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Sample records for achieving effective occupational

  1. Aspirations and occupational achievements of Dutch fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Mariska; van der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - To investigate how work and family aspirations relate to occupational achievements and gender differences herein. Design/methodology/approach - Using data from 2009 we examined the relationship between career and childrearing aspirations and occupational achievements of Dutch parents.

  2. Aspirations and occupational achievements of Dutch fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, M.F.J. van der; Lippe, A.G. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how work and family aspirations relate to occupational achievements and gender differences herein. Design/methodology/approach: Using data from 2009 the authors examined the relationship between career and childrearing aspirations and occupational

  3. The Effects of a Case-Based Learning Approach on the Achievement and Attitudes of Students towards an Occupational Health and Safety Course in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Gecer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of case-based learning (CBL and learning styles on the achievement and attitude of students towards an occupational health and safety (OHS course are investigated experimentally. A total of 50 students in their first year at the electrical education department at Kocaeli University participated in this research. The students were split into two equal groups according to their scores in the central university entrance exam conducted every year by the high education consul in Turkey. The students were assigned to the control and experimental groups randomly. The control group students processed the OHS course materials using the traditional methods, while the experimental group students processed them through the CBL method in the environments developed by the authors regarding to their learning styles. According to the results of the analysis, the CBL method based on learning styles applied to the experimental group students is significantly effective in increasing students’ success in the OHS course. The findings also show that for OHS training, the CBL method based on learning styles, which has not been applied in previous studies, has a great effect on the students’ performance compared to the traditional teaching methods.

  4. Aspirations and occupational achievements of Dutch fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Mariska; van der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how work and family aspirations relate to occupational achievements and gender differences herein. Design/methodology/approach – Using data from 2009 the authors examined the relationship between career and childrearing aspirations and

  5. Licensee programs for maintaining occupational exposure to radiation as low as is reasonably achievable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, L.H.

    1983-06-01

    This report defines the concept of maintaining occupational exposures to radiation as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) and describes the elements necessary for specific licensees to implement, operate, and evaluate an effective ALARA program. Examples of cost-effectiveness analysis and optimization are provided. The rationale for providing more detailed guidance to specific licensees stems from the current recommendations provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, as well as from the increased regulatory emphasis on maintaining occupational exposures ALARA. The objective of this work is to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with a basis for updating Regulatory Guide 8.10

  6. When aspirations and achievements don't meet. A longitudinal examination of the differential effect of education and occupational attainment on declines in self-rated health among Canadian labour force participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter; Frank, John

    2005-08-01

    To examine the association of a mismatch between educational qualifications and occupational attainment and subsequent declines in self-rated health (SRH) in a longitudinal nationally representative Canadian population sample. This study used longitudinal data from 4045 healthy, working respondents of the Canadian National Population Health Survey. Respondents were categorized as either qualified, overqualified, or underqualified based on the match between their education and the skills required for their current occupation over a 2-year period. Logistic regression analysis estimated the odds of decline in SRH over the following 4-year period, using the match between occupation and education as the main independent variable. Analyses were controlled for a number of confounding variables including health behaviours, mental health, self-esteem, job control, and demographic information. Relative to respondents with university education working in occupations for which they were qualified, respondents with university education, working in occupations for which they were overqualified had a significant risk of decline in SRH between 1996 and 2000, even after adjusting for a number of potential confounders (OR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.11-3.91). In respondents with secondary education or less, differences in occupational attainment were not associated with differences in the odds of decline in SRH. The effect of occupational attainment on health is important for individuals who have invested the most time in their education. Conversely, differential occupational attainment is not associated with differences in the odds of decline in health for participants with lower levels of education.

  7. How Occupationally High-Achieving Individuals With a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia Manage Their Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Amy N; Hamilton, Alison B; Saks, Elyn R; Glover, Dawn L; Glynn, Shirley M; Brekke, John S; Marder, Stephen R

    2017-04-01

    The study objective was to elucidate coping strategies utilized by individuals recovered from schizophrenia. This qualitative study enrolled individuals with schizophrenia who had reached a level of recovery defined by their occupational status. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Current symptoms were objectively rated by a clinician. Surveys gathered information on demographic characteristics, occupation, salary, psychiatric history, treatment, and functioning. Audio-recorded person-centered qualitative interviews gathered accounts of coping strategies. Transcripts were summarized and coded with a hybrid deductive-inductive approach. Twenty individuals were interviewed, including ten men. The average age was 40 years. Sixty percent of participants were either currently in a master's-level program or had completed a master's or doctoral degree. Eight categories of coping strategies were identified: avoidance behavior, utilizing supportive others, taking medications, enacting cognitive strategies, controlling the environment, engaging spirituality, focus on well-being, and being employed or continuing their education. Some strategies were used preventively to keep symptoms from occurring; others were used to lessen the impact of symptoms. Strategies were flexibly utilized and combined depending on the context. Use of strategies in a preventive fashion, the effectiveness of the identified strategies, and the comfort individuals expressed with using several different strategies supported these individuals in achieving their occupational goals. The findings contribute to an overall shift in attitudes about recovery from schizophrenia and highlight the importance of learning from people with lived experience about how to support recovery.

  8. Individual contributory factors in teacher stress: the role of achievement striving and occupational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Emma; Forrest, Sarah

    2006-03-01

    Workplace stress and its impact upon retention levels are becoming an increasing concern within the teaching profession (Brown, Davis, & Johnson, 2002; Jarvis, 2002). Research has largely focused upon the effects of environmental factors, whilst noting that it is the interplay between the individual and the environment which may hold the key to understanding this problem (Cox, 1978; Parkes, 1994). Identifying individual contributory factors is essential in understanding why, under the same environmental conditions, some people suffer much greater levels of stress than others. This study examined the influence of Type A behaviour, personal achievement strivings, occupational commitment, gender and nature/experience of teaching on perceived workplace stress within the teaching profession (N = 95). It was predicted that perceived stress would be strongest amongst those reporting higher levels of these factors. A multiple regression analysis indicated that there was a positive relationship between Type A behaviour, personal achievement strivings, and perceived stress. The relationship between perceived stress and occupational commitment, however, was found to be negative. The possible explanations for these findings, and potential implications, are discussed. Future research plans are outlined for exploring the relationships between these individual contributory factors and environmental stressors.

  9. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the ... and training on three major themes and their related policy frameworks: air pollution and health, occupational health and safety and climate change and health.

  10. Entrepreneurs and Public-Sector Employees: The Role of Achievement Motivation and Risk in Occupational Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Irvin B., III

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study that investigated how achievement motivation and risk affect entrepreneurs and nonentrepreneurs in their selection of occupations. Concludes that the will to be independent and successful is more important to entrepreneurs than for others, while personal risk-taking preferences are not significant in explaining entrepreneurial…

  11. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Abstract. Background: The burden of diseases caused by environmental and occupational health hazards and the effects of global climate change are of growing concerns in Ethiopia. However, no adequate information seems to be available on the current situation. This means there is a critical gap in research, policy ...

  12. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  13. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  14. Principles and practices for keeping occupational radiation exposures at medical institutions as low as reasonably achievable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1982-10-01

    This report is a companion document to Regulatory Guide 8.18, Information Relevant to Ensuring that Occupational Radiation Exposures at Medical Institutions Will Be As Low As Reasonably Achievable. Both documents have now been revised to incorporate many good suggestions received after the original documents were published for comment. This report is a compendium of good practices and helpful information derived from the experience of the radiological and health physics professions and is not be construed in any way as additional regulatory requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The information presented, including comprehensive checklists of facilities, equipment, and procedures that should be considered for working with NRC-licensed materials in all types of hospital activities, is intended to aid the NRC licensee in fulfilling the philosophy of maintaining radiation exposures of employees, patients, visitors, and the public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Each subsection of this report is designed to include the major radiation safety considerations pertaining to the respective hospital function. Thus, the busy health professional will neeed to read only a few pages of this document at any one time to obtain the information needed

  15. An examination of compensation effects in accelerometer-measured occupational and non-occupational physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Gay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-report data suggests a large proportion of total physical activity (PA occurs at work. However, adults with higher levels of occupational PA may compensate by engaging in less non-occupational PA. The study aims were to 1 estimate the intensity, volume, and duration of PA in American adults that occurs at work, and 2 determine if those more active at work are less active outside of work. A cross-sectional sample of full-time employed adults (N=510 was recruited from Georgia city and county governments in 2013–2015. Participants wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for two weeks. In 2016, for 442 participants with complete data including work schedules and self-reported job titles, accelerometer wear minutes were classified as either occupational or non-occupational, and as sedentary, LPA (light-intensity PA, or MVPA (moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA. The proportion of daily PA that occurred during work was 41.2% for total PA, 41.0% for LPA, and 39.5% for MVPA. Higher levels of occupational LPA were associated with lower levels of non-occupational LPA (r=−0.38, P<0.0001. However, higher levels of occupational MVPA were associated with higher levels of non-occupational MVPA (r=0.17, P<0.0001. These associations remained significant in a MANOVA adjusting for labor sector and other covariates. On average, employed adults get more LPA and MVPA outside of work. Adults who do more occupational MVPA do not compensate by doing less non-occupational MVPA. In contrast, adults who do more occupational LPA do compensate by doing less non-occupational LPA. Evaluations of interventions to reduce sedentary behavior should be designed to detect compensation effects. Keywords: Intensity, Work, Accelerometer

  16. The Influence of Family on Educational and Occupational Achievement of Adolescents in Rural Low-Income Areas: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chin, Chong-Hee

    Focusing on the family as a context for the development of life plans by youth, this report summarizes findings of a 14-year longitudinal study on the educational and occupational life plans and achievement of youth in rural low-income areas in six southeastern states. Specific attention is given to (1) how parental educational and occupational…

  17. What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults' occupational performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tove Lise; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Title What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults’ occupational performance? A systematic review Background There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the effectiveness of home-based occu......Abstract Title What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults’ occupational performance? A systematic review Background There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the effectiveness of home......-based occupational therapy for older adults aimed at improving occupational performance by practicing activities and tasks. Aim This review synthesizes and discusses evidence for the effectiveness of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy for older adults at home. Material and methods Peer......-reviewed quantitative papers were included. Participants: > 60-year-old adults with functional limitations. Intervention: Occupational therapy aiming at improving occupational performance, primarily through the practice of activities and tasks. Outcome: Occupational performance. Context: Home. Three reviewers...

  18. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A M; Teo, R K

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  19. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.M.; Teo, R.K.

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  20. Effects of individualized assignments on biology achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Philip L.

    A pretest-posttest, randomized, two groups, experimental, factorial design compared effects of detailed and nondetailed assignments on biology achievement over seven and a half months. Detailed assignments (favoring field independence and induction) employed block diagrams and stepwise directions. Nondetailed assignments (favoring field dependence and deduction) virtually lacked these. The accessible population was 101 tenth grade preparatory school male students. The 95 students enrolled in first year biology constituted the sample. Two by three ANOVA was done on residualized posttest score means of the students. Totally, the detailed students achieved significantly higher than the nondetailed students. This significantly higher achievement was only true of detailed students in the middle thirds of the deviation intelligence quotient (DIQ) range and of the grade point average (G.P.A.) range after the breakdown into upper, middle, and lower thirds of intellectual capability (ability and achievement). The upper third detailed DIQ grouping indirectly achieved higher than its peers, whereas the lower detailed DIQ third achieved lower than its peers. Thus, high capability students apparently benefit from flow and block diagrams, inductions, field independence, and high structure, whereas low capability students may be hindered by these.

  1. Effects of Pesticides on Occupationally Exposed Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Kontogianni, Konstantina; Piperakis, Michael M.; Marcos, Ricardo; Tsilimigaki, Smaragdi

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides are known to contain numerous genotoxic compounds; however, genotoxicity biomonitoring studies of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides have produced variable results. In this study, we employed the Comet assay to examine DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 64 greenhouse workers from Almería in south-eastern Spain in comparison to PBLs from 50 men from the same area but not engaged in any agricultural work. The results indicated that there were no differen...

  2. Effects of pesticides on occupationally exposed humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, Stylianos M; Kontogianni, Konstantina; Piperakis, Michael M; Tsilimigaki, Smaragdi

    2006-09-25

    Pesticides are known to contain numerous genotoxic compounds; however, genotoxicity biomonitoring studies of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides have produced variable results. In this study, we employed the Comet assay to examine DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 64 greenhouse workers from Almería in south-eastern Spain in comparison to PBLs from 50 men from the same area but not engaged in any agricultural work. The results indicated that there were no differences in the basal levels of DNA damage in the two study groups. In addition, exposure of PBL from the workers and controls to hydrogen peroxide or gamma-irradiation led to similar levels of DNA damage; the subsequent repair of the induced DNA damage was also similar for both study populations. Smoking had no impact on any of the responses. The results of this study indicate that the greenhouse workers had no detectable increase in DNA damage or alteration in the cellular response to DNA damage compared to our control population.

  3. Effects of Pesticides on Occupationally Exposed Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos M. Piperakis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are known to contain numerous genotoxic compounds; however, genotoxicity biomonitoring studies of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides have produced variable results. In this study, we employed the Comet assay to examine DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs from 64 greenhouse workers from Almería in south-eastern Spain in comparison to PBLs from 50 men from the same area but not engaged in any agricultural work. The results indicated that there were no differences in the basal levels of DNA damage in the two study groups. In addition, exposure of PBL from the workers and controls to hydrogen peroxide or γ-irradiation led to similar levels of DNA damage; the subsequent repair of the induced DNA damage was also similar for both study populations. Smoking had no impact on any of the responses. The results of this study indicate that the greenhouse workers had no detectable increase in DNA damage or alteration in the cellular response to DNA damage compared to our control population.

  4. Occupational stress of anesthesia: Effects on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanaty, Ola M; El Metainy, Shahira; Abdelmaksoud, Rania; Demerdash, Hala; Aliaa, Doaa Abo; El Wafa, Heba Abo

    2017-06-01

    Anesthesiology has been identified as a stressful specialty. Chronic psychological stress may lead to biological aging and skin aging. The primary outcome was to measure physical health and emotional well-being. Secondary outcomes include skin aging analysis, telomere shortening in anesthetists. This is a prospective observational study. University of Alexandria. Study was carried out on 366 ASA I-II physicians 30-50yr. Physicians were categorized into two equal groups, Group A (183) were anesthesia physicians and Group B (183) were physicians in less stressful specialties (laboratory specialties). Subgroup analysis was performed comparing 10years' intervals from (30-40) and from (40-50). Physical health and emotional well-being were evaluated. All physicians were exposed to validated assessment scales for the upper face and the lower face for skin aging analysis. Blood sampling were drowned from all physicians during their working hours for analysis of telomere length, markers of oxidative stress. The two studied groups showed comparable demographic data and years of work. Physical health score and emotional health score showed higher values in Group A than Group B. Upper and lower face aesthetic unit summary score showed higher values in Group A than Group B. Telomere (TTAGGG) repeats for terminal restriction fragments (TRF) of Group A individuals revealed a significant decrease of TRF compared to Group B (p=0.001*). Biological and skin aging is evident in anesthetists who are chronically exposed to occupational stress, with obvious shorter telomere length, higher lower and upper face scores, and free radicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Principles and practices for keeping occupational radiation exposures at medical institutions as low as reasonably achievable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1977-10-01

    Some of the major considerations in establishing management policies, staff, facilities and equipment, and operational procedures to promote radiation safety in medical or hospital care programs using radioactive materials licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are presented. It is a compendium of good practices for establishing adequate radiation safety programs in medical institutions. The information presented is intended to aid the NRC licensee in fulfilling the philosophy of maintaining radiation exposures of employees, patients, visitors, and the public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Each subsection of this report is designed to include the major radiation safety considerations of interest to the specific type of activity

  6. A Linear Mixed-Effects Model of Wireless Spectrum Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagadarai Srikanth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide regression analysis-based statistical models to explain the usage of wireless spectrum across four mid-size US cities in four frequency bands. Specifically, the variations in spectrum occupancy across space, time, and frequency are investigated and compared between different sites within the city as well as with other cities. By applying the mixed-effects models, several conclusions are drawn that give the occupancy percentage and the ON time duration of the licensed signal transmission as a function of several predictor variables.

  7. Perceived public health effects of occupational and residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of environmental contamination can occur from e-waste processing, putting workers and residents in surrounding areas at risk as they are likely to be exposed to complex mixtures of unknown toxicity. This study was aimed at assessing the perceived public health effects of occupational and residential exposures ...

  8. Effect of occupational exposure to local powdered tobacco (snuff) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of occupational exposure to local powdered tobacco (snuff) on pulmonary function was studied. Snuff industry workers in Onitsha and Enugu markets were studied and compared with age-, weight-, and height-matched control not exposed to any known air pollutant. The pulmonary indices studied include; forced ...

  9. The Relative Effectiveness of Three Occupational Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Pat; Hermann, Graham

    1988-01-01

    In investigating communication competencies needed by beginning automotive mechanics, an attempt was made to compare the effectiveness of three occupational analysis techniques: (1) developing a curriculum (DACUM), (2) observation, and (3) extended information search. Extended information search produced a comprehensive, valid list of competencies…

  10. Facilitating Occupational Therapy Student Learning to Enhance Cross-Cultural Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Barbara Carol Hooper

    2012-01-01

    Developing cultural awareness and effectiveness is critical to meaningful and successful occupational therapy practice and of concern to occupational therapists worldwide (World Federation of Occupational Therapists, 2010). Occupational therapy graduates, not fully representative of the demographics of the populations they will meet clinically,…

  11. The Interplay between Educational Achievement, Occupational Success, and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Robin; Bergman, Manfred Max; Hupka-Brunner, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have examined the effect of life events, education, and income on well-being. Conversely, research concerning well-being as a predictor of life course outcomes is sparse. Diener's suggestion "to inquire about the effects of well-being on future behavior and success" has, with some exceptions, not yet come to fruition. This…

  12. Effectiveness of occupational injury prevention policies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; García, Ana M; Lopez-Ruiz, Maria; Gil, Josep; Boix, Pere; Martinez, José Miguel; Rodrigo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of preventive interventions against occupational injuries (preferential action plans [PAPs]) developed by Spanish regional governments starting in 2000. We included 3,252,028 occupational injuries with sick leave due to mechanical causes occurring between 1994 and 2004 in manufacturing and private service companies. Time trends for occupational injury rates were estimated before and after implementation of PAPs in each region, with a control group defined for those regions in which no PAPs were implemented (e.g., Galicia, Madrid, and Cataluña). We determined annual change percentages and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) through a negative binomial regression model. Regions were grouped into three categories according to formal quality of their PAPs. The regions with the best PAPs (Andalucia, Aragon, Valencia, and Murcia) showed annually increasing occupational injury rates (2.3%, 95% CI -2.5, 7.4) before implementation of PAPs. After PAPs were implemented, occupational injury rates decreased significantly to -7.4% (95% CI -10.2, -4.5). Similar results were also found for regions with PAPs of lower quality and even for regions that didn't implement a PAP (control group). These results did not vary substantially in stratified analysis by gender, age, type of contract, or length of sick leave. PAPs are not related to a general decline in occupational injury rates in Spain starting in 2000. Reinforcement of Spanish health and safety regulations and labor inspection activities since 2000, resulting from a social agreement between central government and social agents, remains an alternative hypothesis requiring additional research.

  13. RADIOFREQUENCY AND MICROWAVE RADIATION HEALTH EFFECTS AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Damnjanović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there have been considerable discussion and concern about the possible hazards of RF/MW radiation. More recently, the growth and development in personal mobile communications have focused attention on the frequencies associated with this technology. A number of studies have examined the health effects of RF/MW electromagnetic fields (EMFs, originating from occupational exposure, hobbies, or residence near the radio or television transmitters. Particularly controversial are the biophysical mechanisms by which these RF fields may affect biological systems. General health effects reviews explore possible carcinogenic, reproductive and neurological effects. Health effects by exposure source have been observed in radar traffic devices, wireless communications with cellular phones, radio transmission, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Several epidemiological surveys have suggested associations with non-specific complaints such as headache, tiredness, sleep disturbance, loss of memory, and dizziness. These findings, which echo reports of illness associated with other types of radiofrequency (RF radiation, relate not only to the use of mobile phones, but also to residence near the mobile phone base stations and other settings involving occupational exposure. The biological effects suggest that some precautions are necessary, and preventive approaches are highly recommended. Further researches are required to give more information about the effects of microwave radiation on our health, especially in occupational setting and professionally exposed workers.

  14. Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinette, C.D.; Silverman, C.; Jablon, S.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 20,000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up

  15. Causal ordering of academic self-concept and achievement: effects of type of achievement measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen

    2010-12-01

    The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests, teacher ratings) affects the causal pattern found in these studies. The study aims at clarifying how the types of achievement measures and the way they are modelled can affect the results of causal ordering studies. In that sense, the study will yield recommendations for researchers in this domain and also provide some direction for practitioners seeking ways to enhance their students' achievement and/or academic self-concept. Repeated measures of academic self-concept and achievement (standardized tests and teacher ratings) were examined in a sample of 1,753 students in Grades 7, 8, 10, and 12. Structural equation modelling was used. Several models (with different types and numbers of achievement measures) were compared. Only small differences were found between models using one or two indicators of achievement. All models generally supported the reciprocal effects model. However, the final model, wherein tests and teacher ratings were used as separate latent variables, showed different developmental patterns in the causal relation between academic self-concept and achievement. Researchers should interpret the results of causal ordering studies discerningly because the type of measure chosen as an indicator of achievement might affect the causal pattern between academic self-concept and achievement.

  16. Occupational syncarcinogenesis in the skin - combined effects of two carcinogens from the German occupational disease list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Heinrich; Blome, Otto; Dickel, Beate; Bruckner, Thomas; Stockfleth, Eggert; Soemantri, Silas Paras

    2016-12-01

    Though scientifically undisputed, cutaneous syncarcinogenesis is not reflected in German occupational disease (OD) regulations, which tend to be guided by the tenet of monocausality. Recognition of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and its precursor lesions as OD requires individual assessment as to whether the requirements pursuant to either OD 5103 (occupational exposure to natural UV radiation) or OD 5102 (occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are fulfilled. Retrospective analysis of 28 patients (median age 72.5 years) with NMSC and respective precursor lesions who had been occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All cases had undergone expert medical assessment between September 2012 and September 2015. According to our assessments, all 28 cases met the occupational requirements pursuant to OD 5103 and 5102. In 26 cases (93 %), we recommended recognition of skin cancer as occupational disease pursuant to both OD 5103 and OD 5102. The competent occupational insurance association (BG) followed our recommendation in four cases. In eight cases, recognition was solely based on OD 5103; in ten cases, only on OD 5102. Four cases were denied recognition. Following adequate cumulative occupational exposure to natural UV light as well as occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NMSC or its precursor lesions arising in UV-exposed areas should be reported to the competent occupational insurance association as "OD 5103 and 5102 in terms of syncarcinogenesis". Apart from the fact that the ensuing recognition proceedings will be able to more adequately reflect real-life workplace conditions, filing a report pursuant to both ODs also allows for recognition of basal cell carcinoma as occupational disease. According to current regulations, this would not be possible, if the assessment were solely based on OD 5103. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons

  17. Clinical Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy in Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikiugu, Moses N; Nissen, Ranelle M; Bellar, Cali; Maassen, Alexya; Van Peursem, Katlin

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of theory-based occupational therapy interventions in improving occupational performance and well-being among people with a mental health diagnosis. The meta-analysis included 11 randomized controlled trials with a total of 520 adult participants with a mental health diagnosis. Outcomes were occupational performance, well-being, or both. We conducted meta-analyses using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 3.0) with occupational performance and well-being as the dependent variables. Results indicated a medium effect of intervention on improving occupational performance (mean Hedge's g = 0.50, Z = 4.05, p occupational therapy interventions may be effective in improving occupational performance and well-being among people with a mental health diagnosis and should be an integral part of rehabilitation services in mental health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. Effect of Adjunct Postquestions on Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald I.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study conducted to determine whether adjunct postquestions induced mathemagenic behaviors to contribute to more effective learning from the self-instructional slide-tape presentation. Another purpose was to determine whether the effect of adjunct postquestions would be more beneficial for lower-ability students than for upper-ability…

  19. Effects of Virtual Manipulatives on Student Achievement and Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Westenskow, Arla

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a meta-analysis that synthesizes the findings from 66 research reports examining the effects of virtual manipulatives on student achievement. Of the 66 reports, 32 contained data yielding 82 effect size scores with effects of virtual manipulatives on student achievement. The 66 reports also contributed to a conceptual analysis of…

  20. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear.

