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Sample records for achieving lipid goals

  1. A multidisciplinary program for achieving lipid goals in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan Robichaud J

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information on how target lipid levels can be achieved in end stage renal disease (ESRD patients in a systematic, multidisciplinary fashion. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a pharmacist-directed hyperlipidemia management program for chronic hemodialysis (HD patients. All 26 adult patients on chronic HD at a tertiary care medical facility were entered into the program. A clinical pharmacist was responsible for laboratory monitoring, patient counseling, and the initiation and dosage adjustment of an appropriate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin using a dosing algorithm and monitoring guidelines. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol goal was ≤ 100 mg/dl. A renal dietitian provided nutrition counseling and the nephrologist was notified of potential or existing drug interactions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs. Patients received a flyer containing lipid panel results to encourage compliance. Data was collected at program initiation and for 6 months thereafter. Results At the start of the program, 58% of patients were at target LDL cholesterol. At 6 months, 88% had achieved target LDL (p = 0.015. Mean LDL cholesterol decreased from 96 ± 5 to 80 ± 3 mg/dl (p Conclusions Our findings demonstrate both feasibility and efficacy of a multidisciplinary approach in management of hyperlipidemia in HD patients.

  2. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  3. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  4. Comparing Three Models of Achievement Goals: Goal Orientations, Goal Standards, and Goal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Tropiano, Katie L.

    2016-01-01

    Achievement goal theory (Dweck, 1986) initially characterized mastery goals and performance goals as opposites in a good-bad dualism of student motivation. A later revision (Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998) contended that both goals can provide benefits and be pursued together. Perhaps both frameworks are correct: Their contrasting views…

  5. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  6. (Goal Number 8) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2000, the United Nations (UN) made a Millennium Declaration that commits governments across the globe to develop the lives of the people by 2015. This declaration is known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This paper will examine the role that every government has to play in achieving the goals by focusing ...

  7. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

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    Marko eLüftenegger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  8. Lipid Treatment Assessment Project (L-TAP Study : a survey in 13 cities in Indonesia to evaluate the percentages of dyslipidemic patients achieving NCEP LDL-C target goals after treatment

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    Rinambaan W.M. Kaligis

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials have demonstrated significant benefit from low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C lowering for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In the US, it is well recognized that a substantial number of hypercholesterolemic patients were not treated to the LDL-C goals recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP guidelines. In 1996, the Indonesian Heart Association (PERKI has issued guidelines recommending goals for screening and lipid treatment in Indonesia adopted from NCEP guidelines; however, the frequency of undertreatment in Indonesia is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the percentage of patients treated with lipid-lowering therapy who reached LDL-C goals as defined by NCEP guidelines in routine clinical practice. This was a cross-sectional survey targeted physicians who regularly treated dyslipidemic patients in 13 cities in Indonesia. Participating doctors were asked on their awareness of NCEP guidelines and to complete the case record form (CRF of the enrolled patients. One-hundred and eighty-eight (188 out of four hundreds (400 physicians who were invited, have participated in this study. Among the evaluable 1420 CRF, 1082 patients received statins, 301 used fibrates, 14 patients used combination drugs, and 23 others received non-drug treatments only. Success rates on achieving target LDL-C in low-risk, high-risk, and CHD groups were 73.0 %, 43.6 %, and 14.8 %, respectively. Overall success rate in patients using statins was 55.1 %, while in low-risk group, high-risk group, and CHD patients, the success rates with statin were 77.8%, 50.1%, and 18.6 %, respectively. Atorvastatin showed the highest success rate (77.4 % if compared to other statins. Only 14 % of physicians were knowledgeable about the NCEP goals. Conclusion : A large number of dyslipidemic patients who were on lipid-lowering therapy were not achieving the recommended LDL-C target

  9. Achieving the sustainable development goals: transforming public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving the sustainable development goals: transforming public health ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The conference focused on transforming public health education and practice in the context of South Africa.

  10. Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics learners with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... in recognising methods to direct learners' goals for better engagement with and improved results in mathematics, which could support learners to develop to their full potential in the subject.

  11. Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative, exploratory research design was used. ... Goals affect how learners approach mathematics learning activities, which could ... research on academic success and ADHD has focused on reading ... from the data analysis process. ... Achievement goal orientation is based on a ...... Research design: Qualitative,.

  12. Achievement Goals of Medical Students and Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Oksana; Daniels, Lia M.; White, Jonathan; Oswald, Anna; Ross, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    In achievement settings, the types of motivation individuals develop are crucial to their success and to the ways in which they respond to challenges. Considering the competitive nature of medical education and the high stakes of medical practice, it is important to know what types of motivation (conceptualized here as achievement goals) medical…

  13. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  14. Achievement Goals and their Underlying Goal Motivation: Does it Matter Why Sport Participants Pursue their Goals?

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    Patrick Gaudreau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.

  15. Achievement goals, self-handicapping, and performance: a 2 x 2 achievement goal perspective.

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    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Smith, Alison L

    2009-11-01

    Elliot and colleagues (2006) examined the effects of experimentally induced achievement goals, proposed by the trichotomous model, on self-handicapping and performance in physical education. Our study replicated and extended the work of Elliot et al. by experimentally promoting all four goals proposed by the 2 x 2 model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), measuring the participants' own situational achievement goals, using a relatively novel task, and testing the participants in a group setting. We used a randomized experimental design with four conditions that aimed to induce one of the four goals advanced by the 2 x 2 model. The participants (n = 138) were undergraduates who engaged in a dart-throwing task. The results pertaining to self-handicapping partly replicated Elliot and colleagues' findings by showing that experimentally promoted performance-avoidance goals resulted in less practice. In contrast, the promotion of mastery-avoidance goals did not result in less practice compared with either of the approach goals. Dart-throwing performance did not differ among the four goal conditions. Personal achievement goals did not moderate the effects of experimentally induced goals on self-handicapping and performance. The extent to which mastery-avoidance goals are maladaptive is discussed, as well as the interplay between personal and experimentally induced goals.

  16. Criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, J.O.

    1996-01-01

    In order to discuss various criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals, the goals for actinide reduction must be defined themselves. In this context the term actinides is interpreted to mean plutonium and the so called ''minor actinides'' neptunium, americium and curium, but also protactinium. Some possible goals and the reasons behind these will be presented. On the basis of the suggested goals it is possible to analyze various types of devices for production of nuclear energy from uranium or thorium, such as thermal or fast reactors and accelerator driven system, with their associated fuel cycles with regard to their ability to reach the actinide reduction goals. The relation between necessary single cycle burn-up values, fuel cycle processing losses and losses to waste will be defined and discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to arrange the possible systems on order of performance with regard to their potential to reduce the actinide inventory and the actinide losses to wastes. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Predictors of Academic Self-Handicapping and Achievement: Examining Achievement Goals, Classroom Goal Structures, and Culture

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    Urdan, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the predictors and achievement consequences of academic self-handicapping and to explore cultural variations in the pursuit and effects of performance goals and perceived classroom performance goal structures. Data were collected in 2 consecutive academic years from a diverse sample of high school…

  18. Enabling women to achieve their breastfeeding goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebe, Alison M

    2014-03-01

    In mammalian physiology, lactation follows pregnancy, and disruption of this physiology is associated with adverse health outcomes for mother and child. Although lactation is the physiologic norm, cultural norms for infant feeding have changed dramatically over the past century. Breastfeeding initiation fell from 70% in the early 1900s to 22% in 1972. In the past 40 years, rates have risen substantially, to 77% in 2010. Although more mothers are initiating breastfeeding, many report that they do not continue as long as they desire. As reproductive health care experts, obstetricians are uniquely positioned to assist women to make an informed feeding decision, offer anticipatory guidance, support normal lactation physiology, and evaluate and treat breastfeeding complications. Integration of care among the obstetrician, pediatric provider, and lactation consultant may enable more women to achieve their breastfeeding goals, thereby improving health outcomes across two generations.

  19. Lipid lowering treatment patterns and goal attainment in Nordic patients with hyperlipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svilaas, A.; Strandberg, T.; Eriksson, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Observational studies and surveys have shown that lipid-lowering treatment is not optimal neither with regard to number of patients treated nor with number of patients achieving recommended goals. To address this issue in the Nordic countries, we evaluated the published literature...... are inadequately treated and have not achieved recommended treatment goals of total cholesterol ... disease, age, and gender. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable need to improve standards of preventive cardiology. Statins have to be given evidence based to achieve treatment goals according to lipid levels, and higher doses of statins or combination therapy with a statin and a cholesterol absorption...

  20. Achievement goals and perfectionism of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been investigating one of the most contemporary approaches of achievement motivation - Achievement Goal Theory, which uses the construct of achievement goals. The construct of achievement goals involves three types of achievement goals: mastery goals, performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals. The main goal of the research was to examine correlation between perfectionism and its aspects with particular types of achievement goals. Also, the goal was to investigate the difference concerning gender regarding the achievement goals. The sample consisted of 200 senior year high school participants. The following instruments were used: Multi-dimensional scale of perfectionism (MSP and Test of achievement goals (TCP. The research results indicate that there is significant positive correlation between: perfectionism with performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals, concern over mistakes and parental expectations with performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals, personal standards and organization with mastery goals and performance approach goals, parental criticism and doubts about action with performance avoidance goals. Significant negative correlation was found between parental criticism and mastery goals. The results concerning the second goal indicates the female subjects have higher average scores in mastery goals.

  1. Temperament, Personality and Achievement Goals among Chinese Adolescent Students

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    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…

  2. Medical libraries and achieving sustainable development goals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical libraries and achieving sustainable development goals in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... United Nations 2015 Sustainable Development Goal 3 is designed to achieve good health and well - being for ...

  3. Science Motivation of University Students: Achievement Goals as a Predictor

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    Arslan, Serhat; Akcaalan, Mehmet; Yurdakul, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to make a study of the relationship between achievement goals and science motivation. Research data were collected from 295 university students. Achievement goals and science motivation scales were utilized as measure tools. The link between achievement goals orientation and science motivation was…

  4. The contribution of goal specificity to goal achievement in collaborative goal setting for the management of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lorraine; Alles, Chehani; Lemay, Kate; Reddel, Helen; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Emmerton, Lynne; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Debbie; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Goal setting was investigated as part of an implementation trial of an asthma management service (PAMS) conducted in 96 Australian community pharmacies. Patients and pharmacists identified asthma-related issues of concern to the patient and collaboratively set goals to address these. Although goal setting is commonly integrated into disease state management interventions, the nature of goals, and their contribution to goal attainment and health outcomes are not well understood. To identify and describe: 1) goals set collaboratively between adult patients with asthma and their pharmacist, 2) goal specificity and goal achievement, and 3) describe the relationships between specificity, achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Measures of goal specificity, and goal achievement were developed and applied to patient data records. Goals set were thematically analyzed into goal domains. Proportions of goals set, goals achieved and their specificity were calculated. Correlational and regression analyses were undertaken to determine the relationships between goal specificity, goal achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Data were drawn from 498 patient records. Findings showed that patients set a wide range and number of asthma-related goals (N = 1787) and the majority (93%) were either achieved or being working toward by the end of the study. Goal achievement was positively associated with specific and moderately specific goals, but not non-specific goals. However, on closer inspection, an inconsistent pattern of relationships emerged as a function of goal domain. Findings also showed that goal setting was associated with end-of-study asthma control but not to asthma-related quality of life. Pharmacists can help patients to set achievable and specific asthma management goals, and these have the potential to directly impact health outcomes such as asthma control. Goal specificity appears to be an important feature in the

  5. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.; Oort, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals),

  6. Millennium development goals: Examining Kenya constraints in achieving the eight goals

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    Wambua Leonard Munyao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Kenya’s performance in achieving the famous millennium development goals. The paper provides the government and other stakeholders with proper understanding of the constraints of achieving the millennium development goals as well as reflecting the phase and the passion of the country in achieving this important development goal. The paper further seeks to stress the importance of this goal in reducing poverty in the country. The paper has cited some key factors undermining achieving of the millennium development goals in Kenya. Major recommendations that can contribute towards achieving of the millennium development goals have also been made.

  7. Achievement goal profiles and developments in effort and achievement in upper elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, T.E.; Majoor, Marieke; Peetsma, Thea

    2017-01-01

    Background The multiple goal perspective posits that certain combinations of achievement goals are more favourable than others in terms of educational outcomes. Aims This study aimed to examine longitudinally whether students’ achievement goal profiles and transitions between profiles are associated

  8. Achievement Goal Profiles among Adolescent Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litalien, David; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2017-01-01

    Achievement goal theory has long been a dominant model in the study of student motivation. However, a relatively small number of researchers have investigated gender differences in achievement goals or have considered the possible role that social and extrinsic goals may play in student academic motivation. Adopting a person-centered multiple…

  9. Achievement goals, social goals, and motivational regulations in physical education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.

  10. Achievement goals in the workplace : Conceptualization, prevalence, profiles, and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Orehek, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss an important component of workers' willingness to perform at their jobs, that is, their achievement motivation. More specifically, we will discuss the conceptualization of the four achievement goals from the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework and present

  11. Achievement goals and interpersonal behaviour: How mastery and performance goals shape information exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P.M.; Janssen, O.; Van Yperen, N.W.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2007-01-01

    The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further

  12. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  13. Pro-Social Goals in Achievement Situations: Amity Goal Orientation Enhances the Positive Effects of Mastery Goal Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levontin, Liat; Bardi, Anat

    2018-04-01

    Research has neglected the utility of pro-social goals within achievement situations. In this article, four studies demonstrate that amity goal orientation, promoting mutual success of oneself together with others, enhances the utility of mastery goal orientation. We demonstrate this in longitudinally predicting performance (Studies 1 and 2) and in maintaining motivation after a disappointing performance (Studies 3 and 4). The studies demonstrate the same interaction effect in academic and in work achievement contexts. Specifically, whereas amity goal orientation did not predict achievement on its own, it enhanced the positive effect of mastery goal orientation. Together, these studies establish the importance of amity goal orientation while also advancing our understanding of the effects of other achievement goal orientations. We suggest future directions in examining the utility of amity goals in other contexts.

  14. Assessing Goal Intent and Achievement of University Learning Community Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer-Lachs, Carole F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the goal intent and achievement of university students, during the Fall 2011 semester, at Blue Wave University, a high research activity public institution in the southeast United States. This study merged theories of motivation to measure goal setting and goal attainment to examine if students who chose to…

  15. A Model of Statistics Performance Based on Achievement Goal Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandalos, Deborah L.; Finney, Sara J.; Geske, Jenenne A.

    2003-01-01

    Tests a model of statistics performance based on achievement goal theory. Both learning and performance goals affected achievement indirectly through study strategies, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. Implications of these findings for teaching and learning statistics are discussed. (Contains 47 references, 3 tables, 3 figures, and 1 appendix.)…

  16. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…

  17. Transformational and transactional leadership and followers' achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, M.R.W.; van Yperen, N.W.; Wisse, B.; Sassenberg, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Achievement goals, or the standards of competence employees pursue in their work, have far-reaching consequences for employee and organizational functioning. In the current research, we investigated whether employees’ achievement goals can be predicted from their supervisor’s leadership

  18. Big Five personality profiles of context-specific achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCabe, Kira O.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Verbraak, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an increasing body of literature supports the validity and utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001). From this foundation, researchers have begun to investigate the complex antecedents and consequences underlying achievement goal pursuit. In the

  19. Academic Self-Handicapping and Achievement Goals: A Further Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Carol; Urdan, Tim

    2001-01-01

    This study extends previous research on the relations among students' personal achievement goals, perceptions of the classroom goal structure, and reports of the use of self-handicapping strategies. Surveys, specific to the math domain, were given to 484 7th-grade students in nine middle schools. Personal performance-avoid goals positively predicted handicapping, whereas personal performance-approach goals did not. Personal task goals negatively predicted handicapping. Perceptions of a performance goal structure positively predicted handicapping, and perceptions of a task goal structure negatively predicted handicapping, independent of personal goals. Median splits used to examine multiple goal profiles revealed that students high in performance-avoid goals used handicapping more than did those low in performance-avoid goals regardless of the level of task goals. Students low in performance-avoid goals and high in task goals handicapped less than those low in both goals. Level of performance-approach goals had little effect on the relation between task goals and handicapping. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. Performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals and the adoption of personal achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2011-12-01

    Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). This paper considered the relationship between students' perceptions of classroom goals and their endorsement of personal achievement goals. We proposed that three (instead of only two) classroom goals need to be distinguished. We aimed to provide evidence for this hypothesis by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and also by divergent associations between the respective classroom goal and students' personal goal endorsement. A total of 871 (474 female) 10th grade students from several German high schools participated in this study. Students responded to items assessing their perception of mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals in the classroom. Additionally, the students reported how much they personally pursue mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. All items referred to German as a specific school subject. RESULTS.A CFA yielded empirical support for the proposed distinction of three (instead of only two) different kinds of classroom goals. Moreover, in hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) analyses all three classroom goals showed unique associations with students' personal goal adoption. The findings emphasized the need to distinguish performance-approach and PAVCG. Furthermore, our results suggest that multiple classroom goals have interactive effects on students' personal achievement strivings. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The Role of Achievement Goals in the Development of Interest: Reciprocal Relations between Achievement Goals, Interest, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Durik, Amanda M.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Tauer, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of individual and situational interest and academic performance were examined in the college classroom and 7 semesters later in conjunction with achievement goals. At the beginning of an introductory psychology course, participants reported their initial interest in psychology, achievement goals, and situational interest in course…

  2. Social Perceptions of Achieving Students and Achievement Goals of Students in Malaysia and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.; Ismail, Rosnah

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the hypothesis that country differences in achievement goals of students are associated with differences in how students with different achievement goals are perceived by students in different cultures. University students from Malaysia and the Philippine were asked to complete questionnaires on their achievement goals and…

  3. [Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2005-08-01

    We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.

  4. Individual Differences in Achievement Goals: A Longitudinal Study of Cognitive, Emotional, and Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lia M.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Newall, Nancy E.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Within achievement goal theory debate remains regarding the adaptiveness of certain combinations of goals. Assuming a multiple-goals perspective, we used cluster analysis to classify 1002 undergraduate students according to their mastery and performance-approach goals. Four clusters emerged, representing different goal combinations: high…

  5. Goal Orientations of General Chemistry Students via the Achievement Goal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2018-01-01

    The Achievement Goal Framework describes students' goal orientations as: task-based, focusing on the successful completion of the task; self-based, evaluating performance relative to one's own past performance; or other-based, evaluating performance relative to the performance of others. Goal orientations have been used to explain student success…

  6. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  7. Young Children Help Others to Achieve Their Social Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2014-01-01

    From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and able,…

  8. Personal Goals and Academic Achievement among Theology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmanen, Topi; Hirsto, Laura; Lonka, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Studying in higher education requires long-term commitment. Previous studies have shown that commitment, perceived competence, intrinsic motivation and work-life orientation are positively related to academic achievement. This study examines the kinds of goals theology students have at the beginning of studies, and whether these goals are related…

  9. A mediation analysis of achievement motives, goals, learning strategies, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-12-01

    Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. To investigate the relationship between achievement motives, achievement goals, learning strategies (deep, surface, and strategic), and academic achievement in a hierarchical model. Participants were 229 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.2 years) of psychology and economics at the University of Bergen, Norway. Variables were measured by means of items from the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS), the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students, and an achievement goal scale. Correlation analysis showed that academic achievement (examination grade) was positively correlated with performance-approach goal, mastery goal, and strategic learning strategies, and negatively correlated with performance-avoidance goal and surface learning strategy. A path analysis (structural equation model) showed that achievement goals were mediators between achievement motives and learning strategies, and that strategic learning strategies mediated the relationship between achievement goals and academic achievement. This study integrated previous findings from several studies and provided new evidence on the direct and indirect effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement.

  10. What drives the geeks? : Linking computer enthusiasm to achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmettow, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The personality construct of geekism is introduced as the tendency to act out one's need for cognition in the domain of computing technology. Achievement goal theory is introduced, and we ask, what drives geeks in terms of achievement. In a questionnaire study, it is shown that geekism is related to

  11. Information exchange examined : an interpersonal account of achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis it is argued and demonstrated, that the achievement goals that individuals pursue in achievement situations may crucially influence how they perceive and act in information exchange situations. Notably, whether people are striving to improve their own performance, as compared with

  12. Predicting race performance in triathlon: the role of perfectionism, achievement goals, and personal goal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Uphill, Mark A; Hotham, Sarah

    2009-04-01

    The question of how perfectionism affects performance is highly debated. Because empirical studies examining perfectionism and competitive sport performance are missing, the present research investigated how perfectionism affected race performance and what role athletes' goals played in this relationship in two prospective studies with competitive triathletes (Study 1: N = 112; Study 2: N = 321). Regression analyses showed that perfectionistic personal standards, high performance-approach goals, low performance-avoidance goals, and high personal goals predicted race performance beyond athletes' performance level. Moreover, the contrast between performance-avoidance and performance-approach goals mediated the relationship between perfectionistic personal standards and performance, whereas personal goal setting mediated the relationship between performance-approach goals and performance. The findings indicate that perfectionistic personal standards do not undermine competitive performance, but are associated with goals that help athletes achieve their best possible performance.

  13. The effects of chronic achievement motivation and achievement primes on the activation of achievement and fun goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-12-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.

  14. The Relationship between Future Goals and Achievement Goal Orientations: An Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie Qi; McInerney, Dennis M.; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ortiga, Yasmin P.

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to study the relationships between students' future goals (FGs) and their immediate achievement goal orientations (AGOs) among 5733 Singaporean secondary school students (M age = 14.18, SD = 1.26; 53% boys). To this end, we hypothesized that the relationships between like valenced FGs and AGOs (both intrinsic or both extrinsic)…

  15. Does Context, Practice or Competition Affect Female Athletes’ Achievement Goal Dominance, Goal Pursuit, Burnout and Motivation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Rio Javier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the effects of two different achievement sport contexts, practice and competition, on the motivational profile of professional/semi-professional athletes. Forty-eight Spanish national/international-level female athletes (basketball = 18; handball = 12; soccer = 11; volleyball = 7, mean age 25.14 ± 3.43 years, agreed to participate in the study. They completed a questionnaire, prior and after training and competition, to assess achievement goals, achievement goal dominance, goal pursuit, motivational climate, motivation, burnout and perceived recovery-exertion. Data analyses revealed that, both in practice and competition, these team-sport athletes overwhelmingly showed a strong mastery-approach achievement goal in dominance as well as in pursuit. A significant finding was that this group of national/international-level, professional/semi-professional athletes not only adopted a mastery-approach achievement goal, but they also actively pursued it. It is also remarkable that this profile remained stable at post-tests, even after a painful defeat in competition, which produced a significant negative effect on the athletes’ burnout (emotional and physical exhaustion and devaluation of sport participation and self-determined motivation. As expected, the difference between total recovery and perceived exertion significantly increased after practice and competition. National/international-level team-sport professional/semi-professional female athletes held and pursue stable mastery-approach goal dominance.

  16. Identifying Achievement Goals and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Undergraduate Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. Methods. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students’ grades were obtained from course coordinators. Results. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Conclusion. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement. PMID:25258438

  17. Enriching the hierarchical model of achievement motivation: autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-12-01

    The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between achievement motives and outcomes. We tested whether mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous and controlling reasons would jointly explain the relation between achievement motives (i.e., fear of failure and need for achievement) and learning strategies (Study 1). Additionally, we examined whether the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying learners' dominant achievement goal would account for the link between achievement motives and the educational outcomes of learning strategies and cheating (Study 2). Six hundred and six Greek adolescent students (Mage = 15.05, SD = 1.43) and 435 university students (Mage M = 20.51, SD = 2.80) participated in studies 1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, a correlational design was used and the hypotheses were tested via path modelling. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals mediated, respectively, the relation of need for achievement and fear of failure to aspects of learning outcomes. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals could further explain learners' functioning in achievement settings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Achievement goal profiles and developments in effort and achievement in upper elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, Lisette; Majoor, Marieke; Peetsma, Thea

    2017-12-01

    The multiple goal perspective posits that certain combinations of achievement goals are more favourable than others in terms of educational outcomes. This study aimed to examine longitudinally whether students' achievement goal profiles and transitions between profiles are associated with developments in self-reported and teacher-rated effort and academic achievement in upper elementary school. Participants were 722 fifth-grade students and their teachers in fifth and sixth grade (N = 68). Students reported on their achievement goals and effort in language and mathematics three times in grade 5 to grade 6. Teachers rated students' general school effort. Achievement scores were obtained from school records. Goal profiles were derived with latent profile and transition analyses. Longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted. Theoretically favourable goal profiles (high mastery and performance-approach goals, low on performance-avoidance goals), as well as transitions from less to more theoretically favourable goal profiles, were associated with higher levels and more growth in effort for language and mathematics and with stronger language achievement gains. Overall, these results provide support for the multiple goal perspective and show the sustained benefits of favourable goal profiles beyond effects of cognitive ability and background characteristics. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Education Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  19. The Roadmap to achieve EU goals on urban mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Schippl, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to change urban mobility in Europe to achieve ambitious sustainability goals? If so, who should dowhat by when? These questions are answered in a new Roadmap on urban mobility prepared as part of the European FP7 research project TRANSFORuM.......Is it possible to change urban mobility in Europe to achieve ambitious sustainability goals? If so, who should dowhat by when? These questions are answered in a new Roadmap on urban mobility prepared as part of the European FP7 research project TRANSFORuM....

  20. Extending hierarchical achievement motivation models: the role of motivational needs for achievement goals and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipp, T.; Dam, van K.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the role of three basic motivational needs (need for power, affiliation, achievement) as antecedents of goals within the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework, and examined their combined predictive validity with regard to academic performance in a sample of 120

  1. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: Testing a Model of Their Joint Relations with Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…

  2. Achievement motivation and memory: achievement goals differentially influence immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Little research has been conducted on achievement motivation and memory and, more specifically, on achievement goals and memory. In the present research, the authors conducted two experiments designed to examine the influence of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals on immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory. The experiments revealed differential effects for achievement goals over time: Performance-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on an immediate recognition test, whereas mastery-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on a delayed recognition test. Achievement goals had no influence on overall recognition memory and no consistent influence on know responding across experiments. These findings indicate that it is important to consider quality, not just quantity, in both motivation and memory, when studying relations between these constructs.

  3. Validity and Reliability of Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2011-01-01

    The Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale was developed by Agbuga and Xiang (2008) by including selected items from the scales of Duda and Nicholls (1992), Elliot (1999), and Elliot and Church (1997) and adapting them into Turkish. The scale consists of 18 items, and students rated each item on a 7-point Likert scale. To ascertain the validity and…

  4. Implicit Beliefs, Achievement Goals, and Procrastination: A Mediational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Andrew J.; Buro, Karen

    2009-01-01

    As a maladaptive behavioural outcome, procrastination should correlate with beliefs about ability and achievement goals that are themselves relatively maladaptive. Accordingly, procrastination should be predicted by entity as opposed to incremental implicit theories (i.e., viewing attributes such as ability as relatively fixed vs. malleable,…

  5. Diet models with linear goal programming: impact of achievement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdessen, J C; de Vries, J H M

    2015-11-01

    Diet models based on goal programming (GP) are valuable tools in designing diets that comply with nutritional, palatability and cost constraints. Results derived from GP models are usually very sensitive to the type of achievement function that is chosen.This paper aims to provide a methodological insight into several achievement functions. It describes the extended GP (EGP) achievement function, which enables the decision maker to use either a MinSum achievement function (which minimizes the sum of the unwanted deviations) or a MinMax achievement function (which minimizes the largest unwanted deviation), or a compromise between both. An additional advantage of EGP models is that from one set of data and weights multiple solutions can be obtained. We use small numerical examples to illustrate the 'mechanics' of achievement functions. Then, the EGP achievement function is demonstrated on a diet problem with 144 foods, 19 nutrients and several types of palatability constraints, in which the nutritional constraints are modeled with fuzzy sets. Choice of achievement function affects the results of diet models. MinSum achievement functions can give rise to solutions that are sensitive to weight changes, and that pile all unwanted deviations on a limited number of nutritional constraints. MinMax achievement functions spread the unwanted deviations as evenly as possible, but may create many (small) deviations. EGP comprises both types of achievement functions, as well as compromises between them. It can thus, from one data set, find a range of solutions with various properties.

  6. Modern psychometrics for assessing achievement goal orientation: a Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R; Winne, Philip H; Edwards, Ordene V

    2009-09-01

    A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ, Elliot & McGregor, 2001) and the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000) to provide an in-depth analysis of the two most popular instruments in educational psychology. For Study 1, 217 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty-four were male and 181 were female (two did not respond). Participants completed the AGQ in the context of their educational psychology class. For Study 2, 126 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty were male and 95 were female (one did not respond). Participants completed the PALS in the context of their educational psychology class. Traditional psychometric assessments of the AGQ and PALS replicated previous studies. For both, reliability estimates ranged from good to very good for raw subscale scores and fit for the models of goal orientations were good. Based on traditional psychometrics, the AGQ and PALS are valid and reliable indicators of achievement goals. Rasch analyses revealed that estimates of reliability for items were very good but respondent ability estimates varied from poor to good for both the AGQ and PALS. These findings indicate that items validly and reliably reflect a group's aggregate goal orientation, but using either instrument to characterize an individual's goal orientation is hazardous.

  7. Factors associated with lipid goal attainment among acute coronary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd-Zulkefli SZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Siti-Zainora Mohd-Zulkefli, Marhanis-Salihah Omar, Adyani Md-Redzuan Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: The incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS, one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, is high. Lipid goal attainment is one of the important factors to reduce the risk of recurrent heart attack. Identification of factors influencing lipid goal attainment such as age, female, race, underlying comorbidities, intensity of lipid-lowering therapy, patients’ knowledge, and patients’ belief about medicine would be beneficial in achieving the lipid goal. This study is aimed to determine lipid profile attainment and prescribing pattern of lipid-lowering therapy as well as to identify factors influencing lipid profile attainment among ACS patients.Patients and methods: This researcher-assisted cross-sectional survey was carried out at a cardiology clinic in a tertiary hospital from March to May 2015.Results: A total of 101 ACS patients were involved in this study. The mean values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were 2.75 (0.82 mmol/L and 1.14 (0.27 mmol/L, respectively, while the median value for triglyceride level was 2.75 (0.82 mmol/L. Only 15.8% of our participants achieved the targeted LDL-C. Simvastatin 20 mg was the most common regimen prescribed. Predictors for better LDL-C attainment were younger age (β=-0.228; P=0.032 and higher knowledge score (β=-0.255; P=0.049, while predictors for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol attainment were male (β=0.268; P=0.006, smoking (β=-0.192; P=0.045, and higher knowledge score (β=-0.195; P=0.039. Smoking (β=-0.361; P<0.0001 was the only predictor for higher triglyceride level.Conclusion: Younger age, female, lower knowledge score, and smoking status are good predictors for lipid attainment among ACS patients. Keywords: influence, disease, drug use, patient 

  8. Study strategies and beliefs about learning as a function of academic achievement and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jason; Toftness, Alexander R; Armstrong, Patrick I; Carpenter, Shana K; Manz, Carly L; Coffman, Clark R; Lamm, Monica H

    2018-05-01

    Prior research by Hartwig and Dunlosky [(2012). Study strategies of college students: Are self-testing and scheduling related to achievement? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(1), 126-134] has demonstrated that beliefs about learning and study strategies endorsed by students are related to academic achievement: higher performing students tend to choose more effective study strategies and are more aware of the benefits of self-testing. We examined whether students' achievement goals, independent of academic achievement, predicted beliefs about learning and endorsement of study strategies. We administered Hartwig and Dunlosky's survey, along with the Achievement Goals Questionnaire [Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 501-519] to a large undergraduate biology course. Similar to results by Hartwig and Dunlosky, we found that high-performing students (relative to low-performing students) were more likely to endorse self-testing, less likely to cram, and more likely to plan a study schedule ahead of time. Independent of achievement, however, achievement goals were stronger predictors of certain study behaviours. In particular, avoidance goals (e.g., fear of failure) coincided with increased use of cramming and the tendency to be driven by impending deadlines. Results suggest that individual differences in student achievement, as well as the underlying reasons for achievement, are important predictors of students' approaches to studying.

  9. Health transformation plan: Goals achievement in Nemazee hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to assess fulfillment of goals about “Health Transformation Plan (HTP of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education” from the perspective of managers, which is as one of the most important management challenges in the Health System Reform Plan. These goals included six packages determined by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education, the fulfillment of each of which one was evaluated separately as sub-goals in the current study. Finally, the rank of each package in comparison to other packages was determined and presented, using means rank test (Friedman test. Method: This study was conducted using a questionnaire in which comments of the senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital were collected as the research data. Due to the fact that about one year has passed since the beginning of implementation of HTP and since there were no documented methods or questionnaires, the researcher designed a self-made questionnaire. The basis of designing the questionnaire was the set of guidelines developed for Health System Reform Plan. These guidelines include goals that a hospital should achieve during implementation of Health System Reform Plan. After sharing these goals with senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital (as the place of research, they were converted to a questionnaire including 20 questions. The questionnaire included the goals that must be achieved in Nemazee hospital of Shiraz during the implementation of the plan. After designing the questionnaire, a preliminary test was taken to assess the reliability. Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.88 showed a high rate of reliability in the above questionnaire. After the final data collection, the questionnaire was tested in a sample of 100 senior and middle managers; the results showed that about six packages were specified by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. The majority of

  10. Precompetitive achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Calmeiro, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.

  11. Personality and achievement motivation : relationship among Big Five domain and facet scales, achievement goals, and intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipp, T.; Steinmayr, R.; Spinath, B.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we examined the nomological network of achievement motivation and personality by inspecting the relationships between four goal orientations (learning, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, work avoidance), the Big Five personality traits, and intelligence. Within a

  12. The relationship between competitive anxiety, achievement goals, and motivational climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N; Biddle, S

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate to perceptions of the intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety in a sample of university athletes representing various team sports. Although some studies have demonstrated that task orientation and mastery climate are associated with adaptive emotional patterns and ego orientation and performance climate are linked to less adaptive emotions, others have not verified these findings. In the present study, structural equation modeling was used to test these links. The results showed that perceptions of a performance climate were associated with ego orientation, whereas perceptions of a mastery climate were linked to task orientation. Furthermore, no significant links were found between task orientation and direction of competitive anxiety, while it was shown that the impact of ego orientation on the intensity and direction of cognitive and somatic anxiety was exerted through self-confidence. No significant direct links were found between motivational climates and competitive anxiety, thus implying that motivational climates may have an indirect impact on affective responses through the different goal orientations. The findings of the present study are discussed along with suggestions for examining situational and individual difference variables that may explain the relationships between intensity and direction of competitive anxiety and achievement goals and motivational climates.

  13. Achieving CO2 Emissions Reduction Goals with Energy Infrastructure Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlinc, M.; Medved, K.; Simic, J.

    2013-01-01

    The EU has set its short-term goals in the Europe 2020 Strategy (20% of CO 2 emissions reduction, 20% increase in energy efficiency, 20% share of renewables in final energy). The analyses show that the EU Member States in general are on the right track of achieving these goals; they are even ahead (including Slovenia). But setting long-term goals by 2050 is a tougher challenge. Achieving CO 2 emissions reduction goes hand in hand with increasing the share of renewables and strategically planning the projects, which include exploiting the potential of renewable sources of energy (e.g. hydropower). In Slovenia, the expected share of hydropower in electricity production from large HPPs in the share of renewables by 2030 is 1/3. The paper includes a presentation of a hydro power plants project on the middle Sava river in Slovenia and its specifics (influenced by the expansion of the Natura 2000 protected sites and on the other hand by the changes in the Environment Protection Law, which implements the EU Industrial Emissions Directive and the ETS Directive). Studies show the importance of the HPPs in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction. The main conclusion of the paper shows the importance of energy infrastructure projects, which contribute to on the one hand the CO 2 emissions reduction and on the other the increase of renewables.(author)

  14. 2 x 2 Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Cluster Analysis of Students' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Leong Yeok; Liu, Woon Chia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to better understand the adoption of multiple achievement goals at an intra-individual level, and its links to emotional well-being, learning, and academic achievement. Participants were 480 Secondary Two students (aged between 13 and 14 years) from two coeducational government schools. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed the…

  15. Academic Self-Concept, Achievement Goals, and Achievement: Is Their Relation the Same for Academic Achievers and Underachievers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preckel, Franzis; Brunner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the contribution of achievement goals and academic self-concept for the prediction of unexpected academic achievement (i.e., achievement that is higher or lower than expected with respect to students' cognitive ability) in general and when comparing groups of extreme over- and underachievers. Our sample…

  16. Analytical approach for confirming the achievement of LMFBR reliability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, G.E.; Elerath, J.G.; Wood, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The approach, recommended by GE-ARSD, for confirming the achievement of LMFBR reliability goals relies upon a comprehensive understanding of the physical and operational characteristics of the system and the environments to which the system will be subjected during its operational life. This kind of understanding is required for an approach based on system hardware testing or analyses, as recommended in this report. However, for a system as complex and expensive as the LMFBR, an approach which relies primarily on system hardware testing would be prohibitive both in cost and time to obtain the required system reliability test information. By using an analytical approach, results of tests (reliability and functional) at a low level within the specific system of interest, as well as results from other similar systems can be used to form the data base for confirming the achievement of the system reliability goals. This data, along with information relating to the design characteristics and operating environments of the specific system, will be used in the assessment of the system's reliability

  17. Students' Achievement Goals in Relation to Academic Motivation, Competence Expectancy, and Classroom Environment Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…

  18. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  19. Career Skills Workshop: Achieving Your Goals Through Effective Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Physics students graduate with a huge array of transferrable skills, which are extremely useful to employers (particularly in the private sector, which is the largest employment base of physicists at all degree levels). However, the key to successfully connecting with these opportunities lies in how well graduates are able to communicate their skills and abilities to potential employers. The ability to communicate effectively is a key professional skill that serves scientists in many contexts, including interviewing for jobs, applying for grants, or speaking with law and policy makers. In this interactive workshop, Crystal Bailey (Careers Program Manager at APS) and Gregory Mack (Government Relations Specialist at APS) will lead activities to help attendees achieve their goals through better communication. Topics will include writing an effective resume, interviewing for jobs, and communicating to different audiences including Congress, among others. Light refreshments will be served.

  20. Proportion of Brazilian diabetes patients that achieve treatment goals: implications for better quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Deise Regina; Thieme, Rubia Daniela; Reis, Walleri Christini Torelli; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano Januário

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and its complications are substantial causes of morbidity and mortality, and caused approximately 5.1 million deaths worldwide in 2013. Early detection and treatment of diabetes complications can prevent their progression. This study compared the proportions of patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, respectively) who achieved the goals of good clinical control. Adults and elderly patients with T1DM and T2DM at a public outpatient endocrinology service in Brazil were retrospectively evaluated between 2012 and 2013. Clinical and socio demographic data were obtained from medical records and evaluated in accordance with the Brazilian Diabetes Society Guidelines. Care process measures, outcomes indicators, and supporting process measures were evaluated. A total of 1031 records were analyzed: 29 and 71 % of patients had T1DM and T2DM, respectively. T2DM patients had significantly higher BMI than T1DM patients (overweight and obesity in 85.1 vs. 47.5 %, p achieved all targets, and 1.1 % did not achieve any. The achievement of goals of good clinical practice varies among the parameters evaluated. Almost no patients achieved all targets. Many patients are overweight and do not achieve targets for HbA1c, lipid profile, or blood pressure control.

  1. Regional sulfur dioxide emissions: shall we achieve the goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.; Shi, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, JY

    2017-01-01

    Although economic growth is slowing down in the new normal period, air pollution is still a very serious problem in China. The 15% binding goal of sulfur dioxide emission reduction from 2016 to 2020, as stipulated in the 13th Five-Year Plan, has been an ambitious target for the Chinese government. This paper studies the synthetic evaluation and forecasting analysis of sulfur dioxide in China by means of a “grey model” approach combined with the grey relational analysis methods, with the panel data of 31 provinces from 2005 to 2015. Grey analysis used to analyse a system with imperfect information, such that a variety of available solutions is reviewed, and the optimal solution is identified. Some encouraging results show that national emissions and a majority of provinces will achieve the target. Over time, the gap of regional differences is rapidly closing. According to the results of grey relational analysis, we find industrial structure and energy consumption have a more significant impact on sulfur dioxide emissions than GDP. Atmospheric treatment investment and environmental protection manpower play a more important role in emissions variation. Based on the findings, we should distinguish different factors and take different measures to protect the environment.

  2. Profiling Learners' Achievement Goals when Completing Academic Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence

    2009-01-01

    This study explored adult learners' goal profiles in relation to the completion of a compulsory academic essay. Based on learners' scores on items assessing mastery, performance-approach, and work-avoidance goals, cluster analyses produced three distinct categories of learners: performance-focused, work-avoidant, and multiple-goal learners. These…

  3. Predicting Academic Self-Handicapping in Different Age Groups: The Role of Personal Achievement Goals and Social Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leondari, Angeliki; Gonida, Eleftheria

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic self-handicapping refers to the use of impediments to successful performance on academic tasks. Previous studies have shown that it is related to personal achievement goals. A performance goal orientation is a positive predictor of self-handicapping, whereas a task goal orientation is unrelated to self-handicapping. Aims: The…

  4. Different Goals for Different Folks: A Cross-Cultural Study of Achievement Goals across Nine Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Nasser, Ramzi

    2017-01-01

    Goals are important predictors of key educational outcomes. However, most of the research on goal theory has been conducted in Western societies. In this study we examine how different types of goals (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic) derived from personal investment theory are associated with key learning outcomes across nine cultural…

  5. Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.

