WorldWideScience

Sample records for achieving polio eradication

  1. What needs to be done for polio eradication in India?

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    Paul, Yash

    2007-08-29

    Even if wild poliovirus persists in one country only, global polio eradication cannot be achieved, because of the risk of exportation of wild virus to other countries. Among the countries where polio cases are still occurring, India happens to be the largest country. India cannot become polio free unless Uttar Pradesh and Bihar become polio free. There was a quick decline in polio incidence in some states in India, while other states reported decline slowly, but, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have never been polio free since the polio eradication programme was launched in 1995. Despite increase in number of pulse polio immunization (PPI) rounds since year 2000 and introduction of monovalent polio vaccine type 1 (mOPV1) and type 3 (mOPV3) in Uttar Pradesh in 2005, there has been no respite in polio incidence in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Lately, majority of polio cases being reported from other states are occurring in migrant population from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and also molecular study shows that polioviruses being detected in other states have origin in Uttar Pradesh or Bihar. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a new vaccine or strategy specifically for Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

  2. Progress toward polio eradication--Somalia, 1998-2013.

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    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Ehrhardt, Derek; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1988 resolution of the World Health Assembly to eradicate polio, significant progress has been made toward achieving this goal, with the result that only Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never successfully interrupted endemic transmission of wild poliovirus. However, one of the greatest challenges of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been that of maintaining the polio-free status of countries in unstable regions with weak healthcare infrastructure, a challenge exemplified by Somalia, a country in the Horn of Africa region. Somalia interrupted indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in 2002, 4 years after the country established its national polio eradication program. But political instability and protracted armed conflict, with significant disruption of the healthcare system, have left Somalia vulnerable to 2 imported outbreaks of wild poliovirus. The first occurred during 2005-2007, resulting in >200 cases of paralytic polio, whereas the second, which began in 2013, is currently ongoing. Despite immense challenges, the country has a sensitive surveillance system that has facilitated prompt detection of outbreaks, but its weak routine immunization system means that supplementary immunization activities constitute the primary strategy for reaching children with polio vaccines. Conducting vaccination campaigns in a setting of conflict has been at times hazardous, but the country's polio program has demonstrated resilience in overcoming many obstacles to ensure that children receive lifesaving polio vaccines. Regaining and maintaining Somalia's polio-free status will depend on finding innovative and lasting solutions to the challenge of administering vaccines in a setting of ongoing conflict and instability.

  3. Global Polio Eradication: So Close, yet so Far

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    Samad EJ Golzari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Launched in 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI never seemed as close to its sole target as by 2012; polio cases decreased by over 99% thanks to the global efforts restricting endemic areas into three countries, i.e. Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria. However, the enchantment did not last long as WPV1 and confirmed new polio cases were reported in Syria (1. Re-emergence of the virus, related to the WPV1 still endemic in Pakistan, had already been identified in some of the Middle Eastern countries and caused an outbreak in China (2. In previous experiences, for instance in Egypt, international outbreak response guidelines issued by the World Health Assembly (WHA in Resolution WHA59 were implemented comprehensively and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs were conducted carefully. Such global measures should immediately be taken in order to halt the risk of transmission and spread of WPV as a public health threat (2.Thanks to the continuing support of WHO and Iranian health ministry, Iran is the only country which has achieved the goal of polio eradication yet neighbouring two of the three polio endemic countries. However, the on-going challenge has become even more daunting as the threat has the potential of exacerbation due to the imported cases or carriers. Although Iran has been successful in eradication of some infectious diseases, imported cases contribute immensely to the failure in realizing the eradication aim for some other infectious diseases (3,4. Bordering Pakistan (909 km (565 mi and Afghanistan (936 km (582 mi to the east is one of the few major obstacles to be perceived as important. In some parts of Pakistan, immunization activities were suspended since June 2012 (2. It is pivotal to the polio eradication goals that immunization is restarted in the halted areas and reinforced in neighboring high-risk areas in order to prevent further spread of this outbreak.Surveillance for cases of acute flaccid

  4. Regression in polio eradication in Pakistan: A national tragedy.

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    Kanwal, Sumaira; Hussain, Abrar; Mannan, Shazia; Perveen, Shazia

    2016-03-01

    Polio is one out of 200 infections results to lasting paralysis, usually in the legs. The year 2014 has been the saddest year for the Pakistan when the World was about to eliminate Polio from all over the World. In year 1994 Pakistan took the initiative to eliminate Polio from the country. The efforts were going well until 2005, when Pakistan was on the wedge to overcome the Disease. The hopes were high that soon Pakistan will become a polio-virus-free country, but the drone strikes in FATA and the rise of different militant groups as a reaction of the drone attacks in FATA made it difficult for the health workers to continue their vaccination campaigns in these areas. However various factors ruined the efforts made to eradicate Polio. In Pakistan, polio is widespread to three sections. These are Karachi, Quetta block (Quetta, Pishin and Killah Abdullah district) and FATA and Peshawar district. Numerous things are accountable for polio flourishing in these regions. These comprise near to the ground socioeconomic rank of the families, not having the knowledge concerning hazard caused by polio and disinformation by limited significant people concerning how polio vaccines fabricate damage. In 2014, only 3 countries in the world remain polio-endemic: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. From year 2012-2014 the number of registered Polio cases is on rise contrary to rest of the other two Polio-endemic countries. In spite of the extensive work done by Polio workers the number of Polio cases has broken the 16 year record. The situation is getting worse because it can also be threatening to the rest of the World. PMID:26968287

  5. Post-polio eradication: vaccination strategies and options for India

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    Jayakrishnan Thayyil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally. Since then, the initiative has reported dramatic progress in decreasing the incidence of poliomyelitis and limiting the geographical extent of transmission. 2013 is recorded as the second consecutive year not reporting wild poliovirus (WPV from India. If the country can retain this position for one more year India will be declared as polio eradicated. What should be the future vaccination strategies? We searched and reviewed the full text of the available published literature on polio eradication via PubMed and examined Internet sources and websites of major international health agencies. The oral polio vaccine (OPV has been the main tool in the polio eradication program. Once WPV transmission is interrupted, the poliomyelitis will be caused only by OPV. India could expect 1 vaccine-associated paralytic polio per 4.2-4.6 million doses of OPV. Considering the threat of vaccine-derived viruses to polio eradication, WHO urged to develop a strategy to safely discontinue OPV after certification. The ultimate aim is to stop OPV safely and effectively, and eventually substitute with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. The argument against the use of IPV is its cost. From India, field based data were available on the efficacy of IPV, which was better than OPV. IPV given intradermally resulted in seroconversion rates similar to full-dose intramuscular vaccine. The incremental cost of adopting IPV to replace OPV is relatively low, about US $1 per child per year, and most countries should be able to afford this additional cost.

  6. Next generation inactivated polio vaccine manufacturing to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals.

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    Yvonne E Thomassen

    Full Text Available Worldwide efforts to eradicate polio caused a tipping point in polio vaccination strategies. A switch from the oral polio vaccine, which can cause circulating and virulent vaccine derived polioviruses, to inactivated polio vaccines (IPV is scheduled. Moreover, a manufacturing process, using attenuated virus strains instead of wild-type polioviruses, is demanded to enhance worldwide production of IPV, especially in low- and middle income countries. Therefore, development of an IPV from attenuated (Sabin poliovirus strains (sIPV was pursued. Starting from the current IPV production process based on wild type Salk strains, adaptations, such as lower virus cultivation temperature, were implemented. sIPV was produced at industrial scale followed by formulation of both plain and aluminium adjuvanted sIPV. The final products met the quality criteria, were immunogenic in rats, showed no toxicity in rabbits and could be released for testing in the clinic. Concluding, sIPV was developed to manufacturing scale. The technology can be transferred worldwide to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals.

  7. Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2015-2016.

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    Morales, Michelle; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Wassilak, Steven G F

    2016-01-01

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis. Wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission persists in only two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan) after the removal of Nigeria from the list of countries with endemic polio in September 2015.* Indigenous WPV type 2 has not been detected since 1999 and was declared eradicated by the Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication in September 2015.(†) Since November 2012, when the last case of WPV type 3 was detected in Nigeria, WPV type 1 has been the sole circulating type of WPV (1). This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2015-2016 and updates previous reports (2). In 2015, 74 WPV cases were reported in two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan), a decrease of 79% from the 359 WPV cases reported in 2014 in nine countries; 12 WPV cases have been reported in 2016 (to date), compared with 23 during the same period in 2015 (3). Paralytic polio caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) remains a risk in areas with low oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) coverage. Seven countries, including Pakistan, reported 32 cVDPV cases in 2015 (4). In four of these countries, ≥6 months have passed since the most recent case or isolate. One country (Laos) with VDPV transmission in 2015 has reported three additional cVDPV cases in 2016 to date. Encouraging progress toward polio eradication has been made over the last year; however, interruption of WPV transmission will require focus on reaching and vaccinating every missed child through high quality supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) and cross-border coordination between Afghanistan and Pakistan (5,6). PMID:27171208

  8. Tracking progress toward polio eradication - worldwide, 2013-2014.

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    Porter, Kimberly A; Diop, Ousmane M; Burns, Cara C; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Wassilak, Steven G F

    2015-04-24

    Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988 and have been successful in all but two of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Within these two regions (African and Eastern Mediterranean), three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan) have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). Outbreaks following importation of WPV from these countries occurred in the Horn of Africa, Central Africa, and in the Middle East during 2013-2014. The primary means of tracking polio is surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), the main symptom of polio, followed by testing of AFP patients' stool specimens for both WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). This is supplemented with environmental surveillance (testing sewage for WPV and VDPV) (4). Both types of surveillance use genomic sequencing for characterization of poliovirus isolates to map poliovirus transmission and for identifying gaps in AFP surveillance by measuring genetic divergence between isolates. This report presents 2013 and 2014 poliovirus surveillance data, focusing primarily on the two WHO regions with endemic WPV transmission, and the 29 countries (African Region = 23; Eastern Mediterranean Region = six) with at least one case of WPV or circulating VDPV (cVDPV) reported during 2010-2014. In 2013, 20 of these 23 African region countries met both primary surveillance quality indicators; in 2014, the number decreased to 15. In 2013, five of the six Eastern Mediterranean Region countries met the primary indicators, and in 2014, all six did. To complete and certify polio eradication, surveillance gaps must be identified and surveillance activities, including supervision, monitoring, and specimen collection, further strengthened. PMID:25905895

  9. Resistance of polio to its eradication in Pakistan

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    Sher Zunaira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is based on EPI (Expanded Program on Immunization immunization surveys and surveillance of polio, its challenges in immunization and the way forward to overcome these challenges. Methods Several Government documents, survey reports and unpublished program documents were studied and online search was made to find information on EPI Pakistan. SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used for the statistical analysis. Results Immunization against polio is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Marked variation in vaccination has been observed in different provinces of Pakistan in the last decade. Secondly 10-20% of the children who have received their first dose of trivalent polio vaccine were deprived of their 2nd and 3rd dose because of poor performance of EPI and Lack of information about immunization. Conclusion In spite of numerous successes, such as the addition of new vaccines and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas, EPI is still struggling to reach its polio eradication goals. Inadequate service delivery, lack of information about immunization and limited number of vaccinators were found to be the key reason for poor performance of immunization and for large number of cases reported each year due to the deficiency of second and third booster dose.

  10. Faster Detection of Poliomyelitis Outbreaks to Support Polio Eradication.

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    Blake, Isobel M; Chenoweth, Paul; Okayasu, Hiro; Donnelly, Christl A; Aylward, R Bruce; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2016-03-01

    As the global eradication of poliomyelitis approaches the final stages, prompt detection of new outbreaks is critical to enable a fast and effective outbreak response. Surveillance relies on reporting of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and laboratory confirmation through isolation of poliovirus from stool. However, delayed sample collection and testing can delay outbreak detection. We investigated whether weekly testing for clusters of AFP by location and time, using the Kulldorff scan statistic, could provide an early warning for outbreaks in 20 countries. A mixed-effects regression model was used to predict background rates of nonpolio AFP at the district level. In Tajikistan and Congo, testing for AFP clusters would have resulted in an outbreak warning 39 and 11 days, respectively, before official confirmation of large outbreaks. This method has relatively high specificity and could be integrated into the current polio information system to support rapid outbreak response activities.

  11. Oversight role of the Independent Monitoring Board of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

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    Rutter, Paul D; Donaldson, Liam J

    2014-11-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) established its Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) in 2010 to monitor and guide its progress toward stopping polio transmission globally. The concept of an IMB is innovative, with no clear analogue in the history of the GPEI or in any other global health program. The IMB meets with senior program officials every 3-6 months. Its reports provide analysis and recommendations about individual polio-affected countries. The IMB also examines issues affecting the global program as a whole. Its areas of focus have included escalating the level of priority afforded to polio eradication (particularly by recommending a World Health Assembly resolution to declare polio eradication a programmatic emergency, which was enacted in May 2012), placing greater emphasis on people factors in the delivery of the program, encouraging innovation, strengthening focus on the small number of so-called sanctuaries where polio persists, and continuous quality improvement to reach every missed child with vaccination. The IMB's true independence from the agencies and countries delivering the program has enabled it to raise difficult issues that others cannot. Other global health programs might benefit from establishing similar independent monitoring mechanisms. PMID:25316831

  12. Role of Serial Polio Seroprevalence Studies in Guiding Implementation of the Polio Eradication Initiative in Kano, Nigeria: 2011–2014

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    Craig, Kehinde TemilolaOluwa; Verma, Harish; Iliyasu, Zubairu; Mkanda, Pascal; Touray, Kebba; Johnson, Ticha; Walla, Abdullahi; Banda, Richard; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Yehualashet, Yared G.; Abba, Bashir; Ahmad-Shehu, Amina; Takane, Marina; Sutter, Roland W.; Nsubuga, Peter; Muhammad, Ado J. G.; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nigeria was one of 3 polio-endemic countries before it was de-listed in September 2015 by the World Health Organization, following interruption of transmission of the poliovirus. During 2011–2014, Nigeria conducted serial polio seroprevalence surveys (SPS) in Kano Metropolitan Area, comprising 8 local government areas (LGAs) in Kano that is considered very high risk (VHR) for polio, to monitor performance of the polio eradication program and guide the program in the adoption of innovative strategies. Methods. Study subjects who resided in any of the 8 local government areas of Kano Metropolitan Area and satisfied age criteria were recruited from patients at Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital (Kano) for 3 seroprevalence surveys. The same methods were used to conduct each survey. Results. The 2011 study showed seroprevalence values of 81%, 75%, and 73% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively, among infants aged 6–9 months age. Among children aged 36–47 months, seroprevalence values were greater (91%, 87%, and 85% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively). In 2013, the results showed that the seroprevalence was unexpectedly low among infants aged 6–9 months, remained high among children aged 36–47 months, and increased minimally among children aged 5–9 years and those aged 10–14 years. The baseline seroprevalence among infants aged 6–9 months in 2014 was better than that in 2013. Conclusions. The results from the polio seroprevalence surveys conducted in Kano Metropolitan Area in 2011, 2013, and 2014 served to assess the trends in immunity and program performance, as well as to guide the program, leading to various interventions being implemented with good effect, as evidenced by the reduction of poliovirus circulation in Kano. PMID:26908720

  13. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.

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    Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organization aims to eradicate wild poliovirus worldwide by the end of 2018. Cameroon and Nigeria, neighboring countries, have been affected by the terrorist and militant activities of the Islamist sect Boko Haram. Impacted regions are mainly the far North of Cameroon and Northern Nigeria. Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization. In addition to this significant problem, Northern Nigeria has historically seen rejection of polio virus vaccine initiatives. It remains to know how health systems can continue operations against polio in areas where Boko Haram operates. If appropriate measures are not urgently taken, it will be not possible to meet the 2018 goal of polio virus eradication. The response should include specialized immunization activities in conflict zones, will engagement of leaders. Countries should also explore immunization activities by soldiers and military personnel. PMID:27605975

  14. Partition and poliomyelitis: an investigation of the polio disparity affecting Muslims during India's eradication program.

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    Rashid S Hussain

    Full Text Available Significant disparities in the incidence of polio existed during its eradication campaign in India. In 2006, Muslims, who comprise 16% of the population in affected states, comprised 70% of paralytic polio cases. This disparity was initially blamed on the Muslims and a rumor that the vaccination program was a plot to sterilize their children. Using the framework of structural violence, this paper describes how the socio-political and historical context of Muslim populations in India shaped the polio disparity.A qualitative study utilizing methods of rapid ethnography was conducted from May-August 2009 in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Field methods included participant observation of vaccination teams, historical document research, and 107 interviews with both Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI stakeholders and families with vaccine-eligible children. Almost all respondents agreed that Aligarh was a highly segregated city, mostly due to riots after Partition and during the 1990s. Since the formation of segregated neighborhoods, most respondents described that "Muslim areas" had been underdeveloped compared to "Hindu areas," facilitating the physical transmission of poliovirus. Distrust of the government and resistance to vaccination were linked to this disparate development and fears of sterilization influenced by the "Family Planning Program" from 1976-1977.Ethnic violence and social marginalization since the Partition and during the rise of Hindu nationalism led to distrust of the government, the formation of segregated slums, and has made Muslims victims of structural violence. This led to the creation of disease-spreading physical environments, lowered vaccine efficacy, and disproportionately higher levels of resistance to vaccination. The causes of the polio disparity found in this study elucidate the nature of possible other health disparities affecting minorities in India.This study is limited by the manual coding of the

  15. Partition and Poliomyelitis: An Investigation of the Polio Disparity Affecting Muslims during India's Eradication Program

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    Hussain, Rashid S.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Fruzzetti, Lina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Significant disparities in the incidence of polio existed during its eradication campaign in India. In 2006, Muslims, who comprise 16% of the population in affected states, comprised 70% of paralytic polio cases. This disparity was initially blamed on the Muslims and a rumor that the vaccination program was a plot to sterilize their children. Using the framework of structural violence, this paper describes how the socio-political and historical context of Muslim populations in India shaped the polio disparity. Methods and Findings A qualitative study utilizing methods of rapid ethnography was conducted from May-August 2009 in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. Field methods included participant observation of vaccination teams, historical document research, and 107 interviews with both Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) stakeholders and families with vaccine-eligible children. Almost all respondents agreed that Aligarh was a highly segregated city, mostly due to riots after Partition and during the 1990s. Since the formation of segregated neighborhoods, most respondents described that "Muslim areas" had been underdeveloped compared to "Hindu areas," facilitating the physical transmission of poliovirus. Distrust of the government and resistance to vaccination were linked to this disparate development and fears of sterilization influenced by the "Family Planning Program" from 1976-1977. Conclusions Ethnic violence and social marginalization since the Partition and during the rise of Hindu nationalism led to distrust of the government, the formation of segregated slums, and has made Muslims victims of structural violence. This led to the creation of disease-spreading physical environments, lowered vaccine efficacy, and disproportionately higher levels of resistance to vaccination. The causes of the polio disparity found in this study elucidate the nature of possible other health disparities affecting minorities in India. Limitations This study is

  16. Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio.

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    Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2010-06-11

    Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease. PMID:20430122

  17. Are we doing enough? Evaluation of the Polio Eradication Initiative in a district of Pakistan's Punjab province: a LQAS study

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    Waqas Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was remarkable, but four countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria - never interrupted polio transmission. Pakistan reportedly achieved all milestones except interrupting virus transmission. The aim of the study was to establish valid and reliable estimate for: routine oral polio vaccine (OPV coverage, logistics management and the quality of monitoring systems in health facilities, NIDs OPV coverage, the quality of NIDs service delivery in static centers and mobile teams, and to ultimately provide scientific evidence for tailoring future interventions. Methods A cross-sectional study using lot quality assessment sampling was conducted in the District Nankana Sahib of Pakistan's Punjab province. Twenty primary health centers and their catchment areas were selected randomly as 'lots'. The study involved the evaluation of 1080 children aged 12-23 months for routine OPV coverage, 20 health centers for logistics management and quality of monitoring systems, 420 households for NIDs OPV coverage, 20 static centers and 20 mobile teams for quality of NIDs service delivery. Study instruments were designed according to WHO guidelines. Results Five out of twenty lots were rejected for unacceptably low routine immunization coverage. The validity of coverage was questionable to extent that all lots were rejected. Among the 54.1% who were able to present immunization cards, only 74.0% had valid immunization. Routine coverage was significantly associated with card availability and socioeconomic factors. The main reasons for routine immunization failure were absence of a vaccinator and unawareness of need for immunization. Health workers (96.9% were a major source of information. All of the 20 lots were rejected for poor compliance in logistics management and quality of monitoring systems. Mean compliance score and compliance percentage for logistics management were 5.4 ± 2

  18. [POLIOMYELITIS ERADICATION--ONE STEP TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL].

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    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Čavlek, Tatjana; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana

    2014-12-01

    Poliomyelitis is a very old disease of humans, caused by poliovirus. With appearance of the epidemics in the 20th century, poliomyelitis became a global public health issue. In 1988, the World Health Organization started a campaign for global eradication of poliomyelitis and till now poliomyelitis cases have been reduced by more than 99%. In Croatia, the introduction of vaccination in 1961 resulted in dramatic reduction of paralytic disease. The European region, including Croatia was certified polio free in 2002. However, the final goal of the "polio-free world" has not yet been reached. To reinforce the campaign, the global polio eradication initiative has come up with the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 with detailed program how to resolve the main challenges: (a) continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs; (b) reinfection of polio-free areas; and (c) outbreaks due to the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV). Global oral polio vaccine cessation will follow, with the introduction of universal use of inactivated polio vaccine.

  19. Intensified Local Resource Mobilization for the Polio Eradication Initiative: The Experience of World Health Organization in Nigeria During 2008–2015

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    Yehualashet, Yared G.; Horton, Janet; Mkanda, Pascal; Vaz, Rui G.; Afolabi, Oluwole; Gashu, Sisay G.; Banda, Richard; O'Malley, Helena; Nsubuga, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Country Office team produced and submitted 102 grant reports and facilitated >20 joint project assessment exercises. Discussion. The polio program in Nigeria has achieved unprecedented gains, despite prevailing security and operational challenges, with no case of wild poliovirus infection since July 2014. Through rigorous, transparent, and accountable funds management practice, the WHO country office in Nigeria gained donors' confidence. The locally mobilized funds have made a remarkable contribution to the successful implementation of the strategies set out in the polio emergency plan. We face the challenges of a narrow donor-base, donor fatigue, and competition among other emerging agencies joining the polio eradication initiative efforts over the last few years. We actively engage the national authorities and partners for effective coordination of the polio eradication initiative program and harmonization of resources, using the existing platforms at national, state, and local levels. We recommend strengthening the local resource mobilization machinery and broadening the donor base, to support the polio endgame strategy. Such efforts should also be adopted to support routine immunization, introduction of new vaccines, and strengthening of health systems in the country as part of polio legacy planning. PMID:26912380

  20. National choices related to inactivated poliovirus vaccine, innovation and the endgame of global polio eradication.

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    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2014-02-01

    Achieving the goal of a world free of poliomyelitis still requires significant effort. Although polio immunization represents a mature area, the polio endgame will require new tools and strategies, particularly as national and global health leaders coordinate the cessation of all three serotypes of oral poliovirus vaccine and increasingly adopt inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Poliovirus epidemiology and the global options for managing polioviruses continue to evolve, along with our understanding and appreciation of the resources needed and the risks that require management. Based on insights from modeling, we offer some perspective on the current status of plans and opportunities to achieve and maintain a world free of wild polioviruses and to successfully implement oral poliovirus vaccine cessation. IPV costs and potential wastage will represent an important consideration for national policy makers. Innovations may reduce future IPV costs, but the world urgently needs lower-cost IPV options. PMID:24308581

  1. Strategic Engagement of Technical Surge Capacity for Intensified Polio Eradication Initiative in Nigeria, 2012–2015

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    Yehualashet, Yared G.; Mkanda, Pascal; Gasasira, Alex; Erbeto, Tesfaye; Onimisi, Anthony; Horton, Janet; Banda, Richard; Tegegn, Sisay G.; Ahmed, Haruna; Afolabi, Oluwole; Wadda, Alieu; Vaz, Rui G.; Nsubuga, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Following the 65th World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution on intensification of the Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative (GPEI), the Nigerian government, with support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners, implemented a number of innovative strategies to curb the transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) in the country. One of the innovations successfully implemented since mid 2012 is the WHO's engagement of surge capacity personnel. Methods. The WHO reorganized its functional structure, adopted a transparent recruitment and deployment process, provided focused technical and management training, and applied systematic accountability framework to successfully manage the surge capacity project in close collaboration with the national counterparts and partners. The deployment of the surge capacity personnel was guided by operational and technical requirement analysis. Results. Over 2200 personnel were engaged, of whom 92% were strategically deployed in 11 states classified as high risk on the basis of epidemiological risk analysis and compromised security. These additional personnel were directly engaged in efforts aimed at improving the performance of polio surveillance, vaccination campaigns, increased routine immunization outreach sessions, and strengthening partnership with key stakeholders at the operational level, including community-based organizations. Discussion. Programmatic interventions were sustained in states in which security was compromised and the risk of polio was high, partly owing to the presence of the surge capacity personnel, who are engaged from the local community. Since mid-2012, significant programmatic progress was registered in the areas of polio supplementary immunization activities, acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, and routine immunization with the support of the surge capacity personnel. As of 19 June 2015, the last case of WPV was reported on 24 July 2014. The surge infrastructure has

  2. ERADIKASI POLIO DAN IPV (INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE

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    Gendrowahyuhono Gendrowahyuhono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the year 1988, World Health Organization (WHO claims that polio viruses should be eradicated after year 2000. However, until year 2010 the world have not been free from polio viruses circulation. So many effort had been achieved and it is estimated that the world will be free from polio virus after the year 2013. Control of poliomyelitis in Indonesia has been commenced since 1982 with routine immunization of polio program and the National Immunization Days (NID has been commenced since 1995,1996,2005 and 2006. When the world is free from polio virus, WHO suggests several alternative effort to maintain the world free from polio viruses : I stop the OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine and no polio immunization, 2 stop OPV and stock pile mOPV (monovalent OPV, 3 use OPV and IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine in a certain times, 4 use IPV only in a certain times. IPV has been used routinely in develop countries but has not been used in the developing countries. Several studies in development countries has been conducted, but had not been done in the developing countries. Indonesia collaboration with WHO has conducted the study of IPV in Yogyakarta Province since year 2002 until year 2010. The overall aim of the study is to compile the necessary data that will inform global and national decision-making regarding future polio immunization policies for the OPV cessation era. The data generated from the study will be particularly important to make decisions regarding optimal IPV use in developing tropical countries. It is unlikely that this data can be assembled through other means than through this study. The tentative result of the study shows that OPV immunization coverage in the year 2004 is 99% in four district and 93 % in the Yogyakarta city. Environment surveillance shows that there are 65.7% polio virus detected from 137 sewage samples pre IPV swich, and 4.8% polio virus detected from 83 sewage samples post IPV swich. Survey polio antibody serologis shows

  3. World witnesses a tumultuous year while India reports an eventful decade in the long story of polio eradication

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    Sanjay Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With recent outbreaks in Syria and Horn of Africa, silent circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1 in Israel, West Bank, and Gaza, and fresh spate of violence against vaccinators and their security personnel in Pakistan, the world is facing a turbulent final ascent to the summit of polio eradication. On the positive side, we may also be witnessing the end of wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3 and defused programmatic crisis caused by funding gaps, while India registers third consecutive polio-free year. Having a cogent endgame plan 2013-2018, informed by some cardinal lessons learned from an eventful decade in India, is also a very significant development. Now, there is a parallel pursuit against WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV. Endgame would also involve integration of at least one dose of affordable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV to up-scaled routine immunization (RI, switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV in 144 countries before 2018, stockpiling of mOPV, and simultaneous global cessation of bOPV before 2020. Role of antivirals in post-eradication era is still unclear. Some specific threats emerging at this stage are as follows: Global buildup of new birth cohorts in non-endemic countries with weak RI and downscaled supplementary immunization activities (SIAs, tremendous pressure on peripheral health workers, and fatigued systems. Cultural resistance to transnational programs is taking a violent shape in some areas. Differential interpretations of ′right to say no′, on both sides of the divide, are damaging a global cause. Amidst all these concerns, let us not forget to underline the sacrifice made by frontline vaccinators working in some of the most challenging circumstances.

  4. The Challenge of Global Poliomyelitis Eradication.

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    Garon, Julie R; Cochi, Stephen L; Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-12-01

    In the United States during the 1950's, polio was on the forefront of every provider and caregiver's mind. Today, most providers in the United States have never seen a case. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), which began in 1988 has reduced the number of cases by over 99%. The world is closer to achieving global eradication of polio than ever before but as long as poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world, every country is vulnerable. The global community can support the polio eradication effort through continued vaccination, surveillance, enforcing travel regulations and contributing financial support, partnerships and advocacy.

  5. Support for children identified with acute flaccid paralysis under the global polio eradication programme in Uttar Pradesh, India: a qualitative study

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    Yotsu Rie R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cases of polio in India declined after the implementation of the polio eradication programme especially in these recent years. The programme includes surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP to detect and diagnose cases of polio at early stage. Under this surveillance, over 40,000 cases of AFP are reported annually since 2007 regardless of the number of actual polio cases. Yet, not much is known about these children. We conducted a qualitative research to explore care and support for children with AFP after their diagnosis. Methods The research was conducted in a district of western Uttar Pradesh classified as high-risk area for polio. In-depth interviews with parents of children with polio (17, with non-polio AFP (9, healthcare providers (40, and key informants from community including international and government officers, religious leaders, community leaders, journalists, and academics (21 were performed. Results Minimal medicine and attention were provided at government hospitals. Therefore, most parents preferred private-practice doctors for their children with AFP. Many were visited at homes to have stool samples collected by authorities. Some were visited repetitively following the sample collection, but had difficulty in understanding the reasons for these visits that pertained no treatment. Financial burden was a common concern among all families. Many parents expressed resentment for their children's disease, notably have been affected despite receiving multiple doses of polio vaccine. Both parents and healthcare providers lacked information and knowledge, furthermore poverty minimised the access to available healthcare services. Medicines, education, and transportation means were identified as foremost needs for children with AFP and residual paralysis. Conclusions Despite the high number of children diagnosed with AFP as part of the global polio eradication programme, we found they were not provided with

  6. Outcomes of polio eradication activities in Uttar Pradesh, India: the Social Mobilization Network (SM Net and Core Group Polio Project (CGPP

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    Singh Vibha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary strategy to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus in India is to improve supplemental immunization activities and routine immunization coverage in priority districts with a focus on 107 high-risk blocks of western Uttar Pradesh and central Bihar. Villages or urban areas with a history of wild poliovirus transmission, or hard-to-reach or resistant populations are categorized as high-risk areas within blocks. The Social Mobilization Network (SM Net was formed in Uttar Pradesh in 2003 to support polio eradication efforts through improved planning, implementation and monitoring of social mobilization activities in those high-risk areas. In this paper, we examine the vaccination outcomes in districts of SM Net where the CORE Group works. Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis of routine monitoring information collected by the SM Net and the Government of India. These data include information about vaccination outcomes in SM Net areas and non-SM Net areas within the districts where the CORE Group operates. Statistical analysis was used to compare, between SM Net and non-SM Net areas, vaccination outcomes considered sensitive to social mobilization efforts of the SM Net. We employed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE statistical method to account for Intra-cluster Correlation (ICC, and used 'Quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion (QIC' as the model selection method. Results Vaccination outcomes in SM Net areas were as high as or higher than in non-SM Net areas. There was considerable variation in vaccination outcomes between districts. Conclusions While not conclusive, the results suggest that the social mobilization efforts of the SM Net and the CORE Group are helping to increase vaccination levels in high-risk areas of Uttar Pradesh. Vaccination outcomes in CORE Group areas were equal or higher than in non-CORE, non-SM Net areas. This occurred even though SM Net areas are those with

  7. The role of nurses and midwives in polio eradication and measles control activities: a survey in Sudan and Zambia

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    Haithami Salah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses and midwives are the key providers of nursing and midwifery services; in many countries, they form the major category of frontline workers who provide both preventive and curative services in the community. When the skills and experience of nursing and midwifery personnel are maximized, they can contribute significantly to positive health outcomes. We conducted a survey among nurses and midwives working at district level in Sudan and Zambia to determine their roles and functions in polio eradication and measles elimination programmes. Methods Nurses and midwives practising in four selected districts in Sudan and in Zambia completed a self-administered questionnaire on their roles and responsibilities, their routine activities and their functions during supplementary immunization campaigns for polio and measles. Results Nurses and midwives were found to play significant roles in implementing immunization programme activities. The level of responsibilities of nurses and midwives in their routine work related more to existing opportunities than to their job descriptions. In Zambia, where nurses reported constraints in performing their tasks, the reasons cited were an increase in the burden of disease and the shortage of health personnel. Factors identified as key to improving work performance included written job descriptions, opportunities for staff and career development and opportunities to earn extra income through activities associated with their jobs. Other non-monetary incentives mentioned included reliable transport, resources and logistics to support routine work in the district. However, in both countries, during supplementary immunization activities or mass campaigns for polio eradication and measles control, nurses and midwives took on more management responsibilities. Conclusion This study shows that nurses and midwives play an important role in implementing immunization activities at the district level and

  8. Factors affecting routine immunization coverage among children aged 12-59 months in Lao PDR after regional polio eradication in western Pacific region.

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    Maekawa, Masaharu; Douangmala, Somthana; Sakisaka, Kayako; Takahashi, Kenzoh; Phathammavong, Outavong; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2007-08-01

    The global poliomyelitis eradication programme had a great impact on routine immunization coverage in Lao PDR: DPT3 increased 23% in 1992 to 56% in 1999; OPV3 27% to 64%. However, after the achievement of regional eradication, coverage became stagnant in accordance with the withdrawal of various sources of financial supports. In place of the former funds, a public-private global partnership began to support EPI. We aim to explore factors affecting routine immunization coverage. From February to March of 2005, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted, targeting 341 mothers living in two districts where immunization coverage was the lowest and the middle in Oudomxay province. DPT3 coverage was 72%, higher than the national target of 65%; however, the drop-out rate was 21%. Influential factors on fully immunized child was distance, literacy, possession of livestock; mothers knowledge of immunization target diseases, measles immunization schedule; and mother's willingness to pay for immunization. In total, 98% of all mothers lived within a 30-minute walk of the immunization site. Household visits increased the immunization status among mothers who were illiterate, utilizing an outreach site for immunization, not willing to pay for immunization, receiving home delivery, and without health education attendance. The much higher routine immunization coverage especially in a district of poor EPI activities suggests a well-designed primary health care approach under the district strategy, the zone-zero social mobilization strategy and good lines of communications; it also points to the benefits of the polio eradication initiative. Household visits were found to be effective for people living with difficulties in such as education, living location, and finance. An equally shared funding system for the basic health as well as international policy for respecting the existing system in poor country is important. PMID:20103866

  9. Alternative administration routes and delivery technologies for polio vaccines.

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    Kraan, Heleen; van der Stel, Wanda; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Global polio eradication is closer than ever. Replacement of the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended to achieve complete eradication. Limited global production capacity and relatively high IPV costs compared to OPV spur the need for improved polio vaccines. The target product profile of these vaccines includes not only dose sparing but also high stability, which is important for stockpiling, and easy application important for (emergency) vaccination campaigns. In this review, the current status of alternative polio vaccine delivery strategies is given. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of these strategies by highlighting challenges, hurdles to overcome, and formulation issues relevant for optimal vaccine delivery. PMID:26912100

  10. Prospects of eradicating poliomyelitis by 2007: compulsory vaccination may be a strategy.

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    Lahariya, Chandrakant; Pradhan, S K

    2007-01-01

    The polio eradication has reached at a critical juncture. The progress was good until year 2000, and since then no major success has been achieved. The year 2006 can easily be termed as 'nightmare period' as there was sudden increase of polio cases in the affected countries this year. The threats of re-emergence and importation continued. The apprehensions became stronger, while the target elusive. This situation requires an immediate decisive action, by the international health community, to eradicate polio at the earliest possible. This article draws some lessons from polio eradication program in last two decades, along with analyzing the concept, feasibility and applicability of compulsory vaccination for achieving the goal of polio eradication by the end of the year 2007.

  11. India's poliomyelitis eradication: a milestone in public health.

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    Grover, Manoj; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Sinha, Smita; Kaur, Ravneet

    2013-12-01

    India has recently completed 2 years without single case of poliomyelitis on 13 January 2013. This has brought South East Asian Region closer to eradication. Recently, India is being regarded as a role model for polio eradication efforts in other low-income endemic countries-Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan. However, the near elimination of wild polio virus in India has set forth newer challenges. Stricter surveillance measures are now needed to check for importations spread of virus in migratory populations and rapid containment of newly found virus. India's battle against polio will soon be cited as biggest public health achievement or most expensive public health failure.

  12. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Pakistan, January 2014-September 2015.

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    Farag, Noha H; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Nabil; Hamdi, Sabrine; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-11-20

    Since Nigeria reported its last case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in July 2014, Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only two countries where WPV transmission has never been interrupted. This report describes actions taken and progress achieved toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2014-September 2015 and updates previous reports. A total of 38 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan during January-September 2015, compared with 243 during the same period in 2014 (an 84% decline). Among WPV1 cases reported in 2015, 32 (84%) occurred in children aged FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. During January-September 2015, WPV1 was detected in 20% (64 of 325) of environmental samples collected, compared with 34% (98 of 294) of samples collected during the same period in 2014. The quality and scope of polio eradication activities improved considerably following the establishment of a national Emergency Operations Center, which coordinated polio eradication partners' activities. All activities are following a National Polio Eradication Emergency Action Plan that includes a rigorous action plan for the polio low transmission season (January-April). The presence of WPV1 in environmental samples in areas where no polio cases are detected highlights the need to improve surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Focused efforts to close remaining immunity gaps by locating, tracking, and vaccinating continually missed children and improving coverage with OPV through the routine vaccination program are needed to stop WPV transmission in Pakistan. PMID:26584026

  13. The discussion of inactivated poliovirus vaccine immunization strategy in China during the global polio eradication stage%全球消灭脊髓灰质炎最后阶段我国脊髓灰质炎疫苗免疫策略的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊赫亚; 王芃; 辛美哲; 李黎; 杨维中

    2015-01-01

    Since its launching at the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988,the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has reduced the global incidence of polio by over 99 %,from an estimated 350 000 cases then to 406 reported cases in 2013,and the number of countries with endemic polio from 125 to 3.The reduction is the result of the global effort to eradicate the disease.In 2012,the World Health Assembly declared ending polio a "programmatic emergency for global public health" and developed the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018.In the plan,all countries are recommended to introduce at least 1 dose of IPV into their routine immunization programs to reduce the consequences of a subsequent circulating poliovirus after OPV2 cessation.Under certain conditions,how should at least one dose of IPV be introduced into Chinese routine immunization programs,what problems might be met during the process and what lessons we could learn from abroad are of great interest to us.During the meeting,experts shared the experiences of introducing IPV into their routine immunization programs and provided suggestions to us.Proper communication strategy and maintaining the high coverage of vaccination are the primary factors during the vaccine policy changing period.

  14. How vaccine safety can become political--the example of polio in Nigeria.

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    Clements, Christopher J; Greenough, Paul; Shull, Diana

    2006-01-01

    Vaccine safety is increasingly a major aspect of immunization programmes. Parents are becoming more aware of safety issues relating to vaccines their babies might receive. As a consequence, public health initiatives have had to take note of pressures brought to bear by individual parents and groups. Now we document a new phase in vaccine safety where it has been used to achieve political objectives. In 1988, the World Health Assembly declared its intention to eradicate poliomyelitis from the globe by the year 2000. This goal had to be postponed to 2005 for a number of reasons. Although the progress has been spectacular in achieving eradication in almost all nations and areas, the goal has been tantalizingly elusive. But arguably the most difficult country from which to eradicate the virus has been Nigeria. Over the past two years, tension has arisen in the north against immunizing against polio using the oral polio vaccine (OPV). Although this vaccine has been used in every other country in the world including other Muslim states, some religious leaders in the north found reason in August 2003 to advise their followers not to have their children vaccinated with OPV. Subsequent to this boycott, which the Kano governor had endorsed for a year and then ended in July 2004, cases of polio occurred in African nations previously free of the virus, and the DNA finger-print of the virus indicated it had come from Nigeria. In other words, Nigeria became a net exporter of polio virus to its African neighbours and beyond. Now the disease has spread to a dozen formerly polio-free countries, including Sudan and Indonesia. We show that, while the outward manifestations of the northern Nigerian intransigence were that of distrust of vaccine, the underlying problem was actually part of a longstanding dispute about political and religious power vis a vis Abuja. It is unlikely that polio transmission will be interrupted by 2005 if this dispute is allowed to run its course. PMID

  15. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Pakistan, January 2014-September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Nabil; Hamdi, Sabrine; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-11-20

    Since Nigeria reported its last case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in July 2014, Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only two countries where WPV transmission has never been interrupted. This report describes actions taken and progress achieved toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2014-September 2015 and updates previous reports. A total of 38 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan during January-September 2015, compared with 243 during the same period in 2014 (an 84% decline). Among WPV1 cases reported in 2015, 32 (84%) occurred in children aged <36 months, nine (32%) of whom had never received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Twenty-six (68%) of the 38 reported cases occurred in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. During January-September 2015, WPV1 was detected in 20% (64 of 325) of environmental samples collected, compared with 34% (98 of 294) of samples collected during the same period in 2014. The quality and scope of polio eradication activities improved considerably following the establishment of a national Emergency Operations Center, which coordinated polio eradication partners' activities. All activities are following a National Polio Eradication Emergency Action Plan that includes a rigorous action plan for the polio low transmission season (January-April). The presence of WPV1 in environmental samples in areas where no polio cases are detected highlights the need to improve surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Focused efforts to close remaining immunity gaps by locating, tracking, and vaccinating continually missed children and improving coverage with OPV through the routine vaccination program are needed to stop WPV transmission in Pakistan.

  16. Role Of Polio Sena And Awareness Of Pulse Polio Immunization

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    Taneja D.K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research: 1. Can the student volunteers from schools be an important resource in IEC and social mobilisation for pulse polio programme? 2. What is the level of awareness regarding pulse polio among the households? Objectives: 1. To assess awareness among households about PPI. 2. To evaluate role of Polio Sena, besides other sources in IEC for PPI campaign. Study design: Intervention Setting: National Capital Territory of Delhi. Intervention: For the purpose of IEC and social mobilisation, an innovative scheme of involving school children from class 6th to 12th was launched in the Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI campaign of 1995 â€" 96 held in Delhi. This student volunteer force was named ‘Polio Sena’ and the volunteers were assigned specific tasks. Participants: Households with a child under the age of three years. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: High level of awareness about PPI campaign was found. Majority were aware about the age group of eligible children, the dates and number of PPI doses to be given. Achievements of ‘Polio Sena’ were significant. 24.9% of house - holds had received information about PPI from school children, which was maximum among interpersonal sources of communication. Television was the commonest medium of information. Conclusion: Polio sena was an important source of IEC and social mobilisation for PPI.

  17. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Afghanistan, January 2014‒August 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Saatcioglu, Akif; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Hadler, Stephen; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-10-23

    Despite recent progress toward global polio eradication, endemic transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) continues to be reported in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Afghanistan program must overcome many challenges to remain on track toward achieving the objectives set in the 2013–2018 strategic plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Cross-border transmission of WPV type 1 (WPV1) continues to occur among children traveling to and from Pakistan. The country's routine immunization system remains weak and unable to reach recommended benchmarks in most regions; hence, the national Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) relies mainly on providing children aged <5 years with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), administered during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Because of ongoing conflict and insecurity, some children continue to be missed during SIAs in areas not under government control; however, the majority of missed children live in accessible areas and are often unreached because of a failure to plan, implement, and supervise SIAs efficiently. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan during January 2014‒August 2015 and updates previous reports. During 2014, a total of 28 WPV1 cases were reported in Afghanistan, compared with 14 cases in 2013; nine cases were reported during January‒August 2015, the same number as during the same period in 2014. To eliminate poliovirus transmission in Afghanistan, emergency operations centers (EOCs) need to be established at the national level and in critical regions without delay to improve overall coordination and oversight of polio eradication activities. The recently revised National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication needs to be fully implemented, including detailed microplanning and enhanced monitoring and supervision of SIAs, as well as improved cross-border coordination with Pakistan.

  18. A public health achievement under adversity: the eradication of poliomyelitis from Peru, 1991.

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    Sobti, Deepak; Cueto, Marcos; He, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    The fight to achieve global eradication of poliomyelitis continues. Although native transmission of poliovirus was halted in the Western Hemisphere by the early 1990s, and only a few cases have been imported in the past few years, much of Latin America's story remains to be told. Peru conducted a successful flexible, or flattened, vertical campaign in 1991. The initial disease-oriented programs began to collaborate with community-oriented primary health care systems, thus strengthening public-private partnerships and enabling the common goal of poliomyelitis eradication to prevail despite rampant terrorism, economic instability, and political turmoil. Committed leaders in Peru's Ministry of Health, the Pan American Health Organization, and Rotary International, as well as dedicated health workers who acted with missionary zeal, facilitated acquisition of adequate technologies, coordinated work at the local level, and increased community engagement, despite sometimes being unable to institutionalize public health improvements.

  19. Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles?

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    Morgan Oliver WC

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an effective measles vaccine has been available for almost 40 years, in 2000 there were about 30 million measles infections worldwide and 777,000 measles-related deaths. The history of smallpox suggests that achieving measles eradication depends on several factors; the biological characteristics of the organism; vaccine technology; surveillance and laboratory identification; effective delivery of vaccination programmes and international commitment to eradication. Discussion Like smallpox, measles virus has several biological characteristics that favour eradication. Humans are the only reservoir for the virus, which causes a visible illness and infection leading to life-long immunity. As the measles virus has only one genetic serotype which is relatively stable over time, the same basic vaccine can be used world-wide. Vaccination provides protection against measles infection for at least 15 years, although efficacy may be reduced due to host factors such as nutritional status. Measles vaccination may also confer other non-specific health benefits leading to reduced mortality. Accurate laboratory identification of measles cases enables enhanced surveillance to support elimination programmes. The "catch-up, keep-up, follow-up" vaccination programme implemented in the Americas has shown that measles elimination is possible using existing technologies. On 17th October 2003 the "Cape Town Measles Declaration" by the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Childrens Fund called on governments to intensify efforts to reduce measles mortality by supporting universal vaccination coverage and the development of more effective vaccination. Summary Although more difficult than for smallpox, recent experience in the Americas suggests that measles eradication is technically feasible. Growing international support to deliver these programmes means that measles, like smallpox, may very well become a curiosity of history.

  20. Polio--new challenges in 2006.

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    Katz, Samuel L

    2006-07-01

    The continued progress of the Polio Eradication Program has encountered a number of hurdles in the past 2 years as virus has spread from northern Nigeria across much of central Africa and into the Middle East and as far as Indonesia. India continues to be a source of virus exportation but to a much less degree. WHO is optimistic regarding elimination of circulating virus from all of these countries in 2006 with the exception of Nigeria. Newly recognized obstacles to the eradication are the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) and those originating from immune deficient patients (iVDPV). Data are presented on the numbers and locations of cases of paralytic polio in 2004 and 2005 as reported to the WHO in early 2006. Scenarios for the maintenance of freedom from polio when/if the final cases occur are considered. PMID:16679055

  1. The final stages of the global eradication of poliomyelitis.

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    Grassly, Nicholas C

    2013-08-01

    The global incidence of poliomyelitis has dropped by more than 99 per cent since the governments of the world committed to eradication in 1988. One of the three serotypes of wild poliovirus has been eradicated and the remaining two serotypes are limited to just a small number of endemic regions. However, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has faced a number of challenges in eradicating the last 1 per cent of wild-virus transmission. The polio endgame has also been complicated by the recognition that vaccination with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) must eventually cease because of the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-derived polioviruses. I describe the major challenges to wild poliovirus eradication, focusing on the poor immunogenicity of OPV in lower-income countries, the inherent limitations to the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance, the international spread of poliovirus and resulting outbreaks, and the potential significance of waning intestinal immunity induced by OPV. I then focus on the challenges to eradicating all polioviruses, the problem of vaccine-derived polioviruses and the risk of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus re-emergence after the cessation of oral vaccination. I document the role of research in the GPEI's response to these challenges and ultimately the feasibility of achieving a world without poliomyelitis.

  2. Eradicating and eliminating infectious diseases: Past, Present and Future

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    Jai P Narain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past 60 years, a number of infectious diseases have been targeted for eradication or elimination, with mixed results. While smallpox is the only one successfully eradicated so far, campaigns on yaws and malaria brought about a dramatic reduction in the incidence in the beginning of the campaign but ultimately could not achieve the desired goal. There is again a renewed interest in disease eradication. The World Health assembly in May 2010 passed a resolution calling for eradication of measles by 2015; the target of polio eradication still remains elusive. In view of these developments, it is appropriate time to revisit the concept of disease eradication and elimination, the achievements and failures of past eradication programmes and reasons thereof, and possibly apply these lessons while planning for the future activities. This paper based on the Dr. A.L.Saha Memorial Oration describes various infectious diseases that have been targeted for eradication or elimination since 1950s, the potential direct and indirect benefits from disease eradication, and the issues and opportunities for the future.

  3. Post-Polio Syndrome

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    ... had subtle paralytic polio where there was no obvious deficit. In such cases, prior polio should be ... because other medical conditions can complicate the evaluation. Depression, for example, is associated with fatigue and can ...

  4. The Journalists Initiatives on Immunisation Against Polio and Improved Acceptance of the Polio Vaccine in Northern Nigeria 2007–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Zakari, Furera; Damisa, Eunice; Idowu, Audu; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Hammanyero, Kulchumi; Nsubuga, Peter; Korir, Charles; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The polio eradication initiative had major setbacks in 2003 and 2007 due to media campaigns in which renowned scholars and Islamic clerics criticized polio vaccines. The World Health Organization (WHO) partnered with journalists in 2007 to form the Journalists Initiatives on Immunisation Against Polio (JAP), to develop communication initiatives aimed at highlighting polio eradication activities and the importance of immunization in northern Nigeria. Methods. We evaluated the impact of JAP activities in Kaduna State by determining the total number of media materials produced and the number of newspaper clips and bulletins published in support of polio eradication. We also determined the number of households in noncompliant communities that became compliant with vaccination during 2015 supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) after JAP interventions and compared caregivers’ sources of information about SIAs in 2007 before and after the JAP was formed. Results. Since creation of the JAP, >500 reports have been published and aired, with most portraying polio vaccine positively. During June 2015 SIAs in high-risk wards of Kaduna STATE, JAP interventions resulted in vaccination of 5122 of 5991 children (85.5%) from noncompliant households. During early 2007, the number of caregivers who had heard about SIA rounds from the media increased from 26% in January, before the JAP was formed, to 33% in March, after the initiation of JAP activities. Conclusions. The formation of the JAP resulted in measurable improvement in the acceptance of polio vaccine in northern Nigeria. PMID:26721745

  5. Eradication of poliomyelitis in countries affected by conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, R H; Hull, H F; Jafari, H; Nkowane, B; Everts, H; Aylward, R B

    2000-01-01

    The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict. PMID:10812729

  6. Estimating the risk of re-emergence after stopping polio vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eSasaki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Live vaccination against polio has effectively prevented outbreaks in most developed countries for more than 40 years, and there remain only a few countries where outbreaks of poliomyelitis by the wild strain still threaten the community. It is expected that worldwide eradication will be eventually achieved through careful surveillance and a well-managed immunization program. The present paper argues, however, that based on a simple stochastic model the risk of outbreak by a vaccine-derived strain after the cessation of vaccination is quite high, even if many years have passed since the last confirmed case. As vaccinated hosts are natural reservoirs for virulent poliovirus, the source of the risk is the vaccination itself, employed to prevent the outbreaks. The crisis after stopping vaccination will emerge when the following two conditions are met: the susceptible host density exceeds the threshold for epidemics and the vaccinated host density remains large enough to ensure the occurrence of virulent mutants in the population. Our estimates for transmission, recovery, and mutation rates, show that the probability of an outbreak of vaccine-derived virulent viruses easily exceeds 90%. Moreover, if a small fraction of hosts have a longer infectious period, as observed in individuals with innate immunodeficiency, the risk of an outbreak rises significantly. Under such conditions, successful global eradication of polio is restricted to a certain range of parameters even if inactive polio vaccine (IPV is extensively used after the termination of live vaccination.