  1. Quantitative assessment of the effect of corrosion product buildup on occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    The program was developed to provide a method for predicting occupational exposures caused by the deposition of radioactive corrosion products outside the core of the primary system of an operating power reactor. This predictive capability will be useful in forecasting total occupational doses during maintenance, inspection, decontamination, waste treatment, and disposal. In developing a reliable predictive model, a better understanding of the parameters important to corrosion product film formation, corrosion product transport, and corrosion product film removal will be developed. This understanding can lead to new concepts in reactor design to minimize the buildup and transport of radioactive corrosion products or to improve methods of operation. To achieve this goal, three objectives were established to provide: (1) criteria for acceptable coolant sampling procedures and sampling equipment that will provide data which will be used in the model development; (2) a quantitative assessment of the effect of corrosion product deposits on occupational exposure; and (3) a model which describes the influence of flow, temperature, coolant chemistry, construction materials, radiation, and other operating parameters on the transport and buildup of corrosion products

  2. The Effect of Weekly Progress Reports on Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Katherine S.

    This study investigated the effect of weekly progress reports on the academic achievement of seventh grade language arts students. It also investigated the effects of weekly progress reports on locus of control attribution and the relationship between academic achievement and locus of control attribution. The study took place in a suburban school…

  3. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  4. Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy Interventions for Lower-Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Julie; Bradshaw, Michelle

    Lower-extremity (LE) musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can have a major impact on the ability to carry out daily activities. The effectiveness of interventions must be examined to enable occupational therapy practitioners to deliver the most appropriate services. This systematic review examined the literature published between 1995 and July 2014 that investigated the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for LE MSDs. Forty-three articles met the criteria and were reviewed. Occupational therapy interventions varied on the basis of population subgroup: hip fracture, LE joint replacement, LE amputation or limb loss, and nonsurgical osteoarthritis and pain. The results indicate an overall strong role for occupational therapy in treating clients with LE MSDs. Activity pacing is an effective intervention for nonsurgical LE MSDs, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation is effective for LE joint replacement and amputation. Further research on specific occupational therapy interventions in this important area is needed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Effects of number of animals monitored on representations of cattle group movement characteristics and spatial occupancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    Full Text Available The number of animals required to represent the collective characteristics of a group remains a concern in animal movement monitoring with GPS. Monitoring a subset of animals from a group instead of all animals can reduce costs and labor; however, incomplete data may cause information losses and inaccuracy in subsequent data analyses. In cattle studies, little work has been conducted to determine the number of cattle within a group needed to be instrumented considering subsequent analyses. Two different groups of cattle (a mixed group of 24 beef cows and heifers, and another group of 8 beef cows were monitored with GPS collars at 4 min intervals on intensively managed pastures and corn residue fields in 2011. The effects of subset group size on cattle movement characterization and spatial occupancy analysis were evaluated by comparing the results between subset groups and the entire group for a variety of summarization parameters. As expected, more animals yield better results for all parameters. Results show the average group travel speed and daily travel distances are overestimated as subset group size decreases, while the average group radius is underestimated. Accuracy of group centroid locations and group radii are improved linearly as subset group size increases. A kernel density estimation was performed to quantify the spatial occupancy by cattle via GPS location data. Results show animals among the group had high similarity of spatial occupancy. Decisions regarding choosing an appropriate subset group size for monitoring depend on the specific use of data for subsequent analysis: a small subset group may be adequate for identifying areas visited by cattle; larger subset group size (e.g. subset group containing more than 75% of animals is recommended to achieve better accuracy of group movement characteristics and spatial occupancy for the use of correlating cattle locations with other environmental factors.

  6. Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Student Learning Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Hadiwijaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Emotional Intelligence Against Student Achievement aims to determine the effect of emotional intelligence which consists of self awareness, self management, Motivation, social awareness, relationship management partially and simultaneously on learning achievement. Respondents are students of SMP Negeri 4 Lalan Bumi Agung  Vilage Musi Banyuasin Regency to be 135 people. Methods of data analysis using regression analysis techniques. Partial assay results (t-test showed emotional intelligence consists of Self awareness, self management, Motivation, social awareness, relationship management positive and significant effect on learning achievement. Simultaneous Test Results (Test-F emotional intelligence consists of Self awareness, self management, motivation, social awareness, relationship management and significant positive effect on learning achievement. Social awareness is more dominant influence on learning achievement.

  7. Friend Effects and Racial Disparities in Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Flashman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in achievement are a persistent fact of the US educational system. An often cited but rarely directly studied explanation for these disparities is that adolescents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are exposed to different peers and have different friends. In this article I identify the impact of friends on racial and ethnic achievement disparities. Using data from Add Health and an instrumental variable approach, I show that the achievement characteristics of youths’ friends drive friend effects; adolescents with friends with higher grades are more likely to increase their grades compared to those with lower-achieving friends. Although these effects do not differ across race/ethnicity, given differences in friendship patterns, if black and Latino adolescents had friends with the achievement characteristics of white students, the GPA gap would be 17 to 19 percent smaller. Although modest, this effect represents an important and often overlooked source of difference among black and Latino youth.

  8. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Elementary Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…

  9. Effect on School Language in Assessment of Achievement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eric Wilmot

    project-based and lecture teaching strategies on students' achievement in pasture and forage crops which is ... service training in form of workshops, seminars and symposia should be organized for teachers ... Effect of four teaching strategies on senior secondary students' achievement in an aspect of agricultural science.

  10. Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance: Longitudinal Models of Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert W.; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents' development in mathematics (Grades 5-9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting…

  11. The effect of formative feedback on students achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of formative feedback on students achievement in graphical element of economic curriculum. ... Journal of Educational Foundations ... Students achievement in graphical elements of economics curriculums has been a problem over the years, students have been performing poorly in SSCE (WAEC & NECO).

  12. Effect of webbing instructional strategy on students' achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effectiveness of webbing strategy on students' achievement in algebraic word problems. It also sought to find out whether gender had any influence on the achievement of students exposed to webbing instructional strategy. A quasi –experimental non-equivalent control group design was used.

  13. Effect of adaptive learning style scenarios on learning achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozhilov, Danail; Stefanov, Krassen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2009-01-01

    Bozhilov, D., Stefanov, K., & Stoyanov, S. (2009). Effect of adaptive learning style scenarios on learning achievements [Special issue]. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning (IJCEELL), 19(4/5/6), 381-398.

  14. Palladium Nanoparticles: Toxicological Effects and Potential Implications for Occupational Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruscka Leso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing technological applications of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs and their consequent enhancing release into the community and occupational environments, have raised public health concerns regarding possible adverse effects for exposed subjects, and particularly for workers chronically and highly exposed to these materials, whose toxico-kinetic and dynamic behavior remains to be fully understood. Therefore, this review aimed to critically analyze literature data to achieve a more comprehensive knowledge on the toxicological profile of Pd-NPs. Results from available studies demonstrated the potential for these chemicals to affect the ecosystem function, to exert cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects in vitro as well as to induce early alterations in different target organs in in vivo models. However, our revision pointed out the need for future studies aimed to clarify the role of the NP physico-chemical properties in determining their toxicological behavior, as well as the importance to carry out investigations focused on environmental and biological monitoring to verify and validate experimental biomarkers of exposure and early effect in real exposure contexts. Overall, this may be helpful to support the definition of suitable strategies for the assessment, communication and management of Pd-NP occupational risks to protect the health and safety of workers.

  15. Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance: Longitudinal Models of Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert W; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents' development in mathematics (Grades 5-9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting age = 11.7 years; representative sample). Structural equation modeling showed that positive emotions (enjoyment, pride) positively predicted subsequent achievement (math end-of-the-year grades and test scores), and that achievement positively predicted these emotions, controlling for students' gender, intelligence, and family socioeconomic status. Negative emotions (anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, hopelessness) negatively predicted achievement, and achievement negatively predicted these emotions. The findings were robust across waves, achievement indicators, and school tracks, highlighting the importance of emotions for students' achievement and of achievement for the development of emotions. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. A Study of Teacher Effects Based on Students' Achievement Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Henry

    This report tests the assumption that teachers have an impact on how much students learn. The results of this study indicate that teachers have an effect on average class achievement scores, and that this effect can be broken down into a stable component attributed to the teachers' consistency, and an unstable effect which varies from year to…

  17. Birth Order and Achievement: A Study of the Effects of Family Constellation and Related Variables on the Achievement of Officer Students at the Naval Postgraduate School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, William J.; Murphy, Timothy A.

    The findings suggest that there may be no significant difference between the achievement of first-, only-, and last-born children. While middle-born children appeared to do less well in academic achievement, their occupational achievement did not differ significantly from the other birth-order groups. The findings suggest further that…

  18. [Mediating effect of mental elasticity on occupational stress and depression in female nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y W; Liu, G Z; Zhou, X T; Sheng, P J; Cui, F F; Shi, T

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To investigate the interaction between mental elasticityand occupational stress and depressionin female nurses and the mediating effect of mental elasticity, as well as the functioning way of mental elasticity in occupational stress-depression. Methods: From August to October, 2015, cluster sampling was used to select 122 female nurses in a county-level medical institution as study subjects. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) , Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) , and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to collect the data on mental elasticity, occupational stress, and depression and analyze their correlation and mediating effect. Results: The 122 female nurses had a mean mental elasticity score of 62.4±15.1, which was significantly lower than the Chinese norm (65.4±13.9) ( P effect on depression ( β =0.744, P effect on depression ( β =-0.221, P effect showed a significant direct effect of occupational stress on depression and a significant mediating effect of mental elasticity ( a =-0.527, b =-0.227, c =0.744, c '=0.627; all P effect of mental elasticity accounted for 16.08% of the total effect. Conclusion: As a partial mediating variable, mental elasticity has an indirect effect on the relationship between occupational stress and depression and can alleviate the adverse effect of occupational stress and reduce the development of depression.

  19. Achievement emotions and academic performance: longitudinal models of reciprocal effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert, W.; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the PALMA longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents’ development in mathematics (grades 5-9; N=3,425 German students; mean starting age=11.7 years; representative sample). Structural equation modeling showed that positive emotions (enjoyment, pride) positively predicted subsequent achievement (math end-of-the-year grades and test scores), and that achievem...

  20. Wiki Effect on English as a Foreign Language Writing Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran Çelik, Seyd; Aydin, Selami

    2016-01-01

    The number of the studies conducted on the use of wikis on the English as a foreign language (EFL) learning process has remained fairly limited. More specifically, in the Turkish EFL context, little attention has been paid to the effects of wikis on EFL writing achievement. Thus, this study aims to examine the effects of a wiki-based writing…

  1. Wall Cladding Effects and Occupants' Perception of Indoor Temperature of Typical Student Apartments in Surabaya, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediastika, Christina E.; Hariyono, Johan

    2017-11-01

    Three types of apartment claddings in Surabaya, Indonesia were studied to analyze their effect into bedroom temperature. They were glass windows in a niche, glass door in a balcony, and glass windows on a plain wall with glass door in a balcony. On-site temperature measurement was recorded and complemented with questionnaire surveys of occupants' perception regarding room temperature. The study showed that an apartment cladding with the largest proportion of opaque material combined with a balcony offered an indoor temperature of up to 9 °C lower than the outdoor compared to the other cladding types. Nevertheless, 72 % of occupants participated in this study, who use air conditioners during night time, including one with the cladding with the largest temperature difference claimed that the indoor temperature before air-conditioners was still too warm, which triggered air-conditioners initial time more than 10 minutes to achieve the desired indoor temperature. It indicated that the opaque material time lag played a significant role in heating the room during night time when the air-conditioner is about to be operated.

  2. Mathematics Curriculum Effects on Student Achievement in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Koedel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We estimate relative achievement effects of the four most commonly adopted elementary mathematics textbooks in the fall of 2008 and fall of 2009 in California. Our findings indicate that one book, Houghton Mifflin’s California Math, is more effective than the other three, raising student achievement by 0.05 to 0.08 student-level standard deviations of the Grade 3 state standardized math test. We also estimate positive effects of California Math relative to the other textbooks in higher elementary grades. The differential effect of California Math is educationally meaningful, particularly given that it is a schoolwide effect and can be had at what is effectively zero marginal cost.

  3. What Happens to the Fish's Achievement in a Little Pond? A Simultaneous Analysis of Class-Average Achievement Effects on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…

  4. ESL Placement and Schools: Effects on Immigrant Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn.

  5. Effects of Social, Economic, and Labor Policies on Occupational Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Gaydos, Megan; Monforton, Celeste; Slatin, Craig; Borkowski, Liz; Dooley, Peter; Liebman, Amy; Rosenberg, Erica; Shor, Glenn; Keifer, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Background This article introduces some key labor, economic, and social policies that historically and currently impact occupational health disparities in the United States. Methods We conducted a broad review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on the effects of social, economic, and labor policies on occupational health disparities. Results Many populations such as tipped workers, public employees, immigrant workers, and misclassified workers are not protected by current laws and policies, including worker’s compensation or Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcement of standards. Local and state initiatives, such as living wage laws and community benefit agreements, as well as multiagency law enforcement contribute to reducing occupational health disparities. Conclusions There is a need to build coalitions and collaborations to command the resources necessary to identify, and then reduce and eliminate occupational disparities by establishing healthy, safe, and just work for all. PMID:23606055

  6. The effect of occupational and workplace gender composition on sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-02-01

    To examine whether gender composition of the occupation or the workplace is associated with sickness absence, whether the gender composition accounts for the observed female excess in sickness absence, and whether gender composition explains variation in sickness absence rates between occupations and workplaces. Random effects models conducted among Helsinki employees (N = 36,395). Women and men working in women-dominated occupations and workplaces had more short-term (1 to 3 days') sickness absence. Gender composition of the occupation and the workplace partly explained gender differences in short-term but not in intermediate (4 to 14 days') and long-term (>2 weeks') absence. Gender composition also explained variation in short-term sickness absence among occupations and workplaces, but this was partly accounted for by social class, income, and job contract type. The results are consistent with the assumption that short-term sickness absence reflects cultures and norms shaping sickness absence behavior.

  7. The Effects of Looping on Perceived Values and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Arenz, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of looping, a practice whereby teachers and students stay together for more than one year, on perceived values and academic achievement in language arts at a Fresno Unified School District elementary school in Fresno, CA. Looping has many perceived advantages, such as the development of long-term…

  8. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement of Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Mohammadreza

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physics course. Cooperative learning was employed to experimental group and conventional teaching method was used for control group. Sampling of the study consists of 15-16 years old 220 students at high school in Iran. The progress…

  9. Achievement Motivation Training's Effects on Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Larry G.

    1983-01-01

    A study identified the psychosocial needs of low-literate adults by using an instrument based on Erikson's ego-stage development model. It also tested the effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training in counterbalancing the negative impact of school experiences on students' psychosocial development. (Author/SK)

  10. Effects of Teacher Professional Learning Activities on Student Achievement Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Motoko; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. The…

  11. Effects of Background and School Factors on the Mathematics Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos

    2002-01-01

    Using a structural equation model, this study investigated the mathematics achievement of eighth graders in Cyprus enrolled in the year 1994-1995. The model considered two exogenous constructs related to student background and five endogenous constructs. Although attitudes, teaching, and beliefs had direct effect on mathematics outcomes, these…

  12. Personality as a moderator of context effects on academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.A.J.; Kuyper, H.; Lubbers, M.J; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a

  13. The Effect of Adaptive Learning Style Scenarios on Learning Achievements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozhilov, Danail; Stefanov, Krassen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2009-01-01

    Bozhilov, D., Stefanov, K., & Stoyanov, S. (2008). The Effect of Adaptive Learning Style Scenarios on Learning Achievements. In R. Koper, K. Stefanov & D. Dicheva (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International TENCompetence Open Workshop "Stimulating Personal Development and Knowledge Sharing" (pp.

  14. Effect of concept mapping approach on students' achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the effect of concept mapping approach on students' achievement in Mathematics in Secondary School in NgorOkpala Local Government Area of Imo State. Based on the objective of the study, three hypotheses guided the study. The quasi-experimental research design was used in ...

  15. 342 Effects of Improvised Materials on Students' Achievement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Abstract. This paper is an empirical study aimed at finding out the effect of improvised material on students' academic achievement and retention on the concept of radioactivity. The study adopted the pretest post test non-equivalent control group design and was carried out in Calabar Education Zone, ...

  16. The effectiveness of rational emotive therapy on achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on Students Achievement Motivation. It made use of ninety eight (98) SS 1 students randomly selected from two schools in Sapele Local Govt Area in Sapele Local Govt Area of Delta State. It is a quasi experimental ...

  17. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  18. School Board Member Professional Development and Effects on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kerry L.; Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the issue of professional development education for school board members. The research question that guides this mixed study is: does school board member professional development have an effect on student achievement? Design/methodology/approach: The standardized protocol for this study was to send…

  19. Effectiveness of an Intervention to Improve Occupational Performance in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephsson, Staffan; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Model of Human Occupation was used to design a program to train and support four dementia patients in daily living activities focused on motor skills and procedural memory. The Assessment for Motor and Process Skills showed gains for three of the four, paralleled by a decrease in the amount of support needed from therapists in task…

  20. Estimation of annual occupational effective doses from external ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study details the distribution and trends of doses from occupational radiation exposure among radiation workers from participating medical institutions in Kenya, where monthly dose measurements were collected for a period of one year (January to December 2007) using thermoluminescent dosimeters. A total of 367 ...

  1. The Effects of Automation on Occupations and Workers in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Employment Service, Harrisburg. Automation Manpower Services Section.

    To provide information on the relationship of automation to changing occupational patterns and related worker displacements, examples of automation and technological change in industry are given. Some summary findings are: (1) Technological advancements cause some jobs to disappear and also cause some new jobs to appear, (2) Many workers dispaced…

  2. Effects of rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention on the perceptions of organizational climate and occupational risk management practices among electronics technology employees in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanya, Theresa Chinyere; Eseadi, Chiedu; Orji, Chibueze Tobias; Ede, Moses Onyemaechi; Ohanu, Ifeanyi Benedict; Bakare, Jimoh

    2017-05-01

    Improving employees' perception of organizational climate, and coaching them to remain steadfast when managing occupational risks associated with their job, might have an important effect on their psychosocial wellbeing and occupational health. This study examined the effects of a rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention program on the perceptions of organizational climate and occupational risk management practices. The participants were 77 electronics technology employees in the south-east of Nigeria. The study used a pretest-posttest control group design. The rational emotive occupational health therapy intervention program significantly improved perceptions of the organizational climate for the people in the treatment group compared to those in the waitlist control group at post-intervention and follow-up assessments. Occupational risk management practices of the employees in the treatment group were also significantly better than those in the waitlist control group at the same 2 assessments. Corporate application of a rational emotive behavior therapy as an occupational health therapy intervention program is essential for improving the perceptions of organizational climate and promoting the adoption of feasible occupational risk management strategies in the workplace.

  3. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students’ Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariha Gull

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple teaching methods are used by teachers in order to improve learning of students. The most popular is lecture method, while very effective is cooperative learning method. Later teaching method had been preferred for teaching science and languages as cited by previous research studies. However, in the subjects of social sciences and humanities, its importance cannot be ignored. Following study is an effort to determine effect of cooperative learning method on students’ achievement in subject of Education.  Qusi experimental design, with pre and post test of control and experimental group was used to achieve target of the study. Sample of the study consisted of 63 female students enrolled in grade 12 of a public college. An achievement test was used as a pre-test, the students were than divided in experimental and control groups. Multiple cooperative learning activities were performed with experimental group by using three common methods of cooperative learning i.e., STAD, TGT and Jigsaw II. The control group was taught by lecture method only. After 8 weeks a post test was administered on both experimental and control group in order to identify difference in achievement. The independent sample t-test was used to measure the mean scores difference between achievement scores of control and treatment groups on pretest.  The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=.825 leading to assumption that both groups were on equal level of achievement before intervention.  Same test was applied to find out difference between two groups before and after intervention.  The results showed that there was a significant difference in scores of control and experimental group in post-test. In addition to this paired sample t-test was conducted to compare the effect of intervention on achievement scores of experimental group.  The results showed that there was significant difference between scores of experimental

  4. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students’ Achievement in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajogbeje Oke James

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268 College of Education students offering mathematics as one of their subject combination, was selected using purposive sampling techniques. Three research instruments namely: Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS, Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT were used to collect data for the study. Data collected for the study were analyzed using correlational analysis and ANOVA. The results showed that a significantly low negative correlation coefficient existed between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. There is a negative and significant correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and achievement motivation. Similarly, a positive and significant correlation coefficient also exists between achievement motivation and mathematics achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should adopt activity based strategies and conducive learning environment in order to reduce college students’ anxieties in mathematics learning.

  5. Psychotherapy: Attendance and effects on utilisation of health care services and occupational functioning. PhD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates to what degree mental health care actually reaches the patients seeking help and to what degree psychotherapy achieves reducing health care consumption and improving occupational functioning. The thesis includes three studies of patients referred to and offered treatment ...

  6. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes using whole-body human finite element (FE) models representing occupants with different obesity levels. In this study, the geometry of THUMS 4 midsize male model was varied using mesh morphing techniques with target geometries defined by statistical models of external body contour and exterior ribcage geometry. Models with different body mass indices (BMIs) were calibrated against cadaver test data under high-speed abdomen loading and frontal crash conditions. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of BMI on occupant injuries in frontal crashes based on the Taguchi method while controlling for several vehicle design parameters. Simulations of obese occupants predicted significantly higher risks of injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in frontal crashes compared with non-obese occupants, which is consistent with previous field data analyses. These higher injury risks are mainly due to the increased body mass and relatively poor belt fit caused by soft tissues for obese occupants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a parametric human FE model to investigate the obesity effects on occupant responses in frontal crashes.

  7. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  8. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina eCasaponsa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the nonnative language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a nonnative language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful nonnative reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the nonnative lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good nonnative reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  9. The Effects of Occupational Health and Safety Risk Factors on Job Satisfaction in Hotel Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Kilic; Murat Selim Selvi

    2009-01-01

    Occupational health and safety risk factors can have direct or indirect effects on levels of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and the job productivity of workers in service companies as well as other types of industries. In this paper, the effects of physical, biological, chemical and socio-psychological risk factors, related to occupational safety and health, encountered in hotel enterprises on job satisfaction were investigated. Questionnaire survey was conducted as a data colle...

  10. The effect of technology on student science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, June Kraft

    2003-10-01

    Prior research indicates that technology has had little effect on raising student achievement. Little empirical research exists, however, studying the effects of technology as a tool to improve student achievement through development of higher order thinking skills. Also, prior studies have not focused on the manner in which technology is being used in the classroom and at home to enhance teaching and learning. Empirical data from a secondary school representative of those in California were analyzed to determine the effects of technology on student science achievement. The quantitative analysis methods for the school data study included a multiple linear path analysis, using final course grade as the ultimate exogenous variable. In addition, empirical data from a nationwide survey on how Americans use the Internet were disaggregated by age and analyzed to determine the relationships between computer and Internet experience and (a) Internet use at home for school assignments and (b) more general computer use at home for school assignments for school age children. Analysis of data collected from the a "A Nation Online" Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau assessed these relationships via correlations and cross-tabulations. Finally, results from these data analyses were assessed in conjunction with systemic reform efforts from 12 states designed to address improvements in science and mathematics education in light of the Third International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS). Examination of the technology efforts in those states provided a more nuanced understanding of the impact technology has on student achievement. Key findings included evidence that technology training for teachers increased their use of the computer for instruction but students' final science course grade did not improve; school age children across the country did not use the computer at home for such higher-order cognitive activities as graphics and design or spreadsheets

  11. Effects of Building Occupancy on Indicators of Energy Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Aapo Huovila; Pekka Tuominen; Miimu Airaksinen

    2017-01-01

    The potential to reduce energy consumption in buildings is high. The design phase of the building is very important. In addition, it is vital to understand how to measure the energy efficiency in the building operation phase in order to encourage the right efficiency efforts. In understanding the building energy efficiency, it is important to comprehend the interplay of building occupancy, space efficiency, and energy efficiency. Recent studies found in the literature concerning energy effici...

  12. [Relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and professional quality of life with the achievement of occupational objectives in the costa del sol primary health care district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías Fernández, Antonio José; Gutiérrez-Castañeda, Carlos; Carmona González, Francisco Jesús; Crespillo Vílchez, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between "Quality of Professional Life" and "Perceived Emotional Intelligence" and the relationship of both of these with the level of achievement of occupational objectives in the Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District. Multicentre descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District in the province of Málaga. Sample of Employees of all categories in fixed and contracted employment in the Management Units of the Costa del Sol District. (N=303). Respondents 247 (81.5%) The data collected was that of the percentage of achievement of objectives in 2010 and the socio-demographic data of the participants, using ad hoc designed self-report questionnaires. The TMMS -24 questionnaire was used to measure the "Perceived Emotional Intelligence", with the following dimensions: Perception, comprehension, and emotional control, and the CVP-35 measuring: management support, work demands, and intrinsic motivation. Significant correlationas were observed between Quality of Professional Life and Emotional Intelligence in the Regulation (p<.01) and Comprehension categories (p<0.05). There were also significant correlations between the profession and the type of contract in the achievement of objectives (p<.005), and quality of professional life and type of contract (p<.05). The perceived quality of professional life is related to perception and regulation dimensions of Emotional Intelligence. Knowledge of emotion management methods should be promoted by management organisations for all employees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Blast Loading Descriptors as Occupant Injury Predictors for Underbody Blast Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    t:N , CFC # Pulse type Dec. g ion ms al ms m/s Sp. Pwr Eff. G G- ava @2ms @Oms @15ms 1000 @3ms @7ms @7ms @30ms @Oms 1 Triangular 44 40 2 8.6 376 27 22...Power, Blast, ROM, reduced order models, MADYMO, occupant, injury, pulse , loading, descriptor, calculator 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17... pulse and occupant injury It has been shown before that there is no single input parameter which can be used to effectively assess occupant injury

  14. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Sahin, Mehmet; Acikgoz, Kamile Un

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers (n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…

  15. The Effect of Sensory Integration Therapy on Occupational Performance in Children With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefimehr, Babak; Kayihan, Hülya; Huri, Meral

    2018-04-01

    Sensory processing problems and related dysfunctions are among the most common conditions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effect of sensory integration therapy (SIT) on different aspects of occupational performance in children with ASD. The study was conducted on an intervention group ( n = 16) receiving SIT and a control group ( n = 15) with 3- to 8-year-old children with ASD. The Short Child Occupational Profile (SCOPE) was used to compare the two groups in terms of the changes in their occupational performance and the Sensory Profile (SP) was used to assess sensory problems. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in all the SCOPE domains, as well as in all the SP domains, except for the "emotional reactions" and "emotional/social responses" domains, ( p < .05). The effectiveness of SIT in improving occupational performance in children with ASD as a health-related factor is supported by our findings.