  6. Gamification in MOOCs to enhance users' goal achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonaci, Alessandra; Klemke, Roland; Stracke, Christian M.; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Gamification in engineering education has been applied with success in the last years. Also, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are recognized as a good strategy to enhance engineering education. Nevertheless, MOOCs have two main weaknesses: first, lack of addressing personal goals; and second, low

  7. Achieving the millenium and sustainable development goals in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The point that African continent has been trying to solve its development challenges will be an overstatement. One of the major efforts was the decision taken at the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit in September 2000 where the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was adopted as a framework for the continents ...

  8. Deep Learning in Distance Education: Are We Achieving the Goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Rick L.; Gregg, Andrea; Joo, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    As educators, one of our goals is to help students arrive at deeper levels of learning. However, how is this accomplished, especially in online courses? This design-based research study explored the concept of deep learning through a series of design changes in a graduate education course. A key question that emerged was through what learning…

  9. 38 CFR 21.53 - Reasonable feasibility of achieving a vocational goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achieving a vocational goal. 21.53 Section 21.53 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... achieving a vocational goal. (a) Requirement. The Department of Veterans Affairs shall determine the reasonable feasibility of achieving a vocational goal in each case in which a veteran has either: (1) An...

  10. Corporate Culture and University Goal Achievement in South-West Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Rasaq L.; Sheu, Adaramaja A.; Kayode, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between culture and university goal achievement in South west geo-political zone, Nigeria. Specifically, the purpose was to find out the nature of the corporate culture and university goal achievement as well as to determine the relationship between corporate culture and university goal achievement in South…

  11. Validation of a Teachers' Achievement Goal Instrument for Teaching Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Shen, Bo; Luo, Xiaobin; Hu, Qingshan; Garn, Alex C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Using Butler's teacher achievement goal orientation as a conceptual framework, we developed this study to validate a teachers' achievement goal instrument for teaching physical education. Methods: A sample of 322 Chinese physical education teachers participated in this study and completed measures of achievement goal orientations and job…

  12. Real change in the real world: an achievable goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    This commentary builds on the papers presented at the Vanderbilt Conference by emphasizing the importance of better understanding the process of change-making if real change in the real world is to be achieved. The commentary reviews several frameworks and research findings related to achieving large-scale sustainable change that benefits children and families. It calls for the application of systems thinking as a complement to the more micro-level research that was presented at the Vanderbilt conference. Such an approach would have implications for framing of the issue, for the strategies that are taken to try to achieve change, and for research/evaluation methods for studying complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems.

  13. Academic Identity Status and the Relationship to Achievement Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was, Christopher A.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim; Stack-Oden, Maura; Isaacson, Randall M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Two constructs that have received a great deal of attention in Educational Psychology research are Achievement Orientation and Identity Status. However, the relationship between these two constructs has not received the attention that the current researcher feel is warranted. The impetus for the current study is the paucity of…

  14. Exploring Mathematics Achievement Goals Using Kolb’s Learning Style Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino G. Ignacio Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work is an exploration of causality connection of learning styles to mathematics achievement goals. The objectives of the study are as follows: (1 to identify the mathematics achievement goal of students when grouped according to preferred learning style (2 to identify the learning style of students when grouped according to preferred mathematics achievement goal and (3 to determine if there is a significant difference in each mathematics achievement goal when grouped according to learning style. The researcher used explanatory cross-sectional design. The Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory 3.1 were utilized to collect data. Results show that respondents hold mastery-approach achievement goals regardless of learning styles. Also, students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style which operates on reflective observation and abstract conceptualization; and students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style which operates on active experimentation and concrete experimentation. Furthermore, findings show that there is no significant difference in the mathematics achievement goals based on learning style. Exploratory research is recommended to understand why students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style and why students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style.

  15. Can children identify and achieve goals for intervention? A randomized trial comparing two goal-setting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroland-Nordstrand, Kristina; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Jacobsson, Helén; Johansson, Ulla; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of two different goal-setting approaches (children's self-identified goals and goals identified by parents) were compared on a goal-directed, task-oriented intervention. In this assessor-blinded parallel randomized trial, 34 children with disabilities (13 males, 21 females; mean age 9y, SD 1y 4mo) were randomized using concealed allocation to one of two 8-week, goal-directed, task-oriented intervention groups with different goal-setting approaches: (1) children's self-identified goals (n=18) using the Perceived Efficacy and Goal-Setting System, or (2) goals identified by parents (n=16) using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Participants were recruited through eight paediatric rehabilitation centres and randomized between October 2011 and May 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Goal Attainment Scaling and the secondary measure, the COPM performance scale (COPM-P). Data were collected pre- and post-intervention and at the 5-month follow-up. There was no evidence of a difference in mean characteristics at baseline between groups. There was evidence of an increase in mean goal attainment (mean T score) in both groups after intervention (child-goal group: estimated mean difference [EMD] 27.84, 95% CI 22.93-32.76; parent-goal group: EMD 21.42, 95% CI 16.16-26.67). There was no evidence of a difference in the mean T scores post-intervention between the two groups (EMD 6.42, 95% CI -0.80 to 13.65). These results were sustained at the 5-month follow-up. Children's self-identified goals are achievable to the same extent as parent-identified goals and remain stable over time. Thus children can be trusted to identify their own goals for intervention, thereby influencing their involvement in their intervention programmes. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Achieving secondary prevention low-density lipoprotein particle concentration goals using lipoprotein cholesterol-based data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Mathews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C ≥ 40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3. METHODS: We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients. RESULTS: TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10(-6. The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150 was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10(-5. However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150 was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10(-5 with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively. LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094 and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47 alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets. CONCLUSIONS: A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical

  17. Learning Goals Achievement of a Teacher in Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Marfu’ah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the achievement of teacher learning in cognitive, affective and psychomotor in conducting professional development. This study was categorized as a descriptive study. The respondents of this study were teachers and students in the Department of Electrical Engineering at a Vocational Secondary School in Bangka Belitung. Methods of data collection used questionnaires. The data were analyzed with descriptive analysis. The results of this study consisted of: (1 teachers’ opinion, most teachers had worked very well in learning of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor, (2 students’ opinion, several teachers had succeeded in cognitive learning, and managed very well on affective and psychomotor learning.

  18. [POLIOMYELITIS ERADICATION--ONE STEP TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Čavlek, Tatjana; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana

    2014-12-01

    Poliomyelitis is a very old disease of humans, caused by poliovirus. With appearance of the epidemics in the 20th century, poliomyelitis became a global public health issue. In 1988, the World Health Organization started a campaign for global eradication of poliomyelitis and till now poliomyelitis cases have been reduced by more than 99%. In Croatia, the introduction of vaccination in 1961 resulted in dramatic reduction of paralytic disease. The European region, including Croatia was certified polio free in 2002. However, the final goal of the "polio-free world" has not yet been reached. To reinforce the campaign, the global polio eradication initiative has come up with the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 with detailed program how to resolve the main challenges: (a) continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs; (b) reinfection of polio-free areas; and (c) outbreaks due to the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV). Global oral polio vaccine cessation will follow, with the introduction of universal use of inactivated polio vaccine.

  19. The Collaboration Challenge: Global Partnerships to Achieve Global Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdak, Michael

    2017-01-01

    As capitalism is being re-invented and the voices of multiple stakeholders are becoming more prevalent and demanding, it is the perfect time for the private sector to embrace large-scale collaboration and a shared sense of purpose. Since the explosive growth of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the 1990s, a new era of responsibility, purpose and a re-envisioned capitalism are dramatically apparent. Beyond financial support, business leaders have the opportunity to galvanize networks, advocate for regulation and policy change, and form supporting consortia to support global development. The role of the private sector in development has changed significantly from a model of benevolent contributor to a model of collaborator, investor, business partner and exponential value creator. The new era of collaboration should move beyond a shared value mindset to new models of partnership where each contributor plays an equal role in defining challenges and designing solutions with the greater goal of sustainable value creation. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have the unprecedented opportunity to take leadership roles in engaging the private sector in more game-changing collaborations.

  20. Achieving Sustainable Development Goals from a Water Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Bhaduri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to meet human water needs only at local scales may cause negative environmental externality and stress on the water system at regional and global scales. Hence, assessing SDG targets requires a broad and in-depth knowledge of the global to local dynamics of water availability and use. Further, Interconnection and trade-offs between different SDG targets may lead to sub-optimal or even adverse outcome if the set of actions are not properly pre-designed considering such interlinkages. Thus scientific research and evidence have a role to play in facilitating the implementation of SDGs through assessments and policy engagement from global to local scales. The paper addresses some of these challenges related to implementation and monitoring the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals from a water perspective, based on the key findings of a conference organised in 2015 with the focus on three essential aspects of SDGs- indicators, interlinkages and implementation. The paper discusses that indicators should not be too simple but ultimately deliver sustainability measures. The paper finds that remote sensing and earth observation technologies can play a key role in supporting the monitoring of water targets. It also recognises that implementing SDGs is a societal process of development, and there is need to link how SDGs relate to public benefits and communicate this to the broader public.

  1. The correlation between achievement goals, learning strategies, and motivation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Hur, Yera; Park, Joo Hyun

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the pursuit of achievement goals in medical students and to assess the relationship between achievement goals, learning strategy, and motivation. Two hundred seventy freshman and sophomore premedical students and sophomore medical school students participated in this study, which used the Achievement Goals Scale and the Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Questionnaire. The achievement goals of medical students were oriented toward moderate performance approach levels, slightly high performance avoidance levels, and high mastery goals. About 40% of the students were high or low in all three achievement goals. The most successful adaptive learners in the areas of learning strategies, motivation, and school achievement were students from group 6, who scored high in both performance approach and mastery goals but low in performance avoidance goals. And goal achievement are related to the academic self-efficacy, learning strategies, and motivation in medical students. In the context of academic achievement, mastery goals and performance approach goals are adaptive goals.

  2. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date.

  3. Achievement Goals, Study Strategies, and Achievement: A Test of the "Learning Agenda" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Hama, Hidetoshi; Belmonte, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Two classroom studies tested whether mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals nudge students to pursue different learning agendas. Each showed that mastery-approach goals promote an interest-based studying approach in which students allocate study time disproportionately to personally interesting material over duller material. Study 2…

  4. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  5. Dominant Achievement Goals of Older Workers and Their Relationship with Motivation-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their dominant achievement goals were linked to…

  6. An Examination of Achievement Goals in Learning: A Quasi-Quantitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The achievement goals framework has been researched and used to explain and account for individuals' learning and academic achievements. Over the past three decades, progress has been made in the conceptualizations and research development of different possible theoretical models of achievement goals. Notably, in this study, we…

  7. Indonesian pre-service teachers learning motivations and goal achievements: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Tian Abdul; Purnomo, Yoppy Wahyu; Pramudiani, Puri

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Indonesian pre-service teachers' motivation and achievement goal who studied abroad. The participants of the study were two Indonesian students who enrolled at Secondary Science and Mathematics Education Department on one public university in Ankara, Turkey. Semi structured interview and classroom observation were conducted to understand participants' motivation, achievement goal and the ways to develop it. Findings of the study indicated that by considering Self-Determination Theory participants demonstrated various types of motivation, to wit: amotivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to study. In addition, in compliance with the 3 x 2 achievement goal model, they held multiple types of achievement goals. Different types of motivations and achievement goals led them to exhibit different means in developing their motivations and achievement goals. Implications of the study are discussed.

  8. Academic and social achievement goals: Their additive, interactive, and specialized effects on school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D

    2016-03-01

    Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Faking the desire to learn: a clarification of the link between mastery goals and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2009-08-01

    Research on achievement goals has demonstrated that mastery goals positively impact achievement-related outcomes, but paradoxically hold an inconsistent relation with academic achievement. We hypothesized that this relationship depends on the reason why students endorse mastery goals--namely, to garner teachers' appreciation (social desirability) or to succeed at university (social utility). First-year psychology students completed a mastery-goal scale in a standard format, with social-desirability instructions and social-utility instructions. Participants' grades on academic exams were recorded later in the semester. Results indicated that students' perceptions of both social desirability and social utility related to mastery goals moderated the relationship between the endorsement of mastery goals and final grades. This relationship was reduced by the increase of perceived social desirability of mastery goals, and strengthened by the increase of perceived social utility of these goals.

  10. Distinguishing the desire to learn from the desire to perform: The social value of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna; Darnon, Céline; Mollaret, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We sought to distinguish mastery goals (i.e., desire to learn) from performance goals (i.e., desire to achieve more positive evaluations than others) in the light of social judgment research. In a pilot study, we made a conceptual distinction between three types of traits (agency, competence, and effort) that are often undifferentiated. We then tested the relevance of this distinction for understanding how people pursuing either mastery or performance goals are judged. On self-perception, results revealed that effort was predicted by the adoption of mastery goals and agency by performance goals (Study 1). On judgments, results showed that (a) the target pursuing mastery goals was perceived as oriented toward effort, and (b) the target pursuing performance goals was oriented toward agency (Study 2). Finally, these links were shown again by participants who inferred a target's goals from his traits (Study 3). Results are discussed in terms of the social value of achievement goals at school.

  11. The portfolio of renewable energy sources for achieving the three E policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yung-Chi; Chou, Chiyang James; Lin, Grace T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy is considered by many policy-makers to contribute to achieving at least three major policy goals: the energy goal, the environmental goal, and the economic goal (3E goals). As an innovation-oriented island country with scarce natural resources, Taiwan announced the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles in 2008 that stated that Taiwan's renewable energy policy should accomplish the 3E goals. Several studies point out that specific renewable energy policy goals lead to specific renewable energy sources and technologies because each type of renewable energy has different features. In order to achieve the renewable energy policy goals, this research aims to examine how different policy goals lead to corresponding renewable energy sources. The relative importance of each goal is evaluated by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight of each policy goal is adjusted separately to construct policy scenarios by the sensitivity analysis. According to the results, non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy are three sources that could meet the three policy goals at the same time. -- Highlights: →This study aims to propose a portfolio of renewable energy sources to achieve energy, environmental, and economic policy goals for Taiwan. →Non-pumped storage hydropower performs best to achieve energy and environmental goals. →Wind energy performs well to accomplish environmental goal. →Solar energy is the most preferred alternative to achieve economic goal. →The portfolio of non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can accomplish the three E policy goals at the same time.

  12. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised in Singapore Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hoi Kwan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) in a sample of Singapore secondary students (N = 1,171). Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the AGQ-R in measuring the four achievements goals delineated in the 2 × 2 framework. Measurement invariance across ethnic groups was…

  13. Achievement Goals as Mediators of the Relationship between Competence Beliefs and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous work suggests that the expectation of failure is related to higher test anxiety and achievement goals grounded in a fear of failure. Aim: To test the hypothesis, based on the work of Elliot and Pekrun (2007), that the relationship between perceived competence and test anxiety is mediated by achievement goal orientations.…

  14. Achievement goals and emotions: The mediational roles of perceived progress, control, and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathan C; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R; Ranellucci, John

    2016-06-01

    The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the relationship between achievement goals and achievement emotions, whereas the bidirectional theory of affect (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002, Educational Psychologist, 37, 69) proposes that perceived progress mediates this relationship. The present study empirically evaluated three hypothesized mediators of the effects of achievement goals on learning-related emotions as proposed in the control-value theory and the bidirectional theory of affect. Undergraduate students (N = 273) from humanities, social science, and STEM disciplines participated. Participants completed web-based questionnaires evaluating academic achievement goals, perceptions of control, perceived task value, and achievement emotions. Results provided empirical support primarily for perceived progress as a mediator of mastery-approach goal effects on positive emotions (enjoyment, hope), showing indirect effects of mastery- and performance-approach goals on outcome-related emotions (hope, anxiety) via perceived control. Indirect effects of mastery- and performance-approach goals were further observed on anxiety via perceived value, with higher value levels predicting greater anxiety. Study findings partially support Linnenbrink and Pintrich's (2002, Educational Psychologist, 37, 69) bidirectional theory of affect while underscoring the potential for indirect effects of goals on emotions through perceived control as proposed by Pekrun (2006, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315). © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Sex and Age Differences in Achievement Goal Orientations in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel; Kürkçü, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Culture plays an important role in the achievement goal orientations of students, which may vary as they progress through their lifespan. However, research examining achievement goal orientations in the Turkish cultural context is scarce. Based on contextual and developmental theories, the aim of this study was to examine sex and age differences…

  16. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  17. The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Does Self-Efficacy Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 × 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 × 2…

  18. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  19. Student Perceptions of Classroom Achievement Goals as Predictors of Belonging and Content Instrumentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher O.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the predictive relationships among a set of cognitive-motivational variables that have been found in previous studies to support academic achievement. Student perception of a classroom's achievement goal structure (classroom mastery, classroom performance-approach, classroom performance-avoidance) was…

  20. Liking a tough teacher : Interpersonal characteristics of teaching and students’ achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainhard, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Many have claimed, but only some have shown, that the social nature of teaching and classrooms is likely to have a direct effect on students’ achievement goals. This study examined the extent to which Dutch secondary school students’ (N = 2892) achievement goals were related to the interpersonal

  1. Changes in Self-Esteem across the First Year in College: The Role of Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Ryan, Allison M.; Cassady, Jerrell

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of achievement goals on the growth trajectories of self-esteem during the first-year at a comprehensive public university. College freshmen (N = 311) were followed for one academic year with three time points. Between-individual differences and within-individual change in achievement goals were…

  2. To Win, or Not to Lose, At Any Cost : The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cheating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hamstra, M.R.W.; van der Klauw, Marloes

    We examined the relations between achievement goals and cheating in two studies. The findings from Study 1 show that the extent to which people intend to behave unethically in the areas of work, sport and education is a function of their dominant achievement goals in these particular settings. An

  3. Examining Achievement Goals and Causal Attributions Together as Predictors of Academic Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.; Fan, Weihua; Daugherty, Stacy G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to forge stronger theoretical and empirical links between achievement goal theory and attribution theory. High school students ("N" = 224) completed a self-report survey that assessed 3 types of achievement goals, 7 types of attributions, and self-efficacy. Results indicated that students' adoption of achievement…

  4. Procrastination and the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework in Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Rajalakshmi; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Mellor, David; Rizzuto, Laura; Kolar, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 x 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and…

  5. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-04-21

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p social responsibility (r = .38, p responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.

  6. Predicting precompetitive state anxiety: using the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2013-10-01

    The goal was to examine the predictiveness of achievement goals for self-confidence, cognitive anxiety, and somatic anxiety using a prospective design. 160 high school athletes completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport after daily practice and the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 before an official competition. Using hierarchical regression analyses, mastery-approach goals were found as positive predictors of self-confidence and negative predictors of cognitive and somatic anxiety. In contrast, performance- and mastery-avoidance goals positively predicted cognitive and somatic anxiety. Also, performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted self-confidence. Generally, athletes who pursued task mastery and improvement of competence were less physically and cognitively anxious and more self-confident. However, athletes felt tense, worried, and had lower confidence when they endorsed avoidance forms of achievement goals.

  7. Achievement Goals, Competition Appraisals, and the Psychological and Emotional Welfare of Sport Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    Grounded in the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and th...

  8. Exploring the Link between Achievement Goals, Motivation, and Parental Expectations among University Students in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albulene Grajcevci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sheds light on the link between achievement goals, motivation, and parental expectations in a sample of 600 students attending higher education institutions in Kosovo. Aside from exploring the stipulated link between the constructs, the research aims to discover whether cultural differences mediate expected results. The results proved that the mastery of goals positively correlates to intrinsic motivation in addition to which curiosity as a subscale of intrinsic motivation positively predicted preferences for the mastery of goals. As expected, performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals, correlated to extrinsic motivation with extrinsic motivation, successfully predict preferences for both types of performance goals. The data proved that among students in Kosovo, all types of goals correlated to intrinsic motivation. Achievement goals were differentiated in extrinsic motivation with mastery goals correlating rather weakly to only one subscale of extrinsic motivation.

  9. Extending Antecedents of Achievement Goals: The Double-Edged Sword Effect of Social-Oriented Achievement Motive and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Youyan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2013-01-01

    Underpinned by the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation, the study examined the differential relations of individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motives to approach and avoidance achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-avoidance). A total of 570 Chinese high school…

  10. Secondary Students' Writing Achievement Goals: Assessing the Mediating Effects of Mastery and Performance Goals on Writing Self-Efficacy, Affect, and Writing Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Yilmaz Soylu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The two studies reported here explored the factor structure of the newly constructed Writing Achievement Goal Scale (WAGS, and examined relationships among secondary students' writing achievement goals, writing self-efficacy, affect for writing, and writing achievement. In the first study, 697 middle school students completed the WAGS. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for this data with a three-factor model that corresponds with mastery, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals. The results of Study 1 were an indication for the researchers to move forward with Study 2, which included 563 high school students. The secondary students completed the WAGS, as well as the Self-efficacy for Writing Scale, and the Liking Writing Scale. Students also self-reported grades for writing and for language arts courses. Approximately 6 weeks later, students completed a statewide writing assessment. We tested a theoretical model representing relationships among Study 2 variables using structural equation modeling including students' responses to the study scales and students' scores on the statewide assessment. Results from Study 2 revealed a good fit between a model depicting proposed relationships among the constructs and the data. Findings are discussed relative to achievement goal theory and writing.

  11. Secondary Students' Writing Achievement Goals: Assessing the Mediating Effects of Mastery and Performance Goals on Writing Self-Efficacy, Affect, and Writing Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Soylu, Meryem; Zeleny, Mary G.; Zhao, Ruomeng; Bruning, Roger H.; Dempsey, Michael S.; Kauffman, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    The two studies reported here explored the factor structure of the newly constructed Writing Achievement Goal Scale (WAGS), and examined relationships among secondary students' writing achievement goals, writing self-efficacy, affect for writing, and writing achievement. In the first study, 697 middle school students completed the WAGS. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for this data with a three-factor model that corresponds with mastery, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals. The results of Study 1 were an indication for the researchers to move forward with Study 2, which included 563 high school students. The secondary students completed the WAGS, as well as the Self-efficacy for Writing Scale, and the Liking Writing Scale. Students also self-reported grades for writing and for language arts courses. Approximately 6 weeks later, students completed a statewide writing assessment. We tested a theoretical model representing relationships among Study 2 variables using structural equation modeling including students' responses to the study scales and students' scores on the statewide assessment. Results from Study 2 revealed a good fit between a model depicting proposed relationships among the constructs and the data. Findings are discussed relative to achievement goal theory and writing. PMID:28878707

  12. Self-Esteem, Achievement Goals, and Self-Handicapping in College Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuosong; Sun, Kaihong; Wang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationships among self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping and the potential mediating role of achievement goals in the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping in college physical education. The participants were 320 Chinese college students. Three validated scales were employed to assess participants' self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping in college physical education. Results showed that self-esteem had a negative effect on self-handicapping. Self-esteem had a positive effect on mastery goals, but had a negative effect on performance-avoidance goals. Mastery goals had a negative effect and performance-avoidance goals had a positive effect on self-handicapping. Moreover, mastery goals and performance-avoidance goals partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping, and self-esteem had both direct and indirect effects on self-handicapping in college physical education. The findings indicate that improving individual's self-esteem and promoting mastery goals while reducing performance-avoidance goals may be relevant strategies to reduce self-handicapping in college physical education.

  13. The Big Five Personality Traits and French Firefighter Burnout: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaulerin, Jérôme; Colson, Serge S; Emile, Mélanie; Scoffier-Mériaux, Stéphanie; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the associations between the Big Five personality traits and occupational burnout in firefighters and the mediating role of achievement goals in this relationship. Two hundred twenty male firefighters from 20 to 62 years old participated and mediation analyses were performed. The results showed that neuroticism was positively related to the three dimensions of burnout, both directly and through mastery avoidance goals. Mastery approach goals mediated the relationships between conscientiousness and physical fatigue and between openness to experience and physical fatigue. Three of the Big Five personality traits, neuroticism, conscientiousness and openness to experience, and achievement goals, may be important factors in understanding and preventing firefighter burnout.

  14. Student Achievement Goal Setting: Using Data to Improve Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, James H.; Grant, Leslie W.

    2009-01-01

    The first book in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice series focuses on improving student achievement through academic goal setting. It offers the tools and plan of action to use performance data to improve instructional practice and increase student achievement. The book is divided into three parts: (1) How Student Achievement Data Can Be…

  15. Comparison of therapeutic lipid target achievements among high-risk patients in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Baneerje, Yajnavalka; Al-Sabti, Hilal; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Farhan, Hatem; Habsi, Khadija Al; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    We compared therapeutic lipid target achievements among patients with diabetes or coronary heart disease (CHD) in Oman. A retrospective chart review of 94 patients was conducted at an outpatient clinic in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. The variables included low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apo B). The overall mean age of the cohort was 59 ± 12 years, 54% were male, 66% were diabetic, 48% hypertensive, 45% had CHD, 94% were on simvastatin, 4% were on fenofibrate, and 2% were on both simvastatin and fenofibrate. Lipid goal attainments of calculated LDL-C (<2.6 mmol/L), apo B (<0.9 g/L), and non-HDL-C (<3.36 mmol/L) were reached in 52%, 39%, and 53% of the patients, respectively. A significant proportion of high-risk patients treated with lipid-lowering agents reach LDL-C but not the apo B treatment targets, suggesting that the use of apo B target values should also be considered.

  16. Colombian public policies contributing to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals in the health sector, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Grisales

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available During the General Assembly of the United Nations, in September 2000,189 countries (including Colombia committed to eight objectives leading to a more human and fairer world. Such objectives are called the Millennium Development Goals (mdg and to achieve them it is crucial to incorporate them in the action agendas of each country. The purpose of this monograph is to recognize current public policies in Colombia and Antioquia leading the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, specifically those related to the reduction of mortality among children less than 5 years of age, improvement of maternal health and fighting against hiv/aids, malaria and dengue.In Colombia, Conpes 91 of 2005 is the only guideline given by the Government establishing goals and strategies to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. Nevertheless, other policies, programs and projects before and even after the Millennium Statement (but without explicit purpose contribute to achieving such goals. Revision of those policies is an effort for the research project “Degree of contribution of public policies to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals related to the health sector, Antioquia, 2006”, which will evaluate the impact these guidelines have had in the achievement of the development goals in that particular sector.

  17. Understanding students' motivation in project work: a 2 x 2 achievement goal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Woon Chia; Wang, C K John; Tan, Oon Seng; Ee, Jessie; Koh, Caroline

    2009-03-01

    The project work (PW) initiative was launched in 2000 by the Ministry of Education, Singapore, to encourage application of knowledge across disciplines, and to develop thinking, communication, collaboration, and metacognitive skills. Although PW has been introduced for a few years, few studies have examined the motivation of students in PW, especially with the use of the recently proposed 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. To use a cluster analytic approach to identify students' achievement goal profiles at an intra-individual level, and to examine their links to various psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Participants were 491 Secondary 2 students (mean age = 13.78, SD = 0.77) from two government coeducational schools. Cluster analysis was performed to identify distinct subgroups of students with similar achievement goal profiles. One-way MANOVAs, followed by post hoc Tukey HSD tests for pairwise comparisons were used to determine whether there was any significant difference amongst clusters in terms of the psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Four distinct clusters of students were identified. The cluster with high achievement goals and the cluster with moderately high goals had the most positive psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes. In contrast, the cluster with very low scores for all four achievement goals had the most maladaptive profile. The study provides support for the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework, and demonstrates that multiple goals can operate simultaneously. However, it highlights the need for cross-cultural studies to look into the approach-avoidance dimension in the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

  18. Are mastery-avoidance achievement goals always detrimental? An adult development perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Senko, Corwin; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    Achievement goal research consistently reveals that mastery-avoidance goals (i.e., striving to avoid losses) are maladaptive, especially in comparison to mastery-approach goals (i.e., striving for gains). Nearly all of it has been done with children or young adults, however. Lifespan theories of motivation posit that people in late adulthood are more likely than young adults to strive toward maintenance and loss-prevention rather than gains, and also that they sometimes profit from pursuing t...

  19. Using Achievement Goals and Interest to Predict Learning in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Chen, Ang; Guan, Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of an integrated theoretical approach to achievement motivation, the authors designed this study to investigate the potential influence of mastery goal, performance-approach and avoidance-approach goals, individual interest, and situational interest on students' learning in a physical education softball unit. The authors collected and…

  20. Goal Orientations, Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Prospective Teachers: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulus, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…

  1. Dominant Goal Orientations Predict Differences in Academic Achievement during Adolescence through Metacognitive Self-Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Lee, Nikki; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement was predicted by the goal which generally drives a student’s learning behaviour. Secondly, the role of metacognitive self-regulation was examined. The dominant goal orientation was assessed using a new method. 735 adolescents aged 10-19 years read

  2. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  3. Achievement Goal Orientations and Subjective Well-Being: A Person-Centred Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether students with different achievement goal orientation profiles differ in terms of subjective well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, school-related burnout, and educational goal appraisals). Six groups of students with unique motivational profiles were identified. Observed differences in subjective well-being…

  4. On Social Achievement Goals: Their Relations with Peer Acceptance, Classroom Belongingness, and Perceptions of Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidis, Athanasios A.; Sideridis, Georgios D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relation between social achievement goals (A. M. Ryan & S. S. Shim, 2006) and aspects of students' socio-emotional adjustment in a sample of elementary school students. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that after controlling for levels of prosocial skills, a social development goal was positively related…

  5. Born to learn or born to win? Birth order effects on achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2011-01-01

    Given the widespread use and well-known consequences of achievement goals in different competence-relevant situations, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of how these differences in goal pursuit are formed. Using different analytic approaches, we show that birth order lies at the heart

  6. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,

  7. Low ranks make the difference : How achievement goals and ranking information affect cooperation intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P. Marijn; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, N.W.; Van de Vliert, E.

    This investigation tested the joint effect of achievement goals and ranking information on information exchange intentions with a commensurate exchange partner. Results showed that individuals with performance goals were less inclined to cooperate with an exchange partner when they had low or high

  8. An international validation study of two achievement goal measures in a pharmacy education context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrakaf S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saleh Alrakaf,1 Ahmed Abdelmageed,2 Mary Kiersma,2 Sion A Coulman,3 Dai N John,3 June Tordoff,4 Claire Anderson,5 Ayman Noreddin,6 Erica Sainsbury,1 Grenville Rose,7 Lorraine Smith11Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Manchester University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 6School of Pharmacy, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 7Aftercare, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor's Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ and Elliot and Murayama's revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R are widely used to assess students' achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA.Methods: In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit.Results: In contrast to the scale developers' findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study.Conclusion: Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and

  9. Colombian public policies contributing to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals in the health sector, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Lina M. Grisales; Libardo A. Giraldo

    2008-01-01

    During the General Assembly of the United Nations, in September 2000,189 countries (including Colombia) committed to eight objectives leading to a more human and fairer world. Such objectives are called the Millennium Development Goals (mdg) and to achieve them it is crucial to incorporate them in the action agendas of each country. The purpose of this monograph is to recognize current public policies in Colombia and Antioquia leading the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, speci...

  10. Investing in Uncertainty: Young Adults with Life-Limiting Conditions Achieving Their Developmental Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karen A; Jack, Susan M; Siden, Hal; Thabane, Lehana; Browne, Gina

    2016-08-01

    With improvements in pediatric care and technology, more young adults (YAs) with life-limiting conditions (LLCs) are surviving into adulthood. However, they have limited expectations to live beyond the first decade of adulthood. This study describes the monumental efforts required for YAs with LLCs to achieve their goals in an abbreviated life. The experiences and aspirations of YAs with LLCs to achieve their goals are relatively unknown. This report focuses on their experiences of living with uncertainty and its impact on achieving developmental goals. This study is one component of a larger descriptive study using an innovative bulletin board focus group to examine life experiences of YAs with LLCs. YAs with LLCs share the aspirations and goals of all YAs. Some participants demonstrated a striking capacity to navigate system barriers and achieve their goals, whereas others "got stuck" resulting in lost opportunities. Successful personal life investments were possible if resources were made available, coordinated, navigable, and responsive to new and special requests. Transformative changes to health, social care, and community services are necessary to support their YA ambitions. This study gave voice to those who were previously unheard and demonstrates the monumental hurdles YAs with LLCs face to achieve their goals. A palliative approach to care can mitigate unnecessary hardships and support their goals.

  11. Dynamic Effects of Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientation on Student Achievement in Language and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Gonida, Sofia-Eleftheria N

    2018-07-01

    The present study used achievement goal theory (AGT) as a theoretical framework and examined the role of mastery and performance goals, both performance-approach and performance-avoidance, on school achieve-ment within the nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) perspective. A series of cusp catastrophe models were applied on students' achievement in a number of school subjects, such as mathematics and language for elementary school and algebra, geometry, ancient and modern Greek language for high school, using achievement goal orientations as control variables. The participants (N=224) were students attending fifth and eighth grade (aged 11 and 14, respectively) in public schools located in northern Greece. Cusp analysis based on the probability density function was carried out by two procedures, the maximum likelihood and the least squares. The results showed that performance-approach goals had no linear effect on achievement, while the cusp models implementing mastery goals as the asymmetry factor and performance-avoidance as the bifurcation, proved superior to their linear alternatives. The results of the study based on NDS support the multiple goal perspective within AGT. Theoretical issues, educational implications and future directions are discussed.

  12. Recognizing potential barriers to setting and achieving effective rehabilitation goals for patients with persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen G

    2016-07-01

    Although the process of goal setting in rehabilitation of individuals with persistent pain is considered a fundamental and requisite skill, it is frequently reported as a challenging element of clinical practice. Factors which may contribute to the complexity of goal setting include the potential for unrecognized shifts in cognitive function, psychological comorbidities, and the social context of both providers and patients. This review aims to describe factors which may confound the process of setting and achieving collaborative rehabilitation goals using a biopsychosocial framework and to provide recommendations to enhance goal setting effectiveness.

  13. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.

  14. 2×2 dominant achievement goal profiles in high-level swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A; Mendez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Garcia, Benjamín; Saavedra, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess achievement goal dominance, self-determined situational motivation and competence in high-level swimmers before and after three training sessions set at different working intensities (medium, sub-maximal and maximal). Nineteen athletes (males, n=9, 18.00±2.32 years; females, n=10, 16.30±2.01 years, range = 14-18) agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Dominant Achievement Goal assessment instrument, the 2×2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport (AGQ-S), The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Competence subscale of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise questionnaire (BPNES). Results indicated that participants overwhelmingly showed mastery-approach achievement goal dominance, and it remained stable at the conclusion of the different training sessions under all intensity levels. This profile was positively correlated to self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, swimmers' feelings of competence increased only after the medium intensity level training session. After the completion of the maximal intensity training session, swimmers' self-determined motivation was significantly lower compared to the other two training sessions, which could be caused by a temporary period of burnout. Results indicated that high-level swimmers had a distinct mastery-approach dominant achievement goal profile that was not affected by the workload of the different training sessions. They also showed high levels of self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, heavy workloads should be controlled because they can cause transitory burnout.

  15. Attributional Beliefs of Singapore Students: Relations to Self-Construal, Competence and Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Sheng, Yee Zher; Aye, Khin Maung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates attributional beliefs of Singapore secondary students in their English study and how they can be predicted by self-construal, competence and achievement goals. A total of 1,496 students were administered surveys on seven attributions, independent and interdependent self-construals, previous achievement, self-efficacy,…

  16. Dominant achievement goals of older workers and their relationship with motivation-related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs

    The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their

  17. How University Students with Reading Difficulties Are Supported in Achieving Their Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university…

  18. Achievement Goals, Motivation to Learn, and Mathematics Anxiety among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Colina, María D.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.; Furner, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a pilot study examining the feasibility of a research design to investigate how achievement goals relate to the construct of math anxiety. In addition, we also consider how other important achievement-related behaviors, like self-efficacy, help-seeking, and self-regulation, might also relate to students' math…

  19. Effects of achievement goals on challenge seeking and feedback processing: behavioral and FMRI evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woogul Lee

    Full Text Available We conducted behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI research to investigate the effects of two types of achievement goals--mastery goals and performance-approach goals--on challenge seeking and feedback processing. The results of the behavioral experiment indicated that mastery goals were associated with a tendency to seek challenge, both before and after experiencing difficulty during task performance, whereas performance-approach goals were related to a tendency to avoid challenge after encountering difficulty during task performance. The fMRI experiment uncovered a significant decrease in ventral striatal activity when participants received negative feedback for any task type and both forms of achievement goals. During the processing of negative feedback for the rule-finding task, performance-approach-oriented participants showed a substantial reduction in activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and the frontopolar cortex, whereas mastery-oriented participants showed little change. These results suggest that performance-approach-oriented participants are less likely to either recruit control processes in response to negative feedback or focus on task-relevant information provided alongside the negative feedback. In contrast, mastery-oriented participants are more likely to modulate aversive valuations to negative feedback and focus on the constructive elements of feedback in order to attain their task goals. We conclude that performance-approach goals lead to a reluctant stance towards difficulty, while mastery goals encourage a proactive stance.

  20. To master or perform? Exploring relations between achievement goals and conceptual change learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M

    2013-09-01

    Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Seventy-three undergraduate students were assessed on their prior knowledge and misconceptions about Newtonian mechanics, and then reported their achievement goals and participated in think-aloud protocols while reading Newtonian physics texts. A mastery-approach goal orientation positively predicted deep processing strategies, shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change. In contrast, a performance-approach goal orientation did not predict either of the processing strategies, but negatively predicted conceptual change. A performance-avoidance goal orientation negatively predicted deep processing strategies and conceptual change. Moreover, deep and shallow processing strategies positively predicted conceptual change as well as recall. Finally, both deep and shallow processing strategies mediated relations between mastery-approach goals and conceptual change. Results provide some support for Dole and Sinatra's (1998) Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model of conceptual change but also challenge specific facets with regard to the role of depth of processing in conceptual change. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  1. STUDENTS’ SELF-ASSESSMENT OF ONE’S ABILITIES FOR THEIR LIFE GOALS ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Goal achievement is considered to be related to need satisfaction, motivation, and self-esteem. The self-assessed abilities for goal achievement were operationalized as positive self-talk, perceived self-efficacy, the performance level of doing a task, the aspiration level, the in/congruence between performance and prognosis, and frustration tolerance to pursue one’s goals in spite of some obstacles. In total, 392 students whose mean age was 21 years old were investigated, divided in sub-samples, with the positive self-talk scale from the ASTQS questionnaire, the self-efficacy scale by Schwarzer & Jerusalem, and the AHA computerized test method from Vienna test system. Students’ self-assessment of one’s abilities for goal achievement revealed the most frequent high levels of perceived self-efficacy and good performance in coding tasks. The other self-assessed abilities for goal achievement were expressed more often at a medium level. The gender differences in the performance level of doing a task were compared to some previous results that indicated a variety of trends, because of the age peculiarities and the types of the tasks that were executed. The advance in age was related to more frequent use of positive self-talk and lower aspiration level, besides to lower performance level. The proposed model of the abilities for goal achievement was successfully approbated in this study revealing the strengths in the students’ self-assessment of one’s abilities for goal achievement and some weaknesses that should be the focus of further interventions in order to increase the students’ frustration tolerance ability and the use of positive self-talk.

  2. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Influence on Achievement of Cardiometabolic Therapeutic Goals in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients: An Analysis of the Nationwide, Cross-Sectional 3B Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.; Ji, L.; Ran, X.; Su, B.; Ji, Q.; Pan, C.; Weng, J.; Ma, C.; Hao, C.; Zhang, D.; Hu, D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data on the prevalence of obesity and its influence on achieving blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipid (3B) goals in Chinese type 2 diabetes outpatients. METHODS: Patient demographic data, anthropometric measurements, medications, and blood glucose and lipid

  3. Identifying and applying psychological theory to setting and achieving rehabilitation goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Wyke, Sally; Dixon, Diane

    2009-04-01

    Goal setting is considered to be a fundamental part of rehabilitation; however, theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice have not been comprehensively reviewed. (i) To identify and discuss specific theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice in the rehabilitation setting. (ii) To identify 'candidate' theories that that offer most potential to inform clinical practice. The rehabilitation and self-management literature was systematically searched to identify review papers or empirical studies that proposed a specific theory of behaviour change relevant to setting and/or achieving goals in a clinical context. Data from included papers were extracted under the headings of: key constructs, clinical application and empirical support. Twenty-four papers were included in the review which proposed a total of five theories: (i) social cognitive theory, (ii) goal setting theory, (iii) health action process approach, (iv) proactive coping theory, and (v) the self-regulatory model of illness behaviour. The first three of these theories demonstrated most potential to inform clinical practice, on the basis of their capacity to inform interventions that resulted in improved patient outcomes. Social cognitive theory, goal setting theory and the health action process approach are theories of behaviour change that can inform clinicians in the process of setting and achieving goals in the rehabilitation setting. Overlapping constructs within these theories have been identified, and can be applied in clinical practice through the development and evaluation of a goal-setting practice framework.

  4. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  5. Relationship between the 3x2 achievement goals and perceived competence in Physical Education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Garcia-Romero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth affiliation to physical activity and their active implication in sport throughout life, are two of the main objectives in Physical Education. In this research we examine the relationship between the achievement goals and the perceived competence in Physical Education since the recent theoretical framework of 3x2 achievement goals. The sample comprised 205 (113 boys and 92 girls, aged 12 and 18 years (M =14,02; SD = 1,70, all of them belonging to two Secondary School in the North of Spain. These students completed the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire (CML3x2-EF and the perceived competence subscale factor included in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES, also adapted to Physical Education. We performed descriptive analysis (M and DT, Cronbach alphas and linear regression analysis by stepwise. The results showed a positive correlation between the six goals of achievement and the perceived competence, being particularly high value of approach-task and approach-self. The three approach goals (approach-task, approach-self, approach-other significantly predicted the perceived competence (ß = 0,43; 0,18; 0,20, respectively.

