WorldWideScience

Sample records for achieving lipid goals

  1. A multidisciplinary program for achieving lipid goals in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan Robichaud J

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information on how target lipid levels can be achieved in end stage renal disease (ESRD patients in a systematic, multidisciplinary fashion. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a pharmacist-directed hyperlipidemia management program for chronic hemodialysis (HD patients. All 26 adult patients on chronic HD at a tertiary care medical facility were entered into the program. A clinical pharmacist was responsible for laboratory monitoring, patient counseling, and the initiation and dosage adjustment of an appropriate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin using a dosing algorithm and monitoring guidelines. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol goal was ≤ 100 mg/dl. A renal dietitian provided nutrition counseling and the nephrologist was notified of potential or existing drug interactions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs. Patients received a flyer containing lipid panel results to encourage compliance. Data was collected at program initiation and for 6 months thereafter. Results At the start of the program, 58% of patients were at target LDL cholesterol. At 6 months, 88% had achieved target LDL (p = 0.015. Mean LDL cholesterol decreased from 96 ± 5 to 80 ± 3 mg/dl (p Conclusions Our findings demonstrate both feasibility and efficacy of a multidisciplinary approach in management of hyperlipidemia in HD patients.

  2. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  3. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  4. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  5. Competition and achievement goals in work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemeier, H.; Bittner, Jenny V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how competition within teams influences which type of achievement goals employees adopt. We studied how dispositional learning-goal and performance-goal orientation interact with team-level competition and predict whether team members adopt state learning or performance achieveme

  6. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko eLüftenegger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  7. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  8. 冠心病患者血压和血脂及血糖达标率分析%Analysis of the rates of achieving goal blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳芳; 曹芳芳; 曹晓菁; 师树田; 刘飞; 王兆宏; 蒋志丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the rates of achieving goal blood pressure, blood glucose and blood lipid in patients with CAD which was diagnosed by coronary arteriography and to explore the relationships between CAD and rates of reaching guidelines of the three risk factors, respectively. Methods The levels of blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid on admission were analyzed retrospectively in 2916 cases of CAD, and the level of blood pressure was analyzed when they were discharged. Results With 130/80 mm Hg as the goal blood pressure,the rate of achieving goal blood pressure was 28. 4% on admission,and was 87.5% when they were discharged. With 140/90 mm Hg as the goal blood pressure, the rate of achieving goal blood pressure was 65.8% on admission,and was 90.0% when they were discharged. With >1.04 mmol/L as the goal HDL-C,the rate of achieving goal HDL-C was 23.0% on admission. With <2.59 mmol/L and 2.07 mmol/L as the goal LDL-C in high risk patients and very high risk patients respectively, the rates of achieving goal LDL-C were 54. 3% and 17.4% respectively. With <4. 14 mmol/L and <3.11 mmol/L as the goal TC in high risk and very high risk patients,respectively,the rates of achieving goal TC were 49.5% and 5.8% respectively. With 1.70 mmol/L as the goal TG,the rate of achieving goal TG was 58.0%. There were 538 diabetic patients with CAD,accounting for 18.5 % ,their rates of achieving goal fasting blood glucose was 1.9 %, 1138 cases had diabetes and impaired fasting blood glucose,accounting for 39.0% in CAD. Conclusion The rates of achieving goal blood pressure,fasting blood glucose and blood lipids in patients with CAD were low on admission. The results show that enhancing the rates of achieving goal blood pressure, goal fasting blood glucose and goal blood lipids is very important for secondary prevention of CAD.%目的 分析经冠状动脉造影诊断为冠心病患者的血压、血脂和血糖达标率情况,评价其3个危

  9. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  10. Achieving the Goals of Sports Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Horal, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical part focuses on setting and achieving of goals in organizations in general and identifies specific performance objectives in sports organizations. In the practical part examines the process of setting targets and performance in sport organizations to Jindřichohradecko.

  11. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  12. Achievement Goals and their Underlying Goal Motivation: Does it Matter Why Sport Participants Pursue their Goals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gaudreau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.

  13. Achieving lipid goals with rosuvastatin compared with simvastatin in high risk patients in real clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center study: the DISCOVERY-Beta study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toivo Laks

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Toivo Laks1, Ester Keba2, Mariann Leiner3, Eero Merilind4, Mall Petersen5, Sirje Reinmets6, Sille Väli7, Terje Sööt8, Karin Otter81Clinic of Internal Medicine, North-Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia; 2Clinic of Internal Medicine, Viljandi County Hospital, Viljandi, Estonia; 3Mustamäe Family Doctors Centre, Tallinn, Estonia; 4Nõmme Family Doctors Centre, Tallinn, Estonia; 5Saku Health Centre, Saku, Estonia; 6Kristiine Family Doctors, Tallinn, Estonia; 7Family Doctor Sille Väli, Kuressaare, Estonia; 8AstraZeneca, Tallinn, EstoniaAbstract: The aim of this multi-center, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial was to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin with that of simvastatin in achieving the 1998 European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS lipid treatment goals. 504 patients (≥18 years with primary hypercholesterolemia and a 10-year cardiovascular (CV risk >20% or history of coronary heart disease (CHD or other established atherosclerotic disease were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg or simvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 weeks. A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved 1998 EAS low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C goal after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to simvastatin 20 mg (64 vs 51.5%, p < 0.01. Similarly, significantly more patients achieved the 1998 EAS total cholesterol (TC goal and the 2003 EAS LDL-C and TC goals (p < 0.001 with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with simvastatin 20 mg. The incidence of adverse events and the proportion of patients who discontinued study treatment were similar between treatment groups. In conclusion, in the DISCOVERY-Beta Study in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia greater proportion of patients in the rosuvastatin 10 mg group achieved the EAS LDL-C treatment goal compared with the simvastatin 20 mg group. Drug tolerability was similar across both treatment groups.Keywords: hypercholesterolemia, low-density lipoprotein

  14. Temperament, Personality and Achievement Goals among Chinese Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…

  15. Correlates of Achievement Goal Orientations in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2003-01-01

    Achievement goal theory suggests that the motivational processes operating in achievement settings such as PE are dependent on the achievement goals manifested in that setting. In this paper, research is reviewed examining the motivation-related correlates of task and ego (approach) goal orientations in physical education, namely (a)…

  16. Goal Orientations and Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Tran Dang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a fundamental educational challenge for adolescents in the United States, and particularly for immigrant youth. The motivation to achieve, especially in mathematics, declines during adolescence. Most of what is known about motivation is based on studies of predominately middle-class White students; yet the influx of immigrants over…

  17. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vrugt; F.J. Oort

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacog

  18. Millennium development goals: Examining Kenya constraints in achieving the eight goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wambua Leonard Munyao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Kenya’s performance in achieving the famous millennium development goals. The paper provides the government and other stakeholders with proper understanding of the constraints of achieving the millennium development goals as well as reflecting the phase and the passion of the country in achieving this important development goal. The paper further seeks to stress the importance of this goal in reducing poverty in the country. The paper has cited some key factors undermining achieving of the millennium development goals in Kenya. Major recommendations that can contribute towards achieving of the millennium development goals have also been made.

  19. Goal Structures: The Role of Teachers' Achievement Goals and Theories of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Cassady, Jerrell

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how teachers' achievement goals for teaching and implicit theories of their students' intelligence are associated with the goal structures that they create in their classrooms. Teachers ("N" = 209) reported their achievement goals for teaching (mastery, performance-approach goals, and…

  20. Goal Setting and Student Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine M.; Wu, Chaorong

    2012-01-01

    The connection between goals and student motivation has been widely investigated in the research literature, but the relationship of goal setting and student achievement at the classroom level has remained largely unexplored. This article reports the findings of a 5-year quasi-experimental study examining goal setting and student achievement in…

  1. Achievement goals in the workplace : Conceptualization, prevalence, profiles, and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Orehek, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss an important component of workers' willingness to perform at their jobs, that is, their achievement motivation. More specifically, we will discuss the conceptualization of the four achievement goals from the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework and present

  2. The Relationships between Achievement Goal Orientations and Grit

    OpenAIRE

    Akın, Ahmet; Sakarya Üniversitesi; Arslan, Serhat; Sakarya Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the associations of achievement goal orientations with grit. Participants were 509 university students who completed The 2X2 Achievement Goal Orientations Scale and Grit Scale. This relationship was investigated using correlation and multiple regression analysis. According to results learning-approach goal orientations positively related to grit. In contrary, learning-avoidance and performance-approach/avoidance goal orientations related negatively to gri...

  3. The 2 × 2 Standpoints Model of Achievement Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Rachel M; Elliot, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we proposed and tested a 2 × 2 standpoints model of achievement goals grounded in the development-demonstration and approach-avoidance distinctions. Three empirical studies are presented. Study 1 provided evidence supporting the structure and psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of the goals of the 2 × 2 standpoints model. Study 2 documented the predictive utility of these goal constructs for intrinsic motivation: development-approach and development-avoidance goals were positive predictors, and demonstration-avoidance goals were a negative predictor of intrinsic motivation. Study 3 documented the predictive utility of these goal constructs for performance attainment: Demonstration-approach goals were a positive predictor and demonstration-avoidance goals were a negative predictor of exam performance. The conceptual and empirical contributions of the present research were discussed within the broader context of existing achievement goal theory and research. PMID:27242641

  4. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  5. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  6. Assessing Goal Intent and Achievement of University Learning Community Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer-Lachs, Carole F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the goal intent and achievement of university students, during the Fall 2011 semester, at Blue Wave University, a high research activity public institution in the southeast United States. This study merged theories of motivation to measure goal setting and goal attainment to examine if students who chose to…

  7. Big Five personality profiles of context-specific achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCabe, Kira O.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Verbraak, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an increasing body of literature supports the validity and utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001). From this foundation, researchers have begun to investigate the complex antecedents and consequences underlying achievement goal pursuit. In the

  8. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  9. Leveraging MSLQ Data for Predicting Students Achievement Goal Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Liaqat; Hatala, Marek; Gašević, Dragan; Philip H. Winne

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how students’ motivated strategies of learning and their achievement goal orientations relate to their academic behaviours and performance in the context of online leaning systems. The study also develops and validates a relational model between students’ learning strategies and achievement goals.

  10. Transformational and Transactional Leadership and Followers’ Achievement Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, Melvyn R.W.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Wisse, Barbara; Sassenberg, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Achievement goals, or the standards of competence employees pursue in their work, have far-reaching consequences for employee and organizational functioning. In the current research, we investigated whether employees’ achievement goals can be predicted from their supervisor’s leadership styl

  11. Transformational and transactional leadership and followers' achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.W. Hamstra; N.W. van Yperen; B. Wisse; K. Sassenberg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Achievement goals, or the standards of competence employees pursue in their work, have far-reaching consequences for employee and organizational functioning. In the current research, we investigated whether employees’ achievement goals can be predicted from their supervisor’s leadership sty

  12. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as…

  13. Structure and Relationships of University Instructors’ Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eDaumiller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the achievement goals of university instructors, particularly the structure of such goals, and their relationship to biographic characteristics, other aspects of instructors’ motivation, and teaching quality. Two hundred and fifty-one university instructors (184 without PhD, 97 with PhD, thereof 51 full professors; 146 males, 92 females answered a questionnaire measuring achievement goals, self-efficacy, and enthusiasm in altogether 392 courses. Teaching quality was assessed using reports from 9,241 students who were attending these courses. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance, work avoidance, and relational goals as being distinguishable from each other. Distinct relationships were found between different instructors’ achievement goals, and gender, age, and career status as well as self-efficacy and enthusiasm. Hierarchical linear models suggested positive associations of instructors’ mastery goals with teaching quality, while negative associations were indicated for performance avoidance goals and work avoidance goals in relation to teaching quality. Exploratory analyses conducted due to a quite large correlation between performance approach and performance avoidance goals indicated that for university instructors, differentiating performance goals into appearance and normative components might also be adequate. All in all, the study highlights the auspiciousness of the theoretical concept of university instructors’ achievement goals and contributes to making it comprehensively accessible.

  14. Achievement Goal Theory: The Relationship of Accounting Students' Goal Orientations with Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, Richard B.; Schleifer, Lydia L. F.; McMillan, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Students' goal orientations are examined using two major frameworks for learning: achievement goal theory (AGT) and students' approaches to learning (SAL). Previous student success research is extended, by examining goal constructs from the AGT framework to determine if they help explain the learning process in accounting. Data were gathered using…

  15. Social Perceptions of Achieving Students and Achievement Goals of Students in Malaysia and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.; Ismail, Rosnah

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the hypothesis that country differences in achievement goals of students are associated with differences in how students with different achievement goals are perceived by students in different cultures. University students from Malaysia and the Philippine were asked to complete questionnaires on their achievement goals and…

  16. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  17. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Language Achievement among Peruvian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennia Matos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We used an achievement goal framework to study the role of motivation in the academic context of a Peruvian sample of 8th to 10th grade high school students (N = 1505. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between students' achievement goals, their use of learning strategies and their academic achievement. Multiple Hierarchical Regressions Analyses identified, as predicted, positive effects of mastery goals, including more use of learning strategies and higher academic achievement, and negative effects of performance avoidance goals, including lower academic achievement. Mixed results were found for pursuing performance approach goals, which predicted a greater use of learning strategies, but were unrelated to academic achievement. The present findings support the external validity of achievement goal theory in a sample of students from a culture that is understudied in the achievement goal literature in particular and the motivational literature in general.

  18. Achievement Goals, Motivation, and Performance: A Closer Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdan, Tim; Pajares, Frank; Lapin, Amy Z.

    An achievement goal theory framework was used to examine the relations among goals and a number of other motivational constructs in a sample of middle school students. Participants were 189 eighth graders from a public school in the south. In one session students completed the attitude measures and in another session they completed a mathematics…

  19. The Role of Goal Orientations for Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Tran D.; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Domina, Thurston

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between personal goal orientations and mathematics achievement within the trichotomous goal framework. Participants comprised approximately 2000 seventh and eighth grade White, Hispanic, and Vietnamese students in a low-income urban school district in California. Regression analysis with classroom fixed effects…

  20. Lipid lowering treatment patterns and goal attainment in Nordic patients with hyperlipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svilaas, A.; Strandberg, T.; Eriksson, M.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Observational studies and surveys have shown that lipid-lowering treatment is not optimal neither with regard to number of patients treated nor with number of patients achieving recommended goals. To address this issue in the Nordic countries, we evaluated the published literature on ...

  1. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Language Achievement among Peruvian High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Lennia Matos; Willy Lens; Maarten Vansteenkiste

    2007-01-01

    We used an achievement goal framework to study the role of motivation in the academic context of a Peruvian sample of 8th to 10th grade high school students (N = 1505). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between students' achievement goals, their use of learning strategies and their academic achievement. Multiple Hierarchical Regressions Analyses identified, as predicted, positive effects of mastery goals, including more use of learning strategies and hi...

  2. The nature and dimensions of achievement goals: mastery, evaluation, competition, and self-presentation goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Marina S; Gonçalves, Teresa; Lens, Willy; Rodrigues, Luís P

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the nature and dimensions of achievement goals and to examine structural differences in students' goals across school levels. Participants were 134 students from 5th and 6th grades, and 423 students from 7th to 9th grades. A variety of achievement goals were assessed, including mastery goals and several performance-related goals representing three main dimensions: competition, self-presentation, and valence. Two alternative models were tested, using confirmatory factor analysis. For middle-school students a three factor model with presentation, competition, and simple evaluation/mastery goals, was found χ²(132, N = 134) = 160.9, p goals, and (b) simple evaluation goals, which encompass neither self-presentation nor competition, and are closely linked to mastery goals. Moreover, significant differences were found in the relative importance attached by students to the different types of goals (p < .001 for all comparisons), both at middle-school F(2, 266) = 220.98; p < .001; η2 = .624) and at junior-high school F(2, 820) = 464.4; p < .001; η2 = .531.

  3. The Roadmap to achieve EU goals on urban mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Schippl, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to change urban mobility in Europe to achieve ambitious sustainability goals? If so, who should dowhat by when? These questions are answered in a new Roadmap on urban mobility prepared as part of the European FP7 research project TRANSFORuM.......Is it possible to change urban mobility in Europe to achieve ambitious sustainability goals? If so, who should dowhat by when? These questions are answered in a new Roadmap on urban mobility prepared as part of the European FP7 research project TRANSFORuM....

  4. Implicit Beliefs, Achievement Goals, and Procrastination: A Mediational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Andrew J.; Buro, Karen

    2009-01-01

    As a maladaptive behavioural outcome, procrastination should correlate with beliefs about ability and achievement goals that are themselves relatively maladaptive. Accordingly, procrastination should be predicted by entity as opposed to incremental implicit theories (i.e., viewing attributes such as ability as relatively fixed vs. malleable,…

  5. Literature Review on Achievement Goals and Classroom Goal Structure: Implications for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2010-01-01

    Since its origin in the late 1970s and early 1980s, achievement goal theory has provided significant contributions to the research and practice in education and psychology. The theory has been considered to be an influential framework for conceptualizing student motivation. The term motivation refers to the interaction dynamics of many factors in…

  6. Health transformation plan: Goals achievement in Nemazee hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to assess fulfillment of goals about “Health Transformation Plan (HTP of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education” from the perspective of managers, which is as one of the most important management challenges in the Health System Reform Plan. These goals included six packages determined by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education, the fulfillment of each of which one was evaluated separately as sub-goals in the current study. Finally, the rank of each package in comparison to other packages was determined and presented, using means rank test (Friedman test. Method: This study was conducted using a questionnaire in which comments of the senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital were collected as the research data. Due to the fact that about one year has passed since the beginning of implementation of HTP and since there were no documented methods or questionnaires, the researcher designed a self-made questionnaire. The basis of designing the questionnaire was the set of guidelines developed for Health System Reform Plan. These guidelines include goals that a hospital should achieve during implementation of Health System Reform Plan. After sharing these goals with senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital (as the place of research, they were converted to a questionnaire including 20 questions. The questionnaire included the goals that must be achieved in Nemazee hospital of Shiraz during the implementation of the plan. After designing the questionnaire, a preliminary test was taken to assess the reliability. Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.88 showed a high rate of reliability in the above questionnaire. After the final data collection, the questionnaire was tested in a sample of 100 senior and middle managers; the results showed that about six packages were specified by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. The majority of

  7. Storage Ring Based EDM Search — Achievements and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrach, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes the experimental achievements of the JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations) Collaboration to exploit and demonstrate the feasibility of charged particle Electric Dipole Moment searches with storage rings at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Recent experimental results, design and optimization of critical accelerator elements, progress in beam and spin tracking, and future goals of the R & D program at COSY are presented.

  8. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having...

  9. Analytical approach for confirming the achievement of LMFBR reliability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach, recommended by GE-ARSD, for confirming the achievement of LMFBR reliability goals relies upon a comprehensive understanding of the physical and operational characteristics of the system and the environments to which the system will be subjected during its operational life. This kind of understanding is required for an approach based on system hardware testing or analyses, as recommended in this report. However, for a system as complex and expensive as the LMFBR, an approach which relies primarily on system hardware testing would be prohibitive both in cost and time to obtain the required system reliability test information. By using an analytical approach, results of tests (reliability and functional) at a low level within the specific system of interest, as well as results from other similar systems can be used to form the data base for confirming the achievement of the system reliability goals. This data, along with information relating to the design characteristics and operating environments of the specific system, will be used in the assessment of the system's reliability

  10. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  11. Factors associated with lipid goal attainment among acute coronary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd-Zulkefli SZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Siti-Zainora Mohd-Zulkefli, Marhanis-Salihah Omar, Adyani Md-Redzuan Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: The incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS, one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, is high. Lipid goal attainment is one of the important factors to reduce the risk of recurrent heart attack. Identification of factors influencing lipid goal attainment such as age, female, race, underlying comorbidities, intensity of lipid-lowering therapy, patients’ knowledge, and patients’ belief about medicine would be beneficial in achieving the lipid goal. This study is aimed to determine lipid profile attainment and prescribing pattern of lipid-lowering therapy as well as to identify factors influencing lipid profile attainment among ACS patients.Patients and methods: This researcher-assisted cross-sectional survey was carried out at a cardiology clinic in a tertiary hospital from March to May 2015.Results: A total of 101 ACS patients were involved in this study. The mean values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were 2.75 (0.82 mmol/L and 1.14 (0.27 mmol/L, respectively, while the median value for triglyceride level was 2.75 (0.82 mmol/L. Only 15.8% of our participants achieved the targeted LDL-C. Simvastatin 20 mg was the most common regimen prescribed. Predictors for better LDL-C attainment were younger age (β=-0.228; P=0.032 and higher knowledge score (β=-0.255; P=0.049, while predictors for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol attainment were male (β=0.268; P=0.006, smoking (β=-0.192; P=0.045, and higher knowledge score (β=-0.195; P=0.039. Smoking (β=-0.361; P<0.0001 was the only predictor for higher triglyceride level.Conclusion: Younger age, female, lower knowledge score, and smoking status are good predictors for lipid attainment among ACS patients. Keywords: influence, disease, drug use, patient 

  12. Factors associated with lipid goal attainment among acute coronary syndrome patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Zulkefli, Siti-Zainora; Omar, Marhanis-Salihah; Md-Redzuan, Adyani

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, is high. Lipid goal attainment is one of the important factors to reduce the risk of recurrent heart attack. Identification of factors influencing lipid goal attainment such as age, female, race, underlying comorbidities, intensity of lipid-lowering therapy, patients’ knowledge, and patients’ belief about medicine would be beneficial in achieving the lipid goal. This study is aimed to determine lipid profile attainment and prescribing pattern of lipid-lowering therapy as well as to identify factors influencing lipid profile attainment among ACS patients. Patients and methods This researcher-assisted cross-sectional survey was carried out at a cardiology clinic in a tertiary hospital from March to May 2015. Results A total of 101 ACS patients were involved in this study. The mean values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were 2.75 (0.82) mmol/L and 1.14 (0.27) mmol/L, respectively, while the median value for triglyceride level was 2.75 (0.82) mmol/L. Only 15.8% of our participants achieved the targeted LDL-C. Simvastatin 20 mg was the most common regimen prescribed. Predictors for better LDL-C attainment were younger age (β=−0.228; P=0.032) and higher knowledge score (β=−0.255; P=0.049), while predictors for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol attainment were male (β=0.268; P=0.006), smoking (β=−0.192; P=0.045), and higher knowledge score (β=−0.195; P=0.039). Smoking (β=−0.361; P<0.0001) was the only predictor for higher triglyceride level. Conclusion Younger age, female, lower knowledge score, and smoking status are good predictors for lipid attainment among ACS patients. PMID:27601888

  13. Human regeneration: An achievable goal or a dream?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukla Ghosh

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of regenerative medicine is to replenish cells or tissues or even to restore different body parts that are lost or damaged due to disease, injury and aging. Several avenues have been explored over many decades to address the fascinating problem of regeneration at the cell, tissue and organ levels. Here we discuss some of the primary approaches adopted by researchers in the context of enhancing the regenerating ability of mammals. Natural regeneration can occur in different animal species, and the underlying mechanism is highly relevant to regenerative medicine-based intervention. Significant progress has been achieved in understanding the endogenous regeneration in urodeles and fishes with the hope that they could help to reach our goal of designing future strategies for human regeneration.

  14. Integrating Turkish Work and Achievement Goals With Schwartz's Human Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevrüz, Suna; Turgut, Tülay; Çinko, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of indigenous values developed in Turkey to Schwartz's universal values. Students (N = 593) from six universities in Istanbul responded the value scale, which consists of 10 etic PVQ items (each item representing one of 10 main Schwartz values) and 23 emic WAG items (representing work-achievement goals). PROXSCAL, a multidimensional scaling method, was used to test whether etic and emic sets of values integrate and form the universal circular structure proposed in Schwartz value theory. The motivational continuum of values as a circular structure was similar to pan-cultural results, but adding another value type to the openness to change pole. While some of the items in this region represent autonomy of thought, remaining items diverge. The principle of conflicting values on opposite poles was not supported in relation to openness to change-conservation dimension. These two poles had similar priorities, contrasting with pan-cultural results, and demonstrating a culture-specific aspect of responding to motivational goals. Insights gained by emic studies will be functional in enriching understanding values, and contributing to the comprehensiveness and universality of Schwartz value theory.

  15. Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Classroom Goals and the Adoption of Personal Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). Aims: This…

  16. Goal setting and skills achievements in children with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Vroland Nordstrand, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to increase knowledge about how children with different types of disabilities can identify performance issues and select goals for intervention. Furthermore, the objective was to study the effects of a goal-directed, task-oriented intervention based on children’s self-identified goals from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. Establishing intervention goals with families, to improve the ability of children with disabilities to perform tasks ...

  17. Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

    2013-01-01

    Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

  18. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries an...

  19. Testing Multiple Goals Theory in an Asian Context: Filipino University Students' Motivation and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, Elmer D.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals research has focused on the importance of mastery relative to performance goals, but the multiple goals perspective asserts that performance goals also lead to positive outcomes and that learners adopt multiple goals in adaptive ways. However, this multiple-goals perspective has not been extensively studied in Asian students. The…

  20. Deep Learning in Distance Education: Are We Achieving the Goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Rick L.; Gregg, Andrea; Joo, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    As educators, one of our goals is to help students arrive at deeper levels of learning. However, how is this accomplished, especially in online courses? This design-based research study explored the concept of deep learning through a series of design changes in a graduate education course. A key question that emerged was through what learning…

  1. Advance care planning: thinking ahead to achieve our patients' goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    The End of Life Care Strategy for England describes advance care planning (ACP) as a 'voluntary process of discussion about future care...concerns and wishes...values or personal goals for care, their understanding of their illness and prognosis...wishes for types of care or treatment and the availability of these' (Department of Health (DH), 2008). In Scotland, Living and Dying Well: Building on Progress (Scottish Government (SG), 2011) referred to adopting a 'thinking ahead' philosophy.

  2. Achievement Goals and Approaches to Studying: Evidence from Adult Learners in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals predict learning in children and young adults, but it is unclear whether they apply to older adults and how they are related to approaches to studying. An online survey examined achievement goals, approaches to studying and academic attainment in distance learners. The Achievement Goals Questionnaire-Revised and the Approaches to…

  3. Academic Identity Status and the Relationship to Achievement Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was, Christopher A.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim; Stack-Oden, Maura; Isaacson, Randall M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Two constructs that have received a great deal of attention in Educational Psychology research are Achievement Orientation and Identity Status. However, the relationship between these two constructs has not received the attention that the current researcher feel is warranted. The impetus for the current study is the paucity of…

  4. The Influence of Achievement Goals and Social Goals on Help-Seeking from Peers in an Academic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Peggy; Elliot, Andrew J.; Feltman, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The influence of achievement goals and social goals on help-seeking from peers in an academic context was examined in two studies. A total of 551 high school students participated in the two studies. The results across the studies demonstrated strong convergence, revealing that mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, and friendship-approach goals…

  5. ACHIEVING LIPID TARGETS IN ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES--THE SANDS STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marie; Silverman, Angela; Fleg, Jerome L.; Lee, Elisa T.; Mete, Mihriye; Weir, Matthew; Wilson, Charlton; Yeh, Fawn; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Wm. James

    2010-01-01

    Background Although lipid management in diabetes is standard practice, goals often are neither met nor maintained. Strategies for achieving lower targets have not been explored. The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) randomized patients with diabetes to standard versus aggressive lipid and blood pressure goals for 36 months. Objective To report strategies used to achieve and maintain lipid goals and to report adverse events (AEs). Methods Adults with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease (N=499) were randomized to standard (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]≤100 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]≤130 mg/dL) or aggressive (LDL-C≤70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C≤100 mg/dL) targets. An algorithm started with statin monotherapy, adding intestinally acting agents as required to reach LDL-C targets. Triglyceride [TG]-lowering agents were next used to reach non-HDL-C goals. Lipid management was performed by mid-level practitioners, with physician consultation, using point-of-care lipid determinations. Results On average, both groups achieved the LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals within 12 months and maintained them throughout the study. At 36 months, mean (SD) LDL-C and non-HDL-C were 72 (24) and 102 (29) mg/dL in the aggressive group (AGG) and 104 (20) and 138 (26) mg/dL, respectively, in the standard group (STD); systolic blood pressure targets were 115 and 130 mmHg, respectively. 68% of participants reached target LDL-C for >50% of the visits and 46% for >75% of visits. At 36 months, the AGG averaged 1.5 lipid lowering medications and the STD 1.2. Statins were used in 91% and 68% of the AGG and STD; ezetimibe by 31% and 10%; fibrates by 8% and 18%. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed; AEs occurred in 18% of the AGG and 14% of the STD. Conclusion Standard and aggressive lipid targets can be safely maintained in diabetic patients. Standardized algorithms, point-of-care lipid testing, and non

  6. A novel approach to assessing achievement goals in the context of the 2 x 2 framework : Identifying distinct profiles of individuals with different dominant achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2006-01-01

    In two studies, individuals' dominant achievement goals were assessed using a new, simple, and conceptually precise measure based on Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 framework. Next, the four groups were compared in terms of achievement-relevant variables, including need for achievement, perfectio

  7. [POLIOMYELITIS ERADICATION--ONE STEP TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Čavlek, Tatjana; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana

    2014-12-01

    Poliomyelitis is a very old disease of humans, caused by poliovirus. With appearance of the epidemics in the 20th century, poliomyelitis became a global public health issue. In 1988, the World Health Organization started a campaign for global eradication of poliomyelitis and till now poliomyelitis cases have been reduced by more than 99%. In Croatia, the introduction of vaccination in 1961 resulted in dramatic reduction of paralytic disease. The European region, including Croatia was certified polio free in 2002. However, the final goal of the "polio-free world" has not yet been reached. To reinforce the campaign, the global polio eradication initiative has come up with the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 with detailed program how to resolve the main challenges: (a) continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs; (b) reinfection of polio-free areas; and (c) outbreaks due to the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV). Global oral polio vaccine cessation will follow, with the introduction of universal use of inactivated polio vaccine.

  8. Achieving secondary prevention low-density lipoprotein particle concentration goals using lipoprotein cholesterol-based data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C Mathews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C ≥ 40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3. METHODS: We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients. RESULTS: TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10(-6. The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150 was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10(-5. However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150 was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10(-5 with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively. LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094 and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47 alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets. CONCLUSIONS: A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical

  9. Implementation intentions and goal achievement : a meta-analysis of effects and processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Sheeran, Paschal

    2006-01-01

    Holding a strong goal intention ("I intend to reach Z!") does not guarantee goal achievement, because people may fail to deal effectively with selfregulatory problems during goal striving. This review analyzes wether realization of goal intentions is facilitated by forming an implementation intention that spells out the when, where, and how of goal striving in advance ("If situation Y is encountered, then I will initiate goal-directed behavior X!"). Findings from 94 independent tests showed t...

  10. Project Communication's Impact on Risk Management and Goal Achievement : A case study of project communication's impact on risk management and goal achievement in public place branding projects.

    OpenAIRE

    Burman, Liv; Sandberg, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Public place branding in municipalities is increasing in frequency and consists of multiple stakeholders, which enhances the role of communication in this type of project. The research question is how does project communication impact risk management and goal achievement in public place branding projects? This is answered by the main purpose of this study, which is to increase the understanding of the project communication’s role in risk management and goal achievement in public place brandin...

  11. Counselor Trainee Achievement Goal Orientation and the Acquisition of Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Schuetz, Steven A.; Kardash, CarolAnne M.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between trainee achievement goal orientation and acquisition of Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (TLDP) skills was examined over four counseling sessions with a recruited client. Trainee learning goal orientation was related to the pattern of TLDP skill acquisition. Approaches to achievement goals, results, training issues, and…

  12. Positive Biases in Self-Assessment of Mathematics Competence, Achievement Goals, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Escribe, Christian; Huet, Nathalie; Regner, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how biases in self-evaluations of math competence relate to achievement goals and progress in math achievement. It was expected that performance goals would be related to overestimation and mastery goals to accurate self-assessments. A sample of French high-school students completed a questionnaire measuring their math…

  13. A Longitudinal Analysis of Achievement Goals: From Affective Antecedents to Emotional Effects and Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Haynes, Tara L.; Perry, Raymond P.; Newall, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    Affect and emotions are frequently seen as outcomes of mastery and performance goals, but affective experiences may also predict goal adoption. In a predictive study (N = 669 first-year college students), the authors used structural equation modeling to estimate relationships from 2 initial affective experiences to mastery and performance-approach…

  14. Academic and Social Achievement Goals: Their Additive, Interactive, and Specialized Effects on School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Aims: Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and…

  15. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  16. Predicting Seventh Grade Students' Engagement in Science by Their Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglu, Melike; Sungur, Semra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how well seventh grade students' engagement in science can be predicted by their achievement goals. For the specified purpose, a correlational research design was utilized. Data were obtained from 153 seventh grade students through administration of Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Engagement Questionnaire.…

  17. To Win, or Not to Lose, At Any Cost : The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cheating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hamstra, M.R.W.; van der Klauw, Marloes

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relations between achievement goals and cheating in two studies. The findings from Study 1 show that the extent to which people intend to behave unethically in the areas of work, sport and education is a function of their dominant achievement goals in these particular settings. An ev

  18. Liking a tough teacher : Interpersonal characteristics of teaching and students’ achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainhard, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Many have claimed, but only some have shown, that the social nature of teaching and classrooms is likely to have a direct effect on students’ achievement goals. This study examined the extent to which Dutch secondary school students’ (N = 2892) achievement goals were related to the interpersonal qua

  19. Changes in Self-Esteem across the First Year in College: The Role of Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Ryan, Allison M.; Cassady, Jerrell

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of achievement goals on the growth trajectories of self-esteem during the first-year at a comprehensive public university. College freshmen (N = 311) were followed for one academic year with three time points. Between-individual differences and within-individual change in achievement goals were…

  20. Procrastination and the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework in Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Rajalakshmi; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Mellor, David; Rizzuto, Laura; Kolar, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 x 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and…

  1. Achievement Goals during Middle Childhood: Individual Differences in Motivation and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis M.; Zheng, Chanjin; Lemoine, Katherine A.; Martin, Caroline P.; Tang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Person-centered analyses of achievement goals have been scarce in studies of elementary school children. In this investigation, the authors examined the natural combinations of achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, performance-avoidance) among 3rd grade students (N = 195) and how clusters differed in self-, teacher-, and peer-reported…

  2. The Achievement Goals Orientation of South African First Year University Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Ramaila, Sam

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the achievement goals orientation of first year physics students at a South African university. The mixed methods design involved a quantitative survey of 291 students using an achievement goals questionnaire and individual interviews of selected participants. Results showed that the students perceived they have a stronger…

  3. Testing Structural Invariance of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire in American, Chinese, and Dutch College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huaping; Hernandez, Diley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the structural invariance of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) in American, Chinese, and Dutch college students. Using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), the authors found evidence for the four-factor structure of achievement goals in all three samples. Subsequent multigroup CFAs supported structural invariance of…

  4. The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Does Self-Efficacy Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 × 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 × 2…

  5. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhua; Zhu, Xiangru; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a Chinese version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (C-SAGOS), a measure testing the trichotomous framework of achievement goal orientations in a social domain. A total of 208 college students (51% female) aged 18 to 23 participated in the study. Factor analyses showed that the three-factor model…

  6. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p social responsibility (r = .38, p responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes. PMID:25896600

  7. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p social responsibility (r = .38, p responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.