  7. A case for developing antiviral drugs against polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Marc S; Neyts, Johan; Modlin, John F

    2008-09-01

    Polio eradication is within sight. In bringing the world close to this ultimate goal, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has relied exclusively on the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, as eradication nears, continued OPV use becomes less tenable due to the incidence of vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in vaccine recipients and disease caused by circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in contacts. Once wild poliovirus transmission has been interrupted globally, OPV use will stop. This will leave the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) as the only weapon to defend a polio-free world. Outbreaks caused by cVDPVs are expected post-OPV cessation, and accidental or deliberate releases of virus could also occur. There are serious doubts regarding the ability of IPV alone to control outbreaks. Here, we argue that antiviral drugs against poliovirus be added to the arsenal. Anti-poliovirus drugs could be used to treat the infected and protect the exposed, acting rapidly on their own to contain an outbreak and used as a complement to IPV. While there are no polio antiviral drugs today, the technological feasibility of developing such drugs and their probability of clinical success have been established by over three decades of drug development targeting the related rhinoviruses and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs). Because of this history, there are known compounds with anti-poliovirus activity in vitro that represent excellent starting points for polio drug development. Stakeholders must come to understand the potential public health benefits of polio drugs, the feasibility of their development, and the relatively modest costs involved. Given the timelines for eradication and those for drug development, the time for action is now. PMID:18513807

  8. Polio elimination in Nigeria: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Usman Nakakana; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda Sankar; Montagnani, Francesca; Akite, Jacqueline Elaine; Mungu, Etaluka Blanche; Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; Ismaila, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Nigeria has made tremendous strides towards eliminating polio and has been free of wild polio virus (WPV) for more than a year as of August 2015. However, sustained focus towards getting rid of all types of poliovirus by improving population immunity and enhancing disease surveillance will be needed to ensure it sustains the polio-free status. We reviewed the pertinent literature including published and unpublished, official reports and working documents of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners as well as other concerned organizations. The literature were selected based on the following criteria: published in English Language, published after year 2000, relevant content and conformance to the theme of the review and these were sorted accordingly. The challenges facing the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) in Nigeria were found to fall into 3 broad categories viz failure to vaccinate, failure of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and epidemiology of the virus. Failure to vaccinate resulted from insecurity, heterogeneous political support, programmatic limitation in implementation of vaccination campaigns, poor performance of vaccination teams in persistently poor performing Local Government areas and sporadic vaccine refusals in Northern Nigeria. Sub optimal effectiveness of OPV in some settings as well as the rare occurrence of VDPVs associated with OPV type 2 in areas of low immunization coverage were also found to be key issues. Some of the innovations which helped to manage the threats to the PEI include a strong government accountability frame work, change from type 2 containing OPV to bi valent OPVs for supplementary immunization activities (SIA), enhancing environmental surveillance in key states (Sokoto, Kano and Borno) along with an overall improvement in SIA quality. There has been an improvement in coverage of routine immunization and vaccination campaigns, which has resulted in Nigeria being removed from the list of endemic countries

  9. Did the call for boycott by the Catholic bishops affect the polio vaccination coverage in Kenya in 2015? A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeru, Ian; Ajack, Yusuf; Muitherero, Charles; Onyango, Dickens; Musyoka, Johnny; Onuekusi, Iheoma; Kioko, Jackson; Muraguri, Nicholas; Davis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polio eradication is now feasible after removal of Nigeria from the list of endemic countries and global reduction of cases of wild polio virus in 2015 by more than 80%. However, all countries must remain focused to achieve eradication. In August 2015, the Catholic bishops in Kenya called for boycott of a polio vaccination campaign citing safety concerns with the polio vaccine. We conducted a survey to establish if the coverage was affected by the boycott. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in all the 32 counties that participated in the campaign. A total of 90,157 children and 37,732 parents/guardians were sampled to determine the vaccination coverage and reasons for missed vaccination. Results The national vaccination coverage was 93% compared to 94% in the November 2014 campaign. The proportion of parents/guardians that belonged to Catholic Church was 31% compared to 7% of the children who were missed. Reasons for missed vaccination included house not being visited (44%), children not being at home at time of visit (38%), refusal by parents (12%), children being as leep (1%), and various other reasons (5%). Compared to the November 2014 campaign, the proportion of children who were not vaccinated due to parent's refusal significantly increased from 6% to 12% in August 2015. Conclusion The call for boycott did not affect the campaign significantly. However, if the call for boycott is repeated in future it could have some significant negative implication to polio eradication. It is therefore important to ensure that any vaccine safety issues are addressed accordingly. PMID:27642458

  10. Smallpox and its eradication in the Democratic Republic of Congo: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Mulembakani, Prime; Lekie, René Botee; Szczeniowski, Mark; Ježek, Zdeněk; Doshi, Reena; Hoff, Nicole; Rimoin, Anne W

    2011-12-30

    Smallpox eradication is considered to be one of the most remarkable accomplishments of the 20th century. Lessons learned from the campaign during the 1960s and 1970s in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) can provide important information for the development of other eradication programs including polio. The DRC is the third largest country in Africa; the population suffers from extreme poverty, deteriorating infrastructure and health systems, and long periods of civil strife. Despite these challenges, DRC's smallpox eradication campaign was successful, eradicating smallpox only 41 months after initiation. DRC had been polio free since 2001; however, in 2006, imported cases were identified in the country. Polio transmission has since been re-established and DRC now has the second greatest number of reported polio cases in the world. Challenges which existed during the smallpox campaign in DRC are still present today; additionally, the polio vaccine itself poses unique challenges which include requiring multiple doses to confer immunity. In the fight against polio in DRC, it will be important to draw from the smallpox eradication experience. A number of important themes emerged during the campaign that could be beneficial to eradicating polio and future eradication programs that may follow. During the smallpox campaign, a standard vaccination program was implemented, surveillance was intensified, and there were strong collaborative programs with community involvement. These successful elements of the smallpox campaign should be adapted and applied in DRC in polio eradication programs. PMID:22188930

  11. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  12. Applying the Concept of Peptide Uniqueness to Anti-Polio Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Kanduc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although rare, adverse events may associate with anti-poliovirus vaccination thus possibly hampering global polio eradication worldwide. Objective. To design peptide-based anti-polio vaccines exempt from potential cross-reactivity risks and possibly able to reduce rare potential adverse events such as the postvaccine paralytic poliomyelitis due to the tendency of the poliovirus genome to mutate. Methods. Proteins from poliovirus type 1, strain Mahoney, were analyzed for amino acid sequence identity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level, searching for sequences that (1 have zero percent of identity to human proteins, (2 are potentially endowed with an immunologic potential, and (3 are highly conserved among poliovirus strains. Results. Sequence analyses produced a set of consensus epitopic peptides potentially able to generate specific anti-polio immune responses exempt from cross-reactivity with the human host. Conclusion. Peptide sequences unique to poliovirus proteins and conserved among polio strains might help formulate a specific and universal anti-polio vaccine able to react with multiple viral strains and exempt from the burden of possible cross-reactions with human proteins. As an additional advantage, using a peptide-based vaccine instead of current anti-polio DNA vaccines would eliminate the rare post-polio poliomyelitis cases and other disabling symptoms that may appear following vaccination.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice of polio prevention among people in Khyber pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Polio among people in Khyber PakhtunKhwa and to recommend measures in order to improve the awareness of disease. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Nowshera, CMH Mardan and Kohat General Hospital from March to June 2013. Subjects and Methods: Persons presenting for consultation to tertiary care hospitals at medical reception rooms were approached by convenience sampling. Structured questionnaire was developed and data was collected by interviews. Results: The findings of the study revealed that out of 296 persons participated in study 57.4% were males while 42.2% were females. They were residents of Mardan, Nowshera, Kohat and Swabi districts of Khyber Pakhtukhwa. Persons who believed that vaccine is prohibited in religion were 13.9%, 81.1% persons knew about Polio disease and 84.5% persons believed that disease could be prevented by giving vaccines to children. Persons who gave vaccine to their children were 88.9% and 66.9% also knew the schedule of the vaccine. Pressure groups which included tribal elders stopped 19.3% people from giving vaccine to their children and for 11.1% persons the facility of giving vaccine was not available. Persons who believed that Polio can cause infertility were 11.5% and 20.9% believed that Polio vaccine cannot prevent Polio disease. Persons who have seen patient of Polio were 38.9% and 88.5 % persons wanted to eradicate disease from Pakistan. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that people have adequate knowledge about Polio and wanted to eradicate it from Pakistan by participating in vaccination activities but still there are few people who believe that Polio vaccine cannot prevent disease resulting in failure to adminster vaccine for their children. (author)

  14. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2010-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria. Among those countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan represent a common epidemiologic reservoir. This report updates previous reports (1,4) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2010--September 2011, as of October 31, 2011, and planned activities during 2011--2012 to address challenges to polio eradication. In Afghanistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011 predominantly occurred in the conflict-affected South Region and the adjacent Farah Province of the West Region. During 2010, 25 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 38 in 2009; 42 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 19 for the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011occurred both in conflict-affected, inaccessible areas along the common border with Afghanistan and in accessible areas; 144 WPV cases were confirmed in 2010, compared with 89 in 2009, and 120 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 93 during the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, the president launched a National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication in January 2011, emphasizing the key role and responsibility of political and health-care leaders at the district and subdistrict (union council) levels. Enhanced commitment, management, and oversight by provincial and district authorities will be needed to achieve further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Pakistan. Continued efforts also will be needed to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within insecure areas of both countries.

  15. Eradication and Current Status of Poliomyelitis in Pakistan: Ground Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Shazia; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan. PMID:27517055

  16. Eradication and Current Status of Poliomyelitis in Pakistan: Ground Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Ghafoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan.

  17. Eradication and Current Status of Poliomyelitis in Pakistan: Ground Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Shazia

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is among the last three countries along with Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio virus is still endemic. More or less, with some fluctuations, numbers of reported cases in the past few years have shown a rising trend. Year 2014 pushed the country into the deep sea of difficulties, as number of cases rose to red alert level of 328. Security situation has adversely affected the whole immunization coverage campaign. In a country where 40 polio vaccinators have been killed since 2012, such a big number of cases is not a surprising outcome. Worse perception of parents about polio vaccine as in Karachi and FATA, the high risk zones, makes 100% coverage a dream. Minor and perhaps delayed payments to polio workers make them frustrated, resulting in decline of trained manpower for vaccination. Strong implementation of policies is required and those found guilty of attack on polio workers need to be punished. Targeted community awareness programme, strong surveillance network, and involvement of influential religious entities can help to root out polio disease from country. Present review is aimed at analyzing all barriers on the road to success in eradication of polio from Pakistan. PMID:27517055

  18. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Nigeria, January 2014-July 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Ticha, Johnson M; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Chevez, Ana Elena; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei-Wa; Burns, Cara C; Wassilak, Steven G F; Vertefeuille, John F

    2015-08-21

    Since the 1988 launch of global poliomyelitis eradication efforts, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free. Nigeria is one of only three countries, along with Afghanistan and Pakistan, where transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. During 2003-2013, northern Nigeria served as a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government launched a national polio eradication emergency plan to intensify efforts to interrupt WPV transmission. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2014-July 2015 and updates previous reports. No WPV cases have been reported to date in 2015, compared with a total of six cases reported during 2014. Onset of paralysis in the latest reported WPV type 1 (WPV1) case was July 24, 2014. Only one case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been reported to date in 2015, compared with 20 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2014. Pending final laboratory testing of 218 remaining specimens of 16,617 specimens collected since January 2015, Nigeria could be removed from the WHO list of polio-endemic countries in September 2015. Major remaining challenges to the national polio eradication program include sustaining political support and program funding in the absence of active WPV transmission, maintaining high levels of population immunity in hard-to-reach areas, and accessing children in security-compromised areas of the northeastern states.

  19. [Poliomyelitis eradication is a visible unsolved problem in the coming years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P

    2011-01-01

    The WHO global polio eradication initiative launched in 1988, by eradicating wild polio viruses, was to be completed in 2000. The initiative had not been implemented. Enormous work has resulted in a reduction in the number of poliomyelitis cases worldwide from 350,000 to 1,500-2,000 a year. However, the incidence of poliomyelitis does not and is unlikely to stop by the newly fix date--2013. The reason is that vaccine-derived polio viruses that are pathogenic in nature remain and long circulate in the earth. The circulation in human beings leads to the restoration of their neurovirulence and ability to induce severe paralytic diseases. In 1999 the WHO reported the global eradication of wild polio virus type 2 and therefore there should not be diseases caused by polio virus of this type. Nevertheless, the virus-induced diseases continue to emerge. About 300 cases of diseases induced by vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 had been notified by July 2009. At present, there is no way to eradicate all polio viruses worldwide so the case in point may be only to stop their transmission or minimize morbidity with on-going vaccination.

  20. A study of the knowledge and attitude towards pulse polio immunization in semi urban areas of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe government of India launched the pulse polioimmunization (PPI programme in 1995 with the aim oferadicating poliomyelitis by the end of 2000. Despite this,733 children with polio were reported in 2009 alone.Therefore, there is a need to understand the reasonunderlying such high numbers of cases after so many yearsof programme implementation. This study was performedto assess the knowledge of the general population aboutpoliomyelitis and PPI and their attitude and practicetowards PPI.MethodThis cross-sectional study was undertaken in two semiurbanareas of Mangalore city. Only houses in whichchildren under five lived were included in the study. Datawas collected by interviewing any adult member of thehousehold using a pretested questionnaire.ResultsThe literacy rate of study participants was 99%. Only35(10.9% participants knew the correct mode oftransmission of polio. More than one quarter of the studypopulation were under the misconception that polio is acurable disease. The primary source of information aboutPPI in majority of participants was the television (n = 192;60%. Two-hundred and eighty eight (90% participantsknew that the purpose of PPI was to eradicate polio. Only128 (40% participants knew that polio drops can be givento children with mild illnesses and an identical number ofparticipants knew that hot food stuff should not be givenfor at least half an hour following vaccinationadministration. Misconceptions such as PPI causing vaccineoverdose was identified among 7 (2.2% participants, it is asubstitute for routine immunization was believed among 30(9.4% participants and that oral polio vaccine preventsother diseases was seen among 76 (23.7% participants. Theeducational status of the participants was significantlyassociated with their awareness level (χ2 =13.668, DF=6,P=0.033.ConclusionThis study identified a few important misconceptionsassociated with polio and PPI which need to be addressedby large scale awareness

  1. Seven-Day Nonbismuth Containing Quadruple Therapy Could Achieve a Grade “A” Success Rate for First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Tai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study was to assess the efficacy of nonbismuth containing quadruple therapy as first-line H. pylori treatment and to determine the clinical factors influencing patient outcome. We enrolled 200 H. pylori-infected naïve patients. They were prescribed either a 7-day nonbismuth containing quadruple therapy group (EACM, esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, metronidazole 500 mg twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily or a 7-day standard triple therapy group (EAC, esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily. Follow-up studies to assess treatment responses were carried out 8 weeks later. The eradication rates attained by EACM and EAC groups were 95.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 89.4%–98.3% and 79.3% (95% CI = 70%–86.4% in the per-protocol analysis (P < 0.001 and 88% (95% CI = 80.2%–93.0% and 73% (95% I = 63.6%–80.3% in the intention-to-treat analysis (P = 0.007. Clarithromycin resistance, metronidazole resistance, and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistances were the clinical factors influencing H. pylori eradication in EACM group. Clarithromycin resistance and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistances were the influential factor for EAC treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that 7-day nonbismuth containing quadruple therapy could achieve a grade “A” report card for first-line H. pylori treatment.

  2. From emergence to eradication: the epidemiology of poliomyelitis deconstructed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Neal; Kew, Olen M

    2010-12-01

    Poliomyelitis has appeared in epidemic form, become endemic on a global scale, and been reduced to near-elimination, all within the span of documented medical history. Epidemics of the disease appeared in the late 19th century in many European countries and North America, following which polio became a global disease with annual epidemics. During the period of its epidemicity, 1900-1950, the age distribution of poliomyelitis cases increased gradually. Beginning in 1955, the creation of poliovirus vaccines led to a stepwise reduction in poliomyelitis, culminating in the unpredicted elimination of wild polioviruses in the United States by 1972. Global expansion of polio immunization resulted in a reduction of paralytic disease from an estimated annual prevaccine level of at least 600,000 cases to fewer than 1,000 cases in 2000. Indigenous wild type 2 poliovirus was eradicated in 1999, but unbroken localized circulation of poliovirus types 1 and 3 continues in 4 countries in Asia and Africa. Current challenges to the final eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis include the continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs, reinfection of polio-free areas, outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, and persistent excretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus by a few vaccinees with B-cell immunodeficiencies. Beyond the current efforts to eradicate the last remaining wild polioviruses, global eradication efforts must safely navigate through an unprecedented series of endgame challenges to assure the permanent cessation of all human poliovirus infections.

  3. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2012-September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, and since 2003, Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction to 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government activated an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized 1) improving quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), 2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, 3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, 4) improving outbreak response, 5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and 6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During January-September 2013, 49 polio cases were reported from 26 local government areas (LGAs) in nine states in Nigeria, compared with 101 cases reported from 70 LGAs in 13 states during the same period in 2012. For all of 2012, a total of 122 cases were reported. No WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases have been reported since November 2012. For the first time ever, in 2013, no polio cases of any type have been detected in the northwest of Nigeria; however, transmission continues in Kano and states in the northeast. Despite considerable progress, 24 LGAs in 2012 and seven LGAs in 2013 reported two or more cases; WPV continues to circulate in eight LGAs that had cases in 2012. Efforts to interrupt transmission remain impeded by insecurity, anti-polio-vaccine sentiment, and chronically poor SIA implementation in selected areas. Improvement of SIA quality and effective outbreak response will be needed to interrupt WPV transmission in 2014.

  4. Awareness of pulse polio immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomber, S; Taneja, D K; Mohan, K

    1996-01-01

    Mass polio immunisation campaign was launched in the national capital territory of Delhi with 2 doses of polio vaccine to be administered to children upto 3 years of age on October and December 4, 1994 respectively. Massive information, education & communication (IEC) efforts through mass media and interpersonal communication preceded the dates of the campaign. A study to assess the awareness of general population was carried out by interviewing 225 adult residents of Delhi using a structured questionnaire. These were drawn by two stage stratified random sampling. Zonewise assembly segments in the first stage and census enumeration blocks in the second stage formed the sampling frame. The study, carried out 3 days prior to date of administration of first dose of oral polio, revealed that 60.4% of population was aware of the programme being launched and 31.6% about aim of the programme. None of the respondents were aware of all the specific parameters put together correctly viz., objective, immunisation days, age group & immunisation status of children. The higher level of awareness was directly proportional to the level of education. The overwhelming success of the programme was indicated by immunisation of > 90% children upto 3 years of age all over Delhi in the first phase of the programme. The key to success of the programme despite low awareness is explained on the basis of unflinching efforts put in by vaccine centre level committees, integrated child development scheme (ICDS) and urban basic service (UBS) functionaries in mobilising people to reach various vaccination centres. Other states planning to launch such mass campaigns should pay attention to social mobilisation in addition to IEC efforts for successful completion of the programme. PMID:10829972

  5. Upaya Eradikasi Polio Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rina R., Oke; Ritarwan, Kiking

    2010-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is an acute infectious disease involve motor neuron of the spinal cord and brain and results in an asymmetric flaccid paralysis of the voluntary muscles. Although poliomyelitis caused by wild virus has been eradicated from the western since 1994, its remains a problem in developing countries.With widespread immunization, poliomyelitis has become preventable, and recurrent major epidemics are no longer encountered. Wisdom background and eradicate poliomyelitis strategy ...

  6. Frequency of isolation of polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses from patients with acute flaccid paralysis, enterovirus infection and children from groups at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Romanenkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the frequency of isolation of polioviruses and non polio enteroviruses from different categories of the investigated children. The percentage of detection of polioviruses from the patients with acute flaccid paralysis was lower than that from the children from groups at risk. Among the patients with the enterovirus infection the polioviruses were rarely revealed. The frequency of isolation of non polio enteroviruses from these patients was significantly higher than that from the other categories of investigated persons. The improvement of poliomyelitis surveillance and the reinforcement of virological surveillance of children from groups at risk and those with enterovirus infection will provide the important data for Global Polio Eradication Initiative and the maintenance of polio free status of the Russian Federation.

  7. Polio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a medical emergency that may result in paralysis or death (usually from respiratory problems). Disability is more common than death. Infection that is located high in the spinal cord or in the brain increases the risk of breathing problems.

  8. Listening to the rumours: what the northern Nigeria polio vaccine boycott can tell us ten years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinai, Isaac; Willott, Chris; Dadari, Ibrahim; Larson, Heidi J

    2013-01-01

    In 2003 five northern Nigerian states boycotted the oral polio vaccine due to fears that it was unsafe. Though the international responses have been scrutinised in the literature, this paper argues that lessons still need to be learnt from the boycott: that the origins and continuation of the boycott were due to specific local factors. We focus mainly on Kano state, which initiated the boycotts and continued to reject immunisations for the longest period, to provide a focused analysis of the internal dynamics and complex multifaceted causes of the boycott. We argue that the delay in resolving the year-long boycott was largely due to the spread of rumours at local levels, which were intensified by the outspoken involvement of high-profile individuals whose views were misunderstood or underestimated. We use sociological concepts to analyse why these men gained influence amongst northern Nigerian communities. This study has implications on contemporary policy: refusals still challenge the Global Polio Eradication Initiative; and polio remains endemic to Nigeria (Nigeria accounted for over half of global cases in 2012). This paper sheds light on how this problem may be tackled with the ultimate aim of vaccinating more children and eradicating polio. PMID:24294986

  9. Reasons for non-vaccination in pediatric patients visiting tertiary care centers in a polio-prone country

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Asfandyar; Iqbal, Bushra; Ehtamam, Anabia; Rahim, Maria; Shaikh, Hiba Arshad; Usmani, Hina Azhar; Nasir, Javeria; Ali, Sheharbano; Zaki, Muniba; Wahab, Tooba Abdul; Wasim, Warda; Aftab, Ali Akber

    2013-01-01

    Background The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was initiated by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1974 in order to save children from life threatening, disabling vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). In Pakistan, this program was launched in 1978 with the main objectives of eradicating polio by 2012, eliminating measles and neonatal tetanus by 2015, and minimizing the incidence of other VPDs. However, despite the efforts of government and WHO, this program has not received the amount o...

  10. The role of research in viral disease eradication and elimination programs: lessons for malaria eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel G Breman

    Full Text Available By examining the role research has played in eradication or regional elimination initiatives for three viral diseases--smallpox, poliomyelitis, and measles--we derive nine cross-cutting lessons applicable to malaria eradication. In these initiatives, some types of research commenced as the programs began and proceeded in parallel. Basic laboratory, clinical, and field research all contributed notably to progress made in the viral programs. For each program, vaccine was the lynchpin intervention, but as the programs progressed, research was required to improve vaccine formulations, delivery methods, and immunization schedules. Surveillance was fundamental to all three programs, whilst polio eradication also required improved diagnostic methods to identify asymptomatic infections. Molecular characterization of pathogen isolates strengthened surveillance and allowed insights into the geographic source of infections and their spread. Anthropologic, sociologic, and behavioural research were needed to address cultural and religious beliefs to expand community acceptance. The last phases of elimination and eradication became increasingly difficult, as a nil incidence was approached. Any eradication initiative for malaria must incorporate flexible research agendas that can adapt to changing epidemiologic contingencies and allow planning for posteradication scenarios.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale in Polio Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…

  12. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pm CT, Monday-Friday) ; 314-534-5070 fax info@post-polio.org (Inquiries should include name and mailing address.) www.post-polio.org | www.polioplace.org Like us on Facebook. @polioplace Link to PHI's affiliate ... International Ventilator Users Network (IVUN) ©Copyright Post-Polio Health International

  13. The Role of the Polio Program Infrastructure in Response to Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Nigeria 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Rui G.; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Komkech, William; Ekundare-Famiyesin, Olubowale O.; Onyibe, Rosemary; Abidoye, Sunday; Nsubuga, Peter; Maleghemi, Sylvester; Hannah-Murele, Bolatito; Tegegne, Sisay G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The current West African outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) began in Guinea in December 2013 and rapidly spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone. On 20 July 2014, a sick individual flew into Lagos, Nigeria, from Monrovia, Liberia, setting off an outbreak in Lagos and later in Port Harcourt city. The government of Nigeria, supported by the World Health Organization and other partners, mounted a response to the outbreak relying on the polio program experiences and infrastructure. On 20 October 2014, the country was declared free of EVD. Methods. We examined the organization and operations of the response to the 2014 EVD outbreak in Nigeria and how experiences and support from the country's polio program infrastructure accelerated the outbreak response. Results. The deputy incident manager of the National Polio Emergency Operations Centre was appointed the incident manager of the Ebola Emergency Operations Centre (EEOC), the body that coordinated and directed the response to the EVD outbreak in the country. A total of 892 contacts were followed up, and blood specimens were collected from 61 persons with suspected EVD and tested in designated laboratories. Of these, 19 (31%) were positive for Ebola, and 11 (58%) of the case patients were healthcare workers. The overall case-fatality rate was 40%. EVD sensitization and training were conducted during the outbreak and for 2 months after the outbreak ended. The World Health Organization deployed its surveillance and logistics personnel from non–Ebola-infected states to support response activities in Lagos and Rivers states. Conclusions. The support from the polio program infrastructure, particularly the coordination mechanism adopted (the EEOC), the availability of skilled personnel in the polio program, and lessons learned from managing the polio eradication program greatly contributed to the speedy containment of the 2014 EVD outbreak in Nigeria. PMID:26908718

  14. From smallpox eradication to the future of global health: innovations, application and lessons for future eradication and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Oyewale

    2011-12-30

    Technological advancements, including landmark innovations in vaccinology through molecular virology, and significant transformation and changes in the society have taken place since the eradication of smallpox thirty years ago. The success with eradicating smallpox gave confidence for initiating the eradication of other diseases, such as malaria and polio. However, these efforts have not been as effective, as recorded for small pox, for a variety of reasons. There is now a debate within the global health community as to whether eradication campaigns should be abandoned in favor of less costly and perhaps more effective primary health and containment or control programmes. Significant changes that have taken place in the last thirty years, since the eradication of smallpox include, among others, (i) post-colonial political changes, with varying commitment to disease eradication initiatives, especially in the parts of the world most burdened by infectious and vaccine preventable diseases, (ii) innovations leading to the development of new and highly effective vaccines, targeted to specific diseases, (iii) the transformation brought about by improvement in education and the new global access to information (cell phones, internet, etc.), leading to an unlimited access to different types of information, subject to either positive or negative use. At the onset of eradication of smallpox, global health was confined in its operation. Today, global health is at the intersection of medical and social science disciplines-including demography, economics, epidemiology, political economy and sociology. Therefore, in considering the issue of disease eradication, medical and social perspectives must be brought into play, if future eradication programmes must succeed. The paper discusses the roles of these disciplines in disease control and eradication, especially as it affects sub Saharan Africa, the melting pot and verdant pasture of infectious diseases. PMID:22185830

  15. Revised Household-Based Microplanning in Polio Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kano State, Nigeria. 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Emmanuel; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Warigon, Charity; Abdullahi, Suleiman; Abba, Bashir; Isiaka, Ayodeji; Yahualashet, Yared G.; Touray, Kebba; Chevez, Ana; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Remarkable progress had been made since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988. However endemic wild poliovirus transmission in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan remains an issue of international concern. Poor microplanning has been identified as a major contributor to the high numbers of chronically missed children. Methods. We assessed the contribution of the revised household-based microplanning process implemented in Kano State from September 2013 to April 2014 to the outcomes of subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities using used preselected planning and outcome indicators. Results. There was a 38% increase in the number of settlements enumerated, a 30% reduction in the number of target households, and a 54% reduction in target children. The reported number of children vaccinated and the doses of oral polio vaccine used during subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities showed a decline. Postvaccination lot quality assurance sampling and chronically missed settlement reports also showed a progressive reduction in the number of children and settlements missed. Conclusions. We observed improvement in Kano State's performance based on the selected postcampaign performance evaluation indicators and reliability of baseline demographic estimates after the revised household-based microplanning exercise. PMID:26908755

  16. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Pakistan, January 2012-September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Pakistan is one of three countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Pakistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 58 WPV cases were reported in selected areas, compared with 198 cases throughout the country in 2011; 52 WPV cases were reported during January-September 2013, compared with 54 cases during the same period in 2012. Of the 110 WPV cases reported since January 2012, 92 cases (84%) occurred in the conflict-affected Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in security-compromised Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province. WPV type 3 (WPV3) was isolated from only three persons with polio in a single district in 2012; the most recent case occurred in April 2012. During August 2012-September 2013, 52 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were detected, including 30 cases (58%) identified in FATA during January-September 2013. Approximately 350,000 children in certain districts of FATA have not received polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted since mid-2012 because local authorities have banned polio vaccination. In some other areas of Pakistan, SIAs have been compromised by attacks targeting polio workers that started in mid-2012. Further efforts to reach children in conflict-affected and security-compromised areas, including vaccinating at transit points and conducting additional short-interval-additional-dose (SIAD) SIAs as areas become accessible, will be necessary to prevent reintroduction of WPV into other areas of Pakistan and other parts of the world. PMID:24257203

  17. Crippling Violence: Conflict and Incident Polio in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Norris

    Full Text Available Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question.We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004-2009.We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010-0.0404.The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio.

  18. Eradicating and eliminating infectious diseases: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Jai P

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, a number of infectious diseases have been targeted for eradication or elimination, with mixed results. While smallpox is the only one successfully eradicated so far, campaigns on yaws and malaria brought about a dramatic reduction in the incidence in the beginning of the campaign but ultimately could not achieve the desired goal. There is again a renewed interest in disease eradication. The World Health assembly in May 2010 passed a resolution calling for eradication...

  19. [The eradication of the poliomyelitis in the European Region of the World Health Organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limia Sánchez, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was considered an important event for the public health since the end of XIX century when this disease became epidemic. As soon as vaccines were available member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the European Region started to implement vaccination programmes against polio with an important impact in the incidence in this disease. In May 1988, the World Health Assembly resolution for the global eradication of poliomyelitis was adopted and the mechanisms to oversee the progress in the different WHO Regions were established. This article briefly reviews the history of polio in the WHO European Region, the process for certification and maintenance, the strategies for eradication and the current situation in the European Region and globally. The European Region was certified polio-free in 2002. Nevertheless, there are still three endemic countries in the world, some others use live attenuated vaccines as well as countries in the Horn of Africa are recently suffering the reintroduction of wild poliovirus. Considering these circumstances, the risk of reintroduction of poliovirus and the generation of outbreaks in the European Region exists, therefore high vaccination coverage against polio and good quality surveillance systems are needed to be guaranteed in every member state.

  20. Progress towards the eradication of poliomyelitis globally and in Africa, January 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, R H; Aylward, B R; Hull, H F; Nkowane, B; Everts, H; Olive, J M

    1999-01-01

    Led by an international partnership including Rotary International, the WHO, UNICEF and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA, the global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis has made remarkable progress since its beginning in 1988. The number of polio cases has decreased from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to just over 5,000 reported cases in 1999. Following successful eradication from the WHO Region of the America's, certified as polio-free in 1994, wild poliovirus was last reported from the Western Pacific Region (including China) in 1997, and from the European Region (including all countries of the former Soviet Union) in November 1998. Large parts of Southern and Northern Africa and the Middle East are also polio-free. This success is related to the implementation of annual nationwide supplemental oral poliovaccine (OPV) campaigns in all recently or currently polio-endemic countries, targeting all children under 5 years with two doses of OPV. Progress of the initiative is monitored by special surveillance systems for all cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children under 15 years, including virological testing to rule out wild poliovirus infection. The initiative currently focuses on a limited number of remaining endemic countries in South Asia and Africa, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nigeria. The initiative is also beginning to be successful in several countries affected by conflict situations, such as Afghanistan, Sudan (South), Somalia, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola.

  1. Hormesis and the Salk Polio Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The production of the Salk vaccine polio virus by monkey kidney cells was generated using the synthetic tissue culture medium, Mixture 199. In this paper’s retrospective assessment of this process, it was discovered that Mixture 199 was modified by the addition of ethanol to optimize animal cell survival based on experimentation that revealed a hormetic-like biphasic response relationship. This hormesis-based optimization procedure was then applied to all uses of Mixture 199 and modifications...

  2. Survey of post polio syndrome in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebian S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The long-term effects of poliomyelitis are known in many of countries. In despite of one accrue title for these signs and symptoms; there are similarity aspects in patients' problems. In the signs of explained, absence of strength and endurance, musculoskeletal difficulties, respiratory dysfunction, sleep disorders are more generalized. Prevalence of post polio syndrome (PPS is aim of this study. "nMethods: 150 subjects with history of poliomyelitis (80 male and 70 female in Tehran city contributes in this study and complete question forms. "nResults: Muscle pain was reported in 88% of subjects. Thigh muscle weakness was at 42/28%, also muscle spasm indicated at 66%. Recurrent falling of subjects appeared in 74/7%. Early fatigue reported 86%. Above five signs selected for PPS. In this study 85 subjects had four signs of above criteria or 56.66% of subjects had PPS. "nConclusion:  Depended of evaluation and observation there is post polio syndrome in Tehran. Recommended for physical therapy of post polio syndrome attend to stages of progression of this syndrome. In aim to this procedure, physical treatment of these patients must limit to muscle fatigue and also severe physical and exercise activities must be reduce, also some mild aerobic activities without fatigue can be useful.

  3. An Introduction to Poliovirus: Pathogenesis, Vaccination, and the Endgame for Global Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Philip D

    2016-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is caused by poliovirus, which is a positive strand non-enveloped virus that occurs in three distinct serotypes (1, 2, and 3). Infection is mainly by the fecal-oral route and can be confined to the gut by antibodies induced either by vaccine, previous infection or maternally acquired. Vaccines include the live attenuated strains developed by Sabin and the inactivated vaccines developed by Salk; the live attenuated vaccine (Oral Polio Vaccine or OPV) has been the main tool in the Global Program of Polio eradication of the World Health Organisation. Wild type 2 virus has not caused a case since 1999 and type 3 since 2012 and eradication seems near. However most infections are entirely silent so that sophisticated environmental surveillance may be needed to ensure that the virus has been eradicated, and the live vaccine can sometimes revert to virulent circulating forms under conditions that are not wholly understood. Cessation of vaccination is therefore an increasingly important issue and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is playing a larger part in the end game. PMID:26983727

  4. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-31

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by December 31, 2000 (1). Although progress has been extraordinary (2), full implementation of polio eradication strategies has been delayed in several countries affected by war. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has experienced continual armed conflict since October 1996. As a result, DRC is the last country in the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to implement National Immunization Days (NIDs*). DRC is an important global reservoir for wild poliovirus and shares more than 5580 miles (9000 km) of border with nine countries; in at least seven of these countries polio is endemic. The large area of DRC, substantial amount of poverty, weak health-care infrastructure, poor transportation and communication, and competing demands for resources present considerable challenges to polio eradication. This report summarizes information on the existing health-care infrastructure and routine coverage, information from NIDs carried out in 1999, and results from the recently established surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). PMID:10774546

  5. Risks associated with the use of live-attenuated vaccine poliovirus strains and the strategies for control and eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliaka, Vaia; Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Markoulatos, Panayotis

    2012-05-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988 with the aim to eliminate paralytic poliomyelitis. Two effective vaccines are available: inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Since 1964, OPV has been used instead of IPV in most countries due to several economic and biological advantages. However, in rare cases, the live-attenuated Sabin strains of OPV revert to neurovirulence and cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in vaccinees or lead to emergence of vaccine-derived poliovirus strains. Attenuating mutations and recombination events have been associated with the reversion of vaccine strains to neurovirulence. The substitution of OPV with an improved new-generation IPV and the availability of new specific drugs against polioviruses are considered as future strategies for outbreak control and the eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide.

  6. Evaluation and comparison of Hela, Hep2C and Vero cell lines sensitivity to polio vaccinal virus using micro and macro vaccine potency tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani, S.,

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Poliomyelitis, an acute viral infectious disease caused by poliovirus, still remains a public health problem in developing countries. Despite the global effort to eradicate polio, continuing the polio immunization with a potent and safe vaccine is essential. For accurate vaccine evaluation, three types of cell lines including Hela, Hep2C and Vero were evaluated and compared using two methods of polio vaccine potency tests (micro & macro. For cells comparison, five different batches from polio vaccines were tested and to develop the test, five variables including viruses, cells, serum, media and Co2 were studied. For validation, the titer of which has been well established as a working reference preparation (WRP was applied to control the accuracy and reproducibility of the testing system. Multiple comparisons were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tokey HDS and LSD. No significant differences were found between the potency of vaccine batches and between macro and micro methods. Reduction in cells sensitivity and potency of vaccines was found with increasing passage number. Significant differences were found between the sensitivity of the cell lines. The highest potency of polio vaccines was obtained using Hela cells (GMT in macro and micro test = 10 6.35; Hep2C cells were afterwards (GMT in macro= 10 6.01 and in micro test= 10 5.94; Vero cells were lowest (GMT in macro= 10 5.78 and in micro test= 10 5.72. So, the sensitivity and accuracy of the potency test for evaluation of the polio vaccine in immunization program in Iran will be assured using the Hela cell line with low passage number in macro and micro methods.

  7. Measles eradication: experience in the Americas.

    OpenAIRE

    de Quadros, C. A.; Hersh, B S; Nogueira, A. C.; Carrasco, P. A.; da Silveira, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, the Ministers of Health from the Region of the Americas targeted measles for eradication from the Western Hemisphere by the year 2000. To achieve this goal, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) developed an enhanced measles eradication strategy. First, a one-time-only "catch-up" measles vaccination campaign is conducted among children aged 9 months to 14 years. Efforts are then made to vaccinate through routine health services ("keep-up") at least 95% of each newborn cohort at...

  8. 江苏省消灭脊髓灰质炎工作的回顾及策略%Review of the Works for Poliomyelitis Eradication and Its Strategies in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁连东

    2001-01-01

    routine polio vaccination, still we carried out supplementary vaccination to establish an effective immune barrier among the population; (2) To strengthen the AFP surveillance. The AFP surveillance system had been established in 1991 in Jiangsu Province, the various surveillance indexes now has reached every requirements for proving no polio virus exists. In the course of surveillance, we pursued a case-reporting encouragement system and an active AFP searching at regular intervals to strengthen AFP case reporting and surveillance. Since 1993, there was no wild-type polio virus found. To summarize and evaluate the strategies for poliomyelitis eradication not only can consolidate the achievements of the work but also can provide reference in controlling other viral diseases.

  9. Unusual MRI Findings in a Polio Survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Kubosawa, Hitoshi; Ishii, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old male consulted our institution due to worsening of right hip pain for approximately one month. The patient had no apparent functional disorders besides rigidity of the right ankle secondary to childhood poliomyelitis. Plain radiographs demonstrated narrowing of the right hip joint space. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed unusual findings in the right gluteus medius muscle, suspecting a malignant musculoskeletal tumor. Further examinations clarified acute inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus with no atypia. After treatment, serum inflammatory markers normalized and MRI showed homogeneous fat signal intensity in the muscle, which was consistent with poliomyelitis. Total hip arthroplasty was performed due to progression of osteoarthritis. Intraoperative findings showed flaccidity of the gluteus medius muscle, and histological examination of the specimen also was compatible with poliomyelitis. Postoperatively there was no hip instability and the patient has been able to resume his previous physical activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding polio survivors combined with septic arthritis, and sole MRI examination was unable to lead to the diagnosis. The current patient demonstrates the possibility that the involved muscles in poliomyelitis exist even in asymptomatic regions, which will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and life guidance in polio survivors. PMID:27069705

  10. Epidemiological, evolutionary, and economic determinants of eradication tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucco, Rupert; Dieckmann, Ulf; Metz, Johan A J

    2016-09-21

    Despite modern medical interventions, infectious diseases continue to generate huge socio-economic losses. The benefits of eradicating a disease are therefore high. While successful with smallpox and rinderpest, many other eradication attempts have failed. Eradications require huge and costly efforts, which can be sustained only if sufficient progress can be achieved. While initial successes are usually obtained more easily, progress often becomes harder as a disease becomes rare in the eradication endgame. A long eradication tail of slowly decreasing incidence levels can frustrate eradication efforts, as it becomes unclear whether progress toward eradication is still being made and how much more needs to be invested to push the targeted disease beyond its extinction threshold. Realistic disease dynamics are complicated by evolutionary responses to interventions and by interactions among different temporal and spatial scales. Models accounting for these complexities are required for understanding the shapes of eradication tails. In particular, such models allow predicting how hard or costly eradication will be, and may even inform in which manner progress has to be assessed during the eradication endgame. Here we outline a general procedure by analyzing the eradication tails of generic SIS diseases, taking into account two major ingredients of realistic complexity: a group-structured host population in which host contacts within groups are more likely than host contacts between groups, and virulence evolution subject to a trade-off between host infectivity within groups and host mobility among groups. Disentangling the epidemiological, evolutionary, and economic determinants of eradication tails, we show how tails of different shapes arise depending on salient model parameters and on how the extinction threshold is approached. We find that disease evolution generally extends the eradication tail and show how the cost structure of eradication measures plays a key

  11. Oral Polio Vaccination and Hospital Admissions With Non-Polio Infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone G; Krause, Tyra G;

    2016-01-01

    of DTaP-IPV-Hib, were observed from 24 months (first OPV dose) to 36 months of age. Results.  Oral polio vaccine was associated with a lower rate of admissions with any type of non-polio infection compared with DTaP-IPV-Hib as most recent vaccine (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.85; 95% confidence...... interval [CI], .77-.95). The association was separately significant for admissions with lower respiratory infections (adjusted IRR, 0.73; 95% CI, .61-.87). The admission rates did not differ for OPV versus MMR. Conclusions.  Like MMR, OPV was associated with fewer admissions for lower respiratory...... infections than having DTaP-IPV-Hib as the most recent vaccination. Because OPV is now being phased-out globally, further studies of the potential beneficial nonspecific effects of OPV are warranted....

  12. Willapa - Spartina Eradication 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Willapa NWR and its partners continue the ongoing and successful program aimed at eradication of the nonnative cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina) in...

  13. Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... العربية) Armenian (Հայերեն) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Farsi (فارسی) French (français) German (Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Farsi (فارسی) Polio Vaccine English (Farsi) واکسن فلج اطفال - ...

  14. Strategies for dracunculiasis eradication.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, D R; Ruiz-Tiben, E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1991 the Forty-fourth World Health Assembly declared the goal of eradicating dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) by the end of 1995. This article summarizes the recommended strategies for surveillance and interventions in national dracunculiasis eradication programmes. It is based on personal experience with dracunculiasis programmes in Ghana, Nigeria and Pakistan. Three phases are described: establishment of a national programme office and conduct of a baseline survey; implementation of ...

  15. Improving Compliance with Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Therapy: When and How?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, John P. Anthony; Taneike, Ikue; O'Morain, Colm

    2009-01-01

    Compliance with therapy is the single most important factor in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. Poorer levels of compliance with therapy are associated with significantly lower levels of eradication. Numerous factors can contribute to achieving good levels of compliance. These include the complexity and duration of treatment. It is also important that the physicia...

  16. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV) at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not availa......-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted....

  17. Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus B77 isolated from non polio acute flaccid paralytic patients in Pakistan during 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angez, Mehar; Shaukat, Shahzad; Zahra, Rabaab; Khurshid, Adnan; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2015-01-01

    Human enteroviruses are associated with various clinical syndromes and severe neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of non polio enteroviruses and their correlation with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patients living in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. The stool samples collected from these patients were used for isolation of non polio enteroviruses (NPEVs). Out of 38 samples, 29 (76.3%) were successfully typed by microneutralization assay into eleven serotypes including echovirus (E)-3 (5.3%), E-7 (2.6%), E-11 (13.2%), E-12 (7.9%), E-13 (10.5%), E-20 (7.9%), E-27 (5.3%), E-29 (10.5%), E-30 (7.9%), E-33 (2.6%), coxsackievirus (CV) B5 (2.6%) and nine isolates (23.7%) remained untyped which were confirmed as NPEVs by real time RT-PCR. Complete VP1 genetic sequencing data characterized untypeable isolates into enterovirus B77 (EV-B77). Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analysis classified these viruses into two new genotypes having high genetic diversity (at least 17.7%) with prototype. This study provides valuable information on extensive genetic diversity of EV-B77 genotypes. Although, its association with neurological disorder has not yet been known but isolation of nine EV-B77 viruses from AFP cases highlights the fact that they may have a contributing role in the etiology of AFP. In addition, it is needed to establish enterovirus surveillance system and laboratory diagnostic facilities for early detection of NPEVs that may cause poliomyelitis like paralysis especially in the situation when we are at the verge of polio eradication. PMID:25433133

  18. Pylera for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saleem, Aamir

    2012-02-01

    An ideal antibiotic regimen for Helicobacter pylori should achieve eradication rates of approximately 90%. Current 7-day triple therapy is successful in about two-thirds of patients. A novel treatment is required to achieve higher eradication with minimal induction of bacterial resistance. The aim of this article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single triple capsule (Pylera) containing bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline, given with omeprazole for the eradication of H. pylori infection. Extensive literature searches were conducted using PubMed data from 1982 to 2007. This search included headings of H. pylori, bismuth and eradication therapy. The triple capsule Pylera, when given with omeprazole, achieved eradication rates ranging between 84 and 97%. Eradication rates were similar for clarithromycin- and metronidazole-resistant strains. Eradication rates with an omeprazole, bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline regimen appeared comparable for metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive strains. This effect is not seen with the use of triple therapy in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Clinical trials did not report any serious side effects from bismuth-based regimens and compliance was similar to standard triple therapy. Bismuth-based triple therapy using Pylera is a simplified, effective and well-tolerated regimen achieving cure rates of above 90%.

  19. Non-polio enteroviruses associated with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and facial paralysis (FP) cases in Romania, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persu, Ana; Băicuş, Anda; Stavri, Simona; Combiescu, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis is a complex clinical syndrome, with a wide variety of possible etiologies and with clinical manifestations that can vary according to age or geographical region. Enteroviruses (polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses) are among the viral agents that can cause AFP. AFP surveillance is important for public health through its use in monitoring poliomyelitis, in the context of the Global Initiative to eradicate this disease. The current paper aims to assess the non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) association with AFP and FP cases registered in Romania in the period 2001-2008 and to identify prevalent serotypes. Within the framework of Surveillance of AFP Cases Program, were collected samples from 579 children with AFP or FP (3.069 samples). The samples were processed and inoculated onto two types of cell culture (RD and L20B), according to WHO protocol. The identification of isolated viruses has been done by the reaction of seroneutralization with pools of specific antiserum and then with monospecific antiserum for confirmation. NPEV were isolated from 58 cases (123 positive samples). During the analyzed period, 23 NPEV serotypes have circulated (15 Echo serotypes and 8 coxsackie serotypes). The most frequently identified were the Echoviruses 13 and 11 and the coxsackie A viruses. 88% of positive cases have occurred in children between 1 and 5 years. As seasonal distribution, the peak of NPEV circulation was in the months August-September (36.2%). The paper provides information about NPEV circulation in Romania in the past 8 years, about its association with the AFP and FP and it indicates the need for monitoring NPEV circulation even after the eradication of poliomyelitis.

  20. Inactivated polio vaccine development for technology transfer using attenuated Sabin poliovirus strains to shift from Salk-IPV to Sabin-IPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Wilfried A M; Thomassen, Yvonne E; van't Oever, Aart G; Westdijk, Janny; van Oijen, Monique G C T; Sundermann, Lars C; van't Veld, Peter; Sleeman, Eelco; van Nimwegen, Fred W; Hamidi, Ahd; Kersten, Gideon F A; van den Heuvel, Nico; Hendriks, Jan T; van der Pol, Leo A

    2011-09-22

    Industrial-scale inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) production dates back to the 1960s when at the Rijks Instituut voor de Volksgezondheid (RIV) in Bilthoven a process was developed based on micro-carrier technology and primary monkey kidney cells. This technology was freely shared with several pharmaceutical companies and institutes worldwide. In this contribution, the history of one of the first cell-culture based large-scale biological production processes is summarized. Also, recent developments and the anticipated upcoming shift from regular IPV to Sabin-IPV are presented. Responding to a call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for new polio vaccines, the development of Sabin-IPV was continued, after demonstrating proof of principle in the 1990s, at the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI). Development of Sabin-IPV plays an important role in the WHO polio eradication strategy as biocontainment will be critical in the post-OPV cessation period. The use of attenuated Sabin strains instead of wild-type Salk polio strains will provide additional safety during vaccine production. Initially, the Sabin-IPV production process will be based on the scale-down model of the current, and well-established, Salk-IPV process. In parallel to clinical trial material production, process development, optimization and formulation research is being carried out to further optimize the process and reduce cost per dose. Also, results will be shown from large-scale (to prepare for future technology transfer) generation of Master- and Working virus seedlots, and clinical trial material (for phase I studies) production. Finally, the planned technology transfer to vaccine manufacturers in low and middle-income countries is discussed.

  1. Patients with post-polio syndrome are more likely to have subclinical involvement as compared to polio survivors without new symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Yagiz On

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-polio syndrome (PPS is a condition that affects polio survivors decades after recovery from an initial acute attack. It is a well-known entity that limbs thought to be nonaffected by polio survivors commonly demonstrate electromyography (EMG evidence of prior polio. Although the diagnosis of PPS requires a remote history of acute paralytic polio, clinically unapparent damage caused by poliovirus can be associated with PPS later in life. Objective: To evaluate EMG abnormalities and late progressive symptoms in limbs thought to be nonaffected by polio survivors, in order to determine the prevalence of subclinical motor neuron involvement in those fulfilling criteria for PPS comparing to those without such symptoms. Materials and Methods: Clinical and EMG findings of 464 limbs in 116 polio survivors who had been admitted to our clinic were analyzed. Affection of the limbs by polio was classified based on the patient′s self-report on remote weakness during the acute phase of poliomyelitis, muscle strength measured by manual muscle testing, and four-limb needle EMG. Results: Seventy-six of the patients (65.5% met the criteria of PPS. Needle EMG studies revealed subclinical involvement in 122 out of 293 (42% limbs with no history of remote weakness during the acute phase of poliomyelitis. Prevalence of subclinical involvement was found 47% in polio survivors who met the criteria of PPS compared to 33% in those without PPS (P = 0.013. Among the limbs that had developed new weakness in PPS patients, 33.5% had subclinical involvement. Discussion and Conclusion: Subclinical involvement is common in limbs thought to be nonaffected by polio survivors, and this is especially present in those fulfilling criteria for PPS. New muscle weakness may develop in apparently nonaffected, subclinically involved muscles. Thus we believe that four-limb EMG studies should be performed in all polio survivors, especially in those with the symptoms of PPS.

  2. Oral Polio Vaccination and Hospital Admissions With Non-Polio Infections in Denmark: Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone G; Krause, Tyra G; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine S; Ravn, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Live vaccines may have nonspecific beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality. This study examines whether children who had the live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) as the most recent vaccine had a different rate of admissions for infectious diseases than children with inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib) or live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) as their most recent vaccine. Methods.  A nationwide, register-based, retrospective cohort study of 137 403 Danish children born 1997-1999, who had received 3 doses of DTaP-IPV-Hib, were observed from 24 months (first OPV dose) to 36 months of age. Results.  Oral polio vaccine was associated with a lower rate of admissions with any type of non-polio infection compared with DTaP-IPV-Hib as most recent vaccine (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], .77-.95). The association was separately significant for admissions with lower respiratory infections (adjusted IRR, 0.73; 95% CI, .61-.87). The admission rates did not differ for OPV versus MMR. Conclusions.  Like MMR, OPV was associated with fewer admissions for lower respiratory infections than having DTaP-IPV-Hib as the most recent vaccination. Because OPV is now being phased-out globally, further studies of the potential beneficial nonspecific effects of OPV are warranted. PMID:26885538

  3. Randomized trial: The effect of oral polio vaccine at birth on polio antibody titers at 6 weeks and 6 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sofie Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: OPV0 may contribute to early polio protection, particularly in children of mothers with low antibody levels. However, OPV0 did not contribute to overall polio immunity after subsequent doses of OPV were given, and was associated with significantly lower antibody titers in children of mothers with high antibody levels. However, it did not negatively affect the proportion of seropositive children.

  4. A research agenda for malaria eradication: modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Malaria modeling can inform policy and guide research for malaria elimination and eradication from local implementation to global policy. A research and development agenda for malaria modeling is proposed, to support operations and to enhance the broader eradication research agenda. Models are envisioned as an integral part of research, planning, and evaluation, and modelers should ideally be integrated into multidisciplinary teams to update the models iteratively, communicate their appropriate use, and serve the needs of other research scientists, public health specialists, and government officials. A competitive and collaborative framework will result in policy recommendations from multiple, independently derived models and model systems that share harmonized databases. As planned, modeling results will be produced in five priority areas: (1) strategic planning to determine where and when resources should be optimally allocated to achieve eradication; (2) management plans to minimize the evolution of drug and pesticide resistance; (3) impact assessments of new and needed tools to interrupt transmission; (4) technical feasibility assessments to determine appropriate combinations of tools, an associated set of target intervention coverage levels, and the expected timelines for achieving a set of goals in different socio-ecological settings and different health systems; and (5) operational feasibility assessments to weigh the economic costs, capital investments, and human resource capacities required. PMID:21283605

  5. Thermostabilization of inactivated polio vaccine in PLGA-based microspheres for pulsatile release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Stephany Y; Guarecuco, Rohiverth; McHugh, Kevin J; Rose, Sviatlana; Rosenberg, Evan M; Zeng, Yingying; Langer, Robert; Jaklenec, Ana

    2016-07-10

    Vaccines are a critical clinical tool in preventing illness and death due to infectious diseases and are regularly administered to children and adults across the globe. In order to obtain full protection from many vaccines, an individual needs to receive multiple doses over the course of months. However, vaccine administration in developing countries is limited by the difficulty in consistently delivering a second or third dose, and some vaccines, including the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), must be injected more than once for efficacy. In addition, IPV does not remain stable over time at elevated temperatures, such as those it would encounter over time in the body if it were to be injected as a single-administration vaccine. In this manuscript, we describe microspheres composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) that can encapsulate IPV along with stabilizing excipients and release immunogenic IPV over the course of several weeks. Additionally, pH-sensitive, cationic dopants such as Eudragit E polymer caused clinically relevant amounts of stable IPV release upon degradation of the PLGA matrix. Specifically, IPV was released in two separate bursts, mimicking the delivery of two boluses approximately one month apart. In one of our top formulations, 1.4, 1.1, and 1.2 doses of the IPV serotype 1, 2, and 3, respectively, were released within the first few days from 50mg of particles. During the delayed, second burst, 0.5, 0.8, and 0.6 doses of each serotype, respectively, were released; thus, 50mg of these particles released approximately two clinical doses spaced a month apart. Immunization of rats with the leading microsphere formulation showed more robust and long-lasting humoral immune response compared to a single bolus injection and was statistically non-inferior from two bolus injections spaced 1 month apart. By minimizing the number of administrations of a vaccine, such as IPV, this technology can serve as a tool to aid in the eradication of polio and

  6. Willapa - Spartina Mapping and Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continued a successful program aimed at eradicating the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina)...

  7. Willapa - Spartina Mapping and Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continues to work toward the eradication of the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina) from...

  8. Undiagnosed Hoffa fracture of medial femoral condyle presenting as chronic pain in a post-polio limb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aditya Krishna Mootha; Priyanka Majety; Vishal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Isolated coronal fracture of medial femoral condyle with intact lateral femoral condyle is extremely rare.A high index of suspicion is necessary for early diagnosis especially in cases of undisplaced fractures.Here we report a case of medial Hoffa fracture in a post-polio limb presenting as chronic pain.Management of such fractures in limbs affected by late sequelae of poliomyelitis is particularly problematic in view ofosteoporosis and osseous hypoplasia.The fracture was approached through medial parapatellar arthrotomy and fixation was done with cannulated cancellous screws in anteroposterior direction.Union was achieved at 16 weeks.

  9. Childhood mortality after oral polio immunisation campaign in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Sodemann, Morten;

    2005-01-01

    Though previous studies have suggested a non-specific beneficial effect of oral polio vaccine (OPV), there has been no evaluation of the mortality impact of national polio immunization days. On the other hand, studies examining the effect of OPV and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines, wh...

  10. The March of Dimes and Polio: Lessons in Vaccine Advocacy for Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    The polio vaccine became available in 1955, due almost entirely to the efforts of the March of Dimes. In 1921, Franklin Roosevelt gave a public face to polio and mounted a campaign to prevent it, establishing the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis in 1938. During the Depression, U.S. citizens were asked to contribute one dime. Entertainer…

  11. Psoriasis sparing the polio-affected limb: Is it merely the koebner phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B C Ravikumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis being a common skin condition, atypical forms and unusual localizations of this disease are quite frequently seen. However, psoriasis sparing a polio-affected limb is extremely rare. We report a case of an adult male, who presented with psoriasis distributed all over the body but with almost complete sparing of the polio-affected left lower limb.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Polio from Environmental Samples: ISSP, The Israeli Sewage Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lester M; Manor, Yossi; Hindiyeh, Musa; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-01

    Polioviruses are enteric viruses that cause paralytic poliomyelitis in less than 0.5 % of infections and are asymptomatic in >90 % infections of naïve hosts. Environmental surveillance monitors polio in populations rather than in individuals. When this very low morbidity to infection ratio, drops drastically in highly vaccinated populations, environmental surveillance employing manual or automatic sampling coupled with molecular analysis carried out in well-equipped central laboratories becomes the surveillance method of choice since polioviruses are excreted by infected individuals regardless of whether or not the infection is symptomatic. This chapter describes a high throughput rapid turn-around time method for molecular characterization of polioviruses from sewage. It is presented in five modules: (1) Sewage collection and concentration of the viruses in the sewage; (2) Cell cultures for identification of virus in the concentrated sewage; (3) Nucleic acid extractions directly from sewage and from tissue cultures infected with aliquots of concentrated sewage; (4) Nucleic Acid Amplification for poliovirus serotype identification and intratypic differentiation (discriminating wild and vaccine derived polioviruses form vaccine strains); and (5) Molecular characterization of viral RNA by qRT-PCR, TR-PCR, and Sequence analysis. Monitoring silent or symptomatic transmission of vaccine-derived polioviruses or wild polioviruses is critical for the endgame of poliovirus eradication. We present methods for adapting standard kits and validating the changes for this purpose based on experience gained during the recent introduction and sustained transmission of a wild type 1 poliovirus in Israel in 2013 in a population with an initial IPV vaccine coverage >90 %. PMID:26983731

  13. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria are the four remaining countries where indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January-December 2009 and proposed activities in 2010 to address challenges. During 2009, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) and used multiple strategies to reach previously unreached children. These strategies included 1) use of short interval additional dose (SIAD) SIAs to administer a dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) within 1-2 weeks after a prior dose during negotiated periods of security; 2) systematic engagement of local leaders; 3) negotiations with conflict parties; and 4) increased engagement of nongovernmental organizations delivering basic health services. However, security problems continued to limit access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children. In Afghanistan, poliovirus transmission during 2009 predominantly occurred in 12 high-risk districts in the conflict-affected South Region; 38 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 31 in 2008. In Pakistan, 89 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 118 in 2008, but transmission persisted both in security-compromised areas and in accessible areas, where managerial and operational problems continued to affect immunization coverage. Continued efforts to enhance safe access of vaccination teams in insecure areas will be required for further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In addition, substantial improvements in subnational accountability and oversight are needed to improve immunization activities in Pakistan.