  6. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-09-01

    This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Resilience influence, goals and social context in the academic achievement of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Concepción Gaxiola Romero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The academic achievement in high school students of Mexico, according to national and international evaluations has been insufficient. In spite of this situation, is possible to find excellent students, even in the context of sharing negative contextual and physical conditions. There are few investigations that describe the variables associated to resilient students. The alumni that are beyond the risks are called resilient (Rutter, 2007. The aim of this research was to explore and identify the internal variables: goals and resilience, and the external variables: risky neighborhood and risky friends that predicted the scholar achievement of high school students. To measure those variables, was used a compilation of scales validated in the region. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, and show that resilience predicted indirectly the scholar achievement trough the academic goals. The results could be used in programs to improve the academic achievement of this group of students.

  8. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Ring, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships

  9. Student Misbehavior in Physical Education: The Role of 2 X 2 Achievement Goals and Moral Disengagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Hsu, Hsiu-Hua Li, Yi-Hsiang Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether goal orientations were related to students’ self-reported misbehaviors in physical education and to examine whether the effects were mediated by moral disengagement. A two-study project employing structural equation modeling was conducted with high school students (Study 1, n = 287; Study 2, n = 296. In Study 1, the results showed that mastery-avoidance goals were unable to predict five misbehaviors (i.e., aggressive behavior, low engagement, failure to follow directions, poor self-management, and distracting behavior. Mastery-approach goals negatively predicted low engagement, failure to follow directions, and poor self-management. Performance-approach goals positively predicted aggressive and distracting behaviors, while performance-avoidance goals positively predicted all five misbehaviors. In Study 2, the results indicated that the positive relationships between performance-approach goals and misbehaviors and between performance-avoidance goals and misbehaviors were mediated by moral disengagement. These results are discussed in terms of the model of achievement goals, and implications for physical education are also highlighted.

  10. Key Questions for Achieving EU Emission Reductions without Abandoning Other Energy Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stang, G.

    2014-01-01

    What considerations must be addressed to ensure that efforts to achieve the EU's new 2030 emissions and renewables targets are compatible with the other energy goals of the EU and its member states: energy security, and energy affordability? How should these other energy goals be addressed when pursuing energy efficiency improvements, upgrading electricity systems to handle different renewable energy sources, and developing policies to reduce overall CO2 emissions? Markets have been defined as being central to achieving all of Europe's energy goals - both the creation of an EU internal energy market and the use of the Emissions Trading System (ETS) to allow a market for managing a portion of the continent's greenhouse gas emissions. But once these markets are in place and operational, there will still be great variances among the goals, instruments, and level of market integration available for the different countries and regions of Europe. Choosing the most cost effective mechanisms for pursuing the new goals will require effective use of the flexibility that is available - an improved ETS, tradable national targets for non-ETS emissions, and a rapidly widening array of cost-effective renewable energy options. Sufficient use of this flexibility should facilitate the flow of energy investments toward energy system improvements where there is low-hanging fruit - anywhere in the continent - without requiring that local or continental energy security goals be sacrificed. (author).

  11. Achievement Goals, Motivational Climate and Sportspersonship: A Study of Young Handball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…

  12. The Impact of Group Design Projects in Engineering on Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Atadero, Rebecca A.; Balgopal, Meena

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of incorporating group design projects into a second-year engineering class on achievement goal orientations and two academic outcomes: concept inventory and final exam scores. In this study, two sections were taught using lecture format, but one section also completed three group design projects as part of their…

  13. The Impact of Goal Achievement Orientation on Student Technology Usage in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, Rory; McGillicuddy, Kara T.; Christensen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether students with differing goal achievement orientations were more likely to engage in on-task or off-task mobile device usage, as well as whether particular devices (specifically, laptops and smartphones) have a positive or negative relationship with specific task usage. The results of this study…

  14. Students' Perceptions of Parental and Teacher Academic Involvement: Consequences on Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regner, Isabelle; Loose, Florence; Dumas, Florence

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether students' perceptions of two major facets of parental and teacher academic involvement (i.e., academic support and academic monitoring), contribute to the process of students' achievement goals adoption. French junior high-school students completed two questionnaires assessing first their perceptions of parental…

  15. Self-Determined Motivation and Social Achievement Goals in Children's Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…

  16. A meta-analysis of the impact of situationally induced achievement goals on task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to meta-analyze studies which experimentally induced an achieve- ment goal state to examine its causal effect on the individual’s performance at the task at hand, and to investigate the moderator effects of feedback anticipation and time pressure. The data set

  17. Saving for Success: Financial Education and Savings Goal Achievement in Individual Development Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance

    2011-01-01

    Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…

  18. The Influence of Achievement Goals on Online Help Seeking of Computer Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Barnes, Brad; Wright, Ewan; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the online help-seeking behaviors of computer science students with a focus on the effect of achievement goals. The online help-seeking behaviors investigated were online searching, asking teachers online for help, and asking peers or unknown people online for help. One hundred and sixty-five students studying computer…

  19. Goals, data use, and instruction : the effect of a teacher professional development program on reading achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a

  20. Exploring Students' Reflective Thinking Practice, Deep Processing Strategies, Effort, and Achievement Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students' academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in…

  1. Pupils' Self-Regulation in Physical Education: The Role of Motivational Climates and Differential Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of motivational climate and differential achievement goals to meta-cognitive self-regulation, regulation of effort, help-seeking and self-handicapping in physical education (PE). The sample consisted of 273 pupils (boys n = 125; girls n = 148) attending 10th grade PE classes in Norway. Both motivational…

  2. Trait Procrastination, Self-Efficacy and Achievement Goals: The Mediation Role of Boredom Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming; Kam, Chester Chun Seng

    2017-01-01

    Limited research has examined the mediational role of coping strategy in students' motivation and procrastination. In this study, we examined the relationships among self-efficacy, achievement goals, boredom coping strategies and procrastination with 506 Chinese college students. Data were collected via questionnaires. Structural equation…

  3. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Achievement and Social Goals among Chinese and Filipino Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; Ganotice, Fraide A.; Watkins, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined how achievement (mastery and performance) and social goals (affiliation, approval, concern, and status) influenced various learning outcomes in two collectivist cultures. Filipino (n = 355) and Hong Kong Chinese (n = 697) secondary students answered the relevant questionnaires. Regression analyses using mastery, performance, and social…

  4. The influence of outsourcing on achieving business goals in large Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Parlov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a research conducted in large Croatian companies that intended to connect and establish eventual influences between the usage of outsourcing and achieving business goals in those companies. It was also meant to establish if (and in which segments outsourcing was being used in large Croatian companies, what were the main reasons for its use, if it was conducted according to specific plans and with tracking of achieved results, if expectations that surveyed companies had about outsourcing were met, and what are the future possibilities and perspectives of those companies regarding outsourcing. Many other useful data regarding outsourcing and goal achievement were also collected and linked together in order to establish eventual influences of outsourcing on the effectiveness of making business in large Croatian companies.

  5. Understanding and benchmarking health service achievement of policy goals for chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Key challenges in benchmarking health service achievement of policy goals in areas such as chronic disease are: 1) developing indicators and understanding how policy goals might work as indicators of service performance; 2) developing methods for economically collecting and reporting stakeholder perceptions; 3) combining and sharing data about the performance of organizations; 4) interpreting outcome measures; 5) obtaining actionable benchmarking information. This study aimed to explore how a new Boolean-based small-N method from the social sciences—Qualitative Comparative Analysis or QCA—could contribute to meeting these internationally shared challenges. Methods A ‘multi-value QCA’ (MVQCA) analysis was conducted of data from 24 senior staff at 17 randomly selected services for chronic disease, who provided perceptions of 1) whether government health services were improving their achievement of a set of statewide policy goals for chronic disease and 2) the efficacy of state health office actions in influencing this improvement. The analysis produced summaries of configurations of perceived service improvements. Results Most respondents observed improvements in most areas but uniformly good improvements across services were not perceived as happening (regardless of whether respondents identified a state health office contribution to that improvement). The sentinel policy goal of using evidence to develop service practice was not achieved at all in four services and appears to be reliant on other kinds of service improvements happening. Conclusions The QCA method suggested theoretically plausible findings and an approach that with further development could help meet the five benchmarking challenges. In particular, it suggests that achievement of one policy goal may be reliant on achievement of another goal in complex ways that the literature has not yet fully accommodated but which could help prioritize policy goals. The weaknesses of QCA can be

  6. Relationship among achievement goal orientations and multidimensional situational motivation in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Treasure, Darren C

    2002-03-01

    Contemporary research suggests that task and ego achievement goal orientations affect students' intrinsic motivation in physical education. This research has assessed intrinsic motivation as a unidimensional contruct, however, which is inconsistent with the more contemporary postulates of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991) which states that intrinsic motivation is only one type of motivation. To date, research has not addressed whether different types of motivation at the situational level are influenced by the proneness to adopt task or ego involvement. To examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and multidimensional situational motivation in PE. Middle school children (182 male, 136 female; M age = 13.2 years). Responded to questionnaires assessing their dispositional goal orientation (POSQ; Roberts, Treasure, & Balague, 1998) and situational motivation (SIMS; Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) in PE. Task orientation was found to be positively associated with more self-determined types of situational motivation. Ego orientation was weakly related to less self-determined motivation. An extreme group split was conducted to create four goal groups and goal profile analyses conducted. A significant MANOVA was followed by univariate analyses, post hoc comparisons, and calculated effect sizes, which revealed that groups high in task orientation reported more motivationally adaptive responses than groups low in task orientation. The results suggest that a high level of task orientation singularly or in combination with ego orientation fosters self-determined situational motivation in the context of PE.

  7. Achievement goals, competition appraisals, and the psychological and emotional welfare of sport participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2008-06-01

    Grounded in the 2x2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and the indicators of athletes' welfare. Finally, measurement and structural invariance was tested with respect to gender in the hypothesized model. An alternative model was also estimated specifying self-esteem as an antecedent of the four goals and cognitive appraisals. Four hundred and twenty-four team sport participants (Mage=24.25) responded to a multisection questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the hypothesized model only. Challenge and threat appraisals partially mediated the relationships observed between mastery-based goals and the well-being indicators. Lastly, the hypothesized model was found to be invariant across gender.

  8. Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Newhouse, Norman L. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Led by PPG and partnered with Hexagon Lincoln and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the team recently carried out a project “Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass”. The project was funded by DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, starting on September 1, 2014 as a two-year project to assess technical and commercial feasibilities of manufacturing low-cost, high-strength glass fibers to replace T700 carbon fibers with a goal of reducing the composite total cost by 50% of the existing, commercial 700 bar hydrogen storage tanks used in personal vehicles.

  9. Defensive pessimism, self-esteem and achievement goals: A person-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradás Canedo, María M; Freire Rodríguez, Carlos; Regueiro Fernández, Bibiana; Valle Arias, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between defensive pessimism, self-esteem, and achievement goals is a controversial issue. The main contribution of this research is the adoption of a person-centered approach to explore the existence of differentiated profiles of university students, which combine self-esteem and defensive pessimism. In addition, we analyze whether these profiles differ in their achievement goals (learning, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and work-avoidance). 1,028 university students took part in the study. Four student profiles were identified: (a) HSE/MDP (high self-esteem and moderate defensive pessimism); (b) LSE/LDP (low self-esteem and low defensive pessimism); (c) HSE/LDP (high self-esteem and low defensive pessimism); and (d) LSE/HDP (low self-esteem and high defensive pessimism). These four profiles differ significantly in their achievement goals. The use of defensive pessimism may involve students with either low or high self-esteem, although the two profiles follow differentiated motivational achievement trajectories.

  10. Presenting the students’ academic achievement causal model based on goal orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRAHIM NASIRI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual’s excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second year students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69% Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9% Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs and the students’ Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (P<0.05. In addition, the results revealed that a significant relationship exists between learning strategies [Deep Learning (r=0.37, P<0.05, Surface Learning (r=-0.21, P<0.05], and academic achievement. The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Conclusion: Results showed that the students’ academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students’ achievement in learning.

  11. Values based decision making: a tool for achieving the goals of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne E; Spencer, Edward M

    2005-03-01

    The recognition that the success of the healthcare organization depends on its achievement of two interrelated goals is a relatively recent phenomenon. In its mid-history the healthcare organization was largely able to ignore cost issues. In its latter history, many would argue that it ignored its quality goals as it pursued its cost goals (15). Either approach, given declining revenues and a competitive landscape, is incompatible with continued responsible operation. If this is true, then tools that were appropriate when the healthcare organization was focused on the achievement of one or another of these goals are not adequate as the healthcare organization seeks to achieve both goals together. Thus, new perspectives and new tools must be found that help the organization address two intimately related but sometimes conflicting goals. Values based decision-making can be the perspective needed, and organization ethics is one tool that can be of use in supporting it within the institution. But there are caveats. In order for values based decision-making to be effective, leadership must take an active role in promoting its use. It must relinquish a degree of control and it must begin to trust its stakeholders to make decisions within the context of the organization's values and goals. This can be extremely difficult, as control by senior management is often seen as the only effective means of ensuring that correct decisions are made. There are additional difficulties in the healthcare organization. Control rests within two groups and the healthcare organization is operating in an environment in which variance elimination is emphasized as a means of controlling costs. This may be an appealing notion for revenue strapped healthcare organization leaders, but it implies greater control exerted by managers, not less. Relinquishing any degree of control is a frightening prospect, but it has been done successfully. An excellent example of leadership encouraging decisions

  12. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  13. An evaluation of China's new rural cooperative medical system: achievements and inadequacies from policy goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyue; Hou, Yilin; Sun, Mei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2015-10-23

    Although much public scrutiny and academic attention has focused on the evaluations of system implementation since the beginning of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) in China, few studies have systematically evaluated the achievements of the stated policy goals. The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the policy goals of NRCMS have been achieved. Using multistage sampling processes, two rounds of cross-sectional household surveys including 9787 and 7921 rural households were conducted in Eastern China in year 2000 and year 2008, respectively. A pre- and post-implementation comparison was used to evaluate the achievement of policy goals in three measures: impoverishment from major health hazards, household financial risk from medical expenses, and rural income inequity. Intention surveys were also applied to find out potential obstacles in the implementation of NRCMS. The rate of re-impoverishment from health hazard was reduced from 2.69 % ex ante to 2.12 % ex post, a decrease of 21.13 %. The severity of impoverishment fell from a previous 4.66 % to 3.02 %, a decline of 35.18 %. Economic risk of medical treatment population relative to the whole population fell from 2.62 ex ante to 2.03 ex post, a 22.52 % reduction. As indication of effect on improving income equity, the Gini coefficient fell from 0.4629 to 0.4541. The effects of NRCMS were significantly better than those of RCMS. Despite the preliminary achievements, our intention survey of key respondents identified that technical difficulties in actuarial funding and more sustainable reimbursement schedules has become the most challenging barriers in achieving the goals of NRCMS, while raising the insurance premium on NRCMS was no longer as big a barrier. With NRCMS, China has established a medical security system to reduce the financial burden of healthcare on rural residents. NRCMS has achieved some positive though limited effects; but technical difficulties in the implementation of

  14. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: The moderating role of achievement goals

    OpenAIRE

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-01-01

    This is the accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article This research explored the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the 2 x 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort. A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between intrinsic motivation and increased work effort was more positive for employees with h...

  15. Infants make more attempts to achieve a goal when they see adults persist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Julia A; Lee, Yuna; Schulz, Laura E

    2017-09-22

    Persistence, above and beyond IQ, is associated with long-term academic outcomes. To look at the effect of adult models on infants' persistence, we conducted an experiment in which 15-month-olds were assigned to one of three conditions: an Effort condition in which they saw an adult try repeatedly, using various methods, to achieve each of two different goals; a No Effort condition in which the adult achieved the goals effortlessly; or a Baseline condition. Infants were then given a difficult, novel task. Across an initial study and two preregistered experiments ( N = 262), infants in the Effort condition made more attempts to achieve the goal than did infants in the other conditions. Pedagogical cues modulated the effect. The results suggest that adult models causally affect infants' persistence and that infants can generalize the value of persistence to novel tasks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Biocomplementation of SVE to achieve clean-up goals in soils contaminated with toluene and xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, António Alves; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás; Domingues, Valentina; da Conceição Alvim-Ferraz, Maria; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioremediation (BR) are two of the most common soil remediation technologies. Their application is widespread; however, both present limitations, namely related to the efficiencies of SVE on organic soils and to the remediation times of some BR processes. This work aimed to study the combination of these two technologies in order to verify the achievement of the legal clean-up goals in soil remediation projects involving seven different simulated soils separately contaminated with toluene and xylene. The remediations consisted of the application of SVE followed by biostimulation. The results show that the combination of these two technologies is effective and manages to achieve the clean-up goals imposed by the Spanish Legislation. Under the experimental conditions used in this work, SVE is sufficient for the remediation of soils, contaminated separately with toluene and xylene, with organic matter contents (OMC) below 4 %. In soils with higher OMC, the use of BR, as a complementary technology, and when the concentration of contaminant in the gas phase of the soil reaches values near 1 mg/L, allows the achievement of the clean-up goals. The OMC was a key parameter because it hindered SVE due to adsorption phenomena but enhanced the BR process because it acted as a microorganism and nutrient source.

  17. Social Studies Oriented Achievement Goal Scale (SOAGS: Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehat GEZER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring students' social studies achievement goal. The research was conducted on a study group consisted of 374 middle school students studying in the central district of Diyarbakır in 2014-2015 school year fall semester. Expert opinion was consulted with regard to the scale's content and face validity. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA were performed in order to measure the scale's construct validity. As a result of EFA, a 29-item and a six-factor structure model which explains 50.82% of the total variance was obtained. The emerging factors were called as a self-approach, task-approach, other-approach, task-avoidance, other-avoidance and self-avoidance respectively. The findings acquired CFA indicated that the 29-item and six-factor structure related to social studies oriented achievement goal scale have acceptable goodness of fit indices. The scale's reliability coefficients were calculated by means of internal consistency method. As a result of reliability analysis, it was determined that the reliability coefficients were within admissible limits. The finding of the item correlation and 27% of upper and lower group comparisons demonstrated that all of the items in the scale should remain. In light of these results, it could be argued that the scale is reliable and valid instrument and can be used in order to test students' social studies achievement goals.

  18. I Am Therefore I Do: Group Identification and Effort for the Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Reese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Relevant others (e.g., fellow group members influence how goals and goal-directed behaviors are construed and valued. In turn, according to the “expectancy × value” model of motivated behavioral choice, people engage in goal-directed behaviors when they expect success and ascribe high values to a certain task. In this pilot study, we combine predictions from a social psychological goal perspective with recent theoretical developments from educational psychology, testing the processes that link a person’s social identity with the effort for the achievement goals. With a pilot study using a sample of 86 university students, we tested the assumption that expectation for success and subjective task values mediate the relation between the student identity and effort intentions. In line with our expectations, stronger identification with the group of students was related to stronger effort intentions, mediated via interest and attainment value. These results suggest that social identity may have a profound impact on the engagement decisions made in educational settings.

  19. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students' achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In order to test the model, group measures of mastery-approach goal orientation, performance-avoidance goal orientation, self-efficacy, and achievement were employed. Students’ cognitive processing was a...

  20. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.

  1. 2 x 2 achievement goals profilEs in chilean CompetiTIve and recreational athletes: a first look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc R. Lochbaum

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: was to examine the 2 x 2 achievement goal profiles of Chilean young adults regularly participating in competitive and recreational sport. Materials: participants were 108 female and 132 males who were recruited from the Valparaiso and Viña del Mar areas of Chile. Participants completed a valid and reliable measure of the 2 x 2 achievement goals referenced to sport participation. Results: indicated that the entire sample significantly ( p - .05 and very meaningfully (Hedges’ g range 1.13 - 2.91 endorsed the mastery-approach goal more so than the other three achievement goals. Male participants significantly ( p - .05 endorsed both approach goals and the mastery goal contrast more so than the female participants. These differences approached medium in meaningfulness (Hedges’ g range .40 - .46. Significant differences did not exist between competitive and recreational athletes on any of the achievement goals or goal contrasts. Confirming the lack of significant differences were the computed small to negligible in magnitude effect sizes. Conclusions: the present data were a first look into profiling sport participants on the 2 x 2 achievement goals in Chile. Given this sample of Chilean participants endorsed the performance goals far less than found in the sport psychology 2 x 2 achievement goal literature, more research is needed before these results are generalized to Chilean sport participants. Future research must also examine the relationships of antecedents and consequences to the 2 x 2 achievement goals to advance sport psychology in Chile.

  2. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  3. Instructional characteristics in mathematics classrooms: relationships to achievement goal orientation and student engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, Rebecca; Rubach, Charlott

    2017-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning, support for autonomy, and competence in mathematic classrooms (Time 1), and students' achievement goal orientations and engagement in mathematics 6 months later (Time 2). We tested whether student-perceived instructional characteristics at Time 1 indirectly related to student engagement at Time 2, via their achievement goal orientations (Time 2), and, whether student gender moderated these relationships. Participants were ninth and tenth graders (55.2% girls) from 46 classrooms in ten secondary schools in Berlin, Germany. Only data from students who participated at both timepoints were included (N = 746 out of total at Time 1 1118; dropout 33.27%). Longitudinal structural equation modeling showed that student-perceived teaching for meaning and support for competence indirectly predicted intrinsic motivation and effort, via students' mastery goal orientation. These paths were equivalent for girls and boys. The findings are significant for mathematics education, in identifying motivational processes that partly explain the relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning and competence support and intrinsic motivation and effort in mathematics.

  4. Academic goals, student homework engagement, and academic achievement in Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eValle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13. Findings show that: (a academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, (c homework time management was associated with the approach to homework; (d and the approach to homework, like the rest of the variables of the model (except for the time spent on homework, was related to the student's academic motivation (i.e., academic goals.

  5. How university students with reading difficulties are supported in achieving their goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L; Parrila, Rauno K; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university students with RD who were currently completing or had recently completed a university degree. Results showed that university students with RD named friends, parents, and significant others (e.g., boy/girlfriend, spouse) as social ties most often. Personal social ties were developed through social media networking sites and within close relationships, and institutional social ties through academic centers and university general services, among others. Resources mobilized among personal and institutional social ties included emotional and social support, advice and planning, writing and studying help, and goal setting. Institutional social ties also afforded job search assistance, accommodations, skill development, financial support, and mental health services. Finally, the status of employed, but not student, social ties explained academic achievement. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  6. Legacy nitrogen may prevent achievement of water quality goals in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K J; Van Cappellen, P; Basu, N B

    2018-04-27

    In August 2017, the Gulf of Mexico's hypoxic zone was declared to be the largest ever measured. It has been estimated that a 60% decrease in watershed nitrogen (N) loading may be necessary to adequately reduce eutrophication in the Gulf. However, to date there has been no rigorous assessment of the effect of N legacies on achieving water quality goals. In this study, we show that even if agricultural N use became 100% efficient, it would take decades to meet target N loads due to legacy N within the Mississippi River basin. Our results suggest that both long-term commitment and large-scale changes in agricultural management practices will be necessary to decrease Mississippi N loads and to meet current goals for reducing the size of the Gulf hypoxic zone. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Legacy nitrogen may prevent achievement of water quality goals in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Van Cappellen, P.; Basu, N. B.

    2018-04-01

    In August 2017, the Gulf of Mexico’s hypoxic zone was declared to be the largest ever measured. It has been estimated that a 60% decrease in watershed nitrogen (N) loading may be necessary to adequately reduce eutrophication in the Gulf. However, to date there has been no rigorous assessment of the effect of N legacies on achieving water quality goals. In this study, we show that even if agricultural N use became 100% efficient, it would take decades to meet target N loads due to legacy N within the Mississippi River basin. Our results suggest that both long-term commitment and large-scale changes in agricultural management practices will be necessary to decrease Mississippi N loads and to meet current goals for reducing the size of the Gulf hypoxic zone.

  8. How Does Students’ Sense of Self-Worth Influence Their Goal Orientation in Mathematics Achievement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulseren Sekreter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In learning mathematics, students are naturally motivated to protect their self-worth by maintaining a belief that they are competent in this area. However, there is an important question which educators have to answer: “Why do students often confuse ability with worth?” The most important reason is that in our society students are widely considered to be worthy according to their ability to achieve in the given tasks in mathematics. Irrespective the contributions of the Multiple Intelligence Theory of intelligence in education, unfortunately mathematics is still regarded as predicting students’ overall ability to learn. Educators should realize that the need in order to protect self-worth arises primarily from fear of failure. Therefore, if this fear of failure is strong, some students will not try and gradually they will produce failure- avoiding strategies to avoid certain tasks in order not to look bad or receive negative assessments from others to protect his/her self-worth. It is important to make sure that the performance goals do not promote failure-avoidance (performance-avoidance-oriented behavior, such as avoiding unfavorable judgments of capabilities and looking incompetent when the student encounters greater challenges. The main purpose of this qualitative study, therefore, is to explore students’ achievement goal motivation, their self-worth and how these motivational factors impact their learning goals in mathematics. This study hypothesizes that self- worth protection in math has also been considered from a performance-avoidance goal viewpoint.This study emphasizes that educators, who consider true self-worth as the student’s inherent value, should avoid comparing their students’ ability, capability relative to others as well as students’ academic performance and outcomes with others in class context.

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Self-Reported Achievement Goals and Nonself-Report Performance across Three Achievement Domains (Work, Sports, and Education)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement

  10. [Actively promote nutrition and health surveillance, achieve the national nutrition and health goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Gangqiang; Zhao, Wenhua; Chen, Junshi

    2016-03-01

    The results of Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance (2010-2012) showed that the anemia prevalence in China reduced significantly compared with 2002, and people's nutrition and health status have improved. Unbalanced diet still exist, such as low intake of vegetables and fruits, and high intake of salt. The serum total cholesterol level and the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and borderline high cholesterolemia were high among urban adults, and more attention should be paid for high serum total cholesterol level among older adults. These results are significant to the development of nutrition and health intervention strategy, carry out nutrition intervention and the achievement of national nutrition and health goals.

  11. A meta-analysis of self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance across three achievement domains (work, sports, and education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico W Van Yperen

    Full Text Available During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of

  12. A meta-analysis of self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance across three achievement domains (work, sports, and education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yperen, Nico W; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of performance

  13. Achieving safety/risk goals for less ATR backup power upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered open-quotes necessaryclose quotes for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost

  14. Schistosomiasis elimination strategies and potential role of a vaccine in achieving global health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Annie X; Agosti, Jan M; Walson, Judd L; Hall, B Fenton; Gordon, Lance

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation co-sponsored a meeting entitled "Schistosomiasis Elimination Strategy and Potential Role of a Vaccine in Achieving Global Health Goals" to discuss the potential role of schistosomiasis vaccines and other tools in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination strategies. It was concluded that although schistosomiasis elimination in some focal areas may be achievable through current mass drug administration programs, global control and elimination will face several significant scientific and operational challenges, and will require an integrated approach with other, additional interventions. These challenges include vector (snail) control; environmental modification; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and other future innovative tools such as vaccines. Defining a clear product development plan that reflects a vaccine strategy as complementary to the existing control programs to combat different forms of schistosomiasis will be important to develop a vaccine effectively.

  15. The role of self-regulated strategies and goal orientation in predicting achievement of elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kitsantas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the predictiveness of self-regulated learning strategies and goal orientation of elementary students’ academic achievement. Eighty one (n = 81 fifth graders were asked to respond to two scales. It was hypothesized that student achievement would be predicted by prior achievement, use of self-regulation strategies, and goal orientation. Results showed that prior achievement and use of self-regulation strategies accounted for a significant amount of variance in students’ academic achievement. Overall, goal orientation was not a significant predictor of students’ outcomes measures across different subject areas. Areas for future research are explored and implications for school personnel are provided.

  16. Achievement Goal Theory and disordered eating: Relationships between female gymnasts’ goal orientations, perceived motivational climate and disordered eating correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationships between disordered eating in female gymnasts and dancers and their perspective towards achievement in sport and dance, respectively. With an emphasis on outperforming others (ego involvement), more disordered eating was expected than when personal progress

  17. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs: The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs.The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results: Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention.Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion: The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework.

  18. How to Achieve CO2 Emission Reduction Goals: What 'Jazz' and 'Symphony' Can Offer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving CO 2 emission reduction goals remains one of today's most challenging tasks. Global energy demand will grow for many decades to come. In many regions of the world cheap fossil fuels seem to be the way forward to meet ever growing energy demand. However, there are negative consequences to this, most notably increasing emission levels. Politicians and industry therefore must accept that make hard choices in this generation need to be made to bring about real changes for future generations and the planet to limit CO 2 emissions and climate change. In his presentation, prof. Rose will provide an insight into how CO 2 emission reduction goals can be set and achieved and how a balance between future energy needs and supply can be realised in the long run up to 2050 both globally and regionally. This will be done based on WEC's own leading analysis in this area, namely it recently launched World Energy Scenarios: composing energy futures to 2050 report and WEC's scenarios, Jazz and Symphony. WEC's full analysis, the complete report and supporting material is available online at: http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/2013/world-energy-scenarios-composing-energy-futures-to-2050.(author)

  19. Universal health coverage and the health Sustainable Development Goal: achievements and challenges for Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Amala; Ranasinghe, Thushara; Abeykoon, Palitha

    2016-09-01

    With state-funded health care that is free at the point of delivery, a sound primary health-care policy and widespread health-care services, Sri Lanka seems a good example of universal health coverage. Yet, health transition and disparities in provision and financing threaten this situation. Sri Lanka did well on the Millennium Development Goal health indicators, but the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for health has a wider purview, which is to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages". The gender gap in life expectancy and the gap between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy make achievement of the health SDG more challenging. Although women and children do well overall, the comparative health disadvantage for men in Sri Lanka is a cause for concern. From a financing perspective, high out-of-pocket expenditure and high utilization of the private sector, even by those in the lowest income quintile, are concerns, as is the emerging "third tier", where some individuals accessing state health care that is free at the point of delivery actually bear some of the costs of drugs, investigations and surgery. This cost sharing is resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for individuals, and delays in and non-compliance with treatment. These concerns about provision and financing must be addressed, as health transition will intensify the morbidity burden and loss of well-being, and could derail plans to achieve the health SDG.

  20. Parenting Styles and Adolescents’ School Adjustment: Investigating the Mediating Role of Achievement Goals within the 2 × 2 Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shiyuan; Liu, Yan; Bai, Lu

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents’ school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control), achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals) and school adjustment variables (emotion, students’ life satisfaction, school self-esteem, problem behavior, academic achievement, and self-determination in school). A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to test our hypotheses. The results indicated that parental autonomy support was associated with adolescents’ school adjustment in an adaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance approach goals; however, parental psychological control was associated with adolescents’ school adjustment in a maladaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance avoidance goals. In addition, the results indicated that mastery avoidance goals suppressed the relationship between parental autonomy support and adolescents’ school adjustment, and performance approach goals suppressed the relationship between this adjustment and parental psychological control. These findings extend the limited literature regarding the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goals and enable us to evidence the mediating and suppressing effects of achievement goals. This study highlights the importance of parenting in adolescents’ school adjustment through the cultivation of different achievement goals. PMID:29085321

  1. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' School Adjustment: Investigating the Mediating Role of Achievement Goals within the 2 × 2 Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shiyuan; Liu, Yan; Bai, Lu

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents' school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control), achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals) and school adjustment variables (emotion, students' life satisfaction, school self-esteem, problem behavior, academic achievement, and self-determination in school). A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to test our hypotheses. The results indicated that parental autonomy support was associated with adolescents' school adjustment in an adaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance approach goals; however, parental psychological control was associated with adolescents' school adjustment in a maladaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance avoidance goals. In addition, the results indicated that mastery avoidance goals suppressed the relationship between parental autonomy support and adolescents' school adjustment, and performance approach goals suppressed the relationship between this adjustment and parental psychological control. These findings extend the limited literature regarding the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goals and enable us to evidence the mediating and suppressing effects of achievement goals. This study highlights the importance of parenting in adolescents' school adjustment through the cultivation of different achievement goals.

  2. Parenting Styles and Adolescents’ School Adjustment: Investigating the Mediating Role of Achievement Goals within the 2 × 2 Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyuan Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents’ school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control, achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and school adjustment variables (emotion, students’ life satisfaction, school self-esteem, problem behavior, academic achievement, and self-determination in school. A structural equation modeling (SEM approach was used to test our hypotheses. The results indicated that parental autonomy support was associated with adolescents’ school adjustment in an adaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance approach goals; however, parental psychological control was associated with adolescents’ school adjustment in a maladaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance avoidance goals. In addition, the results indicated that mastery avoidance goals suppressed the relationship between parental autonomy support and adolescents’ school adjustment, and performance approach goals suppressed the relationship between this adjustment and parental psychological control. These findings extend the limited literature regarding the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goals and enable us to evidence the mediating and suppressing effects of achievement goals. This study highlights the importance of parenting in adolescents’ school adjustment through the cultivation of different achievement goals.

  3. Parental Behaviors and Adolescents' Achievement Goals at the Beginning of Middle School: Emotional Problems as Potential Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Recent literature on the determinants of academic motivation has shown that parenting and emotions are central elements in understanding students' achievement goals. The authors of this study set out to examine the predictive relationship between parental behaviors during the last year of elementary school and adolescents' achievement goals at the…

  4. Consideration of Learning Orientations as an Application of Achievement Goals in Evaluating Life Science Majors in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.

    2018-01-01

    When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics…

  5. An Investigation of Achievement Goals and Time Perspective in Community College Students Engaged in a First-Year Experience Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campen, Darrin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the relationship between time perspective and achievement goals among 144 community college students engaged in a first-year experience course. A 4 X 5 correlational model was utilized to examine the relationship between four different achievement goals as measured by scores on the…

  6. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-11-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  7. Optimal dietary patterns designed from local foods to achieve maternal nutritional goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jofrey; Kassim, Neema; Rose, Jerman W; Agaba, Morris

    2018-04-04

    Achieving nutritional requirements for pregnant and lactating mothers in rural households while maintaining the intake of local and culture-specific foods can be a difficult task. Deploying a linear goal programming approach can effectively generate optimal dietary patterns that incorporate local and culturally acceptable diets. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a realistic and affordable diet that achieves nutritional goals for rural pregnant and lactating women can be formulated from locally available foods in Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess dietary intakes of 150 pregnant and lactating women using a weighed dietary record (WDR), 24 h dietary recalls and a 7-days food record. A market survey was also carried out to estimate the cost per 100 g of edible portion of foods that are frequently consumed in the study population. Dietary survey and market data were then used to define linear programming (LP) model parameters for diet optimisation. All LP analyses were done using linear program solver to generate optimal dietary patterns. Our findings showed that optimal dietary patterns designed from locally available foods would improve dietary adequacy for 15 and 19 selected nutrients in pregnant and lactating women, respectively, but inadequacies remained for iron, zinc, folate, pantothenic acid, and vitamin E, indicating that these are problem nutrients (nutrients that did not achieve 100% of their RNIs in optimised diets) in the study population. These findings suggest that optimal use of local foods can improve dietary adequacy for rural pregnant and lactating women aged 19-50 years. However, additional cost-effective interventions are needed to ensure adequate intakes for the identified problem nutrients.

  8. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  9. Measuring achievement goal motivation, mindsets and cognitive load: validation of three instruments' scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Castillo, Richmond M; Gas, Becca; Artino, Anthony R

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of motivation and cognitive load has potential value in health professions education. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of scores from Dweck's Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale (ITIS), Elliot's Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) and Leppink's cognitive load index (CLI). This was a validity study evaluating internal structure using reliability and factor analysis, and relationships with other variables using the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Two hundred and thirty-two secondary school students participated in a medical simulation-based training activity at an academic medical center. Pre-activity ITIS (implicit theory [mindset] domains: incremental, entity) and AGQ-R (achievement goal domains: mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance), post-activity CLI (cognitive load domains: intrinsic, extrinsic, germane) and task persistence (self-directed repetitions on a laparoscopic surgery task) were measured. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was > 0.70 for all domain scores except AGQ-R performance-avoidance (alpha 0.68) and CLI extrinsic load (alpha 0.64). Confirmatory factor analysis of ITIS and CLI scores demonstrated acceptable model fit. Confirmatory factor analysis of AGQ-R scores demonstrated borderline fit, and exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-domain model for achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance and avoidance). Correlations among scores from conceptually-related domains generally aligned with expectations, as follows: ITIS incremental and entity, r = -0.52; AGQ-R mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance, r = 0.71; mastery-approach and performance-approach, r = 0.55; performance-approach and performance-avoidance, r = 0.43; mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance, r = 0.36; CLI germane and extrinsic, r = -0.35; ITIS incremental and AGQ-R mastery-approach, r = 0.34; ITIS incremental and CLI germane, r = 0.44; AGQ-R mastery

  10. The Reciprocal Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…

  11. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males;...

  12. Achieving the health Millennium Development Goals for South Africa: challenges and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Mickey; Lawn, Joy E; Sanders, David; Barron, Peter; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Flisher, Alan J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tollman, Stephen M; Churchyard, Gavin J; Coovadia, Hoosen

    2009-09-19

    15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However The Lancet's Series on South Africa has identified several examples of leadership and innovation that point towards a different future scenario. We discuss the type of vision, leadership, and priority actions needed to achieve such a change. We still have time to change the health trajectory of the country, and even meet the MDGs. The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost?

  13. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  14. On the Need for Rethinking Current Practice that Highlights Goal Achievement Risk in an Enterprise Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aven, Eyvind; Aven, Terje

    2015-09-01

    This article addresses the issue of how performance and risk management can complement each other in order to enhance the management of an enterprise. Often, we see that risk management focuses on goal achievements and not the enterprise risk related to its activities in the value chain. The statement "no goal, no risk" is a common misconception. The main aim of the article is to present a normative model for describing the links between performance and risk, and to use this model to give recommendations on how to best structure and plan the management of an enterprise in situations involving risk and uncertainties. The model, which has several novel features, is based on the interaction between different types of risk management (enterprise risk management, task risk management, and personal risk management) and a structure where the enterprise risk management overrules both the task and personal risk management. To illustrate the model we use the metaphor of a ship, where the ship is loaded with cash-generating activities and has a direction over time determined by the overall strategic objectives. Compared to the current enterprise risk management practice, the model and related analysis are founded on a new perspective on risk, highlighting knowledge and uncertainties beyond probabilities. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Integrating Turkish Work and Achievement Goals With Schwartz’s Human Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Tevrüz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of indigenous values developed in Turkey to Schwartz’s universal values. Students (N = 593 from six universities in Istanbul responded the value scale, which consists of 10 etic PVQ items (each item representing one of 10 main Schwartz values and 23 emic WAG items (representing work-achievement goals. PROXSCAL, a multidimensional scaling method, was used to test whether etic and emic sets of values integrate and form the universal circular structure proposed in Schwartz value theory. The motivational continuum of values as a circular structure was similar to pan-cultural results, but adding another value type to the openness to change pole. While some of the items in this region represent autonomy of thought, remaining items diverge. The principle of conflicting values on opposite poles was not supported in relation to openness to change-conservation dimension. These two poles had similar priorities, contrasting with pan-cultural results, and demonstrating a culture-specific aspect of responding to motivational goals. Insights gained by emic studies will be functional in enriching understanding values, and contributing to the comprehensiveness and universality of Schwartz value theory.

  16. Cognitive Bridging: Using Strategic Communication To Connect Abstract Goals With The Means To Achieve Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sherri Jean; Byrne, Sahara

    2018-01-29

    Three studies test several mechanisms of cognitive bridging, or how a strategic communication message functions to connect the abstract goal of an individual with the specific means to achieve the goal. Across all of the experiments (n = 276, n = 209, n = 145), it was demonstrated that participants who received an induced bridging mechanism were more likely to produce cognitive bridging outputs and report more abstract responses than participants who did not receive a bridging technique. We do not find the same pattern of results among participants who received an integrated bridging technique. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that how abstractly or concretely an individual is thinking can be influenced by abstraction cues planted within a strategic message, providing promise for messaging efforts at the moment of decision. In other words, the level of abstract thinking an individual is carrying into an exposure situation is possible to change using cues within the message itself. This is the first article to juxtapose the induced and integrated mechanisms of cognitive bridging.

  17. Achieving salt-cooled reactor goals: economics, variable electricity, no major fuel failures - 15118

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) with a Nuclear air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC) and Firebrick Resistance-Heated Energy Storage (FIRES) is a new reactor concept. The FHR uses High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) coated-particle fuel and liquid-salt coolants originally developed for molten salt reactors (MSRs) where the fuel was dissolved in the coolant. The FIRES system consists of high-temperature firebrick heated to high temperatures with electricity at times of low electric prices. For a modular FHR operating with a base-load 100 MWe output, the station output can vary from -242 MWe to +242 MWe. The FHR can be built in different sizes. The reactor concept was developed using a top-down approach: markets, requirements, reactor design. The goals are: (1) increase plant revenue by 50 to 100% relative to base-load nuclear plants with capital costs similar to light-water reactors, (2) enable a zero-carbon nuclear renewable electricity grid, and (3) no potential for major fuel failure and thus no potential for major radionuclide offsite releases in a beyond-design-basis accident (BDBA). The basis for the goals and how they may be achieved is described

  18. Global commitments and China's endeavors to promote health and achieve sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodong; Wu, Qian; Shao, Haiyan

    2018-04-12

    With its immense population and as the largest developing country in the world, China has made remarkable achievements in health promotion at a relatively low cost. However, China is still faced with challenges such as changes of disease spectrum, the coming era of an aging society, and the risk of environmental pollution. On October 25, 2016, China formally passed the blueprint of "Healthy China 2030," working towards the national goal of reaching a health standard on par with developed countries by 2030, which was also a response to realize the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. "Healthy China 2030" is comprised of 29 chapters that cover five health areas. China is sparing no effort to transfer from being merely the most populous country, to becoming a leading nation in health education. In "Healthy China 2030," collaborated construction and resource sharing were clearly stated as the core strategy. A shift in concentration towards coordinated development of health-based economy from a previous pursuit of rapid economic growth was also underlined. There are also several major issues, such as severely aging population, the burden of chronic diseases, the insufficiency of health expenditure, and the great demand on health protection, waiting to be dealt with during the implementation process of "Healthy China 2030". "Healthy China 2030" is a momentous move to enhance public health, which is also a response to the global commitments. We also need to rethink our approach to reach the living standards and maintain a better environment.