  16. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Occupation-Based Occupational Therapy Using the Aid for Decision Making in Occupation Choice (ADOC) for Older Residents: Pilot Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Hirofumi; Tomori, Kounosuke; Ohno, Kanta; Takahashi, Kayoko; Ogahara, Kakuya; Sawada, Tatsunori; Uezu, Sei; Nagatani, Ryutaro; Yamauchi, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Background Care-home residents are mostly inactive, have little interaction with staff, and are dependent on staff to engage in daily occupations. We recently developed an iPad application called the Aid for Decision-making in Occupation Choice (ADOC) to promote shared decision-making in activities and occupation-based goal setting by choosing from illustrations describing daily activities. This study aimed to evaluate if interventions based on occupation-based goal setting using the ADOC could focus on meaningful activities to improve quality of life and independent activities of daily living, with greater cost-effectiveness than an impairment-based approach as well as to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a large cluster, randomized controlled trial. Method In this single (assessor)-blind pilot cluster randomized controlled trial, the intervention group (ADOC group) received occupational therapy based on occupation-based goal setting using the ADOC, and the interventions were focused on meaningful occupations. The control group underwent an impairment-based approach focused on restoring capacities, without goal setting tools. In both groups, the 20-minute individualized intervention sessions were conducted twice a week for 4 months. Main Outcome Measures Short Form-36 (SF-36) score, SF-6D utility score, quality adjusted life years (QALY), Barthel Index, and total care cost. Results We randomized and analyzed 12 facilities (44 participants, 18.5% drop-out rate), with 6 facilities each allocated to the ADOC (n = 23) and control (n = 21) groups. After the 4-month intervention, the ADOC group had a significantly greater change in the BI score, with improved scores (P = 0.027, 95% CI 0.41 to 6.87, intracluster correlation coefficient = 0.14). No other outcome was significantly different. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, calculated using the change in BI score, was $63.1. Conclusion The results suggest that occupational therapy using the ADOC for older

  17. Effects of occupational therapy on quality of life of patients with metastatic prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huri, Meral; Huri, Emre; Kayihan, Hulya; Altuntas, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficiency of occupational therapy relative to a home program in improving quality of life (QoL) among men who were treated for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC). Methods: Fifty-five men were assigned randomly to either the 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy based occupational therapy (OT-CBSM) intervention (treatment group) or a home program (control group) between March 2012 and August 2014 in the Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to measure the occupational performance and identify difficulties in daily living activities. The QoL and symptom status were measured by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and its Prostate Cancer Module. A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention including client-centered training of daily living activities, recreational group activities, and cognitive behavioral stress management intervention were applied. Results: The COPM performance and satisfaction scores, which indicate occupational participation and QoL increased statistically in the treatment group in relation to men who were included in the home-program (p≤0.05). Conclusion: A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention was effective in improving QoL in men treated for MPC, and these changes were associated significantly with occupational performance. PMID:26219446

  18. China's transition: the effect of rapid urbanization on adult occupational physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monda, Keri L; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Stevens, June; Popkin, Barry M

    2007-02-01

    China has recently undergone rapid social and economic change. Increases in urbanization have led to equally rapid shifts toward more sedentary occupations through the acquisition of new technology and transitions away from a mostly agricultural economy. Our purpose was to utilize a detailed measure of urbanicity comprising 10 dimensions of urban services and infrastructure to examine its effects on the occupational physical activity patterns of Chinese adults. Longitudinal data were from individuals aged 18-55 from the years 1991-1997 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (N=4376 men and 4384 women). Logistic multilevel regression analyses indicated that men had 68% greater odds, and women had 51% greater odds, of light versus heavy occupational activity given the mean change in urbanization over the 6-year period. Further, simulations showed that light occupational activity increased linearly with increasing urbanization. After controlling for individual-level predictors, community-level urbanization explained 54% and 40% of the variance in occupational activity for men and women, respectively. This study provides empirical evidence of the reduction in intensity of occupational activity with modernization. It is likely that urbanization will continue unabated in China and this is liable to lead to further transitions in the labor market resulting in additional reductions in work-related activity. Because occupational activity remains the major source of energy expenditure for adults, unless alternative forms are widely adopted, the Chinese population is at risk of dramatic increases in the numbers of overweight and obese individuals.

  19. The Effect of Perceived Occupational Performance on Community Participation and Quality of Life of Gynecologic Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    PEKÇETİn, Serkan; BuMİn, Gonca; GÜnGÖR, Tayfun; TunÇ, Suphi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to determine the effect of perceived occupational performance and satisfaction on community participation and quality of life of gynaecologic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Material and Methods: Thirty gynaecologic cancer patients randomly were assigned for evaluation. Socio-demographic assessments were made, moreover, occupational performance and satisfaction were assessed with Canadian Occupational Performance Measurement (COPM), community participation was det...

  20. A study of the effect of OHSAS 18001 on the occupational injury rate in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl; Summala, Heikki

    2017-03-01

    The occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) has been a widely used approach for managing occupational health and safety more effectively worldwide. Despite the interest of organizations in implementing OHSMS in recent decades, few studies have examined the effectiveness of these interventions. This study presents an empirical investigation of the effect of occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001 as a worldwide-accepted OHSMS on the occupational injury rate (OIR) in Iran. This study was carried out in six companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified, including 998 occupational injuries for 15,842 person-months. A before-after analysis showed a positive safety performance change in one out of the three certified companies. For all 66 study years in the six companies, a negative binomial regression did not indicate a lower occupational injury during the certified years and a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not confirm the effect of certification. The results of this study indicated that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 is not a guarantee of improved safety.

  1. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  2. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  3. Effects of Occupational Noise Exposure on 24-Hour Ambulatory Vascular Properties in Male Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Su, Ta-Chen; Lin, Shou-Yu; Jain, Ruei-Man; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that occupational noise exposure is associated with hypertension, but the related mechanism in vascular structural changes is unclear. Objective This panel study aimed to investigate effects of occupational noise exposure on ambulatory vascular structural properties in male workers. Methods We recruited 20 volunteers and divided them into a high-noise–exposure group of 15 and a low-noise–exposure group of 5 based on environmental noise measur...

  4. Occupational segregation, selection effects and gender wage differences: evidence from urban Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Guillermo Isaza Castro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effects of occupational segregation on the gender wage gap in urban Colombia between 1986 and 2000. The empirical methodology involves a two step procedure where by the occupational distributions ofworkers by gender aremodelled using a multinomial logit model in the first stage. In the second stage, the multinomial logit estimates are used not only to derive a counterfactual occupational distribution of women in the absence of workplace discrimination but also to correct for selectivity bias in thewage equations for each occupational category using the procedure suggested by Lee (1983. Besides the explained and unexplained components in conventional decompositions of the gender wage gap, this methodology differentiates between the justified and unjustified effects of the gender allocation ofworkers across occupational categories. The results for urban Colombia indicate that controlling for selectivity bias at the occupational category level is found to be relevant in all years reviewed in this study. They also suggest that a changing composition of the female labour supply in terms of un observables (i.e., ability and motivation is playing a role in the dramatic reduction of the observed wage gap.

  5. The Effects of Curtain Airbag on Occupant Kinematics and Injury Index in Rollover Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupant injuries in rollover crashes are associated with vehicle structural performance, as well as the restraint system design. For a better understanding of the occupant kinematics and injury index in certain rollover crash, it is essential to carry out dynamic vehicle rollover simulation with dummy included. Objective. This study focused on effects of curtain airbag (CAB parameters on occupant kinematics and injury indexes in a rollover crash. Besides, optimized parameters of the CAB were proposed for the purpose of decreasing the occupant injuries in such rollover scenario. Method and Material. The vehicle motion from the physical test was introduced as the input for the numerical simulation, and the 50% Hybrid III dummy model from the MADYMO database was imported into a simulation model. The restraint system, including a validated CAB module, was introduced for occupant kinematics simulation and injury evaluation. TTF setting, maximum inflator pressure, and protection area of the CAB were analysed. Results. After introducing the curtain airbag, the maximum head acceleration was reduced from 91.60 g to 49.52 g, and the neck Mx and neck Fz were reduced significantly. Among these CAB parameters, the TTF setting had the largest effect on the head acceleration which could reduce 8.6 g furthermore after optimization. The neck Fz was decreased from 3766.48 N to 2571.77 N after optimization of CAB protection area. Conclusions. Avoiding hard contact is critical for the occupant protection in the rollover crashes. The simulation results indicated that occupant kinematics and certain injury indexes were improved with the help of CAB in such rollover scenario. Appropriate TTF setting and inflator selection could benefit occupant kinematics and injury indexes. Besides, it was advised to optimize the curtain airbag thickness around the head contact area to improve head and neck injury indexes.

  6. EFFECT OF OPTIMISM ON LIFE SATISFACTION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURCU KÜMBÜL GÜLER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study, in the field of psychology’s current trend positive psychology, explores the effect of optimism in university students on their life satisfaction and academic achievement. To a sample of 443 Turkish university students, a questionnaire was delivered including the scales of optimism, life satisfaction, academic achievement, monthly household income, montly personal expenditure level, satisfaction with the department, unemployment concern, career expectation for the future, place of living, religious belief and some other demographical information. As a result, optimism and life satisfaction were found to be significantly positively correlated, however there was no correlation between optimism and academic achievement. According to OLS Regression analysis; females, those who are more satisfied with their lives, who have not girl/boy friend, whose parents live together, whose religious belief is higher, whose departments are higher in the preference rank and whose monthly expenditure level is lower have higher GPAs than their counterparts. In the other OLS regression analysis where the dependent variable is life satisfactio; females, optimists, whose religious belief is higher, who have lived mostly in urban, who have not unemployment concern, who have good career expectations and whose monthly expenditure is higher are more satisfied with their lives than their counterparts.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF ANIMATED AGENTS ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen UNAL-COLAK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Animated agents are electronic agents that interact with learners through voice, visuals or text and that carry human-like characteristics such as gestures and facial expressions with the purpose of creating a social learning environment, and provide information and guidance and when required feedback and motivation to students during their learning experience. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the use of pedagogical agents in learning materials designed in multimedia on the achievement and attitudes of students. A general evaluation of the research findings indicate that the use of multimedia software developed by using pedagogical agents positively affects student achievement and attitude. The achievement of the students who worked with the software significantly increased, but no significant difference in terms of different pedagogical agents was observed. The comparison of the student’s attitudes revealed no significant difference in terms of different pedagogical agents, yet the attitudes regarding “bearing human features” showed positively significant difference for the software with body shot of a real person. As it is seen in the unstructured interviews with the participants conducted during and after the experimental process, it should be stated that the students had positive attitudes towards the software and the use of pedagogical agent and expressed their liking.

  8. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  9. The effect of obesity on the restraint of automobile occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola

    2009-10-01

    As obesity rates increase, the protection of obese occupants will become increasingly important in vehicle and restraint design. As a first step in this effort, this study seeks to compare the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of obese post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to (approximately) 50(th) percentile adult male PMHS in frontal impact sled tests with a force-limiting, pre-tensioning restraint system. Forty-eight km/h, frontal impact sled tests were performed with a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant compartment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. The restraint system consisted of a 3-point belt with a pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter at the retractor. The test subjects were either obese PMHS or approximately 50(th) percentile adult male PMHS. Instrumentation included accelerometer packages on the spine. Deformation of the subjects' chests were measured using chestbands placed nominally at the superior-inferior locations of the 4(th) and 8(th) ribs. Tension in the restraint system was measured at the upper shoulder belt, lower shoulder belt, and the lap belt. Motion of the head, shoulder, pelvis, and knee were recorded using high-speed video. Two obese PMHS (average mass 137 kg, average stature 186 cm) and three approximately mid-sized male PMHS (average mass 68 kg, average stature 176 cm) were tested. The obese PMHS exhibited significantly greater forward motion of the head and the pelvis compared to the mid-sized PMHS. The obese PMHS also exhibited backwards torso rotation at the time of maximum forward excursion, whereas the mid-sized PMHS did not. The obese PMHS exhibited average maximum chest compressions of approximately 44% (+/- 9% standard deviation) of their initial chest depths, and exhibited 26 g (+/- 2 g) average 3 ms clip maximum chest resultant acceleration. In comparison, the mid-sized PMHS exhibited averages of 29% (+/- 9%) maximum chest compression and 35 g (+/- 4 g) maximum 3 ms clip chest acceleration. The obese PMHS exhibited

  10. EBM E-learning: Feasible and Effective for Occupational Physicians in Different Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie I.R. Hugenholtz

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: An electronic introductory EBM course is suitable for occupational physicians. Although it is an effective method for increasing EBM knowledge, it does not seem effective in improving skills and behaviour. We recommend integrating e-learning courses with blended learning, where it can be used side by side with other educational methods that are effective in changing behaviour.

  11. Mindmapping: Its effects on student achievement in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glennis Edge

    The primary goal of schools is to promote the highest degree of learning possible. Yet teachers spend the majority of their time engaged in lecturing while students spend the majority of their time passively present (Cawelti, 1997, Grinder, 1991; Jackson & Davis, 2000; Jenkins, 1996). Helping students develop proficiency in learning, which translates into using that expertise to construct knowledge in subject domains, is a crucial goal of education. Students need exposure to teaching and learning practices that prepare them for both the classroom and their places in the future workforce (Ettinger, 1998; Longley, Goodchild, Maguire, & Rhind, 2001; NRC, 1996; Texley & Wild, 1996). The purpose of this study was to determine if achievement in high school science courses could be enhanced utilizing mindmapping. The subjects were primarily 9th and 10th graders (n = 147) at a suburban South Texas high school. A pretest-posttest control group design was selected to determine the effects of mindmapping on student achievement as measured by a teacher-developed, panel-validated instrument. Follow-up interviews were conducted with the teacher and a purposive sample of students (n = 7) to determine their perceptions of mindmapping and its effects on teaching and learning. Mindmapping is a strategy for visually displaying large amounts of conceptual, hierarchical information in a concise, organized, and accessible format. Mindmaps arrange information similar to that found on the traditional topic outline into colorful spatial displays that offer the user a view of the "forest" as well as the "trees" (Hyerle, 1996; Wandersee, 1990b). An independent samples t-test and a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) determined no significant difference in achievement between the groups. The experimental group improved in achievement at least as much as the control group. Several factors may have played a role in the lack of statistically significant results. These factors include the

  12. Effects of chronic shoulder pain on quality of life and occupational engagement in the population with chronic spinal cord injury: preparing for the best outcomes with occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the implications of chronic shoulder pain on quality of life and occupational engagement in spinal cord injury (SCI). The Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-Efficacy Theory will be used to further examine the interplay of shoulder pain, quality of life and engagement in this population. Method Analysis of literature. Results Persons with SCI have a high prevalence of shoulder pain and injury, affecting 37-84% of analysed studies; chronic pain limits occupational engagement and decreases quality of life. Remediation of pain provides improved occupational engagement, functional independence and quality of life in those with high self-efficacy and low depression. Conclusion Shoulder pain is a serious complication following SCI and the Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-Efficacy Theory can be utilized in conjunction for a framework to evaluate, treat and prevent shoulder pain and its devastating effects on occupational engagement and quality of life in the spinal cord injured population. Thereafter, rehabilitation professionals will have a greater understanding of these interactions to serve as a guide for evaluation and intervention planning to promote optimal occupational engagement through limiting the experiences of occupational injustices for those with SCI and shoulder pain. Implications for Rehabilitation Musculoskeletal pain at the shoulder joint and depression are common complications following spinal cord injury that limit occupational engagement and decrease quality of life. To increase engagement and quality of life in this population, treatments need to address all factors including the under-lying psychosocial instead of task and environment modification alone. The Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-efficacy Theory are effective frameworks that can be used for evaluation, treatment planning and outcome measurement to maximize occupational engagement and quality of life.

  13. Career Skills Workshop: Achieving Your Goals Through Effective Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Physics students graduate with a huge array of transferrable skills, which are extremely useful to employers (particularly in the private sector, which is the largest employment base of physicists at all degree levels). However, the key to successfully connecting with these opportunities lies in how well graduates are able to communicate their skills and abilities to potential employers. The ability to communicate effectively is a key professional skill that serves scientists in many contexts, including interviewing for jobs, applying for grants, or speaking with law and policy makers. In this interactive workshop, Crystal Bailey (Careers Program Manager at APS) and Gregory Mack (Government Relations Specialist at APS) will lead activities to help attendees achieve their goals through better communication. Topics will include writing an effective resume, interviewing for jobs, and communicating to different audiences including Congress, among others. Light refreshments will be served.

  14. Occupational Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hellweg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are frequently administered in intensive care units (ICUs after traumatic brain injury (TBI to promote recovery. The increasing economic pressure and the growing need for evidence of therapeutic effectiveness are reasons for reviewing the currently available scientific data. The databases of OTseeker, PEDro, Medline, and Cochrane were searched for studies on frequently applied therapeutic procedures in the ICU following a TBI. It becomes evident that the currently available data on physiotherapy and occupational therapy are very limited. Consequently, it is not possible to give conclusive recommendations within an evidence-based context. Studies of other neurological disorders indicate that early mobilisation positively influences outcome parameters such as the ability to walk. It can be concluded from three studies that physiotherapy for the prevention or treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia is not effective. The proof of effectiveness for other physiotherapeutic and occupational therapy interventions must still be demonstrated.

  16. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Community occupational therapy for older patients with dementia and their care givers: cost effectiveness study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graff, M.J.L.; Adang, E.M.M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Dekker, J.; Jonsson, L.; Thijssen, M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness of community based occupational therapy compared with usual care in older patients with dementia and their care givers from a societal viewpoint. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness study alongside a single blind randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Memory clinic,

  18. The Effect of Students' Achievement Motivation on their Cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that both the Achievement Motivation Scale scores, the attitude scale scores and student perception of the teaching method scores show significant correlation to students academic achievement in chemistry. Theories of Achievement Motivation and behaviour modification were used to explain the findings from ...

  19. Effects of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation on reproductive and child health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienefeld, M.K.; McLaughlin, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence regarding the effects of occupational exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation on reproductive health is limited. However, exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation is associated with increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. The resulting uncertainty about the effects of occupational exposures has caused concern among some workers, therefore, we have designed a study to examine this question among Canadian medical radiation technologists. A short mailed questionnaire will be sent to all CAMRT members to obtain information about reproductive history, and a sample of respondents will receive a second questionnaire requesting information about other important exposures. Occupational dose records will be retrieved from the National Dose Registry. Using this information, relative risks for each outcome will be calculated for different radiation dose levels. This article provides a brief review of the literature on ionizing radiation exposure and reproductive outcomes, and an outline of the proposed study

  20. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  1. Effectiveness of Awareness Package on Occupational Health Hazards among Ragpickers of New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Rashmi; Pathak, Rambha; Singh, Mitasha; Islam, Farzana; Parashar, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage on daily basis. They work in vulnerable conditions and awareness regarding occupational and environmental hazard is essential for them. To study the effectiveness of awareness program on various occupational health hazards among the ragpickers. This interventional study was conducted from May through October 2016 among the ragpickers living near field practice area of Department of Community Medicine and those living in slum areas around HAHC Hospital, New Delhi, India. The awareness regarding occupational and environmental health hazards was assessed using a pretested and predesigned pro forma. Snowball sampling technique was used to select the ragpickers from the various areas. Health awareness and education package was designed for the ragpickers. The package was delivered by medical officers and health workers. A posttest assessment was done 2 weeks after the awareness activity. Among 150 ragpickers, there was significant improvement in knowledge immediate post training on knowledge of occupational hazard and hygiene. Efforts should be put to develop training materials on occupation and environmental health and injury issue relating to waste management.

  2. Effect of occupant behaviour related influencing factors on final energy end uses in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Andersen, Rune Vinther

    2011-01-01

    in the performance of buildings, as highlighted by the huge gap between real and predicted energy consumptions depending on actual use of the buildings. Based on a dedicated literature review, the effect of the occupant behaviour on the energy consumptions is here firstly introduced. Then, the influencing parameters...... affecting final energy end uses (heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting) are presented and critically discussed in order to show the importance of a better description of occupant behaviour in energy prediction tools.......Different aspects are investigated in order to highlight the causes of increased energy consumption in buildings: in particular, the ongoing project IEA ECBCS Annex 53 groups the “influencing factors” into seven major categories empathising the role of occupant behaviour on energy consumptions...

  3. [Effects of occupational stress on working ability of patients suffering from arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matić, Marijana; Jovanović, Jovana; Jovanović, Jovica; Macivanin, Nada

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify the presence of occupational stressors and to analyze their effects on temporary and permanent working ability of workers with arterial hypertension. The research included 817 workers. The study group consisted of 504 workers with arterial hypertension without other diseases or disorders, whereas the control group was composed of 313 healthy workers. The study group showed a significantly higher level of total occupational stress index as well as of the stress index related to high job demands, conflicts at work place, underload and time limit (pworking inability determined a statistically significantly higher level of lost workdays per a worker in the study group compared to the controls (pwork place (pwork place. The results show that occupational stress is a significant factor in the development of arterial hypertension and reduction of work ability of exposed workers.

  4. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  5. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  6. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  7. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Virtual Learning Methodology in Occupational Therapy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeau, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative, randomly controlled study sought to find relationships between occupational therapy students' participation in a virtual situated-case scenario (VSCS) and enhanced perceived self-efficacy as well as academic performance when compared to participation in a text-based case study. To determine effects of participation in a virtual…

  8. Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Occupational Training Program for Chronic Low Back Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F.S.; Edelaar, M.J.A.; Slikker, M.; Reynders, K.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-wk multidisciplinary occupational training program for patients with chronic low back pain and to identify prognostic factors for treatment success. Design: A total of 51 participants were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, and at 1 yr after

  9. The effectiveness of graded activity for low back pain in occupational healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I.A.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Knol, D.L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2006-01-01

    A controlled trial was performed in a occupational healthcare setting to determine the effectiveness of graded activity as part of a multistage RTW programme. Workers (112) absent from work for more than eight weeks due to low back pain, were randomised to either graded activity (n = 55) or usual

  10. Effects of Occupational Stress on Psychological Well-being of Police ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Abstract. The study examined the effects of Occupational stress on psychological well-being of police employees. The study adopted the descriptive survey, using 250 police employees from five local government areas of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. The three instruments used were authored-constructed questionnaires by.

  11. Effects of Aging and Adult Development Education and Service Learning on Attitude, Anxiety, and Occupational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…

  12. The Effect of School Improvement Planning on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, David J.; Conway, James M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that schools in Connecticut's Alliance Districts (lowest-performing districts) with higher-quality school improvement plans (SIPs) would have higher levels of student achievement. An exploratory research question evaluated whether SIPs predicted achievement of particular subgroups. SIPs were obtained and scored…

  13. Flipping College Algebra: Effects on Student Engagement and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…

  14. Confronting the effects of unemployment on achievement motivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an increase in achievement motivation, the findings indicated self-reported heightened selfawareness and enhanced interpersonal collaboration. We (the authors) conclude that postmodern career facilitation could lead to breadth and depth changes in achievement motivation, which could equip adolescents to negotiate ...

  15. Effect of school learning culture on achievement in physics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between school learning culture and achievement in student in Physics. The paper therefore recommended that stake holders in the education sector should encourage a congenial school learning culture capable of raising a high level achievement in the senior ...

  16. Effect of Tax Ratification Elections on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppel, Lance

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact a Tax Ratification Election has on student achievement in Texas. Texas schools continue to struggle with shrinking budgets and increasing standards of student achievement (Equity Center, 2011). This study will provide greater insight into whether school districts that have completed a TRE have created a…

  17. Demonstrating the cost effectiveness of an expert occupational and environmental health nurse: application of AAOHN's success tools. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J A; Smith, P S

    2001-12-01

    According to DiBenedetto, "Occupational health nurses enhance and maximize the health, safety, and productivity of the domestic and global work force" (1999b). This project clearly defined the multiple roles and activities provided by an occupational and environmental health nurse and assistant, supported by a part time contract occupational health nurse. A well defined estimate of the personnel costs for each of these roles is helpful both in demonstrating current value and in future strategic planning for this department. The model highlighted both successes and a business cost savings opportunity for integrated disability management. The AAOHN's Success Tools (1998) were invaluable in launching the development of this cost effectiveness model. The three methods were selected from several tools of varying complexities offered. Collecting available data to develop these metrics required internal consultation with finance, human resources, and risk management, as well as communication with external health, safety, and environmental providers in the community. Benchmarks, surveys, and performance indicators can be found readily in the literature and online. The primary motivation for occupational and environmental health nurses to develop cost effectiveness analyses is to demonstrate the value and worth of their programs and services. However, it can be equally important to identify which services are not cost effective so knowledge and skills may be used in ways that continue to provide value to employers (AAOHN, 1996). As evidence based health care challenges the occupational health community to demonstrate business rationale and financial return on investment, occupational and environmental health nurses must meet that challenge if they are to define their preferred future (DiBenedetto, 2000).

  18. The Study of Teaching Effective Strategies on Student's Math Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hassan Behzadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors in student's learning weakness and academic failure, is their unfamilarity or low awareness of the learning strategies and studying in mathematics. This study is performed to examine the students' math and reading skills and their study skills that impact on their academic progress. The main objective of the research is to study with emphasis on training study strategies versus ususal method (teaching without emphasis on training study strategies to increase the learning of mathematical concepts. The present method is quasi-experimental that via quasi-cluster sampling to adopt 17 guidance girly schools in grade 3th, to gauge effects of teaching reading skills on math learning of the students.The results of T-test showed that students who were taught with emphasis on study skills versus students who have been traditionally trained, had better math performance and higher academic achievement.Therefore it seems that teaching reading stratefies such as cognitive and meta-cognitive will ease mathematical learning process.