  14. Tracking the polio virus down the Congo River: a case study on the use of Google Earth™ in public health planning and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamadjeu Raoul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of GIS in public health is growing, a consequence of a rapidly evolving technology and increasing accessibility to a wider audience. Google Earth™ (GE is becoming an important mapping infrastructure for public health. However, generating traditional public health maps for GE is still beyond the reach of most public health professionals. In this paper, we explain, through the example of polio eradication activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo, how we used GE Earth as a planning tool and we share the methods used to generate public health maps. Results The use of GE improved field operations and resulted in better dispatch of vaccination teams and allocation of resources. It also allowed the creation of maps of high quality for advocacy, training and to help understand the spatiotemporal relationship between all the entities involved in the polio outbreak and response. Conclusion GE has the potential of making mapping available to a new set of public health users in developing countries. High quality and free satellite imagery, rich features including Keyhole Markup Language or image overlay provide a flexible but yet powerful platform that set it apart from traditional GIS tools and this power is still to be fully harnessed by public health professionals.

  15. Lessons learnt to keep Europe polio-free: a review of outbreaks in the European Union, European Economic Area, and candidate countries, 1973 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrough, Tarik; Salekeen, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor the outbreaks and their geographical spread. Outbreaks were predominantly caused by poliovirus type 1 and typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated groups within highly immunised communities. Oral polio vaccine was primarily used to respond to the outbreaks with catch-up campaigns implemented either nationwide or in restricted geographical areas or age groups. The introduction of supplementary immunisation contained the outbreaks. In 2002, the European region of the World Health Organization was declared polio-free and it has maintained this status since. However, as long as there are non-vaccinated or under-vaccinated groups in European countries and poliomyelitis is not eradicated, countries remain continuously at risk of reintroduction and establishment of the virus. Continued efforts to reach these groups are needed in order to ensure a uniform and high vaccination coverage. PMID:27123992

  16. Experimental oral polio vaccines and acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, E

    2001-06-29

    The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of the common chimpanzee is widely acknowledged as the direct ancestor of HIV-1. There is increasing historical evidence that during the late 1950s, kidneys were routinely excised from central African chimpanzees by scientists who were collaborating with the polio vaccine research of Dr Hilary Koprowski, and sent - inter alia - to vaccine-making laboratories in the USA and Africa, and to unspecified destinations in Belgium. While there is no direct evidence that cells from these kidneys were used as a substrate for growing Dr Koprowski's oral polio vaccines, there is a startling coincidence between places in Africa where his CHAT vaccine was fed, and the first appearances in the world of HIV-1 group M and group-M-related AIDS. Because of the enormous implications of the hypothesis that AIDS may be an unintended iatrogenic (physician-caused) disease, it is almost inevitable that this theory will engender heated opposition from many of those in the scientific establishment, and those with vested interests. PMID:11405924

  17. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, by mass release of sterile flies in Okinawa prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1972, MAFF, Japan and the Okinawa Prefectural Government initiated an experimental eradication project of the melon fly from Kume Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Following the successful eradication on Kume Island in 1978, large scale SIT was started to eradicate the melon fly on the 3 groups of islands, Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan in 1984, 1986 and 1989, and eradication was achieved in 1987, 1990 and 1993, respectively. For the successful eradication on Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama groups of islands, about 6,340, 30,940 and 15,440 million sterile melon flies were released, respectively

  18. Successful polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: the pivotal contribution of the Social Mobilization Network, an NGO/UNICEF collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Ellen A; Waisbord, Silvio; Awale, Jitendra; Solomon, Roma; Dey, Rina

    2013-03-01

    In Uttar Pradesh, India, in response to low routine immunization coverage and ongoing poliovirus circulation, a network of U.S.-based CORE Group member and local nongovernmental organizations partnered with UNICEF, creating the Social Mobilization Network (SMNet). The SMNet's goal was to improve access and reduce family and community resistance to vaccination. The partners trained thousands of mobilizers from high-risk communities to visit households, promote government-run child immunization services, track children's immunization history and encourage vaccination of children missing scheduled vaccinations, and mobilize local opinion leaders. Creative behavior change activities and materials promoted vaccination awareness and safety, household hygiene, sanitation, home diarrheal-disease control, and breastfeeding. Program decision-makers at all levels used household-level data that were aggregated at community and district levels, and senior staff provided rapid feedback and regular capacity-building supervision to field staff. Use of routine project data and targeted research findings offered insights into and informed innovative approaches to overcoming community concerns impacting immunization coverage. While the SMNet worked in the highest-risk, poorly served communities, data suggest that the immunization coverage in SMNet communities was often higher than overall coverage in the district. The partners' organizational and resource differences and complementary technical strengths posed both opportunities and challenges; overcoming them enhanced the partnership's success and contributions. PMID:25276518

  19. Establishment of realtime RT-PCR assay to detect polio virus in the Acute Flaccid Paralysis laboratory surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Susanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Virus polio indigenous terakhir ditemukan di Indonesia tahun 1995 tetapi ancaman viruspolio impor dan mutasi virus dari Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV menjadi Vaccine Derived Poliovirus (VDPVmasih berlanjut. Tahun 1991 WHO mengembangkan Surveilans Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP dan tahun2014, identifikasi virus polio dengan real-time reverse transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRTPCRmulai digunakan di Laboratorium Nasional Polio Pusat Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan.Tujuan dari penggunaan rRT-PCR untuk mendapatkan metode yang cepat dan lebih baik dalam memantausirkulasi dan mutasi virus polio.Metode: Isolat polio positif diidentifikasi menggunakanan rRT PCR dengan kombinasi primer dan probeyang ditetapkan WHO. RNA virus di konversi ke cDNA menggunakan reverse transcriptase lalu diamplifikasimenggunakan taq polymerase. Produk PCR di deteksi dan diidentifikasi dengan hibridisasi menggunakanprobe spesifik. Sintesis cDNA dan reaksi PCR menggunakan primer yang dilekatkan di probe. Kombinasiprimer dan probe menghasilkan identifikasi serotipe dan intratypic differentiation (ITD dari isolat virus.Hasil: Selama tahun 2014, NPL Jakarta menerima 604 kasus AFP dari surveilans dan lima kasusterdeteksi positif mengandung virus polio. Semua spesimen positif mengandung virus polio yang berasaldari vaksin. Dua kasus positif virus polio tipe P2 (40%, satu kasus jenis virus polio P1 (20%, 1 kasusjenis virus polio P3 (20% dan satu kasus virus polio campuran jenis P1 + P2 (20%.Kesimpulan: Real-time PCR dapat digunakan di Laboratorium Polio Jakarta untuk membantu identifikasivirus Polio secara cepat. Tes ini dapat digunakan untuk memantau sirkulasi virus polio pada populasiyang rutin diimunisasi dengan OPV. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:27-31Kata kunci: ITD, Poliovirus, Identification, rRT-PCR AbstractBackground: The last indigenous polio was detected in 1995 but the threat of wild type polio viruses and themutation of Oral

  20. High incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in an aging post-polio population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohammad, Ausaf F

    2009-01-01

    Since the polio epidemic in Ireland in the 1950s, most polio survivors are approaching into the 6th and 7th decade of their lives. There is little data about bone density and risk of fractures in these patients. In 2006, we undertook an audit of post-polio patients attending rheumatology and neurology outpatient clinics in a university teaching hospital. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP), falls and fractures and to evaluate the association of bone density with other potential contributing factors to OP.

  1. Viral Aetiology of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance Cases, before and after Vaccine Policy Change from Oral Polio Vaccine to Inactivated Polio Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Saraswathy Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period.

  2. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George; Scott, David R

    2016-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects about 50 % of the world's population, causing at a minimum chronic gastritis. A subset of infected patients will ultimately develop gastric or duodenal ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, or MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma. Eradication of H. pylori requires complex regimens that include acid suppression and multiple antibiotics. The efficacy of treatment using what were once considered standard regimens have declined in recent years, mainly due to widespread development of antibiotic resistance. Addition of bismuth to standard triple therapy regimens, use of alternate antibiotics, or development of alternative regimens using known therapies in novel combinations have improved treatment efficacy in specific populations, but overall success of eradication remains less than ideal. Novel regimens under investigation either in vivo or in vitro, involving increased acid suppression ideally with fewer antibiotics or development of non-antibiotic treatment targets, show promise for future therapy. PMID:27177639

  3. Experiences with rabies eradication programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hostnik Peter; Barlič-Maganja Darja; Grom Jože; Malovrh Tadej; Bidovec Andrej

    2005-01-01

    Oral vaccination as a method of rabies eradication in the field was first started in Switzerland in 1978 and after 1984 several other EU countries followed this practice. Due to oral vaccination some European countries are now rabies-free in terrestrial animals. In Slovenia, after the first experimental oral vaccination and study of vaccination models from 1988 -1992, the spring-autumn campaigns have been carried out since 1995. The model of oral vaccination of wildlife requires 16-20 baits p...

  4. Incompatibility of lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine with liquid pentavalent whole-cell-pertussis-containing vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Ten Have, Rimko; van der Maas, Larissa; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-31

    A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick injuries, and (iii) ensure better protection against pertussis as compared to vaccines containing acellular pertussis antigens. An approach to obtain a hexavalent vaccine might be reconstituting lyophilized polio vaccine (IPV-LYO) with liquid pentavalent vaccine just before intramuscular delivery. The potential limitations of this approach were investigated including thermostability of IPV as measured by D-antigen ELISA and rat potency, the compatibility of fluid and lyophilized IPV in combination with thimerosal and thimerosal containing hexavalent vaccine. The rat potency of polio type 3 in IPV-LYO was 2 to 3-fold lower than standardized on the D-antigen content, suggesting an alteration of the polio type 3 D-antigen particle by lyophilization. Type 1 and 2 had unaffected antigenicity/immunogenicity ratios. Alteration of type 3 D-antigen could be detected by showing reduced thermostability at 45°C compared to type 3 in non-lyophilized liquid controls. Reconstituting IPV-LYO in the presence of thimerosal (TM) resulted in a fast temperature dependent loss of polio type 1-3 D-antigen. The presence of 0.005% TM reduced the D-antigen content by ∼20% (polio type 2/3) and ∼60% (polio type 1) in 6h at 25°C, which are WHO open vial policy conditions. At 37°C, D-antigen was diminished even faster, suggesting that very fast, i.e., immediately after preparation, intramuscular delivery of the conceived hexavalent vaccine would not be a feasible option. Use of the TM-scavenger, l-cysteine, to bind TM (or mercury containing TM degradation products), resulted in a hexavalent vaccine mixture in which polio D-antigen was more stable. PMID:27470209

  5. Uso universal da vacina inativada contra poliomielite Universal use of inactivated polio vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Falleiros Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    terms of worldwide eradication and the World Health Organization.s (WHO proposals in this transition period between global eradication and the post-eradication period. SOURCES OF DATA: Data for the period from 1955 to 2005 were searched in MEDLINE, LILACS, The Web, Doctor's Guide, WHO website and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO website and text book. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: In 1988, the WHO established the goal of eradicating the disease and interrupting transmission of the wild virus globally. Since then, there has been a dramatic decline of the disease, although in 2005 there were still some countries considered endemic and others where polio returned on account of imported viruses. The vaccines used worldwide are the classical tOPV and IPV, and in this eradication process, the use of mOPV vaccines has been encouraged in places where only one type of poliovirus circulates. In addition to spreading the virus in the community, the OPV vaccines may, however, cause paralyses by reversal of the neurovirulence process. CONCLUSIONS: For a world free of poliomyelitis disease, it would be necessary to interrupt circulation of the virus, which will only be possible if the OPV virus were to be discontinued, in accordance with the WHO proposals for this transition period and the post-eradication period.

  6. Pulse Polio Immunization Coverage Evaluation In A Rural Area Of Agra District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandan Deoki

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the extent of PPI Coverage and what is the source of information and motivation to the community. Objective: To assess the extent of coverage of immunization carried out during pulse polio Immunization (1995-96 in rural areas of Agra District. Study Design: Cross-sectional Setting: Selected Villages of PHC Bichpuri, covered by ICDS, in Agra District Participants: Persons who took the <3 children for immunization Sample Size: 581 Persons from 987 households Study Variables: Doses of OPV received, source of information, location of immunization site, distance traveled and mode of transport. Results: The reported achievement for the first dose was 86.6% and for the second it was 87.6%. It was found that most important sources of knowledge were Anganwadi Worker (43.54% followed by ANM (26.88%. Majority of the immunization booths (67.29% were working in sunshine. More than 90% villagers reached the site walking on foot. Recommendations: Efforts should be made by the worker (HW and AWW to motivate the population for 100% coverage under the coming PPI programme. Information should be given to the worker regarding correct location of immunization site.

  7. Currents issues in cardiorespiratory care of patients with post-polio syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Orsini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Post-polio syndrome (PPS is a condition that affects polio survivors years after recovery from an initial acute attack of the poliomyelitis virus. Most often, polio survivors experience a gradual new weakening in muscles that were previously affected by the polio infection. The actual incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in individuals suffering from PPS is not known. However, there is a reason to suspect that individuals with PPS might be at increased risk. Method A search for papers was made in the databases Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed with the following keywords: post polio syndrome, cardiorespiratory and rehabilitation in English, French and Spanish languages. Although we targeted only seek current studies on the topic in question, only the relevant (double-blind, randomized-controlled and consensus articles were considered. Results and Discussion Certain features of PPS such as generalized fatigue, generalized and specific muscle weakness, joint and/or muscle pain may result in physical inactivity deconditioning obesity and dyslipidemia. Respiratory difficulties are common and may result in hypoxemia. Conclusion Only when evaluated and treated promptly, somE patients can obtain the full benefits of the use of respiratory muscles aids as far as quality of life is concerned.

  8. Sequential (as Opposed to Simultaneous) Antibiotic Therapy Improves Helicobacter pylori Eradication in the Pediatric Population: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Christine S M; Ward, Amanda; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common infection associated with many gastrointestinal diseases. Triple or quadruple therapy is the current recommendation for H pylori eradication in children but is associated with success rates as low as 50%. Recent studies have demonstrated that a 10-day sequential therapy regimen, rather than simultaneous antibiotic administration, achieved eradication rates of nearly 95%. This meta-analysis found that sequential therapy increased eradication rates by 14.2% (relative risk [RR] = 1.142; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.082-1.207; P pylori eradication rates compared to the 7-day standard therapy (RR = 1.182; 95% CI = 1.102-1.269; p eradication rates compared to 14-day standard therapy (RR = 0.926; 95% CI = 0.811-1.059; P = .261). The use of sequential therapy is associated with increased H pylori eradication rates in children compared to standard therapy of equal or shorter duration. PMID:26297295

  9. Population models for optimising SIT eradication strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    suggests that the fitness of irradiated males used in the New Zealand painted apple moth eradication programme was close to optimal. A raster-based spatial analogue was constructed for this model, including additional parameters describing the dispersal kernels for female, male, and irradiated insects. Initial wild populations were assigned according to different spatial patterns (random or aggregated), and different release strategies (many small releases versus few large ones, and random, aggregated or regular spatial releases) were explored, depending on how well the wild distribution was presumed to be known. Scenarios were run for representative parameter sets corresponding to the biology of different insect pests for which Sterile Insect Technique has been employed, such as moths and fruit flies. Here, the basic problem was to ensure that the critical overflooding ratio was achieved over the entire (possibly poorly known) pest distribution. Representative results are presented to help guide future SIT eradication efforts

  10. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: are rifaximin-based regimens effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Pelosini, Iva; Scarpignato, Carmelo

    2006-01-01

    Rifaximin is a non-absorbed semisynthetic rifamycin derivative with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, both aerobes and anaerobes. Although originally developed for the treatment of infectious diarrhea, the appreciation of the pathogenic role of gut bacteria in several organic and functional gastrointestinal diseases has increasingly broadened its clinical use. Being the antibiotic active against Helicobacter pylori, even towards clarithromycin-resistant strain, and being the primary resistance very rare, several investigations explored its potential use for eradication of the microorganism. Rifaximin alone proved to be effective, but even the highest dose (1,200 mg daily) gave a cure rate of only 30%. Dual and triple therapies were also studied, with the better results obtained with rifaximin-clarithromycin and rifaximin-clarithromycin-esomeprazole combinations. However, the eradication rates (60-70%) obtained with these regimens were still below the standard set by the Maastricht Consensus guidelines. Although rifaximin-based eradication therapies are promising, new antimicrobial combinations (with and without proton pump inhibitors) need to be explored in well-designed clinical trials including a large cohort of H. pylori-infected patients. The remarkable safety of rifaximin will allow high-dose regimens of longer duration (e.g. 10 or 14 days) to be tested with confidence in the hope of achieving better eradication rates. A drawback of rifaximin could be its inability to reach sufficiently high concentrations in the gastric mucus layer under and within which H. pylori is commonly located and this would likely affect eradication rate. Taking these considerations into account, bioadhesive rifaximin formulations able to better and persistently cover gastric mucosa, or combination with mucolytic agents, such as pronase or acetylcysteine, need to be evaluated in order to better define the place of this

  11. H pylori recurrence after successful eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaron Niv

    2008-01-01

    Recurrence of H pylori after eradication is rare in developed countries and more frequent in developing countries.Recrudescence(recolonization of the same strain within 12 mo after eradication)rather than reinfection(colonization with a new strain,more than 12 mo after eradication)is considered to be responsiblefor most of the cases.This observation was confirmed only in developed countries,while in developing countries a recent meta-analysis demonstrated a high rate of reinfection.The proportion of H pylori annual recurrence was 2.67% and 13.00% in developed and developing countries,respectively.Nested meta-analysis(only cases with a longer follow-up and a negative 13CUBT a year after eradication)revealed annual recurrence rate of 1.45%[relative risk(RR),0.54]and 12.00%(RR,0.92)in developed and developing countries,respectively.These findings support the notion that in developed countries many cases of recurrence are due to recrudescence within the first year after eradication,with a 46% drop in the recurrence rate after the first year post eradication,while in developing countries reinfection is more pronounced,and continue at the same rate since eradication.A different approach for follow-up after H pylori eradication is probably needed in patients of developing countries,since reinfection is highly prevalent.

  12. Eradicating a Disease: Lessons from Mathematical Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomski, Matthew; Ohanian, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Smallpox remains the only human disease ever eradicated. In this paper, we consider the mathematics behind control strategies used in the effort to eradicate smallpox, from the life tables of Daniel Bernoulli, to the more modern susceptible-infected-removed (SIR)-type compartmental models. In addition, we examine the mathematical feasibility of…

  13. Poliovirus shedding after the first and second doses of trivalent polio vaccines in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viramitha K. Rusmil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV produced by Bio Farma consists of three live, attenuated poliovirus serotypes (1, 2, and 3. The tOPV stimulates the formation of secretory IgA (sIgA on the intestinal wall and lumen. The existence of sIgA is considered giving immunity in the intestines, it could prevent the spread of viral replication and thus inhibit the transmission of the polio virus. Objective To determine the differences in shedding after each of the first two tOPV immunizations in newborns. Methods This one-way repeated measure study was conducted in newborns from three primary health centers in Bandung, West Java. After administering tOPV to newborns, we assessed the shedding of poliovirus in their stool specimens at 30 days after the first dose and 7 days after the second dose. Data was analyzed using McNemar test with 95% confidence intervals (CI to differentiate the shedding of poliovirus after the first and second doses. Results Of 150 children, 128 subjects completed the study. At 30 days after the first tOPV dose, 26 subjects (20.3% were negative for shedding of poliovirus in stool specimens. Of the 102 subjects who had poliovirus isolated from their stools, the serotypes comprised of polio 1: 10.9%, polio 2: 14.8%, polio 3: 45.3%, polio 1 and 3: 3.1%, polio 2 and 3: 4.7%, and polio 1,2, and 3: 0.8%. At 7 days after the second tOPV dose, there was a significant increase in subjects negative for shedding of poliovirus (78 subjects; 60.9%. Statistical analysis revealed significantly decreased shedding of poliovirus in stool specimens between the first and second doses of tOPV (P<0.05 . Conclusion There is a significantly decreased number of subjects with shedding of poliovirus in stool specimens 7 days after the second tOPV dose than at 30 days after the first tOPV dose

  14. Poliovirus shedding after the first and second doses of trivalent polio vaccines in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viramitha K. Rusmil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV produced by Bio Farma consists of three live, attenuated poliovirus serotypes (1, 2, and 3. The tOPV stimulates the formation of secretory IgA (sIgA on the intestinal wall and lumen. The existence of sIgA is considered giving immunity in the intestines, it could prevent the spread of viral replication and thus inhibit the transmission of the polio virus.Objective To determine the differences in shedding after each of the first two tOPV immunizations in newborns.Methods This one-way repeated measure study was conducted in newborns from three primary health centers in Bandung, West Java. After administering tOPV to newborns, we assessed the shedding of poliovirus in their stool specimens at 30 days after the first dose and 7 days after the second dose. Data was analyzed using McNemar test with 95% confidence intervals (CI to differentiate the shedding of poliovirus after the first and second doses.Results Of 150 children, 128 subjects completed the study. At 30 days after the first tOPV dose, 26 subjects (20.3% were negative for shedding of poliovirus in stool specimens. Of the 102 subjects who had poliovirus isolated from their stools, the serotypes comprised of polio 1: 10.9%, polio 2: 14.8%, polio 3: 45.3%, polio 1 and 3: 3.1%, polio 2 and 3: 4.7%, and polio 1,2, and 3: 0.8%. At 7 days after the second tOPV dose, there was a significant increase in subjects negative for shedding of poliovirus (78 subjects; 60.9%. Statistical analysis revealed significantly decreased shedding of poliovirus in stool specimens between the first and second doses of tOPV (P<0.05 .Conclusion There is a significantly decreased number of subjects with shedding of poliovirus in stool specimens 7 days after the second tOPV dose than at 30 days after the first tOPV dose.

  15. Eradication of HIV and Cure of AIDS, Now and How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Lin eZhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and cure of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. However, a pivotal point that the patient immunity controls HIV reactivation after highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, or combination anti-retroviral therapy, cART remains less well addressed. In spite of the fact that both innate and adaptive immunities are indispensable and numerous cells participate in the anti-HIV immunity, memory CD4 T-cells are indisputably the key cells organizing all immune actions against HIV while being the targets of HIV. Here we present a view and multidisciplinary approaches to HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. We aim at memory CD4 T-cells, utilizing the stem cell properties of these cells to reprogram an anti-HIV memory repertoire to eliminate the viral reservoir, toward achieving an AIDS-free world.

  16. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  17. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  18. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation. PMID:12294462

  19. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.

  20. Preventing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emergence during the Polio Endgame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cara C.; Lyons, Hil; Blake, Isobel M.; Oberste, M. Steven; Kew, Olen M.; Grassly, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2) in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) with trivalent OPV (tOPV) in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2). Here, we examine the risk factors for VDPV2 emergence and implications for the strategy of tOPV SIAs prior to OPV2 withdrawal. We first developed mathematical models of VDPV2 emergence and spread. We found that in settings with low routine immunisation coverage, the implementation of a single SIA increases the risk of VDPV2 emergence. If routine coverage is 20%, at least 3 SIAs are needed to bring that risk close to zero, and if SIA coverage is low or there are persistently “missed” groups, the risk remains high despite the implementation of multiple SIAs. We then analysed data from Nigeria on the 29 VDPV2 emergences that occurred during 2004−2014. Districts reporting the first case of poliomyelitis associated with a VDPV2 emergence were compared to districts with no VDPV2 emergence in the same 6-month period using conditional logistic regression. In agreement with the model results, the odds of VDPV2 emergence decreased with higher routine immunisation coverage (odds ratio 0.67 for a 10% absolute increase in coverage [95% confidence interval 0.55−0.82]). We also found that the probability of a VDPV2 emergence resulting in poliomyelitis in >1 child was significantly higher in districts with low serotype-2 population immunity. Our results support a strategy of focused tOPV SIAs before OPV2 withdrawal in areas at risk of VDPV2 emergence and in sufficient number to raise population immunity

  1. Preventing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emergence during the Polio Endgame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Pons-Salort

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs. Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2 in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs with trivalent OPV (tOPV in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2. Here, we examine the risk factors for VDPV2 emergence and implications for the strategy of tOPV SIAs prior to OPV2 withdrawal. We first developed mathematical models of VDPV2 emergence and spread. We found that in settings with low routine immunisation coverage, the implementation of a single SIA increases the risk of VDPV2 emergence. If routine coverage is 20%, at least 3 SIAs are needed to bring that risk close to zero, and if SIA coverage is low or there are persistently "missed" groups, the risk remains high despite the implementation of multiple SIAs. We then analysed data from Nigeria on the 29 VDPV2 emergences that occurred during 2004-2014. Districts reporting the first case of poliomyelitis associated with a VDPV2 emergence were compared to districts with no VDPV2 emergence in the same 6-month period using conditional logistic regression. In agreement with the model results, the odds of VDPV2 emergence decreased with higher routine immunisation coverage (odds ratio 0.67 for a 10% absolute increase in coverage [95% confidence interval 0.55-0.82]. We also found that the probability of a VDPV2 emergence resulting in poliomyelitis in >1 child was significantly higher in districts with low serotype-2 population immunity. Our results support a strategy of focused tOPV SIAs before OPV2 withdrawal in areas at risk of VDPV2 emergence and in sufficient number to raise population

  2. Preventing Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emergence during the Polio Endgame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Salort, Margarita; Burns, Cara C; Lyons, Hil; Blake, Isobel M; Jafari, Hamid; Oberste, M Steven; Kew, Olen M; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2016-07-01

    Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2) in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) with trivalent OPV (tOPV) in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2). Here, we examine the risk factors for VDPV2 emergence and implications for the strategy of tOPV SIAs prior to OPV2 withdrawal. We first developed mathematical models of VDPV2 emergence and spread. We found that in settings with low routine immunisation coverage, the implementation of a single SIA increases the risk of VDPV2 emergence. If routine coverage is 20%, at least 3 SIAs are needed to bring that risk close to zero, and if SIA coverage is low or there are persistently "missed" groups, the risk remains high despite the implementation of multiple SIAs. We then analysed data from Nigeria on the 29 VDPV2 emergences that occurred during 2004-2014. Districts reporting the first case of poliomyelitis associated with a VDPV2 emergence were compared to districts with no VDPV2 emergence in the same 6-month period using conditional logistic regression. In agreement with the model results, the odds of VDPV2 emergence decreased with higher routine immunisation coverage (odds ratio 0.67 for a 10% absolute increase in coverage [95% confidence interval 0.55-0.82]). We also found that the probability of a VDPV2 emergence resulting in poliomyelitis in >1 child was significantly higher in districts with low serotype-2 population immunity. Our results support a strategy of focused tOPV SIAs before OPV2 withdrawal in areas at risk of VDPV2 emergence and in sufficient number to raise population immunity above the

  3. Willapa - Spartina Mapping and Eradication 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continued a successful program aimed at eradicating the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina)...

  4. Willapa - Spartina Mapping and Eradication 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continues to work toward the eradication of the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina) from...

  5. Reflux esophagitis triggered after Helicobacter pylori eradication: a noteworthy demerit of eradication therapy among the Japanese?

    OpenAIRE

    Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    In the February 2013 Revision of Insured Medical Treatment, bacterial eradication for all Helicobacter pylori-positive individuals in Japan was covered under the insurance scheme. However, reflux esophagitis is believed to occur in approximately 10% of Japanese patients who undergo eradication therapy. Hence, the risk of reflux esophagitis among such cases should be carefully considered, particularly in the treatment for H. pylori-positive patients who are otherwise healthy. The eradication o...

  6. Vacina contra poliomielite: um novo paradigma Polio vaccines: a new paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2007-06-01

    , from January 2000 to December 2006. DATA SYNTHESIS: Acknowledgement of vaccine-associated paralysis and oral vaccine-derived circulating viruses’ paralysis shall certainly require discontinuation of oral vaccination for poliomyelitis use in a short time. After eradication of the wild viruses, oral vaccination for poliomyelitis should be discontinued, preferably in a synchronized manner in all the countries. After termination of vaccination programs, people will become susceptible again to poliomyelitis virus and disease outbreaks caused by wild viruses may occur (accidental escape from laboratories or bioterrorism. In countries already using inactivated poliovirus vaccine, it is unlikely that vaccination will be interrupted. Countries that currently use exclusively oral poliovirus vaccine will have to rely on epidemiological surveillance and on oral vaccine inventories to control potential polio outbreaks. If the oral poliovirus vaccine is reintroduced in those populations, there will be again a risk for vaccine-associated paralysis and oral vaccine-derived circulating viruses’ that may spread rapidly to other regions and to nearby countries. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine introduction in the routine Brazilian vaccination calendar should be programmed as well as acquisition of technology for inactivated poliovirus vaccine production since the latter is currently insufficient to cover global demand.

  7. Eradication of Ebola Based on Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Lu; Liu, Jia-Bao

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the eradication of the Ebola virus, proposing a scientific system, including three modules for the eradication of Ebola virus. Firstly, we build a basic model combined with nonlinear incidence rate and maximum treatment capacity. Secondly, we use the dynamic programming method and the Dijkstra Algorithm to set up M-S (storage) and several delivery locations in West Africa. Finally, we apply the previous results to calculate the total cost, production cost, storage cost, and shortage cost. PMID:27313655

  8. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Malaria modeling can inform policy and guide research for malaria elimination and eradication from local implementation to global policy. A research and development agenda for malaria modeling is proposed, to support operations and to enhance the broader eradication research agenda. Models are envisioned as an integral part of research, planning, and evaluation, and modelers should ideally be integrated into multidisciplinary teams to update the models iteratively, communicate their appropria...

  9. Developing strategies for HIV-1 eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Christine M.; Blankson, Joel N.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses HIV-1 replication, transforming the outlook for infected patients. However, reservoirs of replication-competent forms of the virus persist during HAART, and when treatment is stopped, high rates of HIV-1 replication return. Recent insights into HIV-1 latency, as well as a report that HIV-1 infection was eradicated in one individual, have renewed interest in finding a cure for HIV-1 infection. Strategies for HIV-1 eradication include gene...

  10. Eradication of Ebola Based on Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Lu; Liu, Jia-Bao

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly studies the eradication of the Ebola virus, proposing a scientific system, including three modules for the eradication of Ebola virus. Firstly, we build a basic model combined with nonlinear incidence rate and maximum treatment capacity. Secondly, we use the dynamic programming method and the Dijkstra Algorithm to set up M-S (storage) and several delivery locations in West Africa. Finally, we apply the previous results to calculate the total cost, production cost, storage cost, and shortage cost. PMID:27313655

  11. Impact of screwworm eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) eradication programmes has been successfully demonstrated. As a result of a 45-year area-wide campaign, suppression and eradication have been achieved in the USA, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama north of the Canal, some Caribbean Islands, and the outbreak in Libya, North Africa. The humans, livestock, and wildlife in these countries are now free of this dangerous pest. It has been estimated that the annual producer benefits are: USA - USD 796 million, Mexico - USD 292 million, and Central America - USD 77.9 million. In Libya, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 5:1 in the infested zone, and 10:1 in the whole country. If the New World screwworm were eradicated in South America, it has been estimated that each year USD 3592 million could be saved. Small field trials have confirmed that the SIT would be effective for the area-wide control of the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve). (author)

  12. Experiences with rabies eradication programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hostnik Peter

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral vaccination as a method of rabies eradication in the field was first started in Switzerland in 1978 and after 1984 several other EU countries followed this practice. Due to oral vaccination some European countries are now rabies-free in terrestrial animals. In Slovenia, after the first experimental oral vaccination and study of vaccination models from 1988 -1992, the spring-autumn campaigns have been carried out since 1995. The model of oral vaccination of wildlife requires 16-20 baits per km2 in the vaccination area. The baits were distributed by plane. They were dispersed from a height of 300-500 m. The aeroplanes' paths were 1000 metres apart. In the vaccination campaigns two vaccines were used. Lysvulpen®, produced by the Bioveta company at the Czech Republic, was laid down in the southwestern part of the country, and Fuchsoral®, produced by the German company Impfstoffwerk Dessau-Tornau, was placed in the eastern part of Slovenia. A rapid decline of rabies was evidenced from 1995 to 1999, when the oral vaccination program in the whole territory using the aircraft baits distributing system was practiced. In 1999, only 6 rabies cases were laboratory-confirmed, whereas in 1995, 1089 rabies cases were documented. Of the 14 rabies cases detected in 1998, 12 were found as an island in a circle with a radius of 30 km in the centre of the vaccinated area. In 2000 and 2001, rabies incidence increased again, so it was decided to change the baits distribution system in the year 2001. The vaccination by crossing flights in certain areas was introduced. In the next year (2002, after changing the vaccination strategy, positive cases rapidly dropped and only 15 cases in 2002, and 8 cases were found in 2003, near the non-vaccinated border with Croatia.

  13. Non-Polio Enteroviruses Aseptic Meningitis:Embaba Fever Hospital Admissions 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat A. Abdel-Twab¹, Kouka S. Abdel-Wahab2. Ahmed O. El-Kafrawi3, Moustafa A. Aly3, Laila A. EL-Bassiony4, May EL-Maamoun4, Caroline Fayez5

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human enteroviruses (EV cause a wide spectrum of both common and uncommon illnesses among all age groups. Enterically transmitted. The objective of this study was to identify non-poliovirus EV as a cause of viral aseptic meningitis (VAM by two methods (cell culture and Real time PCR. From October 2010 to August 2011 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were collected from 85 patients Embaba fever hospital admitted with symptoms of aseptic meningitis of any age and both sexes. The 85 CSF samples were inoculated into RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line in three blind passages to amplify isolates producing EV-like CPE. A total of 14 (16.5% out of 85 CSF samples showed EV-like CPE. By Real time PCR 11 out of the 14 culture positive samples and 5 out of the 14 source of virus isolation original CSF were non polio EV positive. The frequency of non-polio EV meningitis hospital admissions was in the summer season (50%, spring (25%, late autumn (16.6% and least frequency in winter (8.4%. non-polio EV meningitis was detected in 6 out of 41 male patients (14.5% and in 6 out of 44 female patients (13.5%. Also non-polio EV meningitis was detected in all ages with marked increase of incidence in young children (41.6% and old age (50% and less in adult (8.4%. . In conclusionOur data showed that the non-polioviruses EV was associated with the majority of VAM during 2010 – 2011 at the Embaba fever hospital which serves Embaba, Shoubra Elkheema, Qualyba and neighbors localities in Egypt. Rapid detection of non-polio EV meningitis is essential for making decisions about patient management and treatment

  14. Ridgefield - Invasive Plant Focused Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed project is a part of the Refuge invasive species management program and willhelp achieve goals and protect priority habitats identified in the Refuge...

  15. Can Economic Analysis Contribute to Disease Elimination and Eradication? A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Sicuri

    . To a lesser extent, challenges associated with achieving elimination/eradication and ensuring equity have also been explored. Although elimination and eradication are, for some diseases, good investments compared with control, countries' incentives to eliminate do not always align with the global good and the most efficient elimination strategies may not prioritize the poorest populations. For any infectious disease, policy-makers will need to consider realigning contrasting incentives between the individual countries and the global community and to assure that the process towards elimination/eradication considers equity.

  16. Use of Mobile Information Technology during Planning, Implementation and Evaluation of a Polio Campaign in South Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Haskew

    Full Text Available Use of mobile information technology may aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making for polio programming and response. We utilised Android-based smartphones to collect data electronically from more than 8,000 households during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. The results of the household surveys are presented here, together with discussion of the application of mobile information technology for polio campaign planning, implementation and evaluation in a real-time setting.Electronic questionnaires were programmed onto Android-based smartphones for mapping, supervision and survey activities during a national round of polio immunisation. National census data were used to determine the sampling frame for each activity and select the payam (district. Individual supervisors, in consultation with the local district health team, selected villages and households within each payam. Data visualisation tools were utilised for analysis and reporting.Implementation of mobile information technology and local management was feasible during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. Red Cross visits during the polio campaign were equitable according to household wealth index and households who received a Red Cross visit had significantly higher odds of being aware of the polio campaign than those who did not. Nearly 95% of children under five were reported to have received polio immunisation (according to maternal recall during the immunisation round, which varied by state, county and payam. A total of 11 payams surveyed were identified with less than 90% reported immunisation coverage and the least poor households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated than the most poor. More than 95% of households were aware of the immunisation round and households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated if they had prior awareness of the campaign taking place

  17. Helicobacter pylori eradication for preventing gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Li, Meng

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue.

  18. [Eradication of poliomyelitis and emergence of pathogenic vaccine-derived polioviruses: from Madagascar to Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeyroux, Francis; Colbère-Garapin, Florence; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Sadeuh-Mba, Serge; Joffret, Marie-Line; Rousset, Dominique; Blondel, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The oral poliovaccine, a live vaccine made of attenuated poliovirus strains, is the main tool of the vaccination campaigns organised for eradicating poliomyelitis. these campaigns had led to the decline and, thereafter, to the disappearance of wild poliovirus strains of the three serotypes (1-3) in most parts of the world. However, when the poliovaccine coverage becomes too low, vaccine polioviruses can circulate in insufficiently immunized populations and become then pathogenic by mutations and genetic recombination with other enteroviruses of the same species, in particular some coxsackievirus A. These mutated and recombinant vaccine strains have been implicated in several epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis. Two polio outbreaks associated with these pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in 2001-2002 and 2005 in the South of Madagascar where vaccine coverage was low. These cVDPV, of serotype 2 or 3, were isolated from paralyzed children and some of their healthy contacts. Other cVDPV were isolated in the same region from healthy children in 2011, indicating that these viruses were circulating again. Vaccination campaigns could stop the outbreaks in 2002 and 2005, and most probably prevent another one in 2011. Therefore, the genetic plasticity of poliovaccine strains that threatens the benefit of vaccination campaigns is the target of an accurate surveillance and an important theme of studies in the virology laboratories of the Institut Pasteur international network.

  19. Helicobacter pylori eradication: Sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cesare Efrati; Giorgia Nicolini; Claudio Cannaviello; Nicole Piazza O'Sed; Stefano Valabrega

    2012-01-01

    incidence of adverse effects in all groups of patients with sequential therapy,probably due to the presence of the L.reuteri supplementation.CONCLUSION:The sequential treatment regimen achieved a significantly higher eradication rate of H.pylori compared with standard 7-d regimen.L.reuteri supplementation could reduce the frequency and the intensity of antibiotic-associated side-effects.

  20. Education for the Eradication of Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Oriahi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible education for the eradication of poverty in Nigeria. It defines poverty as a state pf shortage or deficiency of meeting basic needs. Majors causes of poverty are overpopulation, illiteracy, unemployment, environmental degradation and government insensitive to the welfare of the people. Effects of poverty include homelessness, malnutrition and starvation, illness, crime, violence and antisocial behaviour like Internet Fraud (Yahoo business and Advance Fee Fraud Populace (419. Some poverty eradication strategies highlighted include: (i Organisation of international workshops on eradication of poverty, (ii Respect for human rights, (iii Quality basic education for girls (iv Meaningful contributions by NGOs, (v Provision of jobs for the people. Some recommendations are made for the way forward.

  1. Triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAWAKAMI Elisabete

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Helicobacter pylori infection presents high prevalence in developing countries, but there are few pediatric assays evaluating antimicrobial treatment. Objective - The aim of this study was to investigate Helicobacter pylori eradication rate using a short regimen (7 and 10 days of triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole. Patients and methods - Twenty-five Hp positive patients who presented severe epigastralgia, were submitted to antimicrobial treatment with amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 1g bid, clarithromycin (30 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 500 mg bid and omeprazole (0.6 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 20 mg bid during 7 or 10 days. After 2 months, clinical symptoms were evaluated and gastric biopsies were taken to test Hp eradication. Results - Overall eradication rate was achieved in 16/25 patients (64% - IC(95% = 45-83%, in 11/15 (73% - IC(95% = 51-95% patients who used 10 days therapy course and in 5/10 (50% - IC(95% = 19-81% who used 7 days therapy course. Eradication drugs were well accepted and adverse effects were reported in two patients (8%. Conclusions - This triple therapy regimen had moderate efficacy (64%. The data suggests that 10 days therapy course achieves better eradication rate (73% than 7 days course (50% to treat Hp infection in our population.

  2. Eradication of New World Screwworm from Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New World Screwworm (NWS) is an insect pest affecting warm-blooded animals and also humans. It causes widespread economic losses in livestock production as well as pain and suffering to animals and to those people unfortunate enough to become infected. Although it is endemic in Jamaica, the screwworm can be eradicated from the island using the well proven and successful Sterile Insect Technique. In collaboration with the Jamaican authorities, the Department of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA is planning to sponsor a Model Project to eradicate screwworm from Jamaica. (IAEA)

  3. Hepatitis C Treatment and Barriers to Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konerman, Monica A; Lok, Anna S F

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is highly efficacious, well-tolerated, and of short duration for the majority of patients. Despite the dramatic advances in therapy, there remain several barriers to disease eradication. These include deficiencies in screening, diagnosis, and access to care, and high cost of the direct-acting antiviral medications. In addition, incident cases and reinfection associated with injection drug use contribute to the persistent worldwide disease burden. This article will review the current CHC treatments, and outline the remaining gaps in therapy and barriers to disease eradication. PMID:27657495

  4. Eradication of Ebola Based on Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ming Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies the eradication of the Ebola virus, proposing a scientific system, including three modules for the eradication of Ebola virus. Firstly, we build a basic model combined with nonlinear incidence rate and maximum treatment capacity. Secondly, we use the dynamic programming method and the Dijkstra Algorithm to set up M-S (storage and several delivery locations in West Africa. Finally, we apply the previous results to calculate the total cost, production cost, storage cost, and shortage cost.

  5. Interim CDC guidance for polio vaccination for travel to and from countries affected by wild poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S; Seward, Jane F; Pallansch, Mark A

    2014-07-11

    In the prevaccine era, infection with wild poliovirus (WPV) was common worldwide, with seasonal peaks and epidemics in the summer and fall in temperate areas. The incidence of poliomyelitis in the United States declined rapidly after the licensure of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in 1955 and live oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s. The last cases of indigenously acquired WPV in the United States occurred in 1979, the last WPV case in a U.S. resident traveling abroad occurred in 1986, and the last WPV imported case was in 1993. Since 2000, the United States has exclusively used IPV, resulting in prevention of 8-10 vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis cases annually. In 2005, an unvaccinated U.S. adult traveling abroad acquired vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis after contact with an infant recently vaccinated with OPV. PMID:25006826

  6. An evaluation of impairment, mobility and quality of life in Polio survivors, change in muscle strength over time and the effects of an arm ergometry aerobic exercise programme.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Deirdre E

    2014-01-01

    Many Polio survivors report new problems, including new muscle weakness, fatigue, decreased mobility and pain (Halstead, 2004). There is a lack of consensus regarding the rate of decline in muscle strength and function of Polio survivors (Stolwijk-Swuste et al., 2005), the reasons for the new symptoms such as fatigue and the cause of declining mobility. As a result of their disability many Polio survivors report significant barriers to physical activity (Becker and Stuifbergen, 2004) and the ...

  7. Determinants of performance of supplemental immunization activities for polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: social mobilization activities of the Social mobilization Network (SM Net and Core Group Polio Project (CGPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss William M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary strategy to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus in India is to improve supplemental immunization activities (SIAs and routine immunization coverage in priority districts. The CORE Group, part of the Social Mobilization Network (SM Net, has been successful in improving SIA coverage in high-risk areas of Uttar Pradesh (UP. The SM Net works through community level mobilisers (from the CORE Group and UNICEF and covers more than 2 million children under the age of five. In this paper, we examine the reasons the CORE Group had been successful through exploration of which social mobilization activities of the CORE Group predicted better performance of SIAs. Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis of routine monitoring information collected by the CORE Group and the Government of India for SIAs. These data included information about vaccination outcomes of SIAs in CORE Group areas and non-CORE Group areas within the districts where the CORE Group operates, along with information about the number of various social mobilization activities carried out for each SIA. We employed Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Model (GLLAMM statistical analysis methods to identify which social mobilization activities predicted SIA performance, and to account for the intra-class correlation (ICC between multiple observations within the same geographic areas over time. Results The number of mosque announcements carried out was the most consistent determinant of improved SIA performance across various performance measures. The number of Bullawa Tollies carried out also appeared to be an important determinant of improved SIA performance. The number of times other social mobilization activities were carried out did not appear to determine better SIA performance. Conclusions Social mobilization activities can improve the performance of mass vaccination campaigns. In the CORE Group areas, the number of mosque announcements and Bullawa Tollies carried out were important determinants of desired SIA outcomes. The CORE Group and SM Net should conduct sufficient numbers of these activities in support of each SIA. It is likely, however, that the quality of social mobilization activities (not studied here is as or more important than the quantity of activities; quality measures of social mobilization activities should be investigated in the future as to how they determine vaccination performance.

  8. ROLE OF MEDICAL REHABILITATION TREATMENT IN POST-POLIO SYNDROME – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOGARU Gabriela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The term post-polio syndrome (PPS was introduced in 1985 by Halstead. It is characterized by sudden or progressive muscle weakness, new muscular atrophy, muscle pain, fatigue, functional impotence, cold intolerance, after a period of at least 15 years from acute polio virus infection, a period of neurological and functional stability, in the absence of other medical explanation [1]. The reported prevalence of PPS is between 15% and 80% of all patients with previous polio virus infections [2, 3]. Poliomyelitis continues to be a public health problem, because the consequences of the disease last throughout life. In Europe, there are about 700,000 persons who survived the infection and are still alive. Non-randomized studies with kinesitherapy programs with a duration between 6 weeks and 7 months, involving isokinetic and isometric endurance muscle training, have demonstrated an increase of muscle strength in the case of patients with mild or moderate muscle weakness, and a reduction of muscle fatigue [7, 8, 9]. The differential diagnosis of PPS can be difficult because of the need to exclude both neurological and non-neurological conditions that aggravate the pre-existing motor deficit. Rehabilitation programs using therapeutic means: kinesitherapy, thermotherapy, hydrothermotherapy, occupational therapy represent the only way to limit functional deficit and to improve pain, playing an important role in the long-term management and care of patients.

  9. The screwworm eradication program: From an unlikely dream to an outstanding reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was a devastating pest to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of the screwworm was achieved by using the unique approach called the sterile insect technique. He...

  10. The Costs and Benefits of Rinderpest Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to health risk, animal diseases inflict a broad spectrum of direct and indirect economic costs on society, many of which are neither well-understood nor rigorously analysed. Various methods exist to evaluate economic impacts, but many of these focus only on specific aspects or stakeholder interests and how they are affected by a disease, and do not capture the totality of impacts across the economy. However, these economy-wide considerations are essential to comprehensive expost evaluation of disease control or eradication programmes. Direct disease incidence and control costs may be focused on particular stakeholder groupings, but spill-over costs and benefits are dispersed more widely, traversing agricultural supply chains and associated households and enterprises. These extensive indirect effects often outweigh the direct ones. For this reason, cost-benefit analysis of animal disease and policy response must include a broad spectrum of both direct and indirect impacts in the assessment. Rinderpest was once one of the world's most feared livestock diseases, but concerted international control campaigns have now eradicated the disease globally. Despite this success, a major gap remains in the history of rinderpest eradication, namely a comprehensive assessment of the socio-economic costs and benefits of its control and eventual eradication. Such an assessment would make an important additional contribution, offering policy-makers an instrument for assessing the risk, cost and reward of enhanced investment in the control of other (present and future) animal diseases. Although it may be desirable to eradicate any health threat, cost-effectiveness is an important consideration, especially in developing countries, where public resources have many high priorities, and sustained expenditures re-quire clearly discernable benefits for large segments of society. While much has been documented on the epidemiological, technical and institutional lessons resulting

  11. Can leprosy be eradicated with chemotherapy? An evaluation of the Malta Leprosy Eradication Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert R; Gatt, Paul

    2008-12-01

    The Malta Leprosy Eradication Project (MLEP) was proposed in 1971 by Freerksen with the aim of eradicating leprosy in Malta. The project involved re-treatment of all known cases in Malta as of 1972 and all new cases thereafter with a regimen consisting of Isoprodian (a combination of dapsone, prothionamide and isoniazid) and rifampicin for varying intervals depending on the severity of their disease and their response to treatment. Overall the response to therapy was excellent with an extremely low relapse rate. During the 30 years of the project the incidence of leprosy steadily decreased continuing a decline that had started at least two decades earlier and Freerksen declared the disease eradicated from Malta in 2001. Although given the long incubation period of leprosy cases may still be occasionally detected in the future, the disease has been basically eradicated at this time and there are no patients currently receiving treatment. This work was done at the leprosy clinic, Boffa Hospital, Floriana, Malta.

  12. Brazil: from reduction of poverty to a commitment to eradicate extreme poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Lavinas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to summarise certain positive results achieved by the Lula government in the sphere of social policy and to highlight the new challenges taken on by President Dilma Rousseff in terms of eradicating extreme poverty, after her first year in government. After Lula’s success with social policy, Rousseff has committed herself to eradicating extreme poverty over the short term (the four years of her mandate) in a federation that is marked by weak links in cooperation, a d...

  13. Reflux esophagitis triggered after Helicobacter pylori eradication: a noteworthy demerit of eradication therapy among the Japanese?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori eIijima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the February 2013 Revision of Insured Medical Treatment, bacterial eradication for all Helicobacter pylori-positive individuals in Japan was covered under the insurance scheme. However, reflux esophagitis is believed to occur in approximately 10% of Japanese patients who undergo eradication therapy. Hence, the risk of reflux esophagitis among such cases should be carefully considered, particularly in the treatment for H. pylori-positive patients who are otherwise healthy. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori in cases of H. pylori-positive gastritis markedly suppresses gastric inflammation, and inhibits gastric mucosal atrophy and its progression to intestinal metaplasia. In a long-term follow-up study (10-20 years, eradication treatment was found to reduce the risk of subsequent gastric cancer. However, the fact that eradication-induced reflux esophagitis could increase the long-term risk of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma should also be considered in the Japanese population. Appropriate treatment with proton pump inhibitors should be taken into consideration for patients undergoing eradication therapy in clinical practice.

  14. Reflux esophagitis triggered after Helicobacter pylori eradication: a noteworthy demerit of eradication therapy among the Japanese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    In the February 2013 Revision of Insured Medical Treatment, bacterial eradication for all Helicobacter pylori-positive individuals in Japan was covered under the insurance scheme. However, reflux esophagitis is believed to occur in approximately 10% of Japanese patients who undergo eradication therapy. Hence, the risk of reflux esophagitis among such cases should be carefully considered, particularly in the treatment for H. pylori-positive patients who are otherwise healthy. The eradication of H. pylori in cases of H. pylori-positive gastritis markedly suppresses gastric inflammation, and inhibits gastric mucosal atrophy and its progression to intestinal metaplasia. In a long-term follow-up study (10-20 years), eradication treatment was found to reduce the risk of subsequent gastric cancer. However, the fact that eradication-induced reflux esophagitis could increase the long-term risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma should also be considered in the Japanese population. Appropriate treatment with proton pump inhibitors should be taken into consideration for patients undergoing eradication therapy in clinical practice. PMID:26106373

  15. Symptom-based tendencies of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Lan; Jing Yu; Yu-Long Chen; Ya-Li Zhong; Hao Zhang; Chang-He Jia; Yuan Yuan; Bo-Wei Liu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether there were symptombased tendencies in the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) eradication in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. METHODS: A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study of H. pylori eradication for FD was conducted. A total of 195 FD patients with H. pylori infection were divided into two groups: 98 patients in the treatment group were treated with rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily for 2 wk, amoxicillin 1.0 g and clarithromycin 0.5 g twice daily for 1 wk; 97 patients in the placebo group were given placebos as control. Symptoms of FD, such as postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea, belching, epigastric pain and epigastric burning, were assessed 3 mo after H. pylori eradication. RESULTS: By per-protocol analysis in patients with successful H. pylori eradication, higher effective rates of 77.2% and 82% were achieved in the patients with epigastric pain and epigastric burning than those in the placebo group (P 0.05). In 84 patients who received H. pylori eradication therapy, the effective rates for epigastric pain (73.8%) and epigastric burning (80.7%) were higher than those in the placebo group (P 0.05). By intention-to-treat analysis, patients with epigastric pain and epigastric burning in the treatment group achieved higher effective rates of 60.8% and 65.7% than the placebo group (33.3% and 31.8%) (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: The efficacy of H. pylori eradication has symptom-based tendencies in FD patients. It may be effective in the subgroup of FD patients with epigastric pain syndrome.

  16. Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Michael

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis--lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles--becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.

  17. Global eradication of lymphatic filariasis: the value of chronic disease control in parasite elimination programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele N; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James W

    2008-08-13

    The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis--lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles--becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially.

  18. Challenges to health workers and their opinions about parents' refusal of oral polio vaccination in the Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa (KPK) province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Sahibzada, Muhammad Umar Khayam

    2016-04-19

    A qualitative study design was adapted to explore the challenges faced by health workers (HWs) during the polio health campaign. In addition, HWs' opinions about the factors causing parents to refuse oral polio vaccination (OPV) were also explored. Four focus group discussions (FGDs) were held (from 1st January 2015-31st March 2015) with the HWs who participated in the OPV campaigns in the polio red zones of Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa (KPK) province of Pakistan, namely Kohat (FG 1), Domel and Bannu (FG 2), Hangoo (FG 3), and Peshawar (FG 4). A total of N=42 HWs (10-11 in each FG) agreed to participate in this study. Overall, HWs disclosed that public attitude and harsh behaviour towards the HWs and security threats are the two main challenges they face. Common issues hindering parents' willingness to vaccinate their children against OPV are: OPV is seen as haram and not permitted in Islam, it is said to contain the blood of pigs (Khinzir) and monkeys, and parents are afraid that it is done to induce sterility among their children. HWs also shared that parents have a strong belief in the conspiracies that are associated with OPV, i.e. the USA and CIA, are spying on us and our government is helping them to achieve their agenda. Furthermore, HWs revealed that frequent visits may further strengthen parents' perceptions and make them more resistant to OPV. The common side effects of OPV reported by parents were mainly gastro-intestinal problems and in some cases mild to moderate fever with some respiratory symptoms. There is a great need to improve the logistics and facilities for HWs assisting in vaccination programmes. Furthermore, it is necessary to improve education, so people understand the basic concept of revaccination and booster doses, thereby assisting in creating a basic understanding of vaccinations, which may trigger changes in attitudes and make people believe in the benefits of OPV rather than following the conspiracies that lead them to refuse it. PMID

  19. Eradicating smallpox in Indonesia: the archipelagic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    From 1804 to 1974, the colonial Dutch East Indies government and the postcolonial Indonesian state attempted to tackle the problem of smallpox. The vaccination efforts in the colonial era virtually eliminated smallpox by 1940. Unfortunately, as a consequence of the war smallpox was reintroduced into the archipelago in 1947. Indonesia finally succeeded in eradicating smallpox in 1974 through campaigns of mass vaccination and surveillance. In the last few years of the fight against smallpox, a detection system was set up in order to have every suspected case of smallpox isolated and investigated by the health authorities until verified in the government laboratory at Bandung. This paper looks at the impact of the archipelagic nature of Indonesia on the smallpox eradication campaigns. PMID:20973337

  20. Education for the Eradication of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    C.I. Oriahi; A.O. Aitufe

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the possible education for the eradication of poverty in Nigeria. It defines poverty as a state pf shortage or deficiency of meeting basic needs. Majors causes of poverty are overpopulation, illiteracy, unemployment, environmental degradation and government insensitive to the welfare of the people. Effects of poverty include homelessness, malnutrition and starvation, illness, crime, violence and antisocial behaviour like Internet Fraud (Yahoo business) and Advance Fee Frau...