  8. Achievement Goals, Competition Appraisals, and the Psychological and Emotional Welfare of Sport Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    Grounded in the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and th...

  9. Exploring the Relationships among Mirror Neurons, Theory of Mind, and Achievement Goals: Towards a Model of Achievement Goal Contagion in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    This article aimed to examine the relationship between mirror neuron and theory of mind functions and to explore their possible roles in the emergence of an achievement goal contagion in educational settings such as classrooms. Based on the evidence from different lines of research such as neurobiology, neuropsychology, social psychology, and…

  10. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  11. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. Fu....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  12. Student Achievement Goal Setting: Using Data to Improve Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, James H.; Grant, Leslie W.

    2009-01-01

    The first book in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice series focuses on improving student achievement through academic goal setting. It offers the tools and plan of action to use performance data to improve instructional practice and increase student achievement. The book is divided into three parts: (1) How Student Achievement Data Can Be…

  13. Achievement Goals and Emotions: The Mediational Roles of Perceived Progress, Control, and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…

  14. Building on the Enriched Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Mastery Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Michou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two motivational theories – the Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory – have recently been combined to explain students’ motivation, making it possible to study the “what” and the “why” of learners’ achievement strivings. The present study built on this approach by (a investigating whether the distinction between autonomous or volitional and controlling or pressuring reasons can be meaningfully applied to the adoption of mastery-avoidance goals, (b investigating the concurrent and prospective relations between mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying reasons and learning strategies when mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons were also considered, and by (c incorporating psychological need experiences as an explanatory variable in the relation between achievement motives (i.e., the motive to succeed and motive to avoid failure and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons. In two Turkish university students samples ('N' = 226, 'Mage '= 22.36; 'N' = 331, 'Mage '= 19.5, autonomous and controlling reasons appeared applicable to mastery-avoidance goals and regression and path analysis further showed that mastery-avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous reasons fail to predicted learning strategies over and above the pursuit of mastery-approach goals and their underlying reasons. Finally, need experiences were established as mediators between achievement motives and both mastery goals and their underlying reasons.

  15. Colombian public policies contributing to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals in the health sector, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Grisales

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available During the General Assembly of the United Nations, in September 2000,189 countries (including Colombia committed to eight objectives leading to a more human and fairer world. Such objectives are called the Millennium Development Goals (mdg and to achieve them it is crucial to incorporate them in the action agendas of each country. The purpose of this monograph is to recognize current public policies in Colombia and Antioquia leading the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, specifically those related to the reduction of mortality among children less than 5 years of age, improvement of maternal health and fighting against hiv/aids, malaria and dengue.In Colombia, Conpes 91 of 2005 is the only guideline given by the Government establishing goals and strategies to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. Nevertheless, other policies, programs and projects before and even after the Millennium Statement (but without explicit purpose contribute to achieving such goals. Revision of those policies is an effort for the research project “Degree of contribution of public policies to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals related to the health sector, Antioquia, 2006”, which will evaluate the impact these guidelines have had in the achievement of the development goals in that particular sector.

  16. Perceived social loafing and anticipated effort reduction among young football (soccer) players: an achievement goal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høigaard, Rune; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motivational climates, personal achievement goals, and three different aspects of social loafing in football (soccer). 170 male competitive football players completed questionnaires assessing perceived motivational climate, achievement goal, and measures of perceived social loafing (anticipation of lower effort amongst their teammates and themselves). The results indicated a marginal but significant positive relationship between an ego-oriented achievement goal and perceived social loafing. In addition, a mastery climate was negatively associated with perceived social loafing and anticipation of lower effort of team members, particularly for athletes who also strongly endorsed a task-oriented achievement goal. A performance climate, in contrast, related positively with these two aspects of social loafing. A mastery climate also related negatively to the third aspect of social loafing, i.e., players' readiness to reduce their own effort in response to their perception of social loafing among their teammates. PMID:17688105

  17. The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 26 April). The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents. Presentation at the Learning & Cognition meeting, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  18. Relationship between Lifestyle Values and Achievement Goal Orientation among Vocational Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantara, Soontornpathai; Koul, Ravinder; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai

    2014-01-01

    This study brings models of value theory and motivational goal theory together to investigate the relationship between lifestyle values (materialism, religiosity, physical well-being and image) and achievement goal orientation of college students enrolled in vocational programmes in Thailand (N?=?1670, males?=?38.5% and females?=?61.5%). We found…

  19. Born to learn or born to win? Birth order effects on achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2011-01-01

    Given the widespread use and well-known consequences of achievement goals in different competence-relevant situations, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of how these differences in goal pursuit are formed. Using different analytic approaches, we show that birth order lies at the heart

  20. Achievement Goal Orientations and Subjective Well-Being: A Person-Centred Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether students with different achievement goal orientation profiles differ in terms of subjective well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, school-related burnout, and educational goal appraisals). Six groups of students with unique motivational profiles were identified. Observed differences in subjective well-being…

  1. Dominant Goal Orientations Predict Differences in Academic Achievement during Adolescence through Metacognitive Self-Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Lee, Nikki; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement was predicted by the goal which generally drives a student’s learning behaviour. Secondly, the role of metacognitive self-regulation was examined. The dominant goal orientation was assessed using a new method. 735 adolescents aged 10-19 years read

  2. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.L. Sijbom; O. Janssen; N.W. van Yperen

    2014-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders, perfo

  3. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  4. Academic Goals, Achievement, and Age at First Sexual Intercourse: Longitudinal, Bidirectional Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvaneveldt, Paul L.; Miller, Brent C.; Berry, E. Helen; Lee, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Children were used to test the hypothesis that lower educational goals and achievement is associated with initiating sexual intercourse at a younger age. Adolescents who had lower educational goals and who performed at lower academic levels were more likely to engage in sexual intercourse earlier. This was true for…

  5. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2014-01-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser–provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good ...

  6. An international validation study of two achievement goal measures in a pharmacy education context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrakaf S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saleh Alrakaf,1 Ahmed Abdelmageed,2 Mary Kiersma,2 Sion A Coulman,3 Dai N John,3 June Tordoff,4 Claire Anderson,5 Ayman Noreddin,6 Erica Sainsbury,1 Grenville Rose,7 Lorraine Smith11Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Manchester University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 6School of Pharmacy, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 7Aftercare, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor's Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ and Elliot and Murayama's revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R are widely used to assess students' achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA.Methods: In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit.Results: In contrast to the scale developers' findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study.Conclusion: Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and

  7. Academic achievement in 4th and 7th grade: The contribution of gender, parental education, achievement goals and intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Guðrún Anna Jónsdóttir 1974

    2012-01-01

    Four important factors that have been shown to correlate with academic performance are intelligence, family socioeconomic status, achievement goals and gender. The simultaneous contribution of these four predictors to academic achievement, as measured by the Icelandic National Examinations in two subject areas, language arts and mathematics, was examined in this study. The relative contribution of these factors was examined separately for fourth and seventh grade, as well as their contributio...

  8. Recognizing potential barriers to setting and achieving effective rehabilitation goals for patients with persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen G

    2016-07-01

    Although the process of goal setting in rehabilitation of individuals with persistent pain is considered a fundamental and requisite skill, it is frequently reported as a challenging element of clinical practice. Factors which may contribute to the complexity of goal setting include the potential for unrecognized shifts in cognitive function, psychological comorbidities, and the social context of both providers and patients. This review aims to describe factors which may confound the process of setting and achieving collaborative rehabilitation goals using a biopsychosocial framework and to provide recommendations to enhance goal setting effectiveness. PMID:27355159

  9. Recognizing potential barriers to setting and achieving effective rehabilitation goals for patients with persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen G

    2016-07-01

    Although the process of goal setting in rehabilitation of individuals with persistent pain is considered a fundamental and requisite skill, it is frequently reported as a challenging element of clinical practice. Factors which may contribute to the complexity of goal setting include the potential for unrecognized shifts in cognitive function, psychological comorbidities, and the social context of both providers and patients. This review aims to describe factors which may confound the process of setting and achieving collaborative rehabilitation goals using a biopsychosocial framework and to provide recommendations to enhance goal setting effectiveness.

  10. Achieving fruit, juice, and vegetable recipe preparation goals influences consumption by 4th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or vegetable recipes on student fruit and vegetable consumption as part of a 10-week fruit and vegetable intervention for fourth grade students. Methods At six of the 10 sessions, students (n = 671 selected a fruit-juice or vegetable recipe to prepare at home before the next session. Students returned parent-signed notes reporting their child's goal attainment. Baseline and post consumption were assessed with up to four days of dietary recalls. Analyses included regression models predicting post consumption from the number of fruit-juice or vegetable recipe preparation goals attained, controlling for baseline consumption. Results In general, girls and Hispanic students achieved the most recipe preparation goals. For students with highest baseline fruit-juice consumption, post fruit-juice consumption was higher by about 1.0 serving for those achieving 2 or 3 fruit-juice recipe preparation goals. Post vegetable consumption was highest for students reporting the highest baseline vegetable consumption and who achieved two or three vegetable recipe preparation goals. In general, recipe goal setting was a useful procedure primarily for those with high baseline consumption. Conclusion This is one of the first reports demonstrating that home recipe preparation was correlated with dietary change among children.

  11. Achieving fruit, juice, and vegetable recipe preparation goals influences consumption by 4th grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen W; Watson, Kathy B; Zakeri, Issa; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice H

    2007-01-01

    Background Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or vegetable recipes on student fruit and vegetable consumption as part of a 10-week fruit and vegetable intervention for fourth grade students. Methods At six of the 10 sessions, students (n = 671) selected a fruit-juice or vegetable recipe to prepare at home before the next session. Students returned parent-signed notes reporting their child's goal attainment. Baseline and post consumption were assessed with up to four days of dietary recalls. Analyses included regression models predicting post consumption from the number of fruit-juice or vegetable recipe preparation goals attained, controlling for baseline consumption. Results In general, girls and Hispanic students achieved the most recipe preparation goals. For students with highest baseline fruit-juice consumption, post fruit-juice consumption was higher by about 1.0 serving for those achieving 2 or 3 fruit-juice recipe preparation goals. Post vegetable consumption was highest for students reporting the highest baseline vegetable consumption and who achieved two or three vegetable recipe preparation goals. In general, recipe goal setting was a useful procedure primarily for those with high baseline consumption. Conclusion This is one of the first reports demonstrating that home recipe preparation was correlated with dietary change among children. PMID:17603875

  12. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.

  13. How University Students with Reading Difficulties Are Supported in Achieving Their Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university…

  14. Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement: Why Do Implicit Beliefs, Goals, and Effort Regulation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarraju, Meera; Nadler, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    We examined motivational orientations, cognitive-metacognitive strategies, and resource management in predicting academic achievement. Undergraduates (407) completed the Motivated Strategies Learning Questionnaire, Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale, Achievement Goal Inventory, and self-reported grade point average. A MANCOVA (controlling for…

  15. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  16. Achievement Goals, Motivation to Learn, and Mathematics Anxiety among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Colina, María D.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.; Furner, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a pilot study examining the feasibility of a research design to investigate how achievement goals relate to the construct of math anxiety. In addition, we also consider how other important achievement-related behaviors, like self-efficacy, help-seeking, and self-regulation, might also relate to students' math…

  17. Dominant achievement goals of older workers and their relationship with motivation-related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their domi

  18. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what’s next

    OpenAIRE

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets...

  19. How the "Meaningful Approach" of Curriculum 1994 can Help Achieve Your Goals - a Newcomer's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Young Palembang

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract :This paper looks at the goals of an English teacher and some ways in which we can achieve those goals using "Pendekatan Kebermaknaan" or the "Meaningful Approach" of Curriculum 1994. The linkage between "Pendekatan Kebermaknaan" and the "Com-municative Method" is also noted. The paper refers particularly to the concept of "integration" of the elements of language - such as structure, grammar and vocabulary - with the macro-skills - listening, speaking, reading and writing - as advocated by Curriculum 1994.

  20. Self-harm reasons, goal achievement, and prediction of future self-harm intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen P; Santor, Darcy A

    2010-05-01

    Self-harm may have several reasons, and these reasons may have corresponding implied goals. The current study examined reasons for self-harm and whether the a priori goals intended by these reasons were achieved. Fifty-seven individuals with a history of self-harm were recruited online and volunteered their time to complete a series of online questionnaires assessing past self-harm frequency, self-harm reasons, whether the goal associated with these reasons was achieved, and future self-harm intent. Reasons to reduce tension and dissociation associated with more past self-harm, a higher intent to self-harm again, and it was reported that the goals associated with reasons were achieved (i.e., these internal states were extinguished). Achievement of these goals (i.e., reported reductions in tension and dissociation) mediated the relation between corresponding self-harm reasons and intent to self-harm in the future. Findings support the view that self-harm is a maladaptive coping strategy and the reinforcement component of the experiential avoidance model of self-harm. Results have clinical implications and heuristic value for future research, which are discussed.

  1. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-09-01

    This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE. PMID:22273179

  2. Resilience influence, goals and social context in the academic achievement of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Concepción Gaxiola Romero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The academic achievement in high school students of Mexico, according to national and international evaluations has been insufficient. In spite of this situation, is possible to find excellent students, even in the context of sharing negative contextual and physical conditions. There are few investigations that describe the variables associated to resilient students. The alumni that are beyond the risks are called resilient (Rutter, 2007. The aim of this research was to explore and identify the internal variables: goals and resilience, and the external variables: risky neighborhood and risky friends that predicted the scholar achievement of high school students. To measure those variables, was used a compilation of scales validated in the region. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, and show that resilience predicted indirectly the scholar achievement trough the academic goals. The results could be used in programs to improve the academic achievement of this group of students.

  3. State downsizing as a determinant of infant mortality and achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4

    OpenAIRE

    Palma Solís, Marco Antonio; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Franco Giraldo, Álvaro; Hernández Aguado, Ildefonso; Pérez Hoyos, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide effect of state downsizing policies on achievement of U.N. Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) on infant mortality rates. In an ecological retrospective cohort study of 161 countries, from 1978 to 2002, the authors analyzed changes in government consumption (GC) as determining exposure to achievement of MDG4. Descriptive methods and a multiple logistic regression were applied to adjust for changes in gross domestic product, level of democra...

  4. Self-Determined Motivation and Social Achievement Goals in Children's Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…

  5. Antecedents and Trajectories of Achievement Goals: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Keith D.; Sheldon, Kennon M.; Hilpert, Jonathan C.; Easter, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that both achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (SDT) are quite useful in explaining student motivation and success in academic contexts. However, little is known about how the two theories relate to each other. Aim: The current research used SDT as a framework to understand why students enter classes…

  6. Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study. Roundtable presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Sp

  7. Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Objectively measured physical activity is negatively associated with academic achievement in adolescents: The GOALS Study. Roundtable presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  8. Associations between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: The GOALS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 12 November). Associations between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: The GOALS Study. Presentation at the Learning and Cognition plenary, Heerlen,

  9. Associations between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: The GOALS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 12 November). Associations between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: The GOALS Study. Presentation at the Learning and Cognition plenary, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  10. Saving for Success: Financial Education and Savings Goal Achievement in Individual Development Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance

    2011-01-01

    Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…

  11. Chinese Mindset: Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement in Hong Kong Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Wong, Yi-Lee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between theories of intelligence and goal orientations, and their joint connections to students' academic achievement in the Chinese cultural context. A total of 418 university students in Hong Kong participated in the present study. The survey was administered to collect information…

  12. A meta-analysis of the impact of situationally induced achievement goals on task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to meta-analyze studies which experimentally induced an achieve- ment goal state to examine its causal effect on the individual’s performance at the task at hand, and to investigate the moderator effects of feedback anticipation and time pressure. The data set compri

  13. Student-teacher relationships and achievement goal orientations : Examining student perceptions in an ethnically diverse sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J.T.; Fleischmann, F.

    2015-01-01

    Among an ethnically diverse sample of 803 preadolescent students (ages 9-13 years), the present study examined the associations between students’ perceptions of the student-teacher relationship and their achievement goal orientations. Multilevel analyses showed that students who perceived more close

  14. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  15. 38 CFR 21.53 - Reasonable feasibility of achieving a vocational goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and... employment handicap, or (2) A serious employment handicap. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3106(a)) (b) Definition. The... achievement of a vocational goal is not currently reasonably feasible, VA shall provide the...

  16. School Socio-Economic Status and Student Socio-Academic Achievement Goals in Upper Secondary Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Nathan; Archer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In recent years motivational researchers have spent considerable time examining race/ethnicity and gender differences in academic and social achievement goals, but little time examining the influence of socioeconomic status (SES). This lack of attention is surprising given that both student motivation and SES have been shown to predict academic…

  17. Transforming Schools with Technology: How Smart Use of Digital Tools Helps Achieve Six Key Education Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    In this timely and thoughtful book, Andrew Zucker argues that technology can and will play a central role in efforts to achieve crucial education goals, and that it will be an essential component of further improvement and transformation of schools. The book is marked not only by Zucker's cutting-edge sophistication about digital technologies, but…

  18. Achievement Goal Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Gender Invariance in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…

  19. How Achieving the Millennium Development Goals Increases Subjective Well-Being in Developing Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuki Fukuda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The target date in 2015 for the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs was reached, and a new period of global goals for the post-2015 is dawning. To assess whether and how regional progress towards achieving the MDGs has contributed to better quality of life in developing nations, we formulated a correlation between various aspects of human development, indicated by MDG indicators, and subjective well-being (SWB, a response to the question of how much people feel happy or satisfied. We demonstrated that national levels of SWB can be explained by the degree of development; poverty reduction is the strongest determinant, and achieving the MDGs is associated with higher SWB levels. Scenario assessment of SWB allowed which domain of development should be improved preferentially in each region to be determined, hence the SWB approach is expected to offer an innovative proxy of human development for the assessment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs.

  20. Examining Relationships between Academic and Social Achievement Goals and Routes to Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher O. Walker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among social and academic achievement goals and the route to happiness selected by a sample of college students. According to Waterman (1993 there are two distinct routes to happiness: eudaimonia and hedonic enjoyment. Hedonic enjoyment has been defined as the pursuit of proximal goals and immediate pleasure, while eudaimonia is best defined as the long-term commitment to pursue “self-realization” (Waterman, 1993. A sample of 132 college students completed a research packet containing an informed consent, demographics form, and three questionnaires. The results suggested that one’s route to happiness was related to the academic and social achievement goal orientation of the participants. A call is made for additional research to examine the interrelations among variables traditionally considered in cognitive-motivational research and variables considered to be a part of the positive psychology movement (e.g., happiness.

  1. Understanding and benchmarking health service achievement of policy goals for chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Erica

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Key challenges in benchmarking health service achievement of policy goals in areas such as chronic disease are: 1 developing indicators and understanding how policy goals might work as indicators of service performance; 2 developing methods for economically collecting and reporting stakeholder perceptions; 3 combining and sharing data about the performance of organizations; 4 interpreting outcome measures; 5 obtaining actionable benchmarking information. This study aimed to explore how a new Boolean-based small-N method from the social sciences—Qualitative Comparative Analysis or QCA—could contribute to meeting these internationally shared challenges. Methods A ‘multi-value QCA’ (MVQCA analysis was conducted of data from 24 senior staff at 17 randomly selected services for chronic disease, who provided perceptions of 1 whether government health services were improving their achievement of a set of statewide policy goals for chronic disease and 2 the efficacy of state health office actions in influencing this improvement. The analysis produced summaries of configurations of perceived service improvements. Results Most respondents observed improvements in most areas but uniformly good improvements across services were not perceived as happening (regardless of whether respondents identified a state health office contribution to that improvement. The sentinel policy goal of using evidence to develop service practice was not achieved at all in four services and appears to be reliant on other kinds of service improvements happening. Conclusions The QCA method suggested theoretically plausible findings and an approach that with further development could help meet the five benchmarking challenges. In particular, it suggests that achievement of one policy goal may be reliant on achievement of another goal in complex ways that the literature has not yet fully accommodated but which could help prioritize policy goals. The

  2. Do Goals Lead to Outcomes or Can It Be the Other Way Around?: Causal Ordering of Mastery Goals, Metacognitive Strategies, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Goal theory research has mostly focused on the unidirectional effects of goals on learning strategies and academic achievement. Reciprocal relationships have mostly been neglected. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to examine the reciprocal relations and causal ordering of mastery goals, metacognitive strategy use, and academic…

  3. Relationship between achievement goal constructs and physical self-perceptions in a physical activity setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Maria; Detling, Nicole; Kilgore, Jennifer; Bernhardt, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The relations of achievement goal theory constructs and physical self-perceptions were explored with 225 students (91 men, 109 women, and 25 nonindicators; M age=23.5 yr., SD=9.2), enrolled in basic physical activity classes (aerobics, weight training, modern dance, badminton, yoga, tai chi, basketball, racquetball, gymnastics, bowling, aquatone, and step aerobics) in a university setting. Goal orientations (Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire), perceptions of the motivational climate (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2), and physical self-perceptions (Physical Self-perception Profile) were assessed. Data were analyzed separately by sex. Ego orientation was the only predictor of Physical Self-perceptions in men, accounting for between 12 and 15% of the variance in Physical Self-worth, Sport Competence, Physical Conditioning, and Body Attractiveness. Constructs of achievement goal theory were not predictive of Physical Self-perceptions in the women. The results are discussed in light of achievement goal theory and the nature of the sample. PMID:15648467

  4. Relationship between achievement goal constructs and physical self-perceptions in a physical activity setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Maria; Detling, Nicole; Kilgore, Jennifer; Bernhardt, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The relations of achievement goal theory constructs and physical self-perceptions were explored with 225 students (91 men, 109 women, and 25 nonindicators; M age=23.5 yr., SD=9.2), enrolled in basic physical activity classes (aerobics, weight training, modern dance, badminton, yoga, tai chi, basketball, racquetball, gymnastics, bowling, aquatone, and step aerobics) in a university setting. Goal orientations (Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire), perceptions of the motivational climate (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2), and physical self-perceptions (Physical Self-perception Profile) were assessed. Data were analyzed separately by sex. Ego orientation was the only predictor of Physical Self-perceptions in men, accounting for between 12 and 15% of the variance in Physical Self-worth, Sport Competence, Physical Conditioning, and Body Attractiveness. Constructs of achievement goal theory were not predictive of Physical Self-perceptions in the women. The results are discussed in light of achievement goal theory and the nature of the sample.

  5. Efficacy of Midwifery Clinical Curriculum in Achieving Core Learning Goals: Tutors and Students Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dadgari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achievement of professional standards in all medical disciplines including midwifery is fulfilled via the achievement of goals in clinical education. Considering the importance of clinical curriculum this study was conducted to identify midwifery tutors and students point of view regarding the efficacy of the curriculum for the students to achieve the basic learning objectives. Methods: This study was a deh1ive analytic research conducted in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Subjects of this study were 57 senior students and 9 tutors. The research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 39 items covering basic clinical goals of three special courses namely "pregnancy" "delivery" and "obstetrics". Respondents replied to the items using a Likert-type scale ranging from "completely" to "not at all". Results: Comparison of the two groups of this study showed that they rated differently the achievement of learning goals in midwifery curriculum. Means of scores rated by students in the three courses namely "pregnancy" "delivery" and "obstetrics" were 65.0±18.2 50.9±24.8 and 54.4±25.5 respectively with the total average of 58.7±20.6. The finding of this study indicated a significant difference between students and tutors point of view scores regarding the achievement of basic learning goals by students. Conclusion: Based on these findings it seems necessary to conduct extensive modifications in educational clinical setting such as more collaboration between clinical staffs and educational personals and students insuring patients acceptance to students more active participation in the process of treatment to make students feel more competent.

  6. Values based decision making: a tool for achieving the goals of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne E; Spencer, Edward M

    2005-03-01

    The recognition that the success of the healthcare organization depends on its achievement of two interrelated goals is a relatively recent phenomenon. In its mid-history the healthcare organization was largely able to ignore cost issues. In its latter history, many would argue that it ignored its quality goals as it pursued its cost goals (15). Either approach, given declining revenues and a competitive landscape, is incompatible with continued responsible operation. If this is true, then tools that were appropriate when the healthcare organization was focused on the achievement of one or another of these goals are not adequate as the healthcare organization seeks to achieve both goals together. Thus, new perspectives and new tools must be found that help the organization address two intimately related but sometimes conflicting goals. Values based decision-making can be the perspective needed, and organization ethics is one tool that can be of use in supporting it within the institution. But there are caveats. In order for values based decision-making to be effective, leadership must take an active role in promoting its use. It must relinquish a degree of control and it must begin to trust its stakeholders to make decisions within the context of the organization's values and goals. This can be extremely difficult, as control by senior management is often seen as the only effective means of ensuring that correct decisions are made. There are additional difficulties in the healthcare organization. Control rests within two groups and the healthcare organization is operating in an environment in which variance elimination is emphasized as a means of controlling costs. This may be an appealing notion for revenue strapped healthcare organization leaders, but it implies greater control exerted by managers, not less. Relinquishing any degree of control is a frightening prospect, but it has been done successfully. An excellent example of leadership encouraging decisions

  7. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  8. Goal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of his son, Joshua Pauls. Josh is an energetic young man who learned at a very young age not to let anything stop him from achieving his dreams. Born with a birth defect known as bilateral bibia hemimelia, which means he was born without his tibia bone in both of his legs, Josh was only 10 months old…

  9. Academic Goals, Student Homework Engagement, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13). Findings show that: (a) academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b) the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, PMID:27065928

  10. Achievement Goals of Youngsters in Rio de Janeiro in Different Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara de Oliveira Ramos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the Future Goals of 160 youngsters (16-30 years-old; 71 female and 89 male. University students and slum-dwelling youth were compared. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, information about their families and two open questions: “What do you expect to do in your life that you consider very important?” and “Do you believe you’ll achieve that? Why?” Predicted differences in the participants’ answers between the two groups were observed. Favela youth showed higher levels of uncertainty while describing their goals and also presented lower scores of objectives. From an Evolutionary perspective of Psychology, through the Life Story Strategies Theory, we concluded that, for young people from different social contexts, the ways of planning the future tend to vary depending on the adaptability of achievement due to the present constraints in the youth’s realities.

  11. Biocomplementation of SVE to achieve clean up goals in soils contaminated with toluene and xylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Antonio; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás;

    2013-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioremediation (BR) are two of the most common soil remediation technologies. Their application is widespread; however, both present limitations, namely related to the efficiencies of SVE on organic soils and to the remediation times of some BR processes. This work...... aimed to study the combination of these two technologies in order to verify the achievement of the legal clean-up goals in soil remediation projects involving seven different simulated soils separately contaminated with toluene and xylene. The remediations consisted of the application of SVE followed...... by biostimulation. The results show that the combination of these two technologies is effective and manages to achieve the clean-up goals imposed by the Spanish Legislation. Under the experimental conditions used in this work, SVE is sufficient for the remediation of soils, contaminated separately with toluene...

  12. Linguistic validation of translation of the self-assessment goal achievement (saga) questionnaire from English

    OpenAIRE

    Piault Elisabeth; Doshi Sameepa; Brandt Barbara A; Angün Çolpan; Evans Christopher J; Bergqvist Agneta; Trocio Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A linguistic validation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire was conducted for 12 European languages, documenting that each translation adequately captures the concepts of the original English-language version of the questionnaire and is readily understood by subjects in the target population. Methods Native-speaking residents of the target countries who reported urinary problems/lower urinary tract problems were asked to review a translation of the...

  13. THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP AND ACHIEVEMENT GOALS IN PREDICTING ATHLETES’ SPORTSPERSONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Horng Lu, Frank; Hsu, Yawen

    2015-01-01

    Paternalistic leadership, which is a prevalent leadership style in business contexts in non-Western cultures, is characterized by three dimensions: authoritarianism, benevolence, and morality. The current study of 252 Taiwanese intercollegiate athletes (Mage=20.91 years) explored this leadership style in a sports setting and examined the extent to which the interaction of paternalistic leadership and achievement goals predicted athletes’ sportspersonship. Participants completed the Paterna...

  14. Quantitative analyses and modelling to support achievement of the 2020 goals for nine neglected tropical diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingsworth, TD; Adams, ER; Anderson, RM; Atkins, K.; Bartsch, S; Basáñez, MG; Behrend, M.; Blok, DJ; Chapman, LA; Coffeng, L; Courtenay, O; Crump, RE; de Vlas, SJ; Dobson, A.; Dyson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis and mathematical models are useful tools in informing strategies to control or eliminate disease. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop these tools to inform policy to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In this paper we give an overview of a collection of novel model-based analyses which aim to address key questions on the dynamics of transmission and control of nine NTDs: Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, human African trypanoso...

  15. Examining the Construct Validity of the Thai Version of the 2 × 2 Achievement Goal Orientation Scale among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poondej, Chanut; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita

    2016-01-01

    In the literature on motivational goals, there has been an increase on the interest of a concept of the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. However, evidences supporting the reliability and validity of this framework are still needed. The study reported in this paper was to validate the Thai version of the 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation scale by…

  16. Personal Best (PB) and "Classic" Achievement Goals in the Chinese Context: Their Role in Predicting Academic Motivation, Engagement and Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown personal best (PB) goals to be significantly related to students' motivation, engagement and achievement. However, research thus far has investigated PB goals only among Western samples and it is unclear to what extent PB goals hold academic merit in the Asian context. It is also unclear whether PB goals explain…

  17. 2 × 2 achievement goals profilEs in chilean CompetiTIve and recreational athletes: a first look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochbaum Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: was to examine the 2 × 2 achievement goal profiles of Chilean young adults regularly participating in competitive and recreational sport. Materials: participants were 108 female and 132 males who were recruited from the Valparaiso and Viña del Mar areas of Chile. Participants completed a valid and reliable measure of the 2 × 2 achievement goals referenced to sport participation. Results: indicated that the entire sample significantly ( p < .05 and very meaningfully (Hedges’ g range 1.13 - 2.91 endorsed the mastery-approach goal more so than the other three achievement goals. Male participants significantly ( p < .05 endorsed both approach goals and the mastery goal contrast more so than the female participants. These differences approached medium in meaningfulness (Hedges’ g range .40 - .46. Significant differences did not exist between competitive and recreational athletes on any of the achievement goals or goal contrasts. Confirming the lack of significant differences were the computed small to negligible in magnitude effect sizes. Conclusions: the present data were a first look into profiling sport participants on the 2 × 2 achievement goals in Chile. Given this sample of Chilean participants endorsed the performance goals far less than found in the sport psychology 2 × 2 achievement goal literature, more research is needed before these results are generalized to Chilean sport participants. Future research must also examine the relationships of antecedents and consequences to the 2 × 2 achievement goals to advance sport psychology in Chile.

  18. Economic costs of achieving current conservation goals in the future as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M Rebecca; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Cameron, D Richard; Mackenzie, Jason; Roehrdanz, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Conservation of biologically diverse regions has thus far been accomplished largely through the establishment and maintenance of protected areas. Climate change is expected to shift climate space of many species outside existing reserve boundaries. We used climate-envelope models to examine shifts in climate space of 11 species that are representative of the Mount Hamilton Project area (MHPA) (California, U.S.A.), which includes areas within Alameda, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, and San Benito counties and is in the state's Central Coast ecoregion. We used Marxan site-selection software to determine the minimum area required as climate changes to achieve a baseline conservation goal equal to 80% of existing climate space for all species in the MHPA through 2050 and 2100. Additionally, we assessed the costs associated with use of existing conservation strategies (land acquisition and management actions such as species translocation, monitoring, and captive breeding) necessary to meet current species-conservation goals as climate changes. Meeting conservation goals as climate changes through 2050 required an additional 256,000 ha (332%) of protected area, primarily to the south and west of the MHPA. Through 2050 the total cost of land acquisition and management was estimated at US$1.67-1.79 billion, or 139-149% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. To maintain 80% of climate space through 2100 required nearly 380,000 additional hectares that would cost $2.46-2.62 billion, or 209-219% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. Furthermore, maintaining 80% of existing climate space within California for 27% of the focal species was not possible by 2100 because climate space for these species did not exist in the state. The high costs of conserving species as the climate changes-that we found in an assessment of one conservation project-highlights the need for tools that will aid

  19. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  20. Academic goals, student homework engagement, and academic achievement in Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eValle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13. Findings show that: (a academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, (c homework time management was associated with the approach to homework; (d and the approach to homework, like the rest of the variables of the model (except for the time spent on homework, was related to the student's academic motivation (i.e., academic goals.

