature of the 2 common pyroxenes found in Martian Shergottites; pigeonite and augite [5], [6]. Previous studies have shown that the Shergottite meteorites are dominated by pyroxene (pigeonite and augite in varying quantities) [4], [5], commonly but not always olivine, plagioclase or maskelynite/glass and also hydrous minerals, which separate the Martian meteorites from other achondrites [7]. Our microprobe study of meteorites Zagami, EETA79001, SAU005 and DAG476 in thin-section at the Natural History Museum, London shows a chemical variability within both the pigeonite and augite composition across individual grains in all thin sections; variation within either Mg or Ca concentration varies from core to rim within the grains. This variation can also be seen in modal mineralogy maps using SEM-derived element maps and the Photoshop® technique previously described [4], and in new micro-spectroscopy data, particularly within the Zagami meteorite. New mineral spectra have been gathered from the Shergottite thin-sections by

  2. Trace Element Characteristics of the New Shergottite LEW88516 (United States)

    Wadhwa, M.; Crozaz, G.


    LEW88516, a meteorite collected in Antarctica, has recently been identified as a shergottite (Mason and Satterwhite, 1991). The shergottites belong to a group of unique achondritic meteorites, the SNCs, for which Mars has been suggested as the parent body. From preliminary petrologic and geochemical studies, it appears that LEW88516 is closely related to the shergottite ALHA77005. Like ALHA77005, LEW88516 is composed of two distinct lithologies; one consists of large (mm-sized) pyroxenes poikilitically enclosing olivine crystals, and the other is represented by interstitial areas that contain small pyroxenes, olivine, maskelynite, whitlockite, and opaques (Lindstrom et al., 1992). Besides mineralogy and texture, whole rock chemical characteristics of these two shergottites also appear to be strikingly similar (Lindstrom et al., 1992; Boynton et al., 1992). We measured REE and other selected trace elements in individual mineral phases present in LEW88516, and compared the results with similar data obtained for ALHA77005 by Lundberg et al. (1990). Analyses were made on a thin section of LEW88516 with an ion microprobe; trace elements concentrations were measured in poikilitic and interstitial pyroxenes (augites and pigeonites), maskelynite, whitlockite, and glass. The total REE inventory of LEW88516 is dominated by whitlockite, although this mineral, as in ALHA77005, is present in only small modal abundance. Maskelynite in LEW88516 is characterized by a positive Eu anomaly that is approximately twice as large as that present in the maskelynite in ALHA77005, although the rest of the REE are present in lower abundances. The homogeneous, crystallite-free glass in LEW88516 is slightly enriched relative to LEW88516 bulk rock REE abundances, and has a REE pattern that is parallel to the ALHA77005 whole rock REE pattern. Pyroxenes in LEW88516 are zoned in their trace element concentrations, as are the pyroxenes in ALHA77005. Elemental abundances (e.g., REE, Y, Ti, Zr, Cr, V

  3. Can Halogen Enrichment in Reduced Enstatite Chondrites Provide Clues to Volatile Accretion in the Early Earth? (United States)

    Clay, P. L.; Burgess, R.; Busemann, H.; Ruzié, L.; Joachim, B.; Ballentine, C.


    chondrites measured and have high molar I/Cl (~10-3) and Br/Cl (~10-3) ratios. For comparison, the ordinary chondrites have highly variable halogen concentrations and very low molar I/Cl (~10-6) and Br/Cl (~10-4) ratios. Halogen concentrations in the ECs are up to ~ 8 times higher for Cl, up to ~ 40 times higher for Br and up to ~ 50 times higher for I, when compared to estimates of halogen concentrations in the primitive mantle [2]. Potential halogen carrier phases in the ECs include Cl-rich feldspathic glass in chondrules, enstatite and/or the halogen-bearing sulfide djerfisherite. Accretion of halogen-rich, reduced material such as that observed here with the ECs could support models for heterogeneous accretion. Ongoing analyses of the primitive enstatite achondrites will shed additional light on these issues. [1] Wänke, H. Dreibus, G., Jagoutz E., Archaean Geochemistry, A. Kröner, G. N. Hanson, A. M. Goodwin, Eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1984), pp. 1-24. [2] Newsom, H.E., 1995. Global Earth Physics, A Handbook of Physical Constants, AGU Reference Shelf, vol. 1. American Geophysical Union, Washington.

  4. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.


    violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and orange glass from a pyroclastic deposit. Each Meteorite Disk contains two ordinary chondrites, one carbonaceous chondrite, one iron, one stony iron, and one achondrite. These samples will help educators share the early history of the solar system with students and the public. Educators may borrow either lunar or meteorite disks and the accompanying education materials through the Johnson Space Center Curatorial Office. In trainings provided by the NASA Aerospace Education Services Program specialists, educators certified to borrow the disk learn about education resources, the proper use of the samples, and the special security for care and shipping of the disks. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program will take NASA exploration to more people. Getting Space Rocks out to the public and inspiring the public about new space exploration is the focus of the NASA disk loan program.