  1. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  2. Sex-differential effect on infant mortality of oral polio vaccine administered with BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau. A natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stabell Benn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during several periods. We took advantage of this "natural experiment" to test the effect on mortality of receiving OPV at birth. METHODOLOGY: Between 2002 and 2004, the VAS trial randomised normal-birth-weight infants to 50,000 IU VAS or placebo administered with BCG. Provision of OPV at birth was not part of the trial, but we noted whether the infants received OPV or not. OPV was missing during several periods in 2004. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compute mortality rate ratios (MRR of children who had received or not received OPV at birth. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 962 (22.1% of the 4345 enrolled children did not receive OPV at birth; 179 children died within the first year of life. Missing OPV at birth was associated with a tendency for decreased mortality (adjusted MRR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46-1.03, the effect being similar among recipients of VAS and placebo. There was a highly significant interaction between OPV at birth and sex (p = 0.006. Not receiving OPV at birth was associated with a weak tendency for increased mortality in girls (1.14 (0.70-1.89 but significantly decreased mortality in boys (0.35 (0.18-0.71. CONCLUSIONS: In our study OPV at birth had a sex-differential effect on mortality. Poliovirus is almost eradicated and OPV at birth contributes little to herd immunity. A randomised study of the effect of OPV at birth on overall mortality in both sexes is warranted.

  3. Update on current and emerging treatment options for post-polio syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Farbu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Elisabeth Farbu Neurocenter and National Competence Center for Movement Disorders, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayAbstract: Post-polio syndrome (PPS refers to the clinical deterioration experienced by many polio survivors several decades after their acute illness. The symptoms are new muscle weakness, decreased muscle endurance, fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, cold intolerance, and this typical clinical entity is reported from different parts of the world. The pathophysiology behind PPS is not fully understood, but a combination of distal degeneration of enlarged motor units caused by increased metabolic demands and the normal aging process, in addition to inflammatory mechanisms, are thought to be involved. There is no diagnostic test for PPS, and the diagnosis is based on a proper clinical workup where all other possible explanations for the new symptoms are ruled out. The basic principle of management of PPS lies in physical activity, individually tailored training programs, and lifestyle modification. Muscle weakness and muscle pain may be helped with specific training programs, in which training in warm water seems to be particularly helpful. Properly fitted orthoses can improve the biomechanical movement pattern and be energy-saving. Fatigue can be relieved with lifestyle changes, assistive devices, and training programs. Respiratory insufficiency can be controlled with noninvasive respiratory aids including biphasic positive pressure ventilators. Pharmacologic agents like prednisone, amantadine, pyridostigmine, and coenzyme Q10 are of no benefit in PPS. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG has been tried in three studies, all having positive results. IVIG could probably be a therapeutic alternative, but the potential benefit is modest, and some important questions are still unanswered, in particular to which patients this treatment is useful, the dose, and the therapeutic interval.Keywords: polio, survivors, fatigue, aging

  4. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines may have non-specific effects. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau suggested that oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) provided with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was associated with down-regulation of the immune response to BCG vaccine 6 weeks later. Based...... BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...

  5. Combining Tactics to Exploit Allee Effects for Eradication of Alien Insect Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Invasive species increasingly threaten ecosystems, food production, and human welfare worldwide. Hundreds of eradication programs have targeted a wide range of nonnative insect species to mitigate the economic and ecological impacts of biological invasions. Many such programs used multiple tactics to achieve this goal, but interactions between tactics have received little formal consideration, specifically as they interact with Allee dynamics. If a population can be driven below an Allee threshold, extinction becomes more probable because of factors such as the failure to find mates, satiate natural enemies, or successfully exploit food resources, as well as demographic and environmental stochasticity. A key implication of an Allee threshold is that the population can be eradicated without the need and expense of killing the last individuals. Some combinations of control tactics could interact with Allee dynamics to increase the probability of successful eradication. Combinations of tactics can be considered to have synergistic (greater efficiency in achieving extinction from the combination), additive (no improvement over single tactics alone), or antagonistic (reduced efficiency from the combination) effects on Allee dynamics. We highlight examples of combinations of tactics likely to act synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on pest populations. By exploiting the interacting effects of multiple tactics on Allee dynamics, the success and costeffectiveness of eradication programs can be enhanced. (author)

  6. Eradication of malaria through genetic engineering:the current situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wing-Chui Chong; Rusliza Basir; Yam Mun Fei

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is an intra-cellular parasitic protozoon responsible for millions of deaths annually.Host and parasite genetic factors are crucial in affecting susceptibility to malaria and progression of the disease.Recent increased deployment of vector controls and new artemisinin combination therapies have dramatically reduced the mortality and morbidity of malaria worldwide.However, the gradual emergence of parasite and mosquito resistance has raised alarm regarding the effectiveness of current artemisinin-based therapies.In this review, mechanisms of anti-malarial drug resistance in thePlasmodium parasite and new genetically engineered tools of research priorities are discussed.The complexity of the parasite lifecycle demands novel interventions to achieve global eradication.However, turning laboratory discovered transgenic interventions into functional products entails multiple experimental phases in addition to ethical and safety hurdles.Uncertainty over the regulatory status and public acceptance further discourage the implementation of genetically modified organisms.

  7. And they shall walk: ideal versus reality in polio rehabilitation in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, Daniel J.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the significance that rehabilitation physicians and polio patients in the United States put on recovering the ability to walk. Polio often paralyzed or severely weakened the legs of those who contracted the disease. Regaining the ability to walk was thus a significant measure of recovery from the disease. However, walking meant more than the physical act itself. Regaining the ability to walk meant, in a symbolic sense, that one was no longer disabled, that one had again become normal. This attitude was shared by rehabilitation specialists and patients alike. This essay examines this attitude and the cultural values it embodied through a study of the efforts of selected polio survivors to learn to walk again and of the rehabilitation literature that held walking as an ideal. It also explores what happened when polio patients were unable to walk again because of the severity of their paralysis.

    En este artículo se analiza la importancia que tiene la recuperación de la capacidad de andar para los especialistas en rehabilitación y los pacientes de polio en los Estados Unidos. La polio iba a menudo acompañada de parálisis o de una grave debilitación de las piernas en aquellas personas que contraían la enfermedad. El recuperar la capacidad de andar era por lo tanto un importante factor indicativo de la recuperación de la enfermedad. Sin embargo, el andar significaba algo más que la simple acción física. El recuperar la movilidad significaba simbólicamente que uno dejaba de ser un minusválido y que volvía a ser una persona normal. Esta postura la compartían tanto los especialistas en rehabilitación como los pacientes. Este artículo analiza esta actitud y los valores culturales derivados de la misma, a través de un estudio sobre los esfuerzos llevados a cabo por un grupo seleccionado de supervivientes de polio para aprender a andar de nuevo así como de un análisis de la literatura sobre la rehabilitaci

  8. Managing and eradicating wildlife tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, B; Livingstone, P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium bovis infection was first identified in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand in the late 1960s. Since the early 1970s, possums in New Zealand have been controlled as part of an ongoing strategy to manage the disease in livestock. The TB management authority (TBfree New Zealand) currently implements three strategic choices for disease-related possum control: firstly TB eradication in areas selected for eradication of the disease from livestock and wildlife, secondly Free Area Protection in areas in which possums are maintained at low densities, normally along a Vector Risk Area (VRA) boundary, and thirdly Infected Herd Suppression, which includes the remaining parts of VRA where possums are targeted to minimise the infection risk to livestock. Management is primarily through a range of lethal control options. The frequency and intensity of control is driven by a requirement to reduce populations to very low levels (usually to a trap-catch index below 2%), then to hold them at or below this level for 5–10 years to ensure disease eradication.Lethal possum control is implemented using aerial- and ground-based applications, under various regulatory and operational constraints. Extensive research has been undertaken aimed at improving the efficacy and efficiency of control. Aerial applications use sodium fluoroacetate (1080) bait for controlling possums over extensive and rugged areas of forest that are difficult to access by foot. Ground-based control uses a range of toxins (primarily, a potassium cyanide-based product) and traps. In the last 5 years there has been a shift from simple possum population control to the collection of spatial data on possum presence/absence and relative density, using simple possum detection devices using global positioning system-supported data collection tools, with recovery of possum carcasses for diagnostic necropsy. Such data provide information subsequently used in

  9. [History of development of the live poliomyelitis vaccine from Sabin attenuated strains in 1959 and idea of poliomyelitis eradication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkevich, V A

    2013-01-01

    against poliomyelitis. In some developing countries the vaccination data are falsified, thereby threatening the polio epidemics reappearance and the virus spreading to other countries. Methods must be developed for detection and dealing with extremely rare persistent virus carriers. Because of all these constraints the outcome of poliomyelitis eradication at present is uncertain and vaccination must be continued. The world has become poliovaccine dependent.

  10. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P plot catches (P < 0.001). Eradication programs are following an upward trend with globalization and the spread of invasive arthropods, which are often first detected in urban areas. Eradication requires a major increase in the communication distance between individuals, but this can be achieved using sex pheromone-based mating disruption technology, which is very benign and suitable for sensitive environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications. PMID:26470337

  11. The global eradication of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) within 15 years--is this a pipe dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William

    2016-03-01

    Gordon Scott did much to inspire the eradication of rinderpest, probably the most outstanding veterinary achievement of the twentieth century, and one currently inspiring is the proposed eradication of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a disease of sheep and goats caused by a closely related Morbillivirus. The evolution and geographic spread of PPR along with its epidemiological characteristics are discussed and related to ways in which its spread can be reduced through the provision of diagnostic aids to sanitary livestock movement at local level. Taking a historical look at rinderpest eradication, it was shown that much could be achieved using a legislation-backed zoosanitary approach or, once developed, the build up of herd immunities in isolated populations. As the final cap to this (circa), two hundred-year-long process, major national and internationally funded vaccination programmes falling within the informal coordinatorship of the OIE and FAO showed that final eradication could be achieved with remarkable rapidity if the seat of infection was known and if appropriate national and international interventions were aimed at ending virus transmission. Were such international cooperation to be forthcoming once more, the understanding, tools and experiences now on offer suggest that PPR could be controlled and eradicated far more rapidly than rinderpest. PMID:26851956

  12. Eradicating Corruption in Public Office in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Attah Ademu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a model for dealing with the problem of corruption in Nigeria. It uses an analytical approach to explore the Singapore model of dealing with acts of corruption to serve as a model for Nigeria. Corruption is inimical to socio-economic development of any country where it is practised on any scale. This explains why all nations make efforts to minimize or eradicate corruption in their economies. Nigeria has been ranked among the most corrupt nations of the World by many international anti-corruption agencies. If other nations take measures to eradicate corruption from their economies because of its negative consequences, Nigeria cannot be an exception. Corruption has led to gross misuse of public funds in Nigeria and has caused untold hardship to her citizens via non-payments of people’s benefits and lack of provision of basic public utilities. To deal with corruption in Nigeria, various anti-corruption agencies were set up but the problem remains. This paper therefore recommends the Singapore model as a method of dealing with corruption in Nigeria. This model holds each sectional head responsible for any act of corruption in his/her unit if established. The government was strong and determined to deal with the transgressors; there was political will to tame corruption and therefore there was government support to the anti-corruption agencies. If this model is adopted and faithfully implemented, corruption could be eradicated from Nigeria. In addition, constitutional amendments that would update and clearly define acts that constitute corrupt practices as these acts manifest in various forms are necessary to facilitate interpretation and enforcement of anti-corruption laws.

  13. EFFECT OF TRUNK ROTATION EXERCISE ON SCOLIOSIS IN POST- POLIO RESIDUAL PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibi Paul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:This study conducted to find out the effectiveness of trunk flexion rotation, extension rotationand combined flexion rotation & extension rotation exercises in reduction of scoliosis. Twenty fivemale scolioticsubjects secondary to post-polio residual paralysis were selected for the study as per the inclusionand exclusioncriteria.Method:Materials used for the study were Rontgenograph, Protractor, Pencil and Scale to evaluate the Cobb’sangle. Purposive random sampling method used to select the subjects in three groups for the study. Each groupA, B and C performed trunk flexion rotation, extension rotation and combined flexion rotation and extensionrotation exercises respectively. Subjects performed exercise regularly twice a day for five months under thesupervision of the researcher. The subjects did exercise for one hour with one minute rest in between eachmovement. Cobb’s angle was measured before and after the treatment program for each subject.Results:The calculated t’ value of group A, B and C were 11.00, 9.00 and 10.95 respectively at 5% level andP < 0.0001 for all groups, there for it was significant in reduction of angle of scoliosis among post- polio residualparalysis. The comparative study found that there was no significant difference in reduction of scoliosis amongthe groups.Conclusion:Based on the statistical analysis performed it could conclude that all the groups undergone trunkrotation exercises have improvement in terms of reduction of scoliosis but there was no much difference betweenthe groups on reduction of scoliosis

  14. [42 patients with post-polio syndrome. A retrospective study from Sunnaas hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghelle, J K; Helseth, R; Roaldsen, K S; Rand-Hendriksen, S

    1991-10-30

    We describe a retrospective study of 42 patients admitted to Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital with suspect postpolio syndrome over a period of two years. The patients were 32 females and 10 males aged 28-74 years (mean 54 years). 29 were married or cohabitant, 31 had children, and 20 were in paid employment. The mean age at onset of polio was 12 years, with an average interval of 36 years between onset of polio and onset of new problems. The mean duration of new health problems was seven years. The most common such problems were pain in muscles and joints, general fatigue and new weakness of the muscles. 28 of the patients needed personal assistance to carry out everyday activities. 33 had braces, crutches or wheelchair for ambulation. Lung function was moderately reduced and physical working capacity was severely reduced. Physiotherapy, ergotherapy and technical aids were provided for 38 of the patients, 16 received assistance to organizing social support or help at home, 13 were helped to make practical changes in their homes, and eight were provided with a wheelchair. According to this study, most patients with the postpolio syndrome need interdisciplinary evaluation and management in a rehabilitation hospital. PMID:1948938

  15. Measuring Poverty in order to Eradicate It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Damon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, the UN established its Millennium Development Goals, with the notable aim of halving extreme poverty by 2015. That same year, the European Union launched its Lisbon strategy, containing an injunction to “make a decisive impact on the eradication of poverty by 2010”. Since 2007, France has set a national target of reducing poverty by one third over five years. These proactive policies call, in all three cases, for technical elucidation to define and describe poverty. Each of the three scales – French, European and international – has its own approaches and methods of quantification. And yet their similarities are more significant than their differences.

  16. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Song; Jian Liu; Li-Ya Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori) eradication remains a challenge with increasing antibiotic resistance.Hybrid therapy has attracted widespread attention because of initial report with good efficacy and safety.However,many issues on hybrid therapy are still unclear such as the eradication efficacy,safety,compliance,influencing factors,correlation with antibiotic resistance,and comparison with other regimens.Therefore,a comprehensive review on the evidence of hybrid therapy for H.pylori infection was conducted.Data Sources:The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English up to September 30,2015,searching by the terms of"Helicobacterpylori" or "H.pylori",and "hybrid".Study Selection:Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic.Results:Totally,1871 patients of 12 studies received hybrid therapy.The eradication rates were 77.6-97.4% in intention-to-treat and 82.6-99.1% in per-protocol analyses.Compliance was 93.3-100.0%,overall adverse effects rate was 14.5-67.5%,and discontinued medication rate due to adverse effects was 0-6.7%.H.pylori culture and sensitivity test were performed only in 13.3% patients.Pooled analysis showed that the eradication rates with dual clarithromycin and metronidazole susceptible,isolated metronidazole or clarithromycin resistance,and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were 98.5%,97.6%,92.9%,and 80.0%,respectively.Overall,the efficacy,compliance,and safety of hybrid therapy were similar with sequential or concomitant therapy.However,hybrid therapy might be superior to sequential therapy in Asians.Conclusions:Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions.Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy.Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant therapy in the efficacy,safety,and compliance.

  17. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    , industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test......"Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...

  18. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: therapies and clinical implications.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, H J

    1992-01-01

    This review presents a critical evaluation of the role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the management of peptic ulcer disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia. On current evidence, H. pylori eradication therapy seems likely to emerge as the most rational and cost-effective treatment for duodenal ulcer. The role of H. pylori eradication in the treatment of gastric ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia is unclear and requires further study. The emerging problem of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is of ...

  19. Tracking Vaccination Teams During Polio Campaigns in Northern Nigeria by Use of Geographic Information System Technology: 2013–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touray, Kebba; Mkanda, Pascal; Tegegn, Sisay G.; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaye B.; Banda, Richard; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Nigeria is among the 3 countries in which polio remains endemic. The country made significant efforts to reduce polio transmission but remains challenged by poor-quality campaigns and poor team performance in some areas. This article demonstrates the application of geographic information system technology to track vaccination teams to monitor settlement coverage, reduce the number of missed settlements, and improve team performance. Methods. In each local government area where tracking was conducted, global positioning system–enabled Android phones were given to each team on a daily basis and were used to record team tracks. These tracks were uploaded to a dashboard to show the level of coverage and identify areas missed by the teams. Results. From 2012 to June 2015, tracking covered 119 immunization days. A total of 1149 tracking activities were conducted. Of these, 681 (59%) were implemented in Kano state. There was an improvement in the geographic coverage of settlements and an overall reduction in the number of missed settlements. Conclusions. The tracking of vaccination teams provided significant feedback during polio campaigns and enabled supervisors to evaluate performance of vaccination teams. The reports supported other polio program activities, such as review of microplans and the deployment of other interventions, for increasing population immunity in northern Nigeria. PMID:26609004

  20. [Possible method of eradication of poliomyelitis as an infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P

    2012-01-01

    Problem of poliomyelitis eradication is examined in the review. After the eradication of wild poliovirus, vaccine poliomyelitis virus continues to circulate in the human population. In rare cases it can cause the development of the disease. The authors describe disadvantages of the use of oral and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines and note that by using oral poliomyelitis vaccine and eradication only of wild poliovirus, eradication of poliomyelitis as an infection will not succeed. As one of the approaches to reach this goal the authors propose the use of various enterovirus interference. Use of live enterovirus vaccine is described and its advantages and disadvantages are examined.

  1. [Role of the National Poliovirus Laboratory for the Program of eradication and poliomyelitis surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trallero, Gloria; Cabrerizo, María; Avellón, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish acute flaccid paralysis surveillance network is coordinated by the National Poliovirus Laboratory (NPL), which, since 1998, carries out polioviruses (PV) and other enteroviruses detected characterization by cell culture and molecular techniques. A total of 110,725 (70046+40679) samples were studied between 1998-2012 and enteroviruses were detected in 8% of these. Among these enteroviruses 241 PV were characterized as PV Sabin-like, except samples belong to an imported poliomyelitis case, all of which were characterised as vaccine derived PV type 2. The NPL has carried out the serotyping and the intratypic differentiation of all the isolated PV in Spain of any syndrome. It is shown that wild PV has not circulated in our country during the 15 years studied and that has led to the signing of the Act of the "eradication of poliomyelitis in Spain" by WHO in 2001, and the /"certification of the eradication of wild PV free for European countries" on 21 June 2002. Currently only 3 countries have endemic transmission of wild PV (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria). Until a complete worldwide eradication, was achieved, Spain will actively continue to participate in the maintenance of the poliomyelitis eradication infrastructure by monitoring and vaccination as well as the wild PV containment plan to avoid the spread of wild PV.

  2. Clinical evaluation of four one-week triple therapy regimens in eradicating Helicobacter pyloriinfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Yong Guo; Yun-Bin Wu; Heng-Lu Liu; Jian-Ye Wu; Min-Zhang Zhong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: TO evaluate clinical efficacy of four one-week triple therapies in eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection.METHODS: In this clinical trial, 132 patients with duodenal ulcer and chronic gastritis were randomly divided into four 20 mg+ amoxicillin 1 000 mg + clarithromycin 250 mg), OFC (omeprazole 20 mg + furazolidone 100 mg + clarithromycin 250 mg), OFA (omeprazole 20 mg + furazolidone 100 mg + amoxicillin 1000 mg) and OMC (omeprazole 20 mg +metronidazole 200 mg + cladthromycin 250 mg), respectively.Each drug was taken twice daily for one week. The 13C urea breath test was carried out 4-8 weeks after treatment to determine the success of H pylori eradication.RESULTS: A total of 127 patients completed the treatment.The eradication rate for H pylori infection was 90.3%,90.9%, 70.9% and 65.6%, respectively in OAC, OFC OMC and OFA groups.CONCLUSION: A high eradication rate can be achieved with one-week OAC or OFC triple therapy. Thus, oneweek triple therapies with OAC and OFC are recommended for Chinese patients with duodenal ulcers and chronic gastritis.

  3. ERAD substrate recognition in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Ng, Davis T W

    2010-07-01

    During protein synthesis, the orderly progression of folding, modification, and assembly is paramount to function and vis-à-vis cellular viability. Accordingly, sophisticated quality control mechanisms have evolved to monitor protein maturation throughout the cell. Proteins failing at any step are segregated and degraded as a preventative measure against potential toxicity. Although protein quality control is generally poorly understood, recent research advances in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathways have provided the most detailed view so far. The discovery of distinct substrate processing sites established a biochemical basis for genetic profiles of model misfolded proteins. Detailed mechanisms for substrate recognition were recently uncovered. For some proteins, sequential glycan trimming steps set a time window for folding. Proteins still unfolded at the final stage expose a specific degradation signal recognized by the ERAD machinery. Through this mechanism, the system does not in fact know that a molecule is "misfolded". Instead, it goes by the premise that proteins past due have veered off their normal folding pathways and therefore aberrant. PMID:20178855

  4. Eradicating Poverty in Fragile States: Prospects of Reaching the "High-Hanging" Fruit by 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Alison; Hughes, Barry; Milante, Gary

    2014-01-01

    As the world approaches the target year of the Millennium Development Goals and passes into the new, post-2015 era, the development community has made a call for a new international development goal of eradication of extreme poverty by 2030. How feasible is that? For most of the developing world, the goal seems ambitious, yet achievable -- but what about the prospects for fragile states in...

  5. Eradication of tephritid fruit fly pest populations: outcomes and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACKGROUND: The number of insect eradication programmes is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programmes on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries (global eradication database b3.net.nz/gerda). METHODS: A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programmes against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. RESULTS: The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programmes was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n=85 programmes) and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n=12 programmes), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n=108 programmes). A number of intended eradication programmesagainst long-established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programmes. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from $US 0.1 million to $US 240 million and averaged about $US 12 million (normalised to $US in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programmes were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area-wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success. (author)

  6. Improving polio vaccination during supplementary campaigns at areas of mass transit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Sunil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, children who are traveling during mass immunization campaigns for polio represent a substantial component of the total target population. These children are not easily accessible to health workers and may thus not receive vaccine. Vaccination activities at mass transit sites (such as major intersections, bus depots and train stations, can increase the proportion of children vaccinated but the effectiveness of these activities, and factors associated with their success, have not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We assessed data from polio vaccination activities in Jyotiba Phule Nagar district, Uttar Pradesh, India, conducted in June 2006. We used trends in the vaccination results from the June activities to plan the timing, locations, and human resource requirements for transit vaccination activities in two out of the seven blocks in the district for the July 2006 supplementary immunization activity (SIA. In July, similar data was collected and for the first time vaccination teams also recorded the proportion of children encountered each day who were vaccinated (a new monitoring system. Results In June, out of the 360,937 total children vaccinated, 34,643 (9.6% received vaccinations at mass transit sites. In the July SIA, after implementation of a number of changes based on the June monitoring data, 36,475 children were vaccinated at transit sites (a 5.3% increase. Transit site vaccinations in July increased in the two intervention blocks from 18,194 to 21,588 (18.7% and decreased from 16,449 to 14,887 (9.5% in the five other blocks. The new monitoring system showed the proportion of unvaccinated children at street intersection transit sites in the July campaign decreased from 24% (1,784/7,405 at the start of the campaign to 3% (143/5,057 by the end of the SIA, consistent with findings from the more labor-intensive post-vaccination coverage surveys routinely performed by the program. Conclusions Analysis of

  7. Efficacy of fermented milk and whey proteins in Helicobacter pylori eradication: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Aarti; Rawat, Swapnil; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-01-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is considered a necessary step in the management of peptic ulcer disease, chronic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Standard triple therapy eradication regimens are inconvenient and achieve unpredictable and often poor results. Eradication rates are decreasing over time with increase in antibiotic resistance. Fermented milk and several of its component whey proteins have emerged as candidates for complementary therapy. In this context the current review seeks to summarize the current evidence available on their role in H. pylori eradication. Pertinent narrative/systematic reviews, clinical trials and laboratory studies on individual components including fermented milk, yogurt, whey proteins, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), glycomacropeptide and immunoglobulin were comprehensively searched and retrieved from Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and abstracts/proceedings of conferences up to May 2013. A preponderance of the evidence available on fermented milk-based probiotic preparations and bovine lactoferrin suggests a beneficial effect in Helicobacter eradication. Evidence for α-LA and immunoglobulins is promising while that for glycomacropeptide is preliminary and requires substantiation. The magnitude of the potential benefit documented so far is small and the precise clinical settings are ill defined. This restricts the potential use of this group as a complementary therapy in a nutraceutical setting hinging on better patient acceptability/compliance. Further work is necessary to identify the optimal substrate, fermentation process, dose and the ideal clinical setting (prevention/treatment, first line therapy/recurrence, symptomatic/asymptomatic, gastritis/ulcer diseases etc.). The potential of this group in high antibiotic resistance or treatment failure settings presents interesting possibilities and deserves further exploration.

  8. High efficacy of gemifloxacin-containing therapy in Helicobacter Pylori eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Laleh; Farshad, Shohreh; Seddigh, Mehrdad; Mahmoudi, Paria; Ejtehadi, Fardad; Niknam, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common gastric pathogen which is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. It has worldwide distribution with higher incidence in developing countries. Gemifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with documented in vitro activity against H pylori. Considering that there is no clinical data to verify gemifloxacin efficacy in H pylori eradication, this pilot clinical trial was designed. Methods: This prospective pilot study was performed during February 2014 to February 2015. A regimen of gemifloxacin (320 mg single dose) plus twice daily doses of amoxicillin1g, bismuth 240 mg, and omeprazole 20 mg for 14 days were prescribed for H pylori infected patients in whom a first-line standard quadruple therapy (clarithromycin–amoxicillin–bismuth–omeprazole) had failed. To confirm H pylori eradication a 13C-urea breath test was performed 4 weeks after treatment. Compliance and incidence of adverse effects were evaluated by questionnaires. Results: A total of 120 patients were enrolled consecutively; out of which 106 patients achieved H pylori eradication; per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.4% (95% CI: 85.5–97.6) and 88.3% (95% CI: 75.4–92.4) respectively. Three patients (2.5%) failed to take at least 80% of the drugs and excluded from the final analysis. Adverse effects were reported in 42% of patients, most commonly including nausea (15%) and diarrhea (13.3%), which was intense in 1 patient and led to the discontinuation of treatment. In total, 96.7% (116/120) of the patients took the medications correctly. Conclusion: This study revealed that gemifloxacin-containing quadruple therapy provides high H pylori eradication rate (≥90% PP cure rate), and this agent can be included in the list of second-line H pylori therapeutic regimens. PMID:27759625

  9. Invasive mammal eradication on islands results in substantial conservation gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Holly P; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Tershy, Bernie R; Kappes, Peter J; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Kress, Stephen W; Miskelly, Colin M; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J; Spatz, Dena R; Towns, David R; Croll, Donald A

    2016-04-12

    More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List-6% of all these highly threatened species-likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna. PMID:27001852

  10. 76 FR 53165 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of... for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is being used in accordance with EPA...

  11. Invasive mammal eradication on islands results in substantial conservation gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Holly P; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Tershy, Bernie R; Kappes, Peter J; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Kress, Stephen W; Miskelly, Colin M; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J; Spatz, Dena R; Towns, David R; Croll, Donald A

    2016-04-12

    More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List-6% of all these highly threatened species-likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna.

  12. Insect Eradication and Containment of Invasive Alien Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect eradication programs are nearly always targeted at recently arrived invasive species with significant pest potential. They attempt to contain a pest to a defined area and then completely eliminate the pest from that area. From a Federal regulatory standpoint, eradication programs are undert...

  13. Gastric cancer development after the successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kaname; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-03-15

    Gastric cancer (GC) develops as a result of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis due to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and subsequent defects in genetic/epigenetic events. Although the indication for eradication therapy has become widespread, clinical studies have revealed its limited effects in decreasing the incidence of GC. Moreover, research on biopsy specimens obtained by conventional endoscopy has demonstrated the feasibility of the restoration of some genetic/epigenetic alterations in the gastric mucosa. Practically, the number of sporadic cases of primary/metachronous GC that emerge after successful eradication has increased, while on-going guidelines recommend eradication therapy for patients with chronic gastritis and those with background mucosa after endoscopic resection for GC. Accordingly, regular surveillance of numerous individuals who have received eradication therapy is recommended despite the lack of biomarkers. Recently, the focus has been on functional reversibility after successful eradication as another cue to elucidate the mechanisms of restoration as well as those of carcinogenesis in the gastric mucosa after H. pylori eradication. We demonstrated that Congo-red chromoendoscopy enabled the identification of the multi-focal distribution of functionally irreversible mucosa compared with that of restored mucosa after successful eradication in individuals at extremely high risk for GC. Further research that uses functional imaging may provide new insights into the mechanisms of regeneration and carcinogenesis in the gastric mucosa post-eradication and may allow for the development of useful biomarkers. PMID:26989462

  14. Predicted costs and benefits of eradicating BVDV from Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stott Alistair W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV causes an economically important endemic disease (BVD of cattle in Ireland and worldwide. Systematic eradication by detection and removal of infectious (BVDV carrier cattle has been successful in several regions. We therefore assessed the benefits (disease losses avoided and costs (testing and culling regime of a potential eradication programme in Ireland. Published bio-economic models of BVDV spread in beef suckler herds and dairy herds were adapted to estimate potential benefits of eradication in Ireland. A simple model of BVDV spread in beef finisher herds was devised to estimate the benefits of eradication in this sector. A six year eradication programme consisting of 5 inter-related virological and serological testing programmes is outlined and costed. We found that the annualised benefits of BVDV eradication in Ireland exceeded the costs by a factor of 5 in the beef suckler sector and a factor of 14 in the dairy sector. Corresponding payback periods were 1.2 and 0.5 years respectively. These results highlight the significant economic impact of BVDV on the Irish cattle industry and suggest a clear economic benefit to eradication using the proposed approach. This type of cost-benefit analysis is considered an essential prerequisite prior to undertaking an eradication campaign of this magnitude.

  15. The CIRAD Contribution to Rinderpest Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest, which was a major incentive for establishment of the first veterinary school at Lyon in 1764 and later of OIE, also motivated the implementation of an international training course in Maisons-Alfort (France) in 1921, which aimed to improve the control of rinderpest. This postgraduate teaching in exotic medicine was soon organized into an institute, Institut de medecine veterinaire exotique, then, the Institut d'Elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire Tropicale (IEMVT), which was created in 1948 and merged with other French agronomic institutes in 1984, to create CIRAD. For simplicity, this chapter uses the name CIRAD. All the scientists mentioned work at CIRAD unless otherwise stated. The history of CIRAD's contribution to rinderpest eradication is also the history of strong collaboration with national, regional and international veterinary services (OIE, FAO, AU-IBAR) and animal health research centres. A large and significant body of field and laboratory work was carried out during the period. A few years ago, it was still possible to meet pastoralists in remote areas of Chad or the Central African Republic who remembered seeing French vets use their goats to vaccinate cattle with the 'caprinized' rinderpest vaccine. Pan-African vaccination campaigns and the pledge for eradication. CIRAD was involved in all aspects of rinderpest research and control activities since the early 1950s. Most of this work was conducted in the national laboratories of Chad (Farcha; Provost, 1966), Senegal (Dakar) and Ethiopia (Debre Zeit; Lefevre and Domenech, 1974), which are now important components of their respective national animal disease control and research systems. Dakar and Debre Zeit laboratories are major international stakeholders in disease control, through the networks and reference centres of the West and Central Africa Veterinary Laboratory Network for Avian Influenza and other Transboundary Disease (RESOLAB, coordinated by FAO, OIE and AU-IBAR) and PANVAC

  16. Early Attempts to Eradicate Helicobacter pylori after Endoscopic Resection of Gastric Neoplasm Significantly Improve Eradication Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Cheal Wung; Youn, Young Hoon; Jung, Da Hyun; Park, Jae Jun; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Hyojin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose After endoscopic resection (ER) of gastric tumors, eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is advised to reduce metachronous recurrence. Optimal timing of such therapy (yet to be established) was investigated herein, examining early active and late scarring stages of post-ER iatrogenic ulcers. Materials and Methods Analysis included 514 patients who received proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy for H. pylori eradication after ER for gastric neoplasms between January 2008 and June 2015. Clinicopathologic characteristics, particularly the timing of triple therapy, were used to compare eradication rates, assigning patients to early- (≤2 weeks), intermediate- (2–8 weeks), and late-phase (≥8 weeks) treatment groups. Results H. pylori eradication rates differed significantly by timing of triple therapy after ER (early, 90.0%; intermediate, 76.2%, late, 72.4%; p ulcer, and duration of therapeutic regimen. Early initiation of H. pylori eradication was also identified as a significant independent predictor of eradication success in multivariate analysis (Odds ratio = 3.67, 95% CI 2.18–6.16; p <.001). Conclusion In patients undergoing ER of gastric tumors, early post-ER attempts at eradication of H. pylori offer the best chance of eradication success. PMID:27588679

  17. A case of leprosy in Malawi. Making the final push towards eradication: a clinical and public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Cieron; May, Lucy Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Statistically speaking, Malawi has achieved the World Health Organisation's target for the elimination of leprosy (education are essential to drive eradication in these at-risk populations. At an international level, we must strive to fulfil the objectives outlined by the 'Enhanced Global Strategy for Further Reducing the Disease Burden due to Leprosy for 2011-2015'. At a national level, local research should delineate community factors that impede the eradication of leprosy. Developing new diagnostic and epidemiologic tools, more efficacious chemoprophylactic regimens and vaccination for endemic regions would facilitate these efforts. PMID:27585828

  18. First-line eradication of Helicobacter pylori:Are the standard triple therapies obsolete? A different perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyrgy; Miklós; Buzás

    2010-01-01

    Studies concerning the eradication of Helicobacter pylori have resulted in a proliferation of meta-analyses. To date, there are 303 meta-analyses cited in PubMed, 113 dealing with the therapy of the infection. A chronological analysis of the results of meta-analyses performed between 1998 and 2010 shows that first-line standard triple therapies achieved eradication rates on an intention-to-treat basis of around 80%; prolonging treatment to 14, but not 10 d should improve the results. The proton pump inhibit...

  19. ‘Do not eat those apples; they’ve been on the ground!’: polio epidemics and preventive measures, Sweden 1880s-1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson, Per

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will address how Swedish scientists, physicians and public health officers tried to combat the polio epidemics in the pre-vaccine era. It shows that once polio was considered as an epidemic disease the preventive measures used were based on the hindrance of other infectious diseases. It also illustrates how epidemiological and laboratory studies to some degree affected the thoughts of how polio should be prevented, and that Swedish ideas and experiences differed from those put forward in the USA.

    Este artículo trata sobre cómo los científicos, médicos y funcionarios de la sanidad pública de Suecia intentaron combatir la epidemia de la polio en la era anterior a la vacuna y expone que en cuanto la polio fue considerada como una epidemia, las medidas preventivas que se aplicaron se basaban en las de otras enfermedades contagiosas. También ilustra en qué medida los estudios epidemiológicos y los análisis de laboratorio influyeron en la manera de prevenir la polio y también demuestra que las opiniones y experiencias en Suecia eran diferentes a las de los Estados Unidos.

  20. The Opportunity To Eradicate Peste des Petits Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Jeffrey C; Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Thevasagayam, Samuel; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter L

    2016-05-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease of sheep and goats that is caused by PPR virus, a member of the genus Morbillivirus that includes the viruses that cause rinderpest (RP) in cattle. RP was the first animal disease to be globally eradicated in 2011 and is only the second disease, after smallpox, to have ever been eradicated. PPR is one of the principal constraints to small ruminant production in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The epidemiology of PPR and RP as well as the technologies available for their diagnosis and control are similar. The conditions that favored the eradication of RP are also largely present for PPR. In this work, we outline the evolving strategy for eradication in light of current opportunities and challenges, as well as the lessons from other eradication programs in animal and human health. The global PPR situation and technology for its control are summarized. A strategy based on the lessons from previous eradication efforts that integrate epidemiology, social science, and economics as tools to target and motivate vaccination is summarized. Major aspects of the cost and benefit-cost analysis of the indicated program are presented. The overall undiscounted cost of eradication was estimated as $3.1 billion, and the benefit-cost ratio for the most likely scenario was estimated at 33.8. We close with a discussion of the possible next steps. PMID:27183645

  1. Is concomitant quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication really needed for Japanese patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenzo; De; Francesco; Angelo; Zullo; Cesare; Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The study found that the 7 d of concomitant therapy (lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole) achieved significantly higher eradication rates compared to 7 d of triple therapy (lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin), the intention to treat (ITT) cure rates being 94.9% and 68.3%, respectively. According to our opinion, this study is clinically relevant for Japanese physicians for at least 2 reasons: (1) the standard triple therapy (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin) achieved disappointing cure rates in Japan-in agreement with what was observed in several countries; and (2) the concomitant quadruple therapy is an effective therapeutic alternative.

  2. Treatment of low-grade gastric malt lymphoma using Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grgov Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma of the stomach usually occurs as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of treatment of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma with the H. pylori eradication method. Methods. In the period 2002-2012 in 20 patients with dyspepsia, mean age 55.1 years, the endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma in the early stages were made. Histological preparations of endoscopic biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxyllineosin (HE, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Results. Endoscopic findings of gastritis were documented in 25% of the patients, and 75% of the patients had hypertrophic folds, severe mucosal hyperemia, fragility, nodularity, exulcerations and rigidity. Histopathologically, pathognomonic diagnostic criterion were infiltration and destruction of glandular epithelium with neoplastic lymphoid cells, the so-called lymphoepithelial lesions. In all 20 patients H. pylori was verified by rapid urease test and Giemsa stain. After the triple eradication therapy complete remission of MALT lymphoma was achieved in 85% of the patients, with no recurrence of lymphoma and H. pylori infection in the average follow-up period of 48 months. In 3 (15% of the patients, there was no remission of MALT lymphoma 12 months after the eradication therapy. Of these 3 patients 2 had progression of MALT lymphoma to diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Conclusion. Durable complete re-mission of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma is achieved in a high percentage after eradication of H. pylori infection, thus preventing the formation of diffuse large-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma.

  3. Six challenges in the eradication of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Klepac

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eradication and elimination are increasingly a part of the global health agenda. Once control measures have driven infection to low levels, the ecology of disease may change posing challenges for eradication efforts. These challenges vary from identifying pockets of susceptibles, improving monitoring during and after the endgame, to quantifying the economics of disease eradication versus sustained control, all of which are shaped and influenced by processes of loss of immunity, susceptible build-up, emergence of resistance, population heterogeneities and non-compliance with control measures. Here we discuss how modelling can be used to address these challenges.

  4. Age-dependent eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Japanese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoshi; Mamori; Akihiro; Higashida; Fumiaki; Kawara; Katsuhiro; Ohnishi; Akihiko; Takeda; Eri; Senda; Cho; Ashida; Hajime; Yamada

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the general risk factors affecting the failure rate of first-line eradication therapy in Japanese patients with Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)infection.METHODS:The present study enrolled 253 patients who had an H.pylori infection,underwent gastroendoscopy,and were treated with H.pylori eradication therapy.Eradication therapy consisted of 30 mg lansoprazole plus 750 mg amoxicillin and 400 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 7 d.All of the patients underwent a 13 C urea breath test at least 1 mo...

  5. Sero-Survey of Polio Antibodies during Wild Poliovirus Outbreak in Southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Bo Wang; Shuang-Li Zhu; Jing-Shan Zheng; Ai-Li Gou; Hui Cui; Yong Zhang; Gui-Jun Ning; Chun-Xiang Fan; Yuan-Sheng Chen; Ke-Li Li; Ping Yuan; Chao Ma; Jing Ma; Hui Zheng; Xin-Chun Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak following importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) was confirmed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, in 2011. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted prior to supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), immediately after the confirmation of the WPV outbreak. In selected prefectures, participants aged ≤60 years old who visited hospitals at county-level or above to have their blood drawn for reasons not related to...

  6. Implementation of a Systematic Accountability Framework in 2014 to Improve the Performance of the Nigerian Polio Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Sisay G.; MKanda, Pascal; Yehualashet, Yared G.; Erbeto, Tesfaye B.; Touray, Kebba; Nsubuga, Peter; Banda, Richard; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. An accountability framework is a central feature of managing human and financial resources. One of its primary goals is to improve program performance through close monitoring of selected priority activities. The principal objective of this study was to determine the contribution of a systematic accountability framework to improving the performance of the World Health Organization (WHO)–Nigeria polio program staff, as well as the program itself. Methods. The effect of implementation of the accountability framework was evaluated using data on administrative actions and select process indicators associated with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, routine immunization, and polio supplemental immunization activities. Data were collected in 2014 during supportive supervision, using Magpi software (a company that provides service to collect data using mobile phones). A total of 2500 staff were studied. Results. Data on administrative actions and process indicators from quarters 2–4 in 2014 were compared. With respect to administrative actions, 1631 personnel (74%) received positive feedback (written or verbal commendation) in quarter 4 through the accountability framework, compared with 1569 (73%) and 1152 (61%) during quarters 3 and 2, respectively. These findings accorded with data on process indicators associated with AFP surveillance and routine immunization, showing statistically significant improvements in staff performance at the end of quarter 4, compared with other quarters. Conclusions. Improvements in staff performance and process indicators were observed for the WHO-Nigeria polio program after implementation of a systematic accountability framework. PMID:26823334

  7. International approach to eradication and surveillance for foot-and-mouth disease in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Torres, J G

    2000-01-01

    for FMD eradication (PHEFA), has been implemented and today Chile and Uruguay are FMD free without vaccination; Argentina, Paraguay, and the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in Brazil are also recognized by the OIE to be FMD Free, with vaccination. The use of the continental surveillance system is the main strategy for achieving the eradication of FMD in South America. At this time PANAFTOSA is working to improve the system, and to add other diseases indicated by the governments of the Americas. PMID:11193621

  8. Eradication of multidrug-resistant pseudomonas biofilm with pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saiqa I; Blumrosen, Gaddi; Vecchio, Daniela; Golberg, Alexander; McCormack, Michael C; Yarmush, Martin L; Hamblin, Michael R; Austen, William G

    2016-03-01

    Biofilm formation is a significant problem, accounting for over eighty percent of microbial infections in the body. Biofilm eradication is problematic due to increased resistance to antibiotics and antimicrobials as compared to planktonic cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) on biofilm-infected mesh. Prolene mesh was infected with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa and treated with PEF using a concentric electrode system to derive, in a single experiment, the critical electric field strength needed to kill bacteria. The effect of the electric field strength and the number of pulses (with a fixed pulse length duration and frequency) on bacterial eradication was investigated. For all experiments, biofilm formation and disruption were confirmed with bioluminescent imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Computation and statistical methods were used to analyze treatment efficiency and to compare it to existing theoretical models. In all experiments 1500 V are applied through a central electrode, with pulse duration of 50 μs, and pulse delivery frequency of 2 Hz. We found that the critical electric field strength (Ecr) needed to eradicate 100-80% of bacteria in the treated area was 121 ± 14 V/mm when 300 pulses were applied, and 235 ± 6.1 V/mm when 150 pulses were applied. The area at which 100-80% of bacteria were eradicated was 50.5 ± 9.9 mm(2) for 300 pulses, and 13.4 ± 0.65 mm(2) for 150 pulses. 80% threshold eradication was not achieved with 100 pulses. The results indicate that increased efficacy of treatment is due to increased number of pulses delivered. In addition, we that showed the bacterial death rate as a function of the electrical field follows the statistical Weibull model for 150 and 300 pulses. We hypothesize that in the clinical setting, combining systemic antibacterial therapy with PEF will yield a synergistic effect leading to improved

  9. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  10. Mid-Columbia - Yellow-flag Iris Eradication 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  11. Mid-Columbia - Eradication of Yellow-flag Iris 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  12. Mucoadhesive and muco-penetrating delivery systems for eradication of helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saahil Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, the major culprit for peptic ulcer, has a unique way of survival in harsh acidic environment of the stomach by colonizing deep in the gastric mucosal layer. Failure of conventional therapies against H. pylori for complete eradication has major limitations like low residence time of delivery system in stomach, poor penetration of drug in gastric mucosa, acidic degradation of antibiotics, and development of antibiotics resistance. The poor penetration of antibiotics through thick viscoelastic mucosal gel results in incomplete eradication of H. pylori. Various investigators have formulated novel gastro-retentive drug delivery systems such as floating systems, mucoadhesive systems, pH-sensitive gel systems, and muco-penetrating delivery systems for increasing the concentration of antibiotic in close proximity to the site of H. pylori infection. This review summarizes the novel drug delivery approaches investigated during the last few years and suggests that a high eradication rate can be achieved by therapy comprising of muco-penetrating delivery systems of antibiotics against H. pylori.

  13. Effect of radiotherapy on MALT lymphomas not responding to H. pylori eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric and duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas were classified into 4 groups (Group A, B, C, and D) by the existence of API2-MALT1 chimeric transcript, H. pylori infection and its response to H. pylori eradication. Cases in group A were API2-MALT1 negative, H. pylori positive which responded to H. pylori eradication. Non responders were classified into group B. Cases in group C were API2-MALT1 negative and H. pylori negative. Group D was API2-MALT1 positive. Twenty two cases of clinical stage I in group B, C and D which did not respond to eradication (2 cases also had chemotherapy) received radiotherapy and all of them achieved complete response. Acute toxicities were only grade 1 digestive symptoms and grade 1-2 hematologic toxicities and late toxicity was seen in only one case as grade 2 nephropathy. Nephropathy was avoided by the multi-field technique instead of the 2-field technique. Radiotherapy can be an effective and safe treatment for gastric and duodenal MALT lymphomas in clinical stage I. (author)

  14. Brazil: from reduction of poverty to a commitment to eradicate extreme poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Lavinas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to summarise certain positive results achieved by the Lula government in the sphere of social policy and to highlight the new challenges taken on by President Dilma Rousseff in terms of eradicating extreme poverty, after her first year in government. After Lula’s success with social policy, Rousseff has committed herself to eradicating extreme poverty over the short term (the four years of her mandate in a federation that is marked by weak links in cooperation, a distinct heterogeneity within the federated bodies and profound socio-economic inequality among citizens. Under Lula’s government, the factors that most helped to reduce poverty and inequality were the recovery of the minimum salary’s real value in rates higher than that of inflation, as well as an increase in formal employment, with the creation of approximately 12,000,000 jobs in eight years. For Dilma’s term of office, which began with a downturn in economic growth rates, an even bigger challenge lies ahead. In light of this, the article evaluates the prospects for success of Dilma’s government in terms of eradicating extreme poverty in Brazil.

  15. Azithromycin in one week quadruple therapy for H pylori eradication in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahrokh Mousavi; Jafar Toussy; Siamak Yaghmaie; Mehrdad Zahmatkesh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate eradication rates, patient compliance and tolerability of a 1-wk Azithromycin-based quadruple therapy versus the 2-wk conventional therapy.METHODS: A total of 129 H pylori-positive patients were randomized to either omeprazole 20 mg,bismuth subcitrate 240 mg, azithromycin 250 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg, all twice daily for 1-wk (B-OAzM)or omeprazole 20 mg, bismuth subcitrate 240 mg,amoxicillin 1g, and metronidazole 500 mg all twice daily for 2-wk (B-OAM). H pylori infection was defined at entry by histology and rapid urease test and cure of infection was determined by negative urea breath test.RESULTS: H pylori eradication rates produced by B-OAzM and B-OAM were 74.1% and 70.4% respectively based on an intention to treat analysis, and 78.1%versus 75.7% respectively based on a per-protocol analysis. The incidence of poor compliance was lower,although not significantly so, in patients randomized to B-OAzM than for B-OAM (3.5% versus 4.3%) but intolerability was similar in the two groups ( 35% versus33.3%).CONCLUSION: 1-wk azithromycin based quadruple regimen achieves an H pylori eradication rate comparable to that of standard 2-wk quadruple therapy, and is associated with comparable patient compliance and complications.

  16. After Beijing: emphasis on poverty eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In March 1996, during its first meeting since the Fourth World Conference on Women, the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), called for a gender perspective to be integrated into policies and programs dealing with poverty, child and dependent care, and the media. Three expert panels examined each of these areas through a format which encouraged dialogue and led to the adoption of 17 resolutions, decisions, and agreed conclusions as well as a recommendation that the UN adopt a multi-year work program for the CSW to allow it to review progress in elimination of the 12 main obstacles to women's advancement identified at Beijing. Among the resolutions adopted by the CSW were calls to 1) take a broad and integrated approach to poverty eradication, 2) enhance women's empowerment and autonomy, 3) promote equity and equality in the public domain, 4) promote women's employment, 5) give women social and economic protection when they are unable to work, 6) counteract negative images of women and sex-stereotyping in the media, 7) reduce the representation of violence against women in the media, 8) strengthen the role of women in global communications, 9) encourage the participation of men in child and dependent care, and 10) recognize women's double burden of work. The CSW also agreed to pursue further discussions about drafting an optional protocol to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Among its other actions, the CSW called for mechanisms to protect the rights of women migrant workers, to protect women and children during armed conflicts, to include gender-based human rights violations in UN activities, and to address the root factors which lead to social ills such as trafficking in women and girls. In addition, the CSW submitted a draft resolution demanding that Israel protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families. PMID:12291684

  17. Cancer Stem Cells: From Identification To Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fundamental problem in cancer research is identification of the cells within a tumor that sustain the growth of the neoplastic clone. The concept that only a subpopulation of rare cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for maintenance of the neoplasm emerged nearly 50 years ago: however, conclusive proof for the existence of a CSC was obtained only relatively recently. As definition, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a sub-population of cancer cells (found within solid tumors or hematological malignancies) that possess characteristics normally associated with stem cells as high self-renewal potential. These cells are believed to be tumorige forming) in contrast to the bulk of cancer cells, which are thought to be non-tumorigenic. The first conclusive evidence for CSCs was published in 1997 in Nature Medicine by Bonnet and Dick who isolated a subpopulation of leukemic cells in AML that express a specific surface marker CD34 but lacks the CD38 marker. The authors established that the CD34+/CD38– subpopulation is capable of initiating leukemia in NOD/SCID mice that is histologically similar to the donor [1]. This subpopulation of cells is termed SCID Leukemia-initiating cells (SLIC). A theory suggests that such cells act as a reservoir for disease recurrence, are the origin of metastasis and exert resistance towards classical antitumor regimens. This resistance was attributed to a combination of several factors [2], suggesting that conventional antitumor regimens are targeting the bulk of the tumor not the dormant stubborn CSCs. Purpose Better understanding of the leukemogenic process and the biology of CSCS to define the most applicable procedures for their identification and isolation in order to design specific targeted therapies aiming at reducing disease burden to very low levels .. up to eradication of the tumor

  18. Endoscopic surveillance of gastric cancers after Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer remains high in East Asian countries. Current data suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication might be more effective for preventing gastric cancer in young people before they develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. However, the long-term effect of H. pylori eradication on metachronous cancer prevention after endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer remains controversial, with some discordance between results published for Japanese and Korean studies. The detection ability of synchronous lesions before ER and eradication of H. pylori directly influences these results. After eradication, some gastric cancers are more difficult to diagnose by endoscopy because of morphologic changes that lead to a flat or depressed appearance. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) is expected to be useful for identifying metachronous cancers. However, some gastric cancers after eradication show a "gastritis-like" appearance under NBI-ME. The gastritis-like appearance correlates with the histological surface differentiation of the cancer tubules and superficial non-neoplastic epithelium atop or interspersed with the cancer. Till date, it remains unclear whether H. pylori eradication could prevent progression of gastric cancer. Until we can establish more useful endoscopic examination methodologies, regular endoscopic surveillance of high-risk groups is expected to be the most beneficial approach for detection. PMID:26457015

  19. Usefulness of Endoscopic Imaging to Visualize Regional Alterations in Acid Secretion of Noncancerous Gastric Mucosa after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Katsunori; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Yasushi; Ara, Nobuyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Endoscopic diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC) that emerges after eradication of Helicobacter pylori may be affected by unique morphological changes. Using comprehensive endoscopic imaging, which can reveal biological alterations in gastric mucosa after eradication, previous studies demonstrated that Congo red chromoendoscopy (CRE) might clearly show an acid non-secretory area (ANA) with malignant potential, while autofluorescence imaging (AFI) without drug injection or dyeing may achieve early detection or prediction of GC. We aimed to determine whether AFI might be an alternative to CRE for identification of high-risk areas of gastric carcinogenesis after eradication. Materials and Methods We included 27 sequential patients with metachronous GC detected during endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 82.8 months after curative endoscopic resection for primary GC and eradication. After their H. pylori infection status was evaluated by clinical interviews and 13C-urea breath tests, the consistency in the extension of corpus atrophy (e.g., open-type or closed-type atrophy) between AFI and CRE was investigated as a primary endpoint. Results Inconsistencies in atrophic extension between AFI and CRE were observed in 6 of 27 patients, although CRE revealed all GC cases in the ANA. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements in the evaluation of atrophic extension by AFI were significantly less than those for CRE. Conclusions We demonstrated that AFI findings might be less reliable for the evaluation of gastric mucosa with malignant potential after eradication than CRE findings. Therefore, special attention should be paid when we clinically evaluate AFI findings of background gastric mucosa after eradication (University Hospital Medical Information Network Center registration number: UMIN000020849). PMID:27752392

  20. Reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in individuals with post-polio syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L Voorn

    Full Text Available To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS and 18 age-matched healthy individuals.Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with the use of a fixed dynamometer. Reliability was determined for fatigue resistance, rate of torque development (MRTD, and early and late relaxation time (RT50 and RT25, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurement (SEM, expressed as % of the mean.In both groups, reliability for fatigue resistance was good, with high ICCs (>0.90 and small SEM values (PPS: 7.1%, healthy individuals: 7.0%. Reliability for contractile speed indices varied, with the best values found for RT50 (ICCs>0.82, SEM values <2.8%. We found no systematic differences between test and retest occasions, except for RT50 in healthy subjects (p = 0.016.In PPS and healthy individuals, the reliability of fatigue resistance, as obtained from electrically evoked contractions is high. The reliability of contractile speed is only moderate, except for RT50 in PPS, demonstrating high reliability.This was the first study to examine the reliability of electrically evoked contractile properties in individuals with PPS. Our results demonstrate its potential to study mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue in PPS and to evaluate changes in contractile properties over time in response to interventions or from natural course.

  1. Oral polio vaccine influences the immune response to BCG vaccination. A natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, Erliyani; Lisse, Ida M; Terveer, Elisabeth M;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...... not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...