  19. Effects of occupational stress and coping mechanisms adopted by radiographers in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashong, G.G.N.A.; Rogers, H.; Botwe, B.O.; Anim-Sampong, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that population of radiography staff within various hospitals in Ghana decreased by 30% in the last decade due to several reasons. One of such reasons understood to be related to stress and job satisfaction which affect work output. Purpose: To investigate the effects of occupational stress and the coping mechanisms adopted by radiographers in Ghana. Method: A descriptive survey using a five-point Likert-scale questionnaire with pre-coded responses was administered via email to respondents. Purposive sampling method was used to select 190 radiographers who work in hospitals in Ghana. Descriptive statistics was mainly used to analyse the data using SPSS Version 20. Results: Of a total 190 questionnaires sent, 122 were completed and returned giving a 64.3% response rate. Majority 78 (64%) of respondents were males and the predominant area of work was conventional radiography. Most radiographers revealed they were stressed with 63% indicating high/very high levels of stress. The consequent effects of stress on radiographers were sick absence, depression and job dissatisfaction. Most of the radiographers used primary interventions to cope with stress. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that most radiographers in Ghana are stressed. However, they cope well with problem-solving mechanisms. This suggests that the decrease in number of radiographers within various facilities in Ghana by 30% may not necessarily be caused by stress but other factors which need to be investigated. Nevertheless, occupational stress has an effect on radiographers' quality of working life and may directly impact on their behaviour during service delivery. - Highlights: • There is high level of occupational stress among Ghanaian Radiographers. • Some sources and causes of occupational stress among Ghanaian Radiographers were workload, poor pay and shortage of staff. • Job dissatisfaction, depression and sick absence were effects of occupational

  20. Supporting Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders and Their Caregivers: Effective Occupational Therapy Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallfield, Stacy

    Occupational therapy practitioners play a significant role in supporting adults with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders, as well as their caregivers, through all phases of the disease process. This editorial highlights the systematic reviews completed in collaboration with the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project that summarize the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice for this population. Readers are encouraged to translate and integrate this updated knowledge into everyday practice. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. [Study of the effect of occupational exposure to glyphosate on hepatorenal function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Pan, L P; Ding, E M; Ge, Q J; Zhang, Z H; Xu, J N; Zhang, L; Zhu, B L

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To explore the effect of occupational exposure to glyphosate on hepatorenal function. Methods: 526 workers who were occupationally exposed to glyphosate from 5 glyphosate-producing factories were selected as cases; and another 442 administrative staffs who were not exposed to glyphosate were selected as controls from April to November, 2014. All the subjects accepted occupational health examination. The concentration level of glyphosate in the air of workshop was detected and the time weighted average concentration (TWA) was calculated. And analyze the difference of hepatorenal fuction between case group and control group. Result: The age of the subjects in the case and control groups were separately (35.6±10.3), (34.3±9.7) years old, with the length of working for (6.5±5.7), (7.7±6.8) years. The TWA of glyphosate in the case group was between Glyphosate can affect the hepatic and renal function among occupational exposure population, and there was an association between the effect and the exposure dose.

  2. The effect of homework choices on achievement and intrinsic motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Emily Fast

    The purpose of this research was to test an intervention of choices in homework on the achievement and intrinsic motivation of seventh-grade science students at a middle school. The intervention was based on concepts from the cognitive evaluation theory of Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan (1985). The subjects were sixteen heterogeneous classes of seventh-grade students, who were divided among four teachers. Two randomly chosen classes from each teacher received choices in their homework and the remaining two classes of each teacher received similar homework assignments without choices. Two hypotheses were developed for this study: (1) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in intrinsic motivation as measured on a motivation orientation measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework, and (2) Seventh-grade science students given choices in their homework would show an increase in achievement on an achievement measure, compared to students not given choices in their homework. Having choices in homework did not increase intrinsic motivation or achievement. However, students who did their homework did significantly better on the posttest, and students who were more intrinsically motivated did significantly better on the posttest. Just doing the homework was important for achievement, and intrinsic motivation was linked to achievement.

  3. The Effects of the Determinants of Women's Movement Into and Out of Male-dominated Occupations on Occupational Sex Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Jennifer T.

    Although occupational sex segregation has decreased over the last 25 years, it is still a major social concern primarily because of the role it plays in perpetuating the gender wage gap. This paper uses data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a study that followed a random sample of 10,317 high school graduates, to assess the determinants of…

  4. The effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Asilian; Reza Gholamnia; Abbas Rezaee; Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; Ali Khavanin; Elmira Darabi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic bio-accumulate components and may increase risk of adverse effects on human health and the environment. For different social, technical and economic reasons, significant quantities of PCBs contaminated transformer oil are still in use or storied. The study aimed to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure. Methods: The photochemical annular geometry (500 ml volume) reactor...

  5. The Comparative Study of the Occupational Stress among Jobs and Bio-Feedback Training Effects in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarzarin, Hamid

    The effectiveness of biofeedback and relaxation training in reducing occupational stress was examined in a study of 50 individuals employed in various occupations in Iran. The study sample consisted of 15 workers (5 females, 10 males); 15 managers (5 females, 10 males); 9 guardians (3 females, 6 males); 5 dentists (2 females, 3 males); and 6…

  6. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bültmann, Ute

    2013-06-01

    Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms after 5-year follow-up and (ii) whether the effect of ERI was differential across occupational grades. A cohort of 2701 Danish employees filled in a questionnaire on work and health in 2000 and 2005. ERI was measured with four effort and seven reward items. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Participants scoring ≤ 52 points were defined as cases. We used logistic regression to investigate the association of ERI and occupational grade in 2000 with onset of severe depressive symptoms in 2005. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, health behaviours, survey method, self-rated health, sleep disturbances and non-severe depressive symptoms at baseline. High ERI predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms at follow-up, after adjustment for co-variates and occupational grade (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.12-4.25). Participants with high ERI and low occupational grade showed a considerably higher OR (2.43, 95% CI = 1.07-5.53) compared to participants with low/medium ERI and low grade (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.72-2.92), high ERI and high grade (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.59-2.70) and low/medium ERI and high grade (reference group). Adverse psychosocial working conditions predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms. The effect was stronger among employees of lower occupational grades compared to those of higher grades.

  7. Evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1980-05-01

    The evaluation of health effects in populations occupationally exposed to low-level ionizing radiation is a matter of considerable current controversy. The analysis of data on such exposures presents a variety of problems resulting from the time dependent nature of the exposure data, certain selective biases found in working populations, and particularly limits imposed by the size of the populations, and the magnitudes of exposures received. In this paper, several methods of analysis are presented and evaluated using data from the Hanford plant for illustration. Questions of interest include whether or not to utilize an external control, and how to handle the highly skewed exposure data most effectively. Expressions for the power of various procedures are used not only to compare methods but also to evaluate the potential for detecting effects in occupationally exposed populations

  8. Sensorineural Hearing Loss Associated with Occupational Noise Exposure: Effects of Age-Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced permanent threshold shifts (NIPTS were computed from retrospective audiometric analyses by subtracting aging effects on hearing sensitivity in sixty-eight patients with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who reported significant occupational noise exposure histories. There were significant effects of age on NIPTS but no significant gender- or ear- differences in terms of NIPTS. The NIPTS at 2,000 Hz was found to be significantly greater than NIPTS at frequencies 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, and 8,000 Hz. Defined noise notches were seen in the audiograms of 38/136 (27% ears with SNHL. Results support models that suggest interactive effects of aging and noise on sensorineural hearing loss in ears with occupational noise exposure.

  9. Sensorineural hearing loss associated with occupational noise exposure: effects of age-corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, Sridhar

    2009-03-01

    Noise-induced permanent threshold shifts (NIPTS) were computed from retrospective audiometric analyses by subtracting aging effects on hearing sensitivity in sixty-eight patients with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who reported significant occupational noise exposure histories. There were significant effects of age on NIPTS but no significant gender- or ear- differences in terms of NIPTS. The NIPTS at 2,000 Hz was found to be significantly greater than NIPTS at frequencies 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, and 8,000 Hz. Defined noise notches were seen in the audiograms of 38/136 (27%) ears with SNHL. Results support models that suggest interactive effects of aging and noise on sensorineural hearing loss in ears with occupational noise exposure.

  10. Nanogold – Biological effects and occupational exposure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanogold has different properties and biological activity compared to metallic gold. It can be applied in many fields, such as medicine, laboratory diagnostics and electronics. Studies on laboratory animals show that nanogold can be absorbed by inhalation and ingestion. It can penetrate deep into the epidermis and dermis, but there is no evidence that it is absorbed through the skin. Gold nanoobjects accumulate mainly in the liver and spleen, but they can also reach other internal organs. Nanogold can cross the blood–brain and blood–placenta barriers. Toxicokinetics of nanogold depends on the particle size, shape and surface charge. In animals exposure to gold nanoparticles via inhalation induces slight changes in the lungs. Exposure to nanogold by the oral route does not cause adverse health effects in rodents. In animals after injection of gold nanoobjects changes in the liver and lungs were observed. Nanogold induced genotoxic effects in cells, but not in animals. No adverse effects on the fetus or reproduction were found. There are no carcinogenicity studies on gold nanoparticles. The mechanism of toxicity may be related to the interaction of gold nanoobjects with proteins and DNA, and it leads to the induction of oxidative stress and genetic material damage. The impact of nanostructures on human health has not yet been fully understood. The person, who works with nanomaterials should exercise extreme caution and apply existing recommendations on the evaluation of nanoobjects exposure. The risk assessment should be the basis for taking appropriate measures to limit potential exposure to nanometals, including nanogold. Med Pr 2017;68(4:545–556

  11. Effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents upon cognitive performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovic, L.; Spilich, G.; Vucinic, G.; Knezevic, S.; Ribaric, B.; Mubrin, Z. (DZ Medvescak Marticeva, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1990-11-01

    Twenty-three individuals exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with 23 nonexposed controls on a number of cognitive performance tasks. Solvent exposure resulted in a significantly poorer performance on the forward digit span test, copying of a complex figure, and on semantic memory tests which also measure individual's ability to integrate linguistic information into cohesive units. These tasks rely heavily upon short-term memory and its integrative operations in higher cognitive function. Acute exposure effect was also observed for the linguistic integrative task.

  12. Depressive Mood and Social Maladjustment: Differential Effects on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…

  13. Formal Teacher Competence and Its Effect on Pupil Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…

  14. Effect of a Laptop Initiative on Middle School Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Edna Earl White

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of No Child Left Behind, schools continue to be evaluated according to standardized test results. Researchers suggest that technology can assist students with development and school achievement. While laptop initiative (LI) technology was being implemented by South Carolina districts in the middle schools classrooms, educational…

  15. Effects of Orientations to Happiness on Vocational Identity Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased interest in vocational psychology and career counseling regarding the link between career development and well-being, yet, little is known about how different ways to achieve well-being or happiness relate to career development. This study explored the relationship between 3 orientations to happiness (meaning, pleasure, and…

  16. The Effects of Participation in Marching Band on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitucci, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    As schools face tough decisions regarding budget cuts and program elimination, research regarding the importance of extracurricular activities is increasingly important. This study focused on the impact of involvement in band on student achievement as defined by GPA and attendance. Because students were only involved in band extracurricularly…

  17. An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taik

    2010-01-01

    The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…

  18. The Effects of Playing Educational Video Games on Kindergarten Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Feng S.; Calao, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether kindergarten students who played Sony PlayStation educational video games for 40 minutes daily for 11 weeks learned better than peers who did not play such games. Found that the experimental group gained significantly more than the control group in spelling and decoding on the Wide Range Achievement Test-R3. Found no…

  19. Laboratory Control System's Effects on Student Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Fatma Gozalan; Taspinar, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The current study investigates whether the learning environment designed based on the laboratory control system affects the academic achievement, the attitude toward the learning-teaching process and the retention of the students in computer education. Purpose of Study: The study aims to identify the laboratory control system…

  20. The Effect of Literature on Vocabulary and Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dorothy H.

    1968-01-01

    A study was conducted with disadvantaged second-graders to test the value of oral reading of literature for increasing reading achievement, presenting books as a source of pleasure, and strengthening vocabulary by offering wider language models than the disadvantaged child's milieu provides. Teachers in the experimental group read, orally, a story…

  1. African and Arab American Achievement Motivation: Effects of Minority Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Bernadette S.; Hillman, Stephen B.

    The association between ethnic group identification, attributional style, and the use of self-protective attributions with respect to self-esteem, academic achievement and motivation among ethnically diverse adolescents was examined. Participants in the study included 422 African American, 90 Arab American, and 194 European American high school…

  2. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  3. Achievement Effects of Homework in Sixth Grade Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, John Q.; Bennett, Albert

    This study examines the relationship between the amount of time sixth graders reported spending on homework and their achievement gains on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) between the spring of 1988 and the spring of 1989. Selected for participation were one or two classes in each of 30 public elementary schools in Chicago. Of the 30 schools,…

  4. The Psychological Effect of Pet-Ownership on Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamtil, Rosemary

    A study examined the possible influence that pets may have on children's reading achievement. Subjects, 61 students from three third-grade classes in an urban school, completed a questionnaire about pet ownership. Responses were compiled and score values established to recognize the length of time the child had owned the pet and how much…

  5. On the Effect of Learning Style on Scholastic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Rahmatullah; Bart, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the influence of learning styles on scholastic achievement levels. The participants in this study were undergraduate students studying social sciences at a Division 1 research university. The frequencies of the participants in the four learning style categories are the following: Convergent ("n"…

  6. Respiratory health effects related to occupational spray painting and welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, S Katharine; Gold, Ellen; Baker, Robin; Quinlan, Patricia; Smith, William; Pandya, Robert; Balmes, John

    2005-07-01

    We sought to study respiratory symptoms among automobile assembly workers. In a cross-sectional study, we compared rates of respiratory symptoms and of physician-diagnosed asthma and COPD in painters and welders to those in assembly workers. Respiratory symptom reporting was significantly increased among welders (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79-2.61) compared with painters or assembly workers, after age, race, and smoking adjustment in multiple logistic regression analyses. Welders also reported significantly more improvement in symptoms on weekends or vacation. However, no significant elevations in adjusted ORs were observed for physician-diagnosed asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for welders. In contrast, significantly more painters had physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 3.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.27, 11.0). Welders and painters in this plant appeared to have increased risk of respiratory health effects compared with assembly workers.

  7. [Effects of occupational stress and related factors to the mood of speed train drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa

    2014-04-01

    To explore the effect of occupational stress and related factors to the mood of speed train drivers. By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 352 speed train drivers (including 291 passenger train drivers, 640 freight trains drivers, 342 passenger shunting train drivers, and 79 High Speed Rail drivers) from a Railway Bureau depot. The survey included mood, individual factors, occupational stress factors, personality factors and mitigating factors. The mood status was evaluated by mood scale, and the occupational stress factors, personality factors and mitigating factors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. Correlation analysis showed that the mood score was negative correlated with age(r = -0.07, P = 0.01), working age (r = -0.07, P = 0.01), ERI(r = -0.53, P train drivers, passenger shunting train drivers, freight train drivers and High Speed Rail drivers were 4.88 ± 2.78, 4.72 ± 2.50, 4.28 ± 2.57 and 4.12 ± 3.02, respectively, which the differences had statistical significance(F = 4.23, P = 0.01), unrelated to age and working age. The descending sort of mood corrected mean was passenger train drivers(4.87), passenger shunting train drivers (4.69), freight train drivers (4.29) , and High Speed Rail drivers (4.17). Stepwise regression analysis indicated that ERI, social support, rewards, intrinsic effort, self-esteem, extrinsic effort and coping strategy were the predictors, which could explain the 74.36% of total variance. Most occupational stress factors may cause negative mood, but rewards, self-esteem, social support and coping strategy were the protection factors of mood; different train drivers had different mood status, High Speed Rail drivers were the worst, and passenger train drivers were the best.

  8. Occupational exposure and effects on the male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kaltenecker Retto de Queiroz

    Full Text Available A significant increase in the incidence of male infertility has been described in the international literature, raising questions about its causes. Part of this effect may result from synthetic toxic substances acting on the endocrine system (endocrine disruptors, many of which are routinely used in work processes. We provide a critical review of the specialized literature on work-related chemical substances capable of causing male infertility. Pesticides such as DDT, linuron, and others, heavy metals like mercury, lead, cadmium, and copper, and substances from various industrial uses and residues such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, ethylene dibromide (EDB, phthalates, polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and ethanol are among the main endocrine disruptors that can cause male infertility. Based on the literature, gonadal dysfunction and congenital malformation are the main alterations caused by these substances in the male reproductive system. We conclude that despite the relative lack of studies on this issue, the relevance of such risk calls for further studies as well as measures to prevent workers' exposure to the various substances.

  9. Leadership styles and occupational stress among college athletic directors: the moderating effect of program goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryska, Todd A

    2002-03-01

    The interaction between an individual's abilities and the perceived demands of the workplace appears to make a unique contribution to job-related stress above and beyond that of dispositional or situational factors alone (R. S. Lazarus, 1990). In the present study, the author evaluated this contention among 245 male intercollegiate athletic directors by assessing the combined influence of leadership style and program goals on occupational stress. Regression analyses revealed the presence of both significant main effects and interaction effects of leadership style and program goals in the prediction of emotional exhaustion, daily job stress, and personal accomplishment. Findings are discussed in terms of person-environment fit theory (J. R. P. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the notion of perceived control within the occupational setting.

  10. Effect of language of instruction on physics achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok K.

    This study investigated the relationship between physics achievement and language of instruction in a situation where instruction was in the second language of both students and teachers. One hundred and seventy-six grade ten physics students (first language was Chinese) were selected from four classes of two secondary schools in Hong Kong. For three months (with four lessons per week), two classes of students learned the content material (light and sound) in Chinese and two classes learned the material in English. Group differences were controlled by using individual aptitude scores as covariates in the analysis. There were no differences in achievement, students' motivation, and effort spent in physics in that controlled teaching period. This was probably because the Anglo-Chinese group was sufficiently proficient in English so they did not encounter additional difficulty in learning physics when compared with the Chinese group.

  11. Effect of latency and packet loss on achievable bandwidth

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Following an incident with a slow database replication between CERN's data centers, we discovered that even a very low rate packet loss in the network can induce significant penalties to long distance single stream TCP transfers. We explore the behaviour of multiple congestion control algorithms in a controlled loss environment in order to understand what is the achievable throughput of TCP data transfers between the Meyrin and Wigner data centres.

  12. The effect of occupational stress, psychological stress and burnout on employee performance: Evidence from banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Hashemnia; Somayeh Abadiyan; Behnam Ghorbani Fard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of occupational stress, psychological stress as well as job burnout on women’s employee performance in city of Karaj, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among all female employees who worked for Bank Maskan in this city. In our survey, employee performance consists of three parts of interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance. Cronbach alpha has b...

  13. Occupational exposure to lead and organophosphorus pesticides: effect on male reproductive health

    OpenAIRE

    Yucra, Sandra; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Gasco, Manuel; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Rubio, Julio; Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increased occupational exposure to different pollutants such as heavy metals and pesticides, because of the significant growth in industrial, mining, and agriculture activities. Adverse effects on human health can be observed in the respiratory, renal, nervous, endocrine, and reproductive systems, being the latter quite susceptible to many physical and chemical agents generated by industrial or agricultural activities. These agents are present in some specific activiti...

  14. Science Achievement and Occupational Career/Technical Education Coursetaking in High School: The Class of 2005. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2010-021

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Karen; Wun, Jolene; Green, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    The definition of CTE (career/technical education) used by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) includes, at the high school level, family and consumer sciences education, general labor market preparation, and occupational education (Bradby and Hoachlander 1999; Bradby and Hudson 2007). Most researchers focus on occupational…

  15. Effect of secondhand smoke on occupancy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Arthur L; Mandelkern, Mark A; London, Edythe D; Khan, Aliyah; Kozman, Daniel; Costello, Matthew R; Vellios, Evan E; Archie, Meena M; Bascom, Rebecca; Mukhin, Alexey G

    2011-09-01

    Despite progress in tobacco control, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure remains prevalent worldwide and is implicated in the initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. To determine whether moderate SHS exposure results in brain α(4)β(2)* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) occupancy. Positron emission tomography scanning and the radiotracer 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine (also known as 2-[(18)F]fluoro-A-85380, or 2-FA) were used to determine α(4)β(2)* nAChR occupancy from SHS exposure in 24 young adult participants (11 moderately dependent cigarette smokers and 13 nonsmokers). Participants underwent two bolus-plus-continuous-infusion 2-FA positron emission tomography scanning sessions during which they sat in the passenger's seat of a car for 1 hour and either were exposed to moderate SHS or had no SHS exposure. The study took place at an academic positron emission tomography center. Main Outcome Measure  Changes induced by SHS in 2-FA specific binding volume of distribution as a measure of α(4)β(2)* nAChR occupancy. An overall multivariate analysis of variance using specific binding volume of distribution values revealed a significant main effect of condition (SHS vs control) (F(1,22) = 42.5, P effect. Exposure to SHS led to a mean 19% occupancy of brain α(4)β(2)* nAChRs (1-sample t test, 2-tailed, P < .001). Smokers had both a mean 23% increase in craving with SHS exposure and a correlation between thalamic α(4)β(2)* nAChR occupancy and craving alleviation with subsequent cigarette smoking (Spearman ρ = -0.74, P = .01). Nicotine from SHS exposure results in substantial brain α(4)β(2)* nAChR occupancy in smokers and nonsmokers. Study findings suggest that such exposure delivers a priming dose of nicotine to the brain that contributes to continued cigarette use in smokers. This study has implications for both biological research into the link between SHS exposure and cigarette use and public policy regarding the need

  16. Effectiveness of Cognitive and Occupation-Based Interventions for Children With Challenges in Sensory Processing and Integration: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Beth; Clark, Gloria Frolek; Arbesman, Marian

    This systematic review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive and occupation-based interventions to improve self-regulation in children and youth who have challenges in processing and integrating sensory information. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guided the methodology. Five studies identified through a comprehensive database search met the inclusion criteria and were separated into categories of cognitive and occupation-based interventions. Articles that did not specifically measure sensory integration (SI) or processing challenges were omitted. Synthesis of the articles suggests that self-regulation (e.g., sensory processing, emotional regulation, executive functioning, social function) improved with cognitive and occupation-based interventions. Because the number of studies that measured sensory processing or SI challenges was limited, researchers are encouraged to include these measures in future research to understand the impact of a broader range of cognitive and occupation-based interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. Balancing Efficacy and Effectiveness with Philosophy, History, and Theory-Building in Occupational Therapy Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hooper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The preferred focus for education research in occupational therapy increasingly rests on studies that investigate efficacy and effectiveness in the teaching-learning context. While important, the almost exclusive promotion of outcomes-focused studies can come at the expense of other forms of inquiry, including philosophy, history, and theory-building. To fully inform education and enhance practice, outcomes-focused research needs the conceptual foundation provided by philosophical, historical, and theory-building studies. In this paper, the authors suggest that the research enterprise in occupational therapy education is in its infancy and, therefore, quite susceptible to shortcuts that head straight to outcomes. To address this issue, the authors promote an approach where theory-building studies and philosophical explorations both precede and enrich all research endeavors, including those aimed at identifying “what works” in professional education.

  18. Actual energy consumption in dwellings. The effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Santin, O.

    2010-10-19

    Residential buildings have continuously improved in energy efficiency, partly as a consequence of the introduction of energy regulations in many countries. Although better thermal properties and systems efficiency have lowered energy consumption for space heating in recent decades, substantial differences in energy consumption in similar dwellings are still being observed. These differences in consumption are thought to be caused by differences in occupancy patterns, by quality of construction and by rebound effects. This research addresses the effect of energy performance regulations and occupant behavior on energy consumption for space and water heating in dwellings built after the introduction of the energy performance regulations in the Netherlands. The results of this research show that improving the energy efficiency of buildings alone is not enough to decrease that energy consumption. The large differences found in the use of dwellings indicate that, especially in energy efficient houses, occupant behavior provides an opportunity for further reductions in the energy consumption for space heating which could boost the efforts to conserve energy worldwide.

  19. Effect of lead exposure on the immune response of some occupationally exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Kamla Prasad; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Rani, Reena; Yadav, Virendra Singh; Chandran, Vinod; Srivastava, Satya Prakash; Seth, Prahlad Kishore

    2003-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous pollutant in the industrial environment, which poses serious threats to human health. In the past 20 years increasing attention has been paid to the effects of lead exposure on health. This toxic metal alters the immune response of animals as well as humans. To study the immunological effects of occupational exposure to lead, we examined lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and interferon-γ production with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals occupationally exposed to lead. We selected three different groups of individuals exposed to lead: three-wheeler drivers (30), battery workers (34) and silver jewelery makers (20); and unexposed healthy volunteers (30) as control for comparison. Our results indicate that though lymphocyte proliferation to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is inhibited in lead exposed individuals as compared with unexposed volunteers, there is no correlation between inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and blood lead level. NK cell cytotoxicity remains unaffected in individuals exposed to lead as compared with controls. On the other hand, we observed that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was significantly elevated in T cell mitogen, PHA, stimulated PBMCs culture supernatant of lead exposed individuals. We found significant positive correlation between blood lead levels and IFN-γ produced in culture supernatant on stimulation with PHA. In brief, this study demonstrates that lead can affect the immune response of the occupationally exposed individuals such as three-wheeler drivers, battery reconditioning workers and silver jewelery makers

  20. Relationships: the key to effective occupational therapy practice with urban Australian Indigenous children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alison; Allison, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate what constitutes a socially and culturally appropriate occupational therapy service for urban Indigenous Australian families in Brisbane, Queensland. A qualitative methodology was used with data collected in two distinct parts. Part 1 comprised interviews and focus groups with 25 stakeholders in a newly established occupational therapy service for Indigenous children. Part 2 consisted of semi-structured questionnaires completed by 50 occupational therapists in Queensland. Results revealed guidelines for developing culturally relevant practice around 5 main themes. These were the need to: 1. develop effective relationships, 2. develop particular personal qualities, 3. understand the background of both the client and the therapist, 4. both gain and give knowledge, and 5. address logistical issues of service delivery. This study was limited to an evaluation of one service and included only teachers, parents and health service personnel. These practice guidelines could be applied to other settings with other Indigenous children, and their effectiveness evaluated from the perspectives of Indigenous children.