  1. Academic Goals, Student Homework Engagement, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C.; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13). Findings show that: (a) academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b) the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, (c) homework time management was associated with the approach to homework, (d) and the approach to homework, like the rest of the variables of the model (except for the time spent on homework), was related to the student's academic motivation (i.e., academic goals). PMID:27065928

  2. How Can Achievement Induce Loyalty? A Combination of the Goal-Setting Theory and Flow Theory Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-I Teng; Shao-Kang Lo; Yi-Jhen Li

    2012-01-01

    The motivation theory has identified achievement as a critical factor for online game play. However, how achievement induces gamer loyalty (the intention to play a certain game continuously) has not been explored. This study thus used the goal-setting theory to identify two achievement-related motivators: achievement striving (desire for achievements) and competence (confidence at obtaining achievements). Moreover, flow theory was used to develop hypotheses on how achievement striving and com...

  3. A meta-analysis of self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance across three achievement domains (work, sports, and education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico W Van Yperen

    Full Text Available During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of

  4. University Students' Emotion During Online Search Task: A Multiple Achievement Goal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming

    2016-07-01

    Endorsing a multiple goal perspective, students' academic emotions were examined with different goal profiles while solving learning tasks online. One hundred and seven Chinese undergraduates were classified based on the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework into three groups: Mastery-approach-focused, Approach-oriented, and Avoidance-oriented group. Participants' emotional states were assessed immediately prior to the task and following the task. Prior to the task, the Avoidance-oriented group reported significantly higher levels of deactivated negative emotion (i.e., bored and confused) than the Approach-oriented group. The Mastery-approach-focused group reported significantly higher levels of activated positive emotions (i.e., excited and eager) than the Avoidance-oriented group after the task. Within each group, all three groups followed a similar emotion change pattern prior versus after the search task in deactivated positive emotion, with a significant increase. In addition, the Mastery-approach-focused group also reported a significantly higher level of happiness after completing the task, whereas the other two groups did not report much change. The Avoidance-oriented group also reported a significant drop in the feeling of excitement, eagerness, anxiety, and nervousness; whereas, the Approach-oriented group reported a significantly higher level of confusion after the task was finished. Implications of the findings are further discussed. PMID:26914815

  5. Peer relationships in adolescent competitive soccer: associations to perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Roberts, Glyn C; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Miller, Blake W

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, achievement goals, perfectionism and indices of peer relationships in a sample of young male and female Norwegian soccer players. The sample consisted of 1719 experienced soccer players (1231 males, 488 females) aged 12-19 years (mean = 14.9 years) participating in the Norway Cup international youth soccer competition. The players responded to a questionnaire measuring perceived peer acceptance and quality of friendship in soccer, perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism in soccer. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that young female players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly mastery oriented, and who were moderately task oriented and scored negatively on maladaptive perfectionism, reported better relations with their peers in soccer. Constructive peer relations were evident in that they scored positively on companionship with their best friend in soccer; they perceived this friend as being loyal and allowing of free discussion, and they reported being socially accepted by their peers in soccer. Mirroring these findings, young male players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly performance oriented, who had a moderately negative score on task orientation but a quite strong positive score on maladaptive perfectionism, reported negative relationships with peers in terms of these aspects. They also reported being in conflict with their best soccer friend. The findings suggest that the qualities of motivation have a systematic relationship with peer acceptance and the quality of friendship in male and female youth soccer. PMID:16195049

  6. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lomazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs: The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs.The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results: Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention.Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion: The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework.

  7. Affect and achievement goals in physical activity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N; Biddle, S J

    1999-12-01

    Achievement goal orientation theory has been the subject of extensive research in recent years. In view of the importance of identifying the motivational antecedents of affect in physical activity, this study examined through meta-analysis the conflicting evidence regarding the links between different achievement goals and emotions. Using the formulas of Hunter and Schmidt (1), correlations were gathered from 41 independent samples and were corrected for both sampling and measurement errors. The results showed that task orientation and positive affect were moderately-to-highly correlated and in a positive fashion, whereas the relationship between task orientation and negative affect was negative and moderate to small. Both correlations were found to be heterogeneous, and so moderators were sought. The relationships between ego orientation and positive and negative affect were positive but very small, with the former being heterogeneous. Moderators coded were the time frame of affect (independent of context vs. after an athletic event), the physical activity setting (school physical education vs. recreation vs. competitive sport), age (university vs. school students), nationality (British vs. American), nature of negative affect (high vs. low arousal), and the publication status of the studies (published vs. unpublished). Lastly, a subset of the corrected correlations were inserted into a structural equation modelling analysis in order to look concurrently at the relationships among all the variables.

  8. Achievement of cardiometabolic goals in aware hypertensive patients in Spain: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, José R; Graciani, Auxiliadora; de la Cruz-Troca, Juan J; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Coca, Antonio; Ruilope, Luis M; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Despite the importance of achieving cardiometabolic goals beyond blood pressure, in the health of hypertensives, no comprehensive assessment of these characteristics has been performed in whole countries. We studied in 2008-2010 a total of 11 957 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged≥18 years. Information on cardiometabolic characteristics was collected at the participants' homes, through structured questionnaires, physical examination, and fasting blood samples. A total of 3983 individuals (33.3%) had hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive drug treatment), 59.4% were aware of their condition, 78.8% treated among those aware, and 48.5% controlled among those aware and treated (22.7% of all hypertensives). Of the aware hypertensives, 13.8% had a body mass indexphysical activity. In conclusion, in a European country with a well-developed, free-access healthcare system, achievement of many cardiometabolic goals among hypertensives is poor. Moreover, a serious deficiency in hypertension awareness and in the effectiveness of some lifestyle interventions among aware hypertensives is present. Greater effort is needed in the management of coexisting risk factors and on lifestyle medical advice to improve the cardiometabolic health of hypertensives. PMID:22949530

  9. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-11-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  10. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-11-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  11. The Relevance and Application of Goal Theory to Interpreting Indigenous Minority Group Motivation and Achievement in School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; And Others

    The goal theory of achievement argues that the goals stressed by schools have dramatic consequences for whether children develop a sense of self-efficacy, or whether they avoid challenging tasks, giving up when faced with failure. It is commonly believed that the goals stressed by Western-oriented schools are inappropriate to indigenous minority…

  12. Parental Behaviors and Adolescents' Achievement Goals at the Beginning of Middle School: Emotional Problems as Potential Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Recent literature on the determinants of academic motivation has shown that parenting and emotions are central elements in understanding students' achievement goals. The authors of this study set out to examine the predictive relationship between parental behaviors during the last year of elementary school and adolescents' achievement goals at the…

  13. College Students' Achievement Goal Orientation and Motivational Regulations in Physical Activity Classes: A Test of Gender Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…

  14. From Self-Theories of Intelligence to Academic Delay of Gratification: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; AL-Nabhani, Hilal Z.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among implicit self-theories, achievement goals, and academic delay of gratification. Do achievement goals mediate the relationship between implicit self-theories and academic delay of gratification? A sample of 195 Omani high school students rated themselves on three measures tapping these constructs. A path…

  15. Achieving the health Millennium Development Goals for South Africa: challenges and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Mickey; Lawn, Joy E; Sanders, David; Barron, Peter; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Flisher, Alan J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tollman, Stephen M; Churchyard, Gavin J; Coovadia, Hoosen

    2009-09-19

    15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However The Lancet's Series on South Africa has identified several examples of leadership and innovation that point towards a different future scenario. We discuss the type of vision, leadership, and priority actions needed to achieve such a change. We still have time to change the health trajectory of the country, and even meet the MDGs. The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost?

  16. Empirical links between achievement goal theory and self-determination theory in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the empirical links between achievement goal theory and self-determination theory in sport. Addressing theoretical and methodological limitations of previous research, the study tested the independent and interactive effects of goal orientations and perceived competence on seven motivational variables with different degrees of self-determination. Regression analyses of data collected from 247 British university students showed that task orientation predicted motivational variables with high self-determination. In contrast, ego orientation predicted motivational variables with low self-determination. Perceived competence predicted both high self-determined and low self-determined motivational variables. A significant interaction emerged between task and ego orientations in predicting external regulation. The results suggest the adaptive role of task orientation in facilitating self-determined motivation in sport. However, the findings are not conclusive, as the variance explained in most analyses was relatively small. Suggestions are offered for a more comprehensive empirical testing of the links between the two theories. PMID:11411776

  17. On the Need for Rethinking Current Practice that Highlights Goal Achievement Risk in an Enterprise Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aven, Eyvind; Aven, Terje

    2015-09-01

    This article addresses the issue of how performance and risk management can complement each other in order to enhance the management of an enterprise. Often, we see that risk management focuses on goal achievements and not the enterprise risk related to its activities in the value chain. The statement "no goal, no risk" is a common misconception. The main aim of the article is to present a normative model for describing the links between performance and risk, and to use this model to give recommendations on how to best structure and plan the management of an enterprise in situations involving risk and uncertainties. The model, which has several novel features, is based on the interaction between different types of risk management (enterprise risk management, task risk management, and personal risk management) and a structure where the enterprise risk management overrules both the task and personal risk management. To illustrate the model we use the metaphor of a ship, where the ship is loaded with cash-generating activities and has a direction over time determined by the overall strategic objectives. Compared to the current enterprise risk management practice, the model and related analysis are founded on a new perspective on risk, highlighting knowledge and uncertainties beyond probabilities. PMID:25930689

  18. Social loafing and identifiability: the mediating role of achievement goal orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, A

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if differences in the tendency to exhibit social loafing is a function of achievement-goal orientation and identifiability. Ninety-six males drawn from 10th-grade physical education classes responded to the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992) prior to completing a 30-meter sprint task under three separate conditions: as an individual, in a team with individual performance identified, and in a team with individual performance not identified. Following a median split of the task and ego values reported, subjects were divided into high and low groups for both orientations. Sprint times were compared by means of a 2 x 2 x 3 ANOVA (task x ego x sprint condition) with repeated measures on the third factor. Findings revealed that individuals with a combined low task/high ego orientation were significantly slower in the nonidentifiable team condition than in the other two conditions, whereas high-task/low-ego-oriented individuals demonstrated consistent performance across all three conditions. While confirming that identifiability of performance is an important situational variable, the findings suggest that the dispositional factor of achievement orientation may interact to provide a more detailed explanation of the social loafing phenomenon. PMID:8888422

  19. Carbon nanotubes as vectors for gene therapy: past achievements, present challenges and future goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Katie; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2013-12-01

    Promising therapeutic and prophylactic effects have been achieved following advances in the gene therapy research arena, giving birth to the new generation of disease-modifying therapeutics. The greatest challenge that gene therapy vectors still face is the ability to deliver sufficient genetic payloads in order to enable efficient gene transfer into target cells. A wide variety of viral and non-viral gene therapy vectors have been developed and explored over the past 10years, including carbon nanotubes. In this review we will address the application of carbon nanotubes as non-viral vectors in gene therapy with the aim to give a perspective on the past achievements, present challenges and future goals. A series of important topics concerning carbon nanotubes as gene therapy vectors will be addressed, including the benefits that carbon nanotubes offer over other non-viral delivery systems. Furthermore, a perspective is given on what the ideal genetic cargo to deliver using carbon nanotubes is and finally the geno-pharmacological impact of carbon nanotube-mediated gene therapy is discussed.

  20. An investigation of the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the use of stress coping strategies with canonical correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Çetin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the use of stress-coping strategies among college students. The sample consisted of 532 university students who were enrolled in different programs at Sakarya University, in Turkey. Of the participants, 279 were female and 253 were male. To assess strategies typically used in coping with stressful situations, the Coping Scale (Ozbay & Olivarez, 1999 and to measure achievement goal orientations of the sample the Achievement Goal Orientations Scale (Midgley et al.,1998 were administrated. Canonical correlation and MANOVA were conducted to statistically analyze the data. Consistent with hypotheses, results demonstrated that there were high relationships between students’ achievement goal orientations and their use of coping strategies.

  1. A Path Analysis of Basic Need Support, Self-Efficacy, Achievement Goals, Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement Level among Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Danielsen, Anne G.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' support of basic psychological needs, self-efficacy, achievement goals, life satisfaction and academic achievement level was measured in a sample of 240 secondary school students (8th and 10th grades). Correlation analysis showed significant positive relations between all of the variables, except for the relation between need support of…

  2. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self Handicapping as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Intrinsic Achievement Motivation and Negative Automatic Thoughts in Adolescence Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…

  3. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students' achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In ord

  4. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: relations between students’ achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, Patrick H.M.; Joolingen, van Wouter R.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; Hout-Wolters, van Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In ord

  5. Organizational and media stress among professional football players: testing an achievement goal theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, E; Halvari, H; Roberts, G C

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M(age) =25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects.

  6. Student Veteran perceptions of facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya B. Norman, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to recent estimates, over 1 million Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Veterans are utilizing the post-9/11 GI Bill to pursue higher education. Data collected by the Department of Defense suggests that greater than 17% of returning Veterans may experience mental and physical health disorders, which can negatively affect school performance. The current study explored student Veterans' perceived facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals. Thirty-one student Veterans completed self-report measures and interviews. Results suggested that Veterans who were reporting problems or symptoms in one mental or physical health domain were likely to be reporting symptoms or problems in others as well. The interview data were coded, and three overarching themes related to barriers and facilitators emerged: person features (e.g., discipline and determination, symptoms and stressors, institutional structure (i.e., what schools and the Department of Veterans Affairs do that was perceived to help or hinder student Veteran success, and policy concerns (i.e., how the structure of the GI Bill affects student Veteran school experience. Results from this research indicate the need for larger studies and program development efforts aimed at enhancing academic outcomes for Veterans.

  7. Multiple Goals, Satisfaction, and Achievement in University Undergraduate Education: A Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) Project Research Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Roebken, Heinke

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between student goal orientation and student satisfaction, academic engagement, and achievement. A variety of studies has shown that the type of goal orientation determines students’ cognitive and behavioral reactions as well as their educational performance. Using data on 2309 college students from the University of California Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES), this study analyzes the relationship between different types of goal orientations and s...

  8. The Role of Personal Best (PB) and Dichotomous Achievement Goals in Students' Academic Motivation and Engagement: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the role of prior personal best goals in predicting subsequent academic motivation and engagement. A total of 1160 high school students participated in a longitudinal survey study exploring the extent to which personal best and mastery and performance (dichotomous) achievement goals predict students' academic motivation and…

  9. Zambian Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Views on Chemistry Education Goals and Challenges for Achieving Them in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Zambian preservice chemistry teachers' views on the goals of chemistry education, the importance of the goals, and challenges for achieving them in schools. The study sample was comprised of 59 pre-service chemistry teachers at the University of Zambia. Data were collected using a modified Likert-scale questionnaire that…

  10. Evaluation of Educational Goals Achievement in Fundamental Nursing Clinical Skills: Application OSCE among Senior Nursing Students in ICU

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Dadvar; Ali Dadgari; Malihe Mirzaee; Maryam Rezaee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Clinical education is an essential component and the heart of nursing education. Nursing is a practice-based discipline and the evaluation of educational goal achievement of nursing competency is essential. The objective of this study was to identify the achievement of clinical educational goals in fundamental skills among senior nursing students in ICU. Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted on 56 senior nursing students. Subjects of this study were purp...

  11. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  12. An investigation of the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the use of stress coping strategies with canonical correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin, Bayram; Akın, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the use of stress-coping strategies among college students. The sample consisted of 532 university students who were enrolled in different programs at Sakarya University, in Turkey. Of the participants, 279 were female and 253 were male. To assess strategies typically used in coping with stressful situations, the Coping Scale (Ozbay & Olivarez, 1999) and to measure achievement goal orientations ...

  13. A Longitudinal Analysis of Elementary School Students' Achievement Goals in Literacy Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Judith L.; Miller, Samuel D.

    2001-10-01

    The authors examined the temporal stability of elementary school students' (N = 432) motivation goals (task-mastery, performance, and work-avoidant) for literacy activities in the classroom. Task-specific assessments of students' goals were collected in the fall and spring of Grades 3, 4, and 5. Stability coefficients indicated a reasonable degree of consistency in students' goal responses over time, even though goals were initially assessed in relation to a specific learning assignment. However, there were also significant mean-level changes in students' goals within the school year and significant linear declines in task-mastery and performance goals over time. Changes were consistent across gender groups and across ability levels. Additionally, changes in task-mastery goal ratings explained variations in students' reported use of active learning strategies in reading and writing activities. The important implications of this study for future research are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11681828

  14. A general strategy to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiency using lipid-nanoparticle composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Chao, Jui-I; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-09-01

    Gene therapy provides a new hope for previously "incurable" diseases. Low gene transfection efficiency, however, is the bottle-neck to the success of gene therapy. It is very challenging to develop non-viral nanocarriers to achieve ultra-high gene transfection efficiencies. Herein, we report a novel design of "tight binding-but-detachable" lipid-nanoparticle composite to achieve ultrahigh gene transfection efficiencies of 60∼82%, approaching the best value (∼90%) obtained using viral vectors. We show that Fe@CNPs nanoparticles coated with LP-2000 lipid molecules can be used as gene carriers to achieve ultra-high (60-80%) gene transfection efficiencies in HeLa, U-87MG, and TRAMP-C1 cells. In contrast, Fe@CNPs having surface-covalently bound N,N,N-trimethyl-N-2-methacryloxyethyl ammonium chloride (TMAEA) oligomers can only achieve low (23-28%) gene transfection efficiencies. Similarly ultrahigh gene transfection/expression was also observed in zebrafish model using lipid-coated Fe@CNPs as gene carriers. Evidences for tight binding and detachability of DNA from lipid-nanoparticle nanocarriers will be presented. PMID:24973297

  15. Smoothing out transitions: how pedagogy influences medical students' achievement of self-regulated learning goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Casey B

    2007-08-01

    Medical school is an academic and developmental path toward a professional life demanding self-regulation and self-education. Thus, many medical schools include in their goals for medical student education their graduates' ability to self-assess and self-regulate their education upon graduation and throughout their professional lives. This study explores links between medical students' use of self-regulated learning as it relates to motivation, autonomy, and control, and how these influenced their experiences in medical school. Subjects were medical students in two distinct medical school environments, "Problem-based learning" and "Traditional." PBL students described a rough transition into medical school, but once they felt comfortable with the autonomy and control PBL gave them, they embraced the independence and responsibility. They found themselves motivated to learning for learning's sake, and able to channel their motivation into effective transitions from the classrooms into the clerkships. Traditional students had a rougher transition from the classrooms to the clerkships. In the first two years they relied on faculty to direct and control learning, and they channeled their motivation toward achieving the highest grade. In the clerkships, they found faculty expected them to be more independent and self-directed than they felt prepared to be, and they struggled to assume responsibility for their learning. Self-regulated learning can help smooth out the transitions through medical school by preparing first and second year students for expectations in the third and fourth years, which can then maximize learning in the clinical milieu, and prepare medical students for a lifetime of learning.

  16. Critical appraisal of the role of pitavastatin in treating dyslipidemias and achieving lipid goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Saito

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi SaitoPresident, Chiba University, Chiba, JapanAbstract: Pitavastatin is a potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor and efficient hepatocyte low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C receptor inducer, producing robust reduction of the serum LDL-C levels, even at a low dose. Pitavastatin and its lactone form are minimally metabolized by CYP enzymes, and are therefore associated with minimal drug–drug interactions (DDIs. Pitavastatin 2 to 4 mg has potent LDL-C-reducing activity, equivalent to that of atorvastatin 10 to 20 mg; several clinical trials have revealed consistently superior high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C elevating activity of pitavastatin than that of atorvastatin. Pitavastatin-induced HDL-C elevation has been shown to be sustained, even incremental, in long-term clinical trials. Pitavastatin was as well-tolerated as atorvastatin or simvastatin in double-blind randomized clinical trials. Two-year long-term safety and effectiveness of pitavastain has been confirmed in a large-scale, prospective post-marketing surveillance. The safety and efficacy profile of pitavastatin is favorable for the treatment of dyslipidemia, especially in metabolic syndrome patients. In addition to control of LDL-C, adequate control of triglyceride (TG and HDL-C, hypertension and hyperglycemia is also necessary in metabolic syndrome patients. Pitavastatin produces adequate control of LDL-C and TG, along with potent and incremental HDL-C elevation, with a low frequency of DDIs.Keywords: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, pitavastatin, eff icacy, safety, drug–drug interaction

  17. Task- and Self-Related Pathways to Deep Learning: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals, Classroom Attentiveness, and Group Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Shun; Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The expectancy-value and achievement goal theories are arguably the two most dominant theories of achievement motivation in the contemporary literature. However, very few studies have examined how the constructs derived from both theories are related to deep learning. Moreover, although there is evidence demonstrating the links between…

  18. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  19. The Influence of Momentary Classroom Goal Structures on Student Engagement and Achievement in High School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science.…

  20. Achievement Goals and Coping Strategies: Identifying the Traditional/Nontraditional Students Who Use Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed 178 undergraduates to investigate whether differences exist between traditional and nontraditional students' goal orientations and/or coping strategies and to investigate relationships between goal orientations and coping strategies. Using the variables age, marital status, parental status, and whether time was ever taken off from…

  1. An explanatory model of academic achievement based on aptitudes, goal orientations, self-concept and learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel

    2012-03-01

    As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.

  2. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V P

    2012-12-01

    .5 billion in the coming years against the annual requirement of US$ 5 billion. While appreciating the foreign assistance, we wish to highlight the fact that unless we have internal strength of resources and manpower, sustained battles against malaria may face serious problems in achieving the final goal of malaria elimination.

  3. Roads from Rio+20. Pathways to achieve global sustainability goals by 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vuuren, D. (ed.); Kok, M. (ed.); Van der Esch, S.; Jeuken, M.; Lucas, P.; Prins, Anne-Gerdien; Alkemade, R.; Van den Berg, M.; Hilderink, H.; Kram, T.; Stehfest, E.; De Vries, B. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Biermann, F.; Van der Grijp, N.; Pattberg, P. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Melamed, C.; Scott, A.; Te Velde, D.W.; Wiggins, S. [Overseas Development Institute ODI, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    This report analyses how combinations of technological measures and changes in consumption patterns could contribute to achieving a set of sustainability objectives, taking into account the interlinkages between them. The potential exists for achieving all of the objectives.

  4. The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 12 April). De GOALS Studie: De associatie tussen fysieke activiteit, cognitieve prestaties en schoolprestaties van adolescenten. Presentatie gegeven tijdens kennismakingsbezoek Nationaal Initiatief Hersenen en Cognitie, Heerlen, Nederlan

  5. The GOALS Study: The association between physical activity, cognitive performance, and academic achievement in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 12 April). De GOALS Studie: De associatie tussen fysieke activiteit, cognitieve prestaties en schoolprestaties van adolescenten. Presentatie gegeven tijdens kennismakingsbezoek Nationaal Initiatief Hersenen en Cognitie, Heerlen, Nederland.

  6. “One-size-fits-all”? Differentiation in destinations’ marketing goals and strategies to achieve them

    OpenAIRE

    Avraham, Eli; Ketter, Eran

    2015-01-01

    While tourism marketing literature tends to present marketing as a ‘one-size-fits-all’ process, the current study suggests various destination marketing goals. Until today, the literature mainly concentrated on analyzing marketing strategies, tactics, tools and initiatives for enhancing and perceiving tourism, while other marketing goals were neglected, such as marketing unfamiliar destinations or promoting tourism during and after tourism crises. The purpose of this study is to propose the m...

  7. Trends in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal achievement in high risk United States adults: longitudinal findings from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Tattersall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated gaps in achievement of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C goals among U.S. individuals at high cardiovascular disease risk; however, recent studies in selected populations indicate improvements. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the longitudinal trends in achieving LDL-C goals among high-risk United States adults from 1999-2008. METHODS: We analyzed five sequential population-based cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2008, which included 18,656 participants aged 20-79 years. We calculated rates of LDL-C goal achievement and treatment in the high-risk population. RESULTS: The prevalence of high-risk individuals increased from 13% to 15.5% (p = 0.046. Achievement of LDL-C <100 mg/dL increased from 24% to 50.4% (p<0.0001 in the high-risk population with similar findings in subgroups with (27% to 64.8% p<0.0001 and without (21.8% to 43.7%, p<0.0001 coronary heart disease (CHD. Achievement of LDL-C <70 mg/dL improved from 2.4% to 17% (p<0.0001 in high-risk individuals and subgroups with (3.4% to 21.4%, p<0.0001 and without (1.7% to 14.9%, p<0.0001 CHD. The proportion with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL and not on lipid medications decreased from 29.4% to 18% (p = 0.0002, with similar findings among CHD (25% to 11.9% p = 0.0013 and non-CHD (35.8% to 20.8% p<0.0001 subgroups. CONCLUSION: The proportions of the U.S. high-risk population achieving LDL-C <100 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL increased over the last decade. With 65% of the CHD subpopulation achieving an LDL-C <100 mg/dL in the most recent survey, U.S. LDL-C goal achievement exceeds previous reports and approximates rates achieved in highly selected patient cohorts.

  8. Academic Goals, Student Homework Engagement, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Antonio; Regueiro, Bibiana; José C Núñez; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time managem...

  9. Quantitative analyses and modelling to support achievement of the 2020 goals for nine neglected tropical diseases Quantitative analysis of strategies to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases: Where are we now?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Hollingsworth (T. Déirdre); E.R. Adams (Emily R.); R.M. Anderson (Roy M.); K. Atkins (Katherine); S. Bartsch (Sarah); M-G. Basáñez (María-Gloria); M. Behrend (Matthew); D.J. Blok (David); L.A.C. Chapman (Lloyd A. C.); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); O. Courtenay (Orin); R.E. Crump (Ron E.); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); A.P. Dobson (Andrew); L. Dyson (Louise); H. Farkas (Hajnal); A.P. Galvani (Alison P.); M. Gambhir (Manoj); D. Gurarie (David); M.A. Irvine (Michael A.); S. Jervis (Sarah); M.J. Keeling (Matt J.); L. Kelly-Hope (Louise); C. King (Charles); B.Y. Lee (Bruce Y.); E.A. le Rutte (Epke A.); T.M. Lietman (Thomas M.); M. Ndeffo-Mbah (Martial); G.F. Medley (Graham F.); E. Michael (Edwin); A. Pandey (Abhishek); J.K. Peterson (Jennifer K.); A. Pinsent (Amy); T.C. Porco (Travis C.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); L. Reimer (Lisa); K.S. Rock (Kat S.); B.K. Singh (Brajendra K.); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); S. Swaminathan (Subramanian); S.J. Torr (Steve J.); J. Townsend (Jeffrey); J. Truscott (James); M. Walker (Martin); A. Zoueva (Alexandra)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractQuantitative analysis and mathematical models are useful tools in informing strategies to control or eliminate disease. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop these tools to inform policy to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In this paper we give an ov

  10. Achieving Educational Goals in Neurology Ward from the Viewpoint of Clinical Clerkship at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Razazian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In medical education, setting goals for clinical clerkship is the responsibility of educational groups. Taking the students' opinions into account, it is possible to study the efficacy of education in terms of learning and achieving educational goals. (1In periodontics and restorative departments of Shahed and Tehran University of Medical Sciences, it is reported that, achieving educational goals is not poss-ible (2. Also, some studies have reported the inadequacy of educational objectives in anesthesia clerkship from the viewpoint of medical students (3. In this descriptive-analytic study, 166 medical students of neurology wards at Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah during 2011- 2012 were selected via a survey to study the achievement rate of educational goals. We used a questionnaire to collect data. Reliability of the questionnaire (including content and face validity was obtained via consulting with ten faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.The mean age of the participants was 21.34 (±1.43 years. 60.5% of them were females. 3.6% were freshmen and 49.9% were sophomores. 79.5% knew the goals before the start of clinical clerkship and 76.5% took part in the justification session in which their responsibility and method of evaluation were presented. 78.3% of them received the emergency protocol of Neurology. Overall, the participants ranked the goal achievement as high (41.6%, well (45.2% and medium (23.3%. There was no statistically significantly association between achieving educational goals and age and clinical clerkship period. However, there was a statis¬tically significantly association between the increase rate of achieving educational goals and introducing the objectives at the beginning of clinical clerkship period (p=0.011, justification session at the beginning of clinical clerkship (p=0.019 being familiar with emergency protocols of Neurology (p=0.04 and the season (winter in comparison with fall and spring in

  11. Differential influences of achievement approach goals and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on help-seeking in e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance yet paucity of help-seeking in e-learning, the present study investigated the motivational antecedents of help-seeking among online college students. We explored and compared the influences of achievement approach goals from the old and new achievement motivation models (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Elliot, Murayama, & Pekrun, 2011 on online students’ help-seeking through intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Path analyses were used to test two models of help-seeking among college students from four online educational psychology classes (N = 93 based on the two models of achievement goals. Our results showed that the new 3 × 2 model was a better fit than the old 2 × 2 model, suggesting that the achievement approach goals of the new model differ from those of the old model conceptually as Elliot, Murayama, and Pekrun (2011 posited. Second, our results revealed both unexpected direct and indirect positive influence of performance- and other-approach goals on online students’ help-seeking behaviour through extrinsic motivation. Third, while mastery-approach goals indirectly predicted help-seeking through intrinsic motivation, self- and task-approach predicted help-seeking in a dramatically different manner. Self-approach goals displayed indirect influence on help-seeking through intrinsic motivation similar to mastery-approach, yet task-approach displayed a negative direct influence on help-seeking. These results suggested the potential positive impact of self-approach and the detrimental influence of task-approach goals on help-seeking in e-learning environment. Conceptual issues and pedagogical implications for online instructions are discussed.

  12. Achieving Service-Learning Goals in a Financial Accounting Class Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Darwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A financial accounting class in a Philippine university has a service-learning group project that involves setting up a simple accounting system for microenterprises. Aims: This paper examines the extent to which service-learning goals such as course learning, teamwork, civic responsibility, and impact on the client organization are…

  13. A Qualitative Study of the Achievement Goals of Recreational Exercise Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Helen; Morris, Tony; Moore, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for many of today's leading causes of ill health. In-order to increase physical activity (PA) participation and information about why people engage in PA is needed. We interviewed 11 recreational exercise participants to examine their goals for participating in recreational exercise. Our results revealed…

  14. Feedback type as a moderator of the relationship between achievement goals and feedback reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Janssen, Onne; Duyck, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to shed new light on the inconsistent relationship between performance-approach (PAp) goals and feedback reactions by examining feedback type as a moderator. Results of a field experiment (N = 939) using a web-based work simulation task showed that the effect of achie

  15. Effects of Graphing, Goal Setting, and Conferencing on Reading and Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Amy T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving foundational academic skills for elementary level students continues to be a challenge for classroom teachers. This study implemented weekly progress monitoring procedures using curriculum-based measurement assessments in conjunction with weekly individual student-teacher graphing and goal-setting conferences to determine the effect the…

  16. Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goals, Engagement, and Achievement in a Diverse High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…

  17. Students' Explanatory Style, Goal Orientation and Achievement in Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Shirley M.

    During childhood students develop habitual, characteristic, optimistic or pessimistic causal explanations for the everyday events in their lives. Furthermore, they acquire attributional patterns for their educational successes and failures which influence their attitudes, motivations and goals. In this study, relationships between primary and…

  18. Achievement of Therapeutic Goals with Low-Dose Imiglucerase in Gaucher Disease: A Single-Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Tukan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder, is a multisystem disorder with variable and unpredictable onset and severity. Disease-specific enzyme replacement therapy (ERT has been shown to reverse or ameliorate disease-specific hepatosplenomegaly and anemia and thrombocytopenia. ERT also impacts bone manifestations, including bone crises, bone pain, and appearance of new osteonecrosis, and improves bone mineral density to varying degrees. The objective of this study was to assess achievement of predefined therapeutic goals based on international registry outcomes for Israeli patients with Gaucher disease receiving imiglucerase for four consecutive years on a low-dose regimen followed in a single center. All data were taken from patient files. The therapeutic goals were taken from standards published in the literature for disease-specific clinical parameters. Among 164 patients at baseline, values for spleen and liver volumes, hemoglobin and platelet counts, and Z-scores for lumbar spine and femoral were significantly different from the goal. After four years ERT, there was a significant improvement ( in each of the therapeutic goal parameters from baseline. 15.2% of these patients achieved all hematology-visceral goals. In children, there was achievement of linear growth and puberty. This survey highlights the good overall response in symptomatic patients receiving low-dose ERT with imiglucerase in Israel.

  19. The role of siblings in goal achievement in residential child care programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Martín

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the child welfare system, when groups of siblings are placed in residential care it is recommendedto keep them together. The goal of this work is to verify whether keeping groups of siblings together inresidential care is beneficial. The sample was made up of 167 children and adolescents who lived insupervised homes; 105 (62.9% were with siblings and 62 (37.1% were alone. We analyzed the evolution oftheir scores on the monthly goal observation scale of the SERAR (Del Valle and Bravo, 2007. The resultsindicate that, in general, children who are with their siblings obtain more benefits than children who arealone, especially in the dimensions of the residential setting. Nevertheless, when stays are too long, socialinteraction within the residence worsens in the groups of siblings. These results are discussed with regardto prior research and its practical implications.

  20. Climate cure 2020 measures and instruments to achieve Norwegian climate goals by 2020. Chapter 10 - the transport sector analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)

  1. The Role of Academic Help-Seeking Attitudes, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Dissertation Self-Efficacy in Dissertation Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Tisha Stoll

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored socialization variables (academic discipline, part-time versus full-time enrollment status, and student involvement with research and teaching assistantships) and educational psychological variables (academic help-seeking attitudes, achievement goal orientations, and dissertation self-efficacy) in relation to…

  2. Investigating Predictive Role of 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientations on Learning Strategies with Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Mehraneh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between achievement goal orientations and Learning Strategies. The sample of study consists of 350 public high school students (135 males and 215 females, mean age: 17 ± 0.65) from two high schools in Kerman province of Iran selected by random multistage cluster sampling method. In this…

  3. The Pivotal Role of Effort Beliefs in Mediating Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Achievement Goals and Academic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…

  4. Prospective analysis of LDL-C goal achievement and self-reported medication adherence among statin users in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bermingham, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    Improvements in the control of LDL-C levels have occurred in the past decade due to the introduction of increasingly potent statins, such as atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Many patients, however, do not achieve their LDL-C goals, which presents a practical dilemma for clinicians and highlights the need to identify adherence problems in a clinically relevant manner.