  2. Oral Polio Vaccine Influences the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination. A Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartono, E.; Lisse, I.M.; Terveer, E.M.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is recommended to be given at birth together with BCG vaccine. While we were conducting two trials including low-birth-weight (LBW) and normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during some periods and therefore some infants did...... not receive OPV at birth, but only BCG. We investigated the effect of OPV given simultaneously with BCG at birth on the immune response to BCG vaccine. Methods and Findings: We compared the in vitro and the in vivo response to PPD in the infants who received OPV and BCG with that of infants who received BCG...... scar (0.95 (0.91-1.00), p = 0.057)). Among children with a scar, OPV was associated with reduced scar size, the regression coefficient being -0.24 (-0.43-0.05), p = 0.012. Conclusions: This study is the first to address the consequences for the immune response to BCG of simultaneous administration...

  3. Evaluation of Radiosensitivity of HeLa Cells Infected with Polio Virus Irradiated by Co 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Seif

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: The main purpose of radiotherapy is exposing enough doses of radiation to tumor tissue and protecting the normal tissues around it. Tumor dose for each session in radiotherapy will be considered based on radiosensitivity of the tissues. The presence of viral diseases in tumoral area can affect the radiosensitivity of cells. This study aimed to evaluate the radiosensitivity of Hela cells infected with poliomyelitis virus irradiated by Co 60. Materials & Methods: In this study, the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells, with or without the viral infection, after gamma radiation of cobalt 60, was assessed. Results: Results of comparison of the radisensitivity of infected and uninfected cells indicates that after 2 Gy irradiation by Co 60, polio infection in low, moderate and high virus load, increases the cell death by 20-30%, 30-40% and 70-90% respectively. Conclusion : Radiosensitivity of tumoral cells increase when they are infected with viral agents. Results of this study showed that non cancer diseases should be considered when prescribing dose fraction in radiotherapy of cancers.

  4. Electromyographic and neuromuscular analysis in patients with post-polio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, J C F; Rocco, C Chiusoli de Miranda; de Andrade, D Ventura; Peres, J Augusto; Corrêa, F Ishida

    2008-01-01

    Proceed to a comparative analysis of the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the muscles rectus femoris, vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, and to assess muscle strength and fatigue after maximal isometric contraction during knee extension. Eighteen patients with post-polio syndrome, age and weight matched, were utilized in this study. The signal acquisition system utilized consisted of three pairs of surface electrodes positioned on the motor point of the analyzed muscles. It was possible to observe with the results of this study a decreased endurance on initial muscle contraction and during contraction after 15 minutes of the initial maximal voluntary contraction, along with a muscle fatigue that was assessed through linear regression executed with Pearson's test. There were significant differences among the comparative analysis of EMG activity of the muscles rectus femoris, vastus medialis and vastus lateralis after maximal isometric contraction during knee extension. Initial muscle contraction and contraction after a 15 minute-rest from initial contraction decreased considerably, indicating a decreased endurance on muscle contraction, concluding that a lower limb muscle fatigue was present on the analyzed PPS patients. PMID:19097472

  5. Wearable Monitoring Devices for Assistive Technology: Case Studies in Post-Polio Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Andreoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct choice and customization of an orthosis are crucial to obtain the best comfort and efficiency. This study explored the feasibility of a multivariate quantitative assessment of the functional efficiency of lower limb orthosis through a novel wearable system. Gait basographic parameters and energetic indexes were analysed during a Six-Minute Walking Test (6-MWT through a cost-effective, non-invasive polygraph device, with a multichannel wireless transmission, that carried out electro-cardiograph (ECG; impedance-cardiograph (ICG; and lower-limb accelerations detection. Four subjects affected by Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS were recruited. The wearable device and the semi-automatic post-processing software provided a novel set of objective data to assess the overall efficiency of the patient-orthosis system. Despite the small number of examined subjects, the results obtained with this new approach encourage the application of the method thus enlarging the dataset to validate this promising protocol and measuring system in supporting clinical decisions and out of a laboratory environment.

  6. Does oral polio vaccine at birth affect the size of the thymus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vaccines have an effect on general mortality which goes beyond specific disease protection. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is widely used in low-income countries, but in observational studies in Guinea-Bissau we observed that not receiving OPV at birth......). The association between OPV0 and the log transformed thymic size indicators were analyzed in ANCOVA models with thymic size at follow-up as the outcome and adjusting for thymic size at enrollment and age at follow-up. Estimates were reported as geometric mean ratios (GMR) with 95% confidence intervals, comparing.......06-1.40)), but the effect was not seen after 4 weeks (GMR: 0.97 (0.92-1.03)) and 6 weeks (GMR: 0.99 (0.82-1.19)). There were no strong sex-differences. DISCUSSION: Overall there was no effect on thymic size of OPV0 when administered with BCG. The results could indicate that if an effect occurs, it is only within the first...

  7. Malaria eradication: the economic, financial and institutional challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria eradication raises many economic, financial and institutional challenges. This paper reviews these challenges, drawing on evidence from previous efforts to eradicate malaria, with a special focus on resource-poor settings; summarizes more recent evidence on the challenges, drawing on the literature on the difficulties of scaling-up malaria control and strengthening health systems more broadly; and explores the implications of these bodies of evidence for the current call for elimination and intensified control. Economic analyses dating from the eradication era, and more recent analyses, suggest that, in general, the benefits of malaria control outweigh the costs, though few studies have looked at the relative returns to eradication versus long-term control. Estimates of financial costs are scanty and difficult to compare. In the 1960s, the consolidation phase appeared to cost less than $1 per capita and, in 1988, was estimated to be $2.31 per capita (both in 2006 prices. More recent estimates for high coverage of control measures suggest a per capita cost of several dollars. Institutional challenges faced by malaria eradication included limits to the rule of law (a major problem where malaria was concentrated in border areas with movement of people associated with illegal activities, the existence and performance of local implementing structures, and political sustainability at national and global levels. Recent analyses of the constraints to scaling-up malaria control, together with the historical evidence, are used to discuss the economic, financial and institutional challenges that face the renewed call for eradication and intensified control. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda covering: ∘ issues of the allocative efficiency of malaria eradication, especially using macro-economic modelling to estimate the benefits and costs of malaria eradication and intensified control, and studies of the links between

  8. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Horiguchi; Tomomitsu Tahara; Tomohiko Kawamura; Masaaki Okubo; Takamitsu Ishizuka; Yoshihito Nakagawa; Mitsuo Nagasaka; Tomoyuki Shibata; Naoki Ohmiya

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs) from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group). Results. C...

  9. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Olokoba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  10. Metachronous gastric cancer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken; Graham, David Y

    2014-09-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan initially resulted in establishment of a country-wide gastric cancer screening program to detect early and treatable cancers. In 2013 countrywide Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication was approved coupled with endoscopy to assess for the presence of chronic gastritis. Current data support the notion that cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will prevent development of gastric cancer. However, while progression to more severe damage is halted in those who have already developed, atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy remain at risk for subsequent development of gastric cancer. That risk is directly related to the extent and severity of atrophic gastritis. Methods to stratify cancer risk include those based on endoscopic assessment of the atrophic border, histologic grading, and non-invasive methods based on serologic testing of pepsinogen levels. Continued surveillance is required because those with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy retain considerable gastric cancer risk even after H. pylori eradication. Those who have already experienced a resectable early gastric cancer are among those at highest risk as metachronous lesions are frequent even after H. pylori eradication. We review the role of H. pylori and effect of H. pylori eradication indicating the incidence and the predictive factors on development of metachronous cancer after endoscopic therapy of early gastric cancer. Studies to refine risk markers to stratify for risk, surveillance methods, intervals, and duration after successful H. pylori eradication, and whether adjuvant therapy would change risk are needed. PMID:25206262

  11. Progress and peril: poliomyelitis eradication efforts in Pakistan, 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, James P; Zubair, Mufti; Khan, Muzaffar; Abid, Nima; Durry, Elias

    2014-11-01

    Pakistan is one of 3 countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. Numbers of confirmed polio cases have declined by >90% from preeradication levels, although outbreaks occurred during 2008-2013. During 2012 and 2013, 58 and 93 WPV cases, respectively, were reported, almost all of which were due to WPV type 1. Of the 151 WPV cases reported during 2012-2013, 123 (81%) occurred in the conflict-affected Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in security-compromised Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. WPV type 3 was isolated from only 3 persons with polio in a single district in 2012. During August 2012-December 2013, 62 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 cases were detected, including 40 cases (65%) identified in the FATA during 2013. Approximately 350 000 children in certain districts of the FATA have not received polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted since mid-2012, because local authorities have banned polio vaccination. In other areas of Pakistan, SIAs have been compromised by attacks targeting polio workers, which started in mid-2012. Further efforts to reach children in conflict-affected and security-compromised areas will be necessary to prevent reintroduction of WPV into other areas of Pakistan and other parts of the world. PMID:25316830

  12. Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis: a historical cohort study involving 3606 polio patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Kay, Lise; Wanscher, Benedikte; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob; Jennum, Poul

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide 10-20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940-1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR) calculated in Cox-regression models. The analyses were performed separately for paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors and their controls, respectively. Compared with controls a higher percentage of paralytic polio survivors remained childless, whereas no difference was observed for non-paralytic polio survivors. The educational level among paralytic as well as non-paralytic polio survivors was higher than that among their controls, employment rate at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years was slightly lower, whereas total income in the age intervals of 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years were similar to controls. Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29-2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23-1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups in both groups of polio survivors. Individuals with a history of poliomyelitis are well educated, have a slightly lower employment rate, an income similar to controls, but a considerably higher cost in the health care system. PMID:27083562

  13. Helicobacter pylori eradication as a preventive tool against gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Goto, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Kazuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Kawai, Sayo; Sakakibara, Hisataka; Kondo, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which increases the risk of gastric diseases, including digestive ulcers and gastric cancer, is highly prevalent in Asian countries. There is no doubt that eradication of the bacterium is effective as a treatment of digestive ulcer, but eradication aiming to reduce the gastric cancer risk is still controversial. Observational studies in Japan demonstrated that the eradication decreased the gastric cancer risk among 132 stomach cancer patients undergoing endoscopical resection (65 treated with omeprazol and antibiotics and 67 untreated). In Columbia, 976 participants were randomized into eight groups in a three-treatment factorial design including H. pylori eradication, resulting in significant regression in the H. pylori eradication group. A recent randomized study in China also showed a significant reduction of gastric cancer risk among those without any gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Efficacy of eradication may vary in extent among countries with different incidence rates of gastric cancer. Since the lifetime cumulative risk (0 to 84 years old) of gastric cancer in Japan is reported to be 12.7% for males and 4.8% for females (Inoue and Tominaga, 2003), the corresponding values for H. pylori infected Japanese can be estimated at 21.2% in males and 8.0% in females under the assumptions that the relative risk for infected relative to uninfected is 5 and the proportion of those infected is 0.5. Both the fact that not all individuals are infected among those exposed and the knowledge that only a small percentage of individuals infected with the bacterium develop gastric cancer, indicate the importance of gene-environment interactions. Studies on such interactions should provide useful information for anti-H. pylori preventive strategies. PMID:15373702

  14. Estimation of efficiency eradication therapies at sick of inflammatory periodontal diseases against a chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulkina N.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the conducted research results of an estimation of efficiency of application of the general eradication are presented therapy and local therapy at sick of inflammatory periodontal diseases against a chronic gastritis. Authors notice a positive effect at application as pathogenetic therapy of balm for gums of "Asepta" that normalisation of level of hygiene of the oral cavity, proof remission of periodontal diseases against a pathology of a gastroenteric path allows to achieve

  15. Bilateral lower limb polio, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and recurrent acute coronary syndrome in a poly tobacco user: A preventable triple tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non communicable diseases in most of the developing countries have surpassed the morbidity and mortality arising from communicable diseases. However there are people who continue to suffer from the residual disabilities of some communicable disease acquired at younger age like polio and develop non communicable diseases like COPD and coronary syndrome at older age primarily because of their tobacco habits. Both of these combination of communicable and non communicable diseases are preventable if timely preventive measures and healthy life style is adopted. This case highlights one such case where patient despite suffering from polio and restrictive lung disease started using tobacco and suffered from obstructive lung disease and coronary syndrome.

  16. The Rakiura Titi Islands Restoration Project: community action to eradicate Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans for ecological restoration and cultural wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, P.J; Coote, R.; Trow, M.; Hutchins, P.; Nevins, HannahRose M.; Adams, Josh; Newman, J.; Moller, H.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, a non-profit group, Ka Mate Nga Kiore, was set up to oversee the restoration of four Maori-owned islands off the south coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand. The first step in the restoration was to eradicate ship rats (Rattus rattus) from three islands and Pacific rats (R. exulans) from another. The eradication was funded by the Command Oil Spill Trustee Council which managed the mitigation money from an oil spill off the Californian coast in 1998. The funding was coordinated via Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, a non-profit USA group primarily involved in seabird research and restoration. The project was primarily to benefit sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and to sustain a culturally important customary harvest of their chicks by Rakiura Maori. However, like all island eradications, a wide range of other species also benefited from the removal of rats. The New Zealand Department of Conservation provided technical advice and assistance for the planning and implementation of the eradication programme. This paper describes how, with appropriate funding, community and technical support, rodent eradications can be achieved on private islands. In this case, a range of institutions and individuals joined to achieve a common goal that highlighted a significant international conservation action. We urge that more international and local-community-led restoration projects be initiated in the future.

  17. Does Helicobacter pylori eradication play a role in immune thrombocytopenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Valentina; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been implicated as trigger or disease modifier in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). So, eradication treatment for this agent could have clinical benefits. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified four systematic reviews comprising 40 studies addressing the question of this article overall, including one randomized controlled trial. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded Helicobacter eradication might decrease risk of bleeding in patients with immune thrombocytopenia but the certainty of the evidence is low. PMID:27603101

  18. Assessment of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients on NSAID treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonkeman Harald E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial, we measured the sensitivity and specificity of Helicobacter pylori IgG-antibody titer changes, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stains, immunohistochemical (IHC stains and culture results in NSAID using patients, following H. pylori eradication therapy or placebo. Methods 347 NSAID using patients who were H. pylori positive on serological testing for H. pylori IgG-antibodies were randomized for H. pylori eradication therapy or placebo. Three months after randomization, gastric mucosal biopsies were taken for H. pylori culture and histological examination. At 3 and 12 months, blood samples were taken for repeated serological testing. The gold standard for H. pylori infection was based on a positive culture or both a positive histological examination and a positive serological test. Sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating curves (ROC were calculated. Results H. pylori eradication therapy was successful in 91% of patients. Culture provided an overall sensitivity of 82%, and 73% after eradication, with a specificity of 100%. Histological examination with either H&E or IHC stains provided sensitivities and specificities between 93% and 100%. Adding IHC to H&E stains did not improve these results. The ROC curve for percent change in H. pylori IgG-antibody titers had good diagnostic power in identifying H. pylori negative patients, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.70 (95 % CI 0.59 to 0.79, P = 0.085 at 3 months and 0.83 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.89, P H. pylori IgG-antibody titers at 3 months and 58% at 12 months provided a sensitivity of 64% and 87% and a specificity of 81% and 74% respectively, for successful eradication of H. pylori. Conclusions In NSAID using patients, following H. pylori eradication therapy or placebo, histological examination of gastric mucosal tissue biopsies provided good sensitivity and specificity ratios for evaluating

  19. Campylobacter pylori-associated gastritis: attempts to eradicate the bacteria by various antibiotics and anti-ulcer regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glupczynski, Y; Burette, A; Nyst, J F; De Prez, C; De Koster, E; Deltenre, M

    1988-01-01

    The efficacy of various antimicrobial and anti-ulcer agents on the eradication of Campylobacter pylori in patients with antral gastritis or duodenal ulcers was investigated by several open studies or double-blind, placebo-controlled protocols. Among the anti-ulcer agents, ranitidine, cimetidine or sucraflate had no effect on C. pylori. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate achieved clearance of C. pylori in 40% of treated patients at the end of therapy but a high relapse rate (14/16 patients) was observed after a 6-month follow-up period. The antibacterial agents doxycycline, minocycline, ofloxacin, clindamycin, paromomycin and nifuroxazide failed to eradicate C. pylori in most patients. By contrast, short term elimination of C. pylori could be achieved in more than 90% of patients treated with amoxycillin. However, relapse occurred as a rule in all amoxycillin-treated patients within one month after therapy. Overall, we observed no correlation between the in-vitro activity of the different antibacterial agents and their in vivo efficacy. Development of resistance during therapy does not seem to account for this discrepancy since it occurred only with ofloxacin. On the basis of these results, we conclude that long term eradication of C. pylori from the gastric antrum cannot be achieved after monotherapy either with antibiotics or with bismuth salts. PMID:2979039

  20. The effect of probiotics supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication rates and side effects during eradication therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yini Dang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. METHODS: This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER 80%. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086-1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070-1.159. Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036 and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598-0.902. This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  1. Land Right Registration and Property Development for Poverty Eradication and Slum Clearance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Olaopin Olanrele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to unfold the implication of non-registration of land rights on the achievement of the poverty eradication and slum clearance targets of the United Nation's Millennium development goals in Nigeria. The paper is based on empirical survey of land holding in the outskirts of Ibadan city and the rural areas in Oyo State, of Nigeria. A case study research method was adopted and data were collected with the use of questionnaire survey and secondary data was also extracted from the state land registry office in respect of total cost of documentation of subsequent transaction on titled/registered land. The study found that ignorance and government insensitivity in addition to high cost and delay are among major constraints to land titling. Only a few opportune people can afford the land right formalization process and they do so when it becomes necessary. These unequivocally militate against the achievement of the poverty and slum eradication goals of the UN. The paper suggested simplification of the titling procedure, cost reduction, computerization and public enlightenment on the benefits of registered land right to facilitate efficient land right registration towards adequate housing for the citizenry.

  2. The eradication of smallpox--an overview of the past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Donald A

    2011-12-30

    The 30th anniversary of the declaration of smallpox eradication is a propitious time to look back on the evolutionary history of the program, its execution, and its legacy for the future. The eradication of history's most feared disease culminated a decade-long World Health Organization campaign which began despite skepticism and doubt and succeeded despite a never ending array of obstacles occasioned by floods, civil war, famine, and bureaucratic inertia. New concepts in public health management, surveillance, and the application of large-scale programs for vaccination were fostered and matured. A new generation of young health workers emerged who applied new approaches and experienced the gratification of public health achievement. A definitive legacy for the future was the extension of the program into an "Expanded Program on Immunization", now functioning world-wide and resulting in dramatic improvements in health through control of vaccine-preventable diseases. No less important are the growing number of multi-national programs whose foundations rest on the development of active case surveillance to measure achievement and to guide progress - poliomyelitis, measles, guinea worm, and rubella. PMID:22188929

  3. A research agenda for malaria eradication: cross-cutting issues for eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Discipline-specific Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Consultative Groups have recognized several cross-cutting issues that must be addressed to prevent repetition of some of the mistakes of past malaria elimination campaigns in future programs. Integrated research is required to develop a decision-making framework for the switch from malaria control to elimination. Similarly, a strong economic case is needed for the very long-term financial support that is essential for elimination. Another cross-cutting priority is the development of improved measures of intensity of transmission, especially at low and nonrandom levels. Because sustained malaria elimination is dependent on a functioning health system, a further key cross-cutting research question is to determine how inputs for malaria can strengthen health systems, information systems, and overall health outcomes. Implementation of elimination programs must also be accompanied by capacity building and training to allow the assessment of the impact of new combinations of interventions, new roles for different individuals, and the operational research that is needed to facilitate program expansion. Finally, because community engagement, knowledge management, communication, political, and multisectoral support are critical but poorly understood success factors for malaria elimination, integrated research into these issues is vital.

  4. Eradication of common pathogens at days 2, 3 and 4 of moxifloxacin therapy in patients with acute bacterial sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Alice

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS is a common infection in clinical practice. Data on time to bacteriologic eradication after antimicrobial therapy are lacking for most agents, but are necessary in order to optimize therapy. This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study to determine the time to bacteriologic eradication in ABS patients (maxillary sinusitis treated with moxifloxacin. Methods Adult patients with radiologically and clinically confirmed ABS received once-daily moxifloxacin 400 mg for 10 days. Middle meatus secretion sampling was performed using nasal endoscopy pre-therapy, and repeated on 3 consecutive days during treatment. Target enrollment was 30 bacteriologically evaluable patients (pre-therapy culture positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis and evaluable cultures for at least Day 2 and Day 3 during therapy visits, including at least 10 each with S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae. Results Of 192 patients enrolled, 42 were bacteriologically evaluable, with 48 pathogens isolated. Moxifloxacin was started on Day 1. Baseline bacteria were eradicated in 35/42 (83.3% patients by day 2, 42/42 (100% patients by day 3, and 41/42 (97.6% patients by day 4. In terms of individual pathogens, 12/18 S. pneumoniae, 22/23 H. influenzae and 7/7 M. catarrhalis were eradicated by day 2 (total 41/48; 85.4%, and 18/18 S. pneumoniae and 23/23 H. influenzae were eradicated by day 3. On Day 4, S. pneumoniae was isolated from a patient who had negative cultures on Days 2 and 3. Thus, the Day 4 eradication rate was 47/48 (97.9%. Clinical success was achieved in 36/38 (94.7% patients at the test of cure visit. Conclusion In patients with ABS (maxillary sinusitis, moxifloxacin 400 mg once daily for 10 days resulted in eradication of baseline bacteria in 83.3% of patients by Day 2, 100% by Day 3 and 97.6% by Day 4.

  5. Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC has Declared Twice in 2014; Polio and Ebola at the Top

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Soghaier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the large scale wild Polio virus outbreak in several countries are the top most issues among international public health and scientific communities' debates and concerns. These two outbreaks were judged to be declared as Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC during 2014. This is the first time ever to have such circumstance of two PHEICs at the same time. Discussion: PHEIC, which has to be declared by WHO Director General after a recommendation of IHR Emergency Committee; is observed to start in countries with fragile health system and conflict areas. Then it rapidly spread to threaten the global public health. The year 2014 has uniquely witnessed declaration of two events as PHEIC according to IHR (2005; Polio and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD. Both outbreaks are caused by viruses such as H1N1 which was previously declared as PHEIC in 2009. Summary: Public Health Emergencies of International Concern in 2014 occurred in countries with weak health systems and conflicts and threatening the whole globe. International collaborative work is required to contain the event and to mobilize resources/capacities between countries. Moreover, public health surveillance systems as core capacity for IHR (2005 should be strengthened in all countries with focus on those with limited capacity and ongoing conflicts. The ultimate aim is timely detection of potential PHEIC events in the future along with early preparedness and response plans.

  6. Association of a probiotic to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen does not increase efficacy or decreases the adverse effects of the treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Rodriguez, Tomás; Silva, Fernando Marcuz; Barbuti, Ricardo Correa; MATTAR Rejane; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado; OLIVEIRA Maricê Nogueira; Bogsan, Cristina S; Chinzon, Décio; Eisig, Jaime Natan

    2013-01-01

    Background The treatment for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is complex; full effectiveness is rarely achieved and it has many adverse effects. In developing countries, increased resistance to antibiotics and its cost make eradication more difficult. Probiotics can reduce adverse effects and improve the infection treatment efficacy. If the first-line therapy fails a second-line treatment using tetracycline, furazolidone and proton-pump inhibitors has been effective and low ...

  7. An Assessment of Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Adem ANYEBE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty situation in Nigeria has become so serious that in 2013 there were as many as 112 million or 70.0% of the country’s population was living below poverty line. It has realized that poverty anywhere is a threat to peace, security and prosperity everywhere hence the conscious efforts by successive administrations in Nigeria to eradicate all forms of extreme poverty and hunger in a country. In spite of these efforts to eradicate absolute poverty in the country, poverty incidence has been on the rise. This study, therefore, attempted to assess NAPEP as a programme to eradicate extreme poverty in the country. Personal interviews and documents were employed in data collection. The data were analyzed using tables, simple percentages and spearman rank correlation. The study showed among others, that NAPEP as a programme targeted at eradicating extreme poverty has not been effective leading to a mixed bag of limited success and continuing challenges. It was therefore, recommended that the programme should be re-examined and possibly re-designed for effective performance instead of scrapping it.

  8. Scenarios for eradicating foot-and-mouth disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E.J.; Leeuwen, van M.G.A.; Vlieger, de J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Research project commissioned by the Ministery of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries. With the help of desk-research and input-output analysis quantitative information is assembled about the differences in cost for agribusiness and tourism of two eradication scenarios for foot-and-mouth di

  9. Macroeconomics, (Adult) Education, and Poverty Eradication in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhamo, Senia; Nhamo, Godwell

    2006-01-01

    The Millennium Summit held in New York in September 2000 outlined the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The first of these involves the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, setting two targets: halving by 2015 the percentage of the world's populace in 1990 with income less than US-$1 a day (i.e., cutting this percentage from 27.9 to 14%);…

  10. The role of LP gas in eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Michael; Behuria, Sarthak

    2010-09-15

    LP Gas is an ideal solution for dealing with energy poverty. Clean burning, low carbon, extremely efficient, requiring minimal infrastructure or R and D investment and with plentiful long term global supply, LP Gas can be quickly introduced to play an important role in eradicating energy poverty and steering both industrialised and developing countries onto more sustainable energy development paths.

  11. When to declare successful eradication of an invasive predator?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rout, T.M.; Kirkwood, R.J.; Sutherland, D.R.; Murphy, S.; McCarthy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Imperfect detection methods make it difficult to tell whether an invasive species has been successfully eradicated. However, management cannot continue indefinitely when individuals are no longer detected – at some point, efforts must be reduced or ceased entirely. The risks of mistakenly inferring

  12. Effects of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R. A.; Schluter, P. J.; Webb, P. M.

    2004-01-01

    Compared to the general population, Helicobacter pylori infection is more common among adults with intellectual disability (ID) and is associated with greater levels of disability, maladaptive behaviour, and institutionalization. Little information exists about the effects of eradication therapy in this group, so we aimed to evaluate: (1) success…

  13. Symptom-based tendencies of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingLan; ]ingYu; Yu—LongChen; Ya—LiZhong; HaoZhang; Chang HeJia; YuanYuan; Bo—WeiLiu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether there were symptom-based tendencies in the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. METHODS: A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study of H. pylori eradication for FD was conduct- ed. A total of 195 FD patients with H. pylori infection were divided into two groups: 98 patients in the treatment group were treated with rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily for 2 wk, amoxicillin 1.0 g and clarithromycin 0.5 g twice daily for 1 wk; 97 patients in the placebo group were given placebos as control. Symptoms of FD, such as postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea, belching,epigastric pain and epigastric burning, were assessed 3 mo after H. pylori eradication. RESULTS: By per-protocol analysis in patients with successful H. pylori eradication, higher effective rates of 77.2% and 82% were achieved in the patients with epigastric pain and epigastric burning than those in the placebo group (P 〈 0.05). The effective rates for postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea and belching were 46%, 36%, 52.5% and 33.3%, respectively, and there was no significant difference from the placebo group (39.3%, 27.1%, 39.1% and 31.4%) (P 〉 0.05). In 84 patients who received H. pylori eradication therapy, the effective rates for epigastric pain (73.8%) and epigastric burning (80.7%) were higher than those in the placebo group (P 〈 0.05). The effective rates for postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea and belch- ing were 41.4%, 33.3%, 50% and 31.4%, respective- ly, and did not differ from those in the placebo group (P 〉 0.05). By intention-to-treat analysis, patients with epigastric pain and epigastric burning in the treatment group achieved higher effective rates of 60.8% and 65.7% than the placebo group (33.3% and 31.8%) (P 〈 0.05). The effective rates for postprandial fullness, early satiety, nausea and belching were 34.8%, 27.9%, 41.1% and 26

  14. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on iron deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-feng; YANG Ning; ZHAO Gang; ZHU Lei; ZHU Ying; WANG Li-xia

    2010-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency (ID) is still a great challenge to health care worldwide. Results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of Helicobacterpylori (H. Py/on) eradication on ID are contradictory. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of H. Pylori eradication on ID with a meta-analysis of RCTs. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for RCTs evaluating the effect of H. Pylori eradication on ID. Summary effects were assessed with the methods recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Results Eight studies involving 800 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The overall analysis showed that H. Pylori eradication accelerated the improvement of ferritin levels in ID people (mean difference (MD), 7.74 μg/L; 95% CI, 4.61 to 10.88; P <0.000 01). In a subgroup analysis, H. Pylori eradication accelerated the improvement of ferritin levels one month (MD, 7.00 pg/L; 95% CI, 1.72 to 12.28; P=0.009) and two months (MD, 9.80 μg/L; 95% CI, 2.22 to 17.40; P=0.01)after the initiation of treatment. However, H. Pylori eradication did not show a beneficial effect on the improvement of ferritin levels three months (MD, 7.20 pg/L; 95% CI, -3.25 to 17.65; P=0.18), one year (MD, 10.17 μg/L; 95% CI, -1.00 to 21.34;P=0.07) and forty months (MD, 1.00 pg/L; 95% CI, -0.57 to 2.57; P=0.21) after the initiation of treatment. H. Pylori eradication did not accelerate the improvement of hemoglobin concentrations in the overall analysis (MD, 0.38 g/dl; 95% CI,-0.45 to 1.22; P=0.37). In a subgroup analysis, H. Pylori eradication did not accelerate the improvement of hemoglobin concentrations one month (MD, -0.48 g/dl; 95% CI, -2.39 to 1.42; P=0.62), three months (MD, -0.10 g/dl; 95% CI, -0.35 to 0.15; P=0.44) and forty months (MD, 0.10 g/dl; 95% CI, -0.37 to 0.57; P=0.68) after the initiation of treatment. However, H. Pylori eradication accelerated the improvement of hemoglobin concentrations two months (MD, 1.96 g/dl; 95% CI, 1.48 to 2.44; P <0

  15. Low eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori with triple 7-14 days and quadriple therapy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gumurdulu, Yuksel; Serin, Ender; ÖZER, Birol; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Ozsahin, Kursat; Cosar, Arif Mansur; Gursoy, Murat; Gur, Gurden; Yilmaz, Ugur; Boyacioglu, Sedat

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) shows variation among countries and regimens of treatment. We aimed to study the eradication rates of different regimens in our region and some factors affecting the rate of eradication.

  16. Varying efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens: cost effectiveness study using a decision analysis model

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, A E; Tolley, K.; Hawkey, C. J.; Logan, R F A

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine how small differences in the efficacy and cost of two antibiotic regimens to eradicate Helicobacter pylori can affect the overall cost effectiveness of H pylori eradication in duodenal ulcer disease.

  17. Pharmacoeconomics of gastrointestinal drug utilisation prior and post Helicobacter pylori eradication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, Rogier; van der Veen, W.J.; van der Werf, G.T.; van de Berg, P.B.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori prevents recurrence of peptic ulcer. In pharmacoeconomic analyses it is often presumed that after successful eradication no more gastrointestinal drugs are used. We investigated this presumed positive monetary effect using General Practitioners prescrib

  18. Metabolic consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is still the most prevalent infection of the world. Colonization of the stomach by this agent will invariably induce chronic gastritis which is a low-grade inflammatory state leading to local complications (peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, lymphoma) and remote manifestations. While H. pylori does not enter circulation, these extragastric manifestations are probably mediated by the cytokines and acute phase proteins produced by the inflammed mucosa. The epidemiologic link between the H. pylori infection and metabolic changes is inconstant and controversial. Growth delay was described mainly in low-income regions with high prevalence of the infection, where probably other nutritional and social factors contribute to it. The timely eradication of the infection will lead to a more healthy development of the young population, along with preventing peptic ulcers and gastric cancer An increase of total, low density lipoprotein and high density liporotein cholesterol levels in some infected people creates an atherogenic lipid profile which could promote atherosclerosis with its complications, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Well designed and adequately powered long-term studies are required to see whether eradication of the infection will prevent these conditions. In case of glucose metabolism, the most consistent association was found between H. pylori and insulin resistance: again, proof that eradication prevents this common metabolic disturbance is expected. The results of eradication with standard regimens in diabetics are significantly worse than in non-diabetic patients, thus, more active regimens must be found to obtain better results. Successful eradication itself led to an increase of body mass index and cholesterol levels in some populations, while in others no such changes were encountered. Uncertainities of the metabolic consequences of H. pylori infection must be clarified in the future.

  19. [Omeprazole/amoxicillin: improved eradication of Helicobacter pylori in smokers because of N-acetylcysteine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zala, G; Flury, R; Wüst, J; Meyenberger, C; Ammann, R; Wirth, H P

    1994-08-01

    Colonization of Helicobacter pylori (HP) beneath the protective film of gastric mucus enables the organism to survive in the hostile environment of the gastric mucosa. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl compound with potent mucolytic activity, induces a reduction of gastric barrier mucus thickness of about 75% and reduces mucus viscoelasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis whether better eradication results could be achieved by addition of NAC to omeprazole/amoxicillin (OME/AMOX). 34 HP positive outpatients with endoscopically documented recurrent duodenal ulcer were included in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial. Exclusion criteria were: alcoholism, previous gastric surgery, or intake of antibiotics, OME, bismuth salts, corticosteroids or NSAIDs within 4 weeks before study entry. Patients currently smoking > 10 cigarettes/day were classified as smokers. HP infection was confirmed by histology (3 biopsy specimens from gastric antrum and 2 from gastric body; H&E, Giemsa) and at least positive rapid urease test or culture. All 34 patients underwent ulcer therapy with OME (20 mg per day) for 20 days (d 1-20). Group A: in 17 patients (5 females, 12 males, mean age 46 [29-74] years; 8 smokers, 9 nonsmokers) the subsequent eradication therapy, consisting of oral OME (40 mg bid) and AMOX solute (750 mg tid) for 10 days, was combined with NAC solute (2 x 600 mg bid (d 21-30). Group B: 17 patients (2 females, 15 males, mean age 39 [19-70] years; 11 smokers, 6 nonsmokers) underwent eradication therapy without NAC (d 21-30). Control endoscopy was done after a minimal interval of 30 days from the end of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. A 2-week Nitazoxanide-based quadruple treatment as a rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsalam, Sherief; Kobtan, Abdelrahman; El-kalla, Ferial; Elkhalawany, Walaa; Nawasany, Sally El; Saif, Sabry Abou; Yousef, Mohamed; Ali, Lobna Abo; Soliman, Samah; Mansour, Loai; Habba, Eslam; Soliman, Hanan; Rizk, Fatma; Shehata, Mona AH

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As there are increasing reports of fluoroquinolone resistance on use as a first- or second-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide-based regimen as a rescue regimen in Egyptian patients whose previous traditional treatment for H pylori infection failed.In total, 100 patients from the outpatient clinic of the Tropical medicine department, Tanta University hospital in whom the standard triple therapy (clarithromycin-based triple therapy) failed were enrolled in the study. Nitazoxanide (500 mg bid), levofloxacin (500 mg once daily), omeprazole (40 mg bid), and doxycyclin (100 mg twice daily) were prescribed for 14 days. Eradication was confirmed by stool antigen for H pylori 6 weeks after the end of treatment. Among the patients enrolled in the study, 44% of patients were men and the mean age for the participants in the study was 46.41 ± 8.05, 13% of patients were smokers, and 4% of patients had a previous history of upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. A total of 94 patients (94%) completed the study with excellent compliance. Only 1 patient (1%) discontinued treatment due to intolerable side effects and 5 patients (5%) did not achieve good compliance or were lost during follow up. However, 83 patients had successful eradication of H pylori with total eradication rates 83% (95 % CI 75.7–90.3%) and 88.30% (95 % CI 81.8–94.8%) according to an intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis, respectively. Adverse events were reported in 21% of patients: abdominal pain (6%), nausea (9%) and constipation (12%), (2%) headache, and (1%) dizziness. A 2-week nitazoxanide-based regimen is an effective and safe rescue therapy in Egyptian patients whose previous standard triple therapy has failed. PMID:27310977

  1. [Omeprazole/amoxicillin: improved eradication of Helicobacter pylori in smokers because of N-acetylcysteine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zala, G; Flury, R; Wüst, J; Meyenberger, C; Ammann, R; Wirth, H P

    1994-08-01

    Colonization of Helicobacter pylori (HP) beneath the protective film of gastric mucus enables the organism to survive in the hostile environment of the gastric mucosa. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl compound with potent mucolytic activity, induces a reduction of gastric barrier mucus thickness of about 75% and reduces mucus viscoelasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis whether better eradication results could be achieved by addition of NAC to omeprazole/amoxicillin (OME/AMOX). 34 HP positive outpatients with endoscopically documented recurrent duodenal ulcer were included in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial. Exclusion criteria were: alcoholism, previous gastric surgery, or intake of antibiotics, OME, bismuth salts, corticosteroids or NSAIDs within 4 weeks before study entry. Patients currently smoking > 10 cigarettes/day were classified as smokers. HP infection was confirmed by histology (3 biopsy specimens from gastric antrum and 2 from gastric body; H&E, Giemsa) and at least positive rapid urease test or culture. All 34 patients underwent ulcer therapy with OME (20 mg per day) for 20 days (d 1-20). Group A: in 17 patients (5 females, 12 males, mean age 46 [29-74] years; 8 smokers, 9 nonsmokers) the subsequent eradication therapy, consisting of oral OME (40 mg bid) and AMOX solute (750 mg tid) for 10 days, was combined with NAC solute (2 x 600 mg bid (d 21-30). Group B: 17 patients (2 females, 15 males, mean age 39 [19-70] years; 11 smokers, 6 nonsmokers) underwent eradication therapy without NAC (d 21-30). Control endoscopy was done after a minimal interval of 30 days from the end of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8091167

  2. A Step Toward Eradication of Human Filariases in Areas Where Loa Is Endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Timothy G

    2016-01-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have achieved remarkable success in limiting the pathology and transmission of the human parasitic infections onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. The full implementation of MDA campaigns for filariasis elimination has been stymied by the unacceptable incidence of severe adverse events observed following drug treatment of a subset of individuals who harbor high loads of Loa loa microfilaria. Extending MDA strategies to regions where loiasis is coendemic could be done confidently if a simple, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic method was available that could accurately identify individuals who have L. loa microfilarial loads above the risk threshold and could thus be excluded from treatment. A recent paper in mBio reports the discovery of an antigen unique to L. loa microfilaria that can be detected in blood and urine and may form the basis for such an assay. Further work will reveal whether this discovery will smooth the path to achieve filariasis eradication. PMID:27073095

  3. Recommended procedures for disease and serological surveillance as part of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One important activity of GREP is to recommend to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Member Countries a zoosanitary approach for achieving rinderpest eradication and for determining the effectiveness of this achievement. To this end, a Consultants Meeting on Animal Disease Surveillance Systems was held in Vienna from 27 September to 1 October 1993 under the auspices of FAO and IAEA. This document represents the conclusions of the meeting and attempts to outline, in a highly practical manner, the various factors to be taken into account and steps to be undertaken by a country in the process of moving along a zoosanitary pathway culminating in a declaration of freedom from rinderpest virus. 14 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  4. Strategies for Improving Polio Surveillance Performance in the Security-Challenged Nigerian States of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe During 2009–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamisu, Abdullahi Walla; Johnson, Ticha Muluh; Craig, Kehinde; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Oyetunji, Ajiboye; Ningi, Nuhu; Mohammed, Said M.; Adamu, Mohammed Isa; Abdulrahim, Khalid; Nsubuga, Peter; Vaz, Rui G.; Muhammed, Ado J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The security-challenged states of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe bear most of the brunt of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The security challenge has led to the killing of health workers, destruction of health facilities, and displacement of huge populations. To identify areas of polio transmission and promptly detect possible cases of importation in these states, polio surveillance must be very sensitive. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in the security-compromised states between 2009 and 2014, using the acute flaccid paralysis database at the World Health Organization Nigeria Country Office. We also reviewed the reports of surveillance activities conducted in these security-challenged states, to identify strategies that were implemented to improve polio surveillance. Results. Environmental surveillance was implemented in Borno in 2013 and in Yobe in 2014. All disease surveillance and notification officers in the 3 security-challenged states now receive annual training, and the number of community informants in these states has dramatically increased. Media-based messaging (via radio and television) is now used to sensitize the public to the importance of surveillance, and contact samples have been regularly collected in both states since 2014. Conclusions. The strategies implemented in the security-challenged states improved the quality of polio surveillance during the review period. PMID:26655842

  5. The effects of a home-based arm ergometry exercise programme on physical fitness, fatigue and activity in polio survivors: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Deirdre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Polio survivors have reduced mobility, pain and fatigue, which make access to conventional forms of aerobic exercise difficult. Inactivity leads to increased risk of health problems, many of which are prevalent among Polio survivors. Aerobic exercise programmes in Polio survivors should utilise stable muscle groups and should be designed to minimise exacerbation of pain and fatigue. A home-based arm ergometry aerobic exercise programme may represent an affordable and accessible exercise modality, incorporating exercise prescription principles in this group. Methods/design This is a prospective, single blinded, randomised controlled trial. There are two arms; exercise intervention using arm ergometers and control. Polio survivors meeting eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Participants allocated to the intervention group will receive a small arm ergometer and a polar heart rate monitor. They will carry out a home-based moderate intensity (50-70% HRMax aerobic exercise programme for eight weeks, following instruction by the treating physiotherapist. Assessments will occur at baseline and after eight weeks and will include tests of physical fitness, activity, energy cost of walking, fatigue and quality of life. Clinically feasible assessment tools including the Six Minute Arm Test, the Physical Activity Scale for People with Physical Disabilities questionnaire, the Physiological Cost Index, Fatigue Severity Scale and the SF-36v2 will be utilised. Discussion The efficacy of a home-based arm ergometry programme in Polio survivors will be examined. No previous trial has examined such a programme using a wide range of outcome measures pertinent to Polio survivors. This study will provide new information on the impact of arm ergometry on physical fitness, activity, body composition, fatigue, pain, muscle strength, and health related quality of life. Also, the study

  6. The Tuberculin Test and its Role in the Strategic Management and Eradication of Tuberculosis in Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Good, M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the necessity for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication; considers the use the tuberculin test as a tool in bTB eradication and explores the need to select the optimal test methodology, to evaluate outcomes of existing procedures and to progressively modify aspects of a bTB erad

  7. HIV eradication: virological chances and clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perno C

    2012-11-01

    infected, but viral replicative cycles are absent, and progression of the disease is interrupted. This latter clinical approach may be suitable, and this is where clinical research is directing its efforts. If achievable, infected persons should cope with the virus and keep it under control for decades, without support of chronic antiviral therapy. In conclusion, the proper knowledge of the biological characteristics of HIV helps in selecting the best strategies aimed at obtaining the maximum achievable clinical result.

  8. Macroeconomics, (Adult) Education, and Poverty Eradication in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhamo, Senia; Nhamo, Godwell

    2006-05-01

    The Millennium Summit held in New York in September 2000 outlined the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The first of these involves the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, setting two targets: halving by 2015 the percentage of the world's populace in 1990 with income less than US-1 a day (i.e., cutting this percentage from 27.9 to 14%); and halving the share of people who suffer from hunger. As for education, the MDGs seek to ensure that all children can complete primary schooling by 2015. Drawing on examples from selected southern African countries, the present study examines the need to strengthen economic support for (adult) education as an instrument of poverty eradication. It argues that human capital is one of the fundamental determinants of economic growth, and that this economic resource is essentially determined in both qualitative and quantitative regards by education.

  9. How Polyomaviruses Exploit the ERAD Machinery to Cause Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupzyk, Allison; Tsai, Billy

    2016-01-01

    To infect cells, polyomavirus (PyV) traffics from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it hijacks elements of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to penetrate the ER membrane and reach the cytosol. From the cytosol, the virus transports to the nucleus, enabling transcription and replication of the viral genome that leads to lytic infection or cellular transformation. How PyV exploits the ERAD machinery to cross the ER membrane and access the cytosol, a decisive infection step, remains enigmatic. However, recent studies have slowly unraveled many aspects of this process. These emerging insights should advance our efforts to develop more effective therapies against PyV-induced human diseases. PMID:27589785

  10. Helicobacter pylori eradication in Nonulcer Dyspepsia: Does it reallymatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-half of the world's population has Helicobater pylori (H.pylori)infection while dyspeptic symptoms affect one-third of the adult population,at least in the Western world. Data from epidemiological studies arecontroversial in terms of the association of H. pylori with non-ulcerdyspepsia (NUD) symptoms. Despite the frequency of occurrence of thisclinical condition, no effective therapy exists in treating this disorder.With the strategic aim of treating NUD, a vast amount of evidence hasaccumulated towards eradicating H. pylori, while an equally compelling amountof evidence exists that counters this very strategy. It is, therefore, vitalthat there is reliable evidence for the efficacy of treatments prescribed toNUD patients. The arguments for and against the eradication of this organismcontinued unabated. We aim to address both sides of this fundamental divideand present the differing perspective in light of the prevalent evidence.(author)

  11. Development of the New Zealand strategy for local eradication of tuberculosis from wildlife and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, P G; Hancox, N; Nugent, G; Mackereth, G; Hutchings, S A

    2015-06-01

    We describe the progressive development of New Zealand's national strategy for control of tuberculosis (TB) in its agricultural sector over the last four decades. The strategy is globally unique, reflecting the need for effective and co-ordinated management of TB in a wildlife maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), in addition to controlling infection in cattle and farmed deer herds. Since the early 1990s, the strategy has been developed by the Animal Health Board (AHB), formed to empower the farming industry to take the leadership role in funding of TB control, policy development and administration. The AHB became the first non-government organisation to develop and gain acceptance by the funders (farming industry and government) of a National Pest Management Strategy (NPMS) under the Biosecurity Act 1993. A key outcome of the NPMS for TB control was the development and inclusion of very challenging objectives that provided direction for management, research and possum control. This paper describes the process whereby the NPMS was revised twice, following achievement of each successive set of strategy objectives within budget. Success was based on firstly, reorganisation of the AHB and its operational systems to achieve increased efficiency; secondly, improved efficiency through contracting possum and disease control, and thirdly research delivering effective and practical applications, while also providing a scientific basis for setting directions for future control strategies. The last revision of the NPMS was implemented in 2011, and included objectives to eradicate Mycobacterium bovis-infected wildlife populations over 2.5 million hectares by 2026. This ambitious objective was adopted only after extensive forecast modelling enabled stakeholders to identify and select the most cost-effective long-term solution for the management of M. bovis-infected possum populations. The accomplishment of New Zealand's TB control programme, in meeting

  12. Development of the New Zealand strategy for local eradication of tuberculosis from wildlife and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, P G; Hancox, N; Nugent, G; Mackereth, G; Hutchings, S A

    2015-06-01

    We describe the progressive development of New Zealand's national strategy for control of tuberculosis (TB) in its agricultural sector over the last four decades. The strategy is globally unique, reflecting the need for effective and co-ordinated management of TB in a wildlife maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), in addition to controlling infection in cattle and farmed deer herds. Since the early 1990s, the strategy has been developed by the Animal Health Board (AHB), formed to empower the farming industry to take the leadership role in funding of TB control, policy development and administration. The AHB became the first non-government organisation to develop and gain acceptance by the funders (farming industry and government) of a National Pest Management Strategy (NPMS) under the Biosecurity Act 1993. A key outcome of the NPMS for TB control was the development and inclusion of very challenging objectives that provided direction for management, research and possum control. This paper describes the process whereby the NPMS was revised twice, following achievement of each successive set of strategy objectives within budget. Success was based on firstly, reorganisation of the AHB and its operational systems to achieve increased efficiency; secondly, improved efficiency through contracting possum and disease control, and thirdly research delivering effective and practical applications, while also providing a scientific basis for setting directions for future control strategies. The last revision of the NPMS was implemented in 2011, and included objectives to eradicate Mycobacterium bovis-infected wildlife populations over 2.5 million hectares by 2026. This ambitious objective was adopted only after extensive forecast modelling enabled stakeholders to identify and select the most cost-effective long-term solution for the management of M. bovis-infected possum populations. The accomplishment of New Zealand's TB control programme, in meeting

  13. Eradication of HIV and Cure of AIDS, Now and How?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of eradication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cure of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a pivotal point that the patient immunity controls HIV reactivation after highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART or combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART)] remains less well addressed. In spite of the fact that both innate and adaptive immunities are indispensable and numerous cells participate in the anti-HIV immunity, m...

  14. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  15. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    OpenAIRE

    Dave EGGEMAN; Marsha WARD; Ellen DONLAN; Scott HARDIN

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus) was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds) was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the...

  16. Eradicating Helicobacter pylori reduces hypergastrinaemia during long term omeprazole treatment

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nujumi, A; Williams, C; Ardill, J; Oien, K; McColl, K

    1998-01-01

    Background—Both proton pump inhibitor drug treatment and Helicobacter pylori infection cause hypergastrinaemia in man. 
Aims—To determine whether eradicating H pylori is a means of reducing hypergastrinaemia during subsequent proton pump inhibitor treatment. 
Methods—Patients with H pylori were randomised to treatment with either anti-H pylori or symptomatic treatment. One month later, all received four weeks treatment with omeprazole 40 mg/day for one month followed by 2...

  17. Metachronous gastric cancer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken; David Y Graham

    2014-01-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan initially resulted in establishment of a country-wide gastric cancer screening program to detect early and treatable cancers. In 2013 countrywide Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication was approved coupled with endoscopy to assess for the presence of chronic gastritis. Current data support the notion that cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will prevent development of gastric cancer. However, while progression to more s...

  18. Control and eradication of viral diseases of ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Nuotio, Lasse

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring and control of infectious animal diseases, limiting or prevention of their spread and efforts towards their eradication are central tasks of the veterinary civil service. In addition to the cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis over disease and treatment, the animal welfare aspect is also involved. The purpose of this work is to review, describe and assess the available control measures against selected viral infections or diseases of domestic ruminants. The selected infection...

  19. Eradication of H pylori for the prevention of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karolin Trautmann; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2006-01-01

    Tnfection with H pylori is the most important known etiological factor associated with gastric cancer. While colonization of the gastric mucosa with H pylori results in active and chronic gastritis in virtually all individuals infected, the likelihood of developing gastric cancer depends on environmental, bacterial virulence and host specific factors. The majority of all gastric cancer cases are attributable to H pylori infection and therefore theoretically preventable. There is evidence from animal models that eradication of H pylori at an early time point can prevent gastric cancer development. However, randomized clinical trials exploring the prophylactic effect of H pylori eradication on the incidence of gastric cancer in humans remain sparse and have yielded conflicting results. Better markers for the identification of patientsat risk for H pylori induced gastric malignancy are needed to allow the development of a more efficient public eradication strategy. Meanwhile, screening and treatment of H pylori in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients as well as certain high-risk populations might be beneficial.

  20. Type 2 diabetes mellitus affects eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Sargyn; Oya Uygur-Bayramicli; Haluk Sargyn; Ekrem Orbay; Dilek Yavuzer; Ali Yayla

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in a group of type 2 diabetes and compared it with an age and sex matched non-diabetic group.METHODS: 40 diabetic patients (21 females, 19 males;56±7 years) and 40 non-diabetic dyspeptic patients (20females, 20 males; 54±9 years) were evaluated. Diabetic patients with dyspeptic complaints were referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopies; 2 corpus and 2 antral gastric biopsy specimens were performed on each patient. Patients with positive Hp results on histopathological examination comprised the study group. Non-diabetic dyspeptic patients seen at the Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic and with the same biopsy and treatment protocol formed the control group.A triple therapy with amoxycillin (1 g b.i.d), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d) and omeprazole (20 mg b.i.d.) was given to both groups for 10 days. Cure was defined as the absence of Hp infection assessed by corpus and antrum biopsies in control upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed 6weeks after completing the antimicrobial therapy.RESULTS: The eradication rate was 50 % in the diabetic group versus 85 % in the non-diabetic control group (P<0.001).CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetic patients showed a significantly lower eradication rate than controls which may be due to changes in microvasculature of the stomach and to frequent antibiotic usage because of recurrent bacterial infections with the development of resistant strains.

  1. Effects of norspermidine on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lin; She, Pengfei; Wang, Yangxia; Liu, Fengxia; Zhang, Di; Chen, Lihua; Luo, Zhen; Xu, Huan; Qi, Yong; Wu, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Biofilms are defined as aggregation of single cell microorganisms and associated with over 80% of all the microbial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen capable of leading to various infections in immunocompromised people. Recent studies showed that norspermidine, a kind of polyamine, prevented and disrupted biofilm formation by some Gram-negative bacterium. In this study, the effects of norspermidine on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and eradication were tested. Microtiter plate combined with crystal violet staining was used to study the effects of norspermidine on P. aeruginosa initial attachment, then we employed SEM (scanning electron microscope), qRT-PCR, and QS-related virulence factor assays to investigate how norspermidine prevent biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. We reported that high-dose norspermidine had bactericide effect on P. aeruginosa, and norspermidine began to inhibit biofilm formation and eradicate 24-h mature biofilm at concentration of 0.1 and 1 mmol/L, respectively, probably by preventing cell-surface attachment, inhibiting swimming motility, and downregulating QS-related genes expression. To investigate the potential utility of norspermidine in preventing device-related infections, we found that catheters immersed with norspermidine were effective in eradicating mature biofilm. These results suggest that norspermidine could be a potent antibiofilm agent for formulating strategies against P. aeruginosa biofilm. PMID:26817804

  2. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs) from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group). Results. Compared with control group, clinic-pathological features of eradication group were characterized as depressed (p EGC after H. pylori eradication are depressed, reddish appearances, which should be treated as a caution because histological diagnosis of cancerous tissue is sometimes difficult by endoscopic biopsy. PMID:27212944

  3. Knowledge and work performance of multi-purpose workers under national leprosy eradication programme in Satara district, Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, R V; Mohite, V R

    2012-01-01

    After integration of leprosy services into general health care services, peripheral health care workers played important role in leprosy elimination. The objectives of present study are to assess the knowledge and work performance of multi-purpose workers and it's correlation towards eradication of leprosy under national leprosy eradication programme in Satara district. The cross sectional study was conducted over a period of 6 months includes 71 Primary health centres (PHCs) and 6 Urban leprosy centres (ULCs) providing leprosy services to whole Satara district, Maharashtra. Random sampling technique was used to select study subjects (Multi-purpose workers, MPWs) and data was collected by using pre-tested semi structured proforma by personal interview method. Percentage distribution and statistical association between knowledge and work performance was analysed. More than 88.31% MPWs had good knowledge about leprosy and National leprosy eradication programme (NLEP), similarly more than 88.42% showed good work performance under NLEP in Satara district. Significant statistical association was existed between age and work experience of MPWs with their work performance under NLEP (chi2=11.2, p=0.023* and chi2=10.1, p=0.038*). Significant correlation was also observed between knowledge of MPWs about leprosy and NLEP with their work performance under NLEP (r=0.66, p=0.001*). Satara district achieved leprosy elimination which was mainly due to very good knowledge and quality work performance by multi-purpose workers.

  4. Active epidemiological surveillance in the program of poliomyelitis eradication in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy of the worldwide Program of Poliomyelitis Eradication is based on immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine and active epidemiological surveillance aimed to demonstrate the absence of wild poliovirus circulation. The specification of the surveillance in the program, reporting and investigation of certain syndrome – the acute flaccid paralysis - as a specific feature of surveillance of poliomyelitis, is a new experience both for clinicians and epidemiologists. Along with the achieved results, problems in conducting the active epidemiological surveillance in Serbia, applied measures, and suggestions for improving its quality were presented. This experience might help in implementing the active surveillance for some other diseases that could be prevented by vaccine immunization.