  19. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109

  20. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.

  1. An international comparison study of pharmacy students' achievement goals and their relationship to assessment type and scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrakaf, Saleh; Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2015-04-25

    To identify pharmacy students' preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students' achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge.

  2. An International Comparison Study of Pharmacy Students’ Achievement Goals and their Relationship to Assessment Type and Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A.; John, Dai N.; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify pharmacy students’ preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. Methods: The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Results: Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students’ achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge. PMID:25995510

  3. Linguistic validation of translation of the self-assessment goal achievement (saga) questionnaire from English

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A linguistic validation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire was conducted for 12 European languages, documenting that each translation adequately captures the concepts of the original English-language version of the questionnaire and is readily understood by subjects in the target population. Methods Native-speaking residents of the target countries who reported urinary problems/lower urinary tract problems were asked to review a translation of the SAGA questionnaire, which was harmonized among 12 languages: Danish, Dutch, English (UK), Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish. During a cognitive debriefing interview, participants were asked to identify any words that were difficult to understand and explain in their own words the meaning of each sentence in the questionnaire. The qualitative analysis was conducted by local linguistic validation teams (original translators, back translator, project manager, interviewer, and survey research expert). Results Translations of the SAGA questionnaire from English to 12 European languages were well understood by the participants with an overall comprehension rate across language of 98.9%. In addition, the translations retained the original meaning of the SAGA items and instructions. Comprehension difficulties were identified, and after review by the translation team, minor changes were made to 7 of the 12 translations to improve clarity and comprehension. Conclusions Conceptual, semantic, and cultural equivalence of each translation of the SAGA questionnaire was achieved thus confirming linguistic validation. PMID:22525050

  4. Linguistic validation of translation of the self-assessment goal achievement (saga questionnaire from English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piault Elisabeth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A linguistic validation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA questionnaire was conducted for 12 European languages, documenting that each translation adequately captures the concepts of the original English-language version of the questionnaire and is readily understood by subjects in the target population. Methods Native-speaking residents of the target countries who reported urinary problems/lower urinary tract problems were asked to review a translation of the SAGA questionnaire, which was harmonized among 12 languages: Danish, Dutch, English (UK, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish. During a cognitive debriefing interview, participants were asked to identify any words that were difficult to understand and explain in their own words the meaning of each sentence in the questionnaire. The qualitative analysis was conducted by local linguistic validation teams (original translators, back translator, project manager, interviewer, and survey research expert. Results Translations of the SAGA questionnaire from English to 12 European languages were well understood by the participants with an overall comprehension rate across language of 98.9%. In addition, the translations retained the original meaning of the SAGA items and instructions. Comprehension difficulties were identified, and after review by the translation team, minor changes were made to 7 of the 12 translations to improve clarity and comprehension. Conclusions Conceptual, semantic, and cultural equivalence of each translation of the SAGA questionnaire was achieved thus confirming linguistic validation.

  5. Difficulties experienced in setting and achieving goals by participants of a falls prevention programme: a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Romi; Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants experienced more difficulty in setting goals than

  6. Empirically establishing blood glucose targets to achieve HbA1c goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nancy; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the average fasting, postprandial, and bedtime self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) concentrations associated with specified HbA1c levels using data from the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The ADAG study was a multicenter observational study that used continuous glucose monitoring and SMBG testing to determine the relationship between mean average glucose and HbA1c. We used the SMBG data from 470 of the ADAG study participants (237 with type 1 diabetes and 147 with type 2 diabetes) to determine the average fasting, premeal, 90-min postmeal, and bedtime blood glucose (BG) for predefined target HbA1c groups between 5.5 and 8.5% (37-69 mmol/mol). t Tests were used to compare mean BG values between type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups. RESULTS The average fasting BG needed to achieve predefined HbA1c target levels of 5.5-6.49% (37-47 mmol/mol), 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol), 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol), 7.5-7.99% (58-64 mmol/mol), and 8.0-8.5% (64-69 mmol/mol) were 122 mg/dL with 95% CI 117-127, 142 mg/dL (135-150), 152 mg/dL (143-162), 167 mg/dL (157-177), and 178 mg/dL (164-192), respectively. Postmeal BG to achieve the HbA1c level of 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol) and 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol) were 139 mg/dL (134-144) and 152 mg/dL (147-157), respectively. Bedtime BG was 153 mg/dL (145-161) and 177 mg/dL (166-188), respectively. CONCLUSIONS We have determined the average BG at premeal, postmeal, and bedtime to achieve a variety of HbA1c targets. These results, based on empirical data, will help patients and providers set realistic day-to-day SMBG targets to achieve individualized HbA1c goals.

  7. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self Handicapping as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Intrinsic Achievement Motivation and Negative Automatic Thoughts in Adolescence Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…

  8. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between student's achievement goal orientation, self-efficiacy, cognitive processing and achievement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, Patrick H.M.; van Joolingen, Wouter; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In

  9. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students' achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In

  10. The Moderating Role of Popular Peers' Achievement Goals in 5th- and 6th-Graders' Achievement-Related Friendships: A Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Ryan, Allison M.; Harakeh, Zeena; Shin, Huiyoung; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2018-01-01

    This research investigated whether classroom-based peer norms for achievement goals moderate friendship selection, maintenance and influence processes related to academic achievement in 46 Grade 5 and Grade 6 classrooms (N = 901, 58.7% Grade 5 students, 48.5% boys). A distinction was made between peer norms for mastery (i.e., developing…

  11. The Moderating Role of Popular Peers’ Achievement Goals in 5th- and 6th- graders Achievement-related Friendships : A Social Network Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, A.M.; Ryan, Allison; Harakeh, Z.; Shin, Huiyoung; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    This research investigated whether classroom-based peer norms for achievement goals moderate friendship selection, maintenance and influence processes related to academic achievement in 46 5th and 6th grade classrooms (N = 901, 58.7% 5th grade students, 48.5% boys). A distinction was made between

  12. A Path Analysis of Basic Need Support, Self-Efficacy, Achievement Goals, Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement Level among Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Danielsen, Anne G.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' support of basic psychological needs, self-efficacy, achievement goals, life satisfaction and academic achievement level was measured in a sample of 240 secondary school students (8th and 10th grades). Correlation analysis showed significant positive relations between all of the variables, except for the relation between need support of…

  13. The Role of Personal Best (PB) and Dichotomous Achievement Goals in Students' Academic Motivation and Engagement: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the role of prior personal best goals in predicting subsequent academic motivation and engagement. A total of 1160 high school students participated in a longitudinal survey study exploring the extent to which personal best and mastery and performance (dichotomous) achievement goals predict students' academic motivation and…

  14. Zambian Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Views on Chemistry Education Goals and Challenges for Achieving Them in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Zambian preservice chemistry teachers' views on the goals of chemistry education, the importance of the goals, and challenges for achieving them in schools. The study sample was comprised of 59 pre-service chemistry teachers at the University of Zambia. Data were collected using a modified Likert-scale questionnaire that was…

  15. 2 x 2 achievement goals profilEs in chilean CompetiTIve and recreational athletes: a first look

    OpenAIRE

    Marc R. Lochbaum; Javan Jean-Noel; Zişan Kazak Çetinkalp; Felipe Andrés Vallejo-Reyes; Jose Mena-Campbell

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: was to examine the 2 x 2 achievement goal profiles of Chilean young adults regularly participating in competitive and recreational sport. Materials: participants were 108 female and 132 males who were recruited from the Valparaiso and Viña del Mar areas of Chile. Participants completed a valid and reliable measure of the 2 x 2 achievement goals referenced to sport participation. Results: indicated that the entire sample significantly ( p - .05) and very meaningfully (Hedges’ g range ...

  16. Parenting Styles and Adolescents’ School Adjustment: Investigating the Mediating Role of Achievement Goals within the 2 × 2 Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Shiyuan; Liu, Yan; Bai, Lu

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents’ school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control), achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance...

  17. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  18. Achieving donor management goals before deceased donor procurement is associated with more organs transplanted per donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoski, Darren J; Daly, Michael C; Patel, Madhukar S; Oley-Graybill, Chrystal; Foster, Clarence E; Salim, Ali

    2011-10-01

    There is a national shortage of organs available for transplantation. Implementation of preset donor management goals (DMGs) to improve outcomes is recommended, but uniform practices and data are lacking. We hypothesized that meeting DMGs before organ procurement would result in more organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). The eight organ procurement organization in United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 selected 10 critical care end points as DMGs. Each organ procurement organization submitted retrospective data from 40 standard criteria donors. "DMGs met" was defined as achieving any eight DMGs before procurement. The primary outcome was ≥4 OTPD. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of ≥4 OTPD with a pdonors had 3.6±1.6 OTPD. Donors with DMGs met had more OTPD (4.4 vs. 3.3, p50% (OR=4.0), Pao2:FIO2>300 (OR=4.6), and serum sodium 135 to 160 mEq/L (OR=3.4). Meeting DMGs before procurement resulted in more OTPD. Donor factors and critical care end points are independent predictors of organ yield. Prospective studies are needed to determine the true impact of each DMG on the number and function of transplanted organs.

  19. Gender, level of participation, and type of sport: differences in achievement goal orientation and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Cerin, Ester

    2009-07-01

    Findings regarding gender differences in achievement goal orientations and attributional style have been somewhat inconsistent. One possible explanation for varied findings is that potentially confounding variables such as level of participation and type of sport have not been considered. Athletes (108 males and 164 females) from team and individual sports, competing at recreational and competitive levels, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Sport Attributional Style Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Athletes competing in individual sports had a higher ego orientation than those from team sports, and females scored higher in task orientation than males. Individual sport athletes made more internal, stable, and global, and less externally controllable attributions for positive events, and more internal attributions for negative events than team sport athletes. Competitive female athletes made less global attributions for positive events than did recreational female athletes. This difference was not observed in male athletes. Competitive individual, but not team, athletes made less global attributions than recreational individual athletes. The significant interactions regarding globality suggest that the tradition in sport psychology attribution research to focus solely on internality, stability, and controllability may be inadequate. From an applied perspective, sport psychologists and coaches may find it beneficial to target individual sport athletes and males for interventions designed to enhance task orientation. Similarly, team sport athletes may be appropriate as a focus for attribution retraining programs.

  20. Does the Constellation Program Offer Opportunities to Achieve Space Science Goals in Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.; Dissel, Adam F.; Folta, David C.; Stevens, John; Budinoff, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    Future space science missions developed to achieve the most ambitious goals are likely to be complex, large, publicly and professionally very important, and at the limit of affordability. Consequently, it may be valuable if such missions can be upgraded, repaired, and/or deployed in space, either with robots or with astronauts. In response to a Request for Information from the US National Research Council panel on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System, we developed a concept for astronaut-based in-space servicing at the Earth-Moon L1,2 locations that may be implemented by using elements of NASA's Constellation architecture. This libration point jobsite could be of great value for major heliospheric and astronomy missions operating at Earth-Sun Lagrange points. We explored five alternative servicing options that plausibly would be available within about a decade. We highlight one that we believe is both the least costly and most efficiently uses Constellation hardware that appears to be available by mid-next decade: the Ares I launch vehicle, Orion/Crew Exploration Vehicle, Centaur vehicle, and an airlock/servicing node developed for lunar surface operations. Our concept may be considered similar to the Apollo 8 mission: a valuable exercise before descent by astronauts to the lunar surface.

  1. Using Achievement Goal Theory in Motor Skill Instruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K; Chinn, Katherine M; Robinson, Leah E

    2017-12-01

    Over the past two decades, achievement goal theory (AGT) has been used as a theoretical framework to design and implement motor skill programming in young children. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effects of AGT in motor skill interventions and programming in children aged 0-12 years. This systematic literature search was conducted using three databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Studies were included if they met the following four inclusion criteria: (1) had an intervention with a gross motor outcome, (2) used an intervention grounded in AGT, (3) included young children (aged 0-12 years), and (4) were written in English. Studies were rated according to methodological reporting quality. All literature searches and reporting were consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the sample. All studies reported that AGT motor skill interventions were effective for improving motor skills in young children. Studies varied in regard to intervention groups, duration, dosage, and the personnel responsible for implementing the intervention. None of the included studies met the requirements to be considered as having high methodological quality. Based on these findings, AGT is an effective theoretical approach for designing and implementing motor skill interventions for young children.

  2. Student Veteran perceptions of facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sonya B; Rosen, Jay; Himmerich, Sara; Myers, Ursula S; Davis, Brittany; Browne, Kendall C; Piland, Neill

    2015-01-01

    According to recent estimates, over 1 million Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans are utilizing the post-9/11 GI Bill to pursue higher education. Data collected by the Department of Defense suggests that greater than 17% of returning Veterans may suffer from mental and physical health disorders, which can negatively affect school performance. The current study explored student Veterans' perceived facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals. Thirty-one student Veterans completed self-report measures and interviews. Results suggested that Veterans that were reporting problems or symptoms in one mental or physical health domain were likely to be reporting symptoms or problems in others as well. The interview data were coded, and three overarching themes related to barriers and facilitators emerged: person features (e.g., discipline and determination, symptoms and stressors), institutional structure (i.e., what schools and the Department of Veterans Affairs do that was perceived to help or hinder student Veteran success), and policy concerns (i.e., how the structure of the GI Bill affects student Veteran school experience). Results from this research indicate the need for larger studies and program development efforts aimed at enhancing academic outcomes for Veterans.

  3. Disengaging from Unattainable Career Goals and Reengaging in More Achievable Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Participants were 181 university students who completed measures of career development (self-efficacy, perceived barriers, distress, planning, and exploration) and goal adjustment capacity (disengagement and reengagement). We expected (a) that when contemplating unachievable goals, those with a higher capacity to adjust their goals (i.e., to…

  4. Can achievement goal theory provide a useful motivational perspective for explaining psychosocial attributes of medical students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjar Nir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations, for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation. Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT, is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS, psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT. Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90 and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S (β = .16, p Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.

  5. Can achievement goal theory provide a useful motivational perspective for explaining psychosocial attributes of medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Bachner, Yaacov G; Kushnir, Talma

    2012-01-12

    Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations), for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation). Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT), is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS), psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S) and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT). All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90) and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S) (β = .16, p frustration tolerance (β = -.22, p frustration tolerance (β = .36, p < .001). The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.

  6. A Correlation Study among Achievement Motivation, Goal-Setting and L2 Learning Strategy in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Lu, Qingsheng

    2018-01-01

    Achievement motivation as one of the most important parts in learning motivation indicates a concern with success in competition with some standard of excellence. Learners who are highly motivated to learn a language are likely to use a variety of strategies. Besides achievement motivation, goal setting, a very important cognitive mediator between…

  7. Malaria elimination in Haiti by the year 2020: an achievable goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncy, Paul Jacques; Adrien, Paul; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Existe, Alexandre; Henry, Patricia Jean; Raccurt, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Fenelon, Natael; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A; Kaljee, Linda; Baxa, Dwayne; Prieur, Eric; El Badry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Mulligan, Connie J; Carter, Tamar E; Beau de Rochars, V Madsen; Lutz, Chelsea; Parke, Dana M; Zervos, Marcus J

    2015-06-05

    Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, are the last locations in the Caribbean where malaria still persists. Malaria is an important public health concern in Haiti with 17,094 reported cases in 2014. Further, on January 12, 2010, a record earthquake devastated densely populated areas in Haiti including many healthcare and laboratory facilities. Weakened infrastructure provided fertile reservoirs for uncontrolled transmission of infectious pathogens. This situation results in unique challenges for malaria epidemiology and elimination efforts. To help Haiti achieve its malaria elimination goals by year 2020, the Laboratoire National de Santé Publique and Henry Ford Health System, in close collaboration with the Direction d'Épidémiologie, de Laboratoire et de Recherches and the Programme National de Contrôle de la Malaria, hosted a scientific meeting on "Elimination Strategies for Malaria in Haiti" on January 29-30, 2015 at the National Laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The meeting brought together laboratory personnel, researchers, clinicians, academics, public health professionals, and other stakeholders to discuss main stakes and perspectives on malaria elimination. Several themes and recommendations emerged during discussions at this meeting. First, more information and research on malaria transmission in Haiti are needed including information from active surveillance of cases and vectors. Second, many healthcare personnel need additional training and critical resources on how to properly identify malaria cases so as to improve accurate and timely case reporting. Third, it is necessary to continue studies genotyping strains of Plasmodium falciparum in different sites with active transmission to evaluate for drug resistance and impacts on health. Fourth, elimination strategies outlined in this report will continue to incorporate use of primaquine in addition to chloroquine and active surveillance of cases. Elimination of

  8. Financing of health systems to achieve the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryatt, Robert; Mills, Anne; Nordstrom, Anders

    2010-01-30

    Concern that underfunded and weak health systems are impeding the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries led to the creation of a High Level Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems in September, 2008. This report summarises the key challenges faced by the Taskforce and its Working Groups. Working Group 1 examined the constraints to scaling up and costs. Challenges included: difficulty in generalisation because of scarce and context-specific health-systems knowledge; no consensus for optimum service-delivery approaches, leading to wide cost differences; no consensus for health benefits; difficulty in quantification of likely efficiency gains; and challenges in quantification of the financing gap owing to uncertainties about financial commitments for health. Working Group 2 reviewed the different innovative mechanisms for raising and channelling funds. Challenges included: variable definitions of innovative finance; small evidence base for many innovative finance mechanisms; insufficient experience in harmonisation of global health initiatives; and inadequate experience in use of international investments to improve maternal, newborn, and child health. The various mechanisms reviewed and finally recommended all had different characteristics, some focusing on specific problems and some on raising resources generally. Contentious issues included the potential role of the private sector, the rights-based approach to health, and the move to results-based aid. The challenges and disagreements that arose during the work of the Taskforce draw attention to the many issues facing decision makers in low-income countries. International donors and recipient governments should work together to improve the evidence base for strengthening health systems, increase long-term commitments, and improve accountability through transparent and inclusive national approaches. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender Equality in Education : Experiences of Nepal to Achieve EFA Goal 5

    OpenAIRE

    菅野, 琴

    2008-01-01

    The Dakar Education for All (EFA) Framework for Action includes Gender Equality in Education as one of its six time-bound goals. "Gender" being regarded as its transverse theme, the Dakar EFA agreement pays special attention to girls and women in other EFA goals as well. The first time-bound goal of gender parity in primary and secondary education by 2005 was, however, not met by many developing countries, including Nepal. Why they missed the 2005 goal? What are the obstacles for gender parit...

  10. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  12. An explanatory model of academic achievement based on aptitudes, goal orientations, self-concept and learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel

    2012-03-01

    As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.

  13. Interpersonal goal support in achieving ideals and oughts: The role of dispositional regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righetti, F.; Kumashiro, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present work examines the role of each partner's regulatory focus in the phenomenon of interpersonal goal support in close relationships. We examined the impact of regulatory orientation for interpersonal support of both ideal and ought self goals. Consistent with expectations, two studies

  14. Goal Orientation Profiles, Academic Achievement and Well-Being of Adolescents in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrotheodoros, S.; Talias, Michael A.; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents differ in the way they motivate themselves, and the way they choose, perceive, and approach their goals. Goal orientations have been proposed to be a significant aspect of individual differences. In general, some students aim at gaining a higher level of skills, whereas other students

  15. Roads from Rio+20. Pathways to achieve global sustainability goals by 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vuuren, D. [ed.; Kok, M. [ed.; Van der Esch, S.; Jeuken, M.; Lucas, P.; Prins, Anne-Gerdien; Alkemade, R.; Van den Berg, M.; Hilderink, H.; Kram, T.; Stehfest, E.; De Vries, B. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Biermann, F.; Van der Grijp, N.; Pattberg, P. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Melamed, C.; Scott, A.; Te Velde, D. W.; Wiggins, S. [Overseas Development Institute ODI, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    This report analyses how combinations of technological measures and changes in consumption patterns could contribute to achieving a set of sustainability objectives, taking into account the interlinkages between them. The potential exists for achieving all of the objectives.

  16. DEFENSE IRM: Management Commitment Needed to Achieve Defense Data Administration Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deffer, F

    1994-01-01

    ...) initiative to help streamline operations and manage resources more efficienfly. As you know, CIM is a top-down effort to simplify and improve functional processes by first documenting business goals, methods, and performance measures...

  17. “One-size-fits-all”? Differentiation in destinations’ marketing goals and strategies to achieve them

    OpenAIRE

    Avraham, Eli; Ketter, Eran

    2015-01-01

    While tourism marketing literature tends to present marketing as a ‘one-size-fits-all’ process, the current study suggests various destination marketing goals. Until today, the literature mainly concentrated on analyzing marketing strategies, tactics, tools and initiatives for enhancing and perceiving tourism, while other marketing goals were neglected, such as marketing unfamiliar destinations or promoting tourism during and after tourism crises. The purpose of this study is to propose the m...

  18. Achieving Educational Goals in Neurology Ward from the Viewpoint of Clinical Clerkship at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Razazian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In medical education, setting goals for clinical clerkship is the responsibility of educational groups. Taking the students' opinions into account, it is possible to study the efficacy of education in terms of learning and achieving educational goals. (1In periodontics and restorative departments of Shahed and Tehran University of Medical Sciences, it is reported that, achieving educational goals is not poss-ible (2. Also, some studies have reported the inadequacy of educational objectives in anesthesia clerkship from the viewpoint of medical students (3. In this descriptive-analytic study, 166 medical students of neurology wards at Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah during 2011- 2012 were selected via a survey to study the achievement rate of educational goals. We used a questionnaire to collect data. Reliability of the questionnaire (including content and face validity was obtained via consulting with ten faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.The mean age of the participants was 21.34 (±1.43 years. 60.5% of them were females. 3.6% were freshmen and 49.9% were sophomores. 79.5% knew the goals before the start of clinical clerkship and 76.5% took part in the justification session in which their responsibility and method of evaluation were presented. 78.3% of them received the emergency protocol of Neurology. Overall, the participants ranked the goal achievement as high (41.6%, well (45.2% and medium (23.3%. There was no statistically significantly association between achieving educational goals and age and clinical clerkship period. However, there was a statis¬tically significantly association between the increase rate of achieving educational goals and introducing the objectives at the beginning of clinical clerkship period (p=0.011, justification session at the beginning of clinical clerkship (p=0.019 being familiar with emergency protocols of Neurology (p=0.04 and the season (winter in comparison with fall and spring in

  19. Differential influences of achievement approach goals and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on help-seeking in e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance yet paucity of help-seeking in e-learning, the present study investigated the motivational antecedents of help-seeking among online college students. We explored and compared the influences of achievement approach goals from the old and new achievement motivation models (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Elliot, Murayama, & Pekrun, 2011 on online students’ help-seeking through intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Path analyses were used to test two models of help-seeking among college students from four online educational psychology classes (N = 93 based on the two models of achievement goals. Our results showed that the new 3 × 2 model was a better fit than the old 2 × 2 model, suggesting that the achievement approach goals of the new model differ from those of the old model conceptually as Elliot, Murayama, and Pekrun (2011 posited. Second, our results revealed both unexpected direct and indirect positive influence of performance- and other-approach goals on online students’ help-seeking behaviour through extrinsic motivation. Third, while mastery-approach goals indirectly predicted help-seeking through intrinsic motivation, self- and task-approach predicted help-seeking in a dramatically different manner. Self-approach goals displayed indirect influence on help-seeking through intrinsic motivation similar to mastery-approach, yet task-approach displayed a negative direct influence on help-seeking. These results suggested the potential positive impact of self-approach and the detrimental influence of task-approach goals on help-seeking in e-learning environment. Conceptual issues and pedagogical implications for online instructions are discussed.

  20. Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goals, Engagement, and Achievement in a Diverse High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…

  1. The role of poverty reduction strategies in achieving the millennium development goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Eggen, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We provide a literature overview of the linkages between Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) and use novel data to examine their relation. We find that introduction of a PRSP is associated with progress in four of the nine MDG indicators we study.

  2. Feedback type as a moderator of the relationship between achievement goals and feedback reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Janssen, Onne; Duyck, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to shed new light on the inconsistent relationship between performance-approach (PAp) goals and feedback reactions by examining feedback type as a moderator. Results of a field experiment (N = 939) using a web-based work simulation task showed that the effect of

  3. Diversity in OECD energy consumption: Achievements and long-term goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heal, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Energy consumption in the industrialized world has resumed a rising trend but has been moderated by increased energy efficiency. The demand for energy is also being spread more evenly over a variety of fuels. This paper provides a measure for diversity and examines the implications for energy prices, while reiterating the long-term goal of lower energy consumption

  4. The Role of Ethiopia's Public Universities in Achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the Ethiopian government has embarked on an ambitious agriculture development strategy aimed at raising Ethiopia to the status of a middle-income-level country by 2025. Encouraged by the international development push behind the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the rapid expansion of public universities has…

  5. Achieving Service-Learning Goals in a Financial Accounting Class Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Darwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A financial accounting class in a Philippine university has a service-learning group project that involves setting up a simple accounting system for microenterprises. Aims: This paper examines the extent to which service-learning goals such as course learning, teamwork, civic responsibility, and impact on the client organization are…

  6. The Occupational Safety and Health Act: Its Goals and Its Achievements. Evaluative Studies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert Stewart

    The safety and health mandate of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is examined in reference to its effectiveness in reducing injuries and its consistency with the goal of promoting general welfare. Chapter 1 describes the essential features of the act and its administration to date, and analyzes the mandate as revealed by legislative…

  7. Achievement of Therapeutic Goals with Low-Dose Imiglucerase in Gaucher Disease: A Single-Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Tukan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder, is a multisystem disorder with variable and unpredictable onset and severity. Disease-specific enzyme replacement therapy (ERT has been shown to reverse or ameliorate disease-specific hepatosplenomegaly and anemia and thrombocytopenia. ERT also impacts bone manifestations, including bone crises, bone pain, and appearance of new osteonecrosis, and improves bone mineral density to varying degrees. The objective of this study was to assess achievement of predefined therapeutic goals based on international registry outcomes for Israeli patients with Gaucher disease receiving imiglucerase for four consecutive years on a low-dose regimen followed in a single center. All data were taken from patient files. The therapeutic goals were taken from standards published in the literature for disease-specific clinical parameters. Among 164 patients at baseline, values for spleen and liver volumes, hemoglobin and platelet counts, and Z-scores for lumbar spine and femoral were significantly different from the goal. After four years ERT, there was a significant improvement ( in each of the therapeutic goal parameters from baseline. 15.2% of these patients achieved all hematology-visceral goals. In children, there was achievement of linear growth and puberty. This survey highlights the good overall response in symptomatic patients receiving low-dose ERT with imiglucerase in Israel.

  8. Relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of playing rugby union for professional and amateur players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, D C; Carpenter, P J; Power, K T

    2000-08-01

    The recent professionalization of rugby union makes it an excellent achievement context in which to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of sport as a function of competitive standard. During the 1996-97 season, 73 professional and 106 amateur rugby players in England completed a series of questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations, beliefs about the purposes of rugby and demographic information. The results of a canonical correlation analysis revealed a conceptually coherent relationship between achievement goal orientations and purposes of rugby. Specifically, a high ego/moderate task orientation was positively related to fitness, aggression and financial remuneration as significant purposes of rugby. Professional players scored higher on those purposes of rugby related to aggression, financial remuneration and fitness, but lower on sportspersonship than amateur players. Professional players also reported higher task and ego goal orientations than amateur players. The findings are discussed in terms of the differences in lifestyle and motivation of professional and amateur rugby union players.

  9. Understanding the Self-Directed Online Learning Preferences, Goals, Achievements, and Challenges of MIT OpenCourseWare Subscribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2015-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…

  10. Prospective analysis of LDL-C goal achievement and self-reported medication adherence among statin users in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bermingham, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Improvements in the control of LDL-C levels have occurred in the past decade due to the introduction of increasingly potent statins, such as atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Many patients, however, do not achieve their LDL-C goals, which presents a practical dilemma for clinicians and highlights the need to identify adherence problems in a clinically relevant manner.

  11. The Effects of Different Motivational Climates on Students' Achievement Goals, Motivational Strategies and Attitudes toward Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse whether conducting physical education lessons according to different motivational climates leads to a significant difference between students' achievement goals, motivational strategies and attitudes towards physical education. Participants (81-ninth grade students) were allocated to one of three experimental…

  12. The Relationship between Self-Determination, Achievement Goal Orientation and Satisfaction with the Learning Experience: Working with Adult Lifelong Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how self-perceptions of self-determination and of achievement goal orientation were related to self-perceptions of satisfaction with the learning experience in a population of 495 adults engaged in non-formal lifelong learning through participation as amateur members of the United States Dressage Association.…

  13. Climate cure 2020 measures and instruments to achieve Norwegian climate goals by 2020. Chapter 10 - the transport sector analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)

  14. Does the Confidence of First-Year Undergraduate Students Change over Time According to Achievement Goal Profile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the changes in students' academic behavioural confidence over the course of their first year of academic study and whether changes differ by their achievement goal profile. Self-report data were collected from 434 participants in three waves: at the beginning of the first semester of their first year of undergraduate study, at…

  15. The Pivotal Role of Effort Beliefs in Mediating Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Achievement Goals and Academic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…

  16. Gender Differences in Self-Concept, Locus of Control, and Goal Orientation in Mexican High-Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Cuervo, Angel Alberto; Sánchez Escobedo, Pedro Antonio; Valadez-Sierra, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The study compares self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation characteristics of male and female Mexican high school high-achieving students. Three scales were administered to 220 students; 106 (49%) were males and 114 (51%) females. By means of a discriminant analysis, both groups were compared in relation to the variables such as…

  17. Type of dyslipidemia and achievement of the LDL-cholesterol goal in chronic kidney disease patients at the University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsawang, Tamon; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been defined as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent. Therefore, the current guideline has been recommended for CKD patients to reach and maintain a low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of less than 100 mg/dL. However, the data regarding the achievement of LDL-C goal in these patients is lacking. This study was conducted to evaluate the types of dyslipidemia affecting patients with CKD stages 3 and 4 and to determine whether these patients achieved LDL-C goal. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia who were followed-up at Siriraj Hospital between October 2011 and September 2012. In total, 150 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia were recruited. The mean age was 72±10 years, and the body mass index was 25.6±4 kg/m(2); 60% had CKD stage 3 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 34±12 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 54% had type 2 diabetes. The percentage of patients with hypercholesterolemia was 78%, hypertriglyceridemia 54%, and low high-density lipoprotein-C 36%. Of these, 52% had mixed hyperlipidemia. Statin treatment was prescribed to 87% of the patients, of which only 31.3% achieved the LDL-C goal according to the National Cholesterol Education Program and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society recommendations. Patients who did not achieve the LDL-C goal had a higher cholesterol level at diagnosis and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and stroke than those who achieved it. Two-thirds of CKD patients with hyperlipidemia had mixed hyperlipidemia. Despite the high frequency of statin treatment, only one-third of patients with CKD achieved the LDL-C goal. Thus, a developmental plan for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with CKD should be implemented to increase their achievement of the LDL-C goal.

  18. Can we use yesterday's technology for achieving our goals in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, M.; Molt, W.

    1986-01-01

    The change from materialistic to postmaterialistic needs increasingly makes itself felt in the industrialised societies of the Western world. Problems such as the need for new definitions of the quality of life, new approaches questioning the relation between technical progress and social goals, and man's attitude towards nature have become topics of public concern. Policy makers more and more find themselves confronted with these questions. Energy policy and related strategies are taken as an example to illustrate the conflicts currently emerging in the search for new lines of orientation, and to explain the difficulties in finding ways and alternatives which are likely to be accepted as a comprise leading to new goals and values. The all in all ten authors do not foster an attitude of fundamental opposition; they rather elaborate proposals for compromising, sometimes admit not to be able to present answers for the time being, and always try to give a balanced view of the problems involved. (orig.) [de

  19. Is it promoted or endorsed achievement goals and underlying reasons that predict students’ intrinsic motivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaş, Özge N.

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, The Program of Curriculum and Instruction, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 55-60). The aim of this research was to investigate (a) the effects of mastery-approach (MAp) and performance-approach (PAp) goals induced in an autonomous or a controlling condition to students’ intrinsic motivation through an experiment (Study 1), and (b) the relation of an endorsed...

  20. Achieving the Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality in rural Africa: an experience from Burundi.

    OpenAIRE

    Tayler-Smith, K; Zachariah, R; Manzi, M; Van den Boogaard, W; Nyandwi, G; Reid, T; Van den Bergh, R; De Plecker, E; Lambert, V; Nicolai, M; Goetghebuer, S; Christaens, B; Ndelema, B; Kabangu, A; Manirampa, J

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the reduction in maternal mortality associated with the emergency obstetric care provided by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and to compare this to the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality. METHODS: The impact of MSF's intervention was approximated by estimating how many deaths were averted among women transferred to and treated at MSF's emergency obstetric care facility in Kabezi, Burundi, with a severe acute maternal morbidity. Using this e...

  1. Competence, achievement goals, motivational climate, and pleasant psychobiosocial states in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio; Comani, Silvia; Robazza, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    We examined the three-way interactions among competence (actual and perceived), individuals' dispositional goal orientation (task/ego), and perceived sport motivational climate (mastery/performance) in the prediction of pleasant psychobiosocial states (i.e. emotion, cognition, motivation, bodily reaction, movement, performance, and communication) as conceptualized by the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model. The sample consisted of 320 Italian youths (160 girls and 160 boys) aged 13-14 years who were involved in individual or team sports. The assessment included a perceived competence scale, a goal orientation questionnaire, a motivational climate inventory, and pleasant psychobiosocial descriptors. An actual competence scale was also administered to coaches asking them to assess their youngsters. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis showed that perceived competence, actual competence, and task orientation were the strongest predictors of pleasant psychobiosocial states. Moreover, actual competence and perceived competence interacted in different ways with dispositional goal orientations and motivational climate perceptions in the prediction of psychobiosocial states. It is therefore recommended that both constructs be included in motivational research.

  2. Reversible Masking Using Low-Molecular-Weight Neutral Lipids to Achieve Optimal-Targeted Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Smyth Templeton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous injection of therapeutics is required to effectively treat or cure metastatic cancer, certain cardiovascular diseases, and other acquired or inherited diseases. Using this route of delivery allows potential uptake in all disease targets that are accessed by the bloodstream. However, normal tissues and organs also have the potential for uptake of therapeutic agents. Therefore, investigators have used targeted delivery to attempt delivery solely to the target cells; however, use of ligands on the surface of delivery vehicles to target specific cell surface receptors is not sufficient to avoid nonspecific uptake. PEGylation has been used for decades to try to avoid nonspecific uptake but suffers from many problems known as “The PEGylation Dilemma.” We have solved this dilemma by replacing PEGylation with reversible masking using low-molecular-weight neutral lipids in order to achieve optimal-targeted delivery solely to target cells. Our paper will focus on this topic.

  3. When teammates are viewed as rivals: a cross-national investigation of achievement goals and intrateam moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardley, Ian D; Jackson, Ben

    2012-08-01

    This research aimed to (a) determine whether mastery and intrateam performance achievement goals predicted prosocial and antisocial teammate behavior, (b) explore whether effects of intrateam performance goals were mediated by moral disengagement, and (c) examine whether any effects (Study 2 only) were moderated by cohesion. In Study 1, team athletes (N = 282) from Australia completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated that prosocial teammate behavior was positively predicted by mastery approach goals, and negatively predicted by mastery- and intrateam performance avoidance goals, whereas antisocial teammate behavior was positively predicted by intrateam performance-approach and -avoidance goals; these latter effects were mediated by moral disengagement. In Study 2, team athletes (N = 452) from the United Kingdom completed a measure of cohesion in addition to the Study 1 instruments; the analyses largely confirmed the Study 1 findings. However, the undesirable effect of mastery-avoidance goals on prosocial behavior seen in Study 1 was only apparent in Study 2 when individuals held strong perceptions of team cohesion. In sum, this investigation makes a novel contribution to the literature on team functioning in sport, being the first to explore how athletes' normative goals relative to their teammates might shape effective interaction processes.

  4. Achieving Our Environmental Sustainability Goals: The Opportunities and Pitfalls of Applying Life Cycle Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increasing number of people around the world are beginning to realize that a systems approach, such as life cycle thinking, is necessary to truly achieve environmental sustainability. Without the holistic perspective that life cycle thinking provides, our actions risk leading ...

  5. What can the food and drink industry do to help achieve the 5% free sugars goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Ashwell, Margaret; Arthur, Jenny; Bagley, Lindsey; Lennox, Alison; Rogers, Peter J; Stanner, Sara

    2017-07-01

    To contribute evidence and make recommendations to assist in achieving free sugars reduction, with due consideration to the broader picture of weight management and dietary quality. An expert workshop in July 2016 addressed options outlined in the Public Health England report 'Sugar reduction: The evidence for action' that related directly to the food industry. Panel members contributed expertise in food technology, public heath nutrition, marketing, communications, psychology and behaviour. Recommendations were directed towards reformulation, reduced portion sizes, labelling and consumer education. These were evaluated based on their feasibility, likely consumer acceptability, efficacy and cost. The panel agreed that the 5% target for energy from free sugars is unlikely to be achievable by the UK population in the near future, but a gradual reduction from average current level of intake is feasible. Progress requires collaborations between government, food industry, non-government organisations, health professionals, educators and consumers. Reformulation should start with the main contributors of free sugars in the diet, prioritising those products high in free sugars and relatively low in micronutrients. There is most potential for replacing free sugars in beverages using high-potency sweeteners and possibly via gradual reduction in sweetness levels. However, reformulation alone, with its inherent practical difficulties, will not achieve the desired reduction in free sugars. Food manufacturers and the out-of-home sector can help consumers by providing smaller portions. Labelling of free sugars would extend choice and encourage reformulation; however, government needs to assist industry by addressing current analytical and regulatory problems. There are also opportunities for multi-agency collaboration to develop tools/communications based on the Eatwell Guide, to help consumers understand the principles of a varied, healthy, balanced diet. Multiple strategies

  6. Different accounting approaches to harvested wood products in national greenhouse gas inventories: their incentives to achievement of major policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories provide four accounting approaches to harvested wood products (HWP). These differ in the way they define system boundaries. Therefore, reported national carbon emissions differ according to the accounting approach used, and the implications of each accounting approach differ for different countries. This paper investigates four IPCC accounting approaches, as well as the 1996 IPCC default approach, to determine whether they provide incentives to achievement of major policy goals related to climate, forest, trade, and waste, taking into account indirect effects of wood use change (i.e., the effects on forest carbon stocks and on carbon emissions from the use of other fuels and materials). Conclusions are as follows: (1) The analyses produced many different results from those of previous studies. These differences appear to be attributable to whether or not the indirect effects of wood use change are taken into account and the reference scenarios that are assumed; (2) The best approaches for achieving each policy goal differ, and the best approaches for particular policy goals might pose problems for other policy goals; (3) Overall, the IPCC default approach is the best accounting approach from the viewpoint of greater compatibility with, or integration across, the array of policy goals, although it does not address the issue of an increasing global carbon stock in HWP

  7. Achieving Goal-Concordant Care: A Conceptual Model and Approach to Measuring Serious Illness Communication and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J. Randall; Tulsky, James A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: High-quality care for seriously ill patients aligns treatment with their goals and values. Failure to achievegoal-concordant” care is a medical error that can harm patients and families. Because communication between clinicians and patients enables goal concordance and also affects the illness experience in its own right, healthcare systems should endeavor to measure communication and its outcomes as a quality assessment. Yet, little consensus exists on what should be measured and by which methods. Objectives: To propose measurement priorities for serious illness communication and its anticipated outcomes, including goal-concordant care. Methods: We completed a narrative review of the literature to identify links between serious illness communication, goal-concordant care, and other outcomes. We used this review to identify gaps and opportunities for quality measurement in serious illness communication. Results: Our conceptual model describes the relationship between communication, goal-concordant care, and other relevant outcomes. Implementation-ready measures to assess the quality of serious illness communication and care include (1) the timing and setting of serious illness communication, (2) patient experience of communication and care, and (3) caregiver bereavement surveys that include assessment of perceived goal concordance of care. Future measurement priorities include direct assessment of communication quality, prospective patient or family assessment of care concordance with goals, and assessment of the bereaved caregiver experience. Conclusion: Improving serious illness care necessitates ensuring that high-quality communication has occurred and measuring its impact. Measuring patient experience and receipt of goal-concordant care should be our highest priority. We have the tools to measure both. PMID:29091522

  8. Consideration of learning orientations as an application of achievement goals in evaluating life science majors in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.

    2018-06-01

    When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics such as metacognition. We investigate a sample population of 218 students in a first-semester introductory algebra-based physics course, drawn from 14 laboratory sections within six semesters of course sections, to determine the influence of achievement goals on life science majors' attitudes towards physics. Learning orientations that, respectively, pertain to mastery goals and performance goals, in addition to a learning orientation that does not report a performance goal, were recorded from students in the specific context of learning a problem-solving framework during an in-class exercise. Students' learning orientations, defined within the context of students' self-reported statements in the specific context of a problem-solving-related research-based course implementation, are compared to pre-post results on physics problem-solving items in a well-established attitudinal survey instrument, in order to establish the categories' validity. In addition, mastery-related and performance-related orientations appear to extend to overall pre-post attitudinal shifts, but not to force and motion concepts or to overall course grade, within the scope of an introductory physics course. There also appears to be differentiation regarding overall course performance within health science majors, but not within biology majors, in terms of learning orientations; however, health science majors generally appear to fare less well on all measurements in the study than do biology majors, regardless of learning orientations.