  5. Chromium valences in ureilite olivine and implications for ureilite petrogenesis (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Sutton, S. R.; Wirick, S.; Jercinovic, M. J.


    Ureilites are a group of ultramafic achondrites commonly thought to be residues of partial melting on a carbon-rich asteroid. They show a large variation in FeO content (olivine Fo values ranging from ∼74 to 95) that cannot be due to igneous fractionation and suggests instead variation in oxidation state. The presence of chromite in only a few of the most ferroan (Fo 75-76) samples appears to support such a model. MicroXANES analyses were used in this study to determine the valence states of Cr (previously unknown) in olivine cores of 11 main group ureilites. The goal of this work was to use a method that is independent of Fo to determine the oxidation conditions under which ureilites formed, in order to evaluate whether the ureilite FeO-variation is correlated with oxidation state, and whether it is nebular or planetary in origin. Two of the analyzed samples, LEW 88774 (Fo 74.2) and NWA 766 (Fo 76.7) contain primary chromite; two others, LAP 03587 (Fo 74.4) and CMS 04048 (Fo 76.2) contain sub-micrometer-sized exsolutions of chromite + Ca-rich pyroxene in olivine; and one, EET 96328 (Fo 85.2) contains an unusual chromite grain of uncertain origin. No chromite has been observed in the remaining six samples (Fo 77.4-92.3). Chromium in olivine in all eleven samples was found to be dominated by the divalent species, with valences ranging from 2.10 ± 0.02 (1σ) to 2.46 ± 0.04. The non-chromite-bearing ureilites have the most reduced Cr, with a weighted mean valence of 2.12 ± 0.01, i.e., Cr2+/Cr3+ = 7.33. All low-Fo chromite-bearing ureilites have more oxidized Cr, with valences ranging from 2.22 ± 0.03 to 2.46 ± 0.04. EET 96328, whose chromite grain we interpret as a late-crystallizing phase, yielded a reduced Cr valence of 2.15 ± 0.07, similar to the non-chromite-bearing samples. Based on the measured Cr valences, magmatic (1200-1300 °C) oxygen fugacities (fO2) of the non-chromite-bearing samples were estimated to be in the range IW-1.9 to IW-2.8 (assuming

  6. A New Type of Foreign Clast in A Polymict Ureilite: A CAI or AL-Rich Chondrule (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Ross, D. K.; Treiman, A. H.


    Introduction: Polymict ureilites are breccias interpreted to represent regolith formed on a ureilitic asteroid [1-3]. They consist of approximately 90-95% clasts of various ureilite types (olivine-pyroxene rocks with Fo 75-95), a few % indigenous feldspathic clasts, and a few % foreign clasts [4-20]. The foreign clasts are diverse, including fragments of H, L, LL and R chondrites, angrites, other achondrites, and dark clasts similar to CC [6,7,9-19]. We report a new type of foreign clast in polymict ureilite DaG 999. Methods: Clast 8 in Dar al Gani (DaG) 999/1 (Museum fur Naturkunde) was discovered during a survey of feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [19,20]. It was studied by BEI, EMPA, and X-ray mapping on the JEOL 8530F electron microprobe at ARES, JSC. Petrography and Mineral Compositions: Clast 8 is sub-rounded to irregular in shape, approximately 85 micrometers in diameter, and consists of approximately 68% pyroxene and 32% mesostasis (by area). Part of the pyroxene (top half of clast in Fig. 1a and 2) shows a coarse dendritic morphology; the rest appears massive. Mesostasis may be glassy and contains fine needles/grains of pyroxene. The pyroxene has very high CaO (23.5 wt.%) and Al2O3 (19.7 wt.%), with the formula: (Ca(0.91)Mg(0.63)Fe(0.01)Al(sup VI) (0.38)Cr(0.01)Ti(0.05)1.99 Si2O6. The bulk mesostasis also has very high Al2O3 (approximately 26 wt.%). A bulk composition for the clast was obtained by combining modal abundances with phase compositions (Table 1, Fig. 3). Discussion: The pyroxene in clast 8 has a Ca-Al-(Ti)- rich (fassaitic) composition that is clearly distinct from compositions of pyroxenes in main group ureilites [22] or indigenous feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [4-8]. It also has significantly higher Al than fassaite in angrites (up to approximately 12 wt.% [23]), which occur as xenoliths in polymict ureilites. Ca-Al-Ti rich pyroxenes are most commonly found in CAIs, Al-rich chondrules and other types of refractory