  5. LinguaFolio Goal Setting Intervention and Academic Achievement: Increasing Student Capacity for Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Oxana D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a shift from thinking less about teaching and more about learning. Such a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to student-centered instruction requires students to think about their own learning and to monitor their own learning development and language achievement. Researchers have identified goal setting…

  6. Does the Confidence of First-Year Undergraduate Students Change over Time According to Achievement Goal Profile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the changes in students' academic behavioural confidence over the course of their first year of academic study and whether changes differ by their achievement goal profile. Self-report data were collected from 434 participants in three waves: at the beginning of the first semester of their first year of undergraduate study, at…

  7. The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Markandya, Anil; Setboonsarng, Sununtar; Hui, Qiao Yu; Songkranok, Rachanee; Stefan, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the costs of organic agriculture (OA) programs, and sets them in the context of the costs of attaining the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It analyzes the costs of OA programs in four case studies: Wanzai, PRC; Wuyuan, PRC; Kandy, Sri Lanka; and Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. The results show considerable variation across the case studies, suggesting that there is no clear structure to the costs of adopting OA. Costs do depend on the efficien...

  8. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to ...

  9. The Environmental Millennium Development Goal: progress and barriers to its achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Donat Castelló, Lucas; Gil González, Diana; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Hernández Aguado, Ildefonso

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring environmental sustainability is the aim of the seventh Millennium Development Goal (MDG7). United Nations data shows insufficient progress, especially in developing countries. In order to generate new information about this progress and the main barriers that hinder it, we conducted a systematic review to describe the scientific evidence concerning MDG7, and to analyse the quality of the studies. In order to identify all empirical quantitative studies (ecological, descriptive study, ...

  10. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhago George M; Ngalesoni Frida N; Norheim Ole F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortal...

  11. Type of dyslipidemia and achievement of the LDL-cholesterol goal in chronic kidney disease patients at the University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsawang T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tamon Sangsawang, Apiradee SriwijitkamolDivision of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Chronic kidney disease (CKD has been defined as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent. Therefore, the current guideline has been recommended for CKD patients to reach and maintain a low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C goal of less than 100 mg/dL. However, the data regarding the achievement of LDL-C goal in these patients is lacking.Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the types of dyslipidemia affecting patients with CKD stages 3 and 4 and to determine whether these patients achieved LDL-C goal.Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia who were followed-up at Siriraj Hospital between October 2011 and September 2012.Results: In total, 150 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia were recruited. The mean age was 72±10 years, and the body mass index was 25.6±4 kg/m2; 60% had CKD stage 3 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 34±12 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 54% had type 2 diabetes. The percentage of patients with hypercholesterolemia was 78%, hypertriglyceridemia 54%, and low high-density lipoprotein-C 36%. Of these, 52% had mixed hyperlipidemia. Statin treatment was prescribed to 87% of the patients, of which only 31.3% achieved the LDL-C goal according to the National Cholesterol Education Program and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society recommendations. Patients who did not achieve the LDL-C goal had a higher cholesterol level at diagnosis and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and stroke than those who achieved it.Conclusion: Two-thirds of CKD patients with hyperlipidemia had mixed hyperlipidemia. Despite the high frequency of statin treatment, only one-third of patients with CKD achieved the LDL-C goal. Thus, a developmental plan

  12. Achievement Goals, School Achievement, Self-Estimations of School Achievement, and Calibration in Students with and without Special Education Needs in Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Susanne; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the goal orientation of students with and without special education needs (SEN) in inclusive schools. Participants were 186 students (110 boys; 76 girls) from Grade 7 (mean age = 13.83). Of these, 93 were diagnosed as having SEN, while the other 93 were mainstream students matched on IQ. Students without SEN scored…

  13. The 2015 NEC Conference in Bangkok: Enhancing National Evaluation Capacities and Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Cassoli Alvarenga; Ana Rosa Soares; Lívia Maria da Costa Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    From 27 April to 22 May 2015 the National Evaluation Capacities (NEC) Community of Practice (COP), with support from the UNDP International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) and the UNDP Independent Evaluation Office (IEO), promoted an online discussion3 linked to the upcoming NEC conference in Bangkok, on How the 2015 NEC Conference in Bangkok: Blending Evaluation Principles with Development Practices can enhance national evaluation capacities and help to develop and achieve the Su...

  14. Achieving Science Goals with CubeSats: a Study by the National Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, T.; Sheffer, A.

    2015-12-01

    We will discuss an ongoing study by the National Academies' Space Studies Board focused on CubeSats, and in particular their scientific potential and technological promise. Through this study, several US agencies seek inputs on the current status of CubeSat programs in government, academic and industrial sectors. The study will also make recommendations about additional investments that are needed to further increase the value of CubeSats to the science community. Furthermore, the committee will provide sample priority science goals that describe near-term opportunities, such as providing continuity of key measurements to mitigate potential gaps in measurements of key parameters- and that can be accomplished given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. We will summarize some data in the public domain about CubeSats our study is based on, and also focus on some selected science opportunities that can be addressed by CubeSats and which are part of Decadal Survey priorities.

  15. HIV/AIDS Situation in Economic Cooperation Countries; Achievement and Gaps toward Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: An efficient surveillance system in needed to illustrate an exact picture of HIV/AIDS in all countries. This study shows that though the epidemics has started lately in member countries compared with other parts of the world, no proper intervention has been adopted for controlling the epidemics yet. Moreover, in those countries which AIDS epidemics are concentrated among drug users, harm reduction activities are necessary to control the problem. Increasing the coverage of antiretroviral treatment and awareness of general and high risk population could help countries to achieve HIV/AIDS indicators.

  16. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  17. Understanding Students’ Instrumental Goals, Motivation Deficits and Achievement: Through the Lens of a Latent Profile Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke K. Fryer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Building on the future oriented and regulated nature of instrumental goals, Lens and colleagues developed a 2 (proximal-distal x 2 (internal-external motivational framework. The current study aimed to test this framework from a person-centred perspective, while equally taking into account students’ lack of motivation as to extend the empirical and theoretical borders of the model. Latent Profile Analyses were used to test the viability of two to five motivational profiles among Japanese second-year students ('N' = 781. A solution with three latent subgroups fitted the sample best, explaining 6% to 62% of the variance in the measured variables. The profiles were labelled “low future oriented motivational profile”, “average motivated profile”, and “highly motivated profile”. The highly motivated subgroup reported the most adaptive pattern of motivation and highest levels of deep level learning, while few differences were found for surface learning and GPA. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Electronic health record meets digital library: a new environment for achieving an old goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, B L

    2000-01-01

    Linking the electronic health record to the digital library is a Web-era reformulation of the long-standing informatics goal of seamless integration of automated clinical data and relevant knowledge-based information to support informed decisions. The spread of the Internet, the development of the World Wide Web, and converging format standards for electronic health data and digital publications make effective linking increasingly feasible. Some existing systems link electronic health data and knowledge-based information in limited settings or limited ways. Yet many challenging informatics research problems remain to be solved before flexible and seamless linking becomes a reality and before systems become capable of delivering the specific piece of information needed at the time and place a decision must be made. Connecting the electronic health record to the digital library also requires positive resolution of important policy issues, including health data privacy, government encouragement of high-speed communications, electronic intellectual property rights, and standards for health data and for digital libraries. Both the research problems and the policy issues should be important priorities for the field of medical informatics.

  19. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-05-27

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  20. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  1. Breastfeeding: What are the Barriers? Why Women Struggle to Achieve Their Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Natasha K; Kellams, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Despite recognized health benefits for both mothers and infants, significant disparities still exist in the rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Major organizations representing the health of women and children (including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ACOG], American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP], United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization [WHO], and the United States Public Health Service [PHS]) recommend exclusive breastfeeding, but statistics show that although many women initiate breastfeeding, few meet the recommended goals for duration and exclusivity. This article reviews the evidence related to barriers (prenatal, medical, societal, hospital, and sociocultural) that many mothers face, and explore the known barriers and the impact they have on a woman's ability to breastfeed her infant. Strategies will be discussed to address (and potentially overcome) some of the most common barriers women face along with a list of resources that can be useful in this effort. Gaps in care and areas that need further research will be noted. This article is targeted toward physicians and other healthcare providers who work with women and who can assist with and advocate for the removal of barriers and thereby improve the health of women and children by increasing the rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity in the United States. PMID:27111125

  2. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  3. How PEPFAR's public-private partnerships achieved ambitious goals, from improving labs to strengthening supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Jeffrey L; Cohen, Gary M

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), established in 2003, is widely recognized as one of the most ambitious and successful bilateral programs ever implemented to address a single disease. Part of the program's success is attributable to the participation of the private sector, working in partnership with the US and local governments and implementing organizations to maximize the reach and effectiveness of every dollar spent. We examined key public-private partnerships that grew out of PEPFAR to identify features that have made them effective. For example, PEPFAR's Supply Chain Management System took advantage of private industry's best practices in logistics, and a partnership with the medical technology company BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) improved laboratory systems throughout sub-Saharan Africa. We found that setting ambitious goals, enlisting both global and local partners, cultivating a culture of collaboration, careful planning, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and measuring outcomes systematically led to the most effective programs. The Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator and PEPFAR should continue to strengthen their capacity for private-sector partnerships, learning from a decade of experience and identifying new ways to make smart investments that will make the most efficient use of taxpayer resources, expand proven interventions more rapidly, and help ensure the sustainability of key programs. PMID:22778334

  4. Is Shared Decision Making a Utopian Dream or an Achievable Goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Louisa; Légaré, France

    2015-12-01

    The idea of shared decision making (SDM) between patient and physician grew out of a generalized challenge to traditional social hierarchies that occurred in the middle of the last century. Governments have espoused SDM, thousands of articles about it have been published, and evidence has shown that it improves some of the healthcare processes as well as patient outcomes. Yet it has not been widely adopted. From their cross-disciplinary perspective (practical theology and clinical medicine), the authors locate this reluctance in the unfolding of scientific paradigm shifts, summarize the perceived risks and benefits of SDM and the evidence for each, and suggest practical, achievable approaches for clinicians. Finally, they explore some important emerging territories for SDM. PMID:25680338

  5. Critical appraisal and pooled analysis of telmisartan alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide for achieving blood pressure goals

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto,

    2010-01-01

    Satoshi Morimoto, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Tatsuyori Morita, Kazunori Someya, Nagaoki Toyoda, Toshiji IwasakaSecond Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University 2-3-1, Shinmachi, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1191, JapanAbstract: Rigid control of blood pressure (BP) is essential to prevent cardiovascular disease. However, only about 40% of hypertensive patients undergoing pharmacological intervention with a single agent achieve their BP goals in contemporary clinical practice. Combined therapy...

  6. The pivotal role of effort beliefs in mediating implicit theories of intelligence and achievement goals & academic motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Tempelaar, DirkT.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through an empirical study based on a large sample of university students, we aim to demonstrate that relaxing these stringent assumptions, and thereby using...

  7. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis) - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg Evelin; Plate Tanja; Krekler Michael; Gitt Anselm K; Binz Christiane; Bramlage Peter; Tschöpe Diethelm

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis) is a prospecti...

  8. Using Short-Term Monitoring Data to Achieve Goals in a Large-Scale Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Hagen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the outcome of restoration projects, an overall goal, reformulated to specific subgoals or targets, must be explicit and translated into scientifically measurable ecological attributes. Monitoring ecological attributes is necessary to assess restoration progress. Data from long-term monitoring are rarely available when restoration interventions are planned and implemented. In this study, we show how short-term monitoring data are incorporated into the planning of the large-scale restoration of a former military training area: the largest restoration project approved in Norway, covering more than 165 km² and intended to enhance nature conservation. A pilot project was initiated in 2002 that removed 1.2 km of roads and tested three restoration treatments to facilitate vegetation development: stirred topsoil (C, control, fertilizer added to the stirred topsoil (F, and fertilizer and commercial grass seeds added to the stirred topsoil (FS. Vegetation turfs were transplanted in all treatments. A monitoring program was established, and three ecological attributes linked to the specific targets for vegetation development (vegetation cover, species richness, and presence of non-native species were sampled at 2 yr and 7 yr after the intervention. We discuss pilot project results in relation to the temporal scale and to the type of intervention of the restoration treatments (introduction of non-native seeds and nutrient addition in an ecosystem with slow nutrient turnover. We consider the implications of the short-term data for the large-scale restoration and describe the cooperation between developers, research ecologists, and contractors, illustrating how adaptive management is relevant to large-scale restoration projects.

  9. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhago George M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. Results In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of −0.11 (maternal and −0.12 (children to a more equitable concentration index of −0,03 and −0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Conclusions Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  10. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K. Mitra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1 eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2 achieving universal primary education; (3 promoting gender equality; (4 reducing child mortality; (5 improving maternal health; (6 combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7 ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8 developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC. The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.

  11. Latin America and the Caribbean: assessment of the advances in public health for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amal K; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-05-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  12. The Dutch 'Folic Acid Campaign'--have the goals been achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pal-de Bruin, K M; de Walle, H E; Jeeninga, W; de Rover, C; Cornel, M C; de Jong-van den Berg, L T; Schouten, J; Brand, R; Buitendijk, S E

    2000-04-01

    Periconceptional folic acid use considerably reduces the risk of neural tube defects. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of the national and the local 'Folic Acid Campaign' on periconceptional folic acid use. Before (1995 survey) and 1 year after the campaign (1996 survey), the awareness and use of folic acid was measured among pregnant women in four regions of the Netherlands. To this end, pregnant women who visited the midwife, general practitioner or obstetrician for the first or second prenatal visit were asked to complete a questionnaire. The results showed that use of folic acid for any period around conception increased from 25.1% in 1995 to 53.5% in 1996. Appropriate use (4 weeks before until 8 weeks after conception) increased from 4.8% in 1995 to 21.0% in 1996. No additional effect of the local Folic Acid Campaign was found (adjusted odds ratio= 1.0; 95% confidence interval = 0.7, 1.4). It was possible to conclude that folic acid use at the recommended time increased considerably as a result of the national and the local Folic Acid Campaign, but the target (use in 46% of women wishing to conceive) was not achieved. New health education programmes are needed to increase further its use at the appropriate times.

  13. National metric challenges facing the Costa Rican goal of achieving carbon - neutrality by 2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes weaknesses faced by the carbon neutrality initiative proposed by the Costa Rican government due to metrics and highlights some of the technical improvements that will be required in order to achieve greater comparability, applicability and confidence from the results obtained. Technical gaps are found not only in the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions but when accounting for biogenic carbon capture and storage, where global reference values, usually those reported by the IPCC, are commonly used. We then make reference to problems associated with their use, mainly related to the uncertainty (accuracy and precision that results from any estimate. At the national level there is a lack of information for biomass and carbon for some ecosystems as well as few complete studies that consider all carbon pools at the ecosystem level. We give examples for some of the most studied species. Finally, we compare results using global reference values against those developed from local studies a the national level.

  14. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  15. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer--a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  16. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer--a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jürgen

    2011-02-21

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  17. The Dutch 'Folic Acid Campaign'--have the goals been achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pal-de Bruin, K M; de Walle, H E; Jeeninga, W; de Rover, C; Cornel, M C; de Jong-van den Berg, L T; Schouten, J; Brand, R; Buitendijk, S E

    2000-04-01

    Periconceptional folic acid use considerably reduces the risk of neural tube defects. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of the national and the local 'Folic Acid Campaign' on periconceptional folic acid use. Before (1995 survey) and 1 year after the campaign (1996 survey), the awareness and use of folic acid was measured among pregnant women in four regions of the Netherlands. To this end, pregnant women who visited the midwife, general practitioner or obstetrician for the first or second prenatal visit were asked to complete a questionnaire. The results showed that use of folic acid for any period around conception increased from 25.1% in 1995 to 53.5% in 1996. Appropriate use (4 weeks before until 8 weeks after conception) increased from 4.8% in 1995 to 21.0% in 1996. No additional effect of the local Folic Acid Campaign was found (adjusted odds ratio= 1.0; 95% confidence interval = 0.7, 1.4). It was possible to conclude that folic acid use at the recommended time increased considerably as a result of the national and the local Folic Acid Campaign, but the target (use in 46% of women wishing to conceive) was not achieved. New health education programmes are needed to increase further its use at the appropriate times. PMID:10791653

  18. The Relationship between Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement--The Mediation Role of Self Regulated Learning Strategies--A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediation role of self regulated learning strategies in relationship between goal orientation and Academic Achievement. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), study strategies (metacognitive, deep cognitive, surface cognitive and resource…

  19. The association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: findings from the GOALS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Martin L; De Groot, Renate H; Savelberg, Hans H; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents. Students in Grades 7 and 9 (N = 255) were included. Overall, we found no significant dose-response association between physical activity and academic achievement. However, in Grade 7 total physical activity volume (Total PA) was negatively associated with academic achievement, while moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with both academic achievement and mathematics performance. In contrast, in Grade 9 both Total PA and MVPA were positively associated with mathematics performance. In addition, the overall association between MVPA and academic achievement followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Finally, Total PA was positively associated with executive functioning, while executive functioning in turn mediated the associations between Total PA and both academic achievement and mathematics performance. These results indicate that the association between physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents is complex and might be affected by academic year, physical activity volume and intensity, and school grade. PMID:25356610

  20. Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer-a goal worth achieving at all costs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jürgen Mulsow; Des C Winter

    2011-01-01

    To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer,a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed,with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation,oncological outcome,functional outcome,morbidity,quality of life,and patient preference.Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer.The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients.Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision.In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy,a non-operative approach may prove to be an option.Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR.Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable.Given the choice,most patients will choose AR over APE,however patients following APE positively appraise this option.In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome,but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

  1. Global self-esteem, goal achievement orientations, and self-determined behavioural regulations in a physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Hagger, Martin S

    2007-01-15

    We examined a theoretical model of global self-esteem that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. The model hypothesized that self-determined or autonomous motives would mediate the influence of achievement goal orientation on global self-esteem. The adapted version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (Mullan et al., 1997), the Perception of Success Questionnaire (Roberts & Balague, 1991), and Rosenberg's (1965) self-esteem scales were administered to 634 high school students aged 11 - 15 years. A structural equation model supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that autonomous motives mediated the effect of goal orientations on global self-esteem. The results suggest that generalized motivational orientations influence self-esteem by affecting autonomous motivation and is consistent with theory that suggests that experiences relating to intrinsic motivation are the mechanism by which global motivational orientations are translated into adaptive outcomes like self-esteem. The findings suggest that physical activity interventions that target autonomous motives in physical activity contexts are likely to enhance young people's general self-esteem.

  2. A model for predicting academic procrastination based on personality traits and achievement goals among school of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rastegar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identifying affecting factors on academic procrastination is considered as a common psychological trauma in academic environments. Thus, this study aimed to provide a model predicts academic procrastination on the basis of personality traits and achievement goals. Methods: This cross sectional analytic study consisted of 258 students of faculty of nursing, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who were chosen via randomized stratified ratio sampling and answered to a self-report questionnaire consisted of achievement goals, personality traits, and academic procrastination. Results: Analyzing the data showed that a neurosis personality trait had an indirect and positive effect on students’ academic procrastination. Also, the personality traits such as extraversion, consciousness, agreeableness and openness to experience had an indirect and negative effect on students’ academic procrastination. Conclusion: According to the findings, planners of nursing courses should provide a fresh scientific environment to create a bed for formation of positive personality traits in students so that they can provide a context for adopting an appropriate goal-setting pattern, and in turn, reducing academic procrastination. As well, with the implementation of personality measures and deeper understanding of the inner characteristics of learners’ personality, they can be kept safe from exposure to psychological traumas such as academic procrastination.

  3. Which Feedback Is More Effective for Pursuing Multiple Goals of Differing Importance? The Interaction Effects of Goal Importance and Performance Feedback Type on Self-Regulation and Task Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…

  4. Examining a negative halo effect to anabolic steroids users through perceived achievement goals, sportspersonship orientations, and aggressive tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the social image of anabolic steroids (AS) users grounding our analysis on the achievement goal theory of Nicholls. Our main goal was to explore how an athlete's acceptance of AS use would impact on the way that athlete will be perceived by others. Non-AS-using participants reacted to one of two scenarios portraying a male athlete either accepting or refusing to engage in drug use behavior. The results suggested that the acceptance of anabolic steroids yielded an unfavorable social image--perceivers inferred a predominant ego orientation to characterize the AS-user's motivation as well as weaker sportspersonship and a stronger proclivity for reactive aggression than instrumental aggression. Moreover, the analyses did not yield significant gender or interaction effects. Finally, those findings are commented in view of methodological shortcomings and of the perspectives that they may offer for future research concerning the motivational aspects of the social perceptions of drug use in sport. PMID:23301931

  5. Examining a negative halo effect to anabolic steroids users through perceived achievement goals, sportspersonship orientations, and aggressive tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the social image of anabolic steroids (AS) users grounding our analysis on the achievement goal theory of Nicholls. Our main goal was to explore how an athlete's acceptance of AS use would impact on the way that athlete will be perceived by others. Non-AS-using participants reacted to one of two scenarios portraying a male athlete either accepting or refusing to engage in drug use behavior. The results suggested that the acceptance of anabolic steroids yielded an unfavorable social image--perceivers inferred a predominant ego orientation to characterize the AS-user's motivation as well as weaker sportspersonship and a stronger proclivity for reactive aggression than instrumental aggression. Moreover, the analyses did not yield significant gender or interaction effects. Finally, those findings are commented in view of methodological shortcomings and of the perspectives that they may offer for future research concerning the motivational aspects of the social perceptions of drug use in sport.

  6. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Influence on Achievement of Cardiometabolic Therapeutic Goals in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients: An Analysis of the Nationwide, Cross-Sectional 3B Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghai Zhou

    Full Text Available There are few data on the prevalence of obesity and its influence on achieving blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipid (3B goals in Chinese type 2 diabetes outpatients.Patient demographic data, anthropometric measurements, medications, and blood glucose and lipid profiles of 24,512 type 2 diabetes patients from a large, geographically diverse study (CCMR-3B were analyzed. Using cut-points for body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC recommended by the Working Group on Obesity in China, overweight and obesity were defined as BMIs of 24-27.9 kg/m2 and ≥28.0 kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥80 cm in women and ≥85 cm in men. The 3B therapeutic goals were HbA1c<7.0%, BP<140/90 mmHg and LDL-C<2.6 mmol/L.Overall, 43.0% of type 2 diabetes patients were overweight and 16.7% were obese; 13.3% of overweight and and 10.1% of obese patients achieved all the 3B target goals. Overweight or obese patients were less likely to achieve 3B goals than those with normal BMIs. More than a half the overweight or obese patients (69.6% were centrally obese. Patients with abdominal obesity were less likely to achieve cardiometabolic targets than those without abdominal obesity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female, higher BMI and waist circumference, smoking, drinking, sedentary lifestyle, and longer diabetes duration were significantly correlated with failure to achieve 3B control goals.Obesity is highly prevalent and associated with poor 3B control in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. In clinical practice, more attention and resources should focus on weight loss for such patients.

  7. A review on weaknesses and strengths of delivering Mehr housing project in terms of achieving economical goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karshenasan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Housing is one of the most important sections of development in a country and its economic importance has put it in the center of attention. It can cause rise and depression of habitation by its extended economic aspects. Mehr Housing plan is a state run housing project in most cities started 2007 in Iran to protect and provide cheap housing for poor people and young couples. Mehr housing project by its large scale and wide dimensions can affect the society’s economy. Therefore, to investigate weaknesses and strengths of this project in terms of economic and applying necessary reformation can increase the success probability of this project. For this purpose, this study assess the weaknesses and strengths of Mehr housing of province of Khorram Abad in Iran for achieving economic goals and also presents solutions to better access to these goals. Time scope of the present study is 6 months of 2011 and the second 3 months of 2012. The methodology is applicable in terms of goal and is descriptive survey in terms of nature. In this study, a combined method of interviewing to experts and distributing a questionnaire among the applicants of Mehr housing has been used for data collecting. Among strengths of Khorram Abad in economic section, employment and urban landfill pattern reformation can be implied. In addition, among weaknesses of this project are lack of proper first design and technical justification of the project and use of only 2 shabby fabrics.

  8. Evaluation of Educational Goals Achievement in Fundamental Nursing Clinical Skills: Application OSCE among Senior Nursing Students in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dadvar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical education is an essential component and the heart of nursing education. Nursing is a practice-based discipline and the evaluation of educational goal achievement of nursing competency is essential. The objective of this study was to identify the achievement of clinical educational goals in fundamental skills among senior nursing students in ICU. Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted on 56 senior nursing students. Subjects of this study were purposefully selected, and were directly observed in OSCE stations. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS-19 software. In each skill, the students' skills were categorised into five levels from unacceptable to excellent. Results: Subjects of this study demonstrated excellent competency in insertion of IV catheter; however, they showed neither good nor excellent competence in some fundamental procedures such as dressing, insertion of urinary catheter and feeding tube. The only variable with significant relationship to skill was students’ opportunities to repeat a procedure during clinical education (P= 0.01. Conclusion: The finding of this study revealed that senior nursing students had significant deficits in their clinical skills. Given the importance of fostering students' fundamental skills, offering additional learning opportunities for students to practice basic clinical skills is recommended.

  9. Leadership and culture of data governance for the achievement of higher education goals (Case study: Indonesia University of Education)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.

  10. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  11. [Optimizing health care using the example of rehabilitation. Intended goals have to be defined and achieved goals have to be confirmed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzsolt, Franz; Zimmermann, Theo

    2010-05-01

    In this article, the authors try to apply the actual problem of health care financing to the area of rehabilitation medicine. It is shown that there are considerable reserves in this system - like in any other area of health care -, which should not be saved but should be rather transformed into efficient health services. If we save these resources, the problems will remain the same but it will be easier to pay for them. If, however, we consider how to generate additional health care values, we will solve more problems than before.The article shows that these improvements require a clear definition of goals of health care. Goals of health care can be attained only if they are defined, and the conditions which have to be met for goal attainment can be identified only if the attained goals are quantified. There is need for action if it is unknown how often intended goals can really be attained.

  12. Intrapersonal Achievement Goals and Underlying Reasons among Long Distance Runners: Their Relation with Race Experience, Self-Talk, and Running Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Delrue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of long distance runners, we examined the role of type of intrapersonal achievement goals (i.e., approach versus avoidance and type of underlying reasons (i.e., autonomous and controlled, assessed prior to the race, as predictors of both pre-race (e.g., race appraisals and post-race (e.g., flow experience outcomes. Of 221 (62.4% males runners, 111 reported pursuing an intrapersonal-approach goal (i.e., doing better than before as their dominant or preferred achievement goal for the race, while 86 prioritized intrapersonal-avoidance goals (i.e., avoiding to perform worse than before. Regression and path analyses showed that the type of achievement goals predicted none of the outcomes except for running time, with approach goals predicting better performance when compared to avoidance goals. Path analyses revealed that autonomous reasons underlying intrapersonal goal pursuit related positively to pre-race challenge appraisals, performance and, via need satisfaction, to flow experience. Interestingly, controlled reasons positively related to pre-race threat appraisals and positively predicted both positive and negative self-talk, with both yielding opposing relations with flow. These findings complement past research on the intersection between the Achievement Goal Approach and Self-Determination Theory and highlight the value of studying the reasons underlying intrapersonal achievement goals.

  13. Safety and Feasibility of Achieving Lower Systolic Blood Pressure Goals in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes: The SANDS Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Matthew R.; Yeh, Fawn; Silverman, Angela; Devereux, Richard B.; Galloway, James M.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Howard, William J.; Russell, Marie; Wilson, Charlton; Ratner, Robert; Sorkin, John; Umans, Jason; Fleg, Jerome L.; Stylianou, Mario; Lee, Elisa; Howard, Barbara V.

    2009-01-01

    The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) was a randomized open-label clinical trial in type 2 diabetics designed to examine the effects of intensive reduction of blood pressure, aggressive vs standard goals (≤115 / 75 mm Hg vs ≤130 / 80 mm Hg), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol on the composite outcome of change in carotid intimal-medial thickness and cardiovascular events. The study demonstrated that in conjunction with a lower LDL cholesterol target of 70 mg/ dL, aggressive systolic blood pressure–lowering resulted in a reduction in carotid intimal-medial thickness and left ventricular mass without measurable differences in cardiovascular events. The blood pressure treatment algorithm included renin-angiotensin system blockade, with other agents added if necessary. The authors conclude that both standard and more aggressive systolic blood pressure reduction can be achieved with excellent safety and good tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:19817934

  14. Relationship between achievement goals, anxiety and self-confidence, and subjective well-being in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between achievement goals, anxiety, self-confidence and subjective well-being (positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life through path analysis. The sample consisted of 169 Brazilian athletes (140 males and 29 females, aged between 17 and 59 years, of different sports and competitive levels. The questionnaires TEOSQ, CSAI-2, EBES and SWLS were applied the day before the competition, on-site training of athletes. Main results partially demonstrated that anxiety and self-confidence mediated the relationship between motivational orientations and subjective well-being. Based on modification indices of the structural model, regression coefficients were specified between ego orientation and negative affect, and between task orientation and the positive dimensions of well-being (positive affect and satisfaction. Results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these relationships.

  15. The Effects of Achievement Goal Orientation on Middle School Students' Achievement Motivation%成就目标定向对中学生成就动机的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丽丽

    2009-01-01

    The theory of achievement goal is one of the most important motivation theories, and it gradually becomes a hot research issue in motivation field. In recent years, the studies about the effects which achievement goal has on achievement motivation gradually become prolific, and these studies have important revelation in education area. All of these three effects: whether the students have defined their achievement goal, the type of their achievement goal and the evaluation middle school students have on their achievement goal will have important influences on their achievement motivation. The revelation achievement goal theory has in education area mainly means that the teacher should help the student to set individual achievement goals, and this will stimulate middle schools student's achievement motivation more effectively.%中学生成就目标的确立与否、确立的成就目标的类型以及对所设定目标的评价性反应这三个因素都会对中学生的成就动机产生影响.成就目标定向对教育的启示,主要表现为教师应该帮助学生设定个性化的成就目标,以更好地激发中学生的成就动机.

  16. Development Innovations through Entrepreneurial Microfinance and the Attempt to Achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of the countries in the Global South, Bangladesh has experienced numerous development challenges since its liberation in 1971. Bangladesh has showcased how to fight against poverty and to initiate meaningful change and development in human lives. Nobel Prize (2006 winner Grameen Bank is one of the popular development innovations in the country. Since the beginning of this Bank in the early 1970s, microfinance and entrepreneurship development with small amounts of money have proliferated to nearly every corner of the globe with the paramount goal of alleviating global poverty and ensuring human development. Like all other new social science techniques, the societal revolution brought about by microfinance expansion has left substantial room for refinement and further support by empirical evidence. This article critically evaluates a non-governmental initiative to empower extremely poor women through entrepreneurial microfinance, and examines the socioeconomic impacts in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (UNMDGs. This article covers both primary and secondary information. The aim is to demonstrate how countries of the Global South can use carefully designed microfinance projects to address major development challenges and meaningfully contribute to creating a more equal, humane society.

  17. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  18. How planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge in land use and transport planning affect the goal achievement potential of plans? Experiences from three Scandinavian cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennøy, Aud; Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza;

    2015-01-01

    problems. This paper examines how planners' use and non-use of expert knowledge affect the content and goal achievement of plans, and discusses how changes in planning practice and research practice can contribute to improve goal achievement potentials. Goal achievement potential refers to whether...... this issue have emerged, but few empirical studies have been presented. The research in this paper involves case studies of strategic plan-making processes in three Scandinavian cities. A main finding is that whether the expert knowledge in question is used or not, and how it is used, indeed affect the goal......, and as arguments for selecting traffic-reducing measures. All examined plans also include strategies reducing their goal achievement potentials. This happens through a mix of mechanisms. When competing objectives or ideas seemingly call for traffic-increasing measures, the planners do not use the expert knowledge...

  19. The Place of Multiple Intelligence in Achieving the Objectives and Goals of Open and Distance Learning Institutions: a critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kayode OLAKULEIN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the nature of open and distance learning institutions as organizations where synergy of efforts of all personnel is required in other to achieve the aims and objectives of the institution. It explored the huge infrastructural and personnel requirements of distance learning institutions, especially at inception, and the wherewithal needed for the institutions to survive the challenges of the contemporary knowledge milieu and stand the test of time while ensuring the quality and standard of all the certificates that will be awarded over time. The paper seeks to evaluate the role of multiple-intelligence in the administration of open and distance learning institutions, given that multiple-intelligence allows for improvement in achievement, performance and skills (Sternberg, Turff & Grigenko, 1998. The paper concluded that the importance of multiple intelligence in the actualization of the broad goals and the specific objectives of distance learning institutions can not be overemphasized in the various aspects of the institutional framework of distance learning. It was also submitted that the discipline of distance

  20. Do we have the right models for scaling up health services to achieve the Millennium Development Goals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Savitha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is widespread agreement on the need for scaling up in the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. But many countries are not on track to reach the MDG targets. The dominant approach used by global health initiatives promotes uniform interventions and targets, assuming that specific technical interventions tested in one country can be replicated across countries to rapidly expand coverage. Yet countries scale up health services and progress against the MDGs at very different rates. Global health initiatives need to take advantage of what has been learned about scaling up. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify conceptual models for scaling up health in developing countries, with the articles assessed according to the practical concerns of how to scale up, including the planning, monitoring and implementation approaches. Results We identified six conceptual models for scaling up in health based on experience with expanding pilot projects and diffusion of innovations. They place importance on paying attention to enhancing organizational, functional, and political capabilities through experimentation and adaptation of strategies in addition to increasing the coverage and range of health services. These scaling up approaches focus on fostering sustainable institutions and the constructive engagement between end users and the provider and financing organizations. Conclusions The current approaches to scaling up health services to reach the MDGs are overly simplistic and not working adequately. Rather than relying on blueprint planning and raising funds, an approach characteristic of current global health efforts, experience with alternative models suggests that more promising pathways involve "learning by doing" in ways that engage key stakeholders, uses data to address constraints, and incorporates results from pilot projects. Such approaches should be applied to current

  1. Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kharusi, Hussain A.