  1. The Effects of Occupational Licensing on Skills Needs in the Building Industry: Evidence from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadeed Lobo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Occupational licensing for the building industry is being introduced in New Zealand. This research assesses whether the licensing regime being put into place in New Zealand would require new skills when voluntary licensing (2007 and compulsory licensing (by 2011 are introduced. The paper develops a deeper understanding of the effects of occupational licensing on an industry, above those of increased quality and training, to determine the effects of licensing on future skills needs in the New Zealand building industry. The results of the in-depth interviews of35 leading practitioners in the New Zealand show how occupational licensing will affect skills in the industry in two main ways: increase professionalism and increased specializa ioin skills. The impact on the New Zealand bU1Id1ng industry willbe to force a change in the working practices, increasing the move to offsite . prefabrication and change the types of sk1lls the industry requires. The paper serves as an . illustration to other countries on how changes 1n legislation, and the introduction of regulation for an industry, alter the working practices of that industry.

  2. [Evaluation of genotoxic effects in subjects occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Massimo; Villarini, Milena; Dominici, Luca; Fatigoni, Cristina; dell'Omo, Marco; Elisei, Emanuela; Muzi, Giacomo; Monarca, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    The present molecular epidemiology study was carried out to evaluate the genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ANP). The study was conducted in 52 hospital workers involved in the preparation, handling or administration of ANP in a hospital in Perugia (central Italy) and in 52 non-exposed control subjects matched for age, gender and smoking habits to the exposed subjects. Both comet assay and the micronucleus test were used to evaluate genome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes in study subjects. The extent of primary DNA damage, as evaluated by the comet assay, was significantly increased in exposed personnel with respect to matched controls. On the other hand, no significant differences in micronuclei frequency was observed between the two groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed an association between years of occupational exposure over 10 years and higher extent of primary DNA damage in the exposed group. The results of this study confirm that handling ANP without appropriate precautions carries a genotoxic risk for exposed healthcare workers. These results address the need for regular biological effect monitoring of staff occupationally-exposed to ANP.

  3. Occupational Therapy Interventions Effect on Mathematical Problems in Students with Special Learning Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogaieh Mohammadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dyscalculia is specific learning disabilities affecting the acquisition of mathematic skills in an otherwise normal child. The aim of this study was investigation of occupational therapy interventions effect on mathematical problems in students with special learning disorders. Methods: 40 students with dyscalculia (2-5 grades were selected and divided through randomized permuted blocks method into two groups 20 persons as intervention group and the others as the control group. Initially both of groups were administered by the "Iran Key math Test". Then intervention group received occupational therapy interventions for 20 sessions individually and two groups were administered by the Test again. Data was analyzed by using Paired and Independent t-tests. Results: By the paired sample t-test the mean of total marks of Iran Key math Test demonstrated statistically significant difference in both of groups (P<0.05, but the measure of difference in intervention group was more than control group. The mean of marks of Basic Concepts, Operations and Applications demonstrated statistically significant difference at intervention group. Discussion: Occupational therapy interventions had clinical effect on mathematical problems in students with special learning disorders.

  4. Chemical effects and their consequences for individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, C.; Kahl, G.G.; Kühn, P.; Zottis, A.D.; Flôr, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    By legal determination, workers exposed to ionizing radiation should use individual dosimeters in the most exposed region of the body, designed to estimate the effective dose, as well as radiation protective clothing to minimize occupational exposures. Regarding dosimetry, in most cases it is perceived that the monthly values of exposure are within the limits of normality, however, even being below the limit can not rule out the possibility of damage that the low dose of ionizing radiation can cause. The objective of this article is to highlight the main chemical effects caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, especially biochemical damage in DNA, chromosomal aberrations and the correlation with the exposure of occupationally exposed individuals, as well as individuals from the public. A bibliographic search was carried out in indexed databases from February to April 2017 with the following descriptors: Radiation Ionizing, DNA Damage and Occupational Exposure. In the 'Science Direct' database were found 1205 articles, in the 'Scopus' 19 articles, in the 'Web of Science' 83 articles, in the 'PubMed' 22 articles and in the 'VHL' 60 articles related to the theme. It was concluded that exposure to ionizing radiation can affect the DNA molecule despite its repair mechanisms, which may result in genotoxicity. It has been reported a correlation between occupationally exposed individuals and chromosomal aberrations, demonstrating that even low doses of ionizing radiation can compromise the genetic material integrity of exposed workers, leading to the need for a periodic cytogenetic study for this group of workers

  5. Fullerenes: Characteristics of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenes are molecules composed of an even number of carbon atoms of a spherical or an ellipsoidal, closed spatial structure. The most common fullerene is the C60 molecule with a spherical structure – a truncated icosahedron, compared to a football. Fullerenes are widely used in the diagnostics and medicine, but also in the electronics and energy industry. Occupational exposure to fullerene may occur during its production. The occupational concentrations of fullerenes reached 0.12–1.2 μ/m3 for nanoparticles fraction (< 100 nm, which may evidence low exposure levels. However, fullerene mostly agglomerates into larger particles. Absorption of fullerene by oral and respiratory routes is low, and it is not absorbed by skin. After intravenous administration, fullerene accumulates mainly in the liver but also in the spleen and the kidneys. In animal experiments there was no irritation or skin sensitization caused by fullerene, and only mild irritation to the eyes. Fullerene induced transient inflammation in the lungs in inhalation studies in rodents. Oral exposure does not lead to major adverse effects. Fullerene was not mutagenic, genotoxic or carcinogenic in experimental research. However, fullerene may cause harmful effects on the mice fetus when administered intraperitoneally or intravenously. Pristine C60 fullerene is characterized by poor absorption and low toxicity, and it does not pose a risk in the occupational environment. The authors of this study are of the opinion that there is no ground for estimating the maximum allowable concentration (NDS of pristine fullerene C60. Fullerene derivatives, due to different characteristics, require separate analysis in terms of occupational risk assessment. Med Pr 2016;67(3:397–410

  6. Acceptability of residential development in a regional landscape: Potential effects on wildlife occupancy patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettigole, Charles A.; Donovan, Therese; Manning, Robert; Austin, John; Long, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of natural lands to developed uses may pose the single greatest human threat to global terrestrial biodiversity. Continued human growth and development over the next century will further exacerbate these effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Natural resource managers are tasked with managing wildlife as a public trust, yet often have little say in land use decisions. Generally speaking, decision makers could benefit from an understanding of what different regulations mean in terms of wildlife distribution. In a previous paper (Bettigole et al., 2013), we surveyed town residents throughout Vermont to measure how respondents feel about a range of development levels within their town boundaries. We estimated the “social carrying capacity for development” – orSKd – for 251 towns in Vermont. SKd provides an estimate of the level of developed land cover classes that town residents deem “acceptable” within their town boundaries. In this paper, we design a framework for linking the town-specific SKd estimates with the wildlife distribution patterns for three wide-ranging mammalian species: American black bear (Ursus americanus), fisher (Martes pennanti), and bobcat (Lynx rufus). We simulated landscape conditions at SKd for each town in Vermont, and then used existing occupancy models for the three target species to spatially map and compare occupancy rates in the baseline year 2000 with occupancy rates at SKd. With nearly 90% of Vermont towns willing to increase developed landcover classes within town boundaries compared to baseline levels, significant state-wide changes in occupancy rates were predicted for all three focal species. Average occupancy rates declined by −15.9% and −3.1% for black bear and bobcats, respectively. Average occupancy rates for fisher increased by 9.0%. This study provides a method for linking development standards within a town with wildlife occurrence. Across towns, the methodology spatially identifies

  7. Social background effects and academic achievement during transition to high school

    OpenAIRE

    Aypay, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    The study analyzes the factors that influence student transitions to high school, overall high school achievement, math, science, as well as verbal achievement. The sample included students in an Aegean city, Canakkale. The Sample (N=572) included 14 high schools, with the exception of two high schools in this town. The study found little or no effect of SES on academic achievement. Previous academic achievement was positively associated with academic achievement. School typ...

  8. Estimating direct effects of parental occupation on Spaniards’ health by birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pinilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social health inequalities in adult population are partly due to socioeconomic circumstances in childhood. A better understanding of how those circumstances affect health during adulthood may improve the opportunities for reducing health disparities. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of parental socioeconomic status, which is proxied by occupation, on adult Spaniards’ health by birth cohort. The analysis will allow checking not only the direct impact of parental occupation on their offspring’s health, but also whether inherited inequality has been reduced over time. Methods We use data from the Bank of Spain’s Survey of Household Finances on Spanish households from 2002 to 2008. Sequential models were used to estimate the influence of the father’s and mother’s occupation on their offspring’s health, trying to disentangle direct from indirect effects. With a sample of 26,832 persons we consider effects for four different cohorts by birth periods ranging from 1916 to 1981. Results The results show that parental occupation has a significant direct impact on individuals’ health (p < 0.01. The effect of father’s occupation exceeds that of mother’s. For those born before 1936, the probability of reporting a good health status ranges from 0.31 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.14–0.48, when fathers were classified as unskilled elementary workers, to 0.98 (95% CI 0.98–0.99 when they were managers or mid-level professionals. For those born during the period 1959–1975, those probabilities are 0.49 (95% CI 0.39–0.59 and 0.97 (95% CI 0.96–0.98, respectively. Therefore, health inequalities linked to parental socioeconomic status have been noticeably reduced, although discrimination against unskilled workers persists over time. Conclusions Great progress has been made in the health area during the twentieth century, so that the impact of parental socioeconomic status on individuals

  9. Effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy in employees with depression: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hees Hiske L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depressive disorder is among the medical conditions with the highest negative impact on work outcome. However, little is known regarding evidence-based interventions targeting the improvement of work outcomes in depressed employees. In this paper, the design of a randomized controlled trial is presented in order to evaluate the effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy in employees with depression. This occupational intervention is based on an earlier intervention, which was designed and proven effective by our research group, and is the only intervention to date that specifically targets work outcome in depressed employees. Methods/Design In a two-arm randomized controlled trial, a total of 117 participants are randomized to either 'care as usual' or ' care as usual' with the addition of occupational therapy. Patients included in the study are employees who are absent from work due to depression for at least 25% of their contract hours, and who have a possibility of returning to their own or a new job. The occupational intervention consists of six individual sessions, eight group sessions and a work-place visit over a 16-week period. By increasing exposure to the working environment, and by stimulating communication between employer and employee, the occupational intervention aims to enhance self-efficacy and the acquisition of more adaptive coping strategies. Assessments take place at baseline, and at 6, 12, and 18-month follow-ups. Primary outcome measure is work participation (hours of absenteeism and time until work resumption. Secondary outcome measures are work functioning, symptomatology, health-related quality of life, and neurocognitive functioning. In addition, cost-effectiveness is evaluated from a societal perspective. Finally, mechanisms of change (intermediate outcomes and potential patient-treatment matching variables are investigated. Discussion This study hopes to provide valuable knowledge

  10. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. Effect of noise exposure on occupational injuries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad-Sardrudi, Hossein; Dormohammadi, Ali; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2012-12-13

    Noise exposure is the most frequent occupational factor which may increase the risk of work-related injuries. The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between occupational injuries and noise exposure as well as hearing loss. This study was conducted from April 2008 to March 2009 on 1062 workers in the Tabriz Tractor Manufacturing Plant. Sound pressure level (SPL) ≥85 dB in the workplace was considered as the independent variable (exposure) and physical occupational injuries as the dependent variable (outcome). Data were extracted from the workers' medical records using a checklist. Of 1062 volunteers, 392 (36.9%) were exposed (with SPL≥85 dB) and 670 (63.1%) were unexposed (with SPLnoise exposure and hearing impairment have adverse effect on work safety and can increase the probability of work-related injuries. This means reducing noise exposure can contribute to increase safety in workplaces where noise is a factor. Furthermore, using assistive listening devices may reduce risk of work injuries among hearing-impaired workers.

  12. Effects of fire on golden eagle territory occupancy and reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen; Marzluff, J.M.; Carpenter, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    We examined effects of fire on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) territory occupancy and reproductive success in southwestern Idaho because wildfires since 1980 have resulted in large-scale losses of shrub habitat in the Snake River Plain. Success (percentage of pairs that raised young) at burned territories declined after major fires (P = 0.004). Pairs in burned areas that could expand into adjacent vacant territories were as successful as pairs in unburned territories and more successful than pairs in burned territories that could not expand. Success at extensively burned territories was lowest 4-6 years after burning but increased 4-5 years later. The incidence and extent of fires did not help predict territories that would have low occupancy and success rates in postburn years. The presence of a vacant neighboring territory and the amount of agriculture and proportion of shrubs within 3 km of the nesting centroid best predicted probability of territory occupancy. Nesting success during preburn years best predicted the probability of a territory being successful in postburn years. Burned territories with high success rates during preburn years continued to have high success rates during postburn years, and those with low success in preburn years continued to be less successful after burning. In areas where much shrub habitat has been lost to fire, management for golden eagles should include active fire suppression and rehabilitation of burned areas.

  13. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  14. Occupational exposure to radiation in the United Kingdom and its contribution to the genetically effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binks, W.; Marley, W.G.

    1960-01-01

    It is now the common practice in the United Kingdom for persons who are exposed occupationally to ionizing radiations to be subjected to continuous individual monitoring in order to ensure that the doses that they receive from sources external to the body do not exceed the levels which are regarded as acceptable. In the operation of large-scale monitoring services such as are provided by the Radiological Protection Service (R.P.S.) and by the establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (U.K.A.E.A.) there is no satisfactory alternative to the use of photographic film, bearing in mind such aspects as simplicity, reliability, accuracy, cheapness, ease of postal transmission of the films in the special holders, and availability of a durable record of the dose received. The Radiological Protection Service provides a film badge service which is widely used by industry. This organization also provides film badges for about one-third of the occupationally exposed persons in National Health Service hospitals; for the remaining hospital workers the majority of establishments undertake their own monitoring arrangements. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority provides its own film badge services for all exposed workers. It is the purpose of this report to summarize the information obtained by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. regarding the doses received by occupationally exposed persons. The total genetically effective dose received by the population from occupational exposure is also compared with that received from natural background radiation. This report also summarizes the measurements made by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. to check the internal contamination of the body in cases where radioactivity has been ingested or inhaled

  15. The Effects of War on Syrian Refugees' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan; Kara, Ömer Tugrul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the effects of war on Syrian students' academic success. No one can deny the fact that wars have direct and indirect effects on children. Besides, no one can deny the fact that not only soldiers are targets in wars, but also children, women, and even old people are, who altogether make a society.…

  16. Assessing Teacher Quality: Understanding Teacher Effects on Instruction and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Recent educational reforms have promoted accountability systems which attempt to identify "teacher effects" on student outcomes and hold teachers accountable for producing learning gains. But in the complex world of classrooms, it may be difficult to attribute "success" or "failure" to teachers. In this timely…

  17. Effect on School Language in Assessment of Achievement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eric Wilmot

    African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 7, 2009. 81. Selected leadership traits as determinants of leadership effectiveness in Nigerian sports industry. Olajide, O. A.. 11. Abstract. The purpose of this study is to establish whether some selected leadership traits (integration, intelligence ...

  18. Effect on School Language in Assessment of Achievement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eric Wilmot

    intelligence, integrity and professionalism) are determinants of leadership effectiveness in. Nigerian sports industry. ... points to the fact that holistic sports development in Nigeria does not end with the provision of ... note in this definition is that leadership cannot exist in isolation there must be the leader and the follower.

  19. Effects of fire on spotted owl site occupancy in a late-successional forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan L.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Kelt, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a late-successional forest dependent species that is sensitive to forest management practices throughout its range. An increase in the frequency and spatial extent of standreplacing fires in western North America has prompted concern for the persistence of spotted owls and other sensitive late-successional forest associated species. However, there is sparse information on the effects of fire on spotted owls to guide conservation policies. In 2004-2005, we surveyed for California spotted owls during the breeding season at 32 random sites (16 burned, 16 unburned) throughout late-successional montane forest in Yosemite National Park, California. Our burned areas burned at all severities, but predominately involved low to moderate fire severity. Based on an information theoretic approach, spotted owl detection and occupancy rates were similar between burned and unburned sites. Nest and roost site occupancy was best explained by a model that combined total tree basal area (positive effect) with cover by coarse woody debris (negative effect). The density estimates of California spotted owl pairs were similar in burned and unburned forests, and the overall mean density estimate for Yosemite was higher than previously reported for montane forests. Our results indicate that low to moderate severity fires, historically common within montane forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, maintain habitat characteristics essential for spotted owl site occupancy. These results suggest that managed fires that emulate the historic fire regime of these forests may maintain spotted owl habitat and protect this species from the effects of future catastrophic fires.

  20. Carcinogenic effectiveness of combined dust-and-radiation effect under experimental and occupational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Mikhajlov, M.; Todorov, A.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is made of the latest reports, reflecting the statistically significant increase of the lung cancer among workers in underground working sites at cumulative exposure to radon decay products under 60 monthly working levels. The significance of the non-radiation components of the occupational environment, participating in the carcinogenic process together with the classical noxiousness are emphasized. The significance of the functional sufficiency of the immune and endocrine systems, the tobacco smoking and the role of the inflammation respiratory tract diseases , etc. is denoted. Inferences are made for the complexity and multiformity of the occupational carcinogenesis according to the intensity, classical mutagenic factors and multitude of noncarcinogenic components of the occupational environment. Paralelly to the sanitary-technical fool-proof rendering of the respective productions, the necessity of purposeful balneotherapeutic and medical treatment of the risk worker contingents is pointed out

  1. Achieving Efficiency and Effectiveness in Purchasing and Supply Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    2017-01-01

    As a function with a strategic role, Purchasing and Supply Management (PSM) needs to continuously find ways to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. One potential way to specifically addressing efficiency targets is to outsource parts of the purchasing process. While outsourcing remains one...... by allocating internal resources to more value-adding activities. The case illustrates how an activity-based organizational design of PSM can support outsourcing of some parts of the purchasing process....

  2. Major Achievements and Prospect of the ATLAS Integral Effect Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ki-Yong Choi; Yeon-Sik Kim; Chul-Hwa Song; Won-Pil Baek

    2012-01-01

    A large-scale thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), has been operated by KAERI. The reference plant of ATLAS is the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor, 1400 MWe). Since 2007, an extensive series of experimental works were successfully carried out, including large break loss of coolant accident tests, small break loss of coolant accident tests at various break locations, steam generator tube rupture tests, feed line ...

  3. Major Achievements and Prospect of the ATLAS Integral Effect Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Yong Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation, has been operated by KAERI. The reference plant of ATLAS is the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor, 1400 MWe. Since 2007, an extensive series of experimental works were successfully carried out, including large break loss of coolant accident tests, small break loss of coolant accident tests at various break locations, steam generator tube rupture tests, feed line break tests, and steam line break tests. These tests contributed toward an understanding of the unique thermal-hydraulic behavior, resolving the safety-related concerns and providing validation data for evaluation of the safety analysis codes and methodology for the advanced pressurized water reactor, APR1400. Major discoveries and lessons found in the past integral effect tests are summarized in this paper. As the demand for integral effect tests is on the rise due to the active national nuclear R&D program in Korea, the future prospects of the application of the ATLAS facility are also discussed.

  4. Major Achievements and Prospect of the ATLAS Integral Effect Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.; Kim, Y.; Song, C.; Baek, W.

    2012-01-01

    A large-scale thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), has been operated by KAERI. The reference plant of ATLAS is the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor, 1400 MWe). Since 2007, an extensive series of experimental works were successfully carried out, including large break loss of coolant accident tests, small break loss of coolant accident tests at various break locations, steam generator tube rupture tests, feed line break tests, and steam line break tests. These tests contributed toward an understanding of the unique thermal-hydraulic behavior, resolving the safety-related concerns and providing validation data for evaluation of the safety analysis codes and methodology for the advanced pressurized water reactor, APR1400. Major discoveries and lessons found in the past integral effect tests are summarized in this paper. As the demand for integral effect tests is on the rise due to the active national nuclear R and D program in Korea, the future prospects of the application of the ATLAS facility are also discussed.

  5. Effects of occupational therapy on quality of life of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huri, Meral; Huri, Emre; Kayihan, Hulya; Altuntas, Onur

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of occupational therapy relative to a home program in improving quality of life (QoL) among men who were treated for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC). Fifty-five men were assigned randomly to either the 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy based occupational therapy (OT-CBSM) intervention (treatment group) or a home program (control group) between March 2012 and August 2014 in the Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to measure the occupational performance and identify difficulties in daily living activities. The QoL and symptom status were measured by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and its Prostate Cancer Module. A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention including client-centered training of daily living activities, recreational group activities, and cognitive behavioral stress management intervention were applied. The COPM performance and satisfaction scores, which indicate occupational participation and QoL increased statistically in the treatment group in relation to men who were included in the home-program (p less than or equal to 0.05). A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention was effective in improving QoL in men treated for MPC, and these changes were associated significantly with occupational performance.

  6. Effects of frequent announced parasitology quizzes on the academic achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Zamini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of frequent examinations on the students' learning has had inconsistent results. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of frequent announced quizzes on the learning of a representative sample of Iranian medical students.This experimental study was conducted among 37 fifth semester medical students who had taken the course in Protozoology and Helminthology, in which the same basic information were provided about different types of protozoa and worms. Initially, in the teaching of helminthology, ten routine sessions were handled with lectures and interactive questions and answers. Then at the beginning of the protozoology topic in the beginning of all of the next 9 sessions, the students were informed that they will have a quiz at the end of each session. At the end of the semester, the total scores of quizzes were compared with the mean final scores of protozoology and helminthology using paired t and repeated measure tests.The mean final scores of the protozoology lesson were not significantly different from that of the helminthology (10.45 ± 2.75 vs.11.25 ± 2.56 on the scale of 20, respectively, P=0.13. There was no significant difference in the mean score of the five quizzes compared with the mean final term score of protozoology. The overall mean scores in the helminthology lesson (11.25±2.56, protozoology lesson (10.45±2.75, and the quizzes (9.16 ± 3.55 were significantly different (P <0.0001.Frequent announced quizzes were not effective on increasing the medical students' motivation and learning.

  7. The effectiveness of vocational education in promoting equity and occupational mobility amongst young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current knowledge about the impact of vocational education and training on the labor market outcomes for young people in advanced market economies, and asks whether the results can be extrapolated to countries in the Western Balkans and the EU neighborhood. It draws four main policy conclusions. First, in transition countries, specialized vocational education should not be replaced by streaming or tracking within comprehensive school systems or integrated into general education programmes. Abandoning effective vocational schooling may worsen the labor market outcomes for the less able and disadvantaged young people. Inadequate vocational school systems should be strengthened, while ensuring effective pathways to higher levels of education. Second, while apprenticeship systems enable lower ability students and minorities to access the labor market, they may lock women into traditional female occupations. Well-organized and resourced school-based vocational education may be preferred by women who feel they could benefit from them, and may furthermore reduce school drop-out rates. Third, occupational mobility can be improved by effective school-based vocational education. If returns to such education are sufficiently high, they can incentives mobility. While for developed economies there is little difference in rates of return between general and vocational education, in transition economies, returns to vocational education are higher than returns to general education. Fourth, while occupational mobility is needed for countries undergoing structural change, it should be noted that too much mobility can also be harmful to the skill retention, especially for women. Special attention should therefore be given to providing complementary opportunities for retraining and for lifelong learning to all workers, but especially to women, to encourage and support the desired degree of mobility in the labor market.

  8. Coping with constraints: Achieving effective conservation with limited resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Conservation resources have become increasingly limited and, along with social, cultural and political complexities, this shortfall frequently challenges effectiveness in conservation. Because conservation can be costly, efforts are often only initiated after a species has declined below a critical threshold and/or when statutory protection is mandated. However, implementing conservation proactively, rather than reactively, is predicted to be less costly and to decrease a species' risk of extinction. Despite these benefits, I document that the number of studies that have implemented proactive conservation around the world are far fewer than those that simply acknowledge the need for such action. I provide examples of proactive actions that can ameliorate shortfalls in funding and other assets, thus helping conservation practitioners and managers cope with the constraints that resource limitation imposes. Not all of these options are new; however, the timing of their implementation is critical for effective conservation, and the need for more proactive conservation is increasingly recognized. These actions are (1) strengthening and diversifying stakeholder involvement in conservation projects; (2) complementing time-consuming and labor-intensive demographic studies with alternative approaches of detecting declines and estimating extinction risk; and (3) minimizing future costly conservation and management by proactively keeping common species common. These approaches may not constitute a cure-all for every conservation crisis. However, given escalating rates of species' losses, perhaps a reminder that these proactive actions can reduce conservation costs, save time, and potentially thwart population declines is warranted.

  9. Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Maritta S; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relations of occupational exposures in tile industry to lung function and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Factory workers had lower spirometric functions than office workers, especially those with high dust exposure. There was a dose-response relation between duration of dust exposure and FEV1 and FVC, the adjusted effect of ≥ 21 years of exposure on FEV1 being -240 ml (-100 to -380) and on FVC -300 ml (-140 to -460). The adverse effect of dust on lung function was larger in current smokers suggesting synergism between smoking and tile dust exposure. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Programs for Reducing Achievement Gaps: A Case Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Lan; Kuo, Nien-Ping; Chang, Tien-Ying; Chiou, Jia-Min

    2014-01-01

    Considering that achievement gaps have become a serious educational problem worldwide, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has been addressing a series of policies to reduce achievement gaps, but the effect of these policies has not yet been carefully examined. Therefore, the present study investigated current educational policies, achievement gap…

  11. The Effects of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…

  12. The Effects of Extracurricular Activities on the Academic Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sudhir K.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the effects of extracurricular activities on academic achievement of seventh and eighth graders. This study compared the academic achievements of participants and non-participants in Mathematics and Language Arts. The three different measurements used for the academic achievement were TCAP, ThinkLink, and GPA…

  13. Effect of open-plan office noise on occupant comfort and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Lund, Søren; Kristiansen, Jesper

    This study investigated effects on comfort, symptoms, and office work performance of exposure to office noise. Forty-nine subjects who were employees working in open-plan offices participated in two full-day experiments simulating an ordinary work day; one day with and one day without exposure...... to pre-recorded office noise. Exposure to office noise affected negatively ratings of adverse perceptions, selected symptoms, and self-assessed performance, but not the performance of the simulated office tasks. Occupants who in their daily work were disturbed by open-plan office noise were less tolerant...