  9. Achieving Good Outcomes for Asthma Living (GOAL): mixed methods feasibility and pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a practical intervention for eliciting, setting and achieving goals for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Gaylor; Williams, Brian; Abhyankar, Purva; Donnan, Peter; Duncan, Edward; Pinnock, Hilary; van der Pol, Marjon; Rauchhaus, Petra; Taylor, Anne; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-12-08

    Despite being a core component of self-management, goal setting is rarely used in routine care. We piloted a primary care, nurse-led intervention called Achieving Good Outcomes for Asthma Living (GOAL) for adults with asthma. Patients were invited to identify and prioritise their goals in preparation for discussing and negotiating an action/coping plan with the nurse at a routine asthma review. The 18-month mixed methods feasibility cluster pilot trial stratified and then randomised practices to deliver usual care (UC) or a goal-setting intervention (GOAL). Practice asthma nurses and adult patients with active asthma were invited to participate. The primary outcome was asthma-specific quality of life. Semi-structured interviews with a purposive patient sample (n = 14) and 10 participating nurses explored GOAL perception. The constructs of normalisation process theory (NPT) were used to analyse and interpret data. Ten practices participated (five in each arm), exceeding our target of eight. However, only 48 patients (target 80) were recruited (18 in GOAL practices). At 6 months post-intervention, the difference in mean asthma-related quality of life (mAQLQ) between intervention and control was 0.1 (GOAL 6.20: SD 0.76 (CI 5.76-6.65) versus UC 6.1: SD 0.81 (CI 5.63-6.57)), less than the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of 0.5. However, change from baseline was stronger in the intervention group: at 6 months the change in the emotions sub-score was 0.8 for intervention versus 0.2 for control. Costs were higher in the intervention group by £22.17. Routine review with goal setting was considered more holistic, enhancing rapport and enabling patients to become active rather than passive participants in healthcare. However, time was a major barrier for nurses, who admitted to screening out patient goals they believed were unrelated to asthma. The difference in AQLQ score from baseline is larger in the intervention arm than the control, indicating the

  10. Achievement goal orientation and situational motivation for a low-stakes test of content knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskiewicz, Rhonda A

    2012-05-10

    To determine the extent of the relationship between students' inherent motivation to achieve in a doctor of pharmacy program and their motivation to achieve on a single low-stakes test of content knowledge. The Attitude Toward Learning Questionnaire (ATL) was administered to 66 third-year pharmacy students at the beginning of the spring 2011 semester, and the Student Opinion Scale (SOS) was administered to the same group immediately following completion of the Pharmacy Curricular Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Significant differences were found in performance approach and work avoidance based on situational motivation scores. Situational motivation was also found to be directly correlated with performance and mastery approaches and inversely correlated with work avoidance. Criteria were met for predicting importance and effort from performance and mastery approaches and work avoidance scores of pharmacy students. The ability to predict pharmacy students' motivation to perform on a low-stakes standardized test of content knowledge increases the test's usefulness as a measure of curricular effectiveness.

  11. Can biosimilars help achieve the goals of US health care reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Ralph; Jacobs, Ira; Popovian, Robert; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    The US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) aims to expand health care coverage, contain costs, and improve health care quality. Accessibility and affordability of innovative biopharmaceuticals are important to the success of the ACA. As it is substantially more difficult to manufacture them compared with small-molecule drugs, many of which have generic alternatives, biologics may increase drug costs. However, biologics offer demonstrated improvements in patient care that can reduce expensive interventions, thus lowering net health care costs. Biosimilars, which are highly similar to their reference biologics, cost less than the originators, potentially increasing access through reduced prescription drug costs while providing equivalent therapeutic results. This review evaluates 1) the progress made toward enacting health care reform since the passage of the ACA and 2) the role of biosimilars, including the potential impact of expanded biosimilar use on access, health care costs, patient management, and outcomes. Barriers to biosimilar adoption in the USA are noted, including low awareness and financial disincentives relating to reimbursement. The evaluated evidence suggests that the ACA has partly achieved some of its aims; however, the opportunity remains to transform health care to fully achieve reform. Although the future is uncertain, increased use of biosimilars in the US health care system could help achieve expanded access, control costs, and improve the quality of care.

  12. Achievement goals in the classroom and their possible influence on motivational patterns for chemistry learning in two Brazilian high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denilson Mendes de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Classroom structures constitute motivational aspects to learn, which can be easily manipulated by teachers during mediation of scientific knowledge to ensure students’ engagement. Organization of learning activities, evaluation and autonomy are some examples of such structures. Two types of goals may be developed in classrooms due to different instructional strategies: performance goals and mastery goals. This work’s objectives were to compare instructional strategies of two high school chemistry teachers (Teacher A and Teacher B from two public schools located in Viçosa (Brazil and infer possible motivational patterns found among students. The comparison was based on the achievement goal theory and organized within the three classroom structures. Data were gathered through field notes from participant observation in two Chemistry classes and semi-structured interviews with both of the teachers. It was verified that Teacher A utilized strategies aligned with mastery goals, while Teacher B utilized instructional strategies that were consistent with the two types of goals. It is concluded that this can influence student engagement during Chemistry classes, considering that teachers have an important role in the orchestration of classroom structures, articulating instructional strategies that favor learning and mediation of the scientific knowledge.

  13. Nuclear water desalination technology as a tool for achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahunsi, S. O. A.; Ala, A.

    2011-01-01

    Potable water is regarded as one of the essential needs for the attainment of the target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but every year new countries are affected by growing water problems and Climate change is likely to further stress regions already facing dire water shortages. Recent statistics also shown that 2.3 billion people currently live in water-stressed areas and among them 1.7 billion live in water-scarce areas where the water availability per person is less than 1000 m 3 /year. Only large-scale commercially available desalination processes will be a solution to the menace of this water shortage. This paper therefore focuses on the results and applications of results of research and development in water desalination using nuclear technology which is evolving as an important option for safe, economic and sustainable supply of large amounts of portable water to meet the ever-increasing worldwide water demand.

  14. Teacher and child predictors of achieving IEP goals of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H

    2013-12-01

    It is encouraging that children with autism show a strong response to early intervention, yet more research is needed for understanding the variability in responsiveness to specialized programs. Treatment predictor variables from 47 teachers and children who were randomized to receive the COMPASS intervention (Ruble et al. in The collaborative model for promoting competence and success for students with ASD. Springer, New York, 2012a) were analyzed. Predictors evaluated against child IEP goal attainment included child, teacher, intervention practice, and implementation practice variables based on an implementation science framework (Dunst and Trivette in J Soc Sci 8:143-148, 2012). Findings revealed one child (engagement), one teacher (exhaustion), two intervention quality (IEP quality for targeted and not targeted elements), and no implementation quality variables accounted for variance in child outcomes when analyzed separately. When the four significant variables were compared against each other in a single regression analysis, IEP quality accounted for one quarter of the variance in child outcomes.

  15. HIV/AIDS Situation in Economic Cooperation Countries; Achievement and Gaps toward Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: An efficient surveillance system in needed to illustrate an exact picture of HIV/AIDS in all countries. This study shows that though the epidemics has started lately in member countries compared with other parts of the world, no proper intervention has been adopted for controlling the epidemics yet. Moreover, in those countries which AIDS epidemics are concentrated among drug users, harm reduction activities are necessary to control the problem. Increasing the coverage of antiretroviral treatment and awareness of general and high risk population could help countries to achieve HIV/AIDS indicators.

  16. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  17. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-05-27

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  18. Financial wellness awareness: A step closer to achieve Millennium Development Goals for Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Rehana; Katpar, Shahjahan; Khan, Rakhshaan; Hussain, Mehwish

    2015-01-01

    To explore financial wellness (FW) awareness amongst public and private sector medical college students of Karachi. A cross sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted on medical students from 3 public and 5 private sector medical colleges of Karachi from February 2011 to December 2011. All ethnic groups having age range of 18-23 years were included. A questionnaire tailored from wellness wheel evaluated the responses of FW on a four point Likert's scale ranging from 0-3(never, sometimes, mostly, and always). Factor analysis explored common FW factors among both public and private sector medical college (MC) students. Private MC Students were better in terms of making short and long terms financial goals compared to students in public sector. The students of public MC were more focused to make and restricting to given budgets (p=0.05). The FW element of keeping savings in bank account was responded more by private MC candidates (P thrift as well (P bank accounts. They were however deficient in the knowledge of making and restricting themselves to budgets.

  19. How PEPFAR's public-private partnerships achieved ambitious goals, from improving labs to strengthening supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Jeffrey L; Cohen, Gary M

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), established in 2003, is widely recognized as one of the most ambitious and successful bilateral programs ever implemented to address a single disease. Part of the program's success is attributable to the participation of the private sector, working in partnership with the US and local governments and implementing organizations to maximize the reach and effectiveness of every dollar spent. We examined key public-private partnerships that grew out of PEPFAR to identify features that have made them effective. For example, PEPFAR's Supply Chain Management System took advantage of private industry's best practices in logistics, and a partnership with the medical technology company BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) improved laboratory systems throughout sub-Saharan Africa. We found that setting ambitious goals, enlisting both global and local partners, cultivating a culture of collaboration, careful planning, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and measuring outcomes systematically led to the most effective programs. The Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator and PEPFAR should continue to strengthen their capacity for private-sector partnerships, learning from a decade of experience and identifying new ways to make smart investments that will make the most efficient use of taxpayer resources, expand proven interventions more rapidly, and help ensure the sustainability of key programs.

  20. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  1. Breastfeeding: What are the Barriers? Why Women Struggle to Achieve Their Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Natasha K; Kellams, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Despite recognized health benefits for both mothers and infants, significant disparities still exist in the rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Major organizations representing the health of women and children (including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ACOG], American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP], United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization [WHO], and the United States Public Health Service [PHS]) recommend exclusive breastfeeding, but statistics show that although many women initiate breastfeeding, few meet the recommended goals for duration and exclusivity. This article reviews the evidence related to barriers (prenatal, medical, societal, hospital, and sociocultural) that many mothers face, and explore the known barriers and the impact they have on a woman's ability to breastfeed her infant. Strategies will be discussed to address (and potentially overcome) some of the most common barriers women face along with a list of resources that can be useful in this effort. Gaps in care and areas that need further research will be noted. This article is targeted toward physicians and other healthcare providers who work with women and who can assist with and advocate for the removal of barriers and thereby improve the health of women and children by increasing the rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity in the United States.

  2. Strategy for development of the commune of Topólka and achieving the established goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Zajdel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate the changes introduced by the Strategy for Development of the Commune Topólka for 2002-2017. It has been assumed that the strategy had been implemented without any major obstacles. The researchers used the case study method, which is one of the basic tools for checking quality. A group of one hundred residents has been appointed to provide feedback on the development of their community. They were presented with a questionnaire consisting of nine questions. More than sixty-six (66.8% percent of the polled admitted they had no knowledge about the Strategy for Community Development. The most urgent problems mentioned by the group are: high unemployment rate (59.3%, many houses having no access to the main sewer system (42.9%, poor road condition and the absence of footpaths (33%, wasting the region's tourism potential due to poor publicity and infrastructure (31.9%, transportation shortcomings (33%, and alcoholism (31.9%. The research proves that although the Strategy for Community Development does include the operation and strategic goals, it does not specify any useful measurement instruments. Unfortunately, the operation of the Strategy has not been monitored closely, therefore the authorities were not able to provide any positive or negative evaluation.

  3. Balanced Scorecard Goal Four: Provide Policy Management, Advocacy and Problem Solving Measuring Achievement of Internal Customer Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Achievement of Internal Customer Objectives A Graduate Management Project Submitted to The Residency Committee In Candidacy for the Degree of Masters in...internal customer relations, the GPRMC has incorporated use of a Balanced Scorecard within its management scheme. The scorecard serves as a strategy map...headquarters. The goal, "Provide Policy Management , Advocacy and Problem Solving", addresses the relationship between the headquarters and its internal

  4. Exploring the motivations and emotions underlying rewarding self-gift giving and how they encourage achievement oriented goals.

    OpenAIRE

    Karayiannis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore consumers’ descriptions of rewarding self-gift behaviour during the entire consumption process, including the motivations and emotions involved and how these encourage towards the achievement of personal oriented goals. The study specifically focuses on luxury self-gifts and attempts to incorporate desires and the cycle of desire with self-gift giving. In doing so, the study adopts an interpretive approach, consistent with the author’s philosophical ass...

  5. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1 eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2 achieving universal primary education; (3 promoting gender equality; (4 reducing child mortality; (5 improving maternal health; (6 combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7 ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8 developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC. The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.

  6. Latin America and the Caribbean: assessment of the advances in public health for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-05-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.

  7. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhago, George M; Ngalesoni, Frida N; Norheim, Ole F

    2012-12-27

    Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of -0.11 (maternal) and -0.12 (children) to a more equitable concentration index of -0,03 and -0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  8. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhago George M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. Results In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of −0.11 (maternal and −0.12 (children to a more equitable concentration index of −0,03 and −0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Conclusions Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  9. Relating beliefs in writing skill malleability to writing performance: The mediating role of achievement goals and self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Limpo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that students’ beliefs in skill malleability influence their academic performance. Specifically, thinking of ability as an incremental (vs. fixed trait is associated with better outcomes. Though this was shown across many domains, little research exists into these beliefs in the writing domain and into the mechanisms underlying their effects on writing performance. The aim of this study was twofold: to gather evidence on the validity and reliability of instruments to measure beliefs in skill malleability, achievement goals, and self-efficacy in writing; and to test a path-analytic model specifying beliefs in writing skill malleability to influence writing performance, via goals and self-efficacy. For that, 196 Portuguese students in Grades 7-8 filled in the instruments and wrote an opinion essay that was assessed for writing performance. Confirmatory factor analyses supported instruments’ validity and reliability. Path analysis revealed direct effects from beliefs in writing skill malleability to mastery goals (ß = .45; from mastery goals to self-efficacy for conventions, ideation, and self-regulation (ß = .27, .42, and .42, respectively; and from self-efficacy for self-regulation to writing performance (ß = .16; along with indirect effects from beliefs in writing skill malleability to self-efficacy for self-regulation via mastery goals (ß = .19, and from mastery goals to writing performance via self-efficacy for self-regulation (ß = .07. Overall, students’ mastery goals and self-efficacy for self-regulation seem to be key factors underlying the link between beliefs in writing skill malleability and writing performance. These findings highlight the importance of attending to motivation-related components in the teaching of writing.

  10. The Role of Public Health Nutrition in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung; Low, Wah Yun; Zerfas, Alfred

    2017-10-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDCs) in 2015, which included several goals and targets primarily related to nutrition: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. In the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) member countries as a group, infant and child mortality were reduced by more than 65% between 1990 and 2015, achieving the MDG target of two-thirds reduction, although these goals were not achieved by several smaller countries. The SDGs are broader in focus than the MDGs, but include several goals that relate directly to nutrition: 2 (zero hunger-food), 3 (good health and well-being-healthy life), and 12 (responsible consumption and production-sustainability). Other SDGs that are closely related to nutrition are 4 and 5 (quality education and equality in gender-education and health for girls and mothers, which is very important for infant health) and 13 (climate action). Goal 3 is "good health and well-being," which includes targets for child mortality, maternal mortality, and reducing chronic disease. The Global Burden of Disease Project has confirmed that the majority of risk for these targets can be attributed to nutrition-related targets. Dietary Guidelines were developed to address public health nutrition risk in the Asia Pacific region at the 48th APACPH 2016 conference and they are relevant to the achievement of the SDGs. Iron deficiency increases the risk of maternal death from haemorrhage, a cause of 300000 deaths world-wide each year. Improving diets and iron supplementation are important public health interventions in the APACPH region. Chronic disease and obesity rates in the APACPH region are now a major challenge and healthy life course nutrition is a major public health priority in answering this challenge. This article discusses the role of public health nutrition in achieving the SDGs. It also examines the role of

  11. Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control Systems: Achieving National Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    This project was part of a regional initiative in the five counties of Central New York (CNY) that received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and four other federal agencies through the 2012 Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (AMJIAC). The CNY initiative was focused on cultivating the emergent regional cluster in “Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control (AM-TEC).” As one component of the CNY AM-TEC initiative, the DOE-funded project supported five research & development seed projects that strategically targeted: 1) needs and opportunities of CNY AM-TEC companies, and 2) the goal of DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) to reduce energy consumption by 50% across product life-cycles over 10 years. The project also sought to fulfill the AMO mission of developing and demonstrating new, energy-efficient processing and materials technologies at a scale adequate to prove their value to manufacturers and spur investment. The five seed projects demonstrated technologies and processes that can reduce energy intensity and improve production as well as use less energy throughout their lifecycles. The project was conducted over three years in two 18-month budget periods. During the first budget period, two projects proposed in the original AMJAIC application were successfully completed: Seed Project 1 focused on saving energy in heat transfer processes via development of nano structured surfaces to significantly increase heat flux; Seed Project 2 addressed saving energy in data centers via subzero cooling of the computing processors. Also during the first budget period, a process was developed and executed to select a second round of seed projects via a competitive request for proposals from regional companies and university collaborators. Applicants were encouraged to form industry-academic partnerships to leverage experience and resources of public and private sectors in the CNY region. Proposals were

  12. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer--a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jürgen

    2011-02-21

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  13. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer--a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  14. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  15. Paris INDCs: will they achieve the goal of the Paris Climate Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribett, W. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Hope, A. P.; Bennett, B.; Canty, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We provide an overview of the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted prior to the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which are the backbone of the Paris Climate Agreement. Two flavors of INDCs were submitted: unconditional (i.e., firm commitments) and conditional (commitments contingent on financial flow and/or technology transfer). Generally, the Paris INDCs extend to year 2030. However, achievement of either the target (1.5 °C warming) or upper limit (2.0 °C warming) of the Paris Agreement requires consideration of emissions out to 2060, due to the projected rise in energy demand, growing populations, and rising standards of living. We therefore project global carbon emissions out to year 2060, and compare to various RCP scenarios of IPCC (2013). These projections will be used to assess whether the target (1.5 °C warming) or upper limit (2.0 °) of the Paris Climate Agreement will be met.

  16. Achievement goal structures and self-regulated learning: relationships and changes in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Dong, Ting; DeZee, Kent J; Gilliland, William R; Waechter, Donna M; Cruess, David; Durning, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Practicing physicians have a societal obligation to maintain their competence. Unfortunately, the self-regulated learning skills likely required for lifelong learning are not explicitly addressed in most medical schools. The authors examined how medical students' perceptions of the learning environment relate to their self-regulated learning behaviors. They also explored how students' perceptions and behaviors correlate with performance and change across medical school. The authors collected survey data from 304 students at different phases of medical school training. The survey items assessed students' perceptions of the learning environment, as well as their metacognition, procrastination, and avoidance-of-help-seeking behaviors. The authors operationalized achievement as cumulative medical school grade point average (GPA) and, for third- and fourth-year students, collected clerkship outcomes. Students' perceptions of the learning environment were associated with their metacognition, procrastination, and help-avoidance behaviors. These behaviors were also related to academic outcomes. Specifically, avoidance of help seeking was negatively correlated with cumulative medical school GPA (r=-0.23, P<.01) as well as exam (r=-0.22, P<.05) and clinical performance (r=-0.34, P<.01) in the internal medical clerkship; these help-avoidance behaviors were also positively correlated with students' presentation at a grade adjudication committee (r=0.20, P<.05). Additionally, students' perceptions of the learning environment varied as a function of their phase of training. Medical students' perceptions of the learning environment are related, in predictable ways, to their use of self-regulated learning behaviors; these perceptions seem to change across medical school.

  17. LDL-cholesterol goal attainment under persistent lipid-lowering therapy in northeast China: Subgroup analysis of the dyslipidemia international study of China (DYSIS-China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Bu, Xiang-Ting; Guo, Xin-Zhu; Hu, Da-Yi; Li, Zhan-Quan; Sun, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Lipid-lowering therapy with statins reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, but the efficacy of persistent treatment in a real-world setting may vary from regions. Routine lipid-lowering therapy in the region with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease may lead to more failures of goal attainment. We therefore performed a study to observe different lipid-lowering strategies in northeast (NE) China with respect to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction and goal attainments.A cross-sectional study (DYSIS-China) was conducted in 2012, involving 25,317 patients from 122 centers across China who were diagnosed with hyperlipidemia and treated with lipid-lowering therapy for at least 3 months. Of these patients, 4559 (18.0%) were assigned to the NE group according to their residential zones.Patients in the NE group tended to be younger, female, overweight, and had more comorbidities and higher blood lipid levels than those in the non-NE group (P 24 kg/m, drinking alcohol, smoking, and being residence in NE China as independent predictors of LDL-C attainment.Despite having received persistent lipid-lowering treatments, the current situation of dyslipidemia patients in NE China is unsatisfactory. The main treatment gap might be related to the choice of statin and effective combination therapy and the control of comorbidities and obesity, especially for high-risk patients.

  18. Emissions trading for business and industry. A new instrument to achieve environmental goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    Key components of the Kyoto Protocol are the flexible instruments or mechanisms: namely trading emissions, Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. These mechanisms make it possible to trade in CO2 emissions or emission permits, thereby enabling the Kyoto Protocol targets that have been imposed on all states, to be attained in the most cost-effective way. Although the Kyoto targets are binding only on states, it is likely that governments will pass responsibility for meeting them on to specific target groups and impose absolute or relative (energy efficiency or CO2 per unit) targets on them. Flexible instruments, especially Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), can also be used by companies to achieve their emission targets. Until now, the VNO-NCW Confederation of Netherlands Industry has generally been positive about the use of flexible instruments. However, various developments have persuaded the VNO-NCW that it is a good idea to examine more specific questions with regard to flexible instruments. First, the CO2 trade committee (the Vogtlaender Committee) has been asked to issue recommendations concerning the possibilities inherent in a national system for emissions trading. A basic variant will be explored, in which protected sectors (households, the service industry, small industrial enterprises) will be assigned absolute ceilings and internationally operating companies will be assigned with relative targets. Second, in March 2000 the European Commission published a Green Paper on trade in greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union in order to launch an European Union (EU)-wide debate on the introduction of an EU system for trade in emissions in 2005. In common with the Netherlands, various EU member states are studying the possibilities for phasing in a system of trade in CO2 emissions; only in Denmark has such a system actually been introduced. In industry, too, many initiatives have been taken in

  19. Which Feedback Is More Effective for Pursuing Multiple Goals of Differing Importance? The Interaction Effects of Goal Importance and Performance Feedback Type on Self-Regulation and Task Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…

  20. A model for predicting academic procrastination based on personality traits and achievement goals among school of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rastegar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identifying affecting factors on academic procrastination is considered as a common psychological trauma in academic environments. Thus, this study aimed to provide a model predicts academic procrastination on the basis of personality traits and achievement goals. Methods: This cross sectional analytic study consisted of 258 students of faculty of nursing, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who were chosen via randomized stratified ratio sampling and answered to a self-report questionnaire consisted of achievement goals, personality traits, and academic procrastination. Results: Analyzing the data showed that a neurosis personality trait had an indirect and positive effect on students’ academic procrastination. Also, the personality traits such as extraversion, consciousness, agreeableness and openness to experience had an indirect and negative effect on students’ academic procrastination. Conclusion: According to the findings, planners of nursing courses should provide a fresh scientific environment to create a bed for formation of positive personality traits in students so that they can provide a context for adopting an appropriate goal-setting pattern, and in turn, reducing academic procrastination. As well, with the implementation of personality measures and deeper understanding of the inner characteristics of learners’ personality, they can be kept safe from exposure to psychological traumas such as academic procrastination.

  1. Global self-esteem, goal achievement orientations, and self-determined behavioural regulations in a physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Hagger, Martin S

    2007-01-15

    We examined a theoretical model of global self-esteem that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. The model hypothesized that self-determined or autonomous motives would mediate the influence of achievement goal orientation on global self-esteem. The adapted version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (Mullan et al., 1997), the Perception of Success Questionnaire (Roberts & Balague, 1991), and Rosenberg's (1965) self-esteem scales were administered to 634 high school students aged 11 - 15 years. A structural equation model supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that autonomous motives mediated the effect of goal orientations on global self-esteem. The results suggest that generalized motivational orientations influence self-esteem by affecting autonomous motivation and is consistent with theory that suggests that experiences relating to intrinsic motivation are the mechanism by which global motivational orientations are translated into adaptive outcomes like self-esteem. The findings suggest that physical activity interventions that target autonomous motives in physical activity contexts are likely to enhance young people's general self-esteem.

  2. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Influence on Achievement of Cardiometabolic Therapeutic Goals in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients: An Analysis of the Nationwide, Cross-Sectional 3B Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghai Zhou

    Full Text Available There are few data on the prevalence of obesity and its influence on achieving blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipid (3B goals in Chinese type 2 diabetes outpatients.Patient demographic data, anthropometric measurements, medications, and blood glucose and lipid profiles of 24,512 type 2 diabetes patients from a large, geographically diverse study (CCMR-3B were analyzed. Using cut-points for body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC recommended by the Working Group on Obesity in China, overweight and obesity were defined as BMIs of 24-27.9 kg/m2 and ≥28.0 kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥80 cm in women and ≥85 cm in men. The 3B therapeutic goals were HbA1c<7.0%, BP<140/90 mmHg and LDL-C<2.6 mmol/L.Overall, 43.0% of type 2 diabetes patients were overweight and 16.7% were obese; 13.3% of overweight and and 10.1% of obese patients achieved all the 3B target goals. Overweight or obese patients were less likely to achieve 3B goals than those with normal BMIs. More than a half the overweight or obese patients (69.6% were centrally obese. Patients with abdominal obesity were less likely to achieve cardiometabolic targets than those without abdominal obesity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female, higher BMI and waist circumference, smoking, drinking, sedentary lifestyle, and longer diabetes duration were significantly correlated with failure to achieve 3B control goals.Obesity is highly prevalent and associated with poor 3B control in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. In clinical practice, more attention and resources should focus on weight loss for such patients.

  3. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Juan L.; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications. PMID:27729879

  4. The importance of an integrating framework for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: the example of health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; O'Riordan, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development came into force in January 2016 as the central United Nations (UN) platform for achieving ‘integrated and indivisible’ goals and targets across the three characteristic dimensions of sustainable development: the social, environmental and economic. We argue that, despite the UN adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a framework for operationalising them in an integrated fashion is lacking. This article puts forth a framework for integrating health and well-being across the SDGs as both preconditions and outcomes of sustainable development. We present a rationale for this approach, and identify the challenges and opportunities for implementing and monitoring such a framework through a series of examples. We encourage other sectors to develop similar integrating frameworks for supporting a more coordinated approach for operationalising the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. PMID:28588955

  5. The importance of an integrating framework for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: the example of health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ana Raquel; Lee, Kelley; O'Riordan, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development came into force in January 2016 as the central United Nations (UN) platform for achieving 'integrated and indivisible' goals and targets across the three characteristic dimensions of sustainable development: the social, environmental and economic. We argue that, despite the UN adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a framework for operationalising them in an integrated fashion is lacking. This article puts forth a framework for integrating health and well-being across the SDGs as both preconditions and outcomes of sustainable development. We present a rationale for this approach, and identify the challenges and opportunities for implementing and monitoring such a framework through a series of examples. We encourage other sectors to develop similar integrating frameworks for supporting a more coordinated approach for operationalising the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  6. Using Goal Achievement Training in juvenile justice settings to improve substance use services for youth on community supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jacqueline Horan; Becan, Jennifer E; Harris, Philip W; Nager, Alexis; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Hogue, Aaron; Bartkowski, John P; Wiley, Tisha

    2018-04-30

    The link between substance use and involvement in the juvenile justice system has been well established. Justice-involved youth tend to have higher rates of drug use than their non-offending peers. At the same time, continued use can contribute to an elevated risk of recidivism, which leads to further, and oftentimes more serious, involvement with the juvenile justice system. Because of these high rates of use, the juvenile justice system is well positioned to help identify youth with substance use problems and connect them to treatment. However, research has found that only about 60% of juvenile probation agencies screen all youth for substance involvement, and even fewer provide comprehensive assessment or help youth enroll in substance use treatment. This paper describes an integrated training curriculum that was developed to help juvenile justice agencies improve their continuum of care for youth probationers with substance use problems. Goal Achievement Training (GAT) provides a platform for continuous quality improvement via two sessions delivered onsite to small groups of staff from juvenile justice and behavioral health agencies. In the first session, participants are taught to identify goals and goal steps for addressing identified areas of unmet need (i.e., screening, assessment, and linkage to treatment services). In the second session, participants learn principles and strategies of data-driven decision-making for achieving these goals. This paper highlights GAT as a model for the effective implementation of cost-efficient training strategies designed to increase self-directed quality improvement activities that can be applied to any performance domain within juvenile justice settings. Efforts to monitor implementation fidelity of GAT within the specific context of the juvenile justice settings are highlighted. Challenges to setting the stage for process improvement generally, as well as specific hurdles within juvenile justice settings are discussed

  7. The co-developmental dynamic of sport and school burnout among student-athletes: The role of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkkila, M; Aunola, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Tolvanen, A; Ryba, T V

    2018-02-17

    Student-athletes who strive for success in high-level sports while pursuing upper secondary education may be prone to sport and school burnout. This study examined the co-developmental dynamic of sport and school burnout in Finnish adolescent student-athletes (N time 1  = 391; N time 2  = 373) across the first year of upper secondary school using cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM). Furthermore, we used sport and school-related achievement goals as predictors of sport and school burnout, namely sport and school-related exhaustion, cynicism, and feelings of inadequacy. The results showed that burnout dimensions in a particular domain were substantially stable within the same domain during the first year of upper secondary school and that school-related exhaustion at the beginning of upper secondary school predicted sport-related exhaustion at the end of the school year. Mastery goals in sport and school were negatively associated with cynicism and feelings of inadequacy within the same domain. Furthermore, performance goals in school were positively associated with school-related cynicism. The results can be used by healthcare professionals for early prevention of student-athletes' burnout. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. ACHIEVEMENT GOALS AND INTENSIVITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING FREE PLAY IN CHILDREN: THE MODERATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED SPORT CONFIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lochbaum Marc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine the moderating role of sport confidence and resultant the achievement goal profile with physical activity intensity during free play. Material: participants were 28 children participating in an after-school program. The 28 children completed measures of task and ego goal orientations and sport confidence two weeks prior to having their heart rate monitored during a free play session. Results: indicated that children with high sport confidence were characterized ( p 1.10 by higher task and ego orientations and average heart rate over the course of the free play session when compared to the low sport confidence children. The moderate sport confidence children were not significantly different than the other groups expect for ego orientation though effect sizes indicated this group tended towards being more similar to the high sport confidence group. The results were confounded as all children in the low sport confidence condition were girls. Conclusions: Sport confidence moderates physical activity intensity during free play in children and is characterized by a higher ego orientation and generally higher task orientation. But given all of the low confident children were females, intervention work is needed at early ages with girls to build sport confidence and motivations for both goal orientations to hopefully increase physical activity intensity during free play.

  9. A review on weaknesses and strengths of delivering Mehr housing project in terms of achieving economical goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karshenasan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Housing is one of the most important sections of development in a country and its economic importance has put it in the center of attention. It can cause rise and depression of habitation by its extended economic aspects. Mehr Housing plan is a state run housing project in most cities started 2007 in Iran to protect and provide cheap housing for poor people and young couples. Mehr housing project by its large scale and wide dimensions can affect the society’s economy. Therefore, to investigate weaknesses and strengths of this project in terms of economic and applying necessary reformation can increase the success probability of this project. For this purpose, this study assess the weaknesses and strengths of Mehr housing of province of Khorram Abad in Iran for achieving economic goals and also presents solutions to better access to these goals. Time scope of the present study is 6 months of 2011 and the second 3 months of 2012. The methodology is applicable in terms of goal and is descriptive survey in terms of nature. In this study, a combined method of interviewing to experts and distributing a questionnaire among the applicants of Mehr housing has been used for data collecting. Among strengths of Khorram Abad in economic section, employment and urban landfill pattern reformation can be implied. In addition, among weaknesses of this project are lack of proper first design and technical justification of the project and use of only 2 shabby fabrics.

  10. Leadership and culture of data governance for the achievement of higher education goals (Case study: Indonesia University of Education)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.

  11. An Analysis of Determinants of Under-5 Mortality across Countries: Defining Priorities to Achieve Targets in Sustainable Developmental Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Michael; Ejiofor, Chukwudi; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The end of the era of millennium development goals (MDGs) ushered in the sustainable development goals (SDGs) with a new target for the reduction of under-five mortality rates (U5MR). Although U5MR decreased globally, the reduction was insufficient to meet MDGs targets because significant socioeconomic inequities remain unaddressed across and within countries. Thus, further progress in achieving the new SDGs target will be hindered if there is no adequate prioritization of important socioeconomic, healthcare, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to assess factors that account most for the differences in U5MR between countries around the globe. Methods We conducted an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression-based prioritization analysis of socioeconomic, healthcare, and environmental variables from 109 countries to understand which factors explain the differences in U5MR best. Results All indicators examined individually affected differences in U5MR between countries. However, the results of multivariate OLS regression showed that the most important factors that accounted for the differences were, in order: fertility rate, total health expenditure per capita, access to improved water and sanitation, and female employment rate. Conclusions To achieve the new global target for U5MR, policymakers must focus on certain priority areas, such as interventions that address access to affordable maternal healthcare services, educational programs for mothers, especially those who are adolescents, and safe drinking water and sanitation.

  12. Effect of self-efficacy and physical activity goal achievement on arthritis pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittle, Keegan P; De Gucht, Véronique; Hurkmans, Emalie J; Vlieland, Thea P M Vliet; Peeters, André J; Ronday, H Karel; Maes, Stan

    2011-11-01

    To examine physical activity and achievement of physical activity goals in relation to self-reported pain and quality of life among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At baseline, 271 patients with RA were asked to specify a physical activity goal, and filled in questionnaires assessing physical activity, motivation, and self-efficacy for physical activity, arthritis pain, and quality of life. Six months later, patients indicated to what extent they had achieved their baseline physical activity goal and completed the same set of questionnaires. These data were used to construct multiple mediation models that placed physical activity and physical activity goal achievement as mediators between self-efficacy and motivation on one hand, and arthritis pain and quality of life on the other. A total of 106 patients with RA completed both questionnaires. Self-efficacy at baseline predicted subsequent level of physical activity and achievement of physical activity goals. Goal achievement had a direct effect upon quality of life outcomes. Bootstrapping confidence intervals revealed indirect effects of self-efficacy upon arthritis pain and quality of life through goal achievement, but not through physical activity. Higher levels of self-efficacy for physical activity increase the likelihood that patients will achieve their physical activity goals. Achievement of physical activity goals seems to be related to lower self-reported arthritis pain, and higher levels of quality of life. In practice, clinicians can foster self-efficacy and goal achievement by assisting patients in setting realistic and attainable exercise goals, developing action plans, and by providing feedback on goal progress. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  14. Assessing use of a printed lifestyle intervention tool by women with borderline gestational diabetes and their achievement of diet and exercise goals: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shanshan; Middleton, Philippa F; Tran, Thach S; Crowther, Caroline A

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess use of a booklet by pregnant women to record and assist dietary and lifestyle changes; to describe diet and exercise goals set during the initial lifestyle discussions; and to assess achievement of goals. Participants were women with borderline gestational diabetes who received a printed pregnancy record booklet, as part of a randomised trial, to record and set monthly goals for diet and exercise. Outcomes included women's use of the booklets and their achievement of dietary and exercise goals after 1 month. Fifty-six women returned their used pregnancy record booklets and were included in this study. These women set a total of 197 dietary goals and 65 exercise goals. In the first month, over 80% of dietary goals that targeted grains, dairy and overall diet were achieved, but only 20-30% of goals about vegetables, and foods high in fat, sugar and/or salt were achieved. After 1 month, women had achieved 86.4% of their exercise goals to maintain their current level of activity, but only 25.0 % exercise goals to increase walking during pregnancy. Women who used pregnancy record booklets reported good achievement rates for goals related to grains, fruits, dairy and overall diet, but they were less likely to be successful in achieving goals to increase intake of vegetables, and limit foods that high in fat, sugar and/or salt. Maintaining an active lifestyle during pregnancy was feasible for women although increases in physical activity were less often achieved. Using a pregnancy record booklet may be helpful in assisting and encouraging behavioural changes, although further investigations of long-term effects and in different populations are warranted.

  15. Challenges in striving to simultaneously achieve multiple resource allocation goals: the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Heather; Charles, Cathy; Elit, Laurie; Gafni, Amiram

    2016-01-01

    The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) makes recommendations to Canada's provinces and territories (except Quebec) to guide their cancer drug funding decisions. The objective of this paper is to explore, using an economic perspective and the pCODR as an example, the challenges associated with striving to simultaneously achieve the goals of maximizing health benefits with available resources and improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. The first challenge concerns how to interpret the goals in order to determine how resources should be allocated to achieve each goal. The second challenge relates to whether, if pursued simultaneously, both goals can be achieved to the same extent that each goal could have been achieved alone with the same available resources. Regarding the first challenge, we illustrate that, due to a lack of definitional clarity, it is difficult to determine exactly how resources should be allocated in order to achieve the goal of improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. Regarding the second challenge, we illustrate that choosing to strive for both of the pCODR goals simultaneously will likely be associated with tradeoffs in the extent to which one or both goals can be achieved (relative to what could have been achieved for each goal alone with the same available resources). We suggest that, if the pCODR and the provincial drug plan decision-makers it supports want to strive for both goals simultaneously, they must prioritize the goals and explicitly identify the tradeoffs associated with the prioritization. This will ensure that the consequences of striving to simultaneously achieve both goals are explicit, transparent, and predictable for provincial drug plan decision-makers, physicians, patients, caregivers, and society as a whole.

  16. The System of Indicators for Monitoring the Achievement of the Goals of Sustainable Development in the Agrarian Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chala Tеtyana G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of statistical evaluation of the system of indicators for monitoring the achievement of the goals of sustainable development (GSD in the agrarian sector. It has been determined that, in order to achieve sustainable development, the following three pillars need to be reconciled: economic growth, social integration, and environmental protection. The objectives and indicators of the GSD 2 «Overcoming hunger, achieving food security, improving nutrition, and facilitating sustainable development of agriculture» were considered in detail. It has been determined that the indicator, which illustrates vividly the status and perspective of development of the agrarian sector, is the indicator 2.a.1 «Index of orientation towards agriculture, defined by the public expenditure structure». Methods for calculation of the Agriculture Orientation Index (AOI were considered. The dynamics of the AOI for Ukraine and world-wide for 2004-2013 were analyzed. The values of the AOI index for Ukraine, the neighboring countries, and the EU Member States in 2013 have been provided. It has been determined that Ukraine has a low AOI among the EU countries and among the neighboring countries, which indicates a poor orientation towards agriculture.

  17. An analysis of the potential for achieving the fourth millennium development goal in SSA with domestic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Bernadette; Makuta, Innocent

    2015-02-25

    The importance of good health is reflected in the fact that more than half of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are aimed at improving health status. Goal 4 (MDG4) aims to reduce child mortality. The progress indicator for goal 4 is the under-five mortality rate (U5M), with a targeted reduction of two thirds by 2015 from 1990 levels. This paper seeks to compare the time (in years) Sub Saharan African (SSA) countries will take to reach their MDG4 target at the current rate of decline, and the time it could have taken to reach their target if domestic resources had not been lost through illicit financial flows, corruption and servicing of debt since 2000. We estimate the amount by which the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita would increase (in percentage terms) if losses of resource through illicit financial flows, corruption and debt servicing, were reduced. Using the income elasticity of U5M, a metric which reports the percentage change in U5M for a one percent change in GDP per capita, we estimate the potential gains in the annual reduction of the under-five mortality if these resource losses were reduced. At the current rate of reduction in U5M, nine countries out of this sample of 36 SSA countries (25%) will achieve their MDG4 target by 2015. In the absence of the leakages (IFF, corruption and debt service) 30 out of 36 (83%) would reach their MDG4 target by 2015 and all except one country, Zimbabwe would have achieved their MDG4 by 2017 (97%). In view of the uncertainty of the legitimacy of African debts we have also provided results where we excluded debt repayment from our analysis. Most countries would have met MDG4 target by curtailing these outflows. In order to release latent resources in SSA for development, action will be needed both by African countries and internationally. We consider that stemming these outflows, and thereby reducing the need for aid, can be achieved with a more transparent global financial system.