    2007-12-01

    Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic self-efficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment

  2. A meta-analytic review of the approach-avoidance achievement goals and performance relationships in the sport psychology literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lochbaum

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The performance goal contrast holds value for sport performance research. Contrary to approach-avoidance predictions, the mastery-approach goal and performance effect size was significant and of equal magnitude as the performance approach goal and performance effect size. Thus, future research should closely test the efficacy of both the mastery- and performance contrasts in impacting performance of sport tasks. Last, the significant effect sizes reported in this review are in stark contrast to contemporary meta-analytic findings in education. Differences in the approach-avoidance goals in sport and education relative to performance should be researched further.

  3. Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

    2012-01-01

    Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

  4. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis is a prospective, observational, German, multicenter registry including patients with type-2 diabetes in which oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data were recorded at baseline and will be prospectively documented during visits at 6 ± 1, 12 ± 2 and 24 ± 2 months. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of patients with at least 1 episode of severe hypoglycemia within one year. Results 313 primary care offices included 4,048 patients between June 2009 and March 2010 of which 3,810 patients fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. 46.7% of patients were female; patients had a median diabetes duration of 5.5 years and most were obese with respect to BMI or waist circumference. HbA1c at baseline was 7.4%, fasting plasma glucose 142 mg/dl and postprandial glucose 185 mg/dl. Co-morbidity in this patient population was substantial with 17.9% having coronary artery disease, 14.4% peripheral neuropathy, 9.9% heart failure and 6.0% peripheral arterial disease. 68.6% of patients received oral monotherapy, 31.4% dual oral combination therapy. The most frequent antidiabetic agent used as monotherapy was metformin (79.0% followed by sulfonylureas (14.8%. Conclusions DiaRegis is a large, prospective registry in primary diabetes care to document the course and outcomes of patients with type-2 diabetes in which the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. The two year follow-up will allow for a prospective evaluation of these patients

  5. Dissociable medial frontal negativities from a common monitoring system for self- and externally caused failure of goal achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentsch, A.; Ullsperger, P.; Ullsperger, M.

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior requires the ability to adapt performance strategies based oil the attribution of unintended outcomes to internal or external causes. Using event-related brain potentials, the present research compared neural activity following self-generated errors induced by a flanker task a

  6. Too high expectations. Air pollution abatement: Will Germany achieve its goal?; Zuviel versprochen. Klimaschutz: Erreicht Deutschland das Ziel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, V. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Aussenstelle Plataforma Solar, Almeria (Spain). Abt. Systemanalyse

    2003-04-01

    Germany is the world-wide leader in air pollution abatement, but its ambitious goals will not be met if it does not make bigger efforts. (orig.) [German] Deutschland gilt als Vorreiter im internationalen Klimaschutz und hat sich selbst hohe Ziele gesteckt. Es droht jedoch, an den eigenen Anspruechen zu scheitern, wenn keine groesseren Anstrengungen zum Klimaschutz getroffen werden. (orig.)

  7. Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Achievement Goals, Attitudes and Intentions to Implement the New Greek Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorozidis, Georgios; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    The network of relations between Physical Education (PE) teachers' self-efficacy, goal orientations, attitudes, intentions and behaviours concerning the implementation of a new PE curriculum was examined. Participants were 290 Greek junior high school PE teachers. Two years after the introduction of the new curriculum, participants responded to…

  8. How to get radical creative ideas into a leader's mind? Leader's achievement goals and subordinates' voice of creative ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, Roy B.L.; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2015-01-01

    In the present research we investigated when and why leaders tend to oppose or adopt radical creative ideas voiced by their subordinates. In a field study (Study 1, N=127) we showed that leaders' performance goals were positively related to their tendency to oppose radical creative ideas, whereas le

  9. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  10. Examining the Self-Congruent Engagement Hypothesis: The Link between Academic Self-Schemas, Motivational Goals, Learning Approaches and Achievement within an Academic Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi-hung Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Academic self-schemas are important cognitive frames capable of guiding students' learning engagement. Using a cohort of Year 10 Australian students, this longitudinal study examined the self-congruence engagement hypothesis which maintains that there is a close relationship among academic self-schemas, achievement goals, learning approaches,…

  11. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  12. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire in a Sample of Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…

  13. Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire across Gender and Age in a Sample of Spanish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Castejon, Juan L.; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Delgado, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of scores on the Spanish version of the "Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire" (AGTQ) across gender and age groups in 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) in grades 7 through 10. The equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses.…

  14. The impact of Game-based learning on the achievement of learning goals and motivation for learning mathematics - literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Divjak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SH X-NONE X-NONE Information technologies are an integral part of a contemporary society which bases its progress on knowledge being one goal of education. Beside acquiring knowledge, skills and routines, the goal of education is to create a complete individual who can rationally and timely make decisions, purposefully react in new situations and be trained for life-long learning. In order to accomplish all this, it is necessary to make educational process more creative, contemporary and adjusted to new generations of computer literate pupils who demand quicker and more frequent interactions, a lot of information at the same time, generations who quickly acquire rules of computer games. Computer games meeting pedagogical criteria should become an integral part of learning. Teaching with mathematical computer games, which fulfil pedagogical criteria, influences pupils’ motivation, learning, retention and forgetting. This paper provides a review of literature in this field and determines whether the use of mathematical computer games contributes to more efficient realisation of educational goals at all level of education. Furthermore, considering prior research we have attempted to establish whether the use of mathematical games for teaching has an impact on the formation of a positive attitude of pupils of different ages toward the subject of mathematics, their motivation and knowledge acquisition when compared to learning without computer games. Finally, we have analysed different research methods concerning this issue and assessed the impact of pedagogically designed mathematical computer games on the realisation of educational goals and quality improvement of teaching and learning.

  15. The student-institution fit at university: Interactive effects of academic competition and social class on achievement goals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eSommet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution's culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor’s study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap.

  16. Leading in today’s Competitive Environment: How Exemplary Leaders Motivate, Lead, and Achieve Organizational Goals and Create Value

    OpenAIRE

    Ashford C. Chea

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author analyzes the role of exemplary leadership in organizational effectiveness and value creation. Given that leadership is a term used in a variety of ways, he begins by defining leadership as it is used in the article.  Second, he presents the path-goal theory of leadership as the theoretical foundation for the analysis of exemplary leadership in the paper.  Third, the author presents ten unique attributes of exemplary leaders and looks at the crucial role and strategie...

  17. 无意识成就目标对高低成就动机个体的激励%Effects of Unconscious Achievement Goals:When Individuals Are in High or Low Achievement Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞涵; 杨文静; 李海江; 张庆林

    2013-01-01

    The 2X2 mixed paradigm was used to investigate the effects of unconscious achievement goals on the outcome expectation and task performance of priming and non-priming in high and low achievement motivation individuals. The results showed that the priming effects of unconscious achievement goals were regulated by the level of the individuals' achievement motivation. Priming of unconscious achievement goals had no significant effects on the outcome expectation when the individuals were high on achievement motivation, but produced expectation of high outcome prior to working on the task when the individuals were low on achievement motivation. Priming of unconscious achievement goals had no significant effects on the task performance of the individuals with either high or low achievement motivation, and the individuals who scored high on achievement motivation got higher task performance whether the unconscious a-chievement goals were primed or not.%采用2×2混合实验设计探讨了在个体无意识状态下启动的成就目标,对高、低成就动机个体结果预期及任务表现的影响.研究结果表明无意识成就目标启动效应是否出现,受个体成就动机水平的调节:①无意识成就目标的启动,对高成就动机个体的结果预期没有显著影响,但是能显著提高低成就动机个体的结果预期;②无意识成就目标的启动,对高、低成就动机个体的任务表现均没有显著影响,但是高成就动机个体的任务表现显著好于低成就动机个体.

  18. The Place of Multiple Intelligence in Achieving the Objectives and Goals of Open and Distance Learning Institutions: a Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Kayode OLAKULEIN; OJO, Olugbenga David

    2006-01-01

    This paper examined the nature of open and distance learning institutions as organizations where synergy of efforts of all personnel is required in other to achieve the aims and objectives of the institution. It explored the huge infrastructural and personnel requirements of distance learning institutions, especially at inception, and the wherewithal needed for the institutions to survive the challenges of the contemporary knowledge milieu and stand the test of time while ensuring the quali...

  19. The Implementation of Right-Fulfillment to the Health Care in Achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG’S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zuhri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The vision of Aceh Government in 2012-2017 is Aceh are dignified, prosperous, just, and independent based on the legislation of Aceh government as a form of Memorandum of Understanding. One of the visions of Aceh government 2012-2017 is the improved welfare of Acehnese people through quality health services through increasing life expectancy, infant mortality, decreasing the prevalence of malnutrition as well as the effectiveness of the treatment of infectious diseases to the achievement of the MDG’s. Model policies adopted by the Aceh government is monitoring and track record of cases, tv monitor, routine and case sms, a special program policy model, and the model of budget balancing. Model policies adopted by the district/city government is making a supporting program, All Village Midwives Must Live in the Village, deliveries assistance is performed by professional health workers, adjustment to the ability of APBK. Support new regulation of Regent Regulation (Perbub on Malaria Elimination and No Smoking Area. MDG’s target is not entirely in accordance with the indicator being built, because it requires adjustments in accordance with the ability of both district or city areas. Regulatory support is not adequate to support the achievement of the MDG’s in the field of health.

  20. Superconducting Resonators Development for the FRIB and ReA Linacs at MSU: Recent Achievements and Future Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facco, A; Binkowski, J; Compton, C; Crisp, J L; Dubbs, L J; Elliot, K; Harle, L L; Hodek, M; Johnson, M J; Leitner, D; Leitner, M; Malloch, I M; Miller, S J; Oweiss, R; Popielarski, J; Popielarski, L; Saito, K; Wei, J; Wlodarczak, J; Xu, Y; Zhang, Y; Zheng, Z; Burrill, A; Davis, G K; Macha, K

    2012-07-01

    The superconducting driver and post-accelerator linacs of the FRIB project, the large scale radioactive beam facility under construction at MSU, require the construction of about 400 low-{beta} Quarter-wave (QWR) and Half-wave resonators (HWR) with four different optimum velocities. 1st and 2nd generation prototypes of {beta}{sub 0} = 0.041 and 0.085 QWRs and {beta}{sub 0} = 0.53 HWRs have been built and tested, and have more than fulfilled the FRIB and ReA design goals. The present cavity surface preparation at MSU allowed production of low-{beta} cavities nearly free from field emission. The first two cryostats of {beta}{sub 0} = 0.041 QWRs are now in operation in the ReA3 linac. A 3rd generation design of the FRIB resonators allowed to further improve the cavity parameters, reducing the peak magnetic field in operation and increasing the possible operation gradient, with consequent reduction of the number of required resonators. The construction of the cavities for FRIB, which includes three phases for each cavity type (development, pre-production and production runs) has started. Cavity design, construction, treatment and performance will be described and discussed.

  1. Dissociable medial frontal negativities from a common monitoring system for self- and externally caused failure of goal achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Antje; Ullsperger, Peter; Ullsperger, Markus

    2009-10-01

    Goal-directed behavior requires the ability to adapt performance strategies based on the attribution of unintended outcomes to internal or external causes. Using event-related brain potentials, the present research compared neural activity following self-generated errors induced by a flanker task and following externally generated errors induced by supposed "technical malfunctions". Errors and malfunctions were associated with temporally dissociable ERP components, the short-latency error-related negativity (ERN) and the longer-latency feedback-related negativity (FRN), respectively. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to compare the underlying neural components of ERN and FRN. ICA results revealed that the FRN is attributable to the neural sources of the ERN, suggesting that the two components share a source network. Furthermore, single-trial amplitudes of ERN and FRN were specifically related to the implementation of error correction and malfunction compensation: the stronger the failure signal, the more efficient was remedial behavior. Together the results demonstrate that internally and externally generated unintended action outcomes engage a common monitoring mechanism that manifests in two temporally distinct ERP components and induces similar compensatory processes. The temporal dissociation of the ERP components might provide the basis for further processes of outcome attribution underlying action selection and changes in performance strategy. In line with recent neuroimaging findings, ERN and FRN appear to reflect the use of different sources of information about action outcome to update action value. PMID:19486945

  2. Biotech crops: imperative for achieving the millenium development goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological intervention in the development of crops has opened new vistas in agriculture. Central to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), biotech-agriculture is essential in meeting these targets. Biotech crops have already made modest contributions toward ensuring food and nutrition security by reducing losses and increasing productivity, with less pesticide input. These crops could help address some of the major challenges in agriculture-based economies created by climate change. Projections of global climate change expect the concentration of greenhouse gases to increase, aridization of the environment to increase, temperature fluctuations to occur sharply and frequently, and spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall to be disturbed-all of which will increase abiotic stress-related challenges to crops. Countering these challenges and to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing world population (expected to reach 9 billion by 2030) we need to (1) develop and use biotech crops for mitigating adverse climatic changes; (2) develop biotech crops resilient to adverse environmental conditions; and (3) address the issues/non-issues raised by NGO's and educate the masses about the benefits of biotech crops.

  3. 关于幼儿数学教育目标有效达成的思考%Strategy Research on Effective Achievement about Children Mathematics Education Goals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云鹏

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing children mathematic education is one major goal in future education.Emphasis of children mathematic education is to develop the way of thinking.Because mathematic is the science of thinking,so mathematic education plays an important role in developing Children's thinking.For guaranteed quality of children mathematic education,our country introduction of the "Kindergarten Education Guidelines(trial)" have defined the goals of kindergarten mathematic education.But,with appearance of kindergarten teaching inclined to elmentary school,how to achieve mathematic education's goals efffectively have become one facus in daily teaching activities of kindergarten.This paper discusses strategy of achieving goals effectively from five perspective.%幼儿教育的重点是思维的开发。数学是思维的科学,数学教育在发展幼儿思维方面扮演了重要角色。《幼儿园教育指导纲要(试行)》对幼儿园数学教育的目标进行了界定,要在具体的教育实践过程中有效达成数学教育目标,需要教师、社会、家长几方面的有效配合。

  4. Change in physical self-perceptions across the transition to secondary school: relationships with perceived teacher-emphasised achievement goals in physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Spray, Christopher M.; Warburton, Victoria E.; Stebbings, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effects of change in perceived teacher achievement goal emphasis in physical education (PE) on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem across the transition to secondary school. Design & Methods: A longitudinal design was adopted with three time points, one at the end of primary school and two during the first year of secondary school. Participants (N = 491) were cross-classified by primary (N = 42) and secondary (N = 46) PE class in order to e...

  5. Cross-country analysis of strategies for achieving progress towards global goals for women’s and children’s health

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Rawal, Lal B; Chowdhury, Sadia A; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Jack, Susan; Hinton, Rachael; Alam, Prima M; Kuruvilla, Shyama

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify how 10 low- and middle-income countries achieved accelerated progress, ahead of comparable countries, towards meeting millennium development goals 4 and 5A to reduce child and maternal mortality. Methods We synthesized findings from multistakeholder dialogues and country policy reports conducted previously for the Success Factors studies in 10 countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda and V...

  6. Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate, Self-Esteem, and Autonomous Motivation in Young Athletes: Testing Propositions from Achievement Goal and Self-Determination Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. O'Rourke; Smith, Ronald E.; Frank L. Smoll; Cumming, Sean P

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season), mastery climate scor...

  7. A Very Different Non-Stressful Comprehensive Final Exam that Achieve Our Goals for Student Evaluation and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Suketu

    2015-08-01

    I will introduce the radical concept of a final exam where the questions are given beforehand, a method I first encountered as a graduate student at Princeton University from an outstanding and well known astrophysicist and exceptional teacher, Lyman Spitzer.Every Instructor aspires for students to master all the material covered. A comprehensive final can assess the breadth and depth of their learning. Students are required to review early material in light of later topics, create connections and integrate understanding, thus retaining knowledge for the long term. Comprehensive finals can therefore be a significant basis for student learning and evaluation, but are especially daunting for non-STEM majors in required GE synthesis STEM classes. The exam format proposed here calmed student fears and encouraged thorough review.Ten days before the exam students received 20-30 challenging, well-crafted, numbered questions that interconnected and spanned the entire range of topics. The key is crafting questions that lead to deeply understanding the subject matter and mastering skills to solve problems. At the final, each student was required to pick a number out of a hat and answer that numbered question in a 5-minute presentation. They also had to critically comment on 10 other presentations of their peers. They are graded equally on both.The exam sets up definite goals for a student. Equally important, it enhances collaborative learning and peer mentoring. The conceptual questions and problems that students are required to answer can be studied together in study groups. The final presentation is theirs and they are not only encouraged but required to be constructively critical of their peer presentations.I will provide examples of some of the conceptual and problem solving questions I used. These were crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. This method requires students to be prepared for all of the multitude of crafted question encouraging

  8. Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P

    2002-08-01

    To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.

  9. 2011 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism, & Function Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Benning

    2011-02-04

    This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. The goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.

  10. “To be or not to be Retained … That’s the Question!” Retention, Self-esteem, Self-concept, Achievement Goals, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping students back in the same grade – retention – has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine

  11. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Schwebel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.

  12. Ethiopia and its steps to mobilize resources to achieve 2020 elimination and control goals for neglected tropical diseases webs joined can tie a lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengitsu, Belete; Shafi, Oumer; Kebede, Biruck; Kebede, Fikreab; Worku, Dagemlidet T; Herero, Merce; French, Michael; Kebede, Biruk; Mackenzie, Charles; Martindale, Sarah; Kebede, Zeyede; Hirpa, Tigist; Frawley, Hannah; Crowley, Kathryn; O'Neil, Maggie; McPherson, Scott

    2016-03-01

    In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis. The national program still is facing large gaps in its podoconiosis and leishmaniasis programs, and it faces significant other challenges to stay on track for 2020 targets. However, this unprecedented scale-up in support was achieved through significant government investment in NTD interventions and creative coordination between donors and implementing partners, which may provide valuable lessons for other national NTD programs trying to achieve nationwide coverage. PMID:26940308

  13. Cross-country analysis of strategies for achieving progress towards global goals for women’s and children’s health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Rawal, Lal B; Chowdhury, Sadia A; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Jack, Susan; Hinton, Rachael; Alam, Prima M

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify how 10 low- and middle-income countries achieved accelerated progress, ahead of comparable countries, towards meeting millennium development goals 4 and 5A to reduce child and maternal mortality. Methods We synthesized findings from multistakeholder dialogues and country policy reports conducted previously for the Success Factors studies in 10 countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda and Viet Nam. A framework approach was used to analyse and synthesize the data from the country reports, resulting in descriptive or explanatory conclusions by theme. Findings Successful policy and programme approaches were categorized in four strategic areas: leadership and multistakeholder partnerships; health sector; sectors outside health; and accountability for resources and results. Consistent and coordinated inputs across sectors, based on high-impact interventions, were assessed. Within the health sector, key policy and programme strategies included defining standards, collecting and using data, improving financial protection, and improving the availability and quality of services. Outside the health sector, strategies included investing in girls’ education, water, sanitation and hygiene, poverty reduction, nutrition and food security, and infrastructure development. Countries improved accountability by strengthening and using data systems for planning and evaluating progress. Conclusion Reducing maternal and child mortality in the 10 fast-track countries can be linked to consistent and coordinated policy and programme inputs across health and other sectors. The approaches used by successful countries have relevance to other countries looking to scale-up or accelerate progress towards the sustainable development goals. PMID:27147765

  14. Academic Goals in Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Bleier, Joshua I. S.; Kann, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The development of an academic surgical career can be an overwhelming prospect, and one that is not intuitive. Establishing a structured plan and support structure is critical to success. Starting a successful academic surgical career begins with defining one's academic goals within several broad categories: personal goals, academic goals, research goals, educational goals, and financial goals. Learning the art of self-promotion is the means by which many of these goals are achieved. It is im...

  15. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izutsu Takashi

    2011-01-01

    mortality, promote gender equality and empower women, achieve universal primary education and eradicate extreme poverty and hunger cannot be attained without a specific focus on women's mental health. It was co-signed by the international expert group; relevant WHO and UNFPA departmental representatives and international authorities. They concur that social rather than medical responses are required. Improvements in maternal mental health require a cross-sectoral response addressing poverty reduction, women's rights, social protection, violence prevention, education and gender in addition to health. Additional file 1 Maternal mental health and child survival, health and development in resource-constrained settings: essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. This additional file is the Hanoi Expert Statement which is the outcome of the meeting described in this paper. Click here for file

  16. An Opportunity to achieve the 5th Millennium Development Goal in Kenya using E-Medical Consultation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Gudu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish the challenges that the Reproductive Health Division (High Risk Pregnancy Clinic at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital based in Eldoret town, one of the two referral hospitals in Kenya, faces in achieving the 5th Millennium Development Goal and adopting e-medical consultation as a way of improving maternal healthcare for patients with Hypertension in Pregnancy and reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out using hybrid of qualitative and quantitative research methodology In this paper, an outline of the strategies and pillars that the Clinic needs to adopt to embrace the use of e-medical consultation for the diagnosis, treatment and management of Hypertension in Pregnancy is presented. The survey conducted established that the division is still lagging behind and has not adopted the use of e-Health, especially in the consultation sessions between the doctors and patients. The outlined strategies when implemented will help steer the Reproductive Health Division (High Risk Pregnancy Clinic towards making healthcare services available in an efficient and effective way to expectant women with the condition. The model could be adopted to extend the same to less endowed areas around the globe, where specialist: patient ratio is low.

  17. Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate, Self-Esteem, and Autonomous Motivation in Young Athletes: Testing Propositions from Achievement Goal and Self-Determination Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. O'Rourke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season, mastery climate scores on the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 scale were positively related to global self-esteem scores and to a measure of relative motivational autonomy that reflects the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation continuum, whereas ego climate scores were negatively related to self-esteem and autonomy. Longitudinal analyses revealed that early-season mastery climate predicted positive changes in self-esteem over the course of the season, whereas ego climate predicted decreased self-esteem. Consistent with predictions derived from Self-Determination Theory, a meditational analysis revealed that these self-esteem changes were mediated by changes in autonomous motivation.

  18. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane Rw; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Izutsu, Takashi; Tran, Tuan

    2011-01-07

    Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings.In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts.The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well.The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1). It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality

  19. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane Rw; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Izutsu, Takashi; Tran, Tuan

    2011-01-01

    Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings.In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts.The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well.The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1). It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality

  20. Patients' empowerment , physicians' perceptions, and achievement of therapeutic goals in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavalle-González FJ

    2016-07-01

    physicians’ overestimation about the optimal glycemic control, this global impression and characteristics of patients’ empowerment, such as self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, are associated with the achievement of targets. Keywords: A1c, care, diabetes, HbA1c, goal, IDMPS, insulin, management, Mexico, opinion, self-monitoring, treat to target

  1. Where Did You Come From? Where Will You Go? Human Evolutionary Biology Education and American Students' Academic Interests and Achievements, Professional Goals, and Socioscientific Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrein, Caitlin M.

    In the United States, there is a national agenda to increase the number of qualified science, technology, engineering, and maths (STEM) professionals and a movement to promote science literacy among the general public. This project explores the association between formal human evolutionary biology education (HEB) and high school science class enrollment, academic achievement, interest in a STEM degree program, motivation to pursue a STEM career, and socioscientific decision-making for a sample of students enrolled full-time at Arizona State University. Given a lack of a priori knowledge of these relationships, the Grounded Theory Method was used and was the foundation for a mixed-methods analysis involving qualitative and quantitative data from one-on-one interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and an online survey. Theory development and hypothesis generation were based on data from 44 students. The survey instrument, developed to test the hypotheses, was completed by 486 undergraduates, age 18--22, who graduated from U.S. public high schools. The results showed that higher exposure to HEB was correlated with greater high school science class enrollment, particularly for advanced biological science classes, and that, for some students, HEB exposure may have influenced their enrollment, because the students found the content interesting and relevant. The results also suggested that students with higher K--12 HEB exposure felt more prepared for undergraduate science coursework. There was a positive correlation between HEB exposure and interest in a STEM degree and an indirect relationship between higher HEB exposure and motivation to pursue a STEM career. Regarding a number of socioscientific issues, including but not limited to climate change, homosexuality, and stem cell research, students' behaviors and decision-making more closely reflected a scientific viewpoint---or less-closely aligned to a religion-based perspective---when students had greater HEB exposure

  2. On the Relationship among Academic Seeking Help Behavior and Achievement Goal Orientation%初中生成就目标定向与学业求助的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海芳

    2013-01-01

      To explore the relationship among academic seeking help behavior and achievement goal orientation, the paper applies Academic Seeking Help Behavior Scale and Achievement Goal Orientation Scale to survey 210 junior high school students. Results are: Gender and grade have no significant influence on junior high school students; Achievement goal orientation is correlated with academic seeking help behavior;Achievement goal orientation has a role of remarkable prediction in academic seeking help behavior. The results show that achievement goal orientation has an influence on academic seeking help behavior.%  文章以初中生的成就目标定向与学业求助的关系为研究对象,运用《学业求助问卷》和《成就目标定向量表》,对210名初中生进行问卷调查。结论为:初中生学业求助行为在性别、年级上无显著差异;初中生成就目标定向和学业求助行为存在显著性相关;初中生成就目标定向对学业求助行为有显著的预测作用。这说明初中生的学业求助行为受成就目标定向的影响。

  3. Goal setting and goal striving

    OpenAIRE

    Oettingen, Gabriele; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on the determinants and processes of goal emergence and goal implememation. We first address personal and situational variables leading to the formation of behavioral goals and what kind of psychological processes help or hinder goal setting. In the second part of the chapter, we discuss how set goals of different qualities predict goal attainment and which self-regulatory strategies help successful goal striving. Goal effects on cognition are discussed as possible me...

  4. LDL cholesterol goals and cardiovascular risk during statin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Anders G; Lindahl, Christina; Holme, Ingar;

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the proportion of patients treated with either simvastatin 20 or 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg who achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals of 2.5 or 2.0 mmol/l in the Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) study. We explored how l...

  5. How to get radical creative ideas into a leader’s mind? Leader’s achievement goals and subordinates’ voice of creative ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.L. Sijbom; O. Janssen; N.W. van Yperen

    2014-01-01

    In the present research we investigated when and why leaders tend to oppose or adopt radical creative ideas voiced by their subordinates. In a field study (Study 1, N = 127) we showed that leaders’ performance goals were positively related to their tendency to oppose radical creative ideas, whereas

  6. Teacher Attitudes on Personal Teaching Efficacy and Responsive Teaching, and Principal Leadership Behaviors in the Areas of Leader Social Relationships, Leadership/Goal Setting, and Collaboration for Learning in Low Wealth, Low and High Achieving Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Eliana K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether middle school teacher attitudes on personal teaching efficacy and responsive teaching and their descriptions of their principal's leadership behaviors in the areas of leader social relationships, leadership/goal setting, and collaboration for learning differ for high- and low-achieving Grade 8…

  7. Autonomy Support and Achievement Goals as Predictors of Perceived School Performance and Life Satisfaction in the Transition between Lower and Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2014-01-01

    A self-determination theory perspective on motivation assumes that basic need support is a prerequisite for motivation, achievement, and well-being in several domains of life. In the present cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 2.594 Norwegian students in their final year of lower secondary education and their first year of upper…

  8. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  9. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  10. Effects of an intensive middle school science experience on the attitude toward science, self-esteem, career goal orientation, and science achievement of eighth-grade female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tammy Kay

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.

  11. 航海类高职院校学生专业认同与成就目标定向的关系%Relations between sailing class in higher vocational college students' professional identity and achievement goal orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美廷

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解航海类高职院校学生专业认同的基本情况及与成就目标定向的关系。方法:采用《大学生专业认同问卷》和《大学生成就目标定向量表》对786名航海类高职院校学生进行调查。结果:航海类高职院校学生专业认同总体上处于中等水平,专业认同与成就目标定向的掌握趋近、成绩趋近、社会支持、成绩回避及社会责任五个因子呈显著正相关。%Objective: to know the sailing class basic situation of higher vocational college students' professional identity and the relationship between achievement goal orientation. Methods: the questionnaire of college students' professional identity and the college students' achievement goal orientation scale, investigating 786 students in nautical class of higher vocational colleges. Results: the navigation class in higher vocational colleges students' professional identity, on the whole, in the medium level, professional identity and achievement goal orientation control approach, results have been avoiding approach, social support, and five factors was significantly positively related to social responsibility.

  12. An analysis of factors correlated with the achievement of the goal standard for the science portion of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmetz, Barbara Fotta

    2001-07-01

    This study sought to identify factors that could be used to predict the success of students on the science portion of the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT). While the Connecticut State Department of Education measures student achievement in mathematics, reading and writing in grades 4, 6, and 8, science is assessed only in the grade ten CAPT. Since the CAPT science test does not identify specific areas in need of improvement, it is not possible to determine causes for low test scores. To address this, the study investigated the predictive values of the grade eight Mastery Tests in mathematics and reading, the student ability scores of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Index, and grades in prior science courses. The research sample consisted of five hundred and twenty-five students, member of the graduating classes of 2000 and 2001 in a large suburban high school. Students in the study had participated in the district testing program and their scores for the grade seven Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT), the grade eight Connecticut Mastery Tests (CMT) and the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Tests (CAPT) were available for analysis. This study investigated correlations between student achievement on the CMT and the science subtest of the CAPT, between OLSAT scores and the CAPT science scores, and between grades in ninth grade science and CAPT science scores. Scores were disaggregated by gender and by course level. Hypotheses 1, 2, 3 and 4 investigated the Pearson Product Moment Correlations of the OLSAT, CMT and course grades with scores on the science portion of the CAPT. Hypothesis 5 compared the scores of male and female students, using the t-test of independent sample means. Calculations showed moderate correlations for hypotheses 1--4, and the hypotheses were accepted. Hypothesis 5 was accepted for one class and rejected for the other. On the whole, female students received higher course grades and lower standardized test

  13. Korea nuclear exports: Why did the Koreans win the UAE tender? Will Korea achieve its goal of exporting 80 nuclear reactors by 2030?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of Korea in winning, in December 2009, a USD 18.6 billion nuclear tender in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has led to a growing interest in the organization and strengths of the Korean nuclear industry. In this paper, we present the main economic and political factors that explain the success of the Korean consortium. In particular, thanks to an active national program of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction, Korea has developed distinct competitive advantages in terms of low cost, high credibility and high performance. At the same time, due to the important barriers to enter into the nuclear export market in the UAE, Korea has had to sacrifice its profit margin and has benefited from a strong political support from its government through export financing. More importantly, Korea's success is also due to its alliance with Westinghouse and the support of the US diplomacy. Subsequently, we show that while Korea has recently experienced setbacks in nuclear tenders, it will most certainly try to win in the short run a second nuclear tender with another aggressive price. In the longer run, Korea could take a growing share of the international market for NPPs. However, the extent to which Korea can achieve its long term export target will depend upon its capacity to finance nuclear export through export credits and upon the development of its alliance with Westinghouse. It is important to note that this paper was written before the Fukushima nuclear disaster. The scale of the human and environmental consequences of this accident are still unknown, and will undoubtedly have short and long term consequences on nuclear safety requirements and public attitude toward nuclear energy, which will most certainly impact the outlooks for nuclear new-builds. (authors)

  14. Korea nuclear exports: Why did the Koreans win the UAE tender? Will Korea achieve its goal of exporting 80 nuclear reactors by 2030?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthelemy, Michel; Leveque, Francois

    2011-04-12

    The success of Korea in winning, in December 2009, a USD 18.6 billion nuclear tender in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has led to a growing interest in the organization and strengths of the Korean nuclear industry. In this paper, we present the main economic and political factors that explain the success of the Korean consortium. In particular, thanks to an active national program of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction, Korea has developed distinct competitive advantages in terms of low cost, high credibility and high performance. At the same time, due to the important barriers to enter into the nuclear export market in the UAE, Korea has had to sacrifice its profit margin and has benefited from a strong political support from its government through export financing. More importantly, Korea's success is also due to its alliance with Westinghouse and the support of the US diplomacy. Subsequently, we show that while Korea has recently experienced setbacks in nuclear tenders, it will most certainly try to win in the short run a second nuclear tender with another aggressive price. In the longer run, Korea could take a growing share of the international market for NPPs. However, the extent to which Korea can achieve its long term export target will depend upon its capacity to finance nuclear export through export credits and upon the development of its alliance with Westinghouse. It is important to note that this paper was written before the Fukushima nuclear disaster. The scale of the human and environmental consequences of this accident are still unknown, and will undoubtedly have short and long term consequences on nuclear safety requirements and public attitude toward nuclear energy, which will most certainly impact the outlooks for nuclear new-builds. (authors)

  15. Relationship among Achievement Goal ,Self-esteem and Defensive Pessimism of Independent College Students%独立学院大学生成就目标、自尊与防御性悲观的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金德凤; 吴汉桥; 李海民; 余莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feature of defensive pessimism and its relationship with achievement goal and self-esteem of independent college students. Methods A total of 598 students from 5 independent colleges were tested with Defensive Pessimism Questionnaires,Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and Achievement Goal Scale. Results ①Defensive pessimism of male students was higher than female in junior,but lower in other grades(P<0. 05). There was no significant difference between art and science students(t = l. 944, P<0. 05). ② Performance-avoidance achievement goals, self-deprecate, self-enhancement were related to defensive pessimism (P<0. 01) ;③Performance-avoidance achievement goals, self-deprecate , self -enhancement were effective predicators of defensive pessimism(R2= 0. 29). Conclusion There is defensive pessimism in independent college students. Defensive pessimism is affected by performance-avoidance achievement goals, self-deprecate and self-enhancement.%目的 了解独立学院大学生防御性悲观的特点及其与成就目标、自尊的关系.方法 对武汉地区5所独立学院的598名大学生进行成就目标、自尊与防御性悲观的问誊调查.结果 ①独立学院大学生防御性悲观三年级男生高于女生,其它年级女生高于男生(P<0.05);文科生与理工科生无显著差异;②防御性悲观与回避型成就目标、自我提升、自我贬低均显著相关(P<0.01);③回避型成就目标、自我提升、自我贬低对防御性悲观有显著预测作用(R2=0.29).结论 独立学院大学生存在防御性悲观现象.回避型成就目标、自我贬低、自我提升对防御性悲观有一定影响作用.