  5. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. III. Estimating the year of eradication of tuberculosis in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, M

    1994-09-01

    The year by which tuberculosis could be eradicated, has been discussed for several foreign countries, and based on those results, new strategic plans and goals have been elaborated. Therefore, in Japan too, it was desired to estimate the point at which eradication of tuberculosis would be achieved. The author estimated the year of eradication of tuberculosis, according to the criterion proposed by Dr. Styblo that "tuberculosis is eradicated when the prevalence of tuberculosis infection in the general population has fallen below 1% and continues to decrease". If the risk of infection is changing at a regular rate, it is possible to estimate the risk of infection at any particular time. Once the risk of infection is determined, it is also possible to calculate the age-specific prevalence of infection and the proportion of the population infected with tubercle bacilli at any given time. In Japan, the risk of infection before World War II was assumed to be around 4%; since then, it has declined on average, by 10 to 11% annually. The incidence rate in Japan also has declined, on average, by 10 to 11% annually. However, since late 1970s, the annual speed of decline of the incidence rate has slowed down. Therefore, I assumed that the recent trend of the infection risk is the same as the trend of the recent incidence rate among the 0-29 year age-group. The size of the effect of age on the risk of infection has been discussed. The author also considered age-effects in the model.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7967319

  6. [Commemorative lecture of receiving Imamura Memorial Prize. III. Estimating the year of eradication of tuberculosis in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, M

    1994-09-01

    The year by which tuberculosis could be eradicated, has been discussed for several foreign countries, and based on those results, new strategic plans and goals have been elaborated. Therefore, in Japan too, it was desired to estimate the point at which eradication of tuberculosis would be achieved. The author estimated the year of eradication of tuberculosis, according to the criterion proposed by Dr. Styblo that "tuberculosis is eradicated when the prevalence of tuberculosis infection in the general population has fallen below 1% and continues to decrease". If the risk of infection is changing at a regular rate, it is possible to estimate the risk of infection at any particular time. Once the risk of infection is determined, it is also possible to calculate the age-specific prevalence of infection and the proportion of the population infected with tubercle bacilli at any given time. In Japan, the risk of infection before World War II was assumed to be around 4%; since then, it has declined on average, by 10 to 11% annually. The incidence rate in Japan also has declined, on average, by 10 to 11% annually. However, since late 1970s, the annual speed of decline of the incidence rate has slowed down. Therefore, I assumed that the recent trend of the infection risk is the same as the trend of the recent incidence rate among the 0-29 year age-group. The size of the effect of age on the risk of infection has been discussed. The author also considered age-effects in the model.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Prevents Metachronous Gastric Neoplasms after Endoscopic Resection of Gastric Dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Shin

    Full Text Available There is insufficient data about the role of eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection (ER for gastric dysplasia. The aim was to investigate the benefit of H. pylori eradication after ER in patients with gastric dysplasia to prevent metachronous gastric neoplasms.We retrospectively reviewed 1872 patients who underwent ER of gastric dysplasia. We excluded patients with a follow-up period of <2 years or who had not undergone tests for active H. pylori infection. A total of 282 patients were enrolled. The patients were categorized into those without active H. pylori infection (H. pylori-negative group, n = 124, those who successfully underwent H. pylori eradication (eradicated group, n = 122, and those who failed or did not undergo H. pylori eradication (persistent group, n = 36.Metachronous recurrence was diagnosed in 36 patients, including 19 in the H. pylori-negative group, 10 in the eradicated group, and 7 in the persistent group. The cumulative incidence of metachronous recurrence was significantly lower in the H. pylori-eradicated group in comparison with either of the H. pylori-persistent (non-eradicated or failed groups (p = 0.039. Similarly, the incidence of metachronous recurrence was significantly lower in the H. pylori-eradicated group compared with the H. pylori-negative group (p = 0.041.Successful H. pylori eradication may reduce the development of metachronous gastric neoplasms after ER in patients with gastric dysplasia.

  8. Online Registry for Nationwide Database of Current Trend of Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea: Interim Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori using first-line therapy is becoming less effective. Subjects who had been treated for H. pylori infection were prospectively enrolled through an on-line database registry from October 2010 to December 2012. Demographic data, detection methods, treatment indication, regimens, durations, compliance, adverse events, and eradication results for H. pylori infection were collected. Data of 3,700 patients from 34 hospitals were analyzed. The overall eradication rate of the first-line therapy was 73.0%. Eradication failure was significantly associated with old age, concomitant medication, and comorbidity. Regional differences in eradication rates were observed. The most common first-line therapy was proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy (standard triple therapy, STT) for 7 days (86.8%). The eradication rates varied with regimens, being 73% in STT, 81.8% in bismuth-based quadruple therapy, 100% in sequential therapy, and 90.3% in concomitant therapy. The eradication rate in treatment-naïve patients was higher than that in patients previously treated for H. pylori infection (73.8% vs. 58.5%, P eradication rate for second-line therapy was 84.3%. There was no statistical difference in eradication rates among various regimens. H. pylori eradication rate using STT is decreasing in Korea and has become sub-optimal, suggesting the need for alternative regimens to improve the efficacy of first-line therapy for H. pylori infection.

  9. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I;

    1991-01-01

    (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined...... dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens....... with seven delayed-type common antigens (Multitest) and 2) humoral immunity by measurement of specific antibody response to vaccination. Sixty healthy young individuals were randomized into four groups and given 1) no treatment (controls), 2) chloroquine diphosphate (500 mg/week), 3) chloroquine diphosphate...

  10. Sterile insect technique for tsetse control and eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current publication contains the contributions made by scientists who participated in the fourth Co-ordinated Research Programme. A range of topics, covering both field and laboratory activities, was addressed: Eradication of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Glossinidae) from agropastoral land in Central Nigeria by means of the sterile insect technique; Research and development in the IAEA Laboratory at Seibersdorf in support of BICOT for the eradication of Glossina palpalis palpalis; Tsetse fly eradication in Burkina Faso and evaluation of traps and targets; Ecology of Glossina species inhabiting peridomestic agroecosystems in relation to options for tsetse fly control; Population dynamics of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes on Buvuma Island, Lake Victoria, Uganda; Population estimation from mark-recapture data: Equations for a pooled mark system and for pooled data, with applications to a study on island populations of tsetse flies in Zimbabwe; Surveillance of tsetse fly and cattle populations for trypanosomes in the BICOT area during the sterile insect technique control programme; Freeze dried blood and development of an artificial diet for blood feeding anthropods; Effects of the nutritional quality of locally obtained blood diets on the performance of Glossina palpalis palpalis fed in vitro; Mycetomes and symbionts of tsetse flies maintained on a membrane feeding system and the agents interfering with natural reproduction; Virus particles infection in laboratory reared Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae); Influence of different nutritional sources on haemolymph composition and vitellogenesis in haematophagous arthropods; Effect of rearing diet on the injection rate in flies released for the control of tsetse populations by sterile males; Use of juvenile hormone mimics in the sterilization of tsetse flies; Studies of Glossina pallidipes and G. morsitans subspecies related to the genetic control of tsetse flies

  11. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  12. Bilateral lower limb polio, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and recurrent acute coronary syndrome in a poly tobacco user: A preventable triple tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Aggarwal; Shridhar Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    Non communicable diseases in most of the developing countries have surpassed the morbidity and mortality arising from communicable diseases. However there are people who continue to suffer from the residual disabilities of some communicable disease acquired at younger age like polio and develop non communicable diseases like COPD and coronary syndrome at older age primarily because of their tobacco habits. Both of these combination of communicable and non communicable diseases are preventable...

  13. [Eradication therapy of antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, P L; Belousova, N L; Shcherbakova, M Iu; Kashnikov, V S

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the upper digestive tract, associated with Helicobacter pylori has recently greatly complicated by the presence of significant number of resistant strains of this microorganism to traditionally used drugs for eradication therapy. Average resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Russia is about 30 and 25% respectively. The article presents the experience of treating patients with metronidazole resistant strains of H. pylori with using triple therapy, which included a drug used nitrofurans--nifuroxazide in suspension, proton pump inhibitors and clarithromycin. PMID:21485525

  14. Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank; Jensen, Britt Bang;

    Eradication of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in Danish aquaculture Olesen N.J.1, Skall H.F.1, Jensen B.B.2, Henriksen N.H.3, Mellergård S.4, H. Korsholm H.5 1National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Aarhus, Denmark 2Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway 3Danish...... Aquaculture Association, Silkeborg, Denmark 4Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Glostrup, Denmark 5Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Vejle, Denmark Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus was first isolated in Denmark in 1962, when more than half of the approximately 800 Danish fish farms...

  15. Sustainable implementation of microhydro to eradicate poverty in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonker Klunne, Wim

    2010-09-15

    Local, micro scale, village level hydropower plants can play an important role towards eradication of poverty in rural areas. However, despite a good understanding of the technology involved and the enormous potential that exists in Africa, relative small numbers of micro hydro projects are currently in operation in Africa. This paper does look into the current situation on the continent with respect to installed systems and projects that are being implemented. It compares different implementation models and will conclude on ingredients for implementation models that will support the sustainable operation of micro hydroplants once built.

  16. Investing in justice: ethics, evidence, and the eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication.

  17. Investing in justice: ethics, evidence, and the eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication. PMID:25713967

  18. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  19. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  20. Saliva Secretion and Efficacy of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication in Peptic Ulcer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Abdollahzadeh; AR.Khalilian; Vahedi, M.; Shafiei, N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective It has been noted that the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the oral cavity may affect the outcome of eradication therapy. This condition is associated with the recurrence of gastric infection. The optimum secretion of saliva promotes oral health consequently influencing H. pylori eradication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between salivary secretion and the efficacy of H. pylori eradication from the stomach. Materials and Methods Forty five ...

  1. The Use of Spread Models to Inform Eradication Programs: Application to Red Imported Fire Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Spring; Oscar Cacho; Craig Jennings

    2010-01-01

    A central theme of the invasion biology literature is to predict the introduction and spread of biological invasions but predictive models rarely are applied to inform invasion management. Here, we demonstrate the utility of a spatio-temporal predictive model that has been used to inform Australia's largest eradication program, the program to eradicate the red imported fire ant (RIFA) from Brisbane. That model has informed eradication efforts in two main ways: estimating the probability of pr...

  2. Impact of Helicobacter pylori eradication on refractory thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic HCV awaiting antiviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, A S; El Hawary, A T; Hamed, E F; Hassaneen, A M

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of delaying treatment of HCV due to severe thrombocytopenia is challenging. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of active helicobacter infection as a claimed cause of thrombocytopenia in a cohort of Egyptian patients with chronic active HCV awaiting combined anti-viral therapy. The study included 400 chronic HCV patients with thrombocytopenia. Laboratory investigations included liver function tests, real time quantitative PCR, reticulocytic count, ESR, ANA, bone marrow aspiration, measurement of anti-helicobacter antibodies, and helicobacter stool antigen. Positive cases for active H. pylori were given the standard triple therapy for 2 weeks. Helicobacter stool antigen was detected 4 weeks after termination of therapy and the change in platelet count was detected 1 month after eradication. A total of 248 out of 281 seropositive patients for H. pylori (88.3 %) showed positive stool antigen (p = 0.01). Eradication was achieved in 169 (68.1 %) patients with platelet mean count 114.9 ± 18.8 × 10(3)/μl with highly significant statistical difference from pretreatment value (49.7 ± 9.2 × 10(3)/μl, p = 0.000). Seventy-nine patients were resistant to conventional triple therapy and given a 7-day course of moxifloxacin-based therapy; 61 patients responded (77.1 %) with mean platelet improvement from 76.4 ± 17.4 × 10(3)/μl to 104.2 ± 15.2 × 10(3)/μl (p = 0.000). The non-responders showed no improvement in their platelet count (74.6 ± 20.5 vs. 73.6 ± 15.3 × 10(3)/ul, P = 0.5). Eradication of active H. pylori in HCV augments platelet count and enhances the early start of antiviral therapy. PMID:27180243

  3. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Horiguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group. Results. Compared with control group, clinic-pathological features of eradication group were characterized as depressed (p<0.0001, reddish (p=0.0001, and smaller (p=0.0095 lesions, which was also confirmed in the comparison of six metachronous lesions diagnosed after initial ESD and subsequent successful H. pylori eradication. Prevalence of both SM2 (submucosal invasion greater than 500 μm and unexpected SM2 cases tended to be higher in eradication group (p=0.077, 0.0867, resp.. Prevalence of inconclusive diagnosis of gastric cancer during pretreatment biopsy was also higher in the same group (26.0% versus 1.6%, p<0.0001. Conclusions. Informative clinic pathological features of EGC after H. pylori eradication are depressed, reddish appearances, which should be treated as a caution because histological diagnosis of cancerous tissue is sometimes difficult by endoscopic biopsy.

  4. Eradication of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Glossinidae) from agropastoral land in Central Nigeria by means of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A land area of 1500 km2 under an agropastoral development plan in southern Plateau State, Nigeria, was selected to develop and apply the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of Glossina palpalis palpalis. In vitro and in vivo feeding techniques were used to mass breed the species in the laboratory for the production of more than 1.5 million sexually sterile males for release. In the field the initial tsetse fly population could be reduced to less than 10% within 6-12 weeks by continuous trapping and placement of insecticide impregnated targets. Extensive trapping or positioning of targets did not lead to eradication of the species. However, eradication was achieved when sufficient sterile males were released on a weekly basis to maintain a minimal ratio of 10 sterile males to 1 fertile wild male fly for at least three generations. The area was divided into three operational zones and after application of SIT one each was found to be free of G.p. palpalis in 1985, 1986 and 1987, respectively. It was further demonstrated that after eradication the entire area of 1500 km2 could be secured against reinvasion by maintaining barriers of insecticide impregnated targets. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  5. Low efficacy of an ultra-short term, once-daily dose triple therapy with omeprazole, azithromycin, and secnidazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication in peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Fernando Marcuz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the eradication rate of an ultra-short treatment schedule for Helicobacter pylori infection in a population with peptic ulcers, using omeprazole, secnidazole, and azithromycin in a once-daily dose for 3 days. METHODS: Thirty patients with peptic ulcer diagnosed by upper endoscopy and for Helicobacter pylori infection by rapid urease test and histologic examination received omeprazole 40 mg, secnidazole 1000 mg, and azithromycin 500 mg, administered once daily for 3 days. A follow-up exam was performed 12 weeks after the end of the treatment. Patients who were negative for Helicobacter pylori infection by rapid urease test and histologic examination were considered cured. RESULTS: Patients were predominantly female, and the mean age was 50 years. Duodenal peptic ulcer was found in 73% of the patients. Eradication was achieved in 9 of the 28 (32% patients as determined from the follow-up endoscopic exam. The eradication rate by intention to treat was 30%. Side effects were present in 3% of the patients, and compliance to treatment was total. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the low rate of side effects and good compliance, the eradication index was low. A possible drawback of this therapy is that it reduces the efficacy of macrolide and nitroimidazole compounds in subsequent treatments.

  6. Surgical Procedures Needed to Eradicate Infection in Knee Septic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Omkar H; Patel, Karan A; Andersen, Clark R; Carmichael, Kelly D

    2016-01-01

    Septic arthritis of the knee is encountered on a regular basis by orthopedists and nonorthopedists. No established therapeutic algorithm exists for septic arthritis of the knee, and there is much variability in management. This study assessed the number of surgical procedures, arthroscopic or open, required to eradicate infection. The study was a retrospective analysis of 79 patients who were treated for septic knee arthritis from 1995 to 2011. Patients who were included in the study had native septic knee arthritis that had resolved with treatment consisting of irrigation and debridement, either open or arthroscopic. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relation between the interval between onset of symptoms and index surgery and the use of arthroscopy and the need for multiple procedures. Fifty-two patients met the inclusion criteria, and 53% were male, with average follow-up of 7.2 years (range, 1-16.2 years). Arthroscopic irrigation and debridement was performed in 70% of cases. On average, successful treatment required 1.3 procedures (SD, 0.6; range, 1-4 procedures). A significant relation (P=.012) was found between time from presentation to surgery and the need for multiple procedures. With arthroscopic irrigation and debridement, most patients with septic knee arthritis require only 1 surgical procedure to eradicate infection. The need for multiple procedures increases with time from onset of symptoms to surgery.

  7. DNA-crosslinker cisplatin eradicates bacterial persister cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nityananda; Wood, Thammajun L; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Wood, Thomas K

    2016-09-01

    For all bacteria, nearly every antimicrobial fails since a subpopulation of the bacteria enter a dormant state known as persistence, in which the antimicrobials are rendered ineffective due to the lack of metabolism. This tolerance to antibiotics makes microbial infections the leading cause of death worldwide and makes treating chronic infections, including those of wounds problematic. Here, we show that the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug cisplatin [cis-diamminodichloroplatinum(II)], which mainly forms intra-strand DNA crosslinks, eradicates Escherichia coli K-12 persister cells through a growth-independent mechanism. Additionally, cisplatin is more effective at killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa persister cells than mitomycin C, which forms inter-strand DNA crosslinks, and cisplatin eradicates the persister cells of several pathogens including enterohemorrhagic E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and P. aeruginosa. Cisplatin was also highly effective against clinical isolates of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Therefore, cisplatin has broad spectrum activity against persister cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1984-1992. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26914280

  8. Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Developing after Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Abe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old man underwent endoscopic hemostatic therapy for hemorrhagic gastric ulcer in September 2002. After healing of the gastric ulcer, he underwent Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in February 2003. In August 2007, an irregular tumor was detected in the lower esophagus at annual checkup for gastric cancer screening using X-ray. Endoscopic examination showed that the lower margin of the tumor almost coincided with the esophagogastric junction and that a short segment of Barrett’s epithelium existed near the tumor. Biopsies of the tumor showed moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Mild reflux esophagitis and minor hiatal hernia was also observed, and the previously treated gastric ulcer was not recurrent. Absence of H. pylori was confirmed by serum antibody and urea breath test. Surgical resection of the lower esophagus and proximal stomach was performed. The tumor invaded into the muscularis propria of the esophageal wall but had no evidence of lymph node metastasis. Based on macroscopic and pathological findings, the tumor was recognized as esophageal adenocarcinoma. Previous endoscopic examination did not detect any apparent signs of tumor in the esophagogastric junction. As far as we know, this is the first report documenting a newly developed esophageal adenocarcinoma after the successful eradication of H. pylori.

  9. Comparative analysis of measures of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 eradication studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eriksson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 reservoirs preclude virus eradication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The best characterized reservoir is a small, difficult-to-quantify pool of resting memory CD4(+ T cells carrying latent but replication-competent viral genomes. Because strategies targeting this latent reservoir are now being tested in clinical trials, well-validated high-throughput assays that quantify this reservoir are urgently needed. Here we compare eleven different approaches for quantitating persistent HIV-1 in 30 patients on HAART, using the original viral outgrowth assay for resting CD4(+ T cells carrying inducible, replication-competent viral genomes as a standard for comparison. PCR-based assays for cells containing HIV-1 DNA gave infected cell frequencies at least 2 logs higher than the viral outgrowth assay, even in subjects who started HAART during acute/early infection. This difference may reflect defective viral genomes. The ratio of infected cell frequencies determined by viral outgrowth and PCR-based assays varied dramatically between patients. Although strong correlations with the viral outgrowth assay could not be formally excluded for most assays, correlations achieved statistical significance only for integrated HIV-1 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HIV-1 RNA/DNA ratio in rectal CD4(+ T cells. Residual viremia was below the limit of detection in many subjects and did not correlate with the viral outgrowth assays. The dramatic differences in infected cell frequencies and the lack of a precise correlation between culture and PCR-based assays raise the possibility that the successful clearance of latently infected cells may be masked by a larger and variable pool of cells with defective proviruses. These defective proviruses are detected by PCR but may not be affected by reactivation strategies and may not require eradication to accomplish an effective cure. A molecular understanding of the discrepancy

  10. Integrated human rights and poverty eradication strategy: the case of civil registration rights in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarandega, Reuben

    2009-01-01

    High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty. PMID:20726138

  11. Integrated human rights and poverty eradication strategy: the case of civil registration rights in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarandega, Reuben

    2009-01-01

    High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty.

  12. Contribution of Contact Sampling in Increasing Sensitivity of Poliovirus Detection During A Polio Outbreak-Somalia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moturi, Edna; Mahmud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Farag, Noha; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gary, Howard; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Background.  In May 2013, a wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) outbreak reported in Somalia provided an opportunity to examine the contribution of testing contacts to WPV detection. Methods.  We reviewed acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case-patients and linked contacts reported in the Somalia Surveillance Database from May 9 to December 31, 2013. We restricted our analysis to AFP case-patients that had ≥3 contacts and calculated the contribution of each contact to case detection. Results.  Among 546 AFP cases identified, 328 AFP cases had ≥3 contacts. Among the 328 AFP cases with ≥3 contacts, 93 WPV1 cases were detected: 58 cases (62%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-72%) were detected through testing stool specimens from AFP case-patients; and 35 cases (38%; 95% CI, 28%-48%) were detected through testing stool specimens from contacts, including 19 cases (20%; 95% CI, 14%-30%) from the first contact, 11 cases (12%; 95% CI, 7%-20%) from the second contact, and 5 cases (5%; 95% CI, 2%-12%) from the third contact. Among the 103 AFP cases with ≥4 contacts, 3 (6%; 95% CI, 2%-16%) of 52 WPV1 cases were detected by testing the fourth contact. No additional WPV1 cases were detected by testing >4 contacts. Conclusions.  Stool specimens from 3 to 4 contacts of persons with AFP during polio outbreaks are needed to maximize detection of WPV cases. PMID:27419182

  13. Strengthening Routine Immunization in Areas of Northern Nigeria at High Risk for Polio Transmission During 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Daniel; Banda, Richard; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Adagadzu, Julie; Murele, Bolatito; Seruyange, Rachel; Makam, Jeevan; Mkanda, Pascal; Okpessen, Bassey; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Folorunsho, Adeboye S.; Erbeto, Tesfaye B.; Yehualashet, Yared G.; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Following the 2012 declaration by World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Director for Africa and the WHO Executive Board to ramp up routine immunization (RI) activities, began to intensify activities to strengthen RI. This study assessed how the intensification of RI helped strengthen service delivery in local government areas (LGAs) of northern Nigeria at high risk for polio transmission. Methods. A retrospective study was performed by analyzing RI administrative data and findings from supportive supervisory visits in 107 high-risk LGAs. Results. Our study revealed that administrative coverage with 3rd dose of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine in the 107 high-risk LGAs improved from a maximum average coverage of 33% during the preintensification period of 2009–2011 to 74% during the postintensification period of 2012–2014. Conclusions. Routine immunization could be strengthened in areas where coverage is low, and RI has been identified to be weak when certain key routine activities are intensified. PMID:26917576

  14. Contribution of Contact Sampling in Increasing Sensitivity of Poliovirus Detection During A Polio Outbreak-Somalia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moturi, Edna; Mahmud, Abdirahman; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Farag, Noha; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gary, Howard; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Background.  In May 2013, a wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) outbreak reported in Somalia provided an opportunity to examine the contribution of testing contacts to WPV detection. Methods.  We reviewed acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case-patients and linked contacts reported in the Somalia Surveillance Database from May 9 to December 31, 2013. We restricted our analysis to AFP case-patients that had ≥3 contacts and calculated the contribution of each contact to case detection. Results.  Among 546 AFP cases identified, 328 AFP cases had ≥3 contacts. Among the 328 AFP cases with ≥3 contacts, 93 WPV1 cases were detected: 58 cases (62%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-72%) were detected through testing stool specimens from AFP case-patients; and 35 cases (38%; 95% CI, 28%-48%) were detected through testing stool specimens from contacts, including 19 cases (20%; 95% CI, 14%-30%) from the first contact, 11 cases (12%; 95% CI, 7%-20%) from the second contact, and 5 cases (5%; 95% CI, 2%-12%) from the third contact. Among the 103 AFP cases with ≥4 contacts, 3 (6%; 95% CI, 2%-16%) of 52 WPV1 cases were detected by testing the fourth contact. No additional WPV1 cases were detected by testing >4 contacts. Conclusions.  Stool specimens from 3 to 4 contacts of persons with AFP during polio outbreaks are needed to maximize detection of WPV cases.

  15. A Randomized Control Trial Comparing 2 Levofloxacin-Containing Second-Line Therapies for Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Liang, Chih-Ming; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Chiou, Shue-Shian; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Hu, Ming-Luen; Wu, Keng-Liang; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chou, Yeh-Pin; Chang, Kuo-Chin; Kuo, Chung-Huang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tai, Wei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    to levofloxacin and metronidazole in the EALM group. Levofloxacin and metronidazole-containing sequential therapy achieved a >90% eradication rate as a second-line H pylori therapy. Dual antibiotic resistance to levofloxacin and metronidazole was the clinical factor influencing the efficacy of H pylori eradication therapy in the sequential therapy (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02596620). PMID:27175657

  16. Eradication of scrapie with selective breeding: are we nearly there?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidse Aart

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following EU decision 2003/100/EC Member States have recently implemented sheep breeding programmes to reduce the prevalence of sheep with TSE susceptible prion genotypes. The present paper investigates the progress of the breeding programme in the Netherlands. The PrP genotype frequencies were monitored through time using two sets of random samples: one set covers the years 2005 to 2008 and is taken from national surveillance programme; the other is taken from 168 random sheep farms in 2007. The data reveal that although the level of compliance to the breeding programme has been high, the frequency of susceptible genotypes varies substantially between farms. The 168 sheep farms are a subset of 689 farms participating in a postal survey inquiring about management and breeding strategies. This survey aimed to identify how much these strategies varied between farms, in order to inform assessment of the expected future progress towards eradication of classical scrapie. Results On the one hand, we found that compliance to the national breeding program has been high, and the frequency of resistant genotypes is expected to increase further in the next few years. On the other hand, we observed a large variation in prevalence of the scrapie resistant PrP genotype ARR between farms, implicating a large variation of genetic resistance between farms. Substantial between-flock differences in management and breeding strategies were found in the postal survey, suggesting considerable variation in risk of scrapie transmission between farms. Conclusions Our results show that although there has been a good progress in the breeding for scrapie resistance and the average farm-level scrapie susceptibility in the Netherlands has been significantly reduced, still a considerable proportion of farms contain high frequencies of susceptible genotypes in their sheep population. Since 2007 the breeding for genetic resistance is voluntarily again, and

  17. [Prognostic factors of efficacy of eradication therapy in patients with duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, I V; Eliseev, Iu Iu; Pakhomova, A L; Khan, Sadzhad Akhmad

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microorganism-associated predictors of efficacy of eradication therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal ulcer. The subjects were 129 such patients. Clinical, endoscopic, microbiological, and immunological examination revealed differences in the initial immune status, the structure of gastroduodenal zone mucosa, and large bowel biocenosis, which predict efficacy of eradication therapy. PMID:16117427

  18. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Is Associated with the Progression of Dementia: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Pei Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori on the progression of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with peptic ulcer. Methods. Participants with the diagnosis of AD and peptic ulcer were recruited between 2001 and 2008. We examined the association between eradication of H. pylori and the progression of AD using the multiple regression models. Medication shift from Donepezil, Rivastgmine, and Galantamine to Mematine is defined as progression of dementia according to the insurance of National Health Insurance (NHI under expert review. Results. Among the 30142 AD patients with peptic ulcers, the ratio of medication shift in AD patients with peptic ulcers is 79.95%. There were significant lower incidence comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and hyperlipidemia in patients with H. pylori eradication as compared with no H. pylori eradication. Eradication of H. pylori was associated with a decreased risk of AD progression (odds ratio [OR] 0.35 [0.23–0.52] as compared with no H. pylori eradication, which was not modified by comorbidities. Conclusions. Eradication of H. pylori was associated with a decreased progression of dementia as compared to no eradication of H. pylori in AD patients with peptic ulcers.

  19. 75 FR 55626 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Under the International Narcotics Control and Law... determine and certify that: (1) The herbicide used for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia...

  20. Importance of post-treatment follow-up to secure sufficient eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roug, Stine; Madsen, Lone Galmstrup

    2012-01-01

    To optimize the care for Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases, we wanted to evaluate the completeness of follow-up after H. pylori eradication therapy in a single Danish endoscopy unit. Furthermore, the eradication rates and possible clinical characteristics associated with failure of eradicat...

  1. Functional dyspepsia symptom resolution after Helicobacter pylori eradication with two different regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Sarikaya, Murat; Dogan, Zeynal; Ergül, Bilal; Filik, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Functional dyspepsia (FD), a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, has a complex underlying pathophysiological mechanism that involves changes in gastric motility, visceral hypersensitivity, genetic susceptibility, psychosocial factors and Helicobacter pylori infection. Although there are several H. pylori eradication treatments, there is not enough data that compare these different eradication treatments for FD symptom resolution. Most previous studies have focused on the...

  2. [Farmacoeconomical estimation of efficiency of different schemes of eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashnikova, S N; Shcherbakov, P L; Kashnikov, V V; Tatarinov, P A; Shcherbakova, M Iu

    2008-01-01

    In this article farmakoekonomical analysis of efficiency of various, the most common in Russia schemes of eradication therapy disoders, associated with H. pylori infection is given to by authors basis on their private experience. All-round studying of the different economical factors influencing on a cost of used schemes is realized, and result of spent complex efficiency eradication therapy is estimated.

  3. Importance of post-treatment follow-up to secure sufficient eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roug, Stine; Madsen, Lone Galmstrup

    2012-01-01

    To optimize the care for Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases, we wanted to evaluate the completeness of follow-up after H. pylori eradication therapy in a single Danish endoscopy unit. Furthermore, the eradication rates and possible clinical characteristics associated with failure...

  4. Can hepatitis C be eradicated in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Brian R; Winkelstein, Emily R

    2014-10-01

    The advent of highly effective antiviral regimens will make the eradication of hepatitis C in high-income countries such as the United States technically feasible. But eradicating hepatitis C will require escalating our response to the epidemic in key domains, including surveillance and epidemiology, prevention, screening, care and treatment, policy, research, and advocacy. Surveillance must be nimble enough to quickly assess the magnitude of new transmission patterns as they emerge. Basic prevention strategies - community-based outreach and education, testing and counseling, and access to sterile injection equipment and opioid substitution therapies - must be scaled up and adapted to target groups in which new epidemics are emerging. All adults should be screened for hepatitis C, but special efforts must focus on groups with increased prevalence through community outreach and rapid testing. Government, industry, and payers must work together to assure full access to health services and antiviral drugs for everyone who is infected. Access to the new regimens must not be compromised by excessively high prices or arbitrary payer restrictions. Partnerships must be forged between hepatitis providers and programs that serve people who inject illicit drugs. Healthcare providers and systems, especially primary care practitioners, need education and training in treating hepatitis C and caring for substance-using populations. Services must be provided to the disadvantaged and stigmatized members of society who bear a disproportionate burden of the epidemic. Environments must be created where people who use drugs can receive prevention and treatment services without shame or stigma. Action is needed to end the policy of mass incarceration of people who use drugs, reduce the stigma associated with substance use, support the human rights of people who use drugs, expand social safety net services for the poor and the homeless, remove the legal barriers to hepatitis C prevention

  5. Legal Policy Of Corruption Eradication At State-Owned Enterprises Sector In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkipli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A mandate of the constitution of the Republic of Indonesia as the highest law is the creation of Indonesia people that is just and prosperous and then the development in all sectors becomes a necessity for achieving that goal. To achieve continuity and development success the enforcement of law supremacy in the form of prevention and eradication of corruption is a necessary condition condition sine qua non. Type of legal research conducted is normative. This research was carried out by discussion of concepts doctrine and theory principles as well as legislation which is correlated to the philosophical construction on state finances. The results of the research indicated that law enforcement of corruption against the management of limited state-owned enterprises during this that damage SEOs state is one of the important parts in the form of control the management of SOEs whose responsible and integrity. Though on the other hand the debate over the use of the criminal instruments in resolving the problems that occurred in the transaction of SOEs state that damage will continue to occur but against the actor of state-owned companies still put forward the principle of prudence in running the business because in some judicial practice has been expandingconstructing carelessness be a part of unlawful action in corruption crime.

  6. A Programme for the Eradication of the New World Screwworm from North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent establishment of the New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, in North Africa poses an enormous threat to that continent, as well as the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East. Because of the urgent need to initiate an eradication programme as soon as possible, three consultants met in Vienna from 8 to 19 January 1990 to prepare a programme outlining the eradication of the NWS from North Africa. Emphasis was placed on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) portion of an eradication programme. At the time the report was prepared the NWS had been reported only from Libya, therefore the report deals with eradication from that country. The document will be used by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture as a guide to assist FAO in NWS eradication from North Africa.

  7. A 2-week Nitazoxanide-based quadruple treatment as a rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsalam, Sherief; Kobtan, Abdelrahman; El-Kalla, Ferial; Elkhalawany, Walaa; Nawasany, Sally El; Saif, Sabry Abou; Yousef, Mohamed; Ali, Lobna Abo; Soliman, Samah; Mansour, Loai; Habba, Eslam; Soliman, Hanan; Rizk, Fatma; Shehata, Mona Ah

    2016-06-01

    As there are increasing reports of fluoroquinolone resistance on use as a first- or second-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide-based regimen as a rescue regimen in Egyptian patients whose previous traditional treatment for H pylori infection failed.In total, 100 patients from the outpatient clinic of the Tropical medicine department, Tanta University hospital in whom the standard triple therapy (clarithromycin-based triple therapy) failed were enrolled in the study. Nitazoxanide (500 mg bid), levofloxacin (500 mg once daily), omeprazole (40 mg bid), and doxycyclin (100 mg twice daily) were prescribed for 14 days. Eradication was confirmed by stool antigen for H pylori 6 weeks after the end of treatment. Among the patients enrolled in the study, 44% of patients were men and the mean age for the participants in the study was 46.41 ± 8.05, 13% of patients were smokers, and 4% of patients had a previous history of upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. A total of 94 patients (94%) completed the study with excellent compliance. Only 1 patient (1%) discontinued treatment due to intolerable side effects and 5 patients (5%) did not achieve good compliance or were lost during follow up. However, 83 patients had successful eradication of H pylori with total eradication rates 83% (95 % CI 75.7-90.3%) and 88.30% (95 % CI 81.8-94.8%) according to an intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis, respectively. Adverse events were reported in 21% of patients: abdominal pain (6%), nausea (9%) and constipation (12%), (2%) headache, and (1%) dizziness. A 2-week nitazoxanide-based regimen is an effective and safe rescue therapy in Egyptian patients whose previous standard triple therapy has failed. PMID:27310977

  8. Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Cattle Fever Tick Eradication in USA is Required to Mitigate the Impact of Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Auclair, Allan N; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.

  9. Integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in USA is required to mitigate the impact of global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto A. Pérez de León

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus and R. (B. microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT. Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S. through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.

  10. Efficacy of ebrotidine and ranitidine combined with amoxicillin and metronidazole in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiela, T; Kulig, J; Karcz, D; Tabor, J; Torres, J; Márquez, M; Fillat, O; Herrero, E; Ortiz, J A

    1997-04-01

    This double-blind, randomized, phase III clinical trial was carried out in two parallel groups to assess the efficacy of ebrotidine (N-[(E)-[[2-[[[2-[(diaminomethylene) amino]-4-thiazolyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]amino] methylene]-4-bromo-benzenesulfonamide, CAS 100981-43-9, FI-3542) 400 mg and ranitidine 300 mg given in single evening dose, combined with amoxicillin 750 mg and metronidazole 500 mg three times daily for 14 days, in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer. Thirty patients were included, divided into two groups of 15, to whom one of the study therapies was administered based on a randomization code. Clinical and endoscopic controls were performed 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the onset of the treatment. No differences were seen between the two treatment groups with regard to demographic parameters and clinical histories. They were both perfectly homogeneous. There were no differences between the eradication of both therapies in both the antrum and gastric body samples (over 80% eradication), allowing the results to be classified as satisfactory. Moreover, perfect control was achieved through the study of clinical symptoms, which even disappeared in some cases. There were no differences in the healing rate of the duodenal ulcer after four weeks, 86.7% being achieved for both groups.

  11. Eradicating the Screwworm. An FAO Emergency Programme for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrival of New World Screwworm fly in Libya in 1988 represented a grave threat not only to Libya, but also to the African continent as a whole. The Screwworm had already proved itself one of the most devastating livestock pests in the Americas, where it had cost farmers thousands of millions of dollars in lost production and governments hundreds of millions in control and eradication measures. Its introduction to North Africa posed a serious health threat to domestic animals, wild animals, and even humans. The fly lays eggs in wounds as small as a tick bite or in orifices such as ears or the nose. The eggs hatch into larvae that eat into the living flesh of the host, enlarging the wound. More Screwworm flies - and other parasites - infest the wound and frequently, if left untreated, the victim dies. Fully grown cattle can be killed within ten days. In 1960, the cost of the Screwworm infestation in the United States of America was estimated at $100 million a year. Clearing Mexico and the southern United States of the pest took more than 20 years and cost nearly $700 million. The fly's mobility makes containment extremely difficult. Adult flies have travelled up to 200 km and, where conditions are favourable, the size and range of the population can expand rapidly. Carried by infested animals, the primary cause of the infestation spreading, Screwworm can travel across continents. The Screwworm presence in Libya, therefore, was a concern of international significance: unless quickly eradicated, it would inevitably spread. Studies carried out by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation of Australia (CSIRO) showed the Screwworm could easily migrate around the North- and West African coasts and down the Nile valley. Computer models predicted the establishment of permanent infestations throughout Africa and Southern Europe. From this base it would then reach into the Middle East and Asia. Such an infestation would be virtually impossible to

  12. Association of erosive esophagitis with Helicobacter pylori eradication: a role of salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, D B; Namiot, Z; Markowski, A R; Leszczyńska, K; Bucki, R; Kemona, A; Gołebiewska, M

    2009-01-01

    In some populations, Helicobacter pylori eradication is associated with development of erosive esophagitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion to the pathogenesis of erosive esophagitis developing after H. pylori eradication. Gastroscopy and saliva collection were performed at recruitment and 12 months after completion of eradication therapy. Eighty-eight patients with duodenal ulcer were recruited to the study. Erosive esophagitis was found in 13 patients (grade A, 8 patients; grade B, 4 patients; grade C, 1 patient). Among the 74 subjects who completed the study, erosive esophagitis was detected in 21 patients (grade A, 15 patients; grade B, 6 patients); they all were successfully eradicated. Bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion was not found to differ significantly between the subjects with and without erosive esophagitis both before and 1 year after H. pylori eradication. However, it was lower in H. pylori-infected (baseline) than in H. pylori-noninfected erosive esophagitis subjects (1 year after successful eradication) (bicarbonate 2.34 [1.29-3.40)]vs. 3.64 [2.70-4.58]micromol/min and glycoprotein 0.23 [0.15-0.31]vs. 0.35 [0.28-0.43] mg/min, P= 0.04 and P= 0.04, respectively). We conclude that changes in salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion related to H. pylori eradication do not promote the development of erosive esophagitis in duodenal ulcer patients. PMID:19222537

  13. One-week triple therapy for eradication of helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The optimum therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection is yet to be defined in Pakistan despite a high prevalence of helicobacter associated diseases in this community. The most popular and effective regimen was therefore chosen among the currently recommended combinations used worldwide to document its efficacy in our symptomatic Helicobacter positive dyspeptic patients. Design: It was a prospective, non-randomized study. Place and duration of Study: The study lasted from January 1998 till June 1999 at the Postgraduate Institute, Government Lady Reading Hospital and Fauji Foundation Hospital, Peshawar. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive dyspeptic patients with peptic ulcer disease as well as non ulcer dyspepsia with a positive H. pylori status on histology from the specimens obtained from the antral region of the stomach, who consented to take part in the study were enrolled. They were given omeprazole 20 mg bd, clarithromycin 500 mg bd. And amoxycillin 1 gm bd for one week. One group comprised patients with confirmed peptic ulcer disease while the second group comprised patients with macroscopic/microscopic antral gastritis. Patients with peptic ulcer disease were given additional course of omerprazol for another 4 weeks to ensure healing of their ulcers. All patients were re scoped after stopping all drugs and their H. pylori status re-assessed on histology. Results: A total of 84 patients consented to enter the study. Fifty-nine were males and twenty-five were females. Fifty-eight patients completed the study while others were lost followup. There were no dropouts due to side effects of the drugs. Sixteen patients had peptic ulcer disease while 68 had macroscopic/microscopic active antral gastric only. The Helicobacter pylori eradication has been successful in only 12 patients giving a cure rate of 20.60% as determined per protocol analysis. The eradication rates were disappointingly low in both groups. Conclusion: The results are extremely

  14. A retrospective study of 5-year outcomes of radiotherapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The favorable response rate of radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication has been demonstrated. However, there are limited data available on the long-term outcomes. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication. Thirty-four consecutive patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma that were refractory to eradication were treated with radiotherapy (a total dose of 30 Gy). The response and adverse events of radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed as short-term outcomes, and recurrence-free, overall and disease-specific survival rates were calculated as long-term outcomes. Thirty-three (97.1%) patients achieved complete remission and radiotherapy was well tolerated. One patient underwent emergency gastrectomy due to severe hematemesis. Of the 34 patients during the median follow-up period of 7.5 (1.2-13.0) years, one patient had local recurrence after 8.8 years, one patient underwent surgery for bowel obstruction secondary to small bowel metastasis after 5.1 years and one patient had pulmonary metastasis after 10.9 years. Pathologically, all three recurrences revealed mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma without any transformation to high-grade lymphoma. None died of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 97.0%. The 5-year overall survival rates and disease-specific survival rates were 97.0 and 100%, respectively. Radiotherapy in patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication can achieve excellent overall survival. However, long-term surveillance is necessary to identify late recurrences. (author)

  15. Strategy to control the invasive alien tree Miconia calvescens in Pacific islands: Eradication, containment or something else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jean-Yves; Loope, Lloyd; Goarant, Anne-Claire; Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N.; Towns, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) is a notorious plant invader in the tropical islands of French Polynesia, Hawaii and New Caledonia. A small tree native to Central and South America, it was first introduced as an ornamental in private botanic gardens in Tahiti (1937), Honolulu (1961), and Nouméa (1970s) where it escaped, became naturalised, and formed dense monospecific stands. More than 80,000 ha are currently invaded in French Polynesia, 10,000 ha in the Hawaiian Islands and 140 ha in New Caledonia. Control programmes have been under way in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Kauai) and French Polynesia (Raiatea, Tahaa, Nuku Hiva, Fatu Hiva) since the early 1990s, and in New Caledonia (Province Sud) since 2006. Despite more than 15 years of intensive control efforts and millions of plants destroyed, eradication has not been achieved in any of these islands, mainly because the species has multiple features that thwart its elimination (e.g., prolific seed production, active dispersal by alien and native frugivorous birds, large and persistent soil seed bank, shade-tolerance), combined with the difficulty of detecting and destroying plants on rough terrain and steep slopes, insufficient control frequency, and limited financial and human resources. Miconia’s life cycle requires at least four years growth from seedling to fruiting. Consequently, prevention of fruit production may be an effective management strategy for small populations. This “juvenilization” process may allow the eradication of small populations when carefully conducted over a quarter century. 

  16. The threat of vaccine associated poliomyelitis in India: medicolegal issues involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Meena; Sharma, Luv

    2010-12-01

    India is among the world's large reservoirs of wild poliovirus (WPV) with 559 confirmed cases of poliomyelitis (wild virus) being reported in 2008. The World Health Organization's program for the eradication of poliomyelitis in third world countries like India is associated with major ethical and medico-legal implications. Two vaccines are available in India for poliomyelitis i.e. oral polio vaccine (OPV) and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), of which OPV is used in the eradication campaign, the case count for 2009 being 36 out of a total of 384 reported cases globally, the case count for mid 2010 being 19 cases out of 84 reported globally. There are widespread reports of vaccine derived poliomyelitis as well as vaccine associated poliomyelitis (VAP) from different parts of the country, which can be linked to resurgence of polio in several states or to the failure of the polio drive (Polio Sundays). Though an extended comprehensive polio campaign is on and both money and manpower are being dumped for achieving the goal of polio eradication, the ground reality is entirely different. The argument that wild polio strains have surfaced to hamper the drive cannot account for all post vaccination cases. The Indian Academy of Paediatrics has forcefully suggested replacement of OPV by IPV, as the effectiveness of IPV far exceeds the cost benefit of OPV. IPV has by and large replaced OPV in many parts of the world. The second issue is the threat of litigation on the health department once the post vaccination cases rise even further. There are certain other socio-ethical issues discussed in this paper on a subject which has an important bearing on the health statistics of this country.

  17. Eficácia da vacina Sabin em crianças subnutridas da Amazônia The efficacy of oral polio vaccine in malnourished Amazonian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E. Stewien

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia da vacina Sabin foi determinada em 106 crianças normais e subnutridas da Amazônia, após a administração de uma e duas doses de vacina oral (trivalente. Após a aplicação de uma dose de vacina, verificou-se que apenas 9% das crianças com subnutrição pregressa (crônica e 43% das crianças normais formaram anticorpos neutralizantes (protetores contra dois ou três tipos de poliovírus (p = 0,04. Após duas doses de vacina, os níveis de imunidade dos dois grupos de crianças estudadas acusaram, respectivamente, 32% e 75% (p = 0,001. Estes resultados mostram que a resposta imunitária à vacina Sabin foi sensivelmente inferior no grupo das crianças subnutridas, do que no das crianças normais. Em decorrência disto, será necessário administrar um número maior de doses de vacina oral àquelas crianças, a fim de que níveis satisfatórios de imunidade contra a poliomielite sejam atingidos em toda a população infantil.Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diminished efficacy of the oral polio vaccine in underdeveloped tropical regions. In this study, the influence of mild to moderate chronic malnutrition on the development of antibodies to the 3 types of polioviruses was investigated in Brazilian Amazonian children. Vaccines were administered to 106 normal and stunted children, between 5 to 14 months of age, who were not suffering from acute malnutrition (wasting, in poor peri-urban slum areas of Manaus (AM and São Luis (MA during the National Poliomyelitis Vaccination Campaigns of 1981 and 1982. Two weeks after vaccination, blood was collected by digital puncture and the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies for the 3 types of polioviruses was determined in serum at a dilution of 1:8. In children who had received one dose of the vaccine, 43% of normal children had antibodies to 2 or 3 types of polioviruses, against only 9% of stunted children (p = .04. In children who had received 2 doses of vaccine, 75

  18. Maastricht Ⅱ treatment scheme and efficacy of different proton pump inhibitors in eradicating Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Engin Altintas; Orhan Sezgin; Oguz Ulu; Ozlem Aydin; Handan Camdeviren

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The Maastricht Ⅱ criteria suggest the use of amoxicillin and clarithromycin in addition to a proton pump inhibitor over 7-10 d as a first line therapy in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori). For each proton pump inhibitor, various rates of eradication have been reported. The present study was to compare the efficacy of different proton pump inhibitors like omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole in combination with amoxicillin and clarithromycin in the first line eradication of H pylori and to investigate the success of H pylori eradication in our district.METHODS: A total of 139 patients were included having a Helicobacter pylori(+) gastroduodenal disorders diagnosed by means of histology and urease test. Besides amoxicillin (1 000 mg twice a day) and clarithromycin (500 mg twice a day), they were randomized to take omeprazole (20 mg twice a day), or lansoprazole (30 mg twice a day), or pantoprozole (40 mg twice a day) for 14 d. Four weeks after the therapy, the eradication was assessed by means of histology and urease test. It was evaluated as eradicated if the H pylori was found negative in both. The complaints (pain in epigastrium, nocturnal pain, pyrosis and bloating)were graded in accordance with the Licert scale. The compliance of the patients was recorded.RESULTS: The eradication was found to be 40.8% in the omeprazole group, 43.5% in the lansoprazole group and 47.4% in the pantoprazole group. Sixty-three out of 139patients (45%) had eradication. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. Significant improvements were seen in terms of the impact on the symptom scores in each group.CONCLUSION: There was no difference between omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole in H pylori eradication, and the rate of eradication was as low as 45%.Symptoms were improved independent of the eradication in each treatment group. The iow eradication rates suggest that the antibiotic resistance or the genetic differences of

  19. Use of vaccination in avian influenza control and eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, S; Cecchinato, M; Capua, I

    2008-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza (AI) infections caused by viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes has been used in several occasions in recent years with the general objective of controlling and in some cases eradicating the disease. To contain AI infections effectively, vaccination should only be used as part of a comprehensive control strategy that also includes biosecurity, quarantine, surveillance, education, and elimination of infected and at-risk poultry. Although properly used, potent AI vaccines can prevent disease and death, increase resistance to infection, reduce virus replication and shedding, and reduce viral transmission, they cannot completely prevent AI virus replication. A wide variety of vaccines against AI has been developed and tested in experimental conditions, but only inactivated whole AI virus vaccines and recombinant H5-AI vaccines have been licensed and widely used in various countries. AI vaccination programmes should be adapted to local conditions to guarantee efficacy and sustainability. In particular, vaccination programmes should be modulated in diverse situations according to the virus strain involved, the characteristics of the poultry producing sector, the capacity of the veterinary infrastructure, and the availability of adequate resources. Based on the eco-epidemiological situation in the affected region/area/compartment and the assessment of the risk of AI introduction, different vaccination strategies could be implemented to control AI: (i) routine vaccination performed in endemic areas; (ii) emergency vaccination in the face of an epidemic; and (iii) preventative vaccination carried out whenever a high risk of virus incursion is identified.

  20. The evolving role of interferons in viral eradication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are a family of pleiotropic cytokines that are released when viral infection is sensed by pattern recognition receptors. They induce an antiviral state in target cells through influencing the expression of hundreds of genes termed IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which interfere with the replication of viruses in wide-ranging ways, and they have stimulatory effects on antiviral cell-mediated immunity. Although the role of therapeutic IFNs in the management of infectious diseases has predominantly been restricted to the treatment of chronic hepatotropic viruses, IFNs have effects on the replication of diverse families of viruses in cell culture models, and the potential to harness our endogenous defence system through therapeutic modulation of IFN pathways remains a tantalising prospect for both the broad-spectrum and tailored treatment of viral infections. Additionally, the study of the IFN system has become crucial to our understanding of host/pathogen molecular interactions, which provides plentiful targets for small molecule inhibitors of infection. Although the emergence of directly acting antivirals (DAAs) has resulted in the displacement of pegylated IFNα (pegIFNα) for the treatment of HCV, recent findings have suggested potential roles for IFNs and IFN-related therapies in HIV and HBV eradication strategies, opening up a new avenue of research for this important family of cytokines. PMID:27482449

  1. Book review: Mosquito eradication: The story of killing Campto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In 1826, the paradise that was the Hawaiian Islands was changed forever when the first mosquito species was accidentally introduced to the island of Maui. Though it has not lived up to its potential as a vector of human disease in the islands, Culex quinquefasciatus and the avian pathogens it transmits laid waste to perhaps the world's most remarkable insular avifauna. Today the lowland native forests, once deafening with birdsong, are largely devoid of native birds and Cx. quinquefasciatus has become an inextricable part of our natural areas. In the Hawaiian Islands, the conservation community struggles to keep invasive species out and to control a number of species that have become naturalized. Despite the millions of dollars spent, these efforts never seem enough to slow the erosion of our native biota. The restoration and long-term preservation of Hawaiian forest birds depend on the nearly complete control of mosquito-borne avian disease, an obstacle that to many land managers appears insurmountable. To rally hope in Hawai`i, the conservation community needs to see a success. As a Pacific island, Hawai`i shares similar conservation problems with New Zealand and has often looked to that nation for innovation and inspiration. Mosquito Eradication: The Story of Killing Campto may be our latest inspiration.

  2. 78 FR 50022 - Environmental Impact Statement; Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...., Washington, DC. Normal reading room hours are 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, except holidays. To... infested areas in Massachusetts and Ohio are active eradication areas, and APHIS is still working...

  3. Introduced arctic fox eradication at Rat Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mechanical means similar to those employed on Amata Island during the summer of 1983 were used to attempt eradication of fox on Rat Island. These labor intensive...

  4. Eradication of Polynesian Rats (rattus exulans) from Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A 38-day poison and trap campaign was conducted on Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge to eradicate Polynesian rats in order to reduce their impact of seabird eggs...

  5. Eradication of carriage with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: determinants of treatment failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.M. Ammerlaan; J.A.J.W. Kluytmans; H. Berkhout; A. Buiting; E.I.G.B. de Brauwer; P.J. van den Broek; P. van Gelderen; S.C.A.P. Leenders; A. Ott; C.J.J. Richter; L. Spanjaard; I.J.B. Spijkerman; F.H. van Tiel; G.P. Voorn; M.W.H. Wulf; J. van Zeijl; A. Troelstra; M.J.M. Bonten

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from an observational study in which the effectiveness of a guideline for eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage was evaluated, we identified variables that were associated with treatment failure. Methods: A multivariate logistic regression

  6. Is the treatment of Enterobius vermicularis co-infection necessary to eradicate Dientamoeba fragilis infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Boga

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Co-infection with E. vermicularis may act as a factor favoring D. fragilis infection by preventing eradication measures. This suggests that both parasites should be treated simultaneously.

  7. Willapa - Willapa Bay Early Season Spartina Mapping and Eradication (Phase 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willapa National Wildlife Refuge (Willapa NWR) continued a successful program aimed at eradicating the non-native cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Spartina)...

  8. Rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: Report of an efficacy study

    OpenAIRE

    Onyekwere, Charles Asabamaka; Odiagah, Joan Nwabuaku; Igetei, Rufina; Duro Emanuel, Amancia Olufunmilayo; Ekere, Francis; Smith, Stella

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of a standard triple therapy (comprising rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, noting factors that influence the outcome and documenting any adverse events.

  9. Standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiao-Zhong; Qiao, Xiu-li; Song, Wen-chong; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in a randomized, double-blinded, comparative clinical trial in China.

  10. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori increases childhood growth and serum acylated ghrelin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yao-Jong; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Chuang, Ching-Chun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected children have reduced body weight (BW) and height (BH) growth, and if H. pylori eradication may restore growth while improving serum acylated ghrelin.

  11. Initial Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis: characteristics of eradicated and persistent isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramper-Stranders, G. A.; van der Ent, C. K.; Molin, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 567574 Abstract Despite intensive eradication therapy, some CF patients with early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection rapidly develop a chronic infection. To elucidate factors associated with this persistence, bacterial characteristics of early P. aeruginosa isolates...

  12. On the Long-term Health Care Crisis. A Possible Eradication Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Isea, Raul; Bai, Er W.; Lonngren, Karl E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present essay is to suggest a possible model to describe the worldwide healthcare crisis, where diseases that have been considered to be eradicated or under our control are re-emerging today.

  13. Falling prevalence of beta-thalassaemia and eradication of malaria in the Maldives

    OpenAIRE

    Firdous, Naila; Gibbons, Stephen; Modell, Bernadette

    2011-01-01

    Carriers of haemoglobin disorders have protection against falciparum malaria. Therefore, where this is common, carrier prevalence rises until this selective advantage is offset by deaths of affected children. Theory predicts a corresponding fall in carrier frequency following malaria eradication, but this has not been reported in practice. In the Maldives, malaria eradication (in 1972–1975) unmasked highly prevalent beta-thalassaemia and led to services for patient care and outreach carrier s...

  14. Global Eradication of Lymphatic Filariasis: The Value of Chronic Disease Control in Parasite Elimination Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysi...

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors used in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİNKAYA, Züleyha AKKAN; SEZİKLİ, Mesut; Güzelbulut, Fatih; YEŞİL, Atakan; Coşgun, Süleyman; ALTINÖZ, Mustafa Erhan; Atamer, Aytaç; ULU, Nuriye; KURDAŞ, Ayşe Oya ÖVÜNÇ

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although different therapy regimens are used for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori, an ideal therapy regimen has not yet been determined. The most commonly used and most effective therapy regimens consist of a proton pump inhibitor or bismuth plus 2 antibiotics for 7-14 days. We aimed to compare the efficacies of different PPIs in combination with the same antibiotics on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Materials and Methods: This study included 90 patients wi...