  18. Designing optimal food intake patterns to achieve nutritional goals for Japanese adults through the use of linear programming optimization models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2015-06-06

    Simultaneous dietary achievement of a full set of nutritional recommendations is difficult. Diet optimization model using linear programming is a useful mathematical means of translating nutrient-based recommendations into realistic nutritionally-optimal food combinations incorporating local and culture-specific foods. We used this approach to explore optimal food intake patterns that meet the nutrient recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) while incorporating typical Japanese food selections. As observed intake values, we used the food and nutrient intake data of 92 women aged 31-69 years and 82 men aged 32-69 years living in three regions of Japan. Dietary data were collected with semi-weighed dietary record on four non-consecutive days in each season of the year (16 days total). The linear programming models were constructed to minimize the differences between observed and optimized food intake patterns while also meeting the DRIs for a set of 28 nutrients, setting energy equal to estimated requirements, and not exceeding typical quantities of each food consumed by each age (30-49 or 50-69 years) and gender group. We successfully developed mathematically optimized food intake patterns that met the DRIs for all 28 nutrients studied in each sex and age group. Achieving nutritional goals required minor modifications of existing diets in older groups, particularly women, while major modifications were required to increase intake of fruit and vegetables in younger groups of both sexes. Across all sex and age groups, optimized food intake patterns demanded greatly increased intake of whole grains and reduced-fat dairy products in place of intake of refined grains and full-fat dairy products. Salt intake goals were the most difficult to achieve, requiring marked reduction of salt-containing seasoning (65-80%) in all sex and age groups. Using a linear programming model, we identified optimal food intake patterns providing practical food choices and

  19. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  20. Public health strategies to fasten the achievement of the millennium development goal -4A related to under-five mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Under-five mortality rate (U5MR refers to the total number of deaths in the age group of 0-5 years divided by the total number of live births in the same time interval. Under the MDG-4A, the target was to reduce U5MR by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015. An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was made using library sources including Pubmed, Medline and google scholar searches. Keywords used in the search include under-five mortality rate, Millennium development goals, and global. Although, reduction in U5MR has been observed, the decline is neither sufficient nor uniform, being highest in the African region and least in the European continent. Multiple barriers and gaps have been identified that are eventually aggravating the magnitude of the under-five mortality. In order to reduce the global burden of under-five mortality and to counter the identified challenges, there is a need of formulating innovative, cost-effective, multi-faceted and targeted strategies to address the problem in all dimensions. To conclude, there is a crucial need to save lives of under-five children by ensuring strategic implementation of comprehensive and target-oriented strategies, especially in developing countries to universally achieve the millennium development goal-4A. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 67-70

  1. Gas and heat infrastructure allow flexible achievement of climate goals; Gas- und Waermeinfrastruktur ermoeglichen flexible Erreichung der Klimaziele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecking, Harald; Hintermayer, Martin; Lencz, Dominic [ewi Energy Research and Scenarios gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    Germany has set itself the goal of reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 55% by 2030 and 80-95% by 2050 compared to the base year 1990. The following article compares two possible development paths, which in each case cross-sectorally achieve the goals for the energy, industry and building sectors, and outlines the contribution that the gas and heat infrastructure can make. The results are based on a study by the Cologne-based research institute ewi Energy Research and Scenarios (ewi ER and S), which was commissioned by three North Rhine-Westphalian energy companies, Gelsenwasser AG, Open Grid Europe GmbH and RheinEnergie AG. [German] Deutschland hat sich das Ziel gesetzt, seinen Ausstoss von Treibhausgasen (THG) bis 2030 und 55% bzw. bis 2050 um 80-95% gegenueber dem Basisjahr 1990 zu senken. Der folgende Artikel vergleicht zwei moegliche Entwicklungspfade, welche jeweils sektoruebergreifend die Ziele fuer die Sektoren Energiewirtschaft, Industrie und Gebaeude erreichen und stellt heraus, welchen Beitrag die Gas- und Waermeinfrastruktur dabei spielen kann. Die Ergebnisse enstammen einer Studie des Koelner Forschungsinstituts ewi Energy Research and Scenarios (ewi ER and S), welche durch drei nordrhein-westfaelische Energieunternehmen, Gelsenwasser AG, Open Grid Europe GmbH und RheinEnergie AG, beauftragt wurde.

  2. Exercise program adherence using a 5-kilometer (5K) event as an achievable goal in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kimberly R; Ball, M Patricia; Feldman, Stephanie; Liu, Fang; McMahon, Robert P; Kelly, Deanna L

    2011-10-01

    People with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence of obesity than the general population. Many people with this illness struggle with weight gain, due, in part, to medications and other factors that act as obstacles to exercise and healthy eating. Several studies have shown the benefits of behavioral weight loss programs targeting eating and/or exercise in people with schizophrenia. Fewer studies have used competitive events as a goal for an exercise program. The current study tested the feasibility of preparing, using an exercise program, for a 5-kilometer (5K) event in people with schizophrenia. The exercise program was a 10-week training program consisting of three supervised walking/jogging sessions per week and a weekly educational meeting on healthy behaviors. Almost 65% (11/17) of the subjects participated in all of the training sessions, and 82% (14/17) participated in the 5K event. Participants did not gain a significant amount of weight during the exercise program (median weight change = 0.7 kg; 25th percentile 0.5, 75th percentile 3.9, p = .10). This study suggests that using an achievable goal, such as a 5K event, promotes adherence to an exercise program and is feasible in a population of people with chronic schizophrenia.

  3. Cross-country analysis of strategies for achieving progress towards global goals for women's and children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Rawal, Lal B; Chowdhury, Sadia A; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Jack, Susan; Hinton, Rachael; Alam, Prima M; Kuruvilla, Shyama

    2016-05-01

    To identify how 10 low- and middle-income countries achieved accelerated progress, ahead of comparable countries, towards meeting millennium development goals 4 and 5A to reduce child and maternal mortality. We synthesized findings from multistakeholder dialogues and country policy reports conducted previously for the Success Factors studies in 10 countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda and Viet Nam. A framework approach was used to analyse and synthesize the data from the country reports, resulting in descriptive or explanatory conclusions by theme. Successful policy and programme approaches were categorized in four strategic areas: leadership and multistakeholder partnerships; health sector; sectors outside health; and accountability for resources and results. Consistent and coordinated inputs across sectors, based on high-impact interventions, were assessed. Within the health sector, key policy and programme strategies included defining standards, collecting and using data, improving financial protection, and improving the availability and quality of services. Outside the health sector, strategies included investing in girls' education, water, sanitation and hygiene, poverty reduction, nutrition and food security, and infrastructure development. Countries improved accountability by strengthening and using data systems for planning and evaluating progress. Reducing maternal and child mortality in the 10 fast-track countries can be linked to consistent and coordinated policy and programme inputs across health and other sectors. The approaches used by successful countries have relevance to other countries looking to scale-up or accelerate progress towards the sustainable development goals.

  4. Development Innovations through Entrepreneurial Microfinance and the Attempt to Achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh

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    Saleh Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of the countries in the Global South, Bangladesh has experienced numerous development challenges since its liberation in 1971. Bangladesh has showcased how to fight against poverty and to initiate meaningful change and development in human lives. Nobel Prize (2006 winner Grameen Bank is one of the popular development innovations in the country. Since the beginning of this Bank in the early 1970s, microfinance and entrepreneurship development with small amounts of money have proliferated to nearly every corner of the globe with the paramount goal of alleviating global poverty and ensuring human development. Like all other new social science techniques, the societal revolution brought about by microfinance expansion has left substantial room for refinement and further support by empirical evidence. This article critically evaluates a non-governmental initiative to empower extremely poor women through entrepreneurial microfinance, and examines the socioeconomic impacts in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (UNMDGs. This article covers both primary and secondary information. The aim is to demonstrate how countries of the Global South can use carefully designed microfinance projects to address major development challenges and meaningfully contribute to creating a more equal, humane society.

  5. Examining a negative halo effect to anabolic steroids users through perceived achievement goals, sportspersonship orientations, and aggressive tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the social image of anabolic steroids (AS) users grounding our analysis on the achievement goal theory of Nicholls. Our main goal was to explore how an athlete's acceptance of AS use would impact on the way that athlete will be perceived by others. Non-AS-using participants reacted to one of two scenarios portraying a male athlete either accepting or refusing to engage in drug use behavior. The results suggested that the acceptance of anabolic steroids yielded an unfavorable social image--perceivers inferred a predominant ego orientation to characterize the AS-user's motivation as well as weaker sportspersonship and a stronger proclivity for reactive aggression than instrumental aggression. Moreover, the analyses did not yield significant gender or interaction effects. Finally, those findings are commented in view of methodological shortcomings and of the perspectives that they may offer for future research concerning the motivational aspects of the social perceptions of drug use in sport. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. Perceived parental beliefs about the causes of success in sport: relationship to athletes' achievement goals and personal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sally A; Kavussanu, Maria; Tank, Kari M; Wingate, Jason M

    2004-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived parental beliefs and young athletes' achievement goal orientations and personal beliefs about the causes of success in sport. Participants were 183 male and female athletes, 11-18 years old, involved in team sports. Athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Beliefs about the Causes of Sport Success Questionnaire, and two modified versions of the latter inventory to assess their perceptions of their parents' beliefs. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that perceived parental beliefs were related to goal orientations and personal beliefs in a conceptually coherent fashion. Thus, the perceived parental belief that effort leads to success in sport was related to athletes' task orientation and personal belief that effort causes sport success. In contrast, the perceived parental beliefs that superior ability, external factors, and using deceptive tactics are precursors to success in sport corresponded to athletes' ego orientation and the same personal beliefs. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the socialization experiences of young athletes.

  7. On-Chip Electrophoresis in Supported Lipid Bilayer Membranes Achieved Using Low Potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weerd, Jasper; Krabbenborg, Sven; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    A micro supported lipid bilayer (SLB) electrophoresis method was developed, which functions at low potentials and appreciable operating times. To this end, (hydroxymethyl)-ferrocene (FcCH2OH) was employed to provide an electrochemical reaction at the anode and cathode at low applied potential to

  8. GLIMPSE: A decision support tool for simultaneously achieving our air quality management and climate change mitigation goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, R. W.; Akhtar, F.; Loughlin, D. H.; Henze, D. K.; Bowman, K. W.

    2012-12-01

    Poor air quality, ecosystem damages, and climate change all are caused by the combustion of fossil fuels, yet environmental management often addresses each of these challenges separately. This can lead to sub-optimal strategies and unintended consequences. Here we present GLIMPSE -- a decision support tool for simultaneously achieving our air quality and climate change mitigation goals. GLIMPSE comprises of two types of models, (i) the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, to calculate the relationship between emissions and impacts at high spatial resolution, and (ii) the MARKAL energy system model, to calculate the relationship between energy technologies and emissions. This presentation will demonstrate how GLIMPSE can be used to explore energy scenarios to better achieve both improved air quality and mitigate climate change. Second, this presentation will discuss how space-based observations can be incorporated into GLIMPSE to improve decision-making. NASA satellite products, namely ozone radiative forcing from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), are used to extend GLIMPSE to include the impact of emissions on ozone radiative forcing. This provides a much needed observational constraint on ozone radiative forcing.

  9. Female genital mutilation and efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals 3, 4, and 5 in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawani, Lucky O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Okeke, Nwabunike E

    2014-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM), the common forms of FGM, reasons for the practice, associated obstetric outcomes, and how these have affected efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 3, 4, and 5 in southeast Nigeria. A prospective descriptive study of parturients in southeast Nigeria was conducted from January to December 2012. All primigravid women attending delivery services at 2 health institutions during the study period were recruited, examined, and classified using the 2008 WHO classification for FGM. The mean age of the 516 participants was 27.24±4.80 years and most (66.3%) had undergone FGM. Type II FGM was the most common form, accounting for 59.6% of cases. Most FGM procedures were performed in infancy (97.1%) and for cultural reasons (60.8%). Women who had undergone FGM had significantly higher risk for episiotomy, perineal tear, hemorrhage, cesarean delivery, neonatal resuscitation, fresh stillbirth/early neonatal death, and longer hospitalization, with higher risk ratios associated with higher degrees of FGM. FGM is still a common practice in southeast Nigeria, where its association with adverse reproductive outcomes militates against efforts to achieve MDGs 3, 4, and 5. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Tobacco-Free Village Program: Helping Rural Areas Implement and Achieve Goals of Tobacco Control Policies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilesh; Patil, Deepak; Kadam, Rajashree; Fernandes, Genevie

    2017-09-27

    India has 274 million tobacco users and a tobacco use prevalence of 38% in rural areas. Tobacco consumption causes 1 million deaths and costs the health system nearly US$23 billion annually. Tobacco control policies exist but lack proper implementation. In this article, we review the Tobacco-free Village (TfV) program conducted in Maharashtra state in India and describe its process to help villages in rural India achieve "tobacco-free" status (i.e., the sale and use of tobacco are prohibited by law). We reviewed program documents and conducted 22 qualitative interviews with program staff and village-level stakeholders. From 2008 to 2014, Salaam Mumbai Foundation implemented the TfV program in 60 villages in Maharashtra state. The program used a number of strategies to help villages become tobacco free, including collaborating with a community-based organization, leveraging existing health workers, conducting a situation analysis, training health workers, engaging stakeholders, developing TfV assessment criteria, mobilizing the community, conducting health education, imposing sanctions, and offering incentives. By 2014, 4 villages had achieved tobacco-free status according to 11 assessment criteria. Successful villages demonstrated strong local leader involvement, ownership of the program, and commitment to the cause by residents. The TfV program faced barriers including poor motivation of health workers, difficulty in changing social norms of tobacco use, and refusal of local vendors to stop tobacco sales due to financial losses. This low-cost, community-driven program holds promise for helping public health practitioners and governments implement and achieve the goals of tobacco control policies, especially in resource-scarce settings. © Chatterjee et al.

  11. Climate change: A threat towards achieving ‘Sustainable Development Goal number two’ (end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingirai S. Mugambiwa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2 as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and one in seven suffers from chronic hunger. Similarly, the developing world is adversely affected by poverty and hunger. In the sub-Saharan Africa, research has revealed a higher prevalence of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity. SDG 2 focuses more on eliminating hunger and promoting sustainable agriculture. The study employed an exploratory design and a qualitative method. Snowball sampling was used in selecting relevant sources which led the researchers to other research work on the same field through keywords and reference lists. The researchers employed discourse analysis to analyse data. The study discovered that there are numerous potential effects climate change could have on agriculture. It affects crop growth and quality and livestock health. Farming practices could also be affected as well as animals that could be raised in particular climatic areas. The impact of climate change as well as the susceptibility of poor communities is very immense. The article concludes that climate change reduces access to drinking water, negatively affects the health of people and poses a serious threat to food security.

  12. Identifying Hotspots in Land and Water Resource Uses on the Way towards Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, A.; Havlik, P.; Van Dijk, M.; Leclere, D.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture plays a key role in achieving adequate food, water, and energy security (as summarized in the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs) as populations grow and incomes rise. Yet, agriculture is confronted with an enormous challenge to produce more using less. Land and water resources are projected to be strongly affected by climate change demand and agriculture faces growing competition in the demand for these resources. To formulate policies that contribute to achieving the SDGs, policy makers need assessments that can anticipate and navigate the trade-offs within the water/land/energy domain. Assessments that identify locations or hotspots where trade-offs between the multiple, competing users of resources may exist must consider both the local scale impacts of resource use as well as regional scale socioeconomic trends, policies, and international markets that further contribute to or mitigate the impacts of resource trade-offs. In this study, we quantify impacts of increased pressure on the land system to provide agricultural and bioenergy products under increasingly scarce water resources using a global economic and land use model, GLOBIOM. We model the supply and demand of agricultural products at a high spatial resolution in an integrated approach that considers the impacts of global change (socioeconomic and climatic) on the biophysical availability and the growing competition of land and water. We also developed a biodiversity module that relates changes in land uses to changes in local species richness and global species extinction risk. We find that water available for agriculture and freshwater ecosystems decreases due to climate change and growing demand from other sectors (domestic, energy and industry) (Fig 1). Climate change impacts will limit areas suitable for irrigation and may lead to an expansion of rainfed areas in biodiverse areas. Impacts on food security from climate change are significant in some regions (SSA and SA) and policies

  13. Do we have the right models for scaling up health services to achieve the Millennium Development Goals?

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    Subramanian Savitha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is widespread agreement on the need for scaling up in the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. But many countries are not on track to reach the MDG targets. The dominant approach used by global health initiatives promotes uniform interventions and targets, assuming that specific technical interventions tested in one country can be replicated across countries to rapidly expand coverage. Yet countries scale up health services and progress against the MDGs at very different rates. Global health initiatives need to take advantage of what has been learned about scaling up. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify conceptual models for scaling up health in developing countries, with the articles assessed according to the practical concerns of how to scale up, including the planning, monitoring and implementation approaches. Results We identified six conceptual models for scaling up in health based on experience with expanding pilot projects and diffusion of innovations. They place importance on paying attention to enhancing organizational, functional, and political capabilities through experimentation and adaptation of strategies in addition to increasing the coverage and range of health services. These scaling up approaches focus on fostering sustainable institutions and the constructive engagement between end users and the provider and financing organizations. Conclusions The current approaches to scaling up health services to reach the MDGs are overly simplistic and not working adequately. Rather than relying on blueprint planning and raising funds, an approach characteristic of current global health efforts, experience with alternative models suggests that more promising pathways involve "learning by doing" in ways that engage key stakeholders, uses data to address constraints, and incorporates results from pilot projects. Such approaches should be applied to current

  14. Do we have the right models for scaling up health services to achieve the Millennium Development Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Savitha; Naimoli, Joseph; Matsubayashi, Toru; Peters, David H

    2011-12-14

    There is widespread agreement on the need for scaling up in the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). But many countries are not on track to reach the MDG targets. The dominant approach used by global health initiatives promotes uniform interventions and targets, assuming that specific technical interventions tested in one country can be replicated across countries to rapidly expand coverage. Yet countries scale up health services and progress against the MDGs at very different rates. Global health initiatives need to take advantage of what has been learned about scaling up. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify conceptual models for scaling up health in developing countries, with the articles assessed according to the practical concerns of how to scale up, including the planning, monitoring and implementation approaches. We identified six conceptual models for scaling up in health based on experience with expanding pilot projects and diffusion of innovations. They place importance on paying attention to enhancing organizational, functional, and political capabilities through experimentation and adaptation of strategies in addition to increasing the coverage and range of health services. These scaling up approaches focus on fostering sustainable institutions and the constructive engagement between end users and the provider and financing organizations. The current approaches to scaling up health services to reach the MDGs are overly simplistic and not working adequately. Rather than relying on blueprint planning and raising funds, an approach characteristic of current global health efforts, experience with alternative models suggests that more promising pathways involve "learning by doing" in ways that engage key stakeholders, uses data to address constraints, and incorporates results from pilot projects. Such approaches should be applied to current strategies to achieve the MDGs.

  15. Critical appraisal and pooled analysis of telmisartan alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide for achieving blood pressure goals

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    Satoshi Morimoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Morimoto, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Tatsuyori Morita, Kazunori Someya, Nagaoki Toyoda, Toshiji IwasakaSecond Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University 2-3-1, Shinmachi, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1191, JapanAbstract: Rigid control of blood pressure (BP is essential to prevent cardiovascular disease. However, only about 40% of hypertensive patients undergoing pharmacological intervention with a single agent achieve their BP goals in contemporary clinical practice. Combined therapy using currently available agents is effective in maximizing treatment outcome, although it raises medical costs and decreases the drug compliance rate. To overcome such negative consequences, a combination tablet containing an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB with a small dose of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ is now available on the international market, including Japan. This article briefly describes the unique properties of telmisartan, a highly selective ARB for the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, including its long-acting characteristics and recent prospective multicenter randomized clinical trials, followed by a description of a newly-introduced combination tablet in Japan, which contains telmisartan and HCTZ. This article also reviews its safety and efficacy based on currently available evidence. Finally, evidence comparing telmisartan/HCTZ with other combination therapies is presented.Keywords: angiotensin II receptor blocker, ARB, blood pressure, hypertension, diuretics, PPAR-γ

  16. Inactivation of bacterial pathogenic load in compost against vermicompost of organic solid waste aiming to achieve sanitation goals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Waste management strategies for organic residues, such as composting and vermicomposting, have been implemented in some developed and developing countries to solve the problem of organic solid waste (OSW). Yet, these biological treatment technologies do not always result in good quality compost or vermicompost with regards to sanitation capacity owing to the presence of bacterial pathogenic substances in objectionable concentrations. The presence of pathogens in soil conditioners poses a potential health hazard and their occurrence is of particular significance in composts and/or vermicomposts produced from organic materials. Past and present researches demonstrated a high-degree of agreement that various pathogens survive after the composting of certain OSW but whether similar changes in bacterial pathogenic loads arise during vermitechnology has not been thoroughly elucidated. This review garners information regarding the status of various pathogenic bacteria which survived or diffused after the composting process compared to the status of these pathogens after the vermicomposting of OSW with the aim of achieving sanitation goals. This work is also indispensable for the specification of compost quality guidelines concerning pathogen loads which would be specific to treatment technology. It was hypothesized that vermicomposting process for OSW can be efficacious in sustaining the existence of pathogenic organisms most specifically; human pathogens under safety levels. In summary, earthworms can be regarded as a way of obliterating pathogenic bacteria from OSW in a manner equivalent to earthworm gut transit mechanism which classifies vermicomposting as a promising sanitation technique in comparison to composting processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fear of Failure, 2x2 Achievement Goal and Self-Handicapping: An Examination of the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Kee, Ying Hwa; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Shui, Shang-Hsueh

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the hierarchical model of achievement motivation [Elliot, A. J. (1997). Integrating the "classic" and "contemporary" approaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. In P. Pintrich & M. Maehr (Eds.), "Advances in motivation and achievement"…

  18. Yemeni women's perceptions of own authority during childbirth: what does it have to do with achieving the Millennium Development Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Annica; Theorell, Töres; Noor-Aldin Alwazer, Fatoom; Christensson, Kyllike; Johansson, Annika

    2013-10-01

    women's underutilisation of professional care during childbirth in many low-income countries is a serious concern in terms of achievement of maternal Millennium Development Goal 5. to explore women's perceived own authority within the modern and traditional spheres of childbirth in a high maternal mortality setting on the Arab peninsula. Yemen is a signatory to the Millennium Development Goals and one of 10 countries chosen for the United Nations Millennium Project. In Yemen, home birth has remained the norm for several decades in spite of high maternal mortality and morbidity rates. a multistage (stratified-purposive-random) sampling process was used. Two hundred and twenty women with childbirth experience in urban/rural Yemen were selected at random for interview. Answers to the question 'Did you feel that you were the authority during childbirth?' were analysed using qualitative content analysis. the governorates of Aden, Lahej, Hadramout, Taiz and Hodeidah. three main themes emerged from the analysis: (i) 'Being at the centre', including two categories 'being able to follow through on own wants' and its opposite 'to be under the authority of others'; (ii) 'A sense of belonging' with the categories 'belonging and support among women in the community' and 'the denial of support, the experience of separation' and (iii) 'Husband's role in childbirth' including one category 'opportunity to show authority over the husband'. Authority was experienced primarily among women within the traditional childbirth sector although a general complaint among women delivered by trained medical staff was the loss of own authority. these findings show that women's authority during childbirth is decreasing in the context of Safe Motherhood and the expansion of modern delivery care. This is likely to be an important reason why women underutilise professional care. Acquisition of knowledge from the traditional childbirth sector regarding how women exercise authority to facilitate

  19. Sport ability beliefs, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation: the moderating role of perceived competence in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R; Stevenson, Sarah J

    2009-06-01

    We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the performance-avoidance goal; yet when perceived competence was moderately low, entity beliefs did predict this goal. The mastery-avoidance goal had no relationship with intrinsic motivation when perceived competence was high, but had a significant negative relationship when perceived competence was moderately low. Our findings highlight the importance of reexamining the role of perceived competence when studying implicit beliefs and the 2 x 2 achievement goals.

  20. Propiedades psicométricas de la versión en español del Achievement Goals Questionnaire

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    Francisco Ruiz-Juan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es la adaptación y comprobación de las propiedades psicométricas Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ en español. Para ello se realizan dos estudios independientes. El objetivo del primero es presentar datos psicométricos preliminares (muestra piloto: 247 estudiantes. Expuesto el proceso de traducción, adaptación y validez de contenido de los ítems, se efectúa un análisis estadístico de éstos, la exploración de la estructura dimensional y análisis de la fiabilidad del instrumento. En el segundo (muestra: 2168 estudiantes, el objetivo es analizar con procedimientos confirmatorios la estructura interna del instrumento en tres países de habla hispana: España, México y Costa Rica. La versión en español del AGQ mostró niveles adecuados de consistencia interna, estabilidad temporal, correlación entre la puntuación de los ítems y la puntuación total en cada uno de los componentes. Igualmente, se aportan evidencias de su validez de constructo. Se obtuvieron diferencias de sexo. Estos hallazgos apoyan el uso de la versión en español del AGQ para evaluar las orientaciones de meta de logro que tienen los alumnos en las clases de Educación Física.

  1. Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Fanzo, Jessica; Mondal, Pinki; Remans, Roseline; Wood, Stephen A.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifying entities. Following the principles of Cochrane Reviews used in health sciences, we assess evidence to evaluate whether voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities (bananas, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, and tea) has achieved environmental benefits and improved economic and social outcomes for small-scale producers at the level of the farm household. We reviewed over 2600 papers in the peer-review literature and identified 24 cases of unique combinations of study area, certification program, and commodity in 16 papers that rigorously analyzed differences between treatment (certified households) and control groups (uncertified households) for a wide range of response variables. Based on analysis of 347 response variables reported in these papers, we conclude that certification is associated on average with positive outcomes for 34% of response variables, no significant difference for 58% of variables, and negative outcomes for 8% of variables. No significant differences were observed for different categories of responses (environmental, economic and social) or for different commodities (banana, coffee and tea), except negative outcomes were significantly less for environmental than other outcome categories (p = 0.01). Most cases (20 out of 24) investigated coffee certification and response variables were inconsistent across cases, indicating the paucity of studies to conduct a conclusive meta-analysis. The somewhat positive results indicate that voluntary certification programs can sometimes play a role in meeting sustainable development goals and do not support the view that such programs are merely greenwashing. However, results also indicate that

  2. Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

    2012-01-01

    Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

  3. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

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    Deeg Evelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis is a prospective, observational, German, multicenter registry including patients with type-2 diabetes in which oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data were recorded at baseline and will be prospectively documented during visits at 6 ± 1, 12 ± 2 and 24 ± 2 months. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of patients with at least 1 episode of severe hypoglycemia within one year. Results 313 primary care offices included 4,048 patients between June 2009 and March 2010 of which 3,810 patients fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. 46.7% of patients were female; patients had a median diabetes duration of 5.5 years and most were obese with respect to BMI or waist circumference. HbA1c at baseline was 7.4%, fasting plasma glucose 142 mg/dl and postprandial glucose 185 mg/dl. Co-morbidity in this patient population was substantial with 17.9% having coronary artery disease, 14.4% peripheral neuropathy, 9.9% heart failure and 6.0% peripheral arterial disease. 68.6% of patients received oral monotherapy, 31.4% dual oral combination therapy. The most frequent antidiabetic agent used as monotherapy was metformin (79.0% followed by sulfonylureas (14.8%. Conclusions DiaRegis is a large, prospective registry in primary diabetes care to document the course and outcomes of patients with type-2 diabetes in which the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. The two year follow-up will allow for a prospective evaluation of these patients

  4. Under-5 mortality in 2851 Chinese counties, 1996-2012: a subnational assessment of achieving MDG 4 goals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Li, Xiaohong; Zhou, Maigeng; Luo, Shusheng; Liang, Juan; Liddell, Chelsea A; Coates, Matthew M; Gao, Yanqiu; Wang, Linhong; He, Chunhua; Kang, Chuyun; Liu, Shiwei; Dai, Li; Schumacher, Austin E; Fraser, Maya S; Wolock, Timothy M; Pain, Amanda; Levitz, Carly E; Singh, Lavanya; Coggeshall, Megan; Lind, Margaret; Li, Yichong; Li, Qi; Deng, Kui; Mu, Yi; Deng, Changfei; Yi, Ling; Liu, Zheng; Ma, Xia; Li, Hongtian; Mu, Dezhi; Zhu, Jun; Murray, Christopher J L; Wang, Haidong

    2016-01-16

    In the past two decades, the under-5 mortality rate in China has fallen substantially, but progress with regards to the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 at the subnational level has not been quantified. We aimed to estimate under-5 mortality rates in mainland China for the years 1970 to 2012. We estimated the under-5 mortality rate for 31 provinces in mainland China between 1970 and 2013 with data from censuses, surveys, surveillance sites, and disease surveillance points. We estimated under-5 mortality rates for 2851 counties in China from 1996 to 2012 with the reported child mortality numbers from the Annual Report System on Maternal and Child Health. We used a small area mortality estimation model, spatiotemporal smoothing, and Gaussian process regression to synthesise data and generate consistent provincial and county-level estimates. We compared progress at the county level with what was expected on the basis of income and educational attainment using an econometric model. We computed Gini coefficients to study the inequality of under-5 mortality rates across counties. In 2012, the lowest provincial level under-5 mortality rate in China was about five per 1000 livebirths, lower than in Canada, New Zealand, and the USA. The highest provincial level under-5 mortality rate in China was higher than that of Bangladesh. 29 provinces achieved a decrease in under-5 mortality rates twice as fast as the MDG 4 target rate; only two provinces will not achieve MDG 4 by 2015. Although some counties in China have under-5 mortality rates similar to those in the most developed nations in 2012, some have similar rates to those recorded in Burkina Faso and Cameroon. Despite wide differences, the inter-county Gini coefficient has been decreasing. Improvement in maternal education and the economic boom have contributed to the fall in child mortality; more than 60% of the counties in China had rates of decline in under-5 mortality rates significantly faster than expected. Fast

  5. Goals, attributions and self-efficacy as related to course choice and academic achievement of first-year university students / Mechaela Scott

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Mechaéla

    1991-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining: (i) relationships among goal expectancy, self-efficacy, attributions and attributional dimensions, (ii) whether motivational patterns, and (iii) attributional styles, differ in accordance with conceptual levels of courses, and (iv) whether attributional style and self-efficacy influence academic achievement in courses differing in conceptual level. A literature study was undertaken to examine the nature of goals, attributions and self-eff...

  6. Treatment-naïve Gaucher disease patients achieve therapeutic goals and normalization with velaglucerase alfa by 4years in phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah; Gonzalez, Derlis E; Lukina, Elena A; Qin, Yulin; Dinh, Quinn; Turkia, Hadhami Ben

    2018-02-01

    Gaucher disease is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency and commonly treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). The efficacy of ERT with velaglucerase alfa was assessed based on the achievement of published therapeutic goals and the normalization of disease parameters in 39 treatment-naïve patients with type 1 Gaucher disease, 6 to 62years of age, enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials. After 4years of ERT, therapeutic goals for thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly had been achieved in 100% of patients; goals for anemia and hepatomegaly had been achieved in 95% and 94% of patients, respectively. Consistent with the goal for bone mineral density, lumbar spine bone density improved in 87% of patients ≥18years of age. At year 4, compared with clinical ranges for healthy individuals, 86% of patients with a low baseline hemoglobin concentration had normalized, 60% with a low baseline platelet count had normalized, 67% with baseline splenomegaly had normalized, 58% with hepatomegaly had normalized, and lumbar spine bone density had normalized in 53% of adults. The decade-old therapeutic goals do not reflect the potential for normalization of clinical parameters in ERT-treated patients. Goals consistent with normalization or near-normalization should be considered. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00430625, NCT00553631, NCT00635427. Copyright © 2016 Shire Human Genetic Therapies, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic Testing for Adults in a State Medicaid Program Receiving Antipsychotics: Remaining Barriers to Achieving Population Health Prevention Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrato, Elaine H; Campagna, Elizabeth J; Brewer, Sarah E; Dickinson, L Miriam; Thomas, Deborah S K; Miller, Benjamin F; Dearing, James; Druss, Benjamin G; Lindrooth, Richard C

    2016-07-01

    Medicaid quality indicators track diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease screening in adults receiving antipsychotics and/or those with serious mental illness. To inform performance improvement interventions by evaluating the relative importance of patient, prescriber, and practice factors affecting metabolic testing. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Missouri Medicaid administrative claims data (January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012) linked with prescriber market data. The analysis included 9316 adults (age, 18-64 years) who were starting antipsychotic medication. Secondary analysis included the subset of adults (n = 1813) for whom prescriber knowledge, attitudes, and behavior survey data were available. Generalized estimating equations were performed to identify factors associated with failure to receive annual testing during antipsychotic treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 6 encounters vs none; 0.33 [0.28-0.39]). Analysis incorporating prescriber practice information found lower failure to receive glucose testing if the patient received care at a CMHC (0.74 [0.64-0.85]) or if the initiating prescriber was a primary care practitioner (0.81 [0.66-1.00]). However, the initiating prescriber specialty-setting was not associated with lipid testing. Compared with prior reports, progress has been made to improve diabetes screening, but lipid screening remains particularly underutilized. Medicaid performance improvement initiatives should target all prescriber settings and not just behavioral health.

  8. How to get radical creative ideas into a leader's mind? Leader's achievement goals and subordinates' voice of creative ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B.L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2015-01-01

    In the present research we investigated when and why leaders tend to oppose or adopt radical creative ideas voiced by their subordinates. In a field study (Study 1, N=127) we showed that leaders' performance goals were positively related to their tendency to oppose radical creative ideas, whereas

  9. 2011 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism, & Function Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Benning

    2011-02-04

    This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. The goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.

  10. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  11. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  12. Motivational Climate, 2×2 Achievement Goal Orientation and Dominance, Self-Regulation, and Physical Activity in Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini-Estrada, José-Antonio; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of a mastery motivational climate in physical education (PE) classes on 2×2 achievement goal orientation and dominance, self-regulated learning (SRL), and physical activity (PA) in leisure time. A total of 408 (264 women, 144 men) university students were randomly assigned to two groups:…

  13. A Model of Contextual Motivation in Physical Education: Using Constructs from Self-Determination and Achievement Goal Theories To Predict Physical Activity Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2003-01-01

    Examines a study of student motivation in physical education that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. Self-determined motivation was found to positively predict, whereas amotivation was a negative predictor of leisure-time physical activity intentions. (Contains 86 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  14. Effective use of risk assessments and the public comment process to achieve acceptable remediation goals for mercury-contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.Q.; Barnett, M.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of recalculating risk levels using new information, the remediation goals and cleanup strategy for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplains have been significantly changed to reflect an important reduction in cleanup costs while ensuring protectionof human health and the environment. This project and its stakeholders have made the risk assessment more effective by better defining the contaminant and adjusting assessment parameters. As a result, the remediation goal initially set at 50 ppM Hg has been changed to 400 ppM, resulting in significant reductions in both the destruction of the floodplain landscape and project costs. Volume of soils to be excavated has been decreased from 1 million cubic yards to 25,000 cubic yards, and the cost has been reduced from about $1 billion to less than $20 million. The Record of Decision for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek was approved in August 1995

  15. The impact of Game-based learning on the achievement of learning goals and motivation for learning mathematics - literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Divjak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SH X-NONE X-NONE Information technologies are an integral part of a contemporary society which bases its progress on knowledge being one goal of education. Beside acquiring knowledge, skills and routines, the goal of education is to create a complete individual who can rationally and timely make decisions, purposefully react in new situations and be trained for life-long learning. In order to accomplish all this, it is necessary to make educational process more creative, contemporary and adjusted to new generations of computer literate pupils who demand quicker and more frequent interactions, a lot of information at the same time, generations who quickly acquire rules of computer games. Computer games meeting pedagogical criteria should become an integral part of learning. Teaching with mathematical computer games, which fulfil pedagogical criteria, influences pupils’ motivation, learning, retention and forgetting. This paper provides a review of literature in this field and determines whether the use of mathematical computer games contributes to more efficient realisation of educational goals at all level of education. Furthermore, considering prior research we have attempted to establish whether the use of mathematical games for teaching has an impact on the formation of a positive attitude of pupils of different ages toward the subject of mathematics, their motivation and knowledge acquisition when compared to learning without computer games. Finally, we have analysed different research methods concerning this issue and assessed the impact of pedagogically designed mathematical computer games on the realisation of educational goals and quality improvement of teaching and learning.

  16. What systems are essential to achieving the sustainable development goals and what will it take to marshal them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C; Silvestre, Eva; Salentine, Shannon; Reynolds, Heidi; Smith, Jason

    2016-12-01

    The sustainable development goal (SDG) for health is linked to 67 indicators, eight times more than their predecessor, the Millenium Development Goals. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the information infrastructure is not yet able to collect and use the data needed for the indicators. As they seek to be responsive to the SDG agenda, LMICs must not lose sight of their local data needs; they should be cautious about embracing untested electronic technologies for data collection, analysis, and use; carefully balance the care provision and data collection responsibilities of care providers; and use evidence of what works in strengthening their health information systems (HIS). While attending to these concerns, countries can look for instances in which SDG indicators are in sync with their own HIS goals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Problem based learning: achievement of educational goals in the information and comprehension sub-categories of Bloom cognitive domain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, P; Rodewald, A M

    1994-06-01

    The aim this work was to assess and compare the achievements of medical students, subjected to problem based learning methodology. The information and comprehension categories of Bloom were tested in 17 medical students in four different occasions during the physiopathology course, using a multiple choice knowledge test. There was a significant improvement in the number of correct answers towards the end of the course. It is concluded that these medical students obtained adequate learning achievements in the information subcategory of Bloom using problem based learning methodology, during the physiopathology course.

  18. The student-institution fit at university: Interactive effects of academic competition and social class on achievement goals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eSommet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution's culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor’s study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap.

  19. Achieving development goals for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through integrated antenatal care: barriers and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Freya J I; Draper, Bridget L; Hellard, Margaret; Stoové, Mark

    2016-12-12

    The global health community is currently transitioning from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unfortunately, progress towards maternal, newborn and infant health MDGs has lagged significantly behind other key health goals, demanding a renewed global effort in this key health area. The World Health Organization and other institutions heralded integrated antenatal care (ANC) as the best way to address the inter-related health issues of HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in the high risk groups of pregnant women and infants; integrated ANC services also offer a mechanism to address slow progress towards improved maternal health. There is remarkably limited evidence on best practice approaches of program implementation, acceptability and effectiveness for integrated ANC models targeting multiple diseases. Here, we discuss current integrated ANC global guidelines and the limited literature describing integrated ANC implementation and evidence for their role in addressing HIV, malaria and TB during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. We highlight the paucity of data on the effectiveness of integrated ANC models and identify significant structural barriers in the health system (funding, infrastructure, distribution, human resources), the adoption system (limited buy-in from implementers, leadership, governance) and, in the broader context, patient-centred barriers (fear, stigma, personal burdens) and barriers in funding structures. We highlight recommendations for action and discuss avenues for the global health community to develop systems to integrate multiple disease programs into ANC models of care that better address these three priority infectious diseases. With the current transition to the SDGs and concerns regarding the failure to meet maternal health MDGs, the global health community, researchers, implementers and funding bodies must work together to ensure the establishment of quality operational and

  20. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  1. [Why is it important to achieve the goals of treatment of hypertension…. About a case that began as ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauza-Sosa, Julio César; Romero-Figueroa, José Antonio; Sierra-Galán, Lilia Mercedes; Ferez-Santander, Sergio Mario

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is one of the most common conditions seen in primary care of cardiovascular disease and whose consequences; depending on the "target organ" affecting produce ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease or chronic kidney disease. In the pathogenesis of HAS are several physiopathological mechanisms involved; of which currently, to name the most important and frequent play a role in increasing adrenaline levels, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and recently, much the participation of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia mentioned. These processes lead to an imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, coupled with hypersensitivity sodium trigger one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypertension. SAH is currently defined as finding numbers of older blood pressure 140/90mm Hg. This is one of the diseases that most affect the world population prevalences found in age and gender groups 45 to 55% in men between 45 and 70 years and 45 to 65% in women of the same age group. In 2013 most recent clinical guidelines for treatment and the recommended goals, which has managed to reduce its complications and mortality were published; among which include vascular diseases such as ischemic heart and brain and kidney. In this paper a case that exemplifies the secondary complications in late diagnosis, damage to "target organ" by long-term exposure and inadequate compliance with therapeutic goals discussed. Copyright © 2015 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Is Brazil going to achieve the road traffic deaths target? An analysis about the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Cauane; Martins, Rafaela C; Calu Costa, Janaína; Ricardo, Luiza I C

    2017-09-07

    To describe the temporal relationship between the road traffic mortality rate and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in Brazil, and make an annual prediction of the evolution of both indicators until 2020, the end of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) monitoring period. Brazilian road traffic mortality rate official data were described from 2000 to 2015, while the GDP per capita official data were described from 2000 to 2013. GDP per capita and traffic mortality rate predictions were performed until 2020 using fractional polynomial analysis. Correlations were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. From 2000 to 2015, there were over 446 000 road crashes fatal victims in Brazil. The road traffic mortality rate was positively related to the Brazilian GDP per capita, with a strong correlation (r=0.89; psustainable development and public policies is needed in order to meet such an overwhelming goal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Does forming implementation intentions help people with mental health problems to achieve goals? A meta-analysis of experimental studies with clinical and analogue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toli, Agoro; Webb, Thomas L; Hardy, Gillian E

    2016-03-01

    People struggle to act on the goals that they set themselves, and this gap between intention and action is likely to be exacerbated by mental health problems. Evidence suggests that forming specific if-then plans (or 'implementation intentions') can promote goal attainment and a number of studies have applied such techniques in clinical contexts. However, to date, the extent to which planning can help people with mental health problems has not been systematically examined. The present review used meta-analysis to investigate the effect of if-then planning on goal attainment among people with a DSM-IV/ICD-10 diagnosis (i.e., clinical samples) or scores above a relevant cut-off on clinical measures (i.e., analogue samples). In total, 29 experimental studies, from 18 records, met the inclusion criteria. Excluding one outlying (very large) effect, forming implementation intentions had a large-sized effect on goal attainment (d+ = 0.99, k = 28, N = 1,636). Implementation intentions proved effective across different mental health problems and goals, and in studies with different methodological approaches. Taken together, the findings suggest that forming implementation intentions can be a useful strategy for helping people with mental health problems to achieve various goals and might be usefully integrated into existing treatment approaches. However, further studies are needed addressing a wider range of mental health problems. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  4. People trying to lose weight dislike calorie counting apps and want motivational support to help them achieve their goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrig, Linda; Jones, Ray; Kavanagh, David; May, Jon; Parkin, Tracey; Andrade, Jackie

    2017-03-01

    Two thirds of UK adults are overweight or obese and at increased risk of chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. Basic public health support for weight loss comprises information about healthy eating and lifestyle, but internet and mobile applications (apps) create possibilities for providing long-term motivational support. To explore among people currently trying to lose weight, or maintaining weight loss, (i) problems, experiences and wishes in regards to weight management and weight loss support including e-health support; (ii) reactions to Functional Imagery Training (FIT) as a possible intervention. Six focus groups ( N  = 24 in total) were recruited from a public pool of people who had expressed an interest in helping with research. The topics considered were barriers to weight loss, desired support for weight loss and acceptability of FIT including the FIT app. The focus group discussions were transcribed and thematically analysed. All groups spontaneously raised the issue of waning motivation and expressed the desire for motivational app support for losing weight and increasing physical activity. They disliked calorie counting apps and those that required lots of user input. All groups wanted behavioural elements such as setting and reviewing goals to be included, with the ability to personalise the app by adding picture reminders and choosing times for goal reminders. Participants were positive about FIT and FIT support materials. There is a mismatch between the help provided via public health information campaigns and commercially available weight-loss self-help (lifestyle information, self-monitoring), and the help that individuals actually desire (motivational and autonomous e-support), posing an opportunity to develop more effective electronic, theory-driven, motivational, self-help interventions.