  16. Patients’ empowerment, physicians’ perceptions, and achievement of therapeutic goals in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Chiquete, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Background Physicians’ perception may not parallel objective measures of therapeutic targets in patients with diabetes. This is an issue rarely addressed in the medical literature. We aimed to analyze physicians’ perception and characteristics of adequate control of patients with diabetes. Patients and methods We studied information on physicians and their patients who participated in the third wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study registry in Mexico. This analysis was performed on 2,642 patients, 203 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 2,439 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), treated by 200 physicians. Results The patients perceived at target had lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose than those considered not at target. However, overestimation of the frequency of patients with HbA1c <7% was 41.5% in patients with T1DM and 31.7% in patients with T2DM (underestimation: 2.8% and 8.0%, respectively). The agreement between the physicians’ perception and the class of HbA1c was suboptimal (κ: 0.612). Diabetologists and endocrinologists tested HbA1c more frequently than primary care practitioners, internists, or cardiologists; however, no differences were observed in mean HbA1c, for both T1DM (8.4% vs 7.2%, P=0.42) and T2DM (8.03% vs 8.01%, P=0.87) patients. Nevertheless, insulin users perceived at target, who practiced self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, had a lower mean HbA1c than patients without these characteristics (mean HbA1c in T1DM: 6.8% vs 9.6%, respectively; mean HbA1c in T2DM: 7.0% vs 10.1%, respectively). Conclusion Although there is a significant physicians’ overestimation about the optimal glycemic control, this global impression and characteristics of patients’ empowerment, such as self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, are associated with the achievement of targets. PMID:27555751

  17. 护理本科生成就目标定向与临床实践行为关系研究%Study on Correlation between Nursing Undergraduates’ Achievement Goal Orientation and Clinical Practice ;Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐良; 赵琳琳; 王成林; 孙铮

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To know about nursing undergraduates’ achievement goal orientation and clinical practice behavior,so as to probe into the relationship between them.Method:Stratified cluster sampling method was used,BNS’s Clinical Evaluation Tool(CET)and the Achievement Goal Orientation Scale were used for investigation of 180 nursing undergraduates,related data were analyzed by stepwise regression analysis.Result:The total average score of CET was(3.738±0.469). The four scale score of achievement goals orientation were :mastery approach(3.58±0.56), mastery avoidance(3.25±0.72),performance avoidance(2.48±0.76),performance approach(3.53±0.68). The goal orientation of mastery approach was positively correlated with clinical practice behavior. The goal orientation of performance avoidance was negative correlated with clinical practice behavior.Conclusion:Nursing undergraduates’ achievement goal orientation is associated with clinical practice behavior,the achievement goals can forecast clinic practice. In the clinical nursing teaching,teachers should train students’ mastery approach and performance approach goal orientation. And to help nursing students to enhance study motivation,increase learning efficiency and improve their ability of clinical practice.%目的:了解护理本科生成就目标定向与临床实践行为现状,探讨两者之间的关系。方法:采用方便抽样的方法,运用《护理本科生临床实践行为量表》和《成就目标定向量表》对180名护理本科生进行问卷调查,对数据进行相关分析和逐步回归分析。结果:护理本科生临床实践行为总均分为(3.738±0.469)分,成就目标定向的四个量表的得分为:掌握接近(3.58±0.56)分,掌握回避(3.25±0.72)分,成绩接近(3.53±0.68)分,成绩回避(2.48±0.76)分。掌握接近目标定向与临床实践行为呈正相关关系,成绩回避目标与其为负相关关系。结论:护理本

  18. 五年制高职生成就目标与学业成绩的调查研究%An Investigation on Academic Grade and Achievement Goal by Five-Year Higher Vocational Education Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹静; 朱明

    2011-01-01

    采用成就目标取向量表(ADG)对阜宁高等师范学校250名学生进行施测,用SPSS软件对所得数据进行整理统计分析,分析高职学生成绩目标取向对学生学业成绩的相关关系,得出如下结果:(1)五年制高职生成就目标取向在男女性别和年级上不存在显著差异。(2)信息技术专业与其他三个专业在掌握目标方面均存在显著差异,在成绩目标维度不存在显著差异,其他专业之间在两个维度均不存在显著差异。(3)掌握目标与学业成绩呈显著的正相关,成绩目标与学业成绩相关不显著。%The investigation surveys 250 students in Funing Teachers' College with the investigation tool ADG and the author of the paper resorts to SPSS software to analyze the eorrelation between the students' grades and their achievement goal orientation which concludes: (1) In terms of gender and grade, there is no significant deviation in five-year higher vocational education students. (2) There is a significant deviation between Information Technology majors and the majors in other three specialties in mastery goal while no significant deviation in performance goal. (3) The mastery goal and academic grade are in positive correlation while the performance goal and academic grade are not significantly correlated.

  19. Achieving the goals of UK Pension Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Field

    2000-01-01

    There is an inevitable tension between the aim of providing enough income in retirement for those genuinely unable to build up a sufficiently large fund of their own and the aim of preserving people’s incentives to save for their own retirement. The author argues that if the current UK government’s proposals for pension reform are implemented, a significant proportion of the working population will have their incentives for retirement saving undermined and this situation will become a fur...

  20. Achieving Proficiency Goals through Competency Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Walter H.; Strasheim, Lorraine

    The Indiana Foreign Language Generic Competencies for Levels 1-4 define language-learning outcomes in terms of communicative competencies within generic cultural contexts. Nine cultural contexts (travel/transportation, the "world" of the target language, school and education, family and home, leisure time, meeting personal needs, world of work,…

  1. Perfiles estudiantiles de metas de logro, instrucciones de meta y retroalimentación externa: su efecto en el desempeño de tareas matemáticas y afectividad. Student profiles of achievement goals, goal instructions and external feedback: Their effect on mathematical task performance and affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Dina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudio investiga cómo los perfiles estudiantiles de metas de logro y otras características personales, junto con factores situacionales como las instrucciones de orientación a la meta y la retroalimentación externa influyen en el rendimiento y en las experiencias y emociones metacognitivas de los estudiantes mientras resuelven problemas matemáticos. En el estudio participaron 870 alumnos de 7º y 9º curso de ambos género. Los estudiantes completaron una serie de cuestionarios de auto-informe que evaluaban la actitud hacia las matemáticas, la ansiedad ante los exámenes, el autoconcepto matemático y las orientaciones de meta. También se midió la habilidad para las matemáticas y el rendimiento en tareas matemáticas junto con las experiencias y emociones metacognitivas, y el gusto por las tareas. Un análisis jerárquico de conglomerados arrojó 8 perfiles estudiantiles diferentes, y sólo algunos de ellos implicaban metas de orientación al logro. Una serie de MANOVAs puso de manifiesto los efectos significativos de perfil y tratamiento sobre rendimiento en la tarea, experiencias y emociones metacognitivas, además de una interacción significativa entre perfil y tratamiento en el caso de las valoraciones del esfuerzo.

    Palabras clave: Metas de orientación al logro, perfiles estudiantiles, retroalimentación, experiencias metacognitivas, intereses.

    The present study investigated how student profiles of achievement goals and other person characteristics along with situational factors, such as goal-orientation instructions and external feedback, influence performance, metacognitive experiences and emotions during mathematical problem solving. The study involved 870 students of seventh and ninth grade of both genders. Students completed a series of self-report questionnaires tapping attitude toward mathematics, test anxiety, mathematics self-concept, and achievement goal orientations. Ability in

  2. The Heart of 25 by 25: Achieving the Goal of Reducing Global and Regional Premature Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke: A Modeling Study From the American Heart Association and World Heart Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Ralph L; Roth, Gregory A; Reddy, K Srinath; Arnett, Donna K; Bonita, Ruth; Gaziano, Thomas A; Heidenreich, Paul A; Huffman, Mark D; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mendis, Shanthi; Murray, Christopher J L; Perel, Pablo; Piñeiro, Daniel J; Smith, Sidney C; Taubert, Kathryn A; Wood, David A; Zhao, Dong; Zoghbi, William A

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the United Nations set key targets to reach by 2025 to reduce the risk of premature noncommunicable disease death by 25% by 2025. With cardiovascular disease being the largest contributor to global mortality, accounting for nearly half of the 36 million annual noncommunicable disease deaths, achieving the 2025 goal requires that cardiovascular disease and its risk factors be aggressively addressed. The Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce, comprising the World Heart Federation, American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation, European Heart Network, and European Society of Cardiology, with expanded representation from Asia, Africa, and Latin America, along with global cardiovascular disease experts, disseminates information and approaches to reach the United Nations 2025 targets. The writing committee, which reflects Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce membership, engaged the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, to develop region-specific estimates of premature cardiovascular mortality in 2025 based on various scenarios. Results show that >5 million premature CVD deaths among men and 2.8 million among women are projected worldwide by 2025, which can be reduced to 3.5 million and 2.2 million, respectively, if risk factor targets for blood pressure, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are achieved. However, global risk factor targets have various effects, depending on region. For most regions, United Nations targets for reducing systolic blood pressure and tobacco use have more substantial effects on future scenarios compared with maintaining current levels of body mass index and fasting plasma glucose. However, preventing increases in body mass index has the largest effect in some high-income countries. An approach achieving reductions in multiple risk factors has the largest impact for almost all regions. Achieving these goals can be accomplished only if countries set priorities

  3. The Heart of 25 by 25: Achieving the Goal of Reducing Global and Regional Premature Deaths From Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke: A Modeling Study From the American Heart Association and World Heart Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Ralph L; Roth, Gregory A; Reddy, K Srinath; Arnett, Donna K; Bonita, Ruth; Gaziano, Thomas A; Heidenreich, Paul A; Huffman, Mark D; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mendis, Shanthi; Murray, Christopher J L; Perel, Pablo; Piñeiro, Daniel J; Smith, Sidney C; Taubert, Kathryn A; Wood, David A; Zhao, Dong; Zoghbi, William A

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the United Nations set key targets to reach by 2025 to reduce the risk of premature noncommunicable disease death by 25% by 2025. With cardiovascular disease being the largest contributor to global mortality, accounting for nearly half of the 36 million annual noncommunicable disease deaths, achieving the 2025 goal requires that cardiovascular disease and its risk factors be aggressively addressed. The Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce, comprising the World Heart Federation, American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation, European Heart Network, and European Society of Cardiology, with expanded representation from Asia, Africa, and Latin America, along with global cardiovascular disease experts, disseminates information and approaches to reach the United Nations 2025 targets. The writing committee, which reflects Global Cardiovascular Disease Taskforce membership, engaged the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, to develop region-specific estimates of premature cardiovascular mortality in 2025 based on various scenarios. Results show that >5 million premature CVD deaths among men and 2.8 million among women are projected worldwide by 2025, which can be reduced to 3.5 million and 2.2 million, respectively, if risk factor targets for blood pressure, tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, and obesity are achieved. However, global risk factor targets have various effects, depending on region. For most regions, United Nations targets for reducing systolic blood pressure and tobacco use have more substantial effects on future scenarios compared with maintaining current levels of body mass index and fasting plasma glucose. However, preventing increases in body mass index has the largest effect in some high-income countries. An approach achieving reductions in multiple risk factors has the largest impact for almost all regions. Achieving these goals can be accomplished only if countries set priorities

  4. 危重病人达到肠内营养支持营养目标的短期疗效%The short term effect of enteral nutrition support which achieve the nutritional goal on criticalpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕利; 刘庆春; 李瑛; 杜金赞

    2000-01-01

    目的对1998年以来临床28例危重病人,实施达到营养目标的肠内营养支持,并做了短期疗效观察.方法1.依病情需要分TEN管饲匀浆膳、要素膳组(一组)9例,外科6例,内科3例,支持时间平均25.8天.EN+PN组(二组)9例,外科7例,内科2例,支持时间平均22.1天.口服营养补充剂组(三组)10例,外科7例,内科3例,支持时间平均16.1天.每日摄人热能以BEE×活动系数×应激系数公式计算,蛋白质平均1.2g/kg,脂肪平均占25%,碳水化物平均占55%.维生素、矿物质、微量元素以RDA计算. 2.营养目标:①恢复或保持血浆白蛋白正常水平.②降低异常或保持血糖正常水平.③纠正电解质平衡紊乱.结果短期内血浆白蛋白达标率分别为:89%、78%、80%,血糖达标率为:89%、86%、80%,离子达标率为:K78%、100%、80%,Na89%、88%、90%,Cl100%、88%、100%,Ca89%、100%、100%,P100%、100%、100%o 结论虽然三组各自的应用范围不同,但只要有明确的营养目标,各组血浆白蛋白、血糖、血清离子在短期内都会取得显著改善,有效地提高疾病临床治愈率.应注意的是在临床实际应用时,为防止正常血糖、离子等的异常变化,营养医师应及时了解病情动态,随时调整个体化的营养素配方.%Objeetvie Enteral nutrition support which achieve the nutritional goal was applied in 28 clinical critical patients Imm 1998 in our hospital and the short term effect was observed. Methods 1. The patients were divided into three groups according to the paTIENT' S condition, A group of 9 eases of intubation feeding with homogenate meal and elemental diet (the first group), 6 are surgical patients and 3 are internaldept patients, average duration is 26 days. A group of 10 cases with oral nutrition supplement (the third group), 7 are surgical patients and 3 are medical patients,average duration is 16 days. Daily energy intake is calculated with the formula: BEE x coefficient of activity x

  5. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. PMID:27606648

  6. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management

  7. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  8. Lipid Goal Attainment Among Coronary Heart Disease Patients with Dyslipidemia%冠心病合并高脂血症患者血脂治疗达标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦; 贾友宏

    2013-01-01

    Aim To learn about the lipid goal attainment among coronary heart disease patients with dyslipidemia. Methods We retrospectively summarized 115 patients of coronary heart disease with dyslipidemia from April to May 2010 by electrical case management system in Fuwai Hospital. These patients, who had hyperlipaemia course no shorter than half a year, all charged first time and successfully followed up over half a year. During the first hospitaliza-tion and the follow up, the value changes of serum total cholesterol (TC ) , triglyceride (TG ) , low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC ) , high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC ) , aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , alanine aminotrans-ferase (ALT) and et al were compared. In addition, the adverse event was also observed at the same time.Results The target rates of TC, LDLC and non-HDL in the high-risk group were 22. 1% , 50% and 35. 3% during the first hospital-ization, and were 57. 4% , 70. 6% and 70. 6% during follow-up, respectively. The target rates of HDL and non-HDL during the follow-up were both superior to that during the first hospitalization (P =0. 024, P <0. 001 ). For the highest-risk patients, the target rates of TC, LDLC and non-HDL were 2. 1% , 19. 1% and 8. 5% during the first hospitalization, and were 10. 6% , 46. 8% , and 44. 7% during follow-up, respectively. Compared with highest-risk patients, the TC and LDLC target rates of high-risk patients were both better (all P <0. 001). Conclusion There was still gap between lipid drug therapy and goal attainment. More attention should be payed to the risk stratification of dyslipidemia to strengthen the lipid treatment in clinical work.%目的 了解冠心病合并高脂血症患者临床干预的达标情况.方法 利用电子病例管理系统回顾性检索2010年4月、5月首次住院的冠心病合并高脂血症患者115例,比较首次住院期间和随访期间血清总胆固醇、甘油三酯、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、高

  9. On the Relationship between the Learning Engagement and Achievement Goal of University Students%大学生的学习投入与成就目标的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽明

    2014-01-01

    本研究采用问卷法对1274名不同性别、年级、专业的大学生进行学习投入和成就目标的研究。结果表明,大学生的学习投入在年级、专业上存在显著差异,大学生的掌握趋近、成绩回避、掌握回避是预测大学生学习投入程度的重要变量。%The questionnaire method was taken to research on the learning engagement and achievement goal of 1274 university students of different genders, grades and majors. The results show that university students' learning engagement is obviously differ-ent in grade and major, and mastery approach, performance avoidance and mastery avoidance are important variables in pre-dicting the learning engagement of university students.

  10. Comparison of PCSK9 Inhibitor Evolocumab vs Ezetimibe in Statin-Intolerant Patients: Design of the Goal Achievement After Utilizing an Anti-PCSK9 Antibody in Statin-Intolerant Subjects 3 (GAUSS-3) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Steven E; Dent-Acosta, Ricardo E; Rosenson, Robert S; Stroes, Erik; Sattar, Naveed; Preiss, David; Mancini, G B John; Ballantyne, Christie M; Catapano, Alberico; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Stein, Evan A; Xue, Allen; Wasserman, Scott M; Scott, Rob; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Statins are the accepted standard for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, 5% to 10% of statin-treated patients report intolerance, mostly due to muscle-related adverse effects. Challenges exist to objective identification of statin-intolerant patients. Evolocumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), resulting in marked LDL-C reduction. We report the design of Goal Achievement After Utilizing an Anti-PCSK9 Antibody in Statin-Intolerant Subjects 3 (GAUSS-3), a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, ezetimibe-controlled study to compare effectiveness of 24 weeks of evolocumab 420 mg monthly vs ezetimibe 10 mg daily in hypercholesterolemic patients unable to tolerate an effective statin dose. The study incorporates a novel atorvastatin-controlled, double-blind, crossover phase to objectively identify statin intolerance. Eligible patients had LDL-C above the National Cholesterol Education Project Adult Treatment Panel III target level for the appropriate coronary heart disease risk category and were unable to tolerate ≥3 statins or 2 statins (one of which was atorvastatin ≤10 mg/d) or had a history of marked creatine kinase elevation accompanied by muscle symptoms while on 1 statin. This trial has 2 co-primary endpoints: mean percent change from baseline in LDL-C at weeks 22 and 24 and percent change from baseline in LDL-C at week 24. Key secondary efficacy endpoints include change from baseline in LDL-C, percent of patients attaining LDL-C <70 mg/dL (1.81 mmol/L), and percent change from baseline in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Recruitment of 511 patients was completed on November 28, 2014.

  11. Comparison of PCSK9 Inhibitor Evolocumab vs Ezetimibe in Statin-Intolerant Patients: Design of the Goal Achievement After Utilizing an Anti-PCSK9 Antibody in Statin-Intolerant Subjects 3 (GAUSS-3) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Steven E; Dent-Acosta, Ricardo E; Rosenson, Robert S; Stroes, Erik; Sattar, Naveed; Preiss, David; Mancini, G B John; Ballantyne, Christie M; Catapano, Alberico; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Stein, Evan A; Xue, Allen; Wasserman, Scott M; Scott, Rob; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Statins are the accepted standard for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, 5% to 10% of statin-treated patients report intolerance, mostly due to muscle-related adverse effects. Challenges exist to objective identification of statin-intolerant patients. Evolocumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), resulting in marked LDL-C reduction. We report the design of Goal Achievement After Utilizing an Anti-PCSK9 Antibody in Statin-Intolerant Subjects 3 (GAUSS-3), a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, ezetimibe-controlled study to compare effectiveness of 24 weeks of evolocumab 420 mg monthly vs ezetimibe 10 mg daily in hypercholesterolemic patients unable to tolerate an effective statin dose. The study incorporates a novel atorvastatin-controlled, double-blind, crossover phase to objectively identify statin intolerance. Eligible patients had LDL-C above the National Cholesterol Education Project Adult Treatment Panel III target level for the appropriate coronary heart disease risk category and were unable to tolerate ≥3 statins or 2 statins (one of which was atorvastatin ≤10 mg/d) or had a history of marked creatine kinase elevation accompanied by muscle symptoms while on 1 statin. This trial has 2 co-primary endpoints: mean percent change from baseline in LDL-C at weeks 22 and 24 and percent change from baseline in LDL-C at week 24. Key secondary efficacy endpoints include change from baseline in LDL-C, percent of patients attaining LDL-C <70 mg/dL (1.81 mmol/L), and percent change from baseline in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Recruitment of 511 patients was completed on November 28, 2014. PMID:26946077

  12. Low rates of both lipid-lowering therapy use and achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets in individuals at high-risk for cardiovascular disease across Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian P Halcox

    Full Text Available To analyse the treatment and control of dyslipidaemia in patients at high and very high cardiovascular risk being treated for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Europe.Data were assessed from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00882336, which included a randomly sampled population of primary CVD prevention patients from 12 European countries (n = 7641. Patients' 10-year risk of CVD-related mortality was calculated using the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE algorithm, identifying 5019 patients at high cardiovascular risk (SCORE ≥5% and/or receiving lipid-lowering therapy, and 2970 patients at very high cardiovascular risk (SCORE ≥10% or with diabetes mellitus. Among high-risk individuals, 65.3% were receiving lipid-lowering therapy, and 61.3% of treated patients had uncontrolled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels (≥2.5 mmol/L. For very-high-risk patients (uncontrolled LDL-C levels defined as ≥1.8 mmol/L these figures were 49.5% and 82.9%, respectively. Excess 10-year risk of CVD-related mortality (according to SCORE attributable to lack of control of dyslipidaemia was estimated to be 0.72% and 1.61% among high-risk and very-high-risk patients, respectively. Among high-risk individuals with uncontrolled LDL-C levels, only 8.7% were receiving a high-intensity statin (atorvastatin ≥40 mg/day or rosuvastatin ≥20 mg/day. Among very-high-risk patients, this figure was 8.4%.There is a considerable opportunity for improvement in rates of lipid-lowering therapy use and achievement of lipid-level targets in high-risk and very-high-risk patients being treated for primary CVD prevention in Europe.

  13. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  14. ProBio3 project: how to achieve scientific and technological challenges to boost the sustainable microbial production of lipids as biojet fuel and chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allouche Yohan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The deal of ProBio3 project is to develop the microbial conversion on specific fatty acids of carbon substrates from renewable resources and industrial by-products. The main application fields are BiojetFuels and green chemistry. The objectives focus on the identification of renewable feedstock suitable for microbial nutritional requirements, the development of an intensive bioprocess, the proof of feasibility at pilot scale (m3 with the evaluation of environmental, economic and societal impacts. During 8 years, 16 French partners (9 research units LISBP, MICALIS, IJPB, IGM, IMFT, SQPOV, TSE, TWB, IFPen, 4 industries Airbus, EADS, Sofiproteol, Tereos et 3 technical centres ITERG, CVG, CREOL associate their interdisciplinary competences from Life Sciences to Process Engineering including Economic and Social Sciences. With Investissement d’Avenir financial support, the expected impacts are increases of fundamental knowledge of lipid metabolism in oleaginous microorganisms, development of high-throughput tools to fasten industrial engineering strains and fermentation strategies, new extraction processes involving green solvents and realistic scale up studies towards an industrial pilot; with undeniable innovative aspects, the deal is to get competitive assets for leading international positions on a new biological route.

  15. Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations : does TARGET work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.

  16. China' s process and challenges in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 5%中国实现联合国千年发展目标5的进程和挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯星淋; 杨青; 徐玲; 王燕; 郭岩

    2011-01-01

    Objective:China was categorized as one of the 68 "countdown" countries to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 5. This paper aimed to analyze the situation of maternal survival, and coverage of proven cost effective interventions in China, where specific attention was paid to disparities. Methods: National maternal and child mortality surveillance data were used to estimate maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Coverage for proven interventions was analyzed based on National Health Services Survey, where experts' consultations were made for complementation. Results: There had been a significant reduction of MMR in China, however great disparities existed, with rural Ⅱ to Ⅳ areas experiencing 2 to 5 times higher maternal mortality risks than urban areas and accounting for over 70% maternal mortality burdens. Postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy associated hypertension, embolism and sepsis were the leading causes, and over 75% of the maternal mortality was caused by preventable or curable causes. Maternal health services utilization decreased in accordance with region' s development level. Socioeconomic factors like financial difficulties were the main obstacles hindering access of care.Even those who made deliveries in hospitals faced different probabilities in receiving qualified care according to their socioeconomic standings. Conclusion: China is on track to achieve MDG 5, however great disparities exist. It is necessary to specifically target rural types Ⅱ to Ⅳ areas. Major causes of maternal mortality which can be prevented or averted through the provision of essential obstetrical care. Yet as compared with maternity health needs, insufficient coverage of maternal and child health (MCH) care services and poor service quality are the leading predisposing factors contributing to maternal mortality in China.%目的:中国是实现联合国千年目标5的68个倒计时国家之一.本文旨在分析中国孕产妇的生存状况、国际公

  17. Achieving lipid goals with rosuvastatin compared with simvastatin in high risk patients in real clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center study: the DISCOVERY-Beta study

    OpenAIRE

    Laks, Toivo

    2008-01-01

    Toivo Laks1, Ester Keba2, Mariann Leiner3, Eero Merilind4, Mall Petersen5, Sirje Reinmets6, Sille Väli7, Terje Sööt8, Karin Otter81Clinic of Internal Medicine, North-Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia; 2Clinic of Internal Medicine, Viljandi County Hospital, Viljandi, Estonia; 3Mustamäe Family Doctors Centre, Tallinn, Estonia; 4Nõmme Family Doctors Centre, Tallinn, Estonia; 5Saku Health Centre, Saku, Estonia; 6Kristiine Family Doctors, Ta...

  18. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra O'Connell

    Full Text Available Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so.Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15 during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles' NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2 ™, and Fitbit One ™.All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes.All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the treatment or prevention of a

  19. Goals, Interpretations, and Policies in Information

    OpenAIRE

    Regev, Gil; Wegmann, Alain

    2001-01-01

    Current goal-oriented requirements engineering methods focus on the definition of optimal requirements that an information system needs to support in order to help its stakeholders to achieve their goals. But, the lack of systemic reasoning and disregard for questions of interpretation lead to insufficient attention given to activities and implicit policies affecting the definition of these goals. This results in the optimization of the requirements for potentially inadequate goals. Our f...

  20. Dispositional Mindfulness, Meditation, and Conditional Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, Catherine; Jandric, Danka; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Conditional goal setting (CGS, the tendency to regard high order goals such as happiness, as conditional upon the achievement of lower order goals) is observed in individuals with depression and recent research has suggested a link between levels of dispositional mindfulness and conditional goal setting in depressed patients. Since interventions which aim to increase mindfulness through training in meditation are used with patients suffering from depression it is of interest to examine whethe...

  1. Goal-setting in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E H; Bogardus, S T; Tinetti, M E; Inouye, S K

    1999-07-01

    The process of setting goals for medical care in the context of chronic disease has received little attention in the medical literature, despite the importance of goal-setting in the achievement of desired outcomes. Using qualitative research methods, this paper develops a theory of goal-setting in the care of patients with dementia. The theory posits several propositions. First, goals are generated from embedded values but are distinct from values. Goals vary based on specific circumstances and alternatives whereas values are person-specific and relatively stable in the face of changing circumstances. Second, goals are hierarchical in nature, with complex mappings between general and specific goals. Third, there are a number of factors that modify the goal-setting process, by affecting the generation of goals from values or the translation of general goals to specific goals. Modifying factors related to individuals include their degree of risk-taking, perceived self-efficacy, and acceptance of the disease. Disease factors that modify the goal-setting process include the urgency and irreversibility of the medical condition. Pertinent characteristics of the patient-family-clinician interaction include the level of participation, control, and trust among patients, family members, and clinicians. The research suggests that the goal-setting process in clinical medicine is complex, and the potential for disagreements regarding goals substantial. The nature of the goal-setting process suggests that explicit discussion of goals for care may be necessary to promote effective patient-family-clinician communication and adequate care planning.

  2. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  3. Achievement Goal Orientation and to Improve the Study of the Correlation of College Students'Interest in Learning Volleyball%成就目标与提高大学生排球学习兴趣的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚岩

    2015-01-01

    排球课在全国各地高校的选修课中被广泛开展,本着其活动的多样性和广泛的群众性特点深受学生们的喜爱。近些年,在学生排球运动基础较差,部分教师教学教法的陈旧等因素的影响下,学生学习排球的兴趣呈下降趋势。本文将目标定向理论运用于排球教学课中,结合排球运动的规律及特点,使学生在排球教学课的学习过程中加深对技术动作的理解与应用,学生的学习成果能够得到及时反馈。把相应的评价体系建立在教学过程中,使大学生学习排球的兴趣有所提升。%Volleyball course in colleges and universities across the country are electives were extensively devel -oped, and in line with the characteristics of the diversity of its activities and extensive mass was deeply loved by the students .In recent years , in the student volleyball foundation is bad , some teachers'teaching law under the influ-ence of such factors as the old , students'interest in learning volleyball is on the decline .This article goal orienta-tion theory in volleyball lesson , combined with the rule and characteristics of volleyball movement , so that the students in the process of learning volleyball lesson to deepen the understanding and application of technical ac -tions, the students'learning outcomes can get timely feedback .To establish the corresponding evaluation system in the process of teaching , improve college students'interest in learning volleyball .

  4. Comparison of Participatively-set and Assigned Goals in the Reduction of Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano, Brian Edward

    2008-01-01

    The effects of setting goals on goal commitment and goal achievement in the context of an alcohol use intervention were examined using an experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to participatively-set goals, assigned goals, and no goal conditions. The current study provides information regarding the links between degree of participation in goal setting, goal commitment, self-efficacy for oneâ s goal, subsequent alcohol use, and goal achievement. It was hypothesized t...

  5. A Study on the Correlation Dependence of the College Academic Self-handicapping, Achievement Goal and Mental Health%大学生学业自我妨碍与成就目标、心理健康的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔伟

    2014-01-01

    本研究主要检验了大学生学业自我妨碍与成就目标、心理健康的关系,主要意图是考察大学生学业自我妨碍的情况,验证前人学业自我妨碍的研究结论在中国高校背景下是否具有普适性。研究采用问卷调查法,以大学生作为被试,探求自我妨碍与成就目标、心理健康的关系。结果表明:大学生学业自我妨碍与回避型的成绩目标有显著正相关,大学生学业自我妨碍行为与掌握型的成绩目标有显著的负相关,而大学生学业自我妨碍行为与趋近型的成绩目标不存在显著相关;而心理健康状况中的除了敌对维度没有发现显著相关外,其他九项均与自我妨碍有显著相关。%This research mainly focused on the correlation dependence of the college academic self-handicapping and the achievement goal, the psychologically health. This research is going to realize the situation of college students academic self-handicapping, to testify whether this conclusion of academic self-handicapping from foreign countries could get universe meaning among different kinds of culture. The research has got 128 college students for subjects by the method of scale, which is designed for uncovering the relationship between self-handicapping and goal orientation and the psychologically health. The result has demonstrated that:The self-handicapping and the evasion achieving-goal are related, with grasp achie-vement goal the inverse correlation while the correlation between self-handicapping and the approaching achievement goal is not significant. When it comes to the correlation between self-handicapping and the psychologically health, it is significant in 9 items of SCL-90 except the factor hostility.

  6. 以多群組結構方程模式檢驗成就目標理論模式的測量恆等性 Verifying the Invariance of a Measurement Model for Achievement Goals Theory by Using the Multiple Group Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳中勤 Chung-Chin Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 成就目標測量存在著測量內容、理論再概念化以及理論模式類推適用等問題,尚未受到研究的重視及實徵的檢驗。本研究之主要目的在於:一、修正成就目標測量的問題,編製六向度成就目標量表,透過競爭模式選擇適配度最佳且最具簡效性之模式;二、針對理論模式進行跨群組恆等性的檢驗;三、探討性別與教育階段對六向度成就目標的影響。研究結果顯示:一、六向度成就目標測量具有良好的信度與建構效度,為適配度最佳且最具簡效性之理論模式;二、測量具良好的跨性別群組恆等性及適中的跨教育階段測量的恆等性;三、普遍而言,男生抱持了較高的趨向導向與逃避導向目標,顯示出成就目標的複雜性。根據本研究發現,於文末提出相應之建議。 The appropriateness of measure content, ambiguity of theoretical concepts, and interferences of theoretical measure are three problems in achievement goal research. These problems have yet to receive comprehensive attention or empirical examinations. The purposes of this study were (1 to revise the problems caused by achievement goal measures and to compile a Mandarin version of a 3×2 achievement goal measure (the best fit and most parsimonious model was chosen based on model comparisons, (2 to examine the multiple group invariance of the theoretical model by utilizing multiple group structural equation modeling, and (3 to investigate the influences of gender and the educational phase on each of the 3×2 achievement goals. The results are summarized as follows: (1 the measurement of 3×2 achievement goals yielded favorable reliability and construct validity. Moreover, this model is regarded as the best fit and the most parsimonious model. (2 The measurement presents favorable validity between gender and moderate validity between the educational phase. (3 In general, boys pursued

  7. Lipid-lowering therapy: who can benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandra J LewisNorthwest Cardiovascular Institute, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in the US. Despite the decline in CVD-associated mortality rates in recent years, coronary heart disease (CHD still causes one in every six deaths in this country. Because most CHD risk factors are modifiable (eg, smoking, hypertension, obesity, onset of type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk can be reduced by timely and appropriate interventions, such as smoking cessation, diet and lifestyle changes, and lipid-modifying therapy. Dyslipidemia, manifested by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is central to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which can be silent for decades before triggering a first major cardiovascular event. Consequently, dyslipidemia has become a primary target of intervention in strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular events. The guidelines of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III, updated in 2004, recommend therapeutic lifestyle changes and the use of lipid-lowering medications, such as statins, to achieve specific LDL-C goals based on a person’s global cardiovascular risk. For high-risk individuals, such as patients with CHD and diabetic patients without CHD, an LDL-C target of < 100 mg/dL is recommended, and statin therapy should be considered to help patients achieve this goal. If correctly dosed in appropriate patients, currently approved statins are generally safe and provide significant cardiovascular benefits in diverse populations, including women, the elderly, and patients with diabetes. A recent primary prevention trial also showed that statins benefit individuals traditionally not considered at high risk of CHD, such as those with no hyperlipidemia but elevated C-reactive protein. Additional evidence suggests that statins may halt or slow atherosclerotic disease progression. Recent evidence confirms the pivotal role of

  8. 成就目标定向对选修篮球技能学习及自尊影响的实验研究%Experimental Research on the Influence of Achievement Goal Orientation to Elective Basketball Skill Learning and Self-esteem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷明光; 梁建秀

    2014-01-01

    Through using the method of literature review,questionnaire survey,mathematical statistics,the effects of achievement goal orientation on basketball skills were studied.The results showed that high low self-goal orientation can effectively improve the teaching effect and basketball skills.Therefore,teachers should use the theory of goal orientation,establish reasonable goals achievement evaluation system,task goal orientation on students to correct guidance,to establish a reasonable performance appraisal system,encouraging students to set a task oriented goals,to create a task oriented climate,the goal orientation theory combined with teaching,improve students'the body self-esteem,so as to improve their learning efficiency,and provides the reference for the various teaching methods of physical education.%通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法等方法,对成就目标定向对篮球技能学习的影响进行了研究,结果表明:高任务低自我的目标定向能有效地提高其教学效果和篮球技能水平。因此,教师应运用目标定向理论,建立合理的阶段目标成绩评定体系,对学生的任务目标定向进行正确的引导,建立合理的成绩考核体系,多鼓励学生设置任务定向的目标,营造一种高任务定向的气氛,把目标定向理论结合教学,提高学生的身体自尊,从而提高他们的学习效率,为以后的体育专业教学手段的多样化提供参考。

  9. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating...