  16. Comparison of Azithromycin and Clarithromycin Triple Therapy Regimens for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jalalzadeh, Mojgan; Nazarian, Morteza; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid; Mirzamohammadi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori eradication with clarithromycin is more expensive than with azithromycin. Objectives This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of these two antibiotics in eradicating H. pylori in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Patients and Methods This is a prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial analysis of HD patients. Patients who had dyspepsia and showed positive results for two of three tests, anti-H. pylori serology, H. pylori stool antigen (HpSAg), or Ure...

  17. The Results of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication on Repeated Bleeding in Patients with Stomach Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Darko; Včev, Aleksandar; Soldo˛, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Mišević, Tonči; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljika, Nikola

    2005-01-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The p...

  18. Foot and mouth disease economic impact assessment on production, export losses and eradication expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Rod; Halderen, Andre van

    2014-01-01

    The second paper in this three paper session models the impact of a number of foot and mouth disease (FMD) incursion scenarios on production and export revenues of dairy, meat and other products. The guiding principle was big picture, plausible and estimable Key to this was how processors might respond during FMD eradication and how importing countries might respond once New Zealand becomes FMD free again. Government expenditure for FMD eradication and related livestock compensation was estim...

  19. Which factors affect the success or failure of eradication campaigns against alien species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Pluess

    Full Text Available Although issues related to the management of invasive alien species are receiving increasing attention, little is known about which factors affect the likelihood of success of management measures. We applied two data mining techniques, classification trees and boosted trees, to identify factors that relate to the success of management campaigns aimed at eradicating invasive alien invertebrates, plants and plant pathogens. We assembled a dataset of 173 different eradication campaigns against 94 species worldwide, about a half of which (50.9% were successful. Eradications in man-made habitats, greenhouses in particular, were more likely to succeed than those in (semi-natural habitats. In man-made habitats the probability of success was generally high in Australasia, while in Europe and the Americas it was higher for local infestations that are easier to deal with, and for international campaigns that are likely to profit from cross-border cooperation. In (semi- natural habitats, eradication campaigns were more likely to succeed for plants introduced as an ornamental and escaped from cultivation prior to invasion. Averaging out all other factors in boosted trees, pathogens, bacteria and viruses were most, and fungi the least likely to be eradicated; for plants and invertebrates the probability was intermediate. Our analysis indicates that initiating the campaign before the extent of infestation reaches the critical threshold, starting to eradicate within the first four years since the problem has been noticed, paying special attention to species introduced by the cultivation pathway, and applying sanitary measures can substantially increase the probability of eradication success. Our investigations also revealed that information on socioeconomic factors, which are often considered to be crucial for eradication success, is rarely available, and thus their relative importance cannot be evaluated. Future campaigns should carefully document

  20. Dual therapy for third-line Helicobacter pylori eradication and urea breath test prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihiro Nishizawa; Hidekazu Suzuki; Takama Maekawa; Naohiko Harada; Tatsuya Toyokawa; Toshio Kuwai; Masanori Ohara

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of a dual therapy with rabeprazole and amoxicillin (AMX) as an empiric third-line rescue therapy.In patients with failure of first-line treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-AMX-clarithromycin regimen and second-line treatment with the PPI-AMX-metronidazole regimen,a third-line eradication regimen with mbeprazole (10 mg q.i.d.) and AMX (500 mg q.i.d.) was prescribed for 2 wk.Eradication was confirmed by the results of the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) at 12 wk after the therapy.A total of 46 patients were included; however,two were lost to followup.The eradication rates as determined by per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses were 65.9% and 63.0%,respectively.The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects showing eradication failure; those patients showing successful eradication comprised 32.9 ± 28.8 permil and 14.8 ± 12.8 permil,respectively.The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects with eradication failure were significantly higher than those in the patients with successful eradication (P =0.019).A low pretreatment UBT result (≤ 28.5 permil) predicted the success of the eradication therapy with a positive predictive value of 81.3% and a sensitivity of 89.7%.Adverse effects were reported in 18.2% of the patients,mainly diarrhea and stomatitis.Dual therapy with rabeprazole and AMX appears to serve as a potential empirical third-line strategy for patients with low values on pretreatment UBT.

  1. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the natural history of duodenal ulcer disease

    OpenAIRE

    Goggin, N; Rowland, M; Imrie, C; Walsh, D.; Clyne, M.; Drumm, B

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Duodenal ulcer disease is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa. Eradication of H pylori from the gastric mucosa in adults is associated with long term healing of ulcers.
AIMS—To follow a cohort of children with duodenal ulcer disease for a minimum of two years after the eradication of H pylori.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—Over a three year period, all children diagnosed with duodenal ulcer disease had their symptoms documented a...

  2. Which factors affect the success or failure of eradication campaigns against alien species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Therese; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pyšek, Petr; Cannon, Ray; Pergl, Jan; Breukers, Annemarie; Bacher, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Although issues related to the management of invasive alien species are receiving increasing attention, little is known about which factors affect the likelihood of success of management measures. We applied two data mining techniques, classification trees and boosted trees, to identify factors that relate to the success of management campaigns aimed at eradicating invasive alien invertebrates, plants and plant pathogens. We assembled a dataset of 173 different eradication campaigns against 94 species worldwide, about a half of which (50.9%) were successful. Eradications in man-made habitats, greenhouses in particular, were more likely to succeed than those in (semi-)natural habitats. In man-made habitats the probability of success was generally high in Australasia, while in Europe and the Americas it was higher for local infestations that are easier to deal with, and for international campaigns that are likely to profit from cross-border cooperation. In (semi-) natural habitats, eradication campaigns were more likely to succeed for plants introduced as an ornamental and escaped from cultivation prior to invasion. Averaging out all other factors in boosted trees, pathogens, bacteria and viruses were most, and fungi the least likely to be eradicated; for plants and invertebrates the probability was intermediate. Our analysis indicates that initiating the campaign before the extent of infestation reaches the critical threshold, starting to eradicate within the first four years since the problem has been noticed, paying special attention to species introduced by the cultivation pathway, and applying sanitary measures can substantially increase the probability of eradication success. Our investigations also revealed that information on socioeconomic factors, which are often considered to be crucial for eradication success, is rarely available, and thus their relative importance cannot be evaluated. Future campaigns should carefully document socioeconomic factors to

  3. Eradicating female genital mutilation and cutting in Tanzania: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Galukande, Moses; Kamara, Joseph; Ndabwire, Violet; Leistey, Elisabeth; Valla, Cecilia; Luboga, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM/C) has long been practiced in various parts of the world. The practice is still prevalent in 29 countries on the African continent despite decades of campaigning to eradicate it. The approaches for eradication have been multi-pronged, including but not limited to, health risk campaigns teaching about the health consequences for the girls and the women, recruitment of change agents from within the communities and the enforcement of legal me...

  4. Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication on Extent of Duodenal Gastric Metaplasia and Grade of Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Bago, J; Strinić, D.; Belošić Halle, Ž.; Jandrić, D.; Tomić, M.; Bilić, A.; Bago, P.

    2002-01-01

    The extent of the regression of duodenal gastric metaplasia (DGM) after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection is controversial. Therefore, we decided to assess the degree of DGM before, sex weeks and one year after H. pylori eradication. 105 consecutive Helicobacter pylori positive patients with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcer, with DGM and Helicobacter pylori infection were recruited for this study. The diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection was based on CL...

  5. The Efect of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication on Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal metaplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Guldem Kilciler

    2011-01-01

     Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether helicobacter pylori eradication could improve gastric atropy or intestinal metaplasia. Material and Method: Forty-two pylori infected patients were evaluated for the status of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Two biopsy specimens from antrum and two biopsy specimens from corpus were taken before and 6 months after the helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by C-urea br...

  6. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Is Associated with the Progression of Dementia: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang-Pei Chang; Guei-Fen Chiu; Fu-Chen Kuo; Chiou-Lian Lai; Yuan-Han Yang; Huang-Ming Hu; Pi-Yu Chang; Chiao-Yun Chen; Deng-Chyang Wu; Fang-Jung Yu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) on the progression of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with peptic ulcer. Methods. Participants with the diagnosis of AD and peptic ulcer were recruited between 2001 and 2008. We examined the association between eradication of H. pylori and the progression of AD using the multiple regression models. Medication shift from Donepezil, Rivastgmine, and Galantamine to Mematine is defined as progres...

  7. Tri-Tek (Petroleum Horticultural Oil and Beauveria bassiana: Use in Eradication Strategies for Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species in UK Glasshouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a pest of global importance on both outdoor and glasshouse crops. To date, B. tabaci has not become established in the UK. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Mediterranean species is now the most prevalent Bemisia species entering the UK. Increasing neonicotinoid resistance is becoming increasingly widespread and problematic with this species. As a result, this continues to pose problems for eradication strategies. The current study investigates the efficacy of Tri-Tek (a petroleum horticultural oil awaiting UK registration and the fungus Beauveria bassiana to act as control agents against Mediterranean species in UK glasshouses. Tri-Tek provided 100% egg mortality compared to 74% for B. bassiana. When tested against second instar larvae, mortalities of 69% and 65% respectively were achieved. Both products can be successfully “tank-mixed”. A tank-mix application provided 95.5% mortality of second instar larvae under glasshouse conditions. The potential integration of both products into current Bemisia eradication strategies in UK glasshouses is discussed.

  8. Successful Eradication of Hepatitis C Virus by Interferon-Free Regimens in Two Patients with Advanced Liver Fibrosis following Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Reina; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Nakamura, Masato; Yamato, Mutsumi; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Arai, Makoto; Mikami, Shigeru; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Following kidney transplantation, HCV increases the risk of graft loss and patient mortality compared with uninfected patients. The achievement of a sustained virological response with antiviral therapy improves survival and diminishes the risk of hepatic decompensation in HCV patients after a kidney transplant. It has been reported that direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are relatively safe and highly effective for the eradication of HCV in patients who are liver transplant recipients. In the present study, we investigated HCV eradication via interferon-free therapies with DAAs in two HCV patients with advanced liver fibrosis following renal transplantation. In both cases, the interferon-free regimens with DAAs were effective in eradicating HCV in the patients after kidney transplantation. No adverse events caused by interferon were identified with the exception of anemia. Interferon-free regimens with DAAs for recurrent HCV in patients following kidney transplantation are relatively safe and effective. However, attention should be focused on anemia during these treatments. PMID:27462193

  9. Helicobacter Pylori eradication therapy: getting research into practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) is the primary cause of duodenal ulcer (DU). Guidelines recommend that all patients with DU be considered for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Therapy (HPET). However, the proportion of patients with DU on long term anti-ulcer medication receiving HPET is small. This study examined the effectiveness of the continuing medical education (CME) network of the Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) in promoting best practice in DU treatment among GPs in an eastern region of Ireland. Ninty eight GPs recruited from the CME network of the ICGP were randomised in two cohorts. Cohort 1 received an (early) intervention; GPs were asked to identify their patients with DU receiving long term anti-ulcer medication and prescribe HPET according to defined criteria. Cohort 2 received the intervention later. Prescribing of HPET was monitored using routine prescribing data. Twenty per cent (286\\/1,422) of patients in cohort 1 and 19.2% (127\\/661) in cohort 2 had a DU. After exclusions, 53% (152\\/286) in cohort 1 and 30.7% (39\\/127) in cohort 2, were eligible for HPET. A significantly higher proportion of patients in cohort 1 received HPET compared with cohort 2 during the early intervention period (13.8% vs 0.0%, p<0.05). Reasons for not prescribing HPET included concurrent illness in patients, failure to comply with treatment. Best practice guidelines on HPET treatment of DU can be successfully applied using CME networks. This model could be repeated in another therapeutic area where established research is not yet current practice.

  10. BIOCIDE TREATMENT OF PONDS IN SCOTLAND TO ERADICATE SIGNAL CRAYFISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEAY S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to eradicate illegally introduced signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in the North Esk catchment, Scotland. Sites treated were (1 an isolated gravel-pit (c. 9,000 m3, with crayfish present for 6 years; (2 three dammed ponds, (c. 5,000 m3 and (3 a leaking, offline pond (c. 6,000 m3, with crayfish for two years. Preliminary toxicity tests with substrate present indicated doses. Treatment at sites (1 and (2 (in October 2004, water temperature 13°C comprised deoxygenation with sodium sulphite to stimulate emergence, then application of natural pyrethrum (Pyblast. Exposed margins were sprayed with Pyblast to prevent escapes. Crayfish mortality was high, but one survivor was seen after 5 days. Pyblast was applied from a tank with Na2SO3 residue, which subsequent investigation indicated reduced Pyblast below the target 0.1 mg l-1. Site (1 was re-treated (end October, target 0.15 mg l-1 Pyblast, no Na2SO3, 9°C. Mortality was confirmed using caged crayfish. Prior to treatment at site (2, throughflow was stopped and fish removed. Biomonitoring was carried out with freshwater shrimps Gammarus in the adjacent watercourse. Treatment of site (3 (December, target 0.2 mg l-1, 4°C necessitated continuous back-pumping of leakage for a 2-week recovery period to avoid contamination of the river downstream. Caged crayfish took up to 5 days for 100% mortality. No crayfish were found in a summer survey after the treatments with Pyblast alone, but were caught in the ponds with Na2SO3 pre-treatment. Monitoring is required for 2-5 years.

  11. Driven to extinction? The ethics of eradicating mosquitoes with gene-drive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a significant global disease burden, and recent outbreaks of such diseases have led to calls to reduce mosquito populations. Furthermore, advances in 'gene-drive' technology have raised the prospect of eradicating certain species of mosquito via genetic modification. This technology has attracted a great deal of media attention, and the idea of using gene-drive technology to eradicate mosquitoes has been met with criticism in the public domain. In this paper, I shall dispel two moral objections that have been raised in the public domain against the use of gene-drive technologies to eradicate mosquitoes. The first objection invokes the concept of the 'sanctity of life' in order to claim that we should not drive an animal to extinction. In response, I follow Peter Singer in raising doubts about general appeals to the sanctity of life, and argue that neither individual mosquitoes nor mosquitoes species considered holistically are appropriately described as bearing a significant degree of moral status. The second objection claims that seeking to eradicate mosquitoes amounts to displaying unacceptable degrees of hubris. Although I argue that this objection also fails, I conclude by claiming that it raises the important point that we need to acquire more empirical data about, inter alia, the likely effects of mosquito eradication on the ecosystem, and the likelihood of gene-drive technology successfully eradicating the intended mosquito species, in order to adequately inform our moral analysis of gene-drive technologies in this context. PMID:27118691

  12. The results of Helicobacter pylori eradication on repeated bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola

    2005-06-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding. PMID:16117312

  13. Driven to extinction? The ethics of eradicating mosquitoes with gene-drive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a significant global disease burden, and recent outbreaks of such diseases have led to calls to reduce mosquito populations. Furthermore, advances in 'gene-drive' technology have raised the prospect of eradicating certain species of mosquito via genetic modification. This technology has attracted a great deal of media attention, and the idea of using gene-drive technology to eradicate mosquitoes has been met with criticism in the public domain. In this paper, I shall dispel two moral objections that have been raised in the public domain against the use of gene-drive technologies to eradicate mosquitoes. The first objection invokes the concept of the 'sanctity of life' in order to claim that we should not drive an animal to extinction. In response, I follow Peter Singer in raising doubts about general appeals to the sanctity of life, and argue that neither individual mosquitoes nor mosquitoes species considered holistically are appropriately described as bearing a significant degree of moral status. The second objection claims that seeking to eradicate mosquitoes amounts to displaying unacceptable degrees of hubris. Although I argue that this objection also fails, I conclude by claiming that it raises the important point that we need to acquire more empirical data about, inter alia, the likely effects of mosquito eradication on the ecosystem, and the likelihood of gene-drive technology successfully eradicating the intended mosquito species, in order to adequately inform our moral analysis of gene-drive technologies in this context.

  14. Saliva Secretion and Efficacy of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication in Peptic Ulcer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Abdollahzadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been noted that the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pyloriin the oral cavity may affect the outcome of eradication therapy. This condition is associated with the recurrence of gastric infection. The optimum secretion of salivapromotes oral health consequently influencing H. pylori eradication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between salivary secretion and the efficacy of H. pylori eradication from the stomach.Materials and Methods: Forty five patients with gastric H. pylori infection were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection was confirmed by endoscopy,biopsy, urease test and histological examination. Salivary secretion of all participants was determined under standard condition before the beginning of antibacterial treatment. Then the patients were treated with a 14-day course anti-H. pylori regimen consisting of amoxicillin, omeprazole, metronidazole and bismuth. The efficacy of eradication therapy was evaluated 4 weeks after the end of the treatment course. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the variables.Results: The median of salivary secretion among successful and unsuccessful H. pylori eradication groups was 0.48 ml/min and 0.24 ml/min, respectively (p=0.005.Conclusion: Although the type of drug regimens is challenging, the efficacy of H. pylori eradication from the stomach might be reduced by lower salivary secretion.

  15. Screw-worm eradication in the Americas - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screw-worms (Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel) are found only in the Americas, and are known, therefore, as the New World Screw-worm (NWS). The larval stages of the fly feed on the living flesh of their host. A screw-worm infestation can kill an adult animal in 7-10 days if not treated. All warm-blooded animals are affected including man. Although screw-worms had long been recognised as a severe pest of animals in the southwestern United States, they had never been detected east of the Mississippi River before 1933. In July 1933, screw-worms were transported on infested cattle to Georgia and became established east of the Mississippi River. Screw-worms spread quickly in the southeastern United States and were able to overwinter in southern Florida. Being new to the region, they were quickly recognised as a severe pest with a tremendous economic impact on livestock production. The livestock owners in the southeastern United States immediately noticed an increase in the number of animal deaths and increased costs of insecticides, veterinary medicines, veterinary services, inspection and handling. At the same time, they observed a decrease in animal weights and in milk production. Due to these observations, the livestock industry in the southeastern United States requested help in controlling screw-worms. Because of these requests, the research community became interested in control and eradication measures for this pest. Early work by Crushing and Patton in 1933 recognised that C. hominivorax was an obligatory animal parasite and different from the secondary blowfly, Cochliomyia macellaria. In 1934, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) opened a research station in Valdosa, Georgia, and E.W. Laake and E.F. Knipling were assigned to work there. In September 1935, R.C. Bushland was hired by ARS to do research related to screw-worms at an ARS Research Laboratory in Dallas, Texas. Melvin and Bushland in 1936 developed artificial

  16. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation associated with a cluster of deaths and poor early growth in a randomised trial among low-birth-weight boys of vitamin A versus oral polio vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of oral polio vaccine administered already at birth (OPV0) on child survival was not examined before being recommended in 1985. Observational data suggested that OPV0 was harmful for boys, and trials have shown that neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) at birth may...

  17. Anti-HBs levels in infants of hepatitis B carrier mothers after delayed active immunization with recombinant vaccine concomitant with DTP-polio vaccine: Is there need for a second dose of HBIg?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Grosheide (Pia Maria); R. Del Canho (R.); M. Voogd (M.); R.A. Heijtink; S.W. Schalm (Solko)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe need for an additional dose of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) was studied by comparing infants receiving 1 ml HBIg at birth followed by hepatitis B immunization, concomitant with DTP-polio vaccine, at 3, 4, 5 and 11 months (schedule E), with infants receiving the same schedule wi

  18. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in rosacea patients Efecto del tratamiento erradicador frente a Helicobacter pylori en la rosácea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boixeda de Miquel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the causal relation between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori infection is discussed. We evaluated the clinical evolution of rosacea after infection eradication. Patients and methods: we have prospectively studied 44 patients diagnosed with rosacea. Helicobacter pylori infection was determined, and infected patients were treated with eradication therapy. The evolution of dermatological symptoms in a subgroup of 29 infected patients in whom eradication had been achieved was followed during 16.8 (± 17.8 months. Median age was 50.6 (± 14.1 years for 22 women (75.9% and 7 men (24.1%. Clinical response according to gender and clinical subtype of rosacea was evaluated. Results: complete improvement was observed in 10 patients (34.5%; 95% CI: 18.6-54.3%, relevant improvement in 9 (31.1%; 95% CI: 16-51%, poor improvement in 5 (17.2%; 95% CI: 6.5-36.4%, and absence of improvement in 5 cases (17.2%; 95% CI: 6.5-36.4%. No significant differences in dermatological evolution according to sex were observed. Regarding subtype of rosacea there was a relevant improvement in 83.3% (95% CI: 64.1-93.8% of cases with papulopustular type as opposed to 36.5% (95% CI: 20-56.1% of cases with erythematous predominance, p = 0.02. Conclusions: based on these results, the relation between Helicobacter pylori and rosacea is supported, and infection should be investigated in these patients because an appreciable percentage of patients diagnosed with rosacea and Helicobacter pylori infection can benefit from eradication therapy, mainly in the papulopustular subtype.

  19. What Is Needed to Eradicate Lymphatic Filariasis? A Model-Based Assessment on the Impact of Scaling Up Mass Drug Administration Programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randee J Kastner

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a neglected tropical disease for which more than a billion people in 73 countries are thought to be at-risk. At a global level, the efforts against LF are designed as an elimination program. However, current efforts appear to aim for elimination in some but not all endemic areas. With the 2020 goal of elimination looming, we set out to develop plausible scale-up scenarios to reach global elimination and eradication. We predict the duration of mass drug administration (MDA necessary to reach local elimination for a variety of transmission archetypes using an existing model of LF transmission, estimate the number of treatments required for each scenario, and consider implications of rapid scale-up.We have defined four scenarios that differ in their geographic coverage and rate of scale-up. For each scenario, country-specific simulations and calculations were performed that took into account the pre-intervention transmission intensity, the different vector genera, drug regimen, achieved level of population coverage, previous progress toward elimination, and potential programmatic delays due to mapping, operations, and administration.Our results indicate that eliminating LF by 2020 is unlikely. If MDA programs are drastically scaled up and expanded, the final round of MDA for LF eradication could be delivered in 2028 after 4,159 million treatments. However, if the current rate of scale-up is maintained, the final round of MDA to eradicate LF may not occur until 2050.Rapid scale-up of MDA will decrease the amount of time and treatments required to reach LF eradication. It may also propel the program towards success, as the risk of failure is likely to increase with extended program duration.

  20. Novel Vaccine Approach Achieves “Functional Cure” of AIDS Virus in Monkeys | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Scientists at the Oregon Health & Science University and the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research have used a novel vaccine approach to achieve a “functional cure” and apparent eradication of infection with a monkey version of the AIDS virus.

  1. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Causes Perturbation of the Human Gut Microbiome in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Wan-Chen Yap

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori protects against some metabolic and immunological diseases in which the development of these diseases coincide with temporal or permanent dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori eradication on the human gut microbiome.As part of the currently on-going ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths study, we collected stool samples from 17 H. pylori-positive young adult (18-30 years-old volunteers. The same cohort was followed up 6, 12 and 18 months-post H. pylori eradication. The impact of H. pylori on the human gut microbiome pre- and post-eradication was investigated using high throughput 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region sequencing using the Illumina Miseq followed by data analysis using Qiime pipeline.We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities in the fecal microbiome of the H. pylori-positive volunteers, before and after H. pylori eradication therapy. The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced at an average of 150,000-170,000 reads/sample. The microbial diversity were similar pre- and post-H. pylori eradication with no significant differences in richness and evenness of bacterial species. Despite that the general profile of the gut microbiome was similar pre- and post-eradication, some changes in the bacterial communities at the phylum and genus levels were notable, particularly the decrease in relative abundance of Bacterioidetes and corresponding increase in Firmicutes after H. pylori eradication. The significant increase of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA-producing bacteria genera could also be associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders.Our preliminary stool metagenomics study shows that eradication of H. pylori caused perturbation of the gut microbiome and may indirectly affect the health of human. Clinicians should be aware of the effect of broad spectrum antibiotics used in H. pylori eradication regimen and be cautious in the clinical

  2. Does Helicobacter pylori Eradication Reduce the Risk of Open Angle Glaucoma in Patients With Peptic Ulcer Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) eradication would influence the risk of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients with peptic ulcer disease. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, 6061 patients with peptic ulcer and receiving H pylori eradication therapy were recruited. The study cohort was subdivided into early (within 1 year) and late (after 1 year) eradication cohorts. The 24,244 control cohort subjects were those who without peptic ulcer and without receiving H pylori eradication therapy and were frequency-matched with the H pylori eradication cohort by age, sex, and the year of receiving H pylori eradication therapy. The higher incidence of POAG was observed in late H pylori eradication cohort and in early H pylori eradication cohort than in control cohort (1.57, 1.32, and 0.95, per 1000 person-year, respectively). However, overall risk of glaucoma was not significantly higher in the late eradication than in the early eradication (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-1.53). The POAG incidence was greater in the late H pylori eradication cohort when follow-up duration ≤ 5 years (1.59, per 1000 person-years). However, when follow-up duration >5 years, the incidence of POAG was greater in the early H pylori eradication cohort (1.68, per 1000 person-years). These relationships were not associated with a significantly increased or decreased risk of POAG in multivariable analyses. Either early or late H pylori eradication does not significantly reduce the risk of glaucoma in patients with peptic ulcer disease compared with normal control.

  3. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodrigues Coura

    2013-12-01

    wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man.

  4. Block copolymer mixtures as antimicrobial hydrogels for biofilm eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashlynn L Z; Ng, Victor W L; Wang, Weixin; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan

    2013-12-01

    Current antimicrobial strategies have mostly been developed to manage infections due to planktonic cells. However, microbes in their nature state will tend to exist by attaching to and growing on living and inanimate surfaces that result in the formation of biofilms. Conventional therapies for treating biofilm-related infections are likely to be insufficient due to the lower susceptibility of microbes that are embedded in the biofilm matrix. In this study, we report the development of biodegradable hydrogels from vitamin E-functionalized polycarbonates for antimicrobial applications. These hydrogels were formed by incorporating positively-charged polycarbonates containing propyl and benzyl side chains with vitamin E moiety into physically cross-linked networks of "ABA"-type polycarbonate and poly(ethylene glycol) triblock copolymers. Investigations of the mechanical properties of the hydrogels showed that the G' values ranged from 1400 to 1600 Pa and the presence of cationic polycarbonate did not affect the stiffness of the hydrogels. Shear-thinning behavior was observed as the hydrogels displayed high viscosity at low shear rates that dramatically decreased as the shear rate increased. In vitro antimicrobial studies revealed that the more hydrophobic VE/BnCl(1:30)-loaded hydrogels generally exhibited better antimicrobial/antifungal effects compared to the VE/PrBr(1:30) counterpart as lower minimum biocidal concentrations (MBC) were observed in Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Candida albicans (fungus) (156.2, 312.5, 312.5 mg/L for VE/BnCl(1:30) and 312.5, 2500 and 625 mg/L for VE/PrBr(1:30) respectively). Similar trends were observed for the treatment of biofilms where VE/BnCl(1:30)-loaded hydrogels displayed better efficiency with regards to eradication of biomass and reduction of microbe viability of the biofilms. Furthermore, a high degree of synergistic antimicrobial effects was also observed through the co

  5. 2009-2013年脊髓灰质炎疫情分析%Analysis of the world polio cases from 2009 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩辉; 谭克为; 宋亚京; 徐宝梁; 左锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨目前脊髓灰质炎在世界范围内的影响及我国口岸防控脊髓灰质炎疫情的措施。方法收集整理世界卫生组织(WHO)网站内的脊髓灰质炎的相关信息,并对2009-2013年之间脊髓灰质炎疫情进行流行病学统计与分析。结果根据 WHO 所统计的脊髓灰质炎的发病数据,该病的发病情况在近几年得到了有效的控制,但是目前还在尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、阿富汗、索马里和乍得等国持续流行。结论由于我国与持续流行脊灰的国家接壤,并且海外劳务输出和进口贸易的规模逐年增大,导致脊髓灰质炎病毒传入我国的风险较高,加强相关的检疫和监测工作至关重要。%Objective This article observes the world epidemic situation from 2009 to 2013 of poliomyelitis,and explores the present influence of it and the relevant prevention and control measures at frontier ports.Methods This article collects the data and the related situation of the outbreak of poliomyelitis from WHO website,and then carries out the epidemiological statistics and analysis.Results According to the data from WHO,although the on-set of poliomyelitis has been effectively controlled in recent years,there has been sustained prevalence in Nigeria, Pakistan,Afghanistan,Somalia and Chad.Conclusion Because of the contiguity between China and some coun-tries which have sustained prevalence of poliomyelitis and the increasing scale of overseas labor service export and import trade,the risk of the import of polio virus is comparatively high.In order to maintain the “polio -free sta-tus”,the prevention and monitoring of the polio virus still needs to be strengthen at frontier ports.

  6. Rat eradication and the resistance and resilience of passerine bird assemblages in the Falkland Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Michael A; Poncet, Sally; Passfield, Ken; Goheen, Jacob R; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) were introduced to the Falkland Islands and are detrimental to native passerines. Rat eradication programmes are being used to help protect the avifauna. This study assesses the effectiveness of eradication programmes while using this conservation practice as a natural experiment to explore the ecological resistance, resilience and homeostasis of bird communities. We conducted bird surveys on 230 islands: 85 in the presence of rats, 108 that were historically free of rats and 37 from which rats had been eradicated. Bird detection data were used to build occupancy models for each species and estimate species-area relationships. Count data were used to estimate relative abundance and community structure. Islands with invasive rats had reduced species richness of passerines and a different community structure than islands on which rats were historically absent. Although the species richness of native passerines was remarkably similar on eradicated and historically rat-free islands, community structure on eradicated islands was more similar to that of rat-infested islands than to historically rat-free islands. The results suggest that in the Falkland Islands, species richness of passerines is not resistant to invasive rats, but seems to be resilient following their removal. In contrast, community structure seems to be neither resistant nor resilient. From a conservation perspective, rat eradication programmes in the Falkland Islands appear to be effective at restoring native species richness, but they are not necessarily beneficial for species of conservation concern. For species that do not recolonize, translocations following eradications may be necessary. PMID:25355608

  7. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pain in the limbs. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis, ... lifeless – a condition known as acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). All cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among ...

  8. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenases inhibition eradicates leukemia stem cells while sparing normal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venton, G; Pérez-Alea, M; Baier, C; Fournet, G; Quash, G; Labiad, Y; Martin, G; Sanderson, F; Poullin, P; Suchon, P; Farnault, L; Nguyen, C; Brunet, C; Ceylan, I; Costello, R T

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) achieve complete remission (CR) after standard induction chemotherapy. However, the majority subsequently relapse and die of the disease. A leukemia stem cell (LSC) paradigm has been invoked to explain this failure of CR to reliably translate into cure. Indeed, LSCs are highly enriched in CD34+CD38- leukemic cells that exhibit positive aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH+) on flow cytometry, these LSCs are resistant to currently existing treatments in AML such as cytarabine and anthracycline that, at the cost of great toxicity on normal cells, are highly active against the leukemic bulk, but spare the LSCs responsible for relapse. To try to combat the LSC population selectively, a well-characterized ALDH inhibitor by the trivial name of dimethyl ampal thiolester (DIMATE) was assessed on sorted CD34+CD38- subpopulations from AML patients and healthy patients. ALDH activity and cell viability were monitored by flow cytometry. From enzyme kinetic studies DIMATE is an active enzyme-dependent, competitive, irreversible inhibitor of ALDH1. On cells in culture, DIMATE is a powerful inhibitor of ALDHs 1 and 3, has a major cytotoxic activity on human AML cell lines. Moreover, DIMATE is highly active against leukemic populations enriched in LSCs, but, unlike conventional chemotherapy, DIMATE is not toxic for healthy hematopoietic stem cells which retained, after treatment, their self-renewing and multi-lineage differentiation capacity in immunodeficient mice, xenografted with human leukemic cells. DIMATE eradicates specifically human AML cells and spares healthy mouse hematologic cells. PMID:27611922

  10. Does Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer prevent gastric cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katsuhiro Mabe; Mikako Takahashi; Haruhumi Oizumi; Hideaki Tsukuma; Akiko Shibata; Kazutoshi Fukase; Toru Matsuda; Hiroaki Takeda; Sumio Kawata

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori ) eradication therapy for treatment of peptic ulcer on the incidence of gastric cancer. METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted between November 2000 and December 2007 in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The study included patients with H pylori -positive peptic ulcer who decided themselves whether to receive H pylori eradication (eradication group) or conventional antacid therapy (non-eradication group). Incidence of gastric cancer in the two groups was determined based on the results of annual endoscopy and questionnaire surveys, as well as Yamagata Prefectural Cancer Registry data, and was compared between the two groups and by results of H pylori therapy. RESULTS: A total of 4133 patients aged between 13 and 91 years (mean 52.9 years) were registered, and 56 cases of gastric cancer were identified over a mean follow-up of 5.6 years. The sex- and age-adjusted incidence ratio of gastric cancer in the eradication group, as compared with the non-eradication group, was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.28-1.19) and ratios by follow-up period (< 1 year, 1-3 years, > 3 years) were 1.16 (0.27-5.00), 0.50 (0.17-1.49), and 0.34 (0.09-1.28), respectively. Longer follow-up tended to be associated with better prevention of gastric cancer, although not to a significant extent. No significant difference in incidence of gastric cancer was observed between patients with successful eradication therapy (32/2451 patients, 1.31%) and those with treatment failure (11/639 patients, 1.72%). Among patients with duodenal ulcer, which is known to be more prevalent in younger individuals, the incidence of gastric cancer was significantly less in those with successful eradication therapy (2/845 patients, 0.24%) than in those with treatment failure (3/216 patients, 1.39%). CONCLUSION: H pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer patients with a mean age of 52.9 years at registration did not significantly decrease the

  11. Using species distribution models to optimize vector control in the framework of the tsetse eradication campaign in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Dicko, Ahmadou H.; Lancelot, Renaud; Seck, Momar T.; Guerrini, Laure; Sall, Baba; Lo, Mbargou; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Lefrançois, Thierry; Fonta, William M.; Peck, Steven L.; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2014-01-01

    Tsetse flies are vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in sub-Saharan Africa and are the target of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) is a riverine species that is still present as an isolated metapopulation in the Niayes area of Senegal. It is targeted by a national eradication campaign combining a population reduction phase based on insecticide-treated targets (ITTs) and cattle and an eradication...

  12. Clustered lot quality assurance sampling: a tool to monitor immunization coverage rapidly during a national yellow fever and polio vaccination campaign in Cameroon, May 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, L; Tchio, R; Dzossa, A D; Ndjomo, S; Takeu, A; Anya, B; Ticha, J; Ronveaux, O; Lewis, R F

    2012-01-01

    We used the clustered lot quality assurance sampling (clustered-LQAS) technique to identify districts with low immunization coverage and guide mop-up actions during the last 4 days of a combined oral polio vaccine (OPV) and yellow fever (YF) vaccination campaign conducted in Cameroon in May 2009. We monitored 17 pre-selected districts at risk for low coverage. We designed LQAS plans to reject districts with YF vaccination coverage <90% and with OPV coverage <95%. In each lot the sample size was 50 (five clusters of 10) with decision values of 3 for assessing OPV and 7 for YF coverage. We 'rejected' 10 districts for low YF coverage and 14 for low OPV coverage. Hence we recommended a 2-day extension of the campaign. Clustered-LQAS proved to be useful in guiding the campaign vaccination strategy before the completion of the operations.

  13. A Possible Link between Gastric Mucosal Atrophy and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of H. pylori eradication in gastric cancer prevention can be attributed to the improvement of atrophic gastritis, which is a known risk of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer has also been diagnosed after long-term H. pylori eradication. This study aimed to clarify the association between gastric atrophy and gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication, including its clinicopathological features. Methods A total of 55 consecutive patients with 64 early gastric cancers (EGCs) diagnosed after H. pylori eradication were enrolled. The degree of endoscopic atrophy and the histological degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration, atrophy, and metaplasia in the corpus and adjacent mucosa of the EGCs were determined and scored. Results The majority of EGCs (63/64) were located within the endoscopically assessed atrophic mucosa or along the atrophic border. The adjacent mucosa of the EGCs presented significantly higher degrees of all histological parameters than in the corpus (mononuclear cell infiltration, 0.86+/-0.09 vs. 0.51+/-0.11, P = 0.016; atrophy, 1.77+/-0.13 vs. 0.65+/-0.14, Pgastric ulcers. Conclusions Severe gastric atrophy remained in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs after H. pylori eradication, which may be linked to gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27706195

  14. Impact of Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy on Platelet Counts in Patients With Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohamadreza

    2016-01-01

    This study was a before and after clinical evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication on platelet counts in a group of 23 patients with chronic Idiopathic (Autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura (CITP). H. pylori infection was identified in patients by a (13)C-urea breath test and confirmed by an H. pylori stool antigen test. Eradication was conducted in patients testing positive. Infected (n = 10) and uninfected (n = 13) patient groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, history of previous splenectomy, treatment with anti-D, current treatment with corticosteroids, or initial platelet counts. H pylori eradication was successful in eight infected CITP patients, with two patients not responsive to treatment. Compared to the uninfected group, patients in the infected group who responded to eradication therapy had significantly increased platelet counts after six months (56.2 ± 22.2 vs. 233 ± 85.6 ×10(3) million cells/L; P < 0.01), whereas platelet counts in the non-responding patients and uninfected group did not differ after this period of time. H. pylori eradication promotes significant platelet count improvement in patients with CITP. Thus, all patients with CITP should be tested and treated for H. pylori infections. PMID:26925898

  15. Considering native and exotic terrestrial reptiles in island invasive species eradication programmes in the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Most island restoration projects with reptiles, either as direct beneficiaries of conservation or as indicators of recovery responses, have been on temperate or xeric islands. There have been decades of research, particularly on temperate islands in New Zealand, on the responses of native reptiles to mammal eradications but very few studies in tropical insular systems. Recent increases in restoration projects involving feral mammal eradications in the tropical Pacific have led to several specific challenges related to native and invasive reptiles. This paper reviews these challenges and discusses some potential solutions to them. The first challenge is that the tropical Pacific herpetofauna is still being discovered, described and understood. There is thus incomplete knowledge of how eradication activities may affect these faunas and the potential risks facing critical populations of these species from these eradication actions. The long term benefit of the removal of invasives is beneficial, but the possible short term impacts to small populations on small islands might be significant. The second challenge is that protocols for monitoring the responses of these species are not well documented but are often different from those used in temperate or xeric habitats. Lizard monitoring techniques used in the tropical Pacific are discussed. The third challenge involves invasive reptiles already in the tropical Pacific, some of which could easily spread accidentally through eradication and monitoring operations. The species posing the greatest threats in this respect are reviewed, and recommendations for biosecurity concerning these taxa are made.

  16. Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication therapy in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanori Ito; Shinji Tanaka; Tomoari Kamada; Ken Haruma; Kazuaki Chayama

    2006-01-01

    Many epidemiological reports indicate that Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. Several genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the initiation, promotion, and progression of the cancer cells in a multi-step manner.H pyloriis known to induce chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. Its products, including superoxides,participate in the DNA damage followed by initiation, and the inflammation-derived cytokines and growth factors contribute to the promotion of gastric carcinogenesis.By eradicating H pylori, gastric inflammation can be cured; the therapy diminishes the levels not only of inflammatory cell infiltration, but also atrophyl intestinal metaplasia in part. A randomized controlled trial revealed that the eradication therapy diminished the gastric cancer prevalence in cases without precancerous conditions. In addition, recent epidemiological studies from Japanese groups demonstrated that the development of gastric cancer, especially of the intestinal type, was decreased by successful eradication therapy, although these were designed in a nonrandomized manner. However, it should be mentioned that endoscopic detection is the only way to evaluate the degree of gastric carcinogenesis. We have reported that the endoscopic and histological morphologies could be modified by eradication therapy and it might contribute to the prevalence of gastric cancer development.Considering the biological nature of cancer cell proliferation, it is considered that a sufficiently long-term follow-up would be essential to discuss the anticancer effect of eradication therapy.

  17. Chronic infection phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with failure of eradication in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya, P; Smith, L; Beaudoin, T; Yau, Y C; Clark, S; Coburn, B; Guttman, D S; Hwang, D M; Waters, V

    2016-01-01

    Early eradication treatment with inhaled tobramycin is successful in the majority of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) with incident Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. However, in 10-40 % of cases, eradication fails and the reasons for this are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific microbial characteristics could explain eradication treatment failure. This was a cross-sectional study of CF patients (aged 0-18 years) with incident P. aeruginosa infection from 2011 to 2014 at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Phenotypic assays were done on all incident P. aeruginosa isolates, and eradicated and persistent isolates were compared using the Mann-Whitney test or the two-sided Chi-square test. A total of 46 children with CF had 51 incident P. aeruginosa infections. In 72 % (33/46) of the patients, eradication treatment was successful, while 28 % failed eradication therapy. Persistent isolates were less likely to be motile, with significantly less twitch motility (p=0.001), were more likely to be mucoid (p=0.002), and more likely to have a tobramycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 128 μg/mL (p=0.02) compared to eradicated isolates. Although biofilm production was similar, there was a trend towards more persistent isolates with deletions in quorum-sensing genes compared with eradicated isolates (p=0.06). Initial acquisition of P. aeruginosa with characteristics of chronic infection is associated with failure of eradication treatment. PMID:26492874

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease control and eradication in the Bicol Surveillance Buffer Zone of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A; Freeman, P G; Abila, R; Benigno, C; Verin, B; Nim, V; Cameron, A

    2011-10-01

    Following the onset of an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) commencing in 1994 and affecting mainly pigs in the Philippines, a National Plan for the Control and Eradication of the disease was initiated. A disease surveillance buffer zone in the southern Luzon region of Bicol was established to protect the Visayas and Mindanao from infection and enable eventual elimination of the disease in Luzon. With achievement of Office International Epizooties (OIE)-certified FMD freedom with vaccination in the Philippines now imminent, the four components of the disease control strategy are reviewed, including quarantine and animal movement controls, strategic vaccination, surveillance and disease investigation, and enhanced public awareness with school on the air radio programmes. Although numbers of outbreaks declined following widespread vaccination, evaluation of serological responses in vaccinates suggested low levels of immune protection. The cessation of outbreaks was considered more likely a result of animal movement controls, improved surveillance and emergency response capability, and reduction in FMD-risk behaviours by livestock owners, particularly through efforts to enhance public awareness of biosecurity measures by the training of traders, livestock industry personnel and both commercial and smallholder farmers. A two-stage random sampling serosurveillance strategy enabled identification of residual infection that was not detected through opportunistic sampling and negative incident reporting. Intensive investigations of FMD outbreaks, particularly in Albay province in 1999, enabled improved understanding of the risk factors involved in disease transmission and implementation of appropriate interventions. The findings from this review are offered to assist development of FMD control and eradication programmes in other countries in south-east Asia that are now being encouraged to support the OIE goal of FMD freedom with vaccination by 2020.

  19. Strategy to control the invasive alien tree Miconia calvescens in Pacific islands: eradication, containment or something else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarant, Anne-Claire; Meyer, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

     Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) is a notorious plant invader in the tropical islands of French Polynesia, Hawaii and New Caledonia. A small tree native to Central and South America, it was fi rst introduced as an ornamental in private botanic gardens in Tahiti (1937), Honolulu (1961), and Nouméa (1970s) where it escaped, became naturalised, and formed dense monospecifi c stands. More than 80,000 ha are currently invaded in French Polynesia, 10,000 ha in the Hawaiian Islands and 140 ha in New Caledonia. Control programmes have been under way in the Hawaiian Islands (Oahu, Maui, Hawaii, Kauai) and French Polynesia (Raiatea, Tahaa, Nuku Hiva, Fatu Hiva) since the early 1990s, and in New Caledonia (Province Sud) since 2006. Despite more than 15 years of intensive control efforts and millions of plants destroyed, eradication has not been achieved in any of these islands, mainly because the species has multiple features that thwart its elimination (e.g., prolific seed production, active dispersal by alien and native frugivorous birds, large and persistent soil seed bank, shade-tolerance), combined with the difficulty of detecting and destroying plants on rough terrain and steep slopes, insufficient control frequency, and limited financial and human resources. Miconia’s life cycle requires at least four years growth from seedling to fruiting. Consequently, prevention of fruit production may be an effective management strategy for small populations. This “juvenilization” process may allow the eradication of small populations when carefully conducted over a quarter century.

  20. Efficacy of rifabutin-based triple therapy as second-line treatment to eradicate helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez Isabel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifabutin has been found to be effective in multi-resistant patients after various treatment cycles for Helicobacter pylori (HP infection, but it has not been analysed as a second-line treatment. Therefore, we seek to compare the effectiveness of a treatment regimen including rifabutin versus conventional quadruple therapy (QT. Methods Open clinical trial, randomised and multi-centre, of two treatment protocols: A Conventional regime -QT- (omeprazole 20 mg bid, bismuth citrate 120 mg qid, tetracycline 500 mg qid and metronidazole 500 mg tid; B Experimental one -OAR- (omeprazole 20 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 gr bid, and rifabutin 150 mg bid, both taken orally for 7 days, in patients with HP infection for whom first-line treatment had failed. Eradication was determined by Urea Breath Test (UBT. Safety was determined by the adverse events. Results 99 patients were randomised, QT, n = 54; OAR, n = 45. The two groups were homogeneous. In 8 cases, treatment was suspended (6 in QT and 2 in OAR. The eradication achieved, analysed by ITT, was for QT, 38 cases (70.4%, and for OAR, 20 cases (44.4%; p = 0.009, OR = 1.58. Of the cases analysed PP, QT were 77.1%; OAR, 46.5%; p = 0.002. Adverse effects were described in 64% of the QT patients and in 44% of the OAR patients (p = 0.04. Conclusion A 7-day rifabutin-based triple therapy associated to amoxicillin and omeprazole at standard dose was not found to be effective as a second-line rescue therapy. The problem with quadruple therapy lies in the adverse side effects it provokes. We believe the search should continue for alternatives that are more comfortably administered and that are at least as effective, but with fewer adverse side effects. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81058036

  1. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric hyperplastic polyposis in Cowden's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajime Isomoto; Hisashi Furusu; Ken Ohnita; Yusuke Takehara; Chun-Yang Wen; Shigeru Kohno

    2005-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman with complaints of hematochezia was diagnosed as having Cowden's disease (CD), an autosomal dominant condition characterized by multiple hamartomas, since facial papules and gingival papillomas were identified. On endoscopy, multiple hyperplastic polyps were seen in the rectum and left-side colon. There were also esophageal glycogenic acanthosis and hyperplastic polyposis in the antrum accompanied by Helicobacter pylorirelated gastritis. Although gastric hyperplastic polyposis had by no means regressed with unsuccessful first-line eradication therapy for H pylori, following cure of the infection with salvage therapy consisting of rabeprazole,amoxicillin and metronidazole, the polyposis lesions almost disappeared. Follow-up gastroscopy 2 and 3 years after cessation of the second-line eradication therapy revealed almost complete regression of the polyposis lesions with no evidence of H pylori infection. We recommend eradication treatment for CD patients with gastric hyperplastic polyps and the infection, as the occurrence of gastric carcinoma among hyperplastic polyps has been described.

  2. A new frontier of Okinawa's agriculture: An economic evaluation of the melon fly eradication project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the post-reversion period (1972-2002), Okinawa's GDP has grown on average by 6.40% annually. In the growth process, agricultural activities have been rapidly replaced by construction and services activities such as public works and tourism. Okinawa's agriculture has been diversifying from traditional sugarcane and pineapple cultivation to flowers, tropical fruits and various healthy foods such as bitter melon or ''goya'' and turmeric. This paper attempts to post-evaluate the area-wide melon fly eradication project in Okinawa which was successfully completed in 1993. The melon flies affected more than 40 important vegetables and fruits in Okinawa. The sterile insect technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly method, was adopted to eradicate the flies. Based on conventional cost-benefit analysis, the project produced net accumulated benefits after 6 years of the eradication. The study shows that the project is viable even on commercial basis

  3. National immunization days and status of poliomyelitis eradication--Philippines, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-14

    The Western Pacific Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved in 1988 to eradicate poliomyelitis in the region by 1995. Despite intensified surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), reported cases of poliomyelitis decreased from 5485 in 1989 to 1909 in 1992. Of the five countries in the region that continue to report endemic poliomyelitis (Cambodia, People's Republic of China Laos, Republic of the Philippines, and Vietnam), reported incidence is lowest in Philippines, which also was the first country in the region to undertake national immunization days (NIDs) with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); in addition, other vaccines were administered at vaccination posts by trained health workers. This report assesses the impact of Philippines' first NID, which was initiated as part of its poliomyelitis eradication efforts, and summarizes progress toward eradication of poliomyelitis in Philippines.

  4. Impact of helicobacter pylori eradication on dyspeptic symptoms in the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: Background: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) will cure most Hp positive duodenal ulcers (DU). However, after such treatment, patients often continue to get dyspeptic symptoms. The effects of Hp eradication in patients with proven DU on gastro-oesophageal reflux dis (GORD) symptoms are controversial. Results: Eighty one percent patients had improvement in ulcer-type symptoms. 21% developed new GORD symptoms. 68% discontinued long-term acid-suppression treatment. 79% requiring continued acid suppression therapy had new or continued GORD symptoms. Conclusion: Patients in the community with Hp positive DU disease after eradication, 81% patients got symptomatic improvement, two third discontinued their acid suppressing therapy but 21% developed new GORD symptoms. Among those who required continued acid suppression, 79% had GORD symptoms. (author)

  5. Diagnostic value of CagA IgG in the process to eradicate Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Bang Yang; Pi Long Wang; Ming Ming Gu; Li Hao Chen; Quan Chen; Lin Zhan

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the diagnostic value of CagA IgG in serum.METHODS Seventy three patients with peptic ulcer infected with HP were eradicated by antibioticstherapy. At pretreatment, wk9 and wk20 after treatment, the detection of Hp in gastric muscosa bybacteriologic method were performed, and CagA and whole-cell antigen of HP igG in serum by ELISAmethod were also performed at the same time.RESULTS The IgG titres of Hp CagA and whole-cell antigen changes in accordance with the efficacy ofHp eradicated. The former with an earlier appearance and a greater number of cases decreased to normallevel in comparison with the latter.CONCLUSION CagA IgG is a better index for observing the effectiveness of the eradication of Hp.

  6. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A Jones

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  7. Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies: a single centre observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beales Ian LP

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens have been described. There are little data reporting their efficacy or integration in routine clinical practice. The overall results of eradication therapy in a cohort of patients are described and an algorithm for management outlined. Methods 469 patients receiving eradication therapy in routine clinical practice were evaluated. The successes of individual regimes as first, second and third line therapy were determined. Results Overall success after one, two and three courses of therapy were 73% (95% confidence intervals 69–77%, 94% (91–96% and 98% (97–99% respectively. 10 different regimens, including many non-recommended ones were used as primary therapy. Ranitidine bismuth citrate-amoxicillin-clarithromycin triple therapy (94.8%, 90–99% was significantly more effective than any other combination as primary therapy, including all proton pump inhibitor based triple therapies. Quadruple therapy with bismuth chelate-proton pump inhibitor-tetracycline and a nitroimidazole (70%, 52–88% and ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy (73%, 56–90% where more effective second line combinations than proton pump inhibitor-triple therapies (37.5%, 12–58%. Third line therapy directed by the results of sensitivity testing improved eradication compared to further empirical antibiotics. The use of a proton pump inhibitor with clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole as initial therapy was associated with a significantly worse overall eradication rate than other combinations. Conclusions Helicobacter pylori eradication rates can be maximised by using ranitidine bismuth citrate-clarithromycin-amoxicillin containing triple therapy, followed by bismuth and nitroimidazle containing second-line therapy, with third line combinations directed by sensitivity testing. Proton pump inhibitor-clarithromycin-metronidazole combinations should be avoided.

  8. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  9. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Rich, Karl M; Mariner, Jeffrey C; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia.

  10. The Economic Impact of Eradicating Peste des Petits Ruminants: A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A.; Rich, Karl M.; Mariner, Jeffrey C.; Anderson, John; Jeggo, Martyn; Thevasagayam, Sam; Cai, Yi; Peters, Andrew R.; Roeder, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important cause of mortality and production loss among sheep and goats in the developing world. Despite control efforts in a number of countries, it has continued to spread across Africa and Asia, placing an increasing burden on the livelihoods of livestock keepers and on veterinary resources in affected countries. Given the similarities between PPR and rinderpest, and the lessons learned from the successful global eradication of rinderpest, the eradication of PPR seems appealing, both eliminating an important disease and improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. We conducted a benefit-cost analysis to examine the economic returns from a proposed programme for the global eradication of PPR. Based on our knowledge and experience, we developed the eradication strategy and estimated its costs. The benefits of the programme were determined from (i) the averted mortality costs, based on an analysis of the literature, (ii) the downstream impact of reduced mortality using a social accounting matrix, and (iii) the avoided control costs based on current levels of vaccination. The results of the benefit-cost analysis suggest strong economic returns from PPR eradication. Based on a 15-year programme with total discounted costs of US$2.26 billion, we estimate discounted benefits of US$76.5 billion, yielding a net benefit of US$74.2 billion. This suggests a benefit cost ratio of 33.8, and an internal rate of return (IRR) of 199%. As PPR mortality rates are highly variable in different populations, we conducted a sensitivity analysis based on lower and higher mortality scenarios. All the scenarios examined indicate that investment in PPR eradication would be highly beneficial economically. Furthermore, removing one of the major constraints to small ruminant production would be of considerable benefit to many of the most vulnerable communities in Africa and Asia. PMID:26900944

  11. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on Reflux Esophagitis Therapy: A Multi-center Randomized Control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xue; Li-Ya Zhou; San-Ren Lin; Xiao-Hua Hou; Zhao-Shen Li; Min-Hu Chen; Xiu-E Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori) frequently colonizes the stomach.Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common and costly disease.But the relationship ofH.pylori and GERD is still unclear.This study aimed to explore the effect ofH.pylori and its eradication on reflux esophagitis therapy.Methods:Patients diagnosed with reflux esophagitis by endoscopy were enrolled;based on rapid urease test and Warth-Starry stain,they were divided into H.pylori positive and negative groups.H.pylori positive patients were randomly given H.pylori eradication treatment for 1 0 days,then esomeprazole 20 mg bid for 46 days.The other patients received esomeprazole 20 mg bid therapy for 8 weeks.After treatment,three patient groups were obtained:H.pylori positive eradicated,H.pylori positive uneradicated,and H.pylori negative.Before and after therapy,reflux symptoms were scored and compared.Healing rates were compared among groups.The x2 test and t-test were used,respectively,for enumeration and measurement data.Results:There were 176 H.pylori positive (with 92 eradication cases) and 180 negative cases.Healing rates in the H.pylori positive eradicated and H.pylori positive uneradicated groups reached 80.4% and 79.8% (P =0.911),with reflux symptom scores of 0.22 and 0.14 (P =0.588).Healing rates of esophagitis in the H.pylori positive uneradicated and H.pylori negative groups were,respectively,79.8% and 82.2% (P =0.848);reflux symptom scores were 0.14 and 0.21 (P =0.546).Conclusions:Based on esomeprazole therapy,H.pylori infection and eradication have no significant effect on reflux esophagitis therapy.

  12. Furazolidone,amoxicillin,bismuth and rabeprazole quadruple rescue therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Cheng; Fu-Lian Hu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To compare the efficacy and side effect profiles of three furazolidone and amoxicillin-based quadruple rescue therapies for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori).METHODS: Patients who failed in the H pylori eradication therapy for at least one course were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A received rebaprazole 10 mg + amoxicillin 1 g + furazolidone 100 mg, and bismuth subcitrate 220 mg, twice daily for 1 wk; group B received the same regimen of group A but for 2 wk; and group C received the same regimen of group B, but furazolidone was replaced by furazolidone 100 mg three times daily. To record the side effect profiles at the end of the treatment, H pylori eradication was assessed with 13C-urea breath test 4 wk after therapy. RESULTS: Sixty patients were enrolled including 28 males, and 20 patients in each group. The average age of the patients was 49.2 years, ranging from 18 to 84 years. H pylori eradication rates with per-protocol analysis were 82%, 89% and 90% in the three groups, respectively. Side effects were found in 11 patients, including mild dizziness, nausea, diarrhea and increased bowel movement. None of the 11 patients needed treatment for their side effects. CONCLUSION: One- or two-week furazolidone and amoxicillin-based quadruple rescue therapy with a low dose furazolidone (100 mg bid) for the eradication of H pylori is effective. Extending the antibiotic course to 14 d could improve the eradication rates. 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. All rights reserved.