  14. Achieving equivalent effect in the translation of African American Vernacular English: : Domestication versus Foreignization

    OpenAIRE

    Hauglund, Silje Andrea Tronrud

    2011-01-01

    According to Eugene Nida’s theory of Dynamic Equivalence, the most important aim for translators should be to achieve equivalence in effect between original and translated text. Equivalent effect is achieved when a translated text creates the same associations and feelings in the minds of its readers as was produced in the minds of the readers of the original text. Venuti argues that equivalent effect can only be achieved using what he refers to as ethnocentric domesticating strategies –...

  15. Achieving effective glycaemic control using an insulin micro-pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter

    2017-02-02

    For those with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), a deranged blood glucose level can cause hypo/hyperglycaemic episodes and in the long term contribute to microvascular disease. Such outcomes can effect concordance with insulin management regimens and affect the patient's quality of life. A variety of insulin delivery methods are available, including continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) via either a tethered or patch pump. Pumps have the potential to improve delivery, monitoring and adjustment of insulin regimens, thus freeing patient's time and affording more control of their disease. This article reports how a new patch pump, has helped a cohort of patients to improve blood glucose variability levels and thus quality of life.

  16. The Effect of Fatalistic Beliefs Regarding Occupational Accidents on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Trust in Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ÜNGÜREN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational accidents pose serious problems in both Turkey and the world. The human factor seems to be the most common reason for these accidents. While preventive measures can be taken against occupational accidents, there are some humanistic obstacles, such as fatalistic beliefs, that impede these measures. The main purpose of this study is to test the effect of fatalistic beliefs regarding occupational accidents on job satisfaction and organizational trust. It was hypothesized that fatalistic beliefs in regards to occupational accidents have a negative effect on job satisfaction and organizational trust of employees. The study was carried out in five and four star accommodation companies in Alanya, Turkey. A quantitative research approach was adopted. Fully structured questionnaires were used as the measurement instrument. 1564 questionnaires were analysed. The Structural Equation Modelling analysis indicated that fatalistic beliefs regarding occupational accidents have a strong negative effect on both job satisfaction and organizational trust of employees in accommodation companies; therefore the hypotheses were strongly supported. These results indicate that attempting to overcome fatalistic beliefs and investing in occupational health and safety is a good business decision, as well as an ethical one.

  17. Academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement : mediating and additive effects

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Frédéric; Ratelle, Catherine; Roy, Amélie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 hig...

  18. Enhancing Interdisciplinary Team Effectiveness: A Pre-Service Training Model for Physical and Occupational Therapy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jennifer L.

    The practicum provided interdisciplinary team educational experiences for students of physical and occupational therapy. Activities included administering a questionnaire to physical therapy students to determine student understanding of pediatric physical and occupational therapy role delineation. Questionnaires were also administered to…

  19. Scale-dependence in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure effects on waterbird habitat occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James P; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Shams, Leyla

    2017-08-01

    Spatial scale is rarely considered in population-level assessments of contaminant impacts on wild animals; as a result misinterpretation of the relationship between contaminant exposure and population status may occur. We assessed the strength of expression of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure effects at local vs. regional spatial scales on population status in five species of waterbirds, "bioaccumulators" often promoted as indicators of contaminant effects in aquatic ecosystems. Our focus was the upper Hudson River where PCBs occur at levels reported to have adverse impacts on wild birds. At the local scale, waterbird habitat occupancy was estimated from 220 repeat surveys made between 2001 and 2010 along the same survey route divided into 25 contiguous river segments with markedly different PCB concentrations. At the regional scale, waterbird habitat occupancy in relation to proximity to the upper Hudson River was estimated across 1248 Breeding Bird Atlas survey blocks while controlling for region-wide variation in habitat availability. At the local scale, many associations of habitat and sampling covariates with species detection probabilities were evident but none, including PCB concentration, with habitat occupancy, extinction or colonization of a given river segment. At the regional scale, survey effort and habitat factors not related to PCB exposure were the most important drivers of waterbird occurrence although two species were more likely to occur farther from the contaminated river segment. Spatial scale clearly mediates expression of contaminant impacts on wild bird populations; large-scale, expert-generated databases provide an underused opportunity for better delineating the spatial scales at which population impacts occur and risk assessments should be performed.

  20. Jobs at Risk!? Effects of Automation of Jobs on Occupational Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgner, Alina

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between the risk of automation of jobs and individual-level occupational mobility using a representative German household survey. The results suggest that expected occupational changes such as losing a job and demotion at the current place of employment, among others, are likely to be driven by the high occupation-specific risk of automation. However, switches to self-employment are more likely to occur from occupations with low risk of automation.

  1. Impatience versus achievement strivings in the Type A pattern: Differential effects on students' health and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.

  2. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  3. Longitudinal, reciprocal effects of social skills and achievement from kindergarten to eighth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caemmerer, Jacqueline M; Keith, Timothy Z

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggests that students' social skills and achievement are interrelated, and some findings support bi-directional effects between the two constructs. The purpose of this research study was to estimate the possible longitudinal and reciprocal effects of social skills and achievement for kindergarten through eighth grade students. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study program were analyzed; teachers' ratings of students' social skills and students' standardized math and reading achievement performance were collected 4 and 5 times, respectively. Latent variable structural equation modeling was used to test a panel model of reciprocal, longitudinal effects of social skills and achievement. The results suggest that the effects of students' social skills and achievement are bi-directional, but the effects of students' achievement on their later social skills are stronger than the effects of social skills on achievement. The significant effects of students' social skills on their later achievement are mostly indirect. These findings suggest that the future social skills of students who struggle academically may be of particular concern to educators, and intervention and prevention efforts aimed to address both social and achievement skills may help remediate the other skill in the future. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of occupational stress, psychological stress and burnout on employee performance: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Hashemnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the effects of occupational stress, psychological stress as well as job burnout on women’s employee performance in city of Karaj, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among all female employees who worked for Bank Maskan in this city. In our survey, employee performance consists of three parts of interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance. Cronbach alpha has been used to verify the overall questionnaire, all components were within acceptable levels, and the implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has indicated that the data were not normally distributed. Using Spearman correlation ratio as well as regression techniques, the study has determined that while psychological stress influenced significantly on all three components of employee performance including interpersonal performance, job performance as well as organizational performance, the effect on job performance was greater than the other components. In addition, occupational stress only influences on organizational as well as interpersonal performance. Finally, employee burnout has no impact on any components of employee performance.

  5. Effects of mindfulness meditation on occupational functioning and health care utilization in individuals with anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Guidos, Brittany M; Mete, Mihriye; Bui, Eric; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effect of mindfulness meditation on occupational functioning in individuals with Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Fifty-seven individuals with GAD (mean (SD) age=39 (13); 56% women) participated in an 8-week clinical trial in which they were randomized to mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or an attention control class. In this secondary analysis, absenteeism, entire workdays missed, partial workdays missed, and healthcare utilization patterns were assessed before and after treatment. Compared to the attention control class, participation in MBSR was associated with a significantly greater decrease in partial work days missed for adults with GAD (t=2.734, df=51, p=0.009). Interestingly, a dose effect was observed during the 24-week post-treatment follow-up period: among MBSR participants, greater home mindfulness meditation practice was associated with less work loss and with fewer mental health professional visits. Mindfulness meditation training may improve occupational functioning and decrease healthcare utilization in adults with GAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Think Pair Share Technique on the English Reading Achievement of the Students Differing in Achievement Motivation at Grade Eight of SMPN 13 Mataram

    OpenAIRE

    M. AFAN; Prof. Dr. A. A. I. Ngurah Marhaeni,MA; Prof. Dr. Nyoman Dantes

    2013-01-01

    This experimental research aimed at finding out the effect of Think-Pair-Share technique on the English reading achievement of the Students differing in achievement motivation at grade eight of SMPN 13 Mataram. This research with posttest only control group design by using 2x2 factorial design. The instrument used in this research are, English reading achievement test and achievement motivation questionnaire. 80 students were taken from six regular classes as the research sample with cluster ...

  7. The effectiveness of game and recreational activity to motivate high achievers and low achievers: Evaluation using fuzzy conjoint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofian, Siti Siryani; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2018-04-01

    Students' evaluation is important in order to determine the effectiveness of a learning program. A game and recreational activity (GaRA) is a problem-based learning (PBL) method that engages students in a learning process through games and activity. The effectiveness of GaRA can be determined from an application of fuzzy conjoint analysis (FCA) to diminish fuzziness in determining individual perceptions. This study involves a survey collected from 68 students participating in a Mathematics Discovery Camp organized by a UKM research group, named PRISMatik, from two different schools. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of modules delivered to motivate students towards mathematics subject in the form of GaRA through different factors. There were six games conducted for the participants and their perceptions based on the evaluation of six criterias were measured. A seven-point Likert scale, which indicates seven linguistic terms, was used to collect students' preferences and perceptions on each module of GaRAs. Scores of perceptions were transformed into degrees of similarity using fuzzy set conjoint analysis. Results found that interest, effort and team work was the strongest values obtained from GaRA modules in this camp as participants indicated their strong agreement that these criteria fulfilled their preferences in most module. Participants also stated that almost all attributes fulfilled their preference in each module regardless their individual academic achievement. Thus the method demonstrated that modules delivered through PBL approach has effectively motivated students through six attributes introduced. The evaluation using FCA implicated the successfulness of a fuzzy approach to evaluate fuzziness obtained in the Likert-scale and has shown its ability in ranking the attributes from most preferred to least preferred.

  8. Computerized Assessment of Independent Reading: Effects of Implementation Quality on Achievement Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, K. J.; Samuels, J.; Paul, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study elaborates the "what works?" question by exploring the effects of variability in program implementation quality on achievement. Particularly, the effects on achievement of computerized assessment of reading were investigated, analyzing data on 51,000 students in Grades 1-12 who read over 3 million books. When minimum implementation…

  9. The Effect of General Objectives Defined by Behavioral Objectives on Achievement in a College Zoology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushin, John W.; Baller, William

    1981-01-01

    Tests the effect of developmental level objectives on student achievement and efficiency in a zoology course. These objectives were found to have no significant effect on achievement, but they did significantly increase student efficiency in learning the content material of the module. (Author)

  10. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  11. Predicting Kindergarteners' Achievement and Motivation from Observational Measures of Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Patrick, Helen; Strati, Anna; Watson, Jesse S.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the premise that observation measures of instruction are indicators of effective teaching, using the definition of effectiveness articulated by departments of education: teaching that boosts student achievement. We argued that student motivation is equally as important as achievement in the evaluation of teaching effectiveness…

  12. Class Size Effects on Fourth-Grade Mathematics Achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Class size reduction policies have been widely implemented around the world in recent years. However, findings about the effects of class size on student achievement have been mixed. This study examines class size effects on fourth-grade mathematics achievement in 14 European countries using data from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and…

  13. The Effects of Cooperative Learning and Learner Control on High- and Low Achievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiyakarn, Chanchai; Hooper, Simon

    This paper reports on a study investigating the effects of studying alone or in cooperative-learning groups on the performance of high and low achievers. The effects of completing computer-based instruction using either learner or program control are also examined. A total of 92 sixth-grade students were classified by Stanford Achievement Scores…

  14. Mexico, maquiladoras, and occupational medicine training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, D H; Rea, D F; Schwartz, I; Rea, J

    1989-01-01

    Industrialization and its concomitant social and environmental effects in developing countries are considered in this paper. Mexico offers one example of economic progress achieved through the promotion of industrial growth. Recognising the need for trained experts with global experience in occupational health, the University of Arizona (UA) has begun a programme to train occupational and preventive medicine residents in international aspects of occupational health in the nearby industrialized border regions of Mexico. By using the maquiladora (assembly plant) industries and the resources of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social with the State of Sonora, residents observe existing problems in occupational safety and health in addition to adding to their understanding of the need for worldwide cooperation for research and reform in this field.

  15. Effectiveness of participatory training on improving occupational health in small and medium enterprises in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuandong; Zhu, Meifeng; Yu, Tak Sun Ignatius; He, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    Participatory training on occupational health is widely used in the world. Evaluations of local experiences are necessary to its successful performance. The project evaluated the effectiveness of participatory training on occupational health improvement in small and medium enterprises of China, and explored local practice experiences. Participatory training was provided to 525 welding workers from 25 small and medium enterprises in ship building and machinery manufacturing industries. This training consisted of interactive learning, worksite assessment and group discussion on laws/regulations, safety of machine operation, prevention of slips and trips, fire/explosion prevention, ergonomics, and recognition and prevention of other workplace hazards. Workers completed knowledge, attitude, and practice and worksite assessment questionnaires before and 3 months after intervention. Knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were significantly increased through the training. An inventory of workplace safety modifications was proposed by participants and many were fixed by workers and employers. Health management and personal protective equipment provision/use were most often improved, but improvements in engineering control and health-related accommodations remained unsatisfactory. Workers could recognize and fix workplace hazards after the participatory training. More efficient measures in China are to be explored to improve implementing solutions, especially on preventive engineering and human ergonomics.

  16. Effects of chronic occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis among anaesthetists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Volatile anaesthetic agents are known to influence neutrophil function. The aim was to determine the effect of chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis among anaesthetists. To test this hypothesis, we compared the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in anaesthetists who had been chronically exposed to volatile anaesthetic agents with that in unexposed volunteers. METHODS: Venous blood (20 mL) was withdrawn from 24 ASA I-II volunteers, from which neutrophils were isolated, and maintained in culture. At 1, 12 and 24 h in culture, the percentage of neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. RESULTS: At 1 h (but not at 12 and 24 h) in culture, the rate of neutrophil apoptosis was significantly less in the anaesthetists--13.8 (12.9%) versus 34.4 (12.1%) (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents may inhibit neutrophil apoptosis. This may have implications for anaesthetists and similarly exposed healthcare workers in terms of the adequacy of their inflammatory response.

  17. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002–2006 (ELS:02/06), this study investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course taking had positive effects on math achievement and college enrollment. Results also demonstrated that the effect of advanced math cour...

  18. Applied Behavior Analysis, Autism, and Occupational Therapy: A Search for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Christie D; Polatajko, H J

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapists strive to be mindful, competent practitioners and continuously look for ways to improve practice. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has strong evidence of effectiveness in helping people with autism achieve goals, yet it does not seem to be implemented in occupational therapy practice. To better understand whether ABA could be an evidence-based option to expand occupational therapy practice, the authors conducted an iterative, multiphase investigation of relevant literature. Findings suggest that occupational therapists apply developmental and sensory approaches to autism treatment. The occupational therapy literature does not reflect any use of ABA despite its strong evidence base. Occupational therapists may currently avoid using ABA principles because of a perception that ABA is not client centered. ABA principles and occupational therapy are compatible, and the two could work synergistically. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. [Effectiveness of occupational therapy and other non-pharmacological therapies in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Mora, Rosa; Martínez-Piédrola, Rosa María; Fernández Huete, Javier

    A review is presented on the existing knowledge about the usefulness of the occupational therapy in the non-pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease. After conducting a literature search of the period 2010-2015, 25 articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The evidence obtained showed the efficiency and effectiveness of OT in delaying the progression of various disorders, especially when structured home OT programs are used. These programs should include aerobic and strengthening, sensory stimulation, and cognitive and memory training exercises based on learning without mistakes. These have shown benefits in the performance of activities of daily living, cognitive and emotional functioning. The importance is stressed of the combined and individual household level intervention and caregiver education. Finally, the need for more studies on the effectiveness of long-term sensory stimulation is highlighted. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Extending Antecedents of Achievement Goals: The Double-Edged Sword Effect of Social-Oriented Achievement Motive and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Youyan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2013-01-01

    Underpinned by the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation, the study examined the differential relations of individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motives to approach and avoidance achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-avoidance). A total of 570 Chinese high school…

  1. Effect of Adding Swedish Massage to Occupational Therapy on Muscle Tone of Spastic Cerebral Palsied Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sajedi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive disorder in body posture and movement, due to different etiologies. Different medical and rehabilitation interventions include massage have been used in these children. This study has been done to determine the effect of adding massage to occupational therapy on muscle tone of children with spastic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: This study was a double blind clinical trial. The children were recruited from clinics of University of Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences. The individuals were divided to intervention and control groups. The routine rehabilitation techniques were done in 3 months in both groups. The intervention group received massage for 30 minutes before rehabilitation. Muscle tonicity was evaluated at the beginning of the study and 3 months later by Ashworth test. The data analysis was done by parametric (t test, paired t test and nonparametric (Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon tests. Results: Thirteen subjects of case (intervention group and 14 subjects of control group were studied. The average age in case group and control group was 49.5, and 42.1 months respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in Tonicity of upper and lower limbs, trunk and neck between intervention group and control group (P>0/05. Conclusion: In general based on the results of this study, adding massage to occupational therapy had no effect on tonicity of spastic cerebral palsied children. Regarding to some effects of massage mentioned in different articles on physical abilities of children with C.P. as well as executive limitations in this research, it is not possible to reject the effects of homeopathy on physical abilities of children with C.P.

  2. Determinants for the effectiveness of implementing an occupational therapy intervention in routine dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döpp, Carola M E; Graff, Maud J L; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Nijhuis van der Sanden, Maria W G; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J

    2013-11-07

    A multifaceted implementation (MFI) strategy was used to implement an evidence-based occupational therapy program for people with dementia (COTiD program). This strategy was successful in increasing the number of referrals, but not in improving occupational therapists' (OTs) adherence. Therefore, a process evaluation was conducted to identify factors that influenced the effectiveness of the MFI strategy. A mixed-method approach of qualitative and quantitative research was used to evaluate the implementation process. The MFI strategy as planned and as executed were reported and evaluated based on the framework of Hulscher et al. (2003; 2006). Data on OTs attitudes and expected barriers were collected at baseline from 94 OTs using a 19-item questionnaire. Data on the experiences were collected after finishing the implementation using focus groups with OTs and telephone interviews with physicians and managers. For quantitative data, frequencies and correlations were calculated and qualitative data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The implementation strategy as executed had a stronger focus than planned on increasing OTs promotional skills due to an initial lack of referrals. This resulted in less attention for increasing OTs' skills in using the COTiD program as initially intended. At baseline, OTs had a positive attitude toward the program, however, 75% did not feel experienced enough and only 14.3% felt competent in using the program. Focus groups and interviews revealed various determinants that influenced implementation. Most managers were positive about the program. However, the degree of operational support of managers for OTs regarding the implementation was not always adequate. Managers stated that a well-defined place for occupational therapy within the dementia care network was lacking although this was perceived necessary for successful implementation. Several physicians perceived psychosocial interventions not to be in their area of

  3. Math Self-Concept, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores: Long-Term Reciprocal Effects across Five Waves and Three Achievement Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Murayama, Kou; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    This study examines reciprocal effects between self-concept and achievement by considering a long time span covering grades 5 through 9. Extending previous research on the reciprocal effects model (REM), this study tests (1) the assumption of developmental equilibrium as time-invariant cross-lagged paths from self-concept to achievement and from…

  4. Back schools in occupational health care: Design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heymans, M.W.; Vet, H.C. de; Bongers, P.M.; Koes, B.W.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    To describe the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), including a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing high-intensity and low-intensity back schools with usual care in occupational health care. RCT and cost-effectiveness analysis. Employees sick-listed for a period of 3 to 6 weeks because

  5. [Effects of occupational stress and related factors on depression symptoms in train drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa

    2015-12-01

    To explore the influence of occupational stress and related factors on depression symptoms in train drives. In March 2012, by using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 1 402 train drivers in China. Questionnaires was investigation was conducted by face to face interview. Sample with missing variables on demographic characteristics questionnaire with missed survey variables, and occupational stress related factors and with over 3 item missing in depression symptoms self-rating scale were exclued. Depression symptoms were measured by Center for Epidemiological Survey Depression Scale. The occupational stress related actors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. Chi-square test was carried out to analyze the differences of the incidence of depressive symptoms among different general characteristics groups, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the influence of occupational stress and related factors on depression symptoms in train drivers. The study showed that the average age of 1 402 subjects was (34.95±9.20) years, the length of service were (13.28±9.78) years, the score of depressive symptoms was (24.14±5.98) scores. 902 subjects (64.3%,902/1 402) were classified as people with depressive symptoms, the incidence of depressive symptoms in EMU or high-speed train drivers were the highest (68.0%,51/75); Incidence of depressive symptoms showed that were statistically significant differences in two groups of technical secondary school and college, and incidence of depressive symptoms in the junior college and above group (68.1%,352/517) was higher than that in the senior high school and below group (62.1%, 550/885) (χ(2)=5.02, P=0.025). The results of the multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high levels of education (OR=1.63, 95%CI: 1.12-2.19), role conflict (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1

  6. Biological effect produced by ionizing radiations on occupational workers in Carlos Andrade Marin Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Pullaguari, Ines Yolanda

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the biological effects on occupational workers. In this study, have made a bibliographic review of the changes on skin of 217 professionals; between 21 and 70 years radiologists, X-ray technicians, radioisotope workers, nurses and others, which were exposed to ionizing radiation, in the departments of Diagnosis and Treatment of the Hospital Carlos Andrade Marin of the Quito city. From this universe 133 workers were excluded of the analysis. From the totality of lesions produced on the skin; the depilation constituted 40.18%, hyper pigmentation 19.34%, hypo pigmentation 9 %, capillary fragility 13.39%, erythema 13.39%, alopecia 5.37%. From the totality of lesions produced in blood: the leukopenia constituted 20.23% between all workers. The percentage method was used for statical calculation. A bibliographic update is done and the most relevant clinical aspects are reviewed. (The author)

  7. Measuring the effects of pesticides on occupationally exposed humans with the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, S M; Kontogianni, K; Siffel, C; Piperakis, M M

    2006-08-01

    In this study we examine the effects of a mixture of pesticides on occupationally exposed agricultural workers. The study was performed on 149 people, 84 agricultural workers and 65 healthy men from the same area, who served as the control group. The exposed group was divided into a subgroup with 65 individuals moderately exposed (39 men and 26 women) and a highly exposed subgroup consisted of 19 men. The statistical analysis of the comet assay results showed that there were no significant differences in basal DNA damage between pesticide-exposed workers and the control group nor between moderately and highly exposed ones. In addition, exposure of peripheral blood lymphocytes to hydrogen peroxide or gamma-irradiation led to a similar degree of DNA damage and subsequent repair for all the studied populations. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of pre-instructional word-clearing strategy on achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An important function of the school system is to improve students' academic achievement and produce a pool of skilled manpower that will promote national development. Science educators are incessantly concerned about the need to improve academic achievement in sciences, hence, this study examined the effects of ...

  9. The Causal Ordering of Self-Concept and Academic Motivation and Its Effect on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb

    2006-01-01

    Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…

  10. Endorsing Achievement Goals Exacerbates the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde; Van Damme, Jan; Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model predicts students' academic self-concept to be negatively predicted by the achievement level of their reference group, controlling for individual achievement. Despite an abundance of empirical evidence supporting the BFLPE, there have been relatively few studies searching for possible moderators.…

  11. The effect of self-regulated learning on academic achievement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of self-regulated learning on academic achievement of secondary school physics students. ... The study was carried out in Onitsha education zone of Nigeria with a population of 12,104 science students. A sample of 60 ... Keywords: self-regulated learning, academic achievement in physics, learning physics ...

  12. The Effects of Modern Mathematics Computer Games on Mathematics Achievement and Class Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebritchi, Mansureh; Hirumi, Atsusi; Bai, Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly…

  13. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted STAD Cooperative Learning Strategy on Physics Problem Solving, Achievement and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted Students' Team Achievement Division (STAD) cooperative learning strategy on physics problem solving, students' achievement and retention. It also examined if the student performance would vary with gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two senior secondary schools…

  14. Effects of Homework Motivation and Worry Anxiety on Homework Achievement in Mathematics and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…

  15. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  16. Class Size Effects on Mathematics Achievement in Cyprus: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Shen, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Class size reduction has been viewed as one school mechanism that can improve student achievement. Nonetheless, the literature has reported mixed findings about class size effects. We used 4th- and 8th-grade data from TIMSS 2003 and 2007 to examine the association between class size and mathematics achievement in public schools in Cyprus. We…

  17. The Effect of Perceived Motivational Structure of Classroom on Achievement Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Talepasand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of perceived motivational structure of classroom on achievement behaviors (the choice of problem, effort, persistence in solving algorithm and flowchart problems. There were 45 high school male students (Mean age = 17 years old in the third grade of computer field in three classes. Classes were divided into two experimental and one control group. Instructional content was given in 10 sessions for 180 minutes. The variables of choice, effort, and persistence were collected by direct as-sessment method. A pre-test and post-test design was used. The Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicated that mastery structure had positive effect on the amount of effort and persistence in solving algorithm and flowchart problems in comparison with control group. Mastery structure in comparison with performance structure increased the amount of effort in solving problems significantly. In addition, an interactive effect between previous achieve-ment and perceived structure of classroom was achieved in a mastery level. The amount of persistence in that of students with very weak previous achievement was more than students with average previous achievement. The find-ing of this study is compatible with the theory of achievement goal and illustrates that the mastery structure plays an effective role in forming achievement behaviors.

  18. Examining the Mediating Effect of Learning Strategies on the Relationship between Students' History Interest and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese

    2014-01-01

    Research into the effect of interest consistently indicated that interest positively related to students' achievement; however, the mechanism through which it affected the learning result remained an open question. This study intended to examine how learning strategies mediated the relationship between interest and achievement in the domain of…

  19. Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategy on Achievement and Science Learning Attitudes in Middle School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young-Lan; Son, Dae-Hee

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of cooperative learning on student achievement and attitudes of middle school biology students. Compares cooperative learning strategy, small group instruction, and traditional teaching methods. Reports significant achievement and attitude differences in the cooperative learning groups. (Contains 46 references.)…

  20. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Achievement and Attitude among Students of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Winston

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in and attitudes toward mathematics among fifth graders of color in a culture different from that of the United States (Bermuda). Participants completed parts of the California Achievement Test and Penelope Peterson's Attitude Toward Mathematics Scale. Pre-test and post-test data…

  1. The Effects of Controversy, Concurrence Seeking, and Individualistic Learning on Achievement and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared effects of cooperative learning activities (with and without structured controversy) and individualistic learning activities on the achievement and attitudes of fifth graders (N=84) toward wolves. Results show that cooperative-controversy resulted in the highest achievement, greatest motivation to learn about wolves, and more positive…

  2. Cooperative Learning and Group Educational Modules: Effects on Cognitive Achievement of High School Biology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott B.