  10. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    In 'Joint Action and Development', Stephen Butterfill argues that if several agents' actions are driven by what he calls a "shared goal" -- a certain pattern of goal-relations and expectations -- then these actions constitute a joint action. This kind of joint action is sufficiently cognitively...

  11. Goal Setting and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  12. Formal Modelling of Goals in Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, Viara; Sharpanskykh, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Each organization exists or is created for the achievement of one or more goals. To ensure continued success, the organization should monitor its performance with respect to the formulated goals. In practice the performance of an organization is often evaluated by estimating its performance indicato

  13. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    In 'Joint Action and Development', Stephen Butterfill argues that if several agents' actions are driven by what he calls a "shared goal" -- a certain pattern of goal-relations and expectations -- then these actions constitute a joint action. This kind of joint action is sufficiently cognitively...... undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...... a counterexample, I show that the pattern of goal-relations and expectations specified by Butterfill cannot play this role. I then provide an appropriately conceptually and cognitively undemanding amendment with which the account can be saved....

  14. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  15. Corporate foundation as a tool for achieving corporate social goals

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiecińska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In Poland the number of corporate foundations has increased rapidly in recent years. Such non-profit entities, established by companies, have not only become more numerous but also become more significant for the founding company. This could be associated with the significance of the CCI concept (Corporate Community Involvement) and its popularity in Poland and around the world. It refers to financial, material and human contributions that companies provide to social initiatives in order to f...

  16. The Divisional Approach to Achieving Hospital Improvement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazzo, Arnold D.; Allen, Robert M.

    1971-01-01

    The divisional or horizontal approach, rather than the traditional or vertical model, was employed in improving the major organizations and programatic and service structure of a residential facility for retardates, Sunland Training Center (Miami, Florida). (KW)

  17. COBRA System Engineering Processes to Achieve SLI Strategic Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2003-01-01

    The COBRA Prototype Main Engine Development Project was an endeavor conducted as a joint venture between Pratt & Whitney and Aerojet to conduct risk reduction in LOX/LH2 main engine technology for the NASA Space Launch Initiative (SLI). During the seventeen months of the project (April 2001 to September 2002), approximately seventy reviews were conducted, beginning with the Engine Systems Requirements Review (SRR) and ending with the Engine Systems Interim Design Review (IDR). This paper discusses some of the system engineering practices used to support the reviews and the overall engine development effort.

  18. Structuring feedback and debriefing to achieve mastery learning goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, Walter J; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Duval-Arnould, Jordan M; Siddall, Viva Jo; Cheng, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Mastery learning is a powerful educational strategy in which learners gain knowledge and skills that are rigorously measured against predetermined mastery standards with different learners needing variable time to reach uniform outcomes. Central to mastery learning are repetitive deliberate practice and robust feedback that promote performance improvement. Traditional health care simulation involves a simulation exercise followed by a facilitated postevent debriefing in which learners discuss what went well and what they should do differently next time, usually without additional opportunities to apply the specific new knowledge. Mastery learning approaches enable learners to "try again" until they master the skill in question. Despite the growing body of health care simulation literature documenting the efficacy of mastery learning models, to date insufficient details have been reported on how to design and implement the feedback and debriefing components of deliberate-practice-based educational interventions. Using simulation-based training for adult and pediatric advanced life support as case studies, this article focuses on how to prepare learners for feedback and debriefing by establishing a supportive yet challenging learning environment; how to implement educational interventions that maximize opportunities for deliberate practice with feedback and reflection during debriefing; describing the role of within-event debriefing or "microdebriefing" (i.e., during a pause in the simulation scenario or during ongoing case management without interruption), as a strategy to promote performance improvement; and highlighting directions for future research in feedback and debriefing for mastery learning.

  19. Achievement of cardiovascular risk factor targets in young adults with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    DONOVAN, PETER J.; H David McIntyre

    2010-01-01

    Peter J Donovan, H David McIntyreDepartment of Endocrinology, Mater Health Services, Mater Clinical School, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, South Brisbane, QLD, AustraliaBackground: Many patients with diabetes mellitus fail to achieve treatment targets recommended in recognized guidelines. Little data is available in this area relating to young adults.Objective: To assess whether treatment goals for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, lipid-lowering, and process ...

  20. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...... with psychologists, which were analyzed using the framework of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with minor changes to the procedure of categorization. Using Harré’s (2002, 2012) Positioning Theory, it is shown that determining goals and deciding if they have been reached are processes...... that are based on asymmetric collaboration between the therapist and the client. Determining goals and deciding when they are reached are not “sterile” procedures, as both the client and the therapist might have different agendas when working therapeutically. The psychologists that participated in this study...

  1. Interrelationships among Employee Participation, Individual Differences, Goal Difficulty, Goal Acceptance, Goal Instrumentality, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukl, Gary A.; Latham, Gary P.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed is a model for goal setting, which is based on Locke's theory that difficult but clear and specific goals, if accepted, will result in higher performance than easy goals, nonspecific goals, or no goals at all. (Author/RK)

  2. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.” Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc. Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page. Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark. Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create. Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  3. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.”Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc.Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page.Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark.Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create.Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  4. Goals Set After Completing a Teleconference-Delivered Program for Managing Multiple Sclerosis Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Asano, Miho; Preissner, Katharine; Duffy, Rose; Meixell, Maggie; Finlayson, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    A study examining goals set by people with MS after a teleconference-delivered fatigue management program found that goals related to IADLs were most commonly achieved and that short-term goals were more achievable.

  5. Paying with Self-Chosen Goals : Incentives and Gender Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Gonzalez Jimenez, V.H.; Noussair, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: To boost employees’ performance, firms often offer monetary bonuses when production goals are reached. However, the evidence suggests that the particular level of a goal is critical to the effectiveness of this practice. Goals must be challenging yet achievable. Computing optimal goals whe

  6. 成就目标导向、团队绩效控制对员工创造力的跨层次影响%A Cross-level Analysis of Achievement Goal Orientation and Performance Control on Team Member’s Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马君; 张昊民; 杨涛

    2015-01-01

    In the critical period of innovation-driven development and transformation, employee creativity is regarded as an important source of competitive advantage, and organizations are increasingly seeking innovative ways to foster individual creativity. Against this background, managers are facing the dual challenges, not only to identify employees with creativity potential, but also managing team context to render it more conducive to individual employee creativity. Hence, organizational researchers had devoted great attention to uncovering variables that influence employee creativity both on individual level and on team level. Previous researches have revealed strong links between achievement goal orientation and employee creativity, however the empirical studies show mixed results and this relationship has remained ambiguous and contested. For example, it is uncertain whether there is always a positive relationship between mastery goal orientation and creativity in different team contexts, and whether there is always a negative relationship between performance goal orientation and creativity under any circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework about the cross-level influences of individual goal orientation and the team context on team member’s creativity. Adopting a cross-level approach, we examined how achievement goal orientation may relate to individual creativity in different team contexts. Multi-source data were collected from 540 members within 54 R&D teams. Although both individual differences in dispositions and team context play important roles in the creative process, person-in-situation approaches that account for their interactive influences are still in development. Our study also enriches and extends the nonlinear cross-level approach in organizational behavior research, providing further evidence for the promise of this approach. The results are as follows: firstly, mastery goal orientation is positively related to creativity

  7. Lipid nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology. PMID:23429269

  8. Lipid Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsje Koenderink

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology.

  9. Neutrosophic Goal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Baset

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the goal programming in neutrosophic environment. The degrees of acceptance, indeterminacy and rejection of objectives are simultaneously considered. We propose two models for solving Neutrosophic Goal Programming Problem (NGPP, at one hand aiming to minimize the sum of the deviation (the I st model, and at the other hand, transforming NGPP into a crisp programming model, using truth membership, indeterminacy membership, and falsity membership functions (the II nd model. Finally, an industrial design problem is given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed models. The obtained results of the Ist model and of the IInd model are compared with other methods.

  10. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  11. 联合应用依折麦布对他汀治疗冠心病患者血脂达标率的影响%Effectiveness of ezetimibe in improving lipid goal attainment in patients with coronary heart diseases treated with statin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程姝娟; 颜红兵; 马芹; 徐方兴

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察联合依折麦布对单独应用他汀类药物未能使低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)达标的冠心病合并糖尿病患者血脂的影响.方法 61例应用他汀治疗12周后LDL-C未达标(0.05),AST、ALT和CK等指标也无显著变化(P>0.05).结论 联合应用依折麦布可以提高他汀类药物治疗冠心病合并糖尿病患者的LDL-C达标率,使LDL-C水平进一步降低.%Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of ezctimibe on uncontrolled LDL-C when added to ongoing statin therapy in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods 61 patients with LDL-C level exceeding target goal (<2.07 mmol/L) after 12 weeks' treatment with statins, received ezetimibe in addition to their ongoing statin therapy for 8 weeks. Lipid parameters, alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartic aminotransferase(AST) and ereatine kinase(CK) were compared before and after the adding of ezetimibe. Results LDL-C before and after the adding of ezetimibe was (2.74±0.43) mmol/L and (2.19±0.32) mmol/L, respectively (P=0.03) in 61 patients. Ezetimibe added to statin therapy significantly reduced the LDL-C level and TC level by additional 20.1% and 19.1%, respectively (P<0.05). 74%(45/61) patients treated with ezetimibe added to statin reached their target LDL-C goal. No change of TG and HDL-C was observed and no change of AST, ALT and CK was found either. Conclusion Ezetimibe added to statin therapy lowered LDL-C level further and improved the goal attainment in patients with CHD and DM.

  12. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth. PMID:26273896

  13. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  14. Treatment goals of pulmonary hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Vallerie V

    2013-12-24

    With significant therapeutic advances in the field of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the need to identify clinically relevant treatment goals that correlate with long-term outcome has emerged as 1 of the most critical tasks. Current goals include achieving modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance >380 m, normalization of right ventricular size and function on echocardiograph, a decreasing or normalization of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and hemodynamics with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 mg\\/kg\\/min(2). However, to more effectively prognosticate in the current era of complex treatments, it is becoming clear that the "bar" needs to be set higher, with more robust and clearer delineations aimed at parameters that correlate with long-term outcome; namely, exercise capacity and right heart function. Specifically, tests that accurately and noninvasively determine right ventricular function, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and BNP\\/N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, are emerging as promising indicators to serve as baseline predictors and treatment targets. Furthermore, studies focusing on outcomes have shown that no single test can reliably serve as a long-term prognostic marker and that composite treatment goals are more predictive of long-term outcome. It has been proposed that treatment goals be revised to include the following: modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance ≥ 380 to 440 m, cardiopulmonary exercise test-measured peak oxygen consumption >15 ml\\/min\\/kg and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide <45 l\\/min\\/l\\/min, BNP level toward "normal," echocardiograph and\\/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating normal\\/near-normal right ventricular size and function, and hemodynamics showing normalization of right ventricular function with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 to 3.0 l\\/min\\/m(2).

  15. Sustainable Health Development Goals (SHDG): breaking down the walls

    OpenAIRE

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2015-01-01

    The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 1...

  16. Shaped Goals: Teaching Undergraduates the Effects of Social Stratification on the Formulation of Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzard, Giselle

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an in-class activity that helps undergraduate students to understand the effects of their socio-economic position on the formulation, pursuit, and achievement of goals. Social stratification and inequality have an initial impact on the formulation of goals. Through this exercise students will perceive the effects of having a…

  17. A Goal of Zero

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the picture of HIV/AIDS in China becomes more complex, more efforts are needed The theme of World AIDS Day this year is "Getting to Zero," which means zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths.Realizing these goals, however, is an extremely difficult challenge. Three decades after the first case of HIV was reported in the world in 1981, poor awareness and inadequate medical responses have allowed the virus to continue to spread worldwide.

  18. Flexible Tenacity in Goal Pursuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth J.; Jaudas, Alexander; Sheeran, Paschal

    2007-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior possesses various observable features (Gollwitzer and Moskowitz, 1996). First and foremost, it is characterized by persistent striving until the goal is reached. Second, goal-directedness expresses itself in energization when situations or means that can be used to reach the goal are encountered. And third,goal-directed organisms show appropriateness: If one route to goal attainment is blocked, another course of action to the same goal is taken. Alternatively, if the go...

  19. 四向度成就目標對教師創意教學表現之影響 Four-Dimensional Achievement Goal Effects on Creative Teaching Performance: Testing the Mediating Effects of Creative Self-Efficacy and the Cross-Level Moderating Effects of Team Learning Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳玉樹 Yu-Shu Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available 本研究的目的在探討教學領域四向度成就目標對高中教師創意教學表現的影響,並檢定創意自我效能的中介效果與團隊學習行為的跨層級調節效果。以問卷調查法蒐集資料,研究對象為全臺高中之國文、英文及數學科教師。總計回收有效問卷1,620 份,來自93 所學校的218 個教學研究會。以階層線性模式進行資料分析,研究結果顯示:一、成就目標會透過創意自我效能影響創意教學表現,其中學習趨向、學習逃避、表現趨向具正向中介效果,而表現逃避則是負向的中介效果;二、團隊學習行為會正向影響創意教學表現;三、團隊學習行為對學習趨向與創意教學表現之關係具有正向調節效果。 The purposes of this study were to explore the mediating effects that creative self-efficacy exerts on the relationship between achievement goals in the teaching domain and creative teaching performance, as well as the moderating effects that team learning behavior exerts on the relationships between learning-orientation goals and creative teaching performance. A survey method was used to collect the data. Participants were 1,620 teachers from 218 committees of teaching and research in 93 senior high schools. We used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to conduct data analysis. The results indicated that (1 creative self-efficacy mediated the relationship between achievement goals and creative teaching performance, in which the learning-approach, learning-avoidance, and performance-approach exerted positive mediating effects; however, the performance-avoidance exerted a negative mediating effect; (2 team learning behavior exerted a positive effect on creative teaching performance; and (3 team learning behavior positively moderated the relationship between learning-approach and creative teaching performance.

  20. INFORMATIONAL CONSTRAINTS-DRIVEN ORGANIZATION IN GOAL-DIRECTED BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    SANDER G. VAN DIJK; DANIEL POLANI

    2013-01-01

    We study goal-directed behavior in the light of informationally constrained cognition. In a formal information-theoretical model, based on a description of goal-directed behavior as a family of Markov Decision Processes, we study lower bounds of constraints on the information about a goal needed to generate behavior that achieves such a goal at a certain level of optimality. We assume a working memory that operates on this minimally relevant goal information and study the necessary dynamics o...

  1. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ''extended hot'' are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group's findings and recommendations are presented

  2. Software for Optimizing Plans Involving Interdependent Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    A computer program enables construction and optimization of plans for activities that are directed toward achievement of goals that are interdependent. Goal interdependence is defined as the achievement of one or more goals affecting the desirability or priority of achieving one or more other goals. This program is overlaid on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system, aspects of which have been described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. Unlike other known or related planning programs, this program considers interdependences among goals that can change between problems and provides a language for easily specifying such dependences. Specifications of the interdependences can be formulated dynamically and provided to the associated planning software as part of the goal input. Then an optimization algorithm provided by this program enables the planning software to reason about the interdependences and incorporate them into an overall objective function that it uses to rate the quality of a plan under construction and to direct its optimization search. In tests on a series of problems of planning geological experiments by a team of instrumented robotic vehicles (rovers) on new terrain, this program was found to enhance plan quality.

  3. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  4. Predicting subsequent task performance from goal motivation and goal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Laura C.; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Stewart, Brandon D.; Duda, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 ...

  5. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Catherine Healy; Nikos eNtoumanis; Brandon eStewart; Duda, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 ...

  6. Prevalence of lipid abnormalities before and after introduction of lipid modifying therapy among Swedish patients with dyslipidemia (PRIMULA)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinell Mats; Sazonov Vasilisa; Ambegaonkar Baishali; Pettersson Billie; Stålhammar Jan; Wändell Per

    2010-01-01

    Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia and attainment of goal/normal lipid levels in a Swedish population are scarce. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and attainment of goal/normal lipid levels in patients treated with lipid modifying therapy (LMT). Methods: This longitudinal retrospective observational study covers time periods before and after treatment. Data were collected from 1994-2007 electronic patient records in public primary healt...

  7. Professionalism: secondary goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Please recall my lengthy disclaimer from Part 1 of this series. In part two, we reviewed the Oath of Maimonides. We considered our profession as a sacred vocation. We defined professionalism: A good doctor can be trusted to always place his/her individual patient’s best interest first, with ability, good judgment, and a caring attitude. We determined that we should be willing to make sacrifices in our commitment to our primary goal (as critical care physicians – getting our patients and their families through their illness with as little disability and suffering as possible. Now, my second disclaimer – I am going to express my opinions from atop my Ivory Tower – as I am not in private practice, and protected a bit from the harsh reality of the business world. I am going to express my possibly somewhat naive perspective on secondary goals related to our profession. These are not necessarily bad, but ...

  8. CBM with Goal Setting: Impacting Students' Understanding of Reading Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristine D.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study investigated if goal setting with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) was effective in increasing student awareness of goal knowledge and if students could set realistic daily reading goals. Nineteen 6th and 7th grade students with learning disabilities participated in a goal setting treatment group or a control group. During the…

  9. Predicting subsequent task performance from goal motivation and goal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Laura C; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Stewart, Brandon D; Duda, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50) completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 min. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving. PMID:26191029

  10. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  11. Different way, same goal

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Fabio Capello

    2012-01-01

    Radio-oncologists and radiotherapists represented a large proportion of the doctors and clinicians who attended the ICTR-PHE 2012 conference. With them were also biologists and doctors of nuclear medicine. They presented the state of the art of their research that touches on the genetics and biology of tumours as well as on futuristic drugs that selectively target malignant cells. The future of cancer treatment seems to lie in the personalised approach.   When the members of the life sciences community took over from the physicists, the focus remained basically the same. Just another sign of the fact that the different communities are leading the same battle and have the same goal. However, the methodologies and issues can be very different. The example of hadrontherapy illustrates the situation well: while for physicists this is a relatively well-established concept, medical doctors consider that the amount of patient data available is still very small. Several clinical trials are in progress ...

  12. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  13. 38 CFR 1.894 - Annual goals and timetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Part-Time Career Employment Program § 1.894 Annual goals and timetables. An departmentwide plan for promoting part-time employment opportunities will be developed annually. This plan will establish annual goals and set interim and final deadlines for achieving these goals. This plan will...

  14. Assessment of patient knowledge of diabetic goals, self-reported medication adherence, and goal attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley HP

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is an integral aspect of disease state management for patients with chronic illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. It has been hypothesized that patients with diabetes who have poor medication adherence may have less knowledge of overall therapeutic goals and may be less likely to attain these goals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals (hemoglobin A1C [A1C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and blood pressure [BP], and goal attainment in adult patients with diabetes. Methods: A survey was created to assess medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals, and goal attainment for adult patients with diabetes followed at an internal medicine or a family medicine clinic. Surveys were self-administered prior to office visits. Additional data were collected from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Knowledge of therapeutic goals was reported by 14%, 34%, and 18% of survived patients for LDL-C, BP, and A1C, respectively. Forty-six percent, 37%, and 40% of patients achieved LDL-C, BP, and A1C goals, respectively. Low prescribing of cholesterol-lowering medications was an interesting secondary finding; 36% of patients not at LDL-C goal had not been prescribed a medication targeted to lower cholesterol. Forty-eight percent of patients were medication non-adherent; most frequently reported reasons for non-adherence were forgot (34% and too expensive (14%. Patients at A1C goal were more adherent than patients not at goal (p=0.025. Conclusion: The majority did not reach goals and were unknowledgeable of goals; however, most were provided prescriptions to treat these parameters. Goal parameters should be revisited often amongst multidisciplinary team members with frequent and open communications. Additionally, it is imperative that practitioners discuss

  15. Personal Goals as Predictors of Intended Classroom Goals: Comparing Elementary and Secondary School Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lia M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: The literature documents fewer classroom mastery goal structures in secondary school compared to elementary. However, little is known about how personal achievement goals may influence classroom goal structures. This is especially true at the level of pre-service teachers. Our objective was to investigate if pre-service…

  16. Goals, Interpretations, and Policies in Information Systems Design

    OpenAIRE

    Regev, Gil; Wegmann, Alain

    2001-01-01

    Current goal-oriented requirements engineering methods focus on the definition of optimal requirements that an information system needs to support in order to help its stakeholders to achieve their goals. But, the lack of systemic reasoning and disregard for questions of interpretation lead to insufficient attention given to activities and implicit policies affecting the definition of these goals. This results in the optimization of the goals to the their activities, their policies requiremen...

  17. 3 Steps for Setting Healthy Eating Goals | Smokefree.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expectations and Goals Activity: 3 STEPS FOR SETTING HEALTHY EATING GOALS 1. Think about what kinds of goals you might set. One key to setting realistic goals is to identify what you want to get out of it. Here are some examples of things you might want to achieve with healthier eating. Choose one of these, or get creative and come up with your own.

  18. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging. PMID:26860430

  19. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  20. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  1. For whom the goals loom: Context-driven goal contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leander, N. Pontus; Shah, James Y.

    2013-01-01

    Goal contagion is a process in which perceivers inadvertently "catch" goals inferred from others' behavior; yet, social perception is often driven by the broader contexts surrounding others and these contexts may suffice to drive goal inferences and contagion on their own. In Study 1, context-driven

  2. Goal Contents and Goal Contexts: Experiments with Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Hu, Xiao Yong; Guo, Yong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Using samples of Chinese middle school students, the 2 experimental studies presented here examined the effects of goal content and goal context on test performance, free-choice engagement, and test anxiety within the framework of self-determination theory. Students' learning goals were induced as intrinsic or extrinsic with the learning…

  3. Chandrayaan-1: Science goals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Bhandari

    2005-12-01

    land on the Moon during the mission. Salient features of the mission are described here.The ensemble of instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1 should enable us to accomplish the science goals de fined for this mission.

  4. IMPORTANCE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IN SPORTS PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti A Upadhye; N Chandrappa

    2014-01-01

    The present article defines the psychological construct of Achievement motivation and its influence on Sportsman to achieve their goals and to improve their performance level. Achievement Motivation is a mindset that leads people to set for themselves realistic but challenging goals. In Achievement Motivation can calculate mathematically by taking a person's desire to succeed and subtracting their fear of failure. When a student is motivated, he is inspired to pursue greater a...

  5. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe;

    The national curriculum for Danish primary and lower secondary schools has recently changed in a goal-oriented direction. The intention is to increase the teachers´ and students´attention to learning outcome, by making learning goals visible. Danish surveys show that teachers did not use the...... previous curriculum in the intended way in relation to goals (Danmarks Evaluerings Institut, 2012). The surveys also indicate that teachers in general do not articulate learning goals (Skovgaard et al, 2014). Our research investigates how the requirements for goal-orientation influence teachers' practice...... will be presented. We expect to deepen our understanding of the relations between the various parameters in the teachers' practice in relation to learning goals and goal-oriented teaching. There is conducted research on the effects of goal-oriented teaching on students' learning both internationally...

  6. Motivational Function of Plans and Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Alispahić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature shows that by helping tune out distractions, goals can get individuals' to try harder, work longer, and achieve more. Goals that people set for themselves and that are devoted to attaining mastery are usually healthy. But goals imposed by others—sales targets, quarterly returns, standardized test scores—can sometimes have dangerous side effects (Pink, 2009. Because understanding action demands understanding intention, the idea of motivation is natural and readily expressed in everyday language. Cognitive mental events like goals and expectancies can function as a “spring to action”, a moving force that energizes and directs action in purposive ways (Reeve, 2005. Cognitive studies of motivation are dealing with relationship between cognition and action. Literature is indicating a few cognitive elements that can have motivational significance. The article presents the overview of theory and research about the motivational function of plans and goals, according to Goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990 and Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000. Suggestions for additional research are also indicated.

  7. Achieveing Organizational Excellence Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abzari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractToday, In order to create motivation and desirable behavior in employees, to obtain organizational goals,to increase human resources productivity and finally to achieve organizational excellence, top managers oforganizations apply new and effective strategies. One of these strategies to achieve organizational excellenceis creating desirable corporate culture. This research has been conducted to identify the path to reachorganizational excellence by creating corporate culture according to the standards and criteria oforganizational excellence. The result of the so-called research is this paper in which researchers foundtwenty models and components of corporate culture and based on the Industry, organizational goals andEFQM model developed a model called "The Eskimo model of Culture-Excellence". The method of theresearch is survey and field study and the questionnaires were distributed among 116 managers andemployees. To assess the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach alpha was measured to be 95% in the idealsituation and 0/97 in the current situation. Systematic sampling was done and in the pre-test stage 45questionnaires were distributed. A comparison between the current and the ideal corporate culture based onthe views of managers and employees was done and finally it has been concluded that corporate culture isthe main factor to facilitate corporate excellence and success in order to achieve organizational effectiveness.The contribution of this paper is that it proposes a localized –applicable model of corporate excellencethrough reinforcing corporate culture.

  8. Fuel from microalgae lipid products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.M.; Feinberg, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The large-scale production of microalgae is a promising method of producing a renewable feedstock for a wide variety of fuel products currently refined from crude petroleum. These microalgae-derived products include lipid extraction products (triglycerides, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons) and catalytic conversion products (paraffins and olefins). Microalgal biomass productivity and lipid composition of current experimental systems are estimated at 66.0 metric tons per hectare year and 30% lipid content. Similar yields in a large-scale facility indicate that production costs are approximately six times higher than the average domestic price for crude, well-head petroleum. Based on achievable targets for productivity and production costs, the potential for microalgae as a fuel feedstock is presented in context with selected process refining routes and is compared with conventional and alternative feedstocks (e.g., oilseeds) with which microalgae must compete. 24 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Extraction of microalgal lipids and the influence of polar lipids on biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    In order to obtain microalgal saponifiable lipids (SLs) fractions containing different polar lipid (glycolipids and phospholipids) contents, SLs were extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgal biomass using seven extraction systems, and the polar lipid contents of some fractions were reduced by low temperature acetone crystallization. We observed that the polar lipid content in the extracted lipids depended on the polarity of the first solvent used in the extraction system. Lipid fractions with polar lipid contents between 75.1% and 15.3% were obtained. Some of these fractions were transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, biodiesel) by methanolysis, catalyzed by the lipases Novozym 435 and Rhizopus oryzae in tert-butanol medium. We observed that the reaction velocity was higher the lower the polar lipid content, and that the final FAME conversions achieved after using the same lipase batch to catalyze consecutive reactions decreased in relation to an increase in the polar lipid content. PMID:27323242

  10. New Goals for a New School Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玲

    2005-01-01

    Im a student of Senior 3and Ive set lots of new goals to achieve inthe new sem ester.First of all,Ill get up early in the m orning.In the past,I was usedto staying in bed for a little tim e longer, especially on weekends or onwinter m ornings. But from this autum n, Im determ ined to form a goodhabit of getting up early and then doing som e m orning exercises. Y ouknow,that will do m e good!O nly through these sports can I achieve m ygoalto becom e healthier and stronger.Secondly,Illm ake good use ofevery c...

  11. Studying for the Sake of Others: The Role of Social Goals on Academic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel Bornasal; McInerney, Dennis M.; Watkins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the research on achievement goal theory has focused on the roles of mastery and performance goals in academic engagement, thus the role of other goals such as social goals has mostly been neglected. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of different kinds of social goals (affiliation, approval, concern, responsibility and…

  12. Wisdom: a goal of nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, Jocelyn

    2014-02-01

    The attainment of wisdom is a goal of intellectual development manifested in an individual by a solid knowledge base, effective critical thinking skills, creative problem solving, and a sense of duty and altruism to humankind. Promoting the achievement of wisdom as a focal point in a nursing program can provide a unifying perspective in the development of a curriculum. Teaching strategies such as case studies, small group discussions, mentoring, reflective writing, and professional networking are effective ways to promote wisdom in nursing students.

  13. Study on setting goal difficulty for short nonrecurring tasks to maximize performance.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linde, Christian; Scholander, Erik

    2006-01-01

    In order to discover how maximum performance could be achieved when setting goals two hypotheses was tested difficulty would result in lowered performance due to goal rejection. In the experiment conducted it was found that goal difficulty had a strong positive correlation to performance, but goal rejection did not occur even with unattainable goals. Recommendations and suggestions when setting goals as a manager are given as well as a discussion on why goal rejection did not occur.

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF OPTIMUM RESOURCE ALLOCATION BY FUZZY GOAL PROGRAMMING : THE CASE OF HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Güneş, Mustafa; Nurullah UMARUSMAN

    2003-01-01

    The Goal Programming, which is using to solve the multiple objective decision problems, has wide and great potential among other methods targeting maximization or minimization of goals. The main aim of the goal programming is to minimize the biases from each objective, instead of optimization of goals. Goal Programming algorithms, as originally developed by Charnels, attempts to achieve as many of these goals possible by minimizing deviation variables from the goal levels, depending on th...

  15. Progreso en el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio: la mortalidad por cáncer de cérvix desciende en Colombia / Progress in the achievement of the millennium development goals: the rate of mortality by cervical cancer decreases in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jancy A. Huertas Q.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Colombia cumpliendo en 2015 la fecha establecida para el alcance de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (odm, ha logrado un descenso progresivo en las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino durante el decenio 2000 - 2010. En este período, la tasa de mortalidad descendió significativamente para las mujeres de todas las edades (11,4% en 1998 – 6,9 en 2011, meta a 2015: 6,8% y aumentó la proporción de casos in situ detectados oportunamente (63,31% en 2012. Colombia asumió el cáncer como un problema de salud pública y logró posicionarlo en la agenda pública. De igual forma, el cambio en el conocimiento y el autocuidado de la población, dieron como resultado un aumento en el pronóstico de las pacientes. A pesar de estos avances, el país continúa concentrando esfuerzos en reducir tasas de incidencia y mortalidad, aumentar los niveles de tecnología y promover mayor desarrollo en las regiones, mejorar sustancialmente el derecho de las mujeres a ser protegidas contra esta enfermedad, a través de acceso sin barreras a los programas de tamización y tratamientos del cáncer de cuello uterino. Y finalmente, la inclusión más amplia de la vacuna contra el vph con intervalo de cada 5 años, y que tiene un mayor potencial, especialmente entre las mujeres más jóvenes. La pregunta clave hoy en día es cómo acelerar ese ritmo de progreso en los indicadores propuestos por la agenda para el desarrollo después del 2015: Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ods, y ofrecer suficientes ejemplos de estrategias eficaces y adecuadas, y proporcionar experiencias en un contexto latinoamericano./ Abstract Two years before the deadline set for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG, Colombia is experiencing a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer during the 2000-2010 decade. During this time, the mortality rate decreased significantly for women of all ages (11,4% in

  16. Dispositional Mindfulness, Meditation, and Conditional Goal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Catherine; Jandric, Danka; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Williams, J Mark G

    2010-12-01

    Conditional goal setting (CGS, the tendency to regard high order goals such as happiness, as conditional upon the achievement of lower order goals) is observed in individuals with depression and recent research has suggested a link between levels of dispositional mindfulness and conditional goal setting in depressed patients. Since interventions which aim to increase mindfulness through training in meditation are used with patients suffering from depression it is of interest to examine whether such interventions might alter CGS. Study 1 examined the correlation between changes in dispositional mindfulness and changes in CGS over a 3-4 month period in patients participating in a pilot randomised controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). Results indicated that increases in dispositional mindfulness were significantly associated with decreases in CGS, although this effect could not be attributed specifically to the group who had received training in meditation. Study 2 explored the impact of brief periods of either breathing or loving kindness meditation on CGS in 55 healthy participants. Contrary to expectation, a brief period of meditation increased CGS. Further analyses indicated that this effect was restricted to participants low in goal re-engagement ability who were allocated to loving kindness meditation. Longer term changes in dispositional mindfulness are associated with reductions in CGS in patients with depressed mood. However initial reactions to meditation, and in particular loving kindness meditation, may be counterintuitive and further research is required in order to determine the relationship between initial reactions and longer-term benefits of meditation practice.

  17. Systemic consultation and goal setting

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Over two decades of empirical research conducted within a positivist framework has shown that goal setting is a particularly useful method for influencing task performance in occupational and industrial contexts. The conditions under which goal setting is maximally effective are now clearly established. These include situations where there is a high level of acceptance and commitment, where goals are specific and challenging, where the task is relatively simple rather than ...