  13. The effectiveness of parallel gamma-interferon testing in New Zealand's bovine tuberculosis eradication programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J A; Dawson, K L; Buddle, B M

    2016-05-01

    valuable tool in a bTB eradication programme, as it enables higher test sensitivity at both herd and animal level. The use of the γ-IFN test over a risk cohort early in a breakdown assists in removal of early infection and some cases of anergy to intradermal tuberculin testing. Parallel γ-IFN with compulsory slaughter of reactors should be considered in breeding and dairy herds in conjunction with tuberculin testing before movement control is revoked, and will assist in achieving TB freedom on a herd level and nationally.

  14. The effectiveness of parallel gamma-interferon testing in New Zealand's bovine tuberculosis eradication programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J A; Dawson, K L; Buddle, B M

    2016-05-01

    valuable tool in a bTB eradication programme, as it enables higher test sensitivity at both herd and animal level. The use of the γ-IFN test over a risk cohort early in a breakdown assists in removal of early infection and some cases of anergy to intradermal tuberculin testing. Parallel γ-IFN with compulsory slaughter of reactors should be considered in breeding and dairy herds in conjunction with tuberculin testing before movement control is revoked, and will assist in achieving TB freedom on a herd level and nationally. PMID:27094146

  15. Eradication of the melon fly from Okinawa, Japan, by means of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national project to eradicate an introduced pest, the melon fly, from Okinawa was carried out from 1972 to 1992 using the sterile insect technique. After the release of about 50,000 million sterile flies, involving about Y. 10,000 million as investment, the melon fly was completely eradicated. The most important conditions for success were the maintenance of a quality mass reared strain and availability of precise information on the temporal and spatial distribution of wild and released flies for improvement of the release plan. (author). 12 refs, 8 figs

  16. Contain or eradicate? Optimizing the management goal for Australian acacia invasions in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.L.; Runge, M.C.; Webber, B.L.; Wilson, J.R.U.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To identify whether eradication or containment is expected to be the most cost-effective management goal for an isolated invasive population when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. Location Global and South Africa. Methods We developed a decision analysis framework to analyse the best management goal for an invasive species population (eradication, containment or take no action) when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. We used value of information analysis to identify when investment in learning about the extent will improve this decision-making and tested the sensitivity of the conclusions to different parameters (e.g. spread rate, maximum extent, and management efficacy and cost). The model was applied to Acacia paradoxa DC, an Australian shrub with an estimated invasive extent of 310ha on Table Mountain, South Africa. Results Under the parameters used, attempting eradication is cost-effective for infestations of up to 777ha. However, if the invasion extent is poorly known, then attempting eradication is only cost-effective for infestations estimated as 296ha or smaller. The value of learning is greatest (maximum of 8% saving) when infestation extent is poorly known and if it is close to the maximum extent for which attempting eradication is optimal. The optimal management action is most sensitive to the probability that the action succeeds (which depends on the extent), with the discount rate and cost of management also important, but spread rate less so. Over a 20-year time-horizon, attempting to eradicate A. paradoxa from South Africa is predicted to cost on average ZAR 8 million if the extent is known, and if our current estimate is poor, ZAR 33.6 million as opposed to ZAR 32.8 million for attempting containment. Main conclusions Our framework evaluates the cost-effectiveness of attempting eradication or containment of an invasive population that takes uncertainty in population extent into account. We show that incorporating

  17. Confirmation of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the 14C-urea breath test (UBT). 14C-UBT is being used as a highly reliable test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There is paucity of reports on the utility of this test to confirm the H. pylori eradication after its treatment. The study was conducted to determine the utility of 14C-UBT in confirming the eradication of H. pylori

  18. Reinfection rate and endoscopic changes after successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kum; Hei; Ryu; Sun; Young; Yi; Youn; Ju; Na; Su; Jung; Baik; Su; Jin; Yoon; Hae-Sun; Jung; Hyun; Joo; Song

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the long-term outcomes regarding reinfection with Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)and endoscopic changes after successful H.pylori eradication. METHODS:From June 1994 to January 2007,186 patients(M:F=98:88;mean age 50.0±11.4 years), in whom H.pylori had been successfully eradicated, were enrolled.The mean duration of follow up was 41.2±24.0 mo. RESULTS:H.pylori reinfection occurred in 58 patients (31.2%).The average annual reinfection rate was 9.1% per patient year.No recurrence of peptic ulce...

  19. HOGG1 polymorphism in atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the association between Ser326Cys human oxoguanine glycosylase 1(hOGG1) polymorphism and atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer after Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) eradication.METHODS:A total of 488 subjects(73 patients with gastric cancer,160 with atrophic gastritis after H.pylori eradication and 255 controls) were prospectively collected.Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed to distinguish hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism.Statistical analys...

  20. The Association of Helicobacter pylori Eradication with the Occurrences of Chronic Kidney Diseases in Patients with Peptic Ulcer Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiunn-Wei; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Tai, Wei-Chen; Ku, Ming-Kun; Hung, Tsung-Hsing; Tseng, Kuo-Lun; Yuan, Lan-Ting; Nguang, Seng-Howe; Liang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Hsu, Pin-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-01-01

    The association of Helicobacter pylori eradication with the occurrence of renal dysfunction in patients with peptic ulcer diseases is still unclear. This study aimed to clarify the relevance of H. pylori eradication to the occurrence of chronic kidney diseases in patients with peptic ulcer diseases. Data that were available from 2000–2011 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, and all patients with peptic ulcer diseases (n = 208 196) were screened for eligibility. We divided randomly selected patients into an H. pylori eradication cohort (cohort A, n = 3593) and matched them by age and sex to a without H. pylori eradication cohort (cohort B, n = 3593). Subgroup analysis was further performed for H. pylori eradication within ≤ 90 days of the diagnosis date (early eradication, n = 2837) and within 91–365 days (non-early eradication, n = 756). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the association of H. pylori eradication with the risk of developing chronic kidney diseases and mortality. We observed that there were more patients suffering from chronic kidney disease in cohort B than in the early eradication subgroup of cohort A (8.49% vs. 6.70%, respectively, p = 0.0075); the mortality rate was also higher in cohort B (4.76% vs. 3.70%, respectively, p = 0.0376). Old age, pulmonary disease, connective tissue disorders, and diabetes were risk factors for chronic kidney diseases but early H. pylori eradication was a protective factor against chronic kidney diseases (hazard ratio: 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.88, p = 0.0030), and death (hazard ratio: 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.49–0.96, p = 0.0297). In conclusion, our findings have important implications suggesting that early H. pylori eradication is mandatory since it is associated with a protective role against the occurrence of chronic kidney diseases. PMID:27764171

  1. Integration of ecologically-based approaches to re-eradicate cattle fever ticks from the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we summarize highlights of research conducted as part of a NIFA-AFRI funded grant. Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, have been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradic...

  2. Comparative Efficacy of Two Doses of Nebulized Colistimethate for the Eradication of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Sophie Brochet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF affects the respiratory and digestive systems. It evolves toward deterioration of pulmonary function through colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There is no consensus with respect to its eradication. Nebulized colistimethate is used for eradication treatment, but the optimal dose and duration is yet to be determined.

  3. Analysis of data of eliminating polio during 2000 to 2008 in Gaozhou%高州市2000-2008年消灭脊髓灰质炎资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤凤

    2009-01-01

    目的 提高脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)监测质量,保持无脊灰状态.方法 对高州市2000~2008年脊灰监测资料进行分析.结果 9年合计报告AFP病例38例,<15岁儿童非脊灰AFP报告率均在1/10万以上;AFP病例报告后48 h内调查率、合格粪便标本采集率、粪便标本及时送检率、AFP病例及时随访率均达100.0%;脊灰疫苗常规免疫、强化免疫接种率均在95%以上.结论 高州市AFP病例监测质量较高,消火脊灰各项措施得到较好落实.%Objective This study is to improve the surveillance quality of polio and keep poliofree status.Methods The surveillance of polio data during 2000 to 2008 in Gaozhou were analyzed. Results 38 acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) eases had been reported during the nine years.The reported incidence of non-polio AFP cases were all above 1 per 1 000 000 children under 15 years old.The investigation rate of AFP after reported within 48h, the collection rate of qualified stool specimens, the timely specimen delivery rate and the timely AFP cause follow-up rate completely reached 100%,The OPV routine immunization and supplementary immunization coverage rates were all above 95%.Conclusions It suggested that the quality of AFP surveillance was high and all measures to eliminate polio were administered well in Gaozhou.

  4. Efficacy of mupirocin nasal ointment in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in chronic haemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. L. Holton; L. E. Nicolle; D. Diley; K. Bernstein

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTopical 2% mupirocin ointment eradicated chronic Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage immediately post-therapy in 17 (77%) of 22 haemodialysis patients. Mean time to recurrence was 3.8 weeks. Similar pre-therapy and post-therapy phage types occurred in 12 (71%) of 17 patients. Staphyloco

  5. Evaluation of the benefit of addition of clidinium C to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorami, Maryam; Naderi, Nosratollah; Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Mirsattari, Dariush; Shalmani, Hamid Mohaghegh

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to evaluate the success of H.pylori eradication therapy in patients with dyspepsia by therapeutics regimes with and without clidinium C. Background Helicobacter pylori infections are reported in all parts of the world. Appropriate antibiotic therapy can treat infection. The ideal treatment regimen has not been specified. Patients and methods In a randomized, double blind clinical trials study, 250 patients with dyspepsia were enrolled. All patients were treated by Omeprazole, Metronidazole, Amoxicillin and Bismuth (OMAB) for two weeks. One tablet clidinium C before each meal was added to this regimen in the intervention group (A). Urea Breath Test (UBT) was carried out after 8-12 weeks after treatment for evaluation of H.pylori eradication. Results 132 patients in the intervention group (A) and 118 patients in the control group (B) were enrolled to the study. The rate of eradication in group A was significantly higher than group B (62.1% vs. 50%, p=0.04). Conclusion The results supported the effect of clidinium C for increasing of helicobacter pylori eradication, but further studies need to be performed. PMID:24834261

  6. Development of vaccines toward the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most economically and socially devastating diseases affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. Although mortality is low, millions of animals have been killed in efforts to rapidly control and eradicate FMD. The causing virus (FMDV) is a highly vari...

  7. Helicobacter pylori Eradication and Gastric Cancer: When Is the Horse Out of the Barn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. de Vries; E.J. Kuipers; E.A.J. Rauws

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer development. Therefore, H. pylori eradication may be an important approach in the prevention of gastric cancer. However, long-term data proving the efficacy of this approach are lacking. This report describes two patients who de

  8. H pylori eradication:A randomized prospective study of triple therapy with or without ecabet sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether adding ecabet sodium to the standard triple therapy for Hpylori infection improve eradication rate.METHODS:Two hundred and fifty-seven H pyloriinfected patients were randomly assigned to standard triple therapy (group A, n=129) or triple therapy plus ecabet sodium(group B, n=128).Successful eradication was defined as a negative 13C-urea breath test 6-8 wk after completion of treatment.RESULTS:After completion of therapy,194/257 patients showed negative 13C-urea breath test results.According to intention-to-treat analysis,the infection was eradicated in 93/129(72.1%)patients in group A and 101/128 (78.9%) in group B (P=0.204).Per-protocol analysis showed successful eradication in 93/118(78.8%)patients from group A and 101/114 (88.6%) from group B (P = 0.044).There were no significant differences in the side effects experienced by the patients in the two treatment groups.CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that the addition of ecabet sodium improves the efficacy of the standard triple therapy for H pylori.

  9. The Arab States: A Programme To Renew Primary Education and Eradicate Illiteracy. Literacy Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Abdelwahid Abdalla

    The United Nations' Regional Programme for the Universalization and Renewal of Primary Education and the Eradication of Adult Illiteracy in the Arab States by the Year 2000 (ARABUPEAL) began in 1987. Among the educational problems confronting Arab States are that their educational objectives do not specifically relate to development objectives,…

  10. Eradication of Polymyxa betae by thermal and anaerobic conditions and in the presence of compost leachate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van E.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The abiotic conditions required for eradication of Polymyxa betae, the vector of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beet, were investigated. Survival of resting spores of P. betae was determined under aerobic (30 min, 4 days and 21 days) and anaerobic (4 days) conditions under several temperat

  11. Trisomy 3 may predict a poor response of gastric MALT lymphoma to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sawako Taji; Masuji Morita; Masafumi Taniwaki; Kenichi Nomura; Yosuke Matsumoto; Hideaki Sakabe; Naohisa Yoshida; Shoji Mitsufuji; Kazuhiro Nishida; Shigeo Horiike; Shigeo Nakamura

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relation of the response to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy to the depth of tumor invasion and chromosome abnormalities in patients with mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to determine the clinical value of aneuploidy.METHODS: We studied 13 patients with localized gastric MALT lymphoma of stage E1. Before eradication therapy,the depth of tumor invasion was assessed by endoscopic ultrasonography in 8 patients and by endoscopic examination and gastrointestinal series in the remaining patients. To detect chromosomal abnormalities, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of diagnostic biopsy specimens underwent tissuefluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using chromosomespecific α-satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 3,7,12,and 18 and YAC clones for t(11;18)(q21;q21).RESULTS: Seven of the 13 patients had complete regression(CR) in response to H pylori eradication therapy. No patient with CR had submucosal tumor invasion. Trisomy 18 was seen in 1 patient with CR, and both trisomies 12 and 18 were present in another patient with CR. All patients with no response or progressive disease had deep submucosal tumor invasion and showed t(11;18)(q21;q21) or trisomy 3. Trisomy 7 was not detected in this series of patients.CONCLUSION: The depth of tumor invasion is an accurate predictor of the response of stage E1 MALT lymphoma to H pylori eradication therapy and is closely associated with the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. Trisomy 3 may predict the aggressive development of MALT lymphoma.

  12. Eradication of carriage with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: effectiveness of a national guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.M. Ammerlaan; J.A.J.W. Kluytmans; H. Berkhout; A. Buiting; E.I.G.B. de Brauwer; P.J. van den Broek; P. van Gelderen; S.C.A.P. Leenders; A. Ott; C.J.J. Richter; L. Spanjaard; I.J.B. Spijkerman; F.H. van Tiel; G.P. Voorn; M.W.H. Wulf; J. van Zeijl; A. Troelstra; M.J.M. Bonten

    2011-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the effectiveness of eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in the Netherlands after the introduction of a guideline in 2006. The guideline distinguishes complicated (defined as the presence of MRSA infection, skin lesions, foreign-body ma

  13. 9 CFR 72.6 - Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.6 Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. 72.6 Section 72.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...

  14. Seven-day PPI-triple therapy with levofloxacin is very effective for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, R.W.; Janssen, M.J.R.; Boer, W.A. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease, MALT lymphoma and gastric cancer. Many patients benefit from H. pylori eradication therapy. PPI-triple therapy is recommended as initial therapy. Quadruple therapy, wit

  15. Selected Antimicrobial Essential Oils Eradicate Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanaugh, Nicole L.; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms are difficult to eliminate with standard antimicrobial treatments due to their high antibiotic resistance relative to free-living cells. Here, we show that selected antimicrobial essential oils can eradicate bacteria within biofilms with higher efficiency than certain important antibiotics, making them interesting candidates for the treatment of biofilms.

  16. Helicobacter pylori eradication does not exacerbate gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    OpenAIRE

    Malfertheiner, P

    2004-01-01

    The reciprocal influence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), if both conditions occur concomitantly, has been an issue of debate for many years. The critical question is whether eradication of H pylori has a more beneficial, harmful, or simply no effect on the course of GORD.

  17. Do We Eradicate Helicobacter pylori in Hospitalized Patients with Peptic Ulcer Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common chronic infection in humans. It is a major contributor to the cause of duodenal and gastric ulcers worldwide. Its eradication has been shown to reduce rates of H pylori-related ulcers as well as other complications such as gastric cancer.

  18. The Effects of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on Proteinuria in Patients with Primary Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Caliskan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Membranous nephropathy (MN is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome. In most cases it is idiopathic, while it may also be secondary to many diseases. In this study, prevalence of H. pylori infection and the effects of H. pylori eradication on proteinuria levels were investigated. Methods. Thirty five patients with MN (19 male, 12 patients with IgA nephropathy (4 male and 12 patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (8 male were studied. The presence of H. pylori antigen was investigated in renal tissues obtained by biopsy, and the effects of H. pylori eradication on proteinuria levels were investigated. Results. Immunohistochemistry with H. pylori antigen revealed no positive staining in the glomeruli of all patients. 19 patients (54% with MN, 10 (83% with IgA nephropathy and 4 (33% with FSGS were positive for H. pylori stool antigen test (P=0.045. Patients with H. pylori infection were administered eradication therapy (lansoprazole, 30 mg twice daily, plus amoxicillin, 0.75 g twice daily, plus clarithromycin, 250 mg twice daily, for 14 days. Before the eradication therapy the mean proteinuria of patients with MN, IgA nephropathy and FSGS were 2.42 ± 3.24 g/day, 2.12 ± 1.63 g/day and 1.80 ± 1.32 g/day, respectively. Three months after eradication, baseline proteinuria levels of patients with MN significantly decreased to 1.26 ± 1.73 g/day (P=0.031. In all three groups there were no significant differences with regard to serum creatinine, albumin and C-reactive protein levels before and after eradication therapy. Conclusions. The eradication of H. pylori infection may be effective to reduce proteinuria in patients with MN, while spontaneous remission of MN could not be excluded in this patient cohort. This trial is registered with NCT00983034.

  19. Efficacy of a therapeutic strategy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuliana Sereni; Francesco Azzolini; Lorenzo Camellini; Debora Formisano; Francesco Decembrino; Veronica Iori; Cristiana Tioli

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the efficacy of our therapeutic strategy for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication and to identify predictive factors for successful eradication.METHODS:From April 2006 to June 2010,we retrospectively assessed 2428 consecutive patients (1025 men,1403 women; mean age 55 years,age range 18-92 years) with gastric histology positive for H.pylori infection referred to our unit for 13-C urea breath test (UBT),after first-line therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) b.i.d.+ amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d.+ clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.for 7 d.Patients who were still positive to UBT were recommended a second-line therapy (PPI b.i.d.+amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d.+ tinidazole 500 mg b.i.d.for 14 d).Third choice treatment was empirical with PPI b.i.d.+amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d.+ levofloxacin 250 mg b.i.d.for 14 d.RESULTS:Out of 614 patients,still H.pylori-positive after first-line therapy,only 326 and 19 patients respectively rechecked their H.pylori status by UBT after the suggested second and third-line regimens."Per protocol" eradication rates for first,second and thirdline therapy were 74.7% (95% CI:72.7%-76.4%),85.3% (95% CI:81.1%-89.1%) and 89.5% (95% CI:74.9%-103%) respectively.The overall percentage of patients with H.pylori eradicated after two treatments was 97.8% (95% CI:97.1%-98.4%),vs 99.9% (95%CI:99.8%-100%) after three treatments.The study found that eradication therapy was most effective in patients with ulcer disease (P < 0.05,P =0.028),especially in those with duodenal ulcer.Smoking habits did not significantly affect the eradication rate.CONCLUSION:First-line therapy with amoxicillin and clarithromycin produces an H.pylori eradication rate comparable or superior to other studies and secondline treatment can still be triple therapy with amoxicillin and tinidazole.

  20. Estimating achievement from fame

    OpenAIRE

    Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report a method for estimating people's achievement based on their fame. Earlier we discovered (cond-mat/0310049) that fame of fighter pilot aces (measured as number of Google hits) grows exponentially with their achievement (number of victories). We hypothesize that the same functional relation between achievement and fame holds for other professions. This allows us to estimate achievement for professions where an unquestionable and universally accepted measure of achievement does not exi...

  1. Financial and Economic Costs of the Elimination and Eradication of Onchocerciasis (River Blindness in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Eun Kim

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a parasitic disease transmitted by blackflies. Symptoms include severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all cases are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly decreased morbidity, and the treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in Africa.We estimated financial resources and societal opportunity costs associated with scaling up community-directed treatment with ivermectin and implementing surveillance and response systems in endemic African regions for alternative treatment goals--control, elimination, and eradication. We used a micro-costing approach that allows adjustment for time-variant resource utilization and for the heterogeneity in the demographic, epidemiological, and political situation.The elimination and eradication scenarios, which include scaling up treatments to hypo-endemic and operationally challenging areas at the latest by 2021 and implementing intensive surveillance, would allow savings of $1.5 billion and $1.6 billion over 2013-2045 as compared to the control scenario. Although the elimination and eradication scenarios would require higher surveillance costs ($215 million and $242 million than the control scenario ($47 million, intensive surveillance would enable treatments to be safely stopped earlier, thereby saving unnecessary costs for prolonged treatments as in the control scenario lacking such surveillance and response systems.The elimination and eradication of onchocerciasis are predicted to allow substantial cost-savings in the long run. To realize cost-savings, policymakers should keep empowering community volunteers, and pharmaceutical companies would need to continue drug donation. To sustain high surveillance costs required for elimination and eradication, endemic countries would need to enhance their domestic funding capacity

  2. Oral Helicobacter pylori, its relationship to successful eradication of gastric H. pylori and saliva culture confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Yee, K C; Hazeki-Taylor, N; Li, J; Fu, H Y; Huang, M L; Zhang, G Y

    2014-08-01

    The present study was designed to explore the existence of oral Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), its relationship in the oral cavity to the success rate of eradication of the gastric H. pylori infection, and to determine if the mouthwash solution contained lysine (0.4%) and glycerol monolaurate (0.2%) (LGM) could eliminate oral H. pylori, as well as using the saliva H. pylori culture to confirm the existence of oral H. pylori. A total of 159 symptomatic individuals with stomach pain and 118 asymptomatic individuals with no stomach complaints, were recruited and tested using the saliva H. pylori antigen test (HPS), the H. pylori flagellin test (HPF), the urea breath test (UBT C(13)) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, which tests were also confirmed by saliva culture. The test subjects also received various treatments. It was found that the H. pylori antigen exists in the oral cavity in UBT C(13) negative individuals. Traditional treatment for gastric eradication had only a 10.67 percent (10.67%) effectiveness rate on the oral H. pylori infection. In groups of patients with the oral H. pylori infection, but with negative UBT C(13), a mouthwash solution provided a 72.58% effectiveness rate in the 95% of the confidence interval (CI) ranges on the oral H. pylori infection. Traditional drug gastric eradication and teeth cleaning (TC) had less than a 10% effectiveness rate. Treatment of the oral infection increased the success rate of eradication of the stomach infection from 61.33% to 82.26% in the 95% CI ranges. We concluded that the successful rate of eradication of gastric H. pylori bears a significant relationship to the oral infection from H. pylori. PMID:25179088

  3. Does delayed gastric emptying shorten the H pylori eradication period? A double blind clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hassan Emami; Rahim Bahri-Najafi; Bita Geramizadeh; Abbas Esmaeili; Mohammad Mehdi Saberfiroozi; Abbas Arj; Ali Reza Taghavi; Kamran Bagheri-Lankarani; Najaf Dehbashi; Mohammad Reza Fattahi; Mahvash Alizadeh; Mohammad Javad Kaviani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the gastric emptying inhibitory effects of sugar and levodopa on H pylori eradication period.METHODS: A total of 139 consecutive patients were randomized into 6 groups. The participants with peptic ulcer disease or non-ulcer dyspepsia non-responding to other medications who were also H pylori-positive patients either with positive rapid urease test (RUT)or positive histology were included. All groups were pretreated with omeprazole for 2 d and then treated with quadruple therapy regimen (omeprazole, bismuth,tetracycline and metronidazole);all drugs were given twice daily. Groups 1 and 2 were treated for 3 d, groups 3, 4 and 5 for 7 d, and group 6 for 14 d. Groups 1 to 4 received sugar in the form of 10% sucrose syrup.Levodopa was prescribed for groups 1 and 3. Patients in groups 2 and 4 were given placebo for levodopa and groups 5 and 6 received placebos for both sugar and levodopa. Upper endoscopy and biopsies were carried out before treatment and two months after treatment.Eradication of H pylori was assessed by RUT and histoloqy 8 wk later.RESULTS: Thirty patients were excluded. Per-protocol analysis showed successful eradication in 53% in group 1, 56% in group 2, 58% in group 3, 33.3% in group 4,28% in group 5, and 53% in group 6. Eradication rate,patient compliance and satisfaction were not significantly different between the groups.CONCLUSION: It seems that adding sugar or levodopa or both to anti H pylori eradication regimens may lead to shorter duration of treatment.

  4. Pretreatment AKR1B10 expression predicts the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development after hepatitis C virus eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Ayato; Genda, Takuya; Ichida, Takafumi; Amano, Nozomi; Sato, Sho; Tsuzura, Hironori; Sato, Shunsuke; Narita, Yutaka; Kanemitsu, Yoshio; Shimada, Yuji; Hirano, Katsuharu; Iijima, Katsuyori; Wada, Ryo; Nagahara, Akihito; Watanabe, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To clarify the association between aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) expression and hepatocarcinogenesis after hepatitis C virus eradication. METHODS In this study, we enrolled 303 chronic hepatitis C patients who had achieved sustained virological response (SVR) through interferon-based antiviral therapy. Pretreatment AKR1B10 expression in the liver was immunohistochemically assessed and quantified as a percentage of positive staining area by using image-analysis software. A multivariate Cox analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of AKR1B10 expression for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development after achieving SVR. The cumulative incidences of HCC development were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. RESULTS Of the 303 chronic hepatitis C patients, 153 (50.5%) showed scarce hepatic AKR1B10 expression, quantified as 0%, which was similar to the expression in control normal liver tissues. However, the remaining 150 patients (49.5%) exhibited various degrees of AKR1B10 expression in the liver, with a maximal AKR1B10 expression of 73%. During the median follow-up time of 3.6 years (range 1.0-10.0 years), 8/303 patients developed HCC. Multivariate analysis revealed that only high AKR1B10 expression (≥ 8%) was an independent risk factor for HCC development (HR = 15.4, 95%CI: 1.8-132.5, P = 0.012). The 5-year cumulative incidences of HCC development were 13.7% and 0.5% in patients with high and low AKR1B10 expression, respectively (P < 0.001). During the follow-up period after viral eradication, patients expressing high levels of AKR1B10 expressed markedly higher levels of alanine aminotransferase and α-fetoprotein than did patients exhibiting low AKR1B10 expression. CONCLUSION Chronic hepatitis C patients expressing high levels of hepatic AKR1B10 had an increased risk of HCC development even after SVR. PMID:27672277

  5. Low eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori with triple 7-14 days and quadriple therapy in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuksel Gumurdulu; Sedat Boyacioglu; Ender Serin; Birol Ozer; Fazilet Kayaselcuk; Kursat Ozsahin; Arif Mansur Cosar; Mlurat Gursoy; Gurden Gur; Ugur Yilmaz

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori(H pylorl)shows variation among countries and regimens of treatment.We aimed to study the eradication rates of different regimens in our region and some factors affecting the rate of eradication.METHODS: One hundred and sixty- four H pylori positive patients (68 males, 96 females; mean age: 48±12 years)with duodenal or gastric ulcer without a smoking history were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups according to the treatment regimens. Omeprazole 20 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, amoxicillin 1 g were given twice daily for 1 week (Group I) and 2 weeks (Group II).Patients in Group III Received bismuth subsitrate 300 mg,tetracyline 500 mg and metronidazole 500 mg four times daily in addition to Omeprazole 20 mg twice daily. Two biopsies each before and after treatment were obtained from antrum and corpus, and histopathologically evaluated.Eradication was assumed to be successful if no H pylorus was detected from four biopsy specimens taken after treatment. The effects of factors like age, sex, H pylori density on antrum and corpus before treatment, the total H pylori density, and the inflammation scores on the rate of H pylori eradication were evaluated.RESULTS: The overall eradication rate was 42%. The rates in groups II and III were statistically higher than that in group I (P<0.05). The rates of eradication were 24.5%,40.7% and 61.5% in groups I, II and III, respectively. The eradication rate was negatively related to either corpus H pylori density or total H pylori density (P<0.05). The median age was older in the group in which the eradication failed in comparison to that with successful eradication (55 yr vs 39 yr, P<0.001). No correlation between sex and H pylori eradication was found.CONCLUSION: Our rates of eradication were significantly lower when compared to those reported in literature. We believe that advanced age and high H pylori density are negative predictive factors for

  6. C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Unger, Wendy W. J.; Kooyk, Yvette van, E-mail: y.vankooyk@vumc.nl [Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-08-08

    Dendritic cells are key regulators in directing immune responses and therefore are under extensive research for the induction of anti-tumor responses. DCs express a large array of receptors by which they scan their surroundings for recognition and uptake of pathogens. One of the receptor-families is the C-type lectins (CLR), which bind carbohydrate structures and internalize antigens upon recognition. Intracellular routing of antigen through CLR enhances loading and presentation of antigen through MHC class I and II, inducing antigen-specific CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T-cell proliferation and skewing T-helper cells. These characteristics make CLRs very interesting targets for DC-based immunotherapy. Profound research has been done on targeting specific tumor antigens to CLR using either antibodies or the natural ligands such as glycan structures. In this review we will focus on the current data showing the potency of CLR-targeting and discuss improvements that can be achieved to enhance anti-tumor activity in the near future.

  7. Pepsinogen II Can Be a Potential Surrogate Marker of Morphological Changes in Corpus before and after H. pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Massarrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this investigation is to study the relationship between gastric morphology and serum biomarkers before and after Helicobacter pylori eradication. Methods. First-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients underwent gastroscopy before and 2.5 years after H. pylori eradication. The morphological changes in two categories (normal to mild and moderate to severe were compared with level of pepsinogens I and II before eradication (n=369, after eradication (n=115, and in those with persistent infection (n=250. Results: After eradication, pepsinogen I decreased to 70% and pepsinogen II to 45% of the previous values. Unlike pepsinogen II and pepsinogen I to II ratio that were affected by the severity of inflammation and atrophy in corpus in all groups, pepsinogen I generally did not change. After eradication, subjects with high mononuclear infiltration in corpus had lower pepsinogen I (54 versus 77.1 μ/mL, higher pepsinogen II (9.4 versus 6.9 μ/mL, and lower ratio (7.9 versus 11.6 than those without (P<0.05. Conclusion. Pepsinogen II is a good marker of corpus morphological changes before and after H. pylori eradication.

  8. Peste des petits ruminants diagnosis and diagnostic tools at a glance: perspectives on global control and eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhamani, Ramasamy; Singh, Rabindra Prasad; Njeumi, Felix

    2016-11-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious, economically important viral disease of small ruminants, targeted for global eradication by the year 2030. The recent geographic surge in PPR virus distribution, economic implications, the success of the rinderpest eradication campaign, and ongoing national/regional efforts convinced the FAO and OIE to initiate a global PPR control and eradication strategy. Since its discovery, a series of diagnostic tools have been developed for detecting PPR virus and virus-specific antibodies. Furthermore, it is understood that diagnostic and vaccine-monitoring tools are inevitable components of the four-stage strategy of global PPR eradication from assessment to the post-eradication phase. However, these tools may not be suitable for all stages of PPR control and eradication. For instance, diagnostics such as ELISA could be used for mass screening of clinical and serum samples, whereas immunochromatographic tests can be used at the field level as a pen-side test. Yet, assays with higher sensitivity, such as RT-PCR, RT-PCR ELISA, real-time RT-PCR and LAMP are important for early diagnosis of PPR and also, theoretically, during the late stages of eradication or when sampling non-natural hosts. Moreover, during the later stages of any control program, suspected/doubtful outbreaks will have to be reconfirmed using multiple laboratory tests. Hence, diagnostics can and should be efficiently applied at different stages of the PPR control and eradication campaign based on available resources and the number of samples to be tested. This article provides an overview of the various PPR diagnostic tools and suggests where and how they should be logically applied during the different phases of global PPR control and eradication. PMID:27522587

  9. Adjuvant probiotics improve the eradication effect of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Qi Du; Tun Su; Jian-Gao Fan; Yu-Xia Lu; Ping Zheng; Xing-Hua Li; Chuan-Yong Guo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether the addition of probiotics can improve the eradication effect of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection.METHODS:This open randomized trial recruited 234 H.pylori positive gastritis patients from seven local centers.The patients were randomized to one-week standard triple therapy (omeprazole 20 mg bid,clarithromycin 500 mg bid,and amoxicillin 1000 mg bid; OCA group,n =79); two weeks of pre-treatment with probiotics,containing 3 × 107 Lactobacillus acidophilus per day,prior to one week of triple therapy (POCA group,n =78); or one week of triple therapy followed by two weeks of the same probiotics (OCAP group,n =77).Successful eradication was defined as a negative C13 or C14 urease breath test four weeks after triple therapy.Patients were asked to report associated symptoms at baseline and during follow-up,and side effects related to therapy were recorded.Data were analyzed by both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) methods.RESULTS:PP analysis involved 228 patients,78 in the OCA,76 in the POCA and 74 in the OCAP group.Successful eradication was observed in 171 patients; by PP analysis,the eradication rates were significantly higher (P =0.007 each) in the POCA (62/76; 81.6%,95%CI 72.8%-90.4%) and OCAP (61/74; 82.4%,95% CI 73.6%-91.2%) groups than in the OCA group (48/78;61.5%,95% CI 50.6%-72.4%).ITT analysis also showed that eradication rates were significantly higher in the POCA (62/78; 79.5%,95% CI 70.4%-88.6%)and OCAP (61/77; 79.2%,95% CI 70%-88.4%)groups than in the OCA group (48/79; 60.8%,95% CI 49.9%-71.7%),(P =0.014 and P =0.015).The symptom relieving rates in the POCA,OCAP and OCA groups were 85.5%,89.2% and 87.2%,respectively.Only one of the 228 patients experienced an adverse reaction.CONCLUSION:Administration of probiotics before or after standard triple therapy may improve H.pylori eradication rates.

  10. Effect of Hewei-Decoction on chronic atrophic gastritis and eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Sheng Ji; Zhi-Xing Gao; Kai-Chun Wu; Jun-Wen Qiu; Bing-Long Shi; Dai-Ming Fan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the effect of Hewei-Decoction(Decoction for regulating the stomach) on chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and eradication of Helicobacter pylori.METHODS: Ninety patients with CAG entering the investigation were divided into six differentiation syndromes, based on their major symptoms and signs.Hewei-Decoction was taken by all the patients orally for 4or 8 wk. The efficacy was assessed by both the composite accumulation of reduced scores of major symptoms and the eradication of H pylori.χ2 test was used to compare the efficacy between Hpylori-positive and negative cases,and to disclose the relationship between efficacy and eradication of H pylori.REStULTS: In patients with six different syndrome types,the efficacy of Hewei-Decoction was 91.67% (11/12),92.86% (13/14), 97.22% (35/36), 87.50% (14/16),75.00% (6/8), 75.00% (3/4) respectively. The rate of highly efficacious was 58.33% (7/12), 50.00% (7/14),77.78% (28/36), 62.50% (10/16), 12.50% (1/8) and25.00% (1/4), respectively. The total efficacy was 91.11%(82/90), and the rate of highly efficacious was 60.00%(54/90). The eradication rate of H pyloriwas 67.86%(38/56). The therapeutic effect of Hewei-Decoction was better in H pylori positive cases than that in Hpylori-negative cases with the total effect of 96.43% vs82.35% (P<0.05).In 56 H pylori positive cases, the therapeutic effect was better in H pylori eradicated cases than that in H pyloriexistent cases with the total effect of 97.37% vs 72.22%(P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Hewei-Decoction is effective in most cases of all the syndrome types. The results indicate that eradication of H pylori is one of the important mechanisms for alleviation of symptoms and signs. Also, the decoction is efficacious in H pylori-negative cases.

  11. Tumor eradication after cyclophosphamide depends on concurrent depletion of regulatory T cells: a role for cycling TNFR2-expressing effector-suppressor T cells in limiting effective chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Most, Robbert G; Currie, Andrew J; Mahendran, Sathish; Prosser, Amy; Darabi, Anna; Robinson, Bruce W S; Nowak, Anna K; Lake, Richard A

    2009-08-01

    Tumor cell death potentially engages with the immune system. However, the efficacy of anti-tumor chemotherapy may be limited by tumor-driven immunosuppression, e.g., through CD25+ regulatory T cells. We addressed this question in a mouse model of mesothelioma by depleting or reconstituting CD25+ regulatory T cells in combination with two different chemotherapeutic drugs. We found that the efficacy of cyclophosphamide to eradicate established tumors, which has been linked to regulatory T cell depletion, was negated by adoptive transfer of CD25+ regulatory T cells. Analysis of post-chemotherapy regulatory T cell populations revealed that cyclophosphamide depleted cycling (Ki-67(hi)) T cells, including foxp3+ regulatory CD4+ T cells. Ki-67(hi) CD4+ T cells expressed increased levels of two markers, TNFR2 and ICOS, that have been associated with a maximally suppressive phenotype according to recently published studies. This suggest that cyclophosphamide depletes a population of maximally suppressive regulatory T cells, which may explain its superior anti-tumor efficacy in our model. Our data suggest that regulatory T cell depletion could be used to improve the efficacy of anti-cancer chemotherapy regimens. Indeed, we observed that the drug gemcitabine, which does not deplete cycling regulatory T cells, eradicates established tumors in mice only when CD25+ CD4+ T cells are concurrently depleted. Cyclophosphamide could be used to achieve regulatory T cell depletion in combination with chemotherapy.

  12. Integrated analysis of three bacterial conjunctivitis trials of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%: microbiological eradication outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris TW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy W Morris1, Lynne S Gearinger1, Dale W Usner2, Michael R Paterno2, Heleen H DeCory3, Timothy L Comstock3, Wolfgang Haas11Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, 2Clinical Affairs, 3Global Pharmaceutical Medical Affairs, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: To assess clinical antimicrobial efficacy results obtained with besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%, administered three times a day (TID for 5 days, integrated across three clinical trials of bacterial conjunctivitis and to investigate any microbiological eradication failures.Methods: Clinical microbiological eradication data from three randomized, double-masked, parallel group studies of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis (two vehicle controlled; one active controlled with moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution, 0.5% were integrated. All bacterial samples isolated at baseline above the species-specific threshold value were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Samples isolated at subsequent visits were subjected to susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to investigate the cause of eradication failures and the potential for drug resistance development.Results: Visit 2 (day 4 or 5 and visit 3 (day 8 overall microbiological eradication rates were 92.2% and 88.4% for besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension compared with 61.4% and 72.5% for vehicle and 91.6% and 85.7% for moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution. Visit 2 and visit 3 microbiological eradication rates for Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates and for individual species were consistent with the overall eradication rates. The majority of observed eradication failures in any treatment group were due to the persistence of the pathogen isolated at baseline. Eradication failures in the besifloxacin treatment group were not associated with lower antimicrobial susceptibility at baseline. PFGE data showed that the majority of bacterial strains in eyes with eradication failures were identical to

  13. Malaria vaccine-is it still required? Are vaccine alternatives enough to achieve malaria control?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fsadni Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite ongoing continuous research towards developing a malaria vaccine, we have still not achieved this target and the malaria parasite continues to kill thousands, especially children in developing countries. However, current control methods have had good results in some countries. Can these control methods be enough or should people still keep hoping for a vaccine? Would eradication of malaria be a possibility if no vaccine remains available?

  14. Description and validation of ERAD: An atmospheric dispersion model for high explosive detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughton, B.A.; DeLaurentis, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model is a three-dimensional numerical simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and diffusion. An integral plume rise technique is used to provide a description of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud of warm gases formed when the explosive detonates. Particle dispersion is treated as a stochastic process which is simulated using a discrete time Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. The stochastic process approach permits a more fundamental treatment of buoyancy effects, calm winds and spatial variations in meteorological conditions. Computational requirements of the three-dimensional simulation are substantially reduced by using a conceptualization in which each Monte Carlo particle represents a small puff that spreads according to a Gaussian law in the horizontal directions. ERAD was evaluated against dosage and deposition measurements obtained during Operation Roller Coaster. The predicted contour areas average within about 50% of the observations. The validation results confirm the model`s representation of the physical processes.

  15. Eradication of Blastocystis hominis prevents the development of symptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajič, Borko; Arapović, Jurica; Raguž, Kazimir; Bošković, Mladen; Babić, Senaida Marina; Maslać, Suzana

    2015-07-01

    In this case report we describe a 49 year-old man who presented with chronic urticaria, angioedema and soft stool consistency. During diagnostic examinations Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found even though the patient never had clear symptoms of this disease. Blastocystis hominis was isolated through a stool microbiologic examination, implicating that this parasite can cause the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and chronic urticaria. After two-weeks treatment with metronidazole the Blastocystis hominis was eradicated, then urticaria and angioedema disappeared. During the four years of follow-up, the patient presented without any symptoms, whereas thyroid hormones were normalized and anti-thyroid antibodies declined. For the first time in the literature we show that eradication of Blastocystis hominis can prevent the development of both symptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis and chronic urticaria. PMID:26230132

  16. Experimental assessment of disinfection procedures for eradication of Aspergillus fumigatus in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Noussair, Latifa; Bouakline, Adel; Roux, Nicole; Lacroix, Claire; Derouin, Francis

    2004-10-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus spores in food may represent an infectious risk for neutropenic patients. We examined the efficiency of disinfection procedures applicable to foods for eradication of A fumigatus. Boiling and microwave treatment fully decontaminated an experimental spore suspension and naturally contaminated liquid foods (reconstituted dried food, herbal tea). Full decontamination of experimentally contaminated surfaces was only obtained with 70% ethanol or heating at 220 degrees C for 15 minutes. Pepper was decontaminated when heated for 15 minutes at 220 degrees C but not by microwaving. Fruit skin was partially decontaminated by 70% ethanol. We conclude that A fumigatus spores can be eradicated from food by heating to a temperature of at least 100 degrees C. When foods cannot be exposed to high temperature or microwaving, ethanol only partially reduces the level of surface contamination.

  17. Stress-induced hemorrhagic gastric ulcer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Mitsuaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastric ulcers, and Helicobacter pylori eradication drastically reduces ulcer recurrence. It has been reported, however, that severe physical stress is closely associated with gastric ulceration even in Helicobacter pylori -negative patients. Case presentation We report the cases of a 47-year-old Japanese man and a 69-year-old Japanese man who developed psychological stress-induced hemorrhagic gastric ulcers, in both of whom Helicobacter pylori had been successfully eradicated. Conclusion Our cases strongly suggest that not only physical but also psychological stress is still an important pathogenic factor for peptic ulceration and accordingly that physicians should pay attention to the possible presence of psychological stress in the management of patients with peptic ulcers.

  18. Pseudomembranous colitis associated with a triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Trifan, Anca; Girleanu, Irina; Cojocariu, Camelia; Sfarti, Catalin; Singeap, Ana Maria; Dorobat, Carmen; Grigore, Lucia; Stanciu, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections in humans, affecting half of world’s population. Therapy for H. pylori infection has proven to be both effective and safe. The one-week triple therapy including proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin or metronidazole is still recommended as a first-line treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection in countries with low clarithromycin resistance. Generally, this therapy is well-tolerated, with ...

  19. Cure of peptic gastric ulcer associated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Finnish Gastric Ulcer Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, K; Pikkarainen, P.; Sipponen, P.; Kivilaakso, E.; Gormsen, M H

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on ulcer healing and the relapse rate were investigated in a multicentre trial of 239 gastric ulcer patients. Patients with H pylori positive gastric ulcer were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (A) 10 days' treatment with metronidazole and eight weeks' treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) (84 patients); (B) 10 days' treatment with metronidazole placebo and eight weeks with CBS (73 patients); or (C) ranitidine (82 patients). A...

  20. A vaccinia virus renaissance: new vaccine and immunotherapeutic uses after smallpox eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardi, Paulo H; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J

    2012-07-01

    In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies.

  1. Mucoadhesive and muco-penetrating delivery systems for eradication of helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Saahil Arora; Gaurav Bisen; R D Budhiraja

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the major culprit for peptic ulcer, has a unique way of survival in harsh acidic environment of the stomach by colonizing deep in the gastric mucosal layer. Failure of conventional therapies against H. pylori for complete eradication has major limitations like low residence time of delivery system in stomach, poor penetration of drug in gastric mucosa, acidic degradation of antibiotics, and development of antibiotics resistance. The poor penetration of antibio...

  2. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Sha Chen; An-Xin Wang; Bing Dong; Ke-Feng Pu; Li-Hua Yuan; Yi-Min Zhu

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory,cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells.This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention.Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer.In this review,we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells,and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells,a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research.

  3. Helicobacter pylori eradication lowers serum homocysteine level in patients without gastric atrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Birol Ozer; Ender Serin; Yuksel Gumurdulu; Fazilet Kayaselcuk; Ruksan Anarat; Gurden Gur; Kemal Kul; Mustafa Gu(c)lu; Sedat Boyacioglu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori)infection caused hyperhomocysteinemia by altering serum vitamin B12, serum folate and erythrocyte folate levels and whether eradication of this organism decreased serum homocysteine level.METHODS: The study involved 73 dyspeptic H pylori positive patients, none of them had gastric mucosal atrophy based on rapid urease test and histology. Out of 73patients, 41 (56.2%) showed a successful eradication of H pylori 4 wk after the end of treatment. In these 41 patients, fasting serum vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels, and erythrocyte folate levels before and 4 wk after H pylorieradication therapy were compared.RESULTS: The group with a successful eradication of Hpylori had significantly higher serum vitamin B12 and erythrocyte folate levels in the post-treatment period compared to those in pre-treatment period (210±97 pg/mL vs 237±94 pg/mL, P<0.001 and 442±212 ng/mL vs 539±304 ng/mL, P = 0.024, respectively), but showed no significant change in serum folate levels (5.6±2.6 ng/mL vs 6.0±2.4 ng/mL, P= 0.341). Also, the serum homocysteine levels in this group were significantly lower after therapy (13.1±5.2 μmol/L vs 11.9±6.2 μmol/L, P = 0.002). Regression analysisshowed that serum homocysteine level was positively correlated with age (P = 0.01) and negatively with serum folate level before therapy (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Eradication of H pylori decreases serum homocysteine even in patients who do not exhibit gastric mucosal atrophy. It appears that the level of homocysteine in serum is related to a complex interaction among serum vitamin B12, serum folate and erythrocyte folate levels.

  4. Progress towards the eradication of Tsetse from the Loos islands, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onikoyamou Mory F

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis is the main vector of sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis - HAT in West Africa, in particular in littoral Guinea where this disease is currently very active. The Loos islands constitute a small archipelago some 5 km from mainland Guinea, where G. p. gambiensis is well known as a nuisance and potential disease vector by inhabitants of the three main islands, Fotoba, Room, and Kassa. The National Control Program against HAT of Guinea has decided to eradicate tsetse in Loos islands in order to sustainably protect humans and economic activities. After baseline data collection, tsetse control began on the islands in 2006. On each of the three islands a specific combination of control methods was implemented according to the entomological situation found. Results Starting densities before control operations were 10, 3 and 1 tsetse/trap/day in Kassa, Room and Fotoba respectively, but by July 2010, tsetse were no longer caught in any of the sentinel traps used for monitoring. The reduction rate was faster where several control methods were implemented as a combination (impregnated traps and targets ITT, selective groundspraying, epicutaneous insecticide treatment of pigs, and impregnated fences around pig pens, whereas it was slower when ITT were used as the only control method. Conclusions This 100% suppression is a promising step in the eradication process, but G. p. gambiensis may still occur at very low, undetectable, densities on the archipelago. Next step will consist in assessing a 0.05 probability of tsetse absence to ascertain a provisional eradication status. Throughout these operations, a key factor has been the involvement of local teams and local communities without whom such results would be impossible to obtain. Work will continue thanks to the partners involved until total eradication of the tsetse on Loos islands can be declared.

  5. China and India : challenges and opportunities for poverty eradication and moderating inequality in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ragayah Haji Mat Zin

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has employed the mechanism of growth with equity in an effort to eradicate poverty and ameliorate inequality. During the New Economic Policy period, the government intervened extensively to ensure that all levels of society benefited from economic development and thereby maintain social cohesion. However, the increasing pace of liberalization coupled with developments in the region, such as the rise of China and India, has eroded the government’s ability to ensure the equitable shari...

  6. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. PMID:23623648

  7. Evaluation of eradication by triple therapy plus compared to triple therapy alone

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Medeiros, J. A.; F. O. Gonçalves, T. M.; Boyanova, L; Correia Pereira, M. I.; Silva Paiva De Carvalho, J. N.; Sousa Pereira, A. M.; Silvério Cabrita, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    International audience The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of adding to a triple regimen for eradication in untreated patients with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars. This was a pre-randomized, single-blind, interventional, treatment-efficacy study with active controls and parallel-assignment, set in Coimbra, Portugal, on 62 consecutive -positive untreated adults with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars, diagnosed by gastroduodenoscopy, with pre-treatment direct Gram-staining and c...

  8. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication by triple therapy plus Lactobacillus acidophilus compared to triple therapy alone

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of adding Lactobacillus acidophilus to a triple regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication in untreated patients with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars. This was a pre-randomized, single-blind, interventional, treatment-efficacy study with active controls and parallel-assignment, set in Coimbra, Portugal, on 62 consecutive H. pylori-positive untreated adults with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars, diagnosed by gastroduodenosco...

  9. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of nicotinamide stick for eradication of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi; Rahim Bahrinajafi; Sima Nahavandi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis is a part of the skin's normal flora that can cause acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of nicotinamide as a stick in eradication of staphylococcus. Materials and Methods: For evaluating of Anti-microbial effect on S. epidermidis used well plate method. We chose five plates for nicotinamide and five for mupirocin. The zones of inhibition were measured and compared. Results: The results showed nicotinamide stick had anti-microbial effec...

  10. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives. The IAEA Helps Ethiopia Prepare for Tsetse Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  11. Lectin-conjugated microspheres for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection and interaction with mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Adebisi, Adeola O.; Conway, Barbara R

    2014-01-01

    Using second generation mucoadhesives may enhance targeting antibiotics for eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the stomach for the treatment of peptic ulcer. The aim of this research was to prepare and characterise ethylcellulose/chitosan microspheres containing clarithromycin with their surfaces functionalised with concanavalin A to produce a floating-mucoadhesive formulation. The microspheres were prepared using an emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Particle size, surface morph...

  12. Current evidence of effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on prevention of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Il Ju

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide and is usually detected at a late stage, except in Korea and Japan where early screening is in effect. Results from animal and epidemiological studies suggest that Helicobacter pylori infection, and subsequent gastritis, promote development of gastric cancer in the infected mucosa. Relatively effective treatment regimens are available to treat H. pylori infection, and in general, mass eradication of the organism is not c...

  13. Regional multipliers of social accounting matrix and the effective eradication of poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Wannaphong Durongkaveroj and Rossarin Osathanunkul; Rossarin Osathanunkul

    2013-01-01

    Halving poverty became a global responsibility. As decreased poverty was typically related with an increased income, policies relevant to economic growth had been widely implemented throughout all regions. The purpose of this study was to simulate the effects of exogenously macroeconomic shocks on regional poverty through SAM multiplier in various groups of developing country around the world. The study revealed that to eradicate poverty in each region required exogenous shock or income injec...

  14. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Min Zhu; Li-Hua Yuan; Ke-Feng Pu; Bing Dong; An-Xin Wang; Li-Sha Chen

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell resea...

  15. Standard triple versus levofloxacin based regimen for eradication ofHelicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj; Gopal; Thirthar; Palanivelu; Elamurugan; Vikram; Kate; Sadasivan; Jagdish; Debdatta; Basu

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To compare the eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) and ulcer recurrence of standard triple therapy(STT) and levofloxacin based therapy(LBT).METHODS:Seventy-four patients with perforated duodenal ulcer treated with simple closure and found to be H.pylori infected on 3 mo follow up were randomized to receive either the STT group comprising of amoxicillin 1 g bid,clarithromycin 500 mg bid and omeprazole 20 mg bid or the LBT group comprising of amoxicillin 1 g bid,levofloxacin 500 mg bid and omeprazole 20 mg bid for 10 d each.The H.pylori eradication rates,side effects,compliance and the recurrence of ulcer were assessed in the two groups at 3 mo follow up.RESULTS:Thirty-four patients in the STT group and 32 patients in the levofloxacin group presented at 3 mo follow up.H.pylori eradication rates were similar with STT and the LBT groups on intention-to-treat(ITT) analysis(69% vs 80%,P = 0.425) and(79% vs 87%,P = 0.513) by per-protocol(PP) analysis respectively.Ulcer recurrence in the STT and LBT groups on ITT analysis was(20% vs 14%,P = 0.551) and(9% vs 6%,P = 1.00) by PP analysis.Compliance and side effects were also comparable between the groups.A complete course of STT costs Indian Rupees(INR) 1060.00,while LBT costs only INR 360.00.CONCLUSION:H.pylori eradication rates and the rate of ulcer recurrence were similar between the STT and LBT.The LBT is a more economical option compared to STT.

  16. Poverty Eradication in Brazil: an analysis from the perspective of the Philosophy of Liberation

    OpenAIRE

    Dornelas Camara, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, the Brazilian discourse about development has associated economic growth and social inclusion. According to Frenzel, Case and Sedgwick (2012), the classical development discourse has shifted from development to poverty eradication. In the Brazilian case, the main evidence of this is the Programa Bolsa Família (PBF) - a federal conditioned cash transfer program designed to alleviate poverty. Created by the Presidency in October, 2003, the Program transfers cash to poor and extremel...

  17. Eradication vs. Control in Biosecurity Policy-Making: Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, David C.; Fraser, Rob W.; Weinert, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    The principal chemicals used by Western Australia’s horticultural industries for field control and post-harvest disinfestation procedures for Mediterranean fruit fly are soon to be withdrawn from use due to public health concerns. When this occurs, the necessary switch to alternative control methods such as bait sprays and intensive fruit fly trapping will involve additional producer costs. Given these costs, this paper evaluates the option of eradicating Mediterranean fruit fly from the Stat...

  18. WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT : PATHWAYS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY ERADICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatti, Asif M.; Koike, Toshio; NASU, Seigo

    2012-01-01

    Water is essential not only for sustaining quality of life on the earth, but also for economic growth and poverty eradication. Due to rapid increase in population, the demand for water will increase over time. The nations that are well endowed in fresh water resources have an economic advantage over those less fortunate. Water resources management is a cost effective strategy; contributing to the economic prosperity and poverty reduction through several pathways, while strengthening systems a...

  19. The Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on the Levels of Essential Trace Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Chieh Wu; Chun-Yi Huang; Fu-Chen Kuo; Wen-Hung Hsu; Wang, Sophie S.W.; Hsiang-Yao Shih; Chung-Jung Liu; Yen-Hsu Chen; Deng-Chyang Wu; Yeou-Lih Huang; Chien-Yu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to compare the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection treatment on serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels. Patients and Methods. We measured the serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. We also evaluated the serum levels of these trace elements after H. pylori eradication. These serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results. ...

  20. Update on triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori: current status of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Urgesi R; Cianci R; Riccioni ME

    2012-01-01

    Riccardo Urgesi,1 Rossella Cianci,2 Maria Elena Riccioni31Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Viterbo, 2Institute of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of Rome, 3Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, ItalyAbstract: With the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the treatment success of standard triple therapy has recently declined to unacceptable levels (ie, 80% or less). Following the failure of conventional triple therapy, novel eradication regimens have...