    1991-01-01

    Reports a study examining the effects of cooperative learning and self-instructional packets--"Group Educational Modules" (GEM)--on the achievement of biology students. Significant differences in achievement (as compared to control groups) were found for students using GEM materials and students in cooperative learning situations. (PR)

  3. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Achievement of Students in General Science at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Qaisara; Batool, Sadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of cooperative learning on General Science achievement among 9th class students. Based upon previous research literature it was hypothesized that significant difference existed between the mean posttest scores of General Science achievement of experimental group and control group. The pretest…

  4. Effects of Identity Processing Styles on Academic Achievement of First Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabi, Joseph; Payne, Jarrod

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Academic achievement of first year university students in the international arena, as well as in South Africa, has been a point of concern for all stakeholders because of high failure and dropout rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of identity processing styles on academic achievement in first year university…

  5. Exploring the Effect of a Non-Residential Learning Community on Academic Achievement and Institutional Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Patrick Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what effect the Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) program, a variation of a non-residential learning community had on academic achievement scores and institutional rates of persistence. Study variables included: gender; race; pre-collegiate academic achievement (GPA scores); educational preferences (major…

  6. Analyzing the Effects of Various Concept Mapping Techniques on Learning Achievement under Different Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Lee, Li-Tze; Tien, Li-Chu; Wang, Yu-Min

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of different concept mapping techniques on the learning achievement of senior accounting students and whether achievements attained using various techniques are affected by different learning styles. The techniques are computer-assisted construct-by-self-concept mapping (CACSB), computer-assisted…

  7. [Carbon nanotubes - Characteristic of the substance, biological effects and occupational exposure levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2017-03-24

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a diverse group of nano-objects in terms of structure, size (length, diameter), shape and characteristics. The growing interest in these structures is due to the increasing number of people working in exposure to CNTs. Occupational exposure to carbon nanotubes may occur in research laboratories, as well as in plants producing CNTs and their nanocomposites. Carbon nanotubes concentration at the emission source may reach 107 particles/cm3. These values, however, are considerably reduced after the application of adequate ventilation. Animal studies suggest that the main route of exposure is inhalation. Carbon nanotubes administered orally are largely excreted in the feces. In animals exposed by inhalation, CNTs caused mainly inflammation, as a result of oxidative stress, leading above all to changes in the lungs. The main effect of animal dermal exposure is oxidative stress causing local inflammation. In animals exposed by ingestion the mild or no toxicity was observed. Carbon nanotubes did not induce mutations in the bacterial tests, but they were genotoxic in a series of tests on cells in vitro, as well as in exposed mice in vivo. Embryotoxicity of nanotubes depends mainly on their modifications and carcinogenicity - primarily on the CNT size and its rigidity. Occupational exposure limits for CNTs proposed by world experts fall within the range of 1-80 μg/m3. The different effects of various kinds of CNT, leads to the conclusion that each type of nanotube should be treated as a separate substance with individual estimation of hygienic normative. Med Pr 2017;68(2):259-276. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Occupational Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Morris M. Kleiner

    2000-01-01

    The study of the regulation of occupations has a long and distinguished tradition in economics. In this paper, I present the central arguments and unresolved issues involving the costs and benefits of occupational licensing. The main benefits that are suggested for occupational licensing involve improving quality for those persons receiving the service. In contrast, the costs attributed to this labor market institution are that it restricts the supply of labor to the occupation and thereby dr...

  9. Occupational Dermatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Solak, Yavuzalp; Yoldaşcan, Elçin; Akbaba, Muhsin; Kurt, Burak

    2018-01-01

    Dermatosesthat occur as a result of primary irritation or sensitization are generallyreferred to as "occupational dermatosis", depending on work done by aperson, vehicle they are using and their workplace or work environment.Skin’s occupational diseases are most frequently reported occupational diseasesafter trauma. It constitutes ~ 50% of all occupational diseases. It isresponsible for ~ 25% of work loss. It is very important because it is bothfrequent and vulnerable. In addition, ...

  10. Effectiveness of occupation-based interventions to improve areas of occupation and social participation after stroke: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Timothy J; Chuh, Adrianna; Floyd, Tracy; McInnis, Karen; Williams, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This evidence-based review examined the evidence supporting the use of occupation-based interventions to improve areas of occupation and social participation poststroke. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria and were critically evaluated. Most of the literature targeted activity of daily living (ADL)-based interventions and collectively provided strong evidence for the use of occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance. The evidence related to instrumental ADLs was much more disparate, with limited evidence to support the use of virtual reality interventions and emerging evidence to support driver education programs to improve occupational performance poststroke. Only 6 studies addressed leisure, social participation, or rest and sleep, with sufficient evidence to support only leisure-based interventions. The implications of this review for research, education, and practice in occupational therapy are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. The effect of precrash velocity reduction on occupant response using a human body finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleyupoglu, B; Schap, J; Kusano, K D; Gayzik, F S

    2017-07-04

    The objective of this study is to use a validated finite element model of the human body and a certified model of an anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) to evaluate the effect of simulated precrash braking on driver kinematics, restraint loads, body loads, and computed injury criteria in 4 commonly injured body regions. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant (M50-O) and the Humanetics Hybrid III 50th percentile models were gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced 3-point belt and driver airbag. Fifteen simulations per model (30 total) were conducted, including 4 scenarios at 3 severity levels: median, severe, and the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (U.S.-NCAP) and 3 extra per model with high-intensity braking. The 4 scenarios were no precollision system (no PCS), forward collision warning (FCW), FCW with prebraking assist (FCW+PBA), and FCW and PBA with autonomous precrash braking (FCW + PBA + PB). The baseline ΔV was 17, 34, and 56.4 kph for median, severe, and U.S.-NCAP scenarios, respectively, and were based on crash reconstructions from NASS/CDS. Pulses were then developed based on the assumed precrash systems equipped. Restraint properties and the generic pulse used were based on literature. In median crash severity cases, little to no risk (human body models predictions for both the median, severe, and NCAP cases. Forward excursion for both models decreased across median, severe, and NCAP cases and diverged from each other in cases above 1.0 g of braking intensity. The addition of precrash systems simulated through reduced precrash speeds caused reductions in some injury criteria, whereas others (chest deflection, HIC, and BrIC) increased due to a modified occupant position. The human model and ATD models trended similarly in nearly all cases with greater risk indicated in the human model. These results suggest the need for integrated safety systems that have restraints that

  12. Occupational mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to present the methods and main results from the Danish occupational mortality studies, and to set the Danish studies into the international context of occupational mortality studies. RESEARCH TOPICS: The first Danish occupational mortality study from 1970...

  13. A review of caffeine's effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Caldwell, John A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-12-01

    Caffeine is consumed by over 80% of U.S. adults. This review examines the effects caffeine has on cognitive and physical function, since most real-world activities require complex decision making, motor processing and movement. Caffeine exerts its effects by blocking adenosine receptors. Following low (∼40mg or ∼0.5mgkg -1 ) to moderate (∼300mg or 4mgkg -1 ) caffeine doses, alertness, vigilance, attention, reaction time and attention improve, but less consistent effects are observed on memory and higher-order executive function, such as judgment and decision making. Effects on physical performance on a vast array of physical performance metrics such as time-to-exhaustion, time-trial, muscle strength and endurance, and high-intensity sprints typical of team sports are evident following doses that exceed about 200mg (∼3mgkg -1 ). Many occupations, including military, first responders, transport workers and factory shift workers, require optimal physical and cognitive function to ensure success, workplace safety and productivity. In these circumstances, that may include restricted sleep, repeated administration of caffeine is an effective strategy to maintain physical and cognitive capabilities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A summary of two meta-analyses on neurobehavioural effects due to occupational lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeber, Andreas; Meyer-Baron, Monika; Schaeper, Michael [Institut fuer Arbeitsphysiologie, Universitaet Dortmund (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    The conclusions from published results about neurotoxic effects of inorganic lead exposures <700 {mu}g lead/l blood are contradictory at present. Effects measured by neurobehavioural methods are evaluated differently as far as recommendations for a Biological Exposure Index (BEI) of occupational lead exposure are concerned. Arguments against the German BEI of 400 {mu}g/l were put forward in new publications, and discussion of the issues is the aim of this article. It summarizes two different meta-analytical reviews on neurobehavioural effects in order to show the main tendencies of 24 selected publications on the matter. Calculations on effect sizes are compiled for 12 tests analysed in two meta-analyses and of ten tests analysed in one of the meta-analyses. The survey of six tests of learning and memory gives hints on impairments measured with two tests, covering Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction. The survey of seven tests of attention and visuospatial information processing describes impairments in four tests, namely Simple Reaction, Attention Test d2, Block Design, and Picture Completion. The survey of four tests for psychomotor functions shows impairments for three tests, namely Santa Ana, Grooved Pegboard, and Eye-hand Coordination. These test results provide evidence for subtle deficits being associated with average blood lead levels between 370 and 520 {mu}g/l. In evaluating the adversity of such effects it is concluded that the results of both meta-analytical reviews support the recommendation for the German BEI. (orig.)

  15. Examining the Effects of School Composition on North Carolina Student Achievement over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Southworth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of school-level characteristics on North Carolina students’ reading and math achievement from fourth through eighth grade, focusing on the relationships between achievement and the racial and poverty composition of schools. After creating race-by-poverty cohorts of schools, I use multilevel models to examine math and reading achievement for the same students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades. The racial and poverty composition of schools affect student achievement after factoring in student, family, and other school influences. In addition, increasing teacher quality and school resources reduces but does not eliminate the effects of school racial and poverty composition on student achievement. Policies leading to reductions in racial and poverty isolation in schools and increases in teacher quality should be pursued to guarantee equality of educational opportunities to all children in North Carolina schools.

  16. Determinants for the effectiveness of implementing an occupational therapy intervention in routine dementia care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopp, C.M.E.; Graff, M.J.L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multifaceted implementation (MFI) strategy was used to implement an evidence-based occupational therapy program for people with dementia (COTiD program). This strategy was successful in increasing the number of referrals, but not in improving occupational therapists' (OTs) adherence.

  17. Occupational risks and health effects of pesticides in three commercial farming systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negatu, B.

    2017-01-01

    Occupational pesticide exposure is one of the most important occupational risks among farmers and farm workers in Africa. In Ethiopia agriculture contributes 47% of the total Gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 80% of the work force. The main objective of this study was to assess pesticide

  18. Effect of Occupational Factors on the Quality of Life of Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as work stress and job satisfaction. These occupational factors generally affect the physical, social and mental states of an individual; these factors being domains of quality of life; will invariably reflect the individual's wellbeing as a result of his occupation when assessed. Related work factors such as job satisfaction, job.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of the effects of uncontrolled confounding by alcohol and tobacco in occupational cancer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, David; Zeka, Ariana; Eisen, Ellen A; Wegman, David H

    2004-10-01

    Uncontrolled confounding by personal exposures like smoking can limit the inferential power of occupational cohort studies. We developed and demonstrate a refinement of an existing type of sensitivity analysis, indirect adjustment, for evaluating the potential magnitude of confounding by alcohol and tobacco. Results of a large retrospective cohort study of laryngeal cancer and exposure to metalworking fluids (MWF) are used to illustrate the methods. Data on smoking and drinking habits representative of the study cohort were obtained from a sample of US manufacturing workers from the 1977 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Two different mechanisms were assumed to affect the distribution of confounding factors between MWF exposure groups: socially determined and chance differences. Chance variation was investigated with Monte Carlo sampling from the NHIS survey distribution of smoking and drinking. An upper bound on systematic differences in smoking and drinking was set by assuming that differences between exposure groups within the same unionized blue collar workforce were very unlikely to be larger than differences between blue and white collar manufacturing workers in the NHIS data. Under plausibly large differences in smoking and drinking habits among MWF exposure groups occurring by either mechanism, the exposure-risk association was unlikely to have been over- or under-estimated by as much as 20%. When comparing exposure groups within the same working population, it is unlikely that either systematic or chance differences in smoking and drinking habits will cause as much as a 20% change in the relative risk in large studies. While this study focused on an occupational exposure and laryngeal cancer, there are many situations in which epidemiologists are concerned that unmeasured 'lifestyle factors' may differ among exposure groups, and it would appear that the likely confounding effect of such differences will often be modest.

  20. Effects of Enrichment Programs on the Academic Achievement of Gifted and Talented Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Mahmoud AL-ZOUBI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the effect of enrichment programs on the academic achievement of gifted and talented students. The sample of the study consisted of (30 gifted and talented students studying at Al-Kourah Pioneer Center for gifted and talented students (APCGTS, Jordan. An achievement test was developed and applied on the sample of the study as a pretest and posttest. The results showed the effects of enrichment programs at APCGTS on improving the academic achievement of gifted and talented students.

  1. Effects of occupation on risks of avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerheim, K; Martinsen, J I; Lynge, E

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of cancer risk according to occupational affiliation is an essential part of formatting preventive actions aimed at the adult population. Herein, data on 10 major cancer sites amenable by life style exposures from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA) are presented. All subjects...... ratios (SIRs) were computed. Variation in risk across occupations was generally larger in men than in women. In men, the most consistent cluster with high risk of numerous cancer types included waiters, cooks and stewards, beverage workers, seamen, and chimney sweeps. Two clusters of occupations...... with generally low cancer risks were seen in both men and women. The first one comprised farmers, gardeners, and forestry workers, the second one included groups with high education, specifically those in health and pedagogical work. Although cancer risk varies by occupation, only a smaller part of the variation...

  2. Effect of Occupational Health and Safety Management System on Work-Related Accident Rate and Differences of Occupational Health and Safety Management System Awareness between Managers in South Korea's Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Seok J. Yoon; Hsing K. Lin; Gang Chen; Shinjea Yi; Jeawook Choi; Zhenhua Rui

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to investigate the current status of the occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) in the construction industry and the effect of OHSMS on accident rates. Differences of awareness levels on safety issues among site general managers and occupational health and safety (OHS) managers are identified through surveys. Methods: The accident rates for the OHSMS-certified construction companies from 2006 to 2011, when the construction OHSMS became ...

  3. Using Large Data to Analyze the Effect of Learning Attitude for Cooperative Learning between the High Achievement Students and the Low Achievement Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia-Ling, Hsu; Ya-Fung, Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of the cooperation learning between the high achievement students and the low achievement students. Nowadays, the influences of the flipped classroom are all over the world in the secondary school education. Therefore, the cooperative learning becomes hot teaching strategies again. However, the learning…

  4. Tutoring: Its Effects on Reading Achievement, Standard-Setting and Affect-Mediating Self-Evaluation for Black Male Under-Achievers in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liette, Eileen Evelyn

    The effects of a tutor-tutee relationship on the reading achievement and achievement motivation of underachieving black male children were investigated. A group of 41 tutees and their controls as well as a group of 41 tutors and their controls, all from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, were randomly selected. All subjects were given a nonverbal IQ…

  5. Assessing the Effect of Cooperative Learning on Financial Accounting Achievement among Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Inuwa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of cooperative learning approach on financial accounting achievement among secondary school students in Gombe state, Nigeria. A pre-test-post-test-control group design was adopted. 120 students participated in the study were selected randomly from six schools. The students were divided into two equal groups, namely: experimental (i.e., cooperative learning approach and control group (i.e., conventional approach, both at random. A Financial Accounting Achievement Test (FAAT was used as an instrument for data collection. The study found that at the pre-test stage, there was no statistically significant difference between the achievement of cooperative learning students and conventional approach students, the results suggested that the students were initially equal in terms of their achievements. Nevertheless, at the post-test stage, the achievement of students who were exposed to the cooperative learning was found to be significantly better than the achievement of students who were exposed to the conventional approach. The findings further suggested that cooperative learning approach effectively enhanced the financial accounting achievement of the secondary school students. It is, therefore, recommended that government should encourage both curriculum planners and secondary schools’ teachers to adopt cooperative learning approach as an instructional approach for teaching financial accounting in secondary schools to improve students’ achievement in the subject.

  6. Effects of combined special education treatment and occupational therapy on upper extremities motor skills in adult patients with hemiplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković Nada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stroke is the most common single cause of severe and multiple physical disabilities, and rehabilitation that reduces functional deficits is the most effective treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of special education treatment as a supplement to occupational therapy on upper extremities motor skills in adult patients with post stroke hemiplegia. Methods. Standard education tests for motor function evaluation of the upper extremities: O`Connor, Ring and Hand grip test, were applied on a sample of 64 patients who were in the process of rehabilitation in the Clinic for Rehabilitation “Dr. Miroslav Zotović” in Belgrade. After the evaluation, all the participants were included in occupational therapy and divided in two intervention groups per 32 subjects each. The patients from the first experimental group received individually dosed special education treatment which was performed for at least 12 weeks as a supplement together with occupational therapy, while patients from the second experimental group were only in the process of occupational therapy without special education treatment. At the end of the study the same tests were used to re-evaluate the level of motor abilities of the patients in both groups. Results.The patients from the first experimental group with individually dosed special education treatment as a supplement showed significantly better scores after applying the treatment in all tested variables – explosive, static and dynamic muscular strength grip fist, as well as oculomotor skills at the level of the elbow and shoulder for both healthy and paretic hand. Conclusion. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that special education treatment added to occupational therapy lead to better performing of upper extremities motor skills and that it can be a good supplement to conventional occupational therapy methods and techniques.

  7. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozuyesil, Eda; Dikici, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    This study's aim is to measure the effect sizes of the quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of brain-based learning on students' academic achievement and to examine with the meta-analytical method if there is a significant difference in effect in terms of the factors of education level, subject matter, sampling size, and the…

  8. Dimensions of Occupational Prestige

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Marie R.; Widdison, Harold A.

    1975-01-01

    Eight dimensions of occupational prestige are examined for their effect on the general prestige ratings accorded various occupations within the medical profession. Stepwise multiple regression analyzes the relative weight of these dimension among 410 persons. The findings suggested that public stereotypes exert a normative pressure on individual…

  9. Effects of vibration on occupant driving performance under simulated driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Amzar; Fard, M; Azari, Michael F; Jazar, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Although much research has been devoted to the characterization of the effects of whole-body vibration on seated occupants' comfort, drowsiness induced by vibration has received less attention to date. There are also little validated measurement methods available to quantify whole body vibration-induced drowsiness. Here, the effects of vibration on drowsiness were investigated. Twenty male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Drowsiness was measured in a driving simulator, before and after 30-min exposure to vibration. Gaussian random vibration, with 1-15 Hz frequency bandwidth was used for excitation. During the driving session, volunteers were required to obey the speed limit of 100 kph and maintain a steady position on the left-hand lane. A deviation in lane position, steering angle variability, and speed deviation were recorded and analysed. Alternatively, volunteers rated their subjective drowsiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores every 5-min. Following 30-min of exposure to vibration, a significant increase of lane deviation, steering angle variability, and KSS scores were observed in all volunteers suggesting the adverse effects of vibration on human alertness level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early renal effects of occupational exposure to low-level hexavalent chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaya, Teruo (Dept. of Public Health, Gifu Univ. School of Medicine, Tsukasa-machi (Japan)); Ishikawa, Noriko (Occupational Hygiene Center, Gifu Labour Standards Association, Hikie (Japan)); Hata, Hideo (Occupational Hygiene Center, Gifu Labour Standards Association, Hikie (Japan)); Takahashi, Akemi (Gifu-shi Central Public Health Center, Miyako-dori (Japan)); Yoshida, Izumi (Gifu-shi Central Public Health Center, Miyako-dori (Japan)); Okamoto, Yoshinari (Gifu-shi Central Public Health Center, Miyako-dori (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    To detect early renal effects of occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr), urinary total proteins (U-TP), urinary albumin (U-Alb) and urinary retinol-binding protein (U-RBP) were determined in 166 male Cr platers and 106 male controls. The mean employment time in Cr plating for the platers was 12.6 years. Urinary Cr (U-Cr), which was determined as an index of Cr exposure, ranged from ''not detected'' to 19.91 [mu]g/g creatinine in the platers. The U-Cr level was lower than those in other previous studies. Age-adjusted U-TP, U-Alb or U-RBP levels were not different between the platers and the controls. In the platers, a significant positive correlation was found between age-adjusted U-TP and U-Cr, but U-Cr had no significant relation to age-adjusted U-Alb or U-RBP level. Employment time had no effect on any age-adjusted urinary proteins. The Cr exposure may have been too low to induce definite renal dysfunction. Early renal effects of low-level Cr exposure may be mild, and may not be specific to renal function. (orig.)

  11. The Short-Term Effects of School Consolidation on Student Achievement: Evidence of Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    consolidation has adverse effects on achievement in the short run and that these effects are most pronounced for students exposed to school closings. Furthermore, students initially enrolled in small schools experience the most detrimental effects. The effects appear to weaken over time, suggesting that part......We exploit variation stemming from school consolidations in Denmark from 2010- 2011 to analyze the impact on student achievement as measured by test scores. For each student we observe enrollment and test scores one year prior to school consolidation and up to four years after. We find that school...

  12. The Short-Term Effects of School Consolidation on Student Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    consolidation has adverse effects on achievement in the short run and that these effects are most pronounced for students exposed to school closings. Furthermore, students initially enrolled in small schools experience the most detrimental effects. The effects appear to weaken over time, suggesting that part......We exploit variation stemming from school consolidations in Denmark from 2010- 2011 to analyze the impact on student achievement as measured by test scores. For each student we observe enrollment and test scores one year prior to school consolidation and up to four years after. We find that school...

  13. Estimate the time varying brain receptor occupancy in PET imaging experiments using non-linear fixed and mixed effect modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamuner, Stefano; Gomeni, Roberto; Bye, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) is an imaging technology currently used in drug development as a non-invasive measure of drug distribution and interaction with biochemical target system. The level of receptor occupancy achieved by a compound can be estimated by comparing time-activity measurements in an experiment done using tracer alone with the activity measured when the tracer is given following administration of unlabelled compound. The effective use of this surrogate marker as an enabling tool for drug development requires the definition of a model linking the brain receptor occupancy with the fluctuation of plasma concentrations. However, the predictive performance of such a model is strongly related to the precision on the estimate of receptor occupancy evaluated in PET scans collected at different times following drug treatment. Several methods have been proposed for the analysis and the quantification of the ligand-receptor interactions investigated from PET data. The aim of the present study is to evaluate alternative parameter estimation strategies based on the use of non-linear mixed effect models allowing to account for intra and inter-subject variability on the time-activity and for covariates potentially explaining this variability. A comparison of the different modeling approaches is presented using real data. The results of this comparison indicates that the mixed effect approach with a primary model partitioning the variance in term of Inter-Individual Variability (IIV) and Inter-Occasion Variability (IOV) and a second stage model relating the changes on binding potential to the dose of unlabelled drug is definitely the preferred approach

  14. Effectiveness of Occupation-Based Interventions to Improve Areas of Occupation and Social Participation After Stroke: An Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuh, Adrianna; Floyd, Tracy; McInnis, Karen; Williams, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This evidence-based review examined the evidence supporting the use of occupation-based interventions to improve areas of occupation and social participation poststroke. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria and were critically evaluated. Most of the literature targeted activity of daily living (ADL)–based interventions and collectively provided strong evidence for the use of occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance. The evidence related to instrumental ADLs was much more disparate, with limited evidence to support the use of virtual reality interventions and emerging evidence to support driver education programs to improve occupational performance poststroke. Only 6 studies addressed leisure, social participation, or rest and sleep, with sufficient evidence to support only leisure-based interventions. The implications of this review for research, education, and practice in occupational therapy are also discussed. PMID:25553745

  15. Academic and social achievement goals: Their additive, interactive, and specialized effects on school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D

    2016-03-01

    Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Effect of occupational noise-induced sleep disturbance on worker's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Abbasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In addition to the noise, sleep disturbance (SD as an outcome of the exposure to the wind turbine noises (WTNs can adversely affect general health. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SD induced from WTNs on general health indicators. Materials and Methods: A total number of fifty tree workers from Manjil wind farm voluntarily participated in this study. Based on the job similarity and vicinity to the sound sources, workers were classified into three occupational groups including repairman, security, and official staff. Individual's health and sleep status were gathered using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scales, respectively. Noise was measured based on ISO 9612. ANOVA, Chi-square, and linear and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis in the SPSS 20 software environment. Results: The mean values of 8-h equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (LAeq, 8 h among whole workers was 71 ± 10 dB (A. The averages of somatic symptom, anxiety insomnia, social dysfunction, depression, and general health among the participants were 5 ± 2.44, 7 ± 2.35, 11 ± 2.65, 2 ± 1.54, 22 ± 6.53, and 7.3 ± 3.1, respectively. According to the results, SD and noise exposure had an adverse health effect on physical symptoms, depression, and overall general health of participants. Moreover, SD and work experience were effective factors on anxiety-insomnia. SD had greatest effect on general health when all variables are controlled, so that general health will increase by 2.42 units for each unit increase of SD. Conclusion: We found that in addition to the sound effect, noise-induced SD also affects worker's health and strengthen sound effects on human well-being.