  18. Lipid-lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented.

  19. Goal Orientation Profile Differences in Greek Physical Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IoannisProios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the individual differences on goal perspectives in the sport domain. The participants in the study consisted of 360 athletes (football, handball, basketball, track and field, volleyball, rowing, gymnastics, etc, 147 referees, and 79 physical education and exercise (391 males and 185 females, ranging in age from 13 to 50 years (M = 22.54, SD = 7.70. Their experience varied from 1 to 32 years (M = 6.27, SD = 5.24. All subjects filled in two versions of Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ and TEOSQ-R. The results were found achievement goal profile differences for all variables except gender. Overall, the findings support achievement goal frameworks and suggest that further examination of dispositional achievement goals may afford a deeper understanding of social relationships and motivational processes in achievement domains.

  20. Policies for Effective Risk Management Performance through Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    L.S. Chien; B.B. Schweig; Yu, P L

    1989-01-01

    The organizational behavior and management science literature dealing with multiple criteria decision making, suggests that making policies for effective risk management performance through goal setting can in theory be treated as setting-up a complex multiple criteria optimal control system in which the control variables are (1) selecting a set of measurable goals (2) determining goal achievement levels and (3) constructing supportive systems; and the objectives are (i) to maximize time allo...

  1. Investigating goal-oriented requirements engineering for business processes

    OpenAIRE

    Poels, Geert; Decreus, Ken; Roelens, Ben; Snoeck, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Business processes are designed to execute strategies that aim at achieving organisational goals. During the last decade, several methods have been proposed that prescribe the use of goal-oriented requirements engineering techniques for supporting different business process management activities, in particular business process modelling. The integration of goal modelling and business process modelling aims at increasing the alignment between business strategies and the processes with their su...

  2. Self-regulation and student's goals in the social context

    OpenAIRE

    Strmšek Turk, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The fields of self-regulation and motivational goals are in the centre of theories which try to explain motivational processes and learning achievement. The latter are namely strongly connected with the goal orientation, the self-regulation of learning and the self-efficiency of students. Therefore the main research problem of the thesis is to enlighten the complexity of goals of students in vocational and professional education in the social context and the argumentation and interpretation o...

  3. Goal Orientation in Teams: The Role of Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nederveen Pieterse, Anne

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations make increasingly use of teams as their basic structure, making it more and more important to determine what enables optimal team functioning. Over the past decades, the goals people focus on in achievement settings (i.e. goal orientation) is shown to be highly important for individual behavior. Nevertheless, little is known on how this plays out in a team context. The present dissertation focuses on uncovering the role of team composition in goal orientation on team...

  4. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Goedhart; J. Spronk (Jaap)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with mult

  5. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  6. Goal Theory and Individual Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter J.

    The paper provides a review of goal theory as articulated by Edwin Locke. The theory is evaluated in terms of laboratory and field research and its practical usefulnes is explored as a means to improving individual productivity in "real world" organizations Research findings provide support for some goal theory propositions but suggest also the…

  7. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for Adolescents Questionnaire)…

  8. How Future Goals Enhance Motivation and Learning in Multicultural Classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.; Lens, W.; Phalet, K.

    2004-01-01

    This review examines the impact of future goals on motivation and learning in multicultural classrooms. Across cultures, schooling is a future-oriented investment. Studies of minority students’ school achievement have advanced future goals as a crucial protective factor in the face of frequent schoo

  9. Multiple Motivational Goals, Values, and Willingness to Cheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental importance of motives, values and goals to academic behaviour has been noted by many social theorists. This paper reports the results of a survey investigation on the relationship of gender, professional career aspirations and the combined influence of materialism, religiosity, and achievement goals on students' willingness to…

  10. A Commentary on Education and Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are viewed in the context of Johan Rockström's work on planetary boundaries at the Stockholm Resilience Centre. This work sets a double challenge to educational policy and practice: to embrace and help achieve the Goals, but also to work towards a deeper change in consciousness which can reconcile people…

  11. Goal Orientation in Teams: The Role of Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nederveen Pieterse (Anne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations make increasingly use of teams as their basic structure, making it more and more important to determine what enables optimal team functioning. Over the past decades, the goals people focus on in achievement settings (i.e. goal orientation) is shown to be highly important fo

  12. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe;

    2015-01-01

    in mathematics and Danish-as-a-Mother-Tongue in regard to planning, teaching and assessment. Our research is framed by an explorative design. The informants take part in the research- and development project “Digitally Supported Learning Goals”. In addition to observe teaching, we conduct qualitative interviews......The national curriculum for Danish primary and lower secondary schools has recently changed in a goal-oriented direction. The intention is to increase the teachers´ and students´attention to learning outcome, by making learning goals visible. Danish surveys show that teachers did not use...... the previous curriculum in the intended way in relation to goals (Danmarks Evaluerings Institut, 2012). The surveys also indicate that teachers in general do not articulate learning goals (Skovgaard et al, 2014). Our research investigates how the requirements for goal-orientation influence teachers' practice...

  13. Comparison of serum lipid management between elderly and non-elderly patients with and without coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Rumiko; Torii, Haruki; Yasuda, Daisuke; Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Furukawa, Yutaka; Yoshimoto, Akihiro; Iwakura, Toshio; Matsuoka, Naoki; Tomii, Keisuke; Kohara, Nobuo; Hashida, Tohru; Kume, Noriaki

    2016-12-01

    Serum lipid management in patients aged ≥ 75 has not been precisely explored. We, therefore, compared the serum lipid management between the two age groups with and without coronary heart disease (CHD). We, therefore, retrospectively reviewed medical charts of patients who were hospitalized in the departments of internal medicine during a period of 14 months. Serum lipid goal attainment was explored by applying the lipid goals for patients aged < 75 to those aged ≥ 75. In 1988 enrolled patients, 717 subjects (36.1%) were aged ≥ 75. Among them, 41.3% and 32.4% of the patients had CHD, 44.2% and 41.0% were primary prevention at high-risk, and 14.5% and 14.6% were primary prevention at moderate-risk in patients aged ≥ 75 and aged < 75, respectively. Serum LDL-C goal achievement rates in CHD were 66.9% and 65.0% in patients aged ≥ 75 and < 75, respectively (p = 0.334). In the primary prevention at high-risk, these rates were 73.5% and 63.3%, in patients aged ≥ 75 and < 75, respectively (p = 0.001). They were 77.9% and 58.1% in primary prevention at moderate-risk aged ≥ 75 and < 75, respectively (p < 0.001). In CHD, lipid-lowering medication subscription rates were significantly lower in patients aged ≥ 75 (60.1%) than those aged < 75 (73.8%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, in CHD, serum lipid goal attainment was comparable between the two age groups although the lipid-lowering drugs were less frequently prescribed in patients aged ≥ 75. Without CHD, it was significantly better in patients aged ≥ 75 than those aged < 75 although the lipid-lowering drug subscription rates were comparable between the two age groups. PMID:27413682

  14. Improved characterization of EV preparations based on protein to lipid ratio and lipid properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Osteikoetxea

    Full Text Available In recent years the study of extracellular vesicles has gathered much scientific and clinical interest. As the field is expanding, it is becoming clear that better methods for characterization and quantification of extracellular vesicles as well as better standards to compare studies are warranted. The goal of the present work was to find improved parameters to characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Here we introduce a simple 96 well plate-based total lipid assay for determination of lipid content and protein to lipid ratios of extracellular vesicle preparations from various myeloid and lymphoid cell lines as well as blood plasma. These preparations included apoptotic bodies, microvesicles/microparticles, and exosomes isolated by size-based fractionation. We also investigated lipid bilayer order of extracellular vesicle subpopulations using Di-4-ANEPPDHQ lipid probe, and lipid composition using affinity reagents to clustered cholesterol (monoclonal anti-cholesterol antibody and ganglioside GM1 (cholera toxin subunit B. We have consistently found different protein to lipid ratios characteristic for the investigated extracellular vesicle subpopulations which were substantially altered in the case of vesicular damage or protein contamination. Spectral ratiometric imaging and flow cytometric analysis also revealed marked differences between the various vesicle populations in their lipid order and their clustered membrane cholesterol and GM1 content. Our study introduces for the first time a simple and readily available lipid assay to complement the widely used protein assays in order to better characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Besides differentiating extracellular vesicle subpopulations, the novel parameters introduced in this work (protein to lipid ratio, lipid bilayer order, and lipid composition, may prove useful for quality control of extracellular vesicle related basic and clinical studies.

  15. Reading for Different Goals: The Interplay of EFL College Students' Multiple Goals, Reading Strategy Use and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tung-hsien

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of achievement goals on English as a foreign language (EFL) college students' reading strategy use and reading comprehension from the perspective of multiple goals. Fifty-seven participants verbalised their thoughts while reading an English expository essay. They also completed assessments on their reading goal…

  16. Goals Analysis Procedure Guidelines for Applying the Goals Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Albert E., III

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements to successful project management is the establishment of the "right set of requirements", requirements that reflect the true customer needs and are consistent with the strategic goals and objectives of the participating organizations. A viable set of requirements implies that each individual requirement is a necessary element in satisfying the stated goals and that the entire set of requirements, taken as a whole, is sufficient to satisfy the stated goals. Unfortunately, it is the author's experience that during project formulation phases' many of the Systems Engineering customers do not conduct a rigorous analysis of the goals and objectives that drive the system requirements. As a result, the Systems Engineer is often provided with requirements that are vague, incomplete, and internally inconsistent. To complicate matters, most systems development methodologies assume that the customer provides unambiguous, comprehensive and concise requirements. This paper describes the specific steps of a Goals Analysis process applied by Systems Engineers at the NASA Langley Research Center during the formulation of requirements for research projects. The objective of Goals Analysis is to identify and explore all of the influencing factors that ultimately drive the system's requirements.

  17. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  18. Goal Statements and Goal-Directed Behavior: A Relational Frame Account of Goal Setting in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hora, Denis; Maglieri, Kristen A.

    2006-01-01

    Goal setting has consistently been shown to increase performance under specific conditions. These goal setting effects have previously been explored from both a cognitive perspective and in terms of traditional behavioral concepts. We highlight limitations of these approaches and propose a novel account based on Relational Frame Theory. This…

  19. IMRT treatment planning based on prioritizing prescription goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Jan J; Alaly, James R; Zakarian, Konstantin; Thorstad, Wade L; Deasy, Joseph O

    2007-03-21

    Determining the 'best' optimization parameters in IMRT planning is typically a time-consuming trial-and-error process with no unambiguous termination point. Recently we and others proposed a goal-programming approach which better captures the desired prioritization of dosimetric goals. Here, individual prescription goals are addressed stepwise in their order of priority. In the first step, only the highest order goals are considered (target coverage and dose-limiting normal structures). In subsequent steps, the achievements of the previous steps are turned into hard constraints and lower priority goals are optimized, in turn, subject to higher priority constraints. So-called 'slip' factors were introduced to allow for slight, clinically acceptable violations of the constraints. Focusing on head and neck cases, we present several examples for this planning technique. The main advantages of the new optimization method are (i) its ability to generate plans that meet the clinical goals, as well as possible, without tuning any weighting factors or dose-volume constraints, and (ii) the ability to conveniently include more terms such as fluence map smoothness. Lower level goals can be optimized to the achievable limit without compromising higher order goals. The prioritized prescription-goal planning method allows for a more intuitive and human-time-efficient way of dealing with conflicting goals compared to the conventional trial-and-error method of varying weighting factors and dose-volume constraints.

  20. A guide for establishing restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anne M.; Larson, Diane L.; DalSoglio, Julie A.; Harris, James A.; Labus, Paul; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Skarbis, Krisin E.

    2015-01-01

    As natural resources become increasingly limited, the value of restoring contaminated sites, both terrestrial and aquatic, becomes increasingly apparent. Traditionally, goals for remediation have been set before any consideration of goals for ecological restoration. The goals for remediation have focused on removing or limiting contamination whereas restoration goals have targeted the ultimate end use. Here, we present a framework for developing a comprehensive set of achievable goals for ecological restoration of contaminated sites to be used in concert with determining goals for remediation. This framework was developed during a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) cosponsored workshop that brought together experts from multiple countries. Although most members were from North America, this framework is designed for use internationally. We discuss the integration of establishing goals for both contaminant remediation and overall restoration, and the need to include both the restoration of ecological and socio-cultural-economic value in the context of contaminated sites. Although recognizing that in some countries there may be regulatory issues associated with contaminants and clean up, landscape setting and social drivers can inform the restoration goals. We provide a decision tree support tool to guide the establishment of restoration goals for contaminated ecosystems. The overall intent of this decision tree is to provide a framework for goal setting and to identify outcomes achievable given the contamination present at a site.

  1. A quick colorimetric method for total lipid quantification in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byreddy, Avinesh R; Gupta, Adarsha; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2016-06-01

    Discovering microalgae with high lipid productivity are among the key milestones for achieving sustainable biodiesel production. Current methods of lipid quantification are time intensive and costly. A rapid colorimetric method based on sulfo-phospho-vanillin (SPV) reaction was developed for the quantification of microbial lipids to facilitate screening for lipid producing microalgae. This method was successfully tested on marine thraustochytrid strains and vegetable oils. The colorimetric method results correlated well with gravimetric method estimates. The new method was less time consuming than gravimetric analysis and is quantitative for lipid determination, even in the presence of carbohydrates, proteins and glycerol. PMID:27050419

  2. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  3. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma ( ...

  4. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  6. Eyes on the prize: The longitudinal benefits of goal focus on progress toward a weight loss goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Kyle E.; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Eibach, Richard P.; Crescioni, A. William; Alquist, Jessica L.; Gerend, Mary A.; Dutton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    Past research suggests that focusing on what has not yet been accomplished (goal focus) signals a lack of progress towards one’s high commitment goals and inspires greater motivation than does focusing on what has already been accomplished (accomplishment focus). The present investigation extends this research to a longitudinal, important domain by exploring the consequences of focusing on one’s goals versus accomplishments when pursuing a weight loss goal. Participants were tracked over the course of a 12-week weight loss program that utilized weekly group discussions and a companion website to direct participants’ focus toward their end weight loss goal or toward what they had already achieved. Goal-focused participants reported higher levels of commitment to their goal and, ultimately, lost more weight than did accomplishment-focused and no focus control participants. Accomplishment-focused participants did not differ from controls on any measure. PMID:21643510

  7. Employment and Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Azizur R. Khan

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the role of employment-intensive growth in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000 ratified by setting specific targets with respect to eight different goals: eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; universal primary education; gender equality; reduction of child mortality; improved maternal health; combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensuring environmental sustainability; and promoting global partn...

  8. Goal setting and worker motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian J. Goerg

    2015-01-01

    Employers want motivated and productive employees. Are there ways to increase employee motivation without relying solely on monetary incentives, such as pay-for-performance schemes? One tool that has shown promise in recent decades for improving worker performance is setting goals, whether they are assigned by management or self-chosen. Goals are powerful motivators for workers, with the potential for boosting productivity in an organization. However, if not chosen carefully or if used in uns...

  9. A Cyclical Nurse Schedule Using Goal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzzakiah Jenal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is a very tedious task in organizations where duty is around the clock. Constructing timetable for nurses in hospital is one of the challenging jobs for the head nurse or nurse manager. It requires a lot of time to spend for generating a good and fair timetable. Thus, in this study, we propose a cyclical nurse scheduling model using a 0-1 goal programming that would help the head nurse or nurse manager to have less effort on building new schedules periodically. The proposed model satisfies the stated hospital’s policies and the nurses’ preferences. The result obtained from this model gives an optimal solution where all goals are achieved. The model also provides an unbiased way of scheduling the nurses and thus leads to an overall higher satisfaction and fairness to the nurses and the hospital management.

  10. Comments on Educational Equity Plans of the Segments. A Staff Report on the Development of Plans by the State Department of Education, the California State University, and the University of California To Achieve the Educational Equity Goals of Assembly Concurrent Resolution 83 (1984). Commission Report 88-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    In 1984 the California Legislature enacted Assembly Concurrent Resolution 83 (ACR 83), which established specific goals for enhancing the participation and success in postsecondary education of students from economic, racial, and ethnic backgrounds historically underrepresented in higher education. The Postsecondary Education Commission was…

  11. Monstrous Mycobacterial Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Jessica; Moody, D Branch

    2016-02-18

    When it comes to lipid diversity, no bacterial genus approaches Mycobacterium. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Burbaud et al. (2016) provide a multi-genic working model for the biosynthesis of trehalose polyphleate (TPP), one of the largest known lipids in mycobacteria. They demonstrate that this lipid is made by diverse mycobacterial species, including those of medical importance. PMID:26971870

  12. The Relationship between Goal Setting and Students' Experience of Academic Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Michael J.; Putwain, David W.; Caltabiano, Marie L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have established that higher test anxiety (TA) is related to achievement goals with an avoidance valence. However, comprehensive empirical examination of relations between the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals (self, task, and other-referenced goals along an approach-avoidance dimension) and test anxiety has yet…

  13. Perceived Parenting Styles and Goal Orientations: A Study of Teacher Education Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-wai; Chan, Siu-mui

    2005-01-01

    Two achievement goals and three perceived parenting styles were identified in a sample of Hong Kong teacher education students. Significant correlations exist within the perceived parenting styles and the achievement goals. Parental authoritativeness was significantly and positively related to learning goal, and parental authoritarianism was…

  14. The lower the better? Reviewing the evidence for more aggressive cholesterol reduction and goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Evan

    2002-04-01

    There is considerable evidence that more aggressive lowering of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is associated with increased benefits in reducing atherosclerotic disease burden, supporting the notion of 'the lower, the better.' However, achievement of currently recommended goals has proven difficult with lipid-lowering agents at the commonly used doses. Current options for achieving greater LDL cholesterol reductions include use of high doses of the most effective of the available statins and use of high or moderate statin doses in combination with agents that work in a complementary manner (e.g. bile acid sequestrants or niacin). Near-term options may include statins with increased LDL cholesterol-lowering effectiveness and better-tolerated secondary agents that can be combined with statin therapy. Rosuvastatin (Crestor, AstraZeneca) is a new statin that may prove to be of considerable utility in achieving greater LDL cholesterol reductions than are currently possible with existing statins. Recent phase III clinical trials have shown that this agent produces significantly greater LDL cholesterol reductions than atorvastatin, simvastatin, or pravastatin in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and significantly greater reductions than the maximal dose of atorvastatin in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:11976073

  15. Sustainable Health Development Goals (SHDG): breaking down the walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2015-01-01

    The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 17 sustainability development goals, health has only one universal aim: to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. Accomplishing this will require a focus on health systems (system-thinking), commonization of services and full integration of services with total dismantling of vertical programs across the world.

  16. Relationship between Learning Strategies and Goal Orientations: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Cansel; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Motivation plays an important role in explaining students' academic achievement. In an effort to explain students' purposes for learning and the reasons they engage in a learning activity, different achievement goal models (dichotomous, trichotomous, and 2x2) have been proposed over time. The present study aimed to extend…

  17. Saturating Light Induces Sustained Accumulation of Oil in Plastidal Lipid Droplets in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Hugh Douglas; Cuiné, Stéphan; Légeret, Bertrand; Liang, Yuanxue; Brugière, Sabine; Auroy, Pascaline; Javot, Hélène; Tardif, Marianne; Jones, Brian; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2016-08-01

    Enriching algal biomass in energy density is an important goal in algal biotechnology. Nitrogen (N) starvation is considered the most potent trigger of oil accumulation in microalgae and has been thoroughly investigated. However, N starvation causes the slow down and eventually the arrest of biomass growth. In this study, we show that exposing a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii culture to saturating light (SL) under a nonlimiting CO2 concentration in turbidostatic photobioreactors induces a sustained accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs) without compromising growth, which results in much higher oil productivity than N starvation. We also show that the polar membrane lipid fraction of SL-induced LDs is rich in plastidial lipids (approximately 70%), in contrast to N starvation-induced LDs, which contain approximately 60% lipids of endoplasmic reticulum origin. Proteomic analysis of LDs isolated from SL-exposed cells identified more than 200 proteins, including known proteins of lipid metabolism, as well as 74 proteins uniquely present in SL-induced LDs. LDs induced by SL and N depletion thus differ in protein and lipid contents. Taken together, lipidomic and proteomic data thus show that a large part of the sustained oil accumulation occurring under SL is likely due to the formation of plastidial LDs. We discuss our data in relation to the different metabolic routes used by microalgae to accumulate oil reserves depending on cultivation conditions. Finally, we propose a model in which oil accumulation is governed by an imbalance between photosynthesis and growth, which can be achieved by impairing growth or by boosting photosynthetic carbon fixation, with the latter resulting in higher oil productivity. PMID:27297678

  18. Use of health information technology (HIT) to improve statin adherence and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment in high-risk patients: proceedings from a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jerome D; Aspry, Karen E; Brown, Alan S; Foody, Joanne M; Furman, Roy; Jacobson, Terry A; Karalis, Dean G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Laforge, Ralph; O'Toole, Michael F; Scott, Ronald D; Underberg, James A; Valuck, Thomas B; Willard, Kaye-Eileen; Ziajka, Paul E; Ito, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    The workshop discussions focused on how low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment can be enhanced with the use of health information technology (HIT) in different clinical settings. A gap is acknowledged in LDL-C goal attainment, but because of the passage of the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Acts there is now reason for optimism that this gap can be narrowed. For HIT to be effectively used to achieve treatment goals, it must be implemented in a setting in which the health care team is fully committed to achieving these goals. Implementation of HIT alone has not resulted in reducing the gap. It is critical to build an effective management strategy into the HIT platform without increasing the overall work/time burden on staff. By enhancing communication between the health care team and the patient, more timely adjustments to treatment plans can be made with greater opportunity for LDL-C goal attainment and improved efficiency in the long run. Patients would be encouraged to take a more active role. Support tools are available. The National Lipid Association has developed a toolkit designed to improve patient compliance and could be modified for use in an HIT system. The importance of a collaborative approach between nongovernmental organizations such as the National Lipid Association, National Quality Forum, HIT partners, and other members of the health care industry offers the best opportunity for long-term success and the real possibility that such efforts could be applied to other chronic conditions, for example, diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24314357

  19. Goal Setting and Self-Monitoring for Students with Disabilities: Practical Tips and Ideas for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Hyang; Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides teachers with practical tips and ideas about how self-monitoring works in conjunction with goal-setting strategies to support students to set and achieve different types of academic goals. In addition, specific examples of academic goals and self-monitoring forms are provided to give teachers an example of such goals. To…

  20. Evidence of Social Comparison in Mastery Goals in Natural Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regner, Isabelle; Escribe, Christian; Dupeyrat, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of achievement goal theory typically posit social comparison to be associated with performance goals but not with mastery goals (C. Ames, 1992). Contrary to this postulate, there is some evidence that individuals who are experimentally induced to adopt mastery goals may also use social comparison (e.g., R. Butler, 1992). However, such…

  1. A Study of Motivational Influences on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…

  2. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  3. A Study of the Relationship among Achievement Goals, Academic Emotions and Academic Procrastination of Senior High School Students:A Case Study of the Four General Senior High School of Anhui Province%高中生成就目标、学业情绪和学业拖延关系研究--以安徽省四所普通高中为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇云霞; 文送林

    2013-01-01

    By using the questionnaire, the paper investigates 793 students from four senior high schools in Lu'an and Wuhu of Anhui Province. The paper discusses the present status of senior high school students’ academic procrastination, and explores the relationship among the various variables. Academic procrastination of senior high students was very serious, while academic procrastination of senior high school students have signiifcant differences in terms of subjects and grades;different genders show no signiifcant differences;there is a signiifcant correlation between senior high school students achievement goals, academic emotions and academic procrastination. It plays the role of the intermediation of achievement goals between academic emotions and academic procrastination.%以安徽省六安市和芜湖市793名高中生为研究对象,采用问卷调查的方法,了解高中生学业拖延的现状,探讨成就目标学业情绪和学业拖延之间的关系。分析后发现,学业拖延在学科和年级上存在显著差异,而在性别上差异不显著;高中生成就目标、学业情绪和学业拖延两两之间都存在不同程度的相关;成就目标对学业情绪和学业拖延之间的关系存在调节作用。

  4. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  5. Overarching goals: a strategy for improving healthcare quality and safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanji, Karen C; Ferris, Timothy G; Torchiana, David F; Meyer, Gregg S

    2013-03-01

    The management literature reveals that many successful organisations have strategic plans that include a bold 'stretch-goal' to stimulate progress over a ten-to-thirty-year period. A stretch goal is clear, compelling and easily understood. It serves as a unifying focal point for organisational efforts. The ambitiousness of such goals has been emphasised with the phrase Big Hairy Audacious Goal ('BHAG'). President Kennedy's proclamation in 1961 that 'this Nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth' provides a famous example. This goal energised the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and it captured the attention of the American public and resulted in one of the largest accomplishments of any organisation. The goal set by Sony, a small, cash-strapped electronics company in the 1950s, to change the poor image of Japanese products around the world represents a classic BHAG. Few examples of quality goals that conform to the BHAG definition exist in the healthcare literature. However, the concept may provide a useful framework for organisations seeking to transform the quality of care they deliver. This review examines the merits and cautions of setting overarching quality goals to catalyse quality improvement efforts, and assists healthcare organisations with determining whether to adopt these goals.

  6. Accessibility of information about goals during the processing of narrative texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, S; Klin, C; Myers, J L

    1993-01-01

    We used a probe procedure to show that a goal established earlier in a text is active in memory at the point of its achievement. An initial experiment demonstrated that a goal category (began an investigation to nab the THIEF) is accessible, relative to a control condition, following the processing of a goal-achievement sentence (had the PURSER brought to his office). The remaining experiments provided evidence against several explanations of this result: (a) that the goal category's accessibility is due to an advantage in the strength of its initial encoding; (b) that the goal category is maintained in memory from the point at which the goal is established; or (c) that the goal category is reinstated at the point of goal achievement as the result of a high-level inference. The results suggest that the goal category is reinstated as the result of a low-level inference similar to the type that links an anaphor and its antecedent.

  7. Trajectories for Sustainable Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Gable, Susanna; Lofgren, Hans; Osorio Rodarte, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Individual countries face the challenge of implementing strategies that help realize the ambitions of the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) agenda, adopted by the UN General Assembly in September, 2015. This book presents the Country Development Diagnostics Post-2015 framework and a brief applications of the framework to ten countries.

  8. "The goal is to be more flexible"--detailed analysis of goal setting in physiotherapy using a conversation analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeb, Veronika

    2009-12-01

    Standards of practice in physiotherapy require professionals to set goals in collaboration with patients. Some evidence exists regarding outcome, but no studies have investigated the process of goal setting in orthopaedic physiotherapy. The objective of this pilot study is to describe the interaction between professionals and patients in the activity of goal setting. Three physiotherapists in an orthopaedic outpatient department audio-recorded initial patient consultations. Conversation analysis (hereafter CA), a qualitative research method, is used to illustrate participants' interaction in regards to turn taking, how talk is organised, what vocabulary they use and how they respond to each other's utterances. Four distinct phases are found: eliciting patients' preferences; introduction of goal setting activity; formulating goals; and closing the activity of goal setting. Formulating questions to elicit patients' preferences requires considerable effort. Constant adjustment is needed in order to achieve goals acceptable to both participants. Goal setting is time-consuming if the patient is actively involved. Closing of goal setting activity in physiotherapy is comparable to this activity in doctor-patient interaction. In conclusion it is not straightforward to formulate and negotiate treatment goals collaboratively with patients. A balance has to be found between the input of physiotherapists and patients during the process. PMID:19427808

  9. Maternal goals for childbirth associated with planned vaginal and planned cesarean birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Lieschen H; Blomquist, Joan L; Macmillan, Deborah; McCullough, Alexis; Handa, Victoria L

    2011-10-01

    We describe maternal childbirth goals among women planning either cesarean or vaginal birth. Women in the third trimester planning cesarean or vaginal birth were asked to report up to five childbirth goals. Goal achievement was assessed postpartum. Based on free-text responses, discrete goal categories were identified. Goals and goal achievement were compared between the two groups. Satisfaction was rated on a visual analogue scale and was compared with goal achievement. The sample included 163 women planning vaginal birth and 69 women planning cesarean. Twelve goal categories were identified. Only women planning vaginal birth reported a desire to achieve fulfillment related to childbirth. Women planning cesarean were less likely to express a desire to maintain control over their own responses during childbirth and more likely to report a desire to avoid complications. The 72 women who achieved all stated goals reported significantly higher mean satisfaction scores than the 94 women reporting that at least one goal was not achieved (P  =  0.001). Goal achievement was higher among women planning cesarean than among those planning vaginal birth (52.2% versus 23.1%, P  <  0.001). This research furthers our understanding of women's attitudes regarding cesarean childbirth and definitions of a successful birth experience.

  10. Women's pursuit of personal goals in daily life with fibromyalgia: a value-expectancy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, G; Tennen, H; Zautra, A; Urrows, S; Abeles, M; Karoly, P

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-nine women with fibromyalgia completed the Life Orientation Test, identified health and social goals, and answered questions from the Goal Systems Assessment Battery (P. Karoly & L. Ruehlman, 1995) about their valuation of, and self-efficiency in attaining, each goal. For 30 days, they responded to palm-top computer interviews about their pain and fatigue and rated their goal effort, goal progress, and pain- and fatigue-related goal barriers. Goal barriers increased and goal efforts and progress decreased on days with greater pain and fatigue; goals valued more highly were pursued more effortfully and successfully; more optimistic individuals were less likely to perceive goal barriers and, on days that were more fatiguing than usual, were less likely to reduce their effort and to retreat from progress in achieving their health goal; and more pessimistic individuals perceived greater goal barriers on days that were less painful than usual. PMID:11550725

  11. Goal-orientation, goal-setting, and goal-driven behavior in minimalist user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der Hans

    2007-01-01

    This paper opens with a summary of minimalist design strategies that aim to optimize user instructions. Next, it discusses three recent research efforts to further improve these strategies. The common focus in these efforts is the attention to people’s goal-related management and control of attentio

  12. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  13. Drug targeting using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Elham; Kashanian, Soheila; Azandaryani, Abbas H; Faramarzi, Hossain; Dolatabadi, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad; Omidfar, Kobra

    2014-07-01

    The present review aims to show the features of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) which are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery and research. Because of some unique features of SLNs such as their unique size dependent properties it offers possibility to develop new therapeutics. A common denominator of all these SLN-based platforms is to deliver drugs into specific tissues or cells in a pathological setting with minimal adverse effects on bystander cells. SLNs are capable to incorporate drugs into nanocarriers which lead to a new prototype in drug delivery which maybe used for drug targeting. Hence solid lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence attracted wide attention of researchers. This review presents a broad treatment of targeted solid lipid nanoparticles discussing their types such as antibody SLN, magnetic SLN, pH sensitive SLN and cationic SLN. PMID:24717692

  14. The impact of serum lipids on risk for microangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Peter P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few large-scale, real-world studies have assessed the relative associations of lipid fractions with diabetic microvascular events. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association of the lipid profile components, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C with microvascular complications (MVCs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Methods This observational cohort study queried the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRDSM for newly-diagnosed (Index Date 18-64-year-old patients with diabetes mellitus between 01/01/2005-06/30/2010. Inclusion required ≥12 months pre-index continuous health plan eligibility and ≥1 pre-index lipid profile result. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and prior MVCs were excluded. Incident complications were defined as the earliest occurrence of diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and/or nephropathy post-index. Cox proportional models and Kaplan-Meier (KM curves were used to evaluate associations among variables. Results Of the patients (N = 72,267, 50.05 % achieved HDL-C, 64.28 % LDL-C, 59.82 % TG, and 56.79 % non-HDL-C American Diabetes Association goals at baseline. During follow-up (mean, 21.74 months, there were 5.21 microvascular events per 1,000 patient-months. A 1-mg/dL increase in HDL-C was associated with 1 % decrease in any MVC risk (P P P P P P  Conclusion This study demonstrates significant independent associations among lipid fractions and risk for microangiopathy. These findings suggest that attaining established ADA goals for HDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C may reduce risk for microvascular events among patients with diabetes.

  15. Goals reconfigure cognition by modulating predictive processes in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    I applaud Huang & Bargh's (H&B's) theory that places goals at the center of cognition, and I discuss two ingredients missing from that theory. First, I argue that the brains of organisms much simpler than those of humans are already configured for goal achievement in situated interactions. Second, I propose a mechanistic view of the "reconfiguration principle" that links the theory with current views in computational neuroscience.

  16. Acquiring Knowledge and Learning from Failure : Theory, Measurement, and Validation of Two Learning Goals

    OpenAIRE

    NIIYA, Yu; Crocker, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We report the development and validation of a measure that distinguished knowledge goals focused on acquiring knowledge and information from learning from failure goals focused on using failure as an opportunity to learn. In Study 1, the scale demonstrated a robust factor structure and adequate internal consistencies, and the two learning goals differently correlated with measures of ego-involved achievement goals. In Study 2, the goal to learn from failure interacted with academically contin...

  17. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  18. Social Science, Equity and the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverman, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.

  19. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim;

    2005-01-01

    Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five c...... mammalian cells. For the first time, ether lipids, important for the function of the brain, were successfully visualized.......Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five...... conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated...

  20. A lipid transfer protein that transfers lipid

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, T. P.

    2007-01-01

    Very few lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been caught in the act of transferring lipids in vivo from a donor membrane to an acceptor membrane. Now, two studies (Halter, D., S. Neumann, S. M. van Dijk, J. Wolthoorn, A. M. de Maziere, O.V. Vieira, P. Mattjus, J. Klumperman, G. van Meer, and H. Sprong. 2007. J. Cell Biol. 179: 101 115; D'Angelo, G., E. Polishchuk, G. D. Tullio, M. Santoro, A. D. Campli, A. Godi, G. West, J. Bielawski, C.C. Chuang, A. C. van der Spoel, et al. 2007. Nature. 449...