  5. The Implementation of Right-Fulfillment to the Health Care in Achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG’S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zuhri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The vision of Aceh Government in 2012-2017 is Aceh are dignified, prosperous, just, and independent based on the legislation of Aceh government as a form of Memorandum of Understanding. One of the visions of Aceh government 2012-2017 is the improved welfare of Acehnese people through quality health services through increasing life expectancy, infant mortality, decreasing the prevalence of malnutrition as well as the effectiveness of the treatment of infectious diseases to the achievement of the MDG’s. Model policies adopted by the Aceh government is monitoring and track record of cases, tv monitor, routine and case sms, a special program policy model, and the model of budget balancing. Model policies adopted by the district/city government is making a supporting program, All Village Midwives Must Live in the Village, deliveries assistance is performed by professional health workers, adjustment to the ability of APBK. Support new regulation of Regent Regulation (Perbub on Malaria Elimination and No Smoking Area. MDG’s target is not entirely in accordance with the indicator being built, because it requires adjustments in accordance with the ability of both district or city areas. Regulatory support is not adequate to support the achievement of the MDG’s in the field of health.

  6. Resolving Governance Issues to Achieve Priority Sustainable Development Goals Related to Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Rodić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a key utility service that more than 2 billion people are currently lacking, solid waste management (SWM is a crosscutting issue that can be directly linked to 12 out of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. Distinguishing between physical components and governance aspects of SWM, this research focuses on governance issues concerning basic solid waste collection services and controlled disposal, thus addressing the ‘How’ and the ‘Who’ dimensions of a SWM system. As a form of transdisciplinary research, the findings from the literature on governance issues in SWM were iteratively subjected to several rounds of commentary by a large group of stakeholders from six continents, within the authors’ work for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP’s 2015 Global Waste Management Outlook. The study identifies a combination of complementary instruments required for extending collection to all and bringing disposal under control. While municipalities have a legal responsibility for providing services to their citizens, various service providers can contribute to an effective SWM system. Appropriate forms of funding are essential to secure financial sustainability of the services under the local conditions of affordability and willingness to pay. As new services require behavioural change on the part of citizens and municipal waste departments alike, communication and exchange with other stakeholders function as enabling and supporting factors. The significance of capacity development is highlighted.

  7. Free solar lanterns to below poverty line girls in India: a step toward achieving millennium development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Development sectors like health cannot function in isolation. Intersectoral coordination between various departments helps in bringing a positive change in the health-seeking behavior of society in the long run. The decision by the Government of India to provide free solar lanterns (lamps) to the school-going girls of below poverty line families is a welcome step in this context. This initiative would help in reducing the number of school dropout girls and thus help in improving the health indicators that are directly related to women's education. Thus it is an initiative that will help in attainment of Millennium Development Goals through women's education and empowerment. Along with that, the environment-friendly approach will definitely have an impact on health of the girls by switching from kerosene/wood stoves to solar lantern light. Also this initiative would pave the path of real "intersectoral coordination" in the health sector in India that is marred with watertight functioning of various departments. There is an urgent need to popularize the scheme and involve different stakeholders like corporate houses, media, nongovernment organizations, multinational welfare agencies, and local governing bodies for ensuring the availability and utilization of solar lanterns in India.

  8. Biotech crops: imperative for achieving the millenium development goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological intervention in the development of crops has opened new vistas in agriculture. Central to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), biotech-agriculture is essential in meeting these targets. Biotech crops have already made modest contributions toward ensuring food and nutrition security by reducing losses and increasing productivity, with less pesticide input. These crops could help address some of the major challenges in agriculture-based economies created by climate change. Projections of global climate change expect the concentration of greenhouse gases to increase, aridization of the environment to increase, temperature fluctuations to occur sharply and frequently, and spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall to be disturbed-all of which will increase abiotic stress-related challenges to crops. Countering these challenges and to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing world population (expected to reach 9 billion by 2030) we need to (1) develop and use biotech crops for mitigating adverse climatic changes; (2) develop biotech crops resilient to adverse environmental conditions; and (3) address the issues/non-issues raised by NGO's and educate the masses about the benefits of biotech crops.

  9. Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate, Self-Esteem, and Autonomous Motivation in Young Athletes: Testing Propositions from Achievement Goal and Self-Determination Theories

    OpenAIRE

    O'Rourke, Daniel J.; Smith, Ronald E.; Smoll, Frank L.; Cumming, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season), mastery climate scor...

  10. THE REALITY AND PERSPECTIVES OF ACHIEVING THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REGARDING POVERTY IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia GHITIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The novelty of the paper consists in the importance of poverty phenomenon, which has become a serious problem both at national and regional levels in recent years. The main paper objective consists in researching of poverty eradication, which is possible just by finding multilateral and complex solutions, because of the complicated nature of this scourge of society. In this case, the involvement of international organizations has a major importance. According to the EU commitments and of international community, public assistance for development should be increased as soon as possible. But, beneficiary countries, must improve their economic and institutional governance. Thus, the Republic Moldova has aligned itself along with other countries in achieving these objectives. There where used the following research methods: systematic analysis, synthesis, logic, etc. The main scientific results of the authors in this paper are the identification, analysis and systematization of the central elements in fighting with poverty phenomenon in our country taking into account its international character.

  11. The role of vaccines and vaccine decision-making to achieve the goals of the Grand Convergence in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, David C; Kalil, Jorge; Bloom, David; Breghi, Gianluca; Colucci, Anna Maria; De Gregorio, Ennio; Madhavan, Guru; Meier, Genevieve; Seabrook, Richard; Xu, Xiaoning

    2017-01-20

    On 17 and 18 July 2015, a meeting in Siena jointly sponsored by ADITEC and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) was held to review the goals of the Global Health 2035 Grand Convergence, to discuss current vaccine evaluation methods, and to determine the feasibility of reaching consensus on an assessment framework for comprehensively and accurately capturing the full benefits of vaccines. Through lectures and workshops, participants reached a consensus that Multi-Criteria-Decision-Analysis is a method suited to systematically account for the many variables needed to evaluate the broad benefits of vaccination, which include not only health system savings, but also societal benefits, including benefits to the family and increased productivity. Participants also agreed on a set of "core values" to be used in future assessments of vaccines for development and introduction. These values include measures of vaccine efficacy and safety, incident cases prevented per year, the results of cost-benefit analyses, preventable mortality, and the severity of the target disease. Agreement on this set of core assessment parameters has the potential to increase alignment between manufacturers, public health agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and policy makers (see Global Health 2035 Mission Grand Convergence [1]). The following sections capture the deliberations of a workshop (Working Group 4) chartered to: (1) review the list of 24 parameters selected from SMART vaccines (see the companion papers by Timmis et al. and Madhavan et al., respectively) to determine which represent factors (see Table 1) that should be taken into account when evaluating the role of vaccines in maximizing the success of the Global Health 2035 Grand Convergence; (2) develop 3-5 "core values" that should be taken into account when evaluating vaccines at various stages of development; and (3) determine how vaccines can best contribute to the Global Health 2035 Grand Convergence effort. Copyright © 2016.

  12. Achieving the sustainable development goals: a case study of the complexity of water quality health risks in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Rochelle; Wandschneider, Philip; Felsot, Allan; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-07-15

    Suppose 35 % of the households with children under 5 years of age in a low-income suburban neighborhood in a developing country have diarrhea where improved water sources are available. Clearly, something is amiss-but what? In addition to focusing on the need to examine water quality among water sources that meet the 'improved' category when assessing health risk, the relative importance of the range of transmission routes for diarrhea is unknown. In Malawi, relevant baseline data affecting human health are simply not available, and acquiring data is hampered by a lack of local analytical capacity for characterizing drinking water quality. The objective of this work is to develop a risk communication program with partnership among established regional development professionals for effectively meeting the sustainable development goals. A field study was conducted in the city of Mzuzu, Malawi, to study water quality (total coliform and Escherichia coli) and human dimensions leading to development of a public health risk communication strategy in a peri-urban area. A structured household questionnaire was administered to adult residents of 51 households, encompassing 284 individuals, who were using the 30 monitored shallow wells. The water quality data and human dimension questionnaire results were used to develop a household risk presentation. Sixty-seven percent and 50 % of well water and household drinking water samples, respectively, exceeded the WHO health guideline of zero detections of E. coli. Technology transfer was advanced by providing knowledge through household risk debriefing/education, establishing a water quality laboratory at the local university, and providing training to local technicians. Communicating the science of water quality and health risks in developing countries requires sample collection and analysis by knowledgeable personnel trained in the sciences, compiling baseline data, and, ultimately, an effective risk presentation back to

  13. Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P

    2002-08-01

    To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.

  14. A Very Different Non-Stressful Comprehensive Final Exam that Achieve Our Goals for Student Evaluation and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Suketu

    2015-08-01

    I will introduce the radical concept of a final exam where the questions are given beforehand, a method I first encountered as a graduate student at Princeton University from an outstanding and well known astrophysicist and exceptional teacher, Lyman Spitzer.Every Instructor aspires for students to master all the material covered. A comprehensive final can assess the breadth and depth of their learning. Students are required to review early material in light of later topics, create connections and integrate understanding, thus retaining knowledge for the long term. Comprehensive finals can therefore be a significant basis for student learning and evaluation, but are especially daunting for non-STEM majors in required GE synthesis STEM classes. The exam format proposed here calmed student fears and encouraged thorough review.Ten days before the exam students received 20-30 challenging, well-crafted, numbered questions that interconnected and spanned the entire range of topics. The key is crafting questions that lead to deeply understanding the subject matter and mastering skills to solve problems. At the final, each student was required to pick a number out of a hat and answer that numbered question in a 5-minute presentation. They also had to critically comment on 10 other presentations of their peers. They are graded equally on both.The exam sets up definite goals for a student. Equally important, it enhances collaborative learning and peer mentoring. The conceptual questions and problems that students are required to answer can be studied together in study groups. The final presentation is theirs and they are not only encouraged but required to be constructively critical of their peer presentations.I will provide examples of some of the conceptual and problem solving questions I used. These were crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. This method requires students to be prepared for all of the multitude of crafted question encouraging

  15. Can total knee arthroplasty (TKA) achieve its goal in knee flexion floor activity of Thai Buddhist monks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sresuriyasawad, Viriya

    2012-10-01

    To study knee's angulation required for Thai Buddhist monks whose activity based on floor sitting basis. And to identify an inter-observer reliability of knee flexion measurement based on radiologic reading. Descriptive analysis study comprised of measuring bilateral knee flexing angulation in 4 postures of floor activities; kneeling, monk's position in both right and left manner and sit cross-legged position, in 35 Thai Buddhist monks at Priest Hospital using plain radiograph image. The radiograph imaging for each patient was performed by one radiologist and two orthopedics. The measurement result was also analyzed for inter-observer reliability. Mean knee flexion angle in kneel, left monk's position, right monk's position and sit cross-legged postures were 163.21, 146.49, 148.89 and 138.38 degree, respectively. No statistical difference between knee flexion measurements among 3 investigators. Daily floor activity of Thai Buddhist monks need more flexion capacity than that can achieve by total knee arthroplasty instrument using nowadays.

  16. How to Achieve CO2 Emission Reduction Goals by 2050. Abstracts of the 22nd Forum: Energy Day in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This years' annual Forum is held twenty-two years in a row. Analysing the energy development to 2050 takes into consideration the nature and complexity of the energy development, a long period of preparing plants and facilities, a long service life of plants, dimensions of technological development and continuous growth of energy demand. New reasons for a long-term observation of the energy development, at least by 2050, are climate change and radical reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases according to the EU Energy Policy to 2050. The impact of permitted level of carbon dioxide emissions on the energy production and consumption is drastic and fundamentally changes the structure of energy production and consumption. The new legal and economical approach as well as the new technological development and and political determination are required for the implementation of energy policy which should lead to radical reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. The time is also an important factor because postponement of defining the new approach of energy policy decreases the possibility of its realisation. An additional argument for a new technological development is the mobilization of the science and industry for achieving that new step in technological development. This development is required in order to develop the energy industry without or with minimal greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, it is very important for renewable energy, at the carbon dioxide capture and storage, at the energy efficiency in the whole range of activities, from the production, transmission and distribution to the consumption of devices and equipment used by consumers, at smart grids, at the energy storage and vehicles. Reducing the energy consumption in buildings is energy, economical, architectual and organizational project which has to include every commercial and residential building. It is important to eliminate all disadvantages that incurred in the period when

  17. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented.

  18. Contributions of psychological needs, self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and achievement goals to academic engagement and exhaustion in Canadian medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Babenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To investigate the contributions of psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness and coping strategies (self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and achievement goals to engagement and exhaustion in Canadian medical students. Methods This was an observational study. Two hundred undergraduate medical students participated in the study: 60.4% were female, 95.4% were 20–29 years old, and 23.0% were in year 1, 30.0% in year 2, 21.0% in year 3, and 26.0% in year 4. Students completed an online survey with measures of engagement and exhaustion from the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory–student version; autonomy, competence, and relatedness from the Basic Psychological Needs Scale; self-compassion from the Self-Compassion Scale–short form; leisure-time exercise from the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire; and mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals from the Achievement Goals Instrument. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. Results The need for competence was the strongest predictor of student engagement (β= 0.35, P= 0.000 and exhaustion (β= −0.33, P= 0.000. Students who endorsed mastery approach goals (β= 0.21, P= 0.005 and who were more self-compassionate (β= 0.13, P= 0.050 reported greater engagement with their medical studies. Students who were less self-compassionate (β= −0.32, P= 0.000, who exercised less (β= −0.12, P= 0.044, and who endorsed mastery avoidance goals (β= 0.22, P= 0.003 reported greater exhaustion from their studies. Students’ gender (β= 0.18, P= 0.005 and year in medical school (β= −0.18, P= 0.004 were related to engagement, but not to exhaustion. Conclusion Supporting students’ need for competence and raising students’ awareness of self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and mastery approach goals may help protect students from burnout-related exhaustion and enhance their engagement with their medical school

  19. Contributions of psychological needs, self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and achievement goals to academic engagement and exhaustion in Canadian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Oksana; Mosewich, Amber; Abraham, Joseph; Lai, Hollis

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the contributions of psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and coping strategies (self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and achievement goals) to engagement and exhaustion in Canadian medical students. This was an observational study. Two hundred undergraduate medical students participated in the study: 60.4% were female, 95.4% were 20-29 years old, and 23.0% were in year 1, 30.0% in year 2, 21.0% in year 3, and 26.0% in year 4. Students completed an online survey with measures of engagement and exhaustion from the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory-student version; autonomy, competence, and relatedness from the Basic Psychological Needs Scale; self-compassion from the Self-Compassion Scale-short form; leisure-time exercise from the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire; and mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals from the Achievement Goals Instrument. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. The need for competence was the strongest predictor of student engagement (β= 0.35, P= 0.000) and exhaustion (β= -0.33, P= 0.000). Students who endorsed mastery approach goals (β= 0.21, P= 0.005) and who were more self-compassionate (β= 0.13, P= 0.050) reported greater engagement with their medical studies. Students who were less self-compassionate (β= -0.32, P= 0.000), who exercised less (β= -0.12, P= 0.044), and who endorsed mastery avoidance goals (β= 0.22, P= 0.003) reported greater exhaustion from their studies. Students' gender (β= 0.18, P= 0.005) and year in medical school (β= -0.18, P= 0.004) were related to engagement, but not to exhaustion. Supporting students' need for competence and raising students' awareness of self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and mastery approach goals may help protect students from burnout-related exhaustion and enhance their engagement with their medical school studies.

  20. How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennøy, Aud; Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza

    2016-01-01

    regions. Even if diffusion of research-based knowledge have been investigated, planners' use of expert knowledge when making plans, and the effects on the content of plans, have gained surprisingly little attention in planning research. Over the past few years, interesting discussions concerning...... achievement potential of plans. This knowledge is the main basis for many planners' knowing and acting, and fundamental for land use and transport planning being coordinated and for traffic-reducing measures being included in the plans. The knowledge is used for explaining cause-effect relations......, and as arguments for selecting traffic-reducing measures. All examined plans also include strategies reducing their goal achievement potentials. This happens through a mix of mechanisms. When competing objectives or ideas seemingly call for traffic-increasing measures, the planners do not use the expert knowledge...

  1. “To be or not to be Retained … That’s the Question!” Retention, Self-esteem, Self-concept, Achievement Goals, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping students back in the same grade – retention – has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine

  2. "To be or not to be Retained … That's the Question!" Retention, Self-esteem, Self-concept, Achievement Goals, and Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S

    2016-01-01

    Keeping students back in the same grade - retention - has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine students

  3. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Schwebel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.

  4. Satisfaction with tolterodine: assessing symptom-specific patient-reported goal achievement in the treatment of overactive bladder in female patients (STARGATE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, M-S; Doo, C K; Lee, K-S

    2008-02-01

    Open-label study to evaluate the effect of tolterodine extended-release (ER) on symptom-specific patient-reported goal achievement (PGA) of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in females. Eligible patients who had frequency >or= 8 and urgency >or= 2 episodes per 24 h with or without urgency incontinence were treated with 12-week tolterodine ER (4 mg once daily). Primary end-point was the rate of PGA by a visual analogue scale compared with initial expectation with treatment. At baseline, patients were asked to set their personal goals for each OAB symptom with treatment. Secondary efficacy variables were changes in symptom severity, voiding diary and patient perception of bladder condition (PPBC), global impression of improvement (GII), and willingness to continue treatment. A total of 56 patients were entered. The median rate of symptom-specific PGA and reductions in symptom severity were for frequency (60%, 45%), episodes of urgency 60%, 55%), urge incontinence (80%, 71%), nocturia (50%, 52%) and tenesmus (30%, 26%) after 12 weeks treatment. There was a significant improvement in all OAB symptoms in voiding diary. Thirty-five patients (62.5%) experienced an improvement of >or= 2 points in PPBC. Thirty (53.6%) and 22 (39.3%) of patients reported much and little improvement of their symptoms in GII. A total of 41 (73.2%) patients wanted to continue taking the medication at the end of the study. Most OAB patients reported improvement of their OAB symptoms with 12-week tolterodine ER 4 mg treatment. There was a significant achievement of symptom-specific goal on the key OAB symptoms. But, PGA did not correlate with objective outcomes.

  5. Educational intervention together with an on-line quality control program achieve recommended analytical goals for bedside blood glucose monitoring in a 1200-bed university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Rodriguez-Oliva, Manuel; Sánchez-Pozo, Cristina; Fernández-Gallardo, María Francisca; Goberna, Raimundo

    2005-01-01

    Portable meters for blood glucose concentrations are used at the patients bedside, as well as by patients for self-monitoring of blood glucose. Even though most devices have important technological advances that decrease operator error, the analytical goals proposed for the performance of glucose meters have been recently changed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) to reach nurses in a 1200-bed University Hospital to achieve recommended analytical goals, so that we could improve the quality of diabetes care. We used portable glucose meters connected on-line to the laboratory after an educational program for nurses with responsibilities in point-of-care testing. We evaluated the system by assessing total error of the glucometers using high- and low-level glucose control solutions. In a period of 6 months, we collected data from 5642 control samples obtained by 14 devices (Precision PCx) directly from the control program (QC manager). The average total error for the low-level glucose control (2.77 mmol/l) was 6.3% (range 5.5-7.6%), and even lower for the high-level glucose control (16.66 mmol/l), at 4.8% (range 4.1-6.5%). In conclusion, the performance of glucose meters used in our University Hospital with more than 1000 beds not only improved after the intervention, but the meters achieved the analytical goals of the suggested ADA/National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry criteria for total error (<7.9% in the range 2.77-16.66 mmol/l glucose) and optimal total error for high glucose concentrations of <5%, which will improve the quality of care of our patients.

  6. Ethiopia and its steps to mobilize resources to achieve 2020 elimination and control goals for neglected tropical diseases webs joined can tie a lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengitsu, Belete; Shafi, Oumer; Kebede, Biruck; Kebede, Fikreab; Worku, Dagemlidet T; Herero, Merce; French, Michael; Kebede, Biruk; Mackenzie, Charles; Martindale, Sarah; Kebede, Zeyede; Hirpa, Tigist; Frawley, Hannah; Crowley, Kathryn; O'Neil, Maggie; McPherson, Scott

    2016-03-01

    In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis. The national program still is facing large gaps in its podoconiosis and leishmaniasis programs, and it faces significant other challenges to stay on track for 2020 targets. However, this unprecedented scale-up in support was achieved through significant government investment in NTD interventions and creative coordination between donors and implementing partners, which may provide valuable lessons for other national NTD programs trying to achieve nationwide coverage. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Measuring Iran's success in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4: a systematic analysis of under-5 mortality at national and subnational levels from 1990 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Mohammadi, PhD

    2017-05-01

    provinces achieved MDG 4 and SDG 3 (target 2 goals by 2015. However, at the subnational level in some provinces, there is substantial inequity. Local policy makers should use effective strategies to accelerate the reduction of child mortality for these provinces by 2030. Possible recommendations for such strategies include enhancing the level of education and health literacy among women, tackling sex discrimination, and improving incomes for families. Funding: Iran Ministry of Health and Education.

  8. Lecturers, librarians and students in collaboration – A way of achieving complex educational goals in information literacy in three programmes at Lund University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajsa Andersson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A key factor in achieving educational goals is collaboration between lecturers at faculty and departmental level, and librarians. Experience has shown that generic skills should be integrated into courses. For example, exercises in information searching, criticism of sources of information and group work will only be meaningful if they are clearly related to the students' subject of study. This is a challenging logistical problem in large groups of students. In the spring of 2009, we started working on the introduction and integration of generic skills using two variations of a model. The experience gained from these initial attempts has been applied in the introduction of first-year university students. To date (autumn term 2012, almost 900 students starting programmes in Engineering Physics, Environmental Engineering, and Industrial Management and Engineering, have taken part in a compulsory introductory course.

  9. Cross-country analysis of strategies for achieving progress towards global goals for women’s and children’s health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Rawal, Lal B; Chowdhury, Sadia A; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Jack, Susan; Hinton, Rachael; Alam, Prima M

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify how 10 low- and middle-income countries achieved accelerated progress, ahead of comparable countries, towards meeting millennium development goals 4 and 5A to reduce child and maternal mortality. Methods We synthesized findings from multistakeholder dialogues and country policy reports conducted previously for the Success Factors studies in 10 countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda and Viet Nam. A framework approach was used to analyse and synthesize the data from the country reports, resulting in descriptive or explanatory conclusions by theme. Findings Successful policy and programme approaches were categorized in four strategic areas: leadership and multistakeholder partnerships; health sector; sectors outside health; and accountability for resources and results. Consistent and coordinated inputs across sectors, based on high-impact interventions, were assessed. Within the health sector, key policy and programme strategies included defining standards, collecting and using data, improving financial protection, and improving the availability and quality of services. Outside the health sector, strategies included investing in girls’ education, water, sanitation and hygiene, poverty reduction, nutrition and food security, and infrastructure development. Countries improved accountability by strengthening and using data systems for planning and evaluating progress. Conclusion Reducing maternal and child mortality in the 10 fast-track countries can be linked to consistent and coordinated policy and programme inputs across health and other sectors. The approaches used by successful countries have relevance to other countries looking to scale-up or accelerate progress towards the sustainable development goals. PMID:27147765

  10. Better lipid target achievement for secondary prevention through disease management programs for diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease in clinical practice in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitt, Anselm K; Sonntag, Frank; Jannowitz, Christina; Weizel, Achim; Karmann, Barbara; Schaefer, Juergen R; Pittrow, David; Hildemann, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Disease management programs (DMP) for diabetes mellitus (DM) or coronary heart disease (CHD) address the treatment of lipid disorders. The current registry aimed to compare drug utilization, lipid lowering effects and further outcomes of outpatients at high cardiovascular risk in DMP for DM or CHD compared to patients in routine care (no-DMP). This was a prospective non-interventional registry with a 1 year follow-up which enrolled consecutive patients with known DM and/or any vascular disease on simvastatin 40 mg monotherapy, to document lipid target achievement in clinical practice in Germany according to existing guidelines. Drug use (maintenance, add-on, switch, discontinuation) and other components of care were upon the discretion of the treating physician. Of a total of 12,154 patients (mean age 65.8 years, 61.2% males), 3273 were in DMP CHD, 3265 in DMP DM and 1760 in DMP CHD + DM. In DMP patients compared to no-DMP patients, comorbidities/risk factors were more frequent. More patients in the DMP groups attained the target level of low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) <70 mg/dl (1.8 mmol/l) at baseline (8.5% DMP vs. 5.7% no-DMP), at 6 month (10.3% vs. 7.4%) and 12 month follow-up (10.1% vs. 7.1%). Cholesterol absorption inhibitors were added in 16% of the patients at the end of the baseline or at the follow-up visits, while statin treatment (including mean dose) remained largely unchanged. Target achievement rates were highest for all time points in the DMP CHD + DM group. With respect to limitations, this study was restricted to lipid disorders as qualifying diagnosis and simvastatin as qualifying treatment, which is a potential cause of selection bias. Information on non-pharmacological measures was not collected, and the 12-month follow-up period was relatively short. Patients in DMP compared to those not in DMP achieved better LDL-C lowering and higher control rates, but overall lipid target achievement rates need to be improved. Longer

  11. Dependence of Achievable Plan Quality on Treatment Technique and Planning Goal Refinement: A Head-and-Neck Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, X. Sharon; Ruan, Dan; Lee, Steve P.; Pham, Andrew; Kupelian, Patrick; Low, Daniel A.; Steinberg, Michael; Demarco, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a practical workflow for retrospectively analyzing target and normal tissue dose–volume endpoints for various intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques; to develop technique-specific planning goals to improve plan consistency and quality when feasible. Methods and Materials: A total of 165 consecutive head-and-neck patients from our patient registry were selected and retrospectively analyzed. All IMRT plans were generated using the same dose–volume guidelines for TomoTherapy (Tomo, Accuray), TrueBeam (TB, Varian) using fixed-field IMRT (TB-IMRT) or RAPIDARC (TB-RAPIDARC), or Siemens Oncor (Siemens-IMRT, Siemens). A MATLAB-based dose–volume extraction and analysis tool was developed to export dosimetric endpoints for each patient. With a fair stratification of patient cohort, the variation of achieved dosimetric endpoints was analyzed among different treatment techniques. Upon identification of statistically significant variations, technique-specific planning goals were derived from dynamically accumulated institutional data. Results: Retrospective analysis showed that although all techniques yielded comparable target coverage, the doses to the critical structures differed. The maximum cord doses were 34.1 ± 2.6, 42.7 ± 2.1, 43.3 ± 2.0, and 45.1 ± 1.6 Gy for Tomo, TB-IMRT, TB-RAPIDARC, and Siemens-IMRT plans, respectively. Analyses of variance showed significant differences for the maximum cord doses but no significant differences for other selected structures among the investigated IMRT delivery techniques. Subsequently, a refined technique-specific dose–volume guideline for maximum cord dose was derived at a confidence level of 95%. The dosimetric plans that failed the refined technique-specific planning goals were reoptimized according to the refined constraints. We observed better cord sparing with minimal variations for the target coverage and other organ at risk sparing for the Tomo cases, and higher

  12. Genesis, goals and achievements of Long-Term Ecological Research at the global scale: A critical review of ILTER and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtl, M; T Borer, E; Djukic, I; Forsius, M; Haubold, H; Hugo, W; Jourdan, J; Lindenmayer, D; McDowell, W H; Muraoka, H; Orenstein, D E; Pauw, J C; Peterseil, J; Shibata, H; Wohner, C; Yu, X; Haase, P

    2018-06-01

    Since its founding in 1993 the International Long-term Ecological Research Network (ILTER) has gone through pronounced development phases. The current network comprises 44 active member LTER networks representing 700 LTER Sites and ~80 LTSER Platforms across all continents, active in the fields of ecosystem, critical zone and socio-ecological research. The critical challenges and most important achievements of the initial phase have now become state-of-the-art in networking for excellent science. At the same time increasing integration, accelerating technology, networking of resources and a strong pull for more socially relevant scientific information have been modifying the mission and goals of ILTER. This article provides a critical review of ILTER's mission, goals, development and impacts. Major characteristics, tools, services, partnerships and selected examples of relative strengths relevant for advancing ILTER are presented. We elaborate on the tradeoffs between the needs of the scientific community and stakeholder expectations. The embedding of ILTER in an increasingly collaborative landscape of global environmental observation and ecological research networks and infrastructures is also reflected by developments of pioneering regional and national LTER networks such as SAEON in South Africa, CERN/CEOBEX in China, TERN in Australia or eLTER RI in Europe. The primary role of ILTER is currently seen as a mechanism to investigate ecosystem structure, function, and services in response to a wide range of environmental forcings using long-term, place-based research. We suggest four main fields of activities and advancements for the next decade through development/delivery of a: (1) Global multi-disciplinary community of researchers and research institutes; (2) Strategic global framework and strong partnerships in ecosystem observation and research; (3) Global Research Infrastructure (GRI); and (4) a scientific knowledge factory for societally relevant information

  13. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izutsu Takashi

    2011-01-01

    mortality, promote gender equality and empower women, achieve universal primary education and eradicate extreme poverty and hunger cannot be attained without a specific focus on women's mental health. It was co-signed by the international expert group; relevant WHO and UNFPA departmental representatives and international authorities. They concur that social rather than medical responses are required. Improvements in maternal mental health require a cross-sectoral response addressing poverty reduction, women's rights, social protection, violence prevention, education and gender in addition to health. Additional file 1 Maternal mental health and child survival, health and development in resource-constrained settings: essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. This additional file is the Hanoi Expert Statement which is the outcome of the meeting described in this paper. Click here for file

  14. Validity of the Stages of Change in Steps instrument (SoC-Step) for achieving the physical activity goal of 10,000 steps per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Duncan, Mitch J; Caperchione, Cristina M; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Maeder, Anthony J; Savage, Trevor N; Mummery, W Kerry

    2015-11-30

    Physical activity (PA) offers numerous benefits to health and well-being, but most adults are not sufficiently physically active to afford such benefits. The 10,000 steps campaign has been a popular and effective approach to promote PA. The Transtheoretical Model posits that individuals have varying levels of readiness for health behavior change, known as Stages of Change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance). Few validated assessment instruments are available for determining Stages of Change in relation to the PA goal of 10,000 steps per day. The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion-related validity of the SoC-Step, a brief 10,000 steps per day Stages of Change instrument. Participants were 504 Australian adults (176 males, 328 females, mean age = 50.8 ± 13.0 years) from the baseline sample of the Walk 2.0 randomized controlled trial. Measures included 7-day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X), height, weight, and self-reported intention, self-efficacy, and SoC-Step: Stages of Change relative to achieving 10,000 steps per day. Kruskal-Wallis H tests with pairwise comparisons were used to determine whether participants differed by stage, according to steps per day, general health, body mass index, intention, and self-efficacy to achieve 10,000 steps per day. Binary logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that participants in Maintenance or Action stages would have greater likelihood of meeting the 10,000 steps goal, in comparison to participants in the other three stages. Consistent with study hypotheses, participants in Precontemplation had significantly lower intention scores than those in Contemplation (p = 0.003) or Preparation (p per day (OR = 3.11; 95 % CI = 1.66,5.83) compared to those in Precontemplation, Contemplation, or Preparation. Intention (p per day. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12611000157976 World Health Organization Universal Trial

  15. Assessing the influence of knowledge translation platforms on health system policy processes to achieve the health millennium development goals in Cameroon and Uganda: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lavis, John N; Tomson, Goran; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2018-05-01

    There is a scarcity of empirical data on the influence of initiatives supporting evidence-informed health system policy-making (EIHSP), such as the knowledge translation platforms (KTPs) operating in Africa. To assess whether and how two KTPs housed in government-affiliated institutions in Cameroon and Uganda have influenced: (1) health system policy-making processes and decisions aiming at supporting achievement of the health millennium development goals (MDGs); and (2) the general climate for EIHSP. We conducted an embedded comparative case study of four policy processes in which Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Cameroon and Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH-PI) Uganda were involved between 2009 and 2011. We combined a documentary review and semi structured interviews of 54 stakeholders. A framework-guided thematic analysis, inspired by scholarship in health policy analysis and knowledge utilization was used. EVIPNet Cameroon and REACH-PI Uganda have had direct influence on health system policy decisions. The coproduction of evidence briefs combined with tacit knowledge gathered during inclusive evidence-informed stakeholder dialogues helped to reframe health system problems, unveil sources of conflicts, open grounds for consensus and align viable and affordable options for achieving the health MDGs thus leading to decisions. New policy issue networks have emerged. The KTPs indirectly influenced health policy processes by changing how interests interact with one another and by introducing safe-harbour deliberations and intersected with contextual ideational factors by improving access to policy-relevant evidence. KTPs were perceived as change agents with positive impact on the understanding, acceptance and adoption of EIHSP because of their complementary work in relation to capacity building, rapid evidence syntheses and clearinghouse of policy-relevant evidence. This embedded case study illustrates how two KTPs influenced

  16. ATC modernization and NextGen near-term achievable goals : hearing before the Subcommittee on Aviation of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, first session, March 18, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    This letter responds to your request that we address questions submitted for the record : related to the March 18, 2009, hearing entitled ATC Modernization: Near-Term Achievable : Goals. Our attached responses to these questions are based on a review...

  17. Expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies--New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals: executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usfar, Avita A; Achadi, Endang L; Martorell, Reynaldo; Hadi, Hamam; Thaha, Razak; Jus'at, Idrus; Atmarita; Martianto, Drajat; Ridwan, Hardinsyah; Soekirman

    2009-01-01

    Undernutrition in early childhood has long-term physical and intellectual consequences. Improving child growth should start before the age of two years and be an integrated effort between all sectors, covering all aspects such as diet and nutrient intake, disease reduction, optimum child care, and improved environmental sanitation. To discuss these issues, the Indonesian Danone Institute Foundation organized an expert meeting on Child Growth and Micronutrient Deficiencies: New Initiatives for Developing Countries to Achieve Millennium Development Goals. The objective of the meeting was to have a retrospective view on child growth: lessons learned from programs to overcome under-nutrition in the developed countries and to relate the situation to the Indonesian context, as well as to discuss implications for future programs. Recommendations derived from the meeting include focus intervention on the window of opportunity group, re-activation of the Integrated Health Post at the village level, improvement of infant and young child feeding, expand food fortification intervention programs, strengthen supplementation programs with multi-micronutrient, and strengthening public and private partnership on food related programs.

  18. Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate, Self-Esteem, and Autonomous Motivation in Young Athletes: Testing Propositions from Achievement Goal and Self-Determination Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. O'Rourke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season, mastery climate scores on the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 scale were positively related to global self-esteem scores and to a measure of relative motivational autonomy that reflects the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation continuum, whereas ego climate scores were negatively related to self-esteem and autonomy. Longitudinal analyses revealed that early-season mastery climate predicted positive changes in self-esteem over the course of the season, whereas ego climate predicted decreased self-esteem. Consistent with predictions derived from Self-Determination Theory, a meditational analysis revealed that these self-esteem changes were mediated by changes in autonomous motivation.

  19. Achieving ADA/ISPAD clinical guideline goals is associated with higher insulin sensitivity and cardiopulmonary fitness in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Results from RESistance to InSulin in Type 1 ANd Type 2 diabetes (RESISTANT) and Effects of MEtformin on CardiovasculaR Function in AdoLescents with Type 1 Diabetes (EMERALD) Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstad, Petter; Cree-Green, Melanie; Baumgartner, Amy; Coe, Gregory; Reyes, Yesenia Garcia; Schäfer, Michal; Pyle, Laura; Regensteiner, Judith G; Reusch, Jane Eb; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2018-05-01

    Most youth with type 1 diabetes do not meet the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) targets for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), lipids, and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that ISPAD/ADA goal achievement would be associated with better insulin sensitivity (IS) and cardiopulmonary fitness. IS was quantified as glucose infusion rate (GIR) from a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in youth with type 1 diabetes from the RESistance to InSulin in Type 1 ANd Type 2 diabetes (RESISTANT) (n = 86) and Effects of MEtformin on CardiovasculaR Function in AdoLescents with Type 1 Diabetes (EMERALD) (n = 41) cohorts (n = 127; age 15.7 ± 2.2 years, 52% girls). Cardiopulmonary fitness was measured as peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 peak/kg) during upright (RESISTANT) or supine (EMERALD) cycle ergometry and were stratified by cycle type. Goal achievement was defined as HbA1c 35 mg/dL, triglycerides ADA/ISPAD goal achievement was associated with greater IS and cardiopulmonary fitness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of a pharmacist-managed lipid clinic that uses point-of-care lipid testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrald, Katherine R; Dixon, Dave L; Barnette, Debra J; Williams, Virginia G

    2010-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a significant, modifiable risk factor for developing coronary heart disease. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement has improved overall, but many high-risk patients remain above the desired LDL-C goals. Published data have demonstrated the ability of pharmacist-managed lipid clinics to improve lipid management in a variety of clinical settings. This observational analysis aimed to report the impact of a newly developed hospital-based, outpatient lipid clinic by the use of point-of-care testing on LDL-C goal attainment. A retrospective, observational analysis was conducted from February 2007 to December 2008. The primary outcome measure was the change in the proportion of patients who achieved their LDL-C goal at the end of the observation period compared with baseline. A total of 81 patients met study inclusion criteria. Mean duration of follow-up was 9.0 ± 4.9 (SD) months. At the end of the observation period, 82.9% of patients achieved their LDL-C goal compared with 55.3% at baseline (P used point-of-care testing to obtain lipid results for making therapy adjustments during the face-to-face visit. Copyright © 2010 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Are we meeting the American Diabetes Association goals for HIV-infected patients with diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin; Vibhakar, Sonia; Max, Blake

    2009-09-01

    We determined rates of achieving the American Diabetes Association goals among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected diabetic patients. American Diabetes Association goals (for hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and lipid levels) were defined by 2008 American Diabetes Association guidelines. HIV-infected diabetic patients achieved American Diabetes Association goals at rates similar to those in general medicine clinic patients. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to improve diabetes management in HIV clinics.

  2. Adherence to the gluten-free diet can achieve the therapeutic goals in almost all patients with coeliac disease: A 5-year longitudinal study from diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, Evan D; Shepherd, Susan J; Strauss, Boyd J; Hosking, Patrick; Gibson, Peter R

    2016-02-01

    Key aims of treatment of coeliac disease are to heal the intestinal mucosa and correct nutritional abnormalities. We aim to determine prospectively the degree of success and time course of achieving those goals with a gluten-free diet. Ninety-nine patients were enrolled at diagnosis and taught the diet. The first 52 were reassessed at 1 year and 46 at 5 years, 25 being assessed at the three time points regarding dietary compliance (dietitian-assessed), coeliac serology, bone mineral density and body composition analysis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and intestinal histology. Mean age (range) was 40 (18-71) years and 48 (76%) were female. Dietary compliance was very good to excellent in all but one. Tissue transglutaminase IgA was persistently elevated in 44% at 1 year and 30% at 5 years and were poorly predictive of mucosal disease. Rates of mucosal remission (Marsh 0) and response (Marsh 0/1) were 37% and 54%, and 50% and 85% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Fat mass increased significantly over the first year in those with normal/reduced body mass index. Lean body mass indices more slowly improved irrespective of status at diagnosis with significant improvement at 5 years. Bone mass increased only in those with osteopenia or osteoporosis, mostly in year 1. Dietary compliance is associated with a high chance of healing the intestinal lesion and correction of specific body compositional abnormalities. The time course differed with body fat improving within 1 year, and correction of the mucosal lesion and improvement in lean mass and bone mass taking longer. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. LDL cholesterol goals and cardiovascular risk during statin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Anders G; Lindahl, Christina; Holme, Ingar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the proportion of patients treated with either simvastatin 20 or 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg who achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals of 2.5 or 2.0 mmol/l in the Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) study. We explored how...

  4. Academic goals in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, Joshua I S; Kann, Brian

    2013-12-01

    The development of an academic surgical career can be an overwhelming prospect, and one that is not intuitive. Establishing a structured plan and support structure is critical to success. Starting a successful academic surgical career begins with defining one's academic goals within several broad categories: personal goals, academic goals, research goals, educational goals, and financial goals. Learning the art of self-promotion is the means by which many of these goals are achieved. It is important to realize that achieving these goals requires a delicate personal balance between work and home life, and the key ways in which to achieve success require establishment of well thought-out goals, a reliable support structure, realistic and clear expectations, and frequent re-evaluation.

  5. Examining the Motivational Impact of Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Goal Framing and Autonomy-Supportive Versus Internally Controlling Communication Style on Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Simons, Joke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Matos, Lennia

    2005-01-01

    The present experimental research examined whether framing early adolescents' (11- to 12-year-olds) learning activity in terms of the attainment of an extrinsic (i.e., physical attractiveness) versus intrinsic (i.e., health) goal and communicating these different goal contents in an internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive way affect…

  6. MindSurf: a pilot study to assess the usability and acceptability of a smartphone app designed to promote contentment, wellbeing, and goal achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Timothy A; Haviland, Jennifer; Tai, Sara J; Vanags, Thea; Mansell, Warren

    2016-12-12

    The Method of Levels (MOL) is a transdiagnostic cognitive therapy that promotes contentment, wellbeing, and goal achievement through the resolution of internal conflicts underlying psychological distress. MOL, based on Perceptual Control Theory (PCT), was developed in routine clinical practice and has been used effectively across different health services by different practitioners. Access to MOL-style questions through a smartphone app could, potentially, help both the general public maintain robust mental health, and also be a useful adjunct to therapy for clinical populations. The app is called MindSurf because of its focus on helping people explore their thinking. Prior to developing the app and using it with different populations it was necessary to determine whether such an idea would be usable for and acceptable to potential app users. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted with a non-clinical sample to assess the usability and acceptability of the app including monitoring whether the questions delivered in this way were associated with any adverse events. A pilot study using quantitative as well as qualitative methods and incorporating a repeated measures, A-B design was conducted. The 23 participants were healthy adult volunteers who were all either undergraduate students, postgraduate students, or staff of the University of Manchester. They received MOL-style questions on their mobile phones over a 1-week period. Qualitative results were encouraging and indicated that the format and style of questioning were acceptable to participants and did not lead to increased worry or concern. A one-way, repeated measures ANOVA indicated that there was a nonsignificant decrease in scores on the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS21) over a 2 week period. The results of the pilot study justified development of MindSurf and further testing once it is available for use. A power analysis indicated that the pilot study was underpowered to detect

  7. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane Rw; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Izutsu, Takashi; Tran, Tuan

    2011-01-07

    Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings.In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts.The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well.The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1). It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality

  8. Where Did You Come From? Where Will You Go? Human Evolutionary Biology Education and American Students' Academic Interests and Achievements, Professional Goals, and Socioscientific Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrein, Caitlin M.

    In the United States, there is a national agenda to increase the number of qualified science, technology, engineering, and maths (STEM) professionals and a movement to promote science literacy among the general public. This project explores the association between formal human evolutionary biology education (HEB) and high school science class enrollment, academic achievement, interest in a STEM degree program, motivation to pursue a STEM career, and socioscientific decision-making for a sample of students enrolled full-time at Arizona State University. Given a lack of a priori knowledge of these relationships, the Grounded Theory Method was used and was the foundation for a mixed-methods analysis involving qualitative and quantitative data from one-on-one interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and an online survey. Theory development and hypothesis generation were based on data from 44 students. The survey instrument, developed to test the hypotheses, was completed by 486 undergraduates, age 18--22, who graduated from U.S. public high schools. The results showed that higher exposure to HEB was correlated with greater high school science class enrollment, particularly for advanced biological science classes, and that, for some students, HEB exposure may have influenced their enrollment, because the students found the content interesting and relevant. The results also suggested that students with higher K--12 HEB exposure felt more prepared for undergraduate science coursework. There was a positive correlation between HEB exposure and interest in a STEM degree and an indirect relationship between higher HEB exposure and motivation to pursue a STEM career. Regarding a number of socioscientific issues, including but not limited to climate change, homosexuality, and stem cell research, students' behaviors and decision-making more closely reflected a scientific viewpoint---or less-closely aligned to a religion-based perspective---when students had greater HEB exposure

  9. Patients' empowerment , physicians' perceptions, and achievement of therapeutic goals in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavalle-González FJ

    2016-07-01

    physicians’ overestimation about the optimal glycemic control, this global impression and characteristics of patients’ empowerment, such as self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, are associated with the achievement of targets. Keywords: A1c, care, diabetes, HbA1c, goal, IDMPS, insulin, management, Mexico, opinion, self-monitoring, treat to target

  10. Achievement of Optimal Medical Therapy Goals for US Adults with Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Todd M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A.; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C.; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B.; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a non-clinical trial setting, to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial. Background In COURAGE, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. Methods REGARDS is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African American and White community-dwelling individuals aged >45 years enrolled in 2003-7. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on COURAGE: 1) aspirin use, 2) systolic blood pressure 40 mg/dL, and triglycerides goals met was 4. Less than a quarter met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. Conclusions There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among US individuals with CAD. PMID:24534599

  11. Achievement of optimal medical therapy goals for U.S. adults with coronary artery disease: results from the REGARDS Study (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Todd M; Voeks, Jenifer H; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B; Safford, Monika M

    2014-04-29

    In a nonclinical trial setting, we sought to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation) trial. In the COURAGE trial, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. The REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African-American and white community-dwelling individuals older than 45 years of age who enrolled in 2003 through 2007. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on the COURAGE trial: 1) aspirin use; 2) systolic blood pressure 40 mg/dl, and triglycerides exercise ≥4 days per week. The mean age of participants was 69 ± 9 years; 33% were African American and 35% were female. Overall, the median number of goals met was 4. Less than one-fourth met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among U.S. individuals with CAD. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceptions of the Coach–Athlete Relationship Predict the Attainment of Mastery Achievement Goals Six Months Later: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study among F. A. Premier League Academy Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Nicholls

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104 and longitudinal (n = 52 assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports.

  13. Social justice: The link between trade liberalisation and sub-Saharan Africa's potential to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals by 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Chigara, B

    2008-01-01

    Copyright © 2008 Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (SIM). The possible impact of the unintended worst possible effects of the current multilateral WTO sponsored trade liberalisation project on Sub-Saharan Africa’s potential to realise the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the target date of 2015 is examined. The article shows that the WTO’s current approach to trade liberalisation is nurturing and strengthening economic inequalities between and within economic regions ...

  14. Autonomy Support and Achievement Goals as Predictors of Perceived School Performance and Life Satisfaction in the Transition between Lower and Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2014-01-01

    A self-determination theory perspective on motivation assumes that basic need support is a prerequisite for motivation, achievement, and well-being in several domains of life. In the present cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 2.594 Norwegian students in their final year of lower secondary education and their first year of upper…

  15. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  16. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  17. Homogenization of the lipid profile values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Brotons, Carlos; Esteban-Salán, Margarita; García-Lerín, Aurora; Pintó, Xavier; Lekuona, Iñaki; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi

    Analytical reports from the clinical laboratory are essential to guide clinicians about what lipid profile values should be considered altered and, therefore, require intervention. Unfortunately, there is a great heterogeneity in the lipid values reported as "normal, desirable, recommended or referenced" by clinical laboratories. This can difficult clinical decisions and be a barrier to achieve the therapeutic goals for cardiovascular prevention. A recent international recommendation has added a new heterogeneity factor for the interpretation of lipid profile, such as the possibility of measuring it without previous fasting. All this justifies the need to develop a document that adapts the existing knowledge to the clinical practice of our health system. In this regard, professionals from different scientific societies involved in the measurement and use of lipid profile data have developed this document to establish recommendations that facilitate their homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Frequent monitoring of mineral metabolism in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: associations with achievement of treatment goals and with adjustments in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keitaro; Kurita, Noriaki; Fukuma, Shingo; Akizawa, Tadao; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-03-01

    Dialysis guidelines in Japan recommend more frequent measurement of mineral metabolism markers than the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. However, the extent to which frequent marker measurement contributes to achievement of target ranges and to therapy adjustment is unknown. This multicenter cohort study involved 3276 hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Data on laboratory measurements and drug prescriptions were collected every 3 months. Main exposures were frequencies of measuring serum calcium and phosphorus [weekly/biweekly/monthly (reference)] and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) [monthly/bimonthly/trimonthly (reference)] levels. Outcomes were achievement of guideline-specified ranges of mineral metabolism markers when serum levels were over, and maintenance of ranges when levels were already within, respective specified ranges, use of intravenous vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA) and initiation of cinacalcet use. Associations were examined via generalized estimating equations. When serum marker levels exceeded the target range, weekly measurement of calcium and phosphorus was positively associated with achievement of the guideline-specified calcium range [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.26] but not phosphorus range (AOR: 0.99, 95% CI 0.74-1.33). Monthly measurement of PTH was positively associated with achievement of the guideline-specified PTH range (AOR: 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.27). When serum marker levels were within the guideline-specified range, increased frequency of measurements was not associated with in-range maintenance of marker levels for any of the three mineral markers assessed. Regarding treatment regimen, relatively frequent measurement of serum calcium and phosphorus was positively associated with cinacalcet initiation and relatively frequent measurement of serum PTH with cinacalcet initiation and intravenous VDRA use. Our results suggest that increasing frequency of

  19. Improved parent-reported mobility and achievement of individual goals on activity and participation level after functional power-training in young children with cerebral palsy: a double-baseline controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene A; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2018-03-07

    In children with cerebral palsy (CP), strength training programs to improve walking capacity and participation in activities of daily living are commonly used in clinical practice, despite lacking evidence of its effectiveness. It has been suggested that strength training with high movement velocity could be more effective than traditional resistance training to improve functional abilities such as walking. In a recently published study, we have demonstrated the positive effects of functional high-velocity resistance (power) training on muscle strength and walking capacity in young children with CP. Whether this type of training is also effective in achieving individual predefined goals in daily activities and self-reported mobility limitations, has not yet been described however. To evaluate the effect of functional power-training on parent-reported mobility and achievement of individual goals on activity and participation level in young children with CP. A double-baseline design was used to compare a 14-week period usual care with a 14-week period of functional power-training (3 times a week) and a follow-up period of 14-weeks. Twenty-two children with spastic CP (13 bilateral, GMFCS level I (N=10) and level II (N=12), mean age 7.5 years (SD 1.8, range 4-10 y)) and their parents participated. Outcome measures were goal attainment scaling (GAS) of individual daily activity related treatment goals, mobility performance as measured using the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS-5m, 50m and 500m), and the parent-reported Mobility Questionnaire (MobQues). After power-training, 86% of children achieved or exceeded their goal, compared with 14% in the usual care period (pfunctional power-training was 10 times higher, compared with the usual care period (Relative Risk=10.0 with 95%CI 1.4 - 71.3). No changes were found in the FMS-5m and FMS-50m categories. Improvement on the MobQues was significantly greater after power-training compared with usual care (7.9% (95% CI 2.7 - 13

  20. Effects of an intensive middle school science experience on the attitude toward science, self-esteem, career goal orientation, and science achievement of eighth-grade female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tammy Kay

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.

  1. A higher-complex carbohydrate diet in gestational diabetes mellitus achieves glucose targets and lowers postprandial lipids: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Anderson, Molly A; Daniels, Linda J; West, Nancy A; Donahoo, William T; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    The conventional diet approach to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) advocates carbohydrate restriction, resulting in higher fat (HF), also a substrate for fetal fat accretion and associated with maternal insulin resistance. Consequently, there is no consensus about the ideal GDM diet. We hypothesized that, compared with a conventional, lower-carbohydrate/HF diet (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein), consumption of a higher-complex carbohydrate (HCC)/lower-fat (LF) Choosing Healthy Options in Carbohydrate Energy (CHOICE) diet (60/25/15%) would result in 24-h glucose area under the curve (AUC) profiles within therapeutic targets and lower postprandial lipids. Using a randomized, crossover design, we provided 16 GDM women (BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m2) with two 3-day isocaloric diets at 31 ± 0.5 weeks (washout between diets) and performed continuous glucose monitoring. On day 4 of each diet, we determined postprandial (5 h) glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) following a controlled breakfast meal. There were no between-diet differences for fasting or mean nocturnal glucose, but 24-h AUC was slightly higher (∼6%) on the HCC/LF CHOICE diet (P = 0.02). The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) revealed modestly higher 1- and 2-h postprandial glucose on CHOICE (1 h, 115 ± 2 vs. 107 ± 3 mg/dL, P ≤ 0.01; 2 h, 106 ± 3 vs. 97 ± 3 mg/dL, P = 0.001) but well below current targets. After breakfast, 5-h glucose and insulin AUCs were slightly higher (P diet. This highly controlled study randomizing isocaloric diets and using a CGMS is the first to show that liberalizing complex carbohydrates and reducing fat still achieved glycemia below current treatment targets and lower postprandial FFAs. This diet strategy may have important implications for preventing macrosomia.

  2. Korea nuclear exports: Why did the Koreans win the UAE tender? Will Korea achieve its goal of exporting 80 nuclear reactors by 2030?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelemy, Michel; Leveque, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The success of Korea in winning, in December 2009, a USD 18.6 billion nuclear tender in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has led to a growing interest in the organization and strengths of the Korean nuclear industry. In this paper, we present the main economic and political factors that explain the success of the Korean consortium. In particular, thanks to an active national program of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction, Korea has developed distinct competitive advantages in terms of low cost, high credibility and high performance. At the same time, due to the important barriers to enter into the nuclear export market in the UAE, Korea has had to sacrifice its profit margin and has benefited from a strong political support from its government through export financing. More importantly, Korea's success is also due to its alliance with Westinghouse and the support of the US diplomacy. Subsequently, we show that while Korea has recently experienced setbacks in nuclear tenders, it will most certainly try to win in the short run a second nuclear tender with another aggressive price. In the longer run, Korea could take a growing share of the international market for NPPs. However, the extent to which Korea can achieve its long term export target will depend upon its capacity to finance nuclear export through export credits and upon the development of its alliance with Westinghouse. It is important to note that this paper was written before the Fukushima nuclear disaster. The scale of the human and environmental consequences of this accident are still unknown, and will undoubtedly have short and long term consequences on nuclear safety requirements and public attitude toward nuclear energy, which will most certainly impact the outlooks for nuclear new-builds. (authors)

  3. Financing transformative health systems towards achievement of the health Sustainable Development Goals: a model for projected resource needs in 67 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Karin; Hanssen, Odd; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Bertram, Melanie; Brindley, Callum; Meshreky, Andreia; Rosen, James E; Stover, John; Verboom, Paul; Sanders, Rachel; Soucat, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    The ambitious development agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires substantial investments across several sectors, including for SDG 3 (healthy lives and wellbeing). No estimates of the additional resources needed to strengthen comprehensive health service delivery towards the attainment of SDG 3 and universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries have been published. We developed a framework for health systems strengthening, within which population-level and individual-level health service coverage is gradually scaled up over time. We developed projections for 67 low-income and middle-income countries from 2016 to 2030, representing 95% of the total population in low-income and middle-income countries. We considered four service delivery platforms, and modelled two scenarios with differing levels of ambition: a progress scenario, in which countries' advancement towards global targets is constrained by their health system's assumed absorptive capacity, and an ambitious scenario, in which most countries attain the global targets. We estimated the associated costs and health effects, including reduced prevalence of illness, lives saved, and increases in life expectancy. We projected available funding by country and year, taking into account economic growth and anticipated allocation towards the health sector, to allow for an analysis of affordability and financial sustainability. We estimate that an additional $274 billion spending on health is needed per year by 2030 to make progress towards the SDG 3 targets (progress scenario), whereas US$371 billion would be needed to reach health system targets in the ambitious scenario-the equivalent of an additional $41 (range 15-102) or $58 (22-167) per person, respectively, by the final years of scale-up. In the ambitious scenario, total health-care spending would increase to a population-weighted mean of $271 per person (range 74-984) across country contexts, and the share of gross

  4. Causes of failure to achieve the low density lipoprotein cholesterol therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk controlled in Lipid and Vascular Risk Units. EROMOT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Clotilde; Plana, Núria; Arnau, Anna; Matas, Laia; Mauri, Marta; Vila, Àlex; Vila, Lluís; Soler, Cristina; Montesinos, Jesús; Masana, Lluís; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Determination of the level of achievement of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk treated in Lipid Units, as well as the causes of non-achievement. Multicentre retrospective observational study that included patients over 18 years with high and very high vascular risk, according to the criteria of the 2012 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, referred consecutively to Lipid Units between January and June 2012 and with follow-up two years after the first visit. The study included a total of 243 patients from 16 lipid units. The mean age was 52.2 years (SD 13.7), of whom 62.6% were males, and 40.3% of them were very high risk. At the first visit, 86.8% (25.1% in combination) and 95.0% (47.3% in combination) in the second visit (P<.001) were treated with lipid-lowering treatment. The therapeutic target was achieved by 28% (95 CI: 22.4-34.1). As regards the causes of non-achievement, 24.6% were related to the medication (10.3% maximum tolerated dose and 10.9% due to the appearance of adverse effects), 43.4% due to the physician (19.4% by inertia, 13.7% considering that target already reached), and 46.9% due to the patient, highlighting the therapeutic non-compliance (31,4%). LDL-C targets were achieved in about one-third of patients. The low adherence of the patient, followed by medical inertia are the most frequent causes that can explain these results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Patients' empowerment, physicians' perceptions, and achievement of therapeutic goals in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Chiquete, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Physicians' perception may not parallel objective measures of therapeutic targets in patients with diabetes. This is an issue rarely addressed in the medical literature. We aimed to analyze physicians' perception and characteristics of adequate control of patients with diabetes. We studied information on physicians and their patients who participated in the third wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study registry in Mexico. This analysis was performed on 2,642 patients, 203 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 2,439 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), treated by 200 physicians. The patients perceived at target had lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose than those considered not at target. However, overestimation of the frequency of patients with HbA1c <7% was 41.5% in patients with T1DM and 31.7% in patients with T2DM (underestimation: 2.8% and 8.0%, respectively). The agreement between the physicians' perception and the class of HbA1c was suboptimal (κ: 0.612). Diabetologists and endocrinologists tested HbA1c more frequently than primary care practitioners, internists, or cardiologists; however, no differences were observed in mean HbA1c, for both T1DM (8.4% vs 7.2%, P=0.42) and T2DM (8.03% vs 8.01%, P=0.87) patients. Nevertheless, insulin users perceived at target, who practiced self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, had a lower mean HbA1c than patients without these characteristics (mean HbA1c in T1DM: 6.8% vs 9.6%, respectively; mean HbA1c in T2DM: 7.0% vs 10.1%, respectively). Although there is a significant physicians' overestimation about the optimal glycemic control, this global impression and characteristics of patients' empowerment, such as self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, are associated with the achievement of targets.

  6. Patients’ empowerment, physicians’ perceptions, and achievement of therapeutic goals in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Chiquete, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Background Physicians’ perception may not parallel objective measures of therapeutic targets in patients with diabetes. This is an issue rarely addressed in the medical literature. We aimed to analyze physicians’ perception and characteristics of adequate control of patients with diabetes. Patients and methods We studied information on physicians and their patients who participated in the third wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study registry in Mexico. This analysis was performed on 2,642 patients, 203 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 2,439 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), treated by 200 physicians. Results The patients perceived at target had lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose than those considered not at target. However, overestimation of the frequency of patients with HbA1c <7% was 41.5% in patients with T1DM and 31.7% in patients with T2DM (underestimation: 2.8% and 8.0%, respectively). The agreement between the physicians’ perception and the class of HbA1c was suboptimal (κ: 0.612). Diabetologists and endocrinologists tested HbA1c more frequently than primary care practitioners, internists, or cardiologists; however, no differences were observed in mean HbA1c, for both T1DM (8.4% vs 7.2%, P=0.42) and T2DM (8.03% vs 8.01%, P=0.87) patients. Nevertheless, insulin users perceived at target, who practiced self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, had a lower mean HbA1c than patients without these characteristics (mean HbA1c in T1DM: 6.8% vs 9.6%, respectively; mean HbA1c in T2DM: 7.0% vs 10.1%, respectively). Conclusion Although there is a significant physicians’ overestimation about the optimal glycemic control, this global impression and characteristics of patients’ empowerment, such as self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, are associated with the achievement of targets. PMID:27555751

  7. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  8. Lipid-lowering nutraceuticals in clinical practice: position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Colletti, Alessandro; Bajraktari, Gani; Descamps, Olivier; Djuric, Dragan M; Ezhov, Marat; Fras, Zlatko; Katsiki, Niki; Langlois, Michel; Latkovskis, Gustavs; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Paragh, Gyorgy; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Mitchenko, Olena; Paulweber, Bernhard; Pella, Daniel; Pitsavos, Christos; Reiner, Željko; Ray, Kausik K; Rizzo, Manfredi; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Maria-Corina; Sperling, Laurence S; Toth, Peter P; Vinereanu, Dragos; Vrablík, Michal; Wong, Nathan D; Banach, Maciej

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the possible use of nutraceuticals to improve and optimize dyslipidemia control and therapy. Based on the data from available studies, nutraceuticals might help patients obtain theraputic lipid goals and reduce cardiovascular residual risk. Some nutraceuticals have essential lipid-lowering properties confirmed in studies; some might also have possible positive effects on nonlipid cardiovascular risk factors and have been shown to improve early markers of vascular health such as endothelial function and pulse wave velocity. However, the clinical evidence supporting the use of a single lipid-lowering nutraceutical or a combination of them is largely variable and, for many of the nutraceuticals, the evidence is very limited and, therefore, often debatable. The purpose of this position paper is to provide consensus-based recommendations for the optimal use of lipid-lowering nutraceuticals to manage dyslipidemia in patients who are still not on statin therapy, patients who are on statin or combination therapy but have not achieved lipid goals, and patients with statin intolerance. This statement is intended for physicians and other healthcare professionals engaged in the diagnosis and management of patients with lipid disorders, especially in the primary care setting. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Perfiles estudiantiles de metas de logro, instrucciones de meta y retroalimentación externa: su efecto en el desempeño de tareas matemáticas y afectividad. Student profiles of achievement goals, goal instructions and external feedback: Their effect on mathematical task performance and affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Dina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudio investiga cómo los perfiles estudiantiles de metas de logro y otras características personales, junto con factores situacionales como las instrucciones de orientación a la meta y la retroalimentación externa influyen en el rendimiento y en las experiencias y emociones metacognitivas de los estudiantes mientras resuelven problemas matemáticos. En el estudio participaron 870 alumnos de 7º y 9º curso de ambos género. Los estudiantes completaron una serie de cuestionarios de auto-informe que evaluaban la actitud hacia las matemáticas, la ansiedad ante los exámenes, el autoconcepto matemático y las orientaciones de meta. También se midió la habilidad para las matemáticas y el rendimiento en tareas matemáticas junto con las experiencias y emociones metacognitivas, y el gusto por las tareas. Un análisis jerárquico de conglomerados arrojó 8 perfiles estudiantiles diferentes, y sólo algunos de ellos implicaban metas de orientación al logro. Una serie de MANOVAs puso de manifiesto los efectos significativos de perfil y tratamiento sobre rendimiento en la tarea, experiencias y emociones metacognitivas, además de una interacción significativa entre perfil y tratamiento en el caso de las valoraciones del esfuerzo.

    Palabras clave: Metas de orientación al logro, perfiles estudiantiles, retroalimentación, experiencias metacognitivas, intereses.

    The present study investigated how student profiles of achievement goals and other person characteristics along with situational factors, such as goal-orientation instructions and external feedback, influence performance, metacognitive experiences and emotions during mathematical problem solving. The study involved 870 students of seventh and ninth grade of both genders. Students completed a series of self-report questionnaires tapping attitude toward mathematics, test anxiety, mathematics self-concept, and achievement goal orientations. Ability in

  10. Future directions in lipid therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Cholesterol management to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease is a major public health concern. Despite widespread recognition of lipid abnormalities as cardiovascular risk factors, significant cardiovascular event reductions with cholesterol-lowering therapies, and dissemination of treatment guidelines, most high-risk patients are not at target lipid levels. In addition to lifestyle changes, four major drug classes are available to modify lipid levels: fibrates, niacin, resins, and statins. High efficacy and tolerability in clinical trials make statins the most widely prescribed of these agents. Newer, more potent members of this class and novel formulations of niacin and resins may provide more effective therapy for dyslipidemia with fewer side effects. Several agents in development (cholesterol-absorption inhibitors and ACAT inhibitors) exploit mechanisms of action complementary to those of current treatments and combined with statins may produce greater improvements in lipid profiles than are now possible. These innovations should enable a greater number of patients to achieve more aggressive cholesterol goals, thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular events.

  11. Achieving Proficiency Goals through Competency Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Walter H.; Strasheim, Lorraine

    The Indiana Foreign Language Generic Competencies for Levels 1-4 define language-learning outcomes in terms of communicative competencies within generic cultural contexts. Nine cultural contexts (travel/transportation, the "world" of the target language, school and education, family and home, leisure time, meeting personal needs, world…

  12. Communication impact on achieving public organization goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koniusz M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Employees are the most valuable resource of any organization regardless of whether it is a public or private organization. The effective functioning of the organization depends on many factors, but the key role is played by human factors. It is people in an organization to determine its success. However, an organization functions effectively not only just by employees’ presence. Communicative process is very important, that is the ability to communicate, and make decisions, and to understand what employees have to say doing their job duties. Relationships of an organization with the environment are equally important for the effective functioning of the organization. The development of appropriate relationships with clients, contractors, banks, etc., depends on whether the organization will succeed, or will be doomed to failure. The aim of this research is the attempt to depict the style of communication on the example of the employees at the Polish post office and the communication impact on the motivation of staff, the presentation of the main forms of communication not only between employees at different levels, but also the dialogue “an employee – a customer”, and the appearance while the communication process, which affects not only the employees of the organisational unit, but also customers.

  13. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  14. Goal difficulty and openness to interpersonal goal support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righetti, F.; Kumashiro, M.; Campbell, S.

    2014-01-01

    When people pursue important goals, they are often surrounded by close others who could provide help and support for the achievement of these goals. The present work investigated whether people are more likely to be open to such interpersonal goal support from a romantic partner when they perceive

  15. Industrial goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the third seminar on pellet-clad interaction, which held at Aix en Provence (France) from 9-11 march 2004, was to draw a comprehensive picture of current understanding of pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod under the widest possible conditions. This document provides the summaries of the five sessions: opening and industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in-pile rod behaviour, modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  16. Achievement of metabolic control goals set by the American Diabetes Association and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, Patricia; Martín-Frías, María; Álvarez, Ma Ángeles; Yelmo, Rosa; Alonso, Milagros; Barrio, Raquel

    2015-02-01

    The "T1D Exchange Clinic Registry" of 13.316 pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in U.S. recently revealed that most children have HbA1c values above target levels established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD). The aim of this study is to assess the proportion of youngsters with T1D who meet the internationally accepted targets for good metabolic control of diabetes at a single, referral Pediatric Diabetes Center in Spain. Cross-sectional study of 236 children and adolescents with T1D controlled at our Pediatric Diabetes Unit. We analyzed the compliance to metabolic goals set by ADA and ISPAD and the differences between patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injections. SPSS™ version 21.0. Mean age: 12.6 ± 4.6 years old, mean age at diagnosis: 6.1 ± 4.3 years old and mean diabetes duration: 6.4 ± 4.3 years; 47% female. HbA1c average: 6.7 ± 0.7% (49.7 ± 7.6 mmol/mol). The age-specific ADA and ISPAD HbA1c targets were achieved by 93% and 91% of patients, respectively. Among pump users, 97%/97% met ADA/ISPAD HbA1c targets compared to 87%/88% of MDI users (p = 0.04/p = 0.03), without significant differences in the analysis by groups of age. Among participants, 95%, 62%, 95%, 98% and 89% met HDLc, LDLc, triglycerides, BP and BMI targets. Most patients in our children and adolescent cohort of T1D patients correctly achieve metabolic goals established by ADA and ISPAD with low incidence of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Teachers' goal orientations: Effects on classroom goal structures and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C

    2017-03-01

    Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf et al., 2010, Learning and Instruction, 20, 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz et al., 2007, Emotion in education, Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However, empirical research evaluating possible causal ordering and mediation effects involving these variables in teachers is presently lacking. The present 6-month longitudinal study investigated the relations between varied motivational, behavioural, and emotional variables in practising teachers. More specifically, this study examined the reciprocal, longitudinal relations between teachers' achievement goals, classroom goal structures, and teaching-related emotions, as well as cumulative mediational models in which observed causal relations were evaluated. Participants were 495 practising teachers from Canada (86% female, M = 42 years). Teachers completed a web-based questionnaire at two time points assessing their instructional goals, perceived classroom goal structures, achievement emotions, and demographic items. Results from cross-lagged analyses and structural equation modelling showed teachers' achievement goals to predict their perceived classroom goal structures that, in turn, predicted their teaching-related emotions. The present results inform both Butler's (2012, Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 726) theory on teachers' achievement goals and Frenzel's (2014, International handbook of emotions in education, Routledge, New York, NY) model of teachers' emotions in showing teachers' instructional goals to both directly predict their teaching-related emotions, as well as indirectly through the mediating effects of classroom goal structures. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Free treatment, rapid malaria diagnostic tests and malaria village workers can hasten progress toward achieving the malaria related millennium development goals: the Médecins Sans Frontières experience from Chad, Sierra-Leone and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Tayler-Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Halving the burden of malaria by 2015 and ensuring that 80% of people with malaria receive treatment is among the health related targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Despite political momentum toward achieving this target, progress is slow and many with malaria (particularly in poor and rural communities in Africa are still without access to effective treatment. Finding ways to improve access to anti-malarial treatment in Africa is essential to achieve the malaria related and other MDG targets. During its work in Chad, Sierra Leone and Mali in the period 2004 to 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières showed that it was possible to significantly improve access to effective malaria treatment through: i the removal of health centre level user fees for essential healthcare for vulnerable population groups, ii the introduction of free community based treatment for children using malaria village workers to diagnose and treat simple malaria in communities where geographical and financial barriers limited access to effective malaria care, iii the improved diagnosis and treatment of malaria using rapid diagnosis tests and artemisinin based combination therapy, at both health facilities and in the community. This paper describes and discusses these strategies and their related impact.

  19. Total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly would reduce child mortality in India: Implications in achieving Target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2018-03-15

    The potential to reduce child mortality by preventing folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA) is inadequately appreciated. To quantify possible reduction in FAP SBA-associated child mortality in low- and middle-income countries, we conducted an analysis to demonstrate in India, a country with more than 25 million births and 1.2 million under-five deaths each year, the decrease in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would occur through total prevention of FAP SBA. We estimated the percent reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would have occurred in India in 2015 had all of FAP SBA been prevented. We also estimated the contributions of these reductions toward India's Sustainable Development Goals on child mortality indicators. We considered the overall prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in India as 5 per 1,000 live births, of which 90% were preventable with effective folic acid intervention. In the year 2015, folic acid interventions would have prevented about 116,070 cases of FAP SBA and 101,565 under-five deaths associated with FAP SBA. Prevention of FAP SBA would have reduced annually, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality by 10.2%, 8.9%, and 8.3%, respectively. These reductions would have contributed 18.5% and 17.2% to the reductions in neonatal and under-five mortality, respectively, needed by India to achieve its 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goal Target 3.2 addressing preventable child mortality. Total prevention of FAP SBA clearly has a significant potential for immediate reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in India, and similarly other countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management

  1. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  2. Mutations That Alter the Bacterial Cell Envelope Increase Lipid Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Zhang, Weiping; Langer, Samantha J.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Hu, Dehong; Lemke, Rachelle A.; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Orr, Galya; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2017-05-23

    ABSTRACT

    Lipids from microbes offer a promising source of renewable alternatives to petroleum-derived compounds. In particular, oleaginous microbes are of interest because they accumulate a large fraction of their biomass as lipids. In this study, we analyzed genetic changes that alter lipid accumulation inRhodobacter sphaeroides. By screening anR. sphaeroidesTn5mutant library for insertions that increased fatty acid content, we identified 10 high-lipid (HL) mutants for further characterization. These HL mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to drugs that target the bacterial cell envelope and changes in shape, and some had the ability to secrete lipids, with two HL mutants accumulating ~60% of their total lipids extracellularly. When one of the highest-lipid-secreting strains was grown in a fed-batch bioreactor, its lipid content was comparable to that of oleaginous microbes, with the majority of the lipids secreted into the medium. Based on the properties of these HL mutants, we conclude that alterations of the cell envelope are a previously unreported approach to increase microbial lipid production. We also propose that this approach may be combined with knowledge about biosynthetic pathways, in this or other microbes, to increase production of lipids and other chemicals.

    IMPORTANCEThis paper reports on experiments to understand how to increase microbial lipid production. Microbial lipids are often cited as one renewable replacement for petroleum-based fuels and chemicals, but strategies to increase the yield of these compounds are needed to achieve this goal. While lipid biosynthesis is often well understood, increasing yields of these compounds to industrially relevant levels is a challenge, especially since genetic, synthetic biology, or engineering approaches are not feasible in many microbes. We show that altering the bacterial cell envelope can be used to increase

  3. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wright, Julie A; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods : This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results : The results of a quantitative survey ( n  = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups ( n  = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals ( p 's goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals ( p  goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions : Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals.

  4. Characterization of Carbamazepine-Loaded Solid Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by RESS as well as their characterization has been achieved in this study. Keywords: Rapid expansion of supercritical fluid, Stearic acid, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Carbamazepine, Co-precipitation ...

  5. Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations : does TARGET work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.

  6. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support diverse...... aspects of cellular life. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which rapid flip-flop occurs, and what role lipid flipping plays in membrane homeostasis and cell growth. We focus on conceptual aspects, highlighting mechanistic insights from biochemical and in silico experiments, and the recent, ground......-breaking identification of a number of lipid scramblases....

  7. Asian patients with dyslipidemia in an urban population: Effect of ethnicity on their LDL-cholesterol treatment goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Koh, Kim Hwee; Goh, Chin Chin; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Goh, Soo Chye Paul

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for arthrosclerosis. It is the most common chronic disease among the multiethnic Asian population in Singapore. Local national health survey has shown ethnic variability in achieving control of dyslipidemia. This study aimed to determine the proportion of patients in primary care, who achieved their low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol treatment goals, stratified by the local major ethnic groups. It also evaluated the factors that affected their dyslipidemia control, including diet, exercise and medication usage. Research assistants administered questionnaires on adult patients with physician-diagnosed dyslipidemia to determine their views on diet, exercise, and medications in this cross-sectional study in 2 local primary care clinics. Their lipid profiles were retrieved from their laboratory reports in their electronic health records. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used for the categorical demographics and questionnaire variables, (P < .05: statistically significant). Logistic regression was performed using these significant variables to determine the adjusted odds of the ethnic groups. A total of 1093 eligible patients completed the questionnaires. The proportion of Chinese, Malay, and Indian patients who achieved LDL-cholesterol goals was 78.3%, 67.9%, and 68.5%, respectively. Among those who self-reported taking their favorite cholesterol-rich food occasionally when their cholesterol became controlled, 35.8% Indians failed to achieve treatment goals, compared to 20.1% Chinese and 30.9% Malay patients. Regular medication adherence was associated with 81.8% Chinese, 69.0% Malay, and 69.7% Indian reaching treatment goals. More Chinese met LDL-cholesterol treatment goals compared to Malays and Indians. Lipid-lowering medications enabled but smoking hindered their achievement of these treatment goals. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipid-lowering therapy: who can benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandra J LewisNorthwest Cardiovascular Institute, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in the US. Despite the decline in CVD-associated mortality rates in recent years, coronary heart disease (CHD still causes one in every six deaths in this country. Because most CHD risk factors are modifiable (eg, smoking, hypertension, obesity, onset of type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk can be reduced by timely and appropriate interventions, such as smoking cessation, diet and lifestyle changes, and lipid-modifying therapy. Dyslipidemia, manifested by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is central to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which can be silent for decades before triggering a first major cardiovascular event. Consequently, dyslipidemia has become a primary target of intervention in strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular events. The guidelines of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III, updated in 2004, recommend therapeutic lifestyle changes and the use of lipid-lowering medications, such as statins, to achieve specific LDL-C goals based on a person’s global cardiovascular risk. For high-risk individuals, such as patients with CHD and diabetic patients without CHD, an LDL-C target of < 100 mg/dL is recommended, and statin therapy should be considered to help patients achieve this goal. If correctly dosed in appropriate patients, currently approved statins are generally safe and provide significant cardiovascular benefits in diverse populations, including women, the elderly, and patients with diabetes. A recent primary prevention trial also showed that statins benefit individuals traditionally not considered at high risk of CHD, such as those with no hyperlipidemia but elevated C-reactive protein. Additional evidence suggests that statins may halt or slow atherosclerotic disease progression. Recent evidence confirms the pivotal role of

  9. National Education Goals: Can We Afford Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    Financial estimates for achieving the six national education goals proposed at the Charlottesville Education Summit are provided in this paper. Specific objectives under each goal, as outlined by the National Goals Panel, are assessed. A conclusion is that although the cost estimates have involved huge assumptions and sometimes wide variations,…

  10. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles' NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the treatment or prevention of a disease state.

  11. A Goal for Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiw, Karen L.

    2003-01-01

    Culturally competent nurses enable clients to feel respected, valued, and motivated to achieve health goals. A model for nursing education should develop cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills; provide cultural immersion experiences; and foster the desire to work with diverse clients. (Contains 48 references.) (SK)

  12. Lipid Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsje Koenderink

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology.

  13. [Becoming more "goal-oriented" in therapy of dyslipidemias: results of the Hungarian MULTI GAP 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, István; Paragh, György; Márk, László; Pados, Gyula

    2011-05-22

    Previous studies have found that many high-risk patients are not achieving their LDL-cholesterol goals, and many patients, despite being treated with lipid-lowering therapy, also have elevated triglycerides and/or low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Authors analyzed the treatment strategies for dyslipidemic subjects following cardiovascular events similarly to their former survey from 2008 and 2009. In the MULTI GAP (MULTI Goal Attainment Problem) 2010 trial data from standard and structured questionnaires of 2332 patients were processed. Authors analyzed the proportion of the patients reaching target levels for total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, A-C (atherogen cholesterol) and triglyceride. 15% (n = 355) of the patients did not receive any lipid lowering treatment. 44% of the patients treated by specialists reached the target LDL-C level of 2.5 mmol/l. In "high risk" group target levels for HDL-C were reached by 61% of the patients, and for triglyceride by 43% of the subjects. 43% of the patients with the best compliance (>90%) reached the target LDL-C level of 2.5 mmol/l. There is a need for more effective lipid lowering therapy with more frequent use of higher doses of statins or combinations of lipid lowering drugs.

  14. Goals are not selfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, William; von Hippel, Frank A

    2014-04-01

    The metaphor of selfish goals is misguided. Organisms can be considered vessels that further the interests of their genes, but not vessels that further the interests of their goals. Although goals can act at cross-purposes to each other and to longevity, such trade-offs are predicted by evolutionary theory. The metaphor of selfish goals provides no purchase on this problem.

  15. Lipid measures and cardiovascular disease prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, D.F.; Stroes, E.S.G.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lipid measures are the cornerstone of risk assessment and treatment goals in cardiovascular prevention. Whereas the association between total, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk has been generally acknowledged, the rather poor capacity to distinguish between patients

  16. Lipid Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A routine cardiac risk assessment typically includes a fasting lipid panel. Beyond that, research continues into the usefulness of other non-traditional markers of cardiac risk, such as Lp-PLA 2 . A health practitioner may choose to evaluate one or more ...

  17. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10 13 ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10 13 ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10 13 ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found

  18. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10{sup 13} ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10{sup 13} ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10{sup 13} ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found.

  19. Goal-setting in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E H; Bogardus, S T; Tinetti, M E; Inouye, S K

    1999-07-01

    The process of setting goals for medical care in the context of chronic disease has received little attention in the medical literature, despite the importance of goal-setting in the achievement of desired outcomes. Using qualitative research methods, this paper develops a theory of goal-setting in the care of patients with dementia. The theory posits several propositions. First, goals are generated from embedded values but are distinct from values. Goals vary based on specific circumstances and alternatives whereas values are person-specific and relatively stable in the face of changing circumstances. Second, goals are hierarchical in nature, with complex mappings between general and specific goals. Third, there are a number of factors that modify the goal-setting process, by affecting the generation of goals from values or the translation of general goals to specific goals. Modifying factors related to individuals include their degree of risk-taking, perceived self-efficacy, and acceptance of the disease. Disease factors that modify the goal-setting process include the urgency and irreversibility of the medical condition. Pertinent characteristics of the patient-family-clinician interaction include the level of participation, control, and trust among patients, family members, and clinicians. The research suggests that the goal-setting process in clinical medicine is complex, and the potential for disagreements regarding goals substantial. The nature of the goal-setting process suggests that explicit discussion of goals for care may be necessary to promote effective patient-family-clinician communication and adequate care planning.

  20. LipidPedia: a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Tseng, Yufeng Jane

    2018-04-10

    Lipids are divided into fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, sterols, prenol lipids and polyketides. Fatty acyls and glycerolipids are commonly used as energy storage, whereas glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and saccharolipids are common used as components of cell membranes. Lipids in fatty acyls, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols classes play important roles in signaling. Although more than 36 million lipids can be identified or computationally generated, no single lipid database provides comprehensive information on lipids. Furthermore, the complex systematic or common names of lipids make the discovery of related information challenging. Here, we present LipidPedia, a comprehensive lipid knowledgebase. The content of this database is derived from integrating annotation data with full-text mining of 3,923 lipids and more than 400,000 annotations of associated diseases, pathways, functions, and locations that are essential for interpreting lipid functions and mechanisms from over 1,400,000 scientific publications. Each lipid in LipidPedia also has its own entry containing a text summary curated from the most frequently cited diseases, pathways, genes, locations, functions, lipids and experimental models in the biomedical literature. LipidPedia aims to provide an overall synopsis of lipids to summarize lipid annotations and provide a detailed listing of references for understanding complex lipid functions and mechanisms. LipidPedia is available at http://lipidpedia.cmdm.tw. yjtseng@csie.ntu.edu.tw. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.