  17. Occupational Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  18. Occupational Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  19. Psychological effects of occupational exposure to organic solvent mixtures on printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckelmann, I; Pfister, E A; Peters, B; Duchstein, S

    2004-07-08

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic solvents have been investigated for a long time in many occupational studies. The aim of our study was to identify preclinical effects of low-level chronic solvent exposure on the cognitive performance of silk-screen printers. A cross-sectional study was conducted including 38 printers which were exposed to organic solvent mixtures and 45 controls without neurotoxic exposure. The psychometric test battery included nine tests and two questionnaires. The sum of scales or the total score of the PNF was also significantly (p printers performed worse in some psychometric tests than did controls. Cross validation with the psychometric performances resulted in 69.6% of participants being correctly classified (55.9% printers and 80% controls). Highly significant differences (p<0.001) between both groups of exposed and non-exposed workers were found for the mean values of the multidimensional psychometric score. These results of our study proved not only that chronic exposure to organic solvent mixtures could induce a psychological effect but also that the psychological/psychometrical tests performed in this study were capable of predicting neurotoxicity.

  20. The effect of preferred music on mood and performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Mild positive affect has been shown in the psychological literature to improve cognitive skills of creative problem-solving and systematic thinking. Individual preferred music listening offers opportunity for improved positive affect. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preferred music listening on state-mood and cognitive performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation. Twenty-four professional computer information systems developers (CISD) from a North American IT company participated in a 3-week study with a music/no music/music weekly design. During the music weeks, participants listened to their preferred music "when they wanted, as they wanted." Self-reports of State Positive Affect, State Negative Affect, and Cognitive Performance were measured throughout the 3 weeks. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in both state-mood and cognitive performance scores. "High-cognitive demand" is a relative term given that challenges presented to individuals may occur on a cognitive continuum from need for focus and selective attention to systematic analysis and creative problem-solving. The findings and recommendations have important implications for music therapists in their knowledge of the effect of music on emotion and cognition, and, as well, have important implications for music therapy consultation to organizations.

  1. The effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Asilian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are toxic bio-accumulate components and may increase risk of adverse effects on human health and the environment. For different social, technical and economic reasons, significant quantities of PCBs contaminated transformer oil are still in use or storied. The study aimed to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure. Methods: The photochemical annular geometry (500 ml volume reactor was designed with a cylindrical low-pressure mercury lamp (UV-C Cathodeon TUV 6WE with emission at 254 nm. The radiant power emitted by the lamp was 6w. The whole lamp was immersed in a reactor thermostat controlling of temperature at 32 ± 2 oC. The PCBs was determined using GC/ECD and data was analyzed by SPSS. Results: Degradation of total PCBs in terms of %10 and %20 of volume of H2O2 were 41%, 75% and 94%, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs in terms of ratio to solvent with oil transformer in 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 was 61%, 75% and 94%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study show that UV-C photolysis of H2O2 leads to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of isooctane, therefore indicating that the intermediates formation after ethanol oxidation are able to initiate PCBs degradation.

  2. How an Effective Leadership and Governance Supports to Achieve Institutional Vision, Mission, and Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2015-01-01

    Effective leadership by setting values and participative decision- making process is key not only to achieve the vision, mission and goals of the institution but also in building the organizational culture. The formal and informal arrangements in the institution to co-ordinate the academic and administrative planning and implementation reflects the institutions efforts in achieving its vision. This paper focus on the vision, mission and the objectives identified for a higher educa...

  3. The Effect of Realistic Mathematics Education Approach on Students' Achievement And Attitudes Towards Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Effandi Zakaria; Muzakkir Syamaun

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Realistic Mathematics Education Approach on mathematics achievement and student attitudes towards mathematics. This study also sought determine the relationship between student achievement and attitudes towards mathematics. This study used a quasi-experimental design conducted on 61 high school students at SMA Unggul Sigli. Students were divided into two groups, the treatment group $(n = 30)$ namely, the Realistic Mathematics Approach group ...

  4. Effect of Teaching Academic Skills on Academic Achievement in Medical Emergency Students

    OpenAIRE

    Otaghi M

    2015-01-01

    Aims: An important aspect of the student’s learning in academic performance is self-regulating. Students without required academic achievement skills need educational approaches to obtain the required insight in self-regulate learning. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of teaching academic skills on academic achievement in the advanced diploma medical emergency students of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Materials & Methods: The intervening pretest-posttest stu...

  5. The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals on performance, and the direct effect of mastery-avoidance goals on effort. Results showed a positive direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and an indirect effect, through enjoyment, on satisfaction, performance, and effort. We did not find support for the hypothesized effect of performance-approach or performance-avoidance goals on performance. The applied implications of endorsing mastery-approach goals are discussed.

  6. Simulation of the Effects of Occupant Behaviour on Indoor Climate and Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    In this study the influence of occupant behaviour on energy consumption were investigated in simulations of a single room occupied by one person. The simulated occupant could manipulate six controls, such as turning on or off the heat and adjusting clothing. All control actions were carried out...... with the aim of keeping the PMV value within predefined limits in accordance with CR1752 [1]. An energy consuming and an energy efficient behavioural mode were simulated. A reference simulation was made during which the occupant had no control over the environment. The occupant was able to keep the thermal...... indoor environment close to neutral when he/she had the possibility to manipulate the controls. The energy consumption was similar within each behavioural mode regardless of the PMV limits. However, the energy consumption in the energy consuming behavioural mode was up to 330 % higher than in the energy...

  7. Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy Interventions for Adults With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Patricia; Tencza, Melissa; Apodaca, Beverly; Poole, Janet L

    We reviewed the efficacy of occupational therapy-related interventions for adults with rheumatoid arthritis. We examined 51 Level I studies (19 physical activity, 32 psychoeducational) published 2000-2014 and identified from five databases. Interventions that focused solely on the upper or lower extremities were not included. Findings related to key outcomes (activities of daily living, ability, pain, fatigue, depression, self-efficacy, disease symptoms) are presented. Strong evidence supports the use of aerobic exercise, resistive exercise, and aquatic therapy. Mixed to limited evidence supports dynamic exercise, Tai Chi, and yoga. Among the psychoeducation interventions, strong evidence supports the use of patient education, self-management, cognitive-behavioral approaches, multidisciplinary approaches, and joint protection, and limited or mixed evidence supports the use of assistive technology and emotional disclosure. The evidence supports interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice for rheumatoid arthritis, but few interventions were occupation based. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  8. The Effect of Foster Care Experience and Characteristics on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calix, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of foster care experience and characteristics on educational outcomes. The typical strategy in examining the effect foster care has on educational outcomes is to compare the educational achievement of youth with foster care experience to that of their peers or to national norms. This strategy fails to take selection…

  9. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  10. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

  11. The Achievement Effects of Tardy Classmates: Evidence in Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    In evaluating the deleterious effects of missing in-school time, research has almost exclusively focused on absences, and almost no attention has been paid to tardiness. Hence, this study contributes a new dimension to the field by examining the effects of student tardiness on academic achievement. Employing an empirical model on a large-scale,…

  12. Teacher Effectiveness as Correlate of Students' Cognitive Achievement at Upper Basic Education in Basic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoh, Titus M.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to find out the relationship between students perception of their teacher effectiveness and academic achievement in Basic Technology. Teacher's personality, teaching techniques/classroom management strategy and appearance, all integrate to make for teacher effectiveness. To carry out this research, two research questions and one…

  13. The effect of adaptive performance support system on learning achievements of students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Mileva, Nevena; Martinez Mediano, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    The study compares the effectiveness of two performance support systems, adaptive and non-adaptive, on learning achievements of engineering students. In addition, the research design controls for a possible effect of learning style. The analysis reveals that students working with an adaptive

  14. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Experience on Eighth Grade Students' Achievement and Attitude toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Sacit; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Aysegul; Gezer, Kutret

    2010-01-01

    Effective teaching and learning of science depends on the selected teaching method touching students' most learning senses. This study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on eighth grade students' achievement and attitude toward science. Participants were 68 students from two different eighth grade classrooms in an elementary school.…

  15. Reading Recovery: Exploring the Effects on First-Graders' Reading Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…

  16. The Effects of Cooperative Learning and Learner Control on Students' Achievement, Option Selections, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhanayok, Chanchai; Hooper, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of studying alone or in cooperative-learning groups on the performance of high and low achievers, using either learner- or program-controlled computer-based instruction. Participants were 92 sixth-grade students. Results suggest that cooperative learning provides beneficial effects, and imply a need for software designers…

  17. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  18. Effect of occupational lead-exposure on blood pressure, serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, A E; El-Safty, I A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 females) and 50 non-exposed (15 males and 34 females) workers were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria. All workers were admitted to complete clinical examination, including standard blood pressure measurement. Also, blood lead level, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were estimated. The results of both occupationally lead-exposed males and females demonstrated no significant differences regarding age, work duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressures when compared to occupationally non-exposed males and females; respectively. In addition, occupationally lead-exposed males and females revealed a significant increase in blood lead level and serum aldosterone concentration in comparison to their controls. Moreover, plasma renin activity is significantly decreased among the lead-exposed male workers while it is significantly increased among the lead-exposed female workers in comparison to their controls. It is concluded that serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity are affected by occupationally low-level of lead exposure, and the present study provide further support for the association between blood lead exposure and blood pressure related hormones.

  19. Exploring Phylogenetic Relationships within Myriapoda and the Effects of Matrix Composition and Occupancy on Phylogenomic Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    Myriapods, including the diverse and familiar centipedes and millipedes, are one of the dominant terrestrial arthropod groups. Although molecular evidence has shown that Myriapoda is monophyletic, its internal phylogeny remains contentious and understudied, especially when compared to those of Chelicerata and Hexapoda. Until now, efforts have focused on taxon sampling (e.g., by including a handful of genes from many species) or on maximizing matrix size (e.g., by including hundreds or thousands of genes in just a few species), but a phylogeny maximizing sampling at both levels remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed 40 Illumina transcriptomes representing 3 of the 4 myriapod classes (Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Symphyla); 25 transcriptomes were newly sequenced to maximize representation at the ordinal level in Diplopoda and at the family level in Chilopoda. Ten supermatrices were constructed to explore the effect of several potential phylogenetic biases (e.g., rate of evolution, heterotachy) at 3 levels of gene occupancy per taxon (50%, 75%, and 90%). Analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian mixture models retrieved monophyly of each myriapod class, and resulted in 2 alternative phylogenetic positions for Symphyla, as sister group to Diplopoda + Chilopoda, or closer to Diplopoda, the latter hypothesis having been traditionally supported by morphology. Within centipedes, all orders were well supported, but 2 deep nodes remained in conflict in the different analyses despite dense taxon sampling at the family level. Relationships among centipede orders in all analyses conducted with the most complete matrix (90% occupancy) are at odds not only with the sparser but more gene-rich supermatrices (75% and 50% supermatrices) and with the matrices optimizing phylogenetic informativeness or most conserved genes, but also with previous hypotheses based on morphology, development, or other molecular data sets. Our results indicate that a high percentage of ribosomal

  20. Radiation protection in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

  1. THE EFFECT OF A READING COMPREHENSION SOFTWARE PROGRAM ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Proudfoot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to increase student achievement, research was conducted to determine the degree in which a reading comprehension software program effected the reading and math abilities of fourth and fifth grade students. Cognitive and educational studies were examined to select a reading comprehension software program as an intervention that would produce positive results in reading comprehension and possibly transfer positive results to achievement in other academic areas, specifically in math. The effects of the intervention were measured by assigning subjects to an experimental group. The total sample consisted of 39 students who were deficient in reading comprehension, and also exposed a significant weakness with word problem items on mathematical assessments. Four instruments were used to collect data before and after the treatment to measure student achievement. To determine the degree to which the software program effected student achievement, data from the four instruments were analyzed using SPSS software. A paired-samples dependent t test and a Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was computed with ratio level data to test for a correlation between increased math scores and reading comprehension scores. Results yielded statistically significant and positive results in increasing reading comprehension skills that could possibly benefit students in reading and understanding mathematical problems. Results did not conclusively support that the increase of reading-comprehension skills had a collateral effect on students scoring higher with math word problems. The results are conducive to providing insight to educational leaders who plan to implement software as a means for increasing student achievement.

  2. Effects of simulated interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequalities in educational achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  3. Effects of caregiver-child interactions on play occupations among young children institutionalized in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunhauer, Lisa A; Coster, Wendy J; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Cermak, Sharon A

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether children institutionalized in an orphanage would engage in more developmentally competent play with their caregivers as opposed to playing alone and whether specific qualities of caregiver-child interactions were associated with more developmentally competent play. Twenty-six children, ages 10 to 38 months, participated in independent play sessions and in a play session with a caregiver. Interrater reliability for coding play performance was established using the weighted kappa statistic (M = .82). Twelve pediatric experts rated both child and caregiver behaviors for the interactive sessions (mean effective reliability with intraclass correlations = .89). The children demonstrated more developmentally competent play when interacting with a caregiver than when playing alone, t (25) = -1.88, p institutionalization were associated with less improvement in play performance from independent to interactive play sessions (r = -.51, p children residing in an orphanage, despite the fact that these interactions occurred in an environment vulnerable to many challenges not typical of an exclusive caregiver-child relationship. Findings are discussed in the context of environmental challenges and occupational therapy practice.

  4. Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary occupational training program for chronic low back pain: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Fieke S; Edelaar, Michel; Slikker, Rene; Reynders, Koop; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Hoozemans, Marco J M

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-wk multidisciplinary occupational training program for patients with chronic low back pain and to identify prognostic factors for treatment success. A total of 51 participants were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, and at 1 yr after conclusion of the program. The evaluation included a physical examination and assessment of functional disability, psychological factors, and coping styles. The main target of the program is full work resumption. The central outcome measures therefore are three variables on return to work. Analysis of variance for repeated measures revealed significant beneficial changes during the program for all measures except for several coping-style variables. The acquired level of maximum oxygen uptake, trunk flexibility, functional disability, and catastrophizing were maintained at 1-yr follow-up. At 1-yr follow-up, >60% of the participants had fully returned to work, which is an increase of >40% compared with baseline. Regression analyses showed that sex, age, the baseline values of reinterpretation of pain sensations, and functional disability and changes in trunk flexibility scores during the program are important prognostic factors for complete return to work. Based on the current findings, the program seems to be efficacious in the short term. Future attention must be directed toward maintaining these results, although work resumption rates improved considerably 1 yr after conclusion of the program.

  5. The effect of psychological factors and parental education on adolescents' academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to check the assumed path model of causal relationships between adolescent's psychological characteristics (language competence, intellectual ability, and personality dimensions, parental education, and adolescent's academic achievement. Adolescents (N = 427; among them 225 girls and 202 boys, who were attending the ninth grade of elementary school in the school year 2005/2006, and their parents participated in the study. Adolescent's academic achievement was assessed by the results of national examinations in Slovene and mathematics, teachers' marks in Slovene and mathematics, and adolescent's general school success. The results of structural equation modelling showed a good fit of the assumed path model if it included the direct effect of adolescent's psychological characteristics and parental education on adolescent's academic achievement and also the indirect effect of parental education and three personality dimensions (Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness/Intellect through the adolescent's language competence and general intelligence. The fit of the adopted path model was acceptable regardless of the way in which academic achievement was assessed and regardless of the sex of the participants. The most important predictors of the academic achievement were language competence, general intelligence, and personality dimensions Conscientiousness and Openness/Intellect. With the assumed path model of casual relationships we could explain between 53% and 63% of differences in adolescents' academic achievement.

  6. The Usefulness of Assessing and Identifying Workers' Temperaments and Their Effects on Occupational Stress in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Koichiro; Fukuda, Yuichi; Nitta, Tomoko; Inoue, Koki

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one's own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one's supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support.

  7. The Usefulness of Assessing and Identifying Workers' Temperaments and Their Effects on Occupational Stress in the Workplace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Deguchi

    Full Text Available The relationship between temperaments and mental disorders has been reported in previous studies, but there has been little attention to temperaments in the occupational safety and health research. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of temperaments on occupational stress among local government employees. The subjects were 145 Japanese daytime workers in local government. Temperaments were assessed by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Auto questionnaire (TEMPS-A. Occupational stress was assessed using the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (GJSQ. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used. Hyperthymic temperament predicted a higher level of job control, and a lower level of role ambiguity and job future ambiguity. Irritable temperament predicted a lower level of social support from supervisors and a higher level of role conflict, variance in workload and intragroup conflict. Anxious temperament predicted a lower level of social support from coworkers and a higher level of job future ambiguity. The sample size was small. Only Japanese local government employees were surveyed. Hyperthymic temperament played a protective role, and irritable, anxious temperament played a vulnerable role against one's own occupational stress and recognizing the roles they play in work life would lead to self-insight. Additionally, recognition of the temperaments and temperament-related stressors by one's supervisors or coworkers would facilitate provision of social support.

  8. Effect of occupational safety and health education received during schooling on the incidence of workplace injuries in the first 2 years of occupational life: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boini, Stephanie; Colin, Regis; Grzebyk, Michel

    2017-07-18

    This study aimed to determine the effect of occupational safety and health (OSH) education during formal schooling on the incidence of workplace injuries (WIs) in young people starting their careers. We hypothesised that young people who had received OSH education during their schooling would have fewer WIs than those who received no OSH education. Secondary objectives focused on the effect of 'first aid at work' training during schooling and the conditions encountered on arrival in the company (occupational hazard information, safety training and job task training) on WI occurrence. Prospective cohort study. From 2009 to 2012, French apprentices and students at the end of their schooling and starting their careers were included. Occurrence of WIs. At the time of inclusion, information about school courses and personal characteristics were collected, and subsequent half-yearly contacts gathered information relating to work and personal data. During the 2-year follow-up, WIs were directly reported by participants and were identified by searching the French National Health Insurance Funds' databases listing compulsory WI declarations. 755 participants reported holding 1290 jobs. During follow-up, 158 WIs were identified, corresponding to an incident rate of 0.12 (0.10 to 0.14) WIs per full-time worker. Subjects who reported having received OSH education at school had two times less WIs than those declaring not having received OSH education (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.51, 0.00 to 0.98). A lower WI risk was observed for participants who received the 'first aid at work' training (IRR=0.68, 0.00 to 0.98). The conditions on arrival in company were not associated with WIs occurrence. In France, the OSH education provided to apprentices and students is mostly broader than the specific risks related to future jobs. Our results highlight the advantages of reinforcing this approach. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  9. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...... of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally...

  10. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  11. The Effectiveness of Multiple Intelligence Applications on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyüp Yurt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of multiple intelligence applications on academic achievement in Turkey. Accordingly, findings of independent research studies aimed to find out effectiveness of multiple intelligence applications are gathered in a meta-analysis. Total of 71 studies, 66 dissertations and 7 articles were included in the meta-analysis meeting the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis calculations resulted that the multiple intelligence applications have a large and positive effect on academic achievement. It was also revealed that the effect of multiple intelligence applications vary by application period. Thus, as the application period increases, the effect of multiple intelligence application also increases. On the other side, effectiveness of the applications does not vary by; the type of the course, level of the class and the type of the research. Some suggestions made according to the research findings.

  12. [Effect of the sociodemographic, occupational, organisational and environmental variables on the duration of temporary sick leave in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaplana García, María; Sáez Navarro, Concepción; Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; García-Izquierdo, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the relationship, and relevance of the effect between the duration of the cases of temporary sick leave, as an indicator of absenteeism, and several characteristics (sociodemographic, labor, organizational and the environment) of workers covered by the Social Security System in Spain. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 598,988 processes, between 15 and 365days. The relationships between length of absence, and several characteristics such as demographic, sociodemographic, occupational, organizational and environment characteristics were determined (using P values). The mean duration for each of the features is described, and the size effect is calculated to estimate the importance of the relationships found. There were significant relationships between the duration of temporary sick leave and several demographic characteristics (gender, age, nationality and length of service), occupational (wages, type of contract), organizational (economic sector, activity and size company), the environmental (region, state) characteristics. The age also showed a significant size effect (rxy=.134), especially after age 44. Only age had a significance effect on the duration of work absence, although there was also a relationship with the rest of the demographic, occupational and work environment characteristics. There was also evidence of a cross-effects between the variables, which could cause errors in interpreting the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of Achievement orientation on response to success and failure in pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, T D; Whelan, J P; Meyers, A W; Phipps, S; Glaser, R R

    1998-02-01

    To assess the effects of different cognitive orientations focused on social comparison or self-comparison, followed by success or failure feedback, on mood, task persistence, and task difficulty choice in children with cancer. Children with cancer (N = 79) and a group of age-matched controls (N = 72 were randomly assigned in a 2 (Achievement Orientation) x 2 (Feedback) between-subjects design. Between-group differences revealed that children with cancer chose more difficult tasks for the future than those in the comparison group, while the comparison subjects chose to persist longer with the problems than did children with cancer, with no significant differences on measures of mood. The beneficial effects of achievement orientation as a clinical manipulation may not be as robust as expected with a medically ill population, due to the apparent stability of achievement orientations.

  14. Collective effective dose equivalent, population doses and risk estimates from occupational exposures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Nishizawa, Kanae; Kumamoto, Yoshikazu; Iwai, Kazuo; Mase, Naomichi.

    1993-01-01

    Collective dose equivalent and population dose from occupational exposures in Japan, 1988 were estimated on the basis of a nationwide survey. The survey was conducted on annual collective dose equivalents by sex, age group and type of radiation work for about 0.21 million workers except for the workers in nuclear power stations. The data on the workers in nuclear power stations were obtained from the official report of the Japan Nuclear Safety Commission. The total number of workers including nuclear power stations was estimated to be about 0.26 million. Radiation works were subdivided as follows: medical works including dental; non-atomic energy industry; research and education; atomic energy industry and nuclear power station. For the determination of effective dose equivalent and population dose, organ or tissue doses were measured with a phantom experiment. The resultant doses were compared with the doses previously calculated using a chord length technique and with data from ICRP publications. The annual collective effective dose equivalent were estimated to be about 21.94 person·Sv for medical workers, 7.73 person·Sv for industrial workers, 0.75 person·Sv for research and educational workers, 2.48 person·Sv for atomic energy industry and 84.4 person ·Sv for workers in nuclear power station. The population doses were calculated to be about 1.07 Sv for genetically significant dose, 0.89 Sv for leukemia significant dose and 0.42 Sv for malignant significant dose. The population risks were estimated using these population doses. (author)

  15. The Effect of Realistic Mathematics Education Approach on Students' Achievement And Attitudes Towards Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effandi Zakaria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of Realistic Mathematics Education Approach on mathematics achievement and student attitudes towards mathematics. This study also sought determine the relationship between student achievement and attitudes towards mathematics. This study used a quasi-experimental design conducted on 61 high school students at SMA Unggul Sigli. Students were divided into two groups, the treatment group $(n = 30$ namely, the Realistic Mathematics Approach group (PMR and the control group $(n = 31$ namely, the traditional group. This study was conducted for six weeks. The instruments used in this study were the achievement test and the attitudes towards mathematics questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS. To determine the difference in mean achievement and attitudes between the two groups, data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. The result showed significant differences between the Realistic Mathematics Approach and the traditional approach in terms of achievement. The study showed no significant difference between the Realistic Mathematics Approach and the traditional approach in term of attitudes towards mathematics. It can be concluded that the use of realistic mathematics education approach enhanced students' mathematics achievement, but not attitudes towards mathematics. The Realistic Mathematics Education Approach encourage students to participate actively in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Thus, Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is an appropriate methods to improve the quality of teaching and learning process.

  16. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The effect of inquiry-flipped classroom model toward students' achievement on chemical reaction rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paristiowati, Maria; Fitriani, Ella; Aldi, Nurul Hanifah

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research is to find out the effect of Inquiry-Flipped Classroom Models toward Students' Achievement on Chemical Reaction Rate topic. This study was conducted at SMA Negeri 3 Tangerang in Eleventh Graders. The Quasi Experimental Method with Non-equivalent Control Group design was implemented in this study. 72 students as the sample was selected by purposive sampling. Students in experimental group were learned through inquiry-flipped classroom model. Meanwhile, in control group, students were learned through guided inquiry learning model. Based on the data analysis, it can be seen that there is significant difference in the result of the average achievement of the students. The average achievement of the students in inquiry-flipped classroom model was 83,44 and the average achievement of the students in guided inquiry learning model was 74,06. It can be concluded that the students' achievement with inquiry-flipped classroom better than guided inquiry. The difference of students' achievement were significant through t-test which is tobs 3.056 > ttable 1.994 (α = 0.005).

  18. Effects of Reinforcement Method of Dissection Physiology Education on the Achievement in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Tomoya; Kagota, Satomi; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Kanae; Miura, Takeshi; Yasui, Naomi; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Education Support Center was established in the Department of Pharmacy at the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science of Mukogawa Women's University in 2014. We started teaching first and second years students according to proficiency from the 2014 academic year. Students were divided into two classes: the regular class (high proficiency class) and the basic class (low proficiency class), based on achievement in several basic subjects related to the study of pharmacy. The staffs in the Pharmaceutical Education Support Center reinforce what is taught to students in the basic class. In this reinforcement method of education, the class size is small, consisting of about 15 students, a quiz to review the previous lesson is given at the beginning of each lecture, and an additional five lectures are conducted, compared to the high proficiency class, which receives 15 lectures. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the reinforcement method of physiology education on achievement in pharmacology that was not conducted in the proficiency-dependent teaching method. The students in the basic class in physiology education were chosen based on achievement levels in anatomy. Achievement levels of pharmacology students in the basic class of physiology improved compared with those of students who had the same achievement levels in physiology but were not taught according to proficiency-dependent teaching in the 2013 academic year. These results suggest that the reinforcement method for education in basic subjects in pharmacy, such as physiology, can improve achievement in more advanced subjects, such as pharmacology.

  19. After-school time use in Taiwan: effects on educational achievement and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su Yen; Lu, Luo

    2009-01-01

    Western studies have linked adolescents' time spent on homework, structured activities, various kinds of leisure involvement, and part-time employment with their academic achievement and psychological adjustment, but little is known about the after-school pursuits of Chinese students and their associations with adolescents' development. Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study investigated how time spent on nine after-school activities during the eleventh grade helped predict educational achievement and depression symptoms during the twelfth grade, in addition to previous achievement and depression level and background variables. The findings of this study confirmed and extended the extant literature that time spent on homework, after-class academic-enrichment programs, and private cram schools positively affected adolescents' educational achievement; however, time spent on private cram schools was negatively associated with their psychological well-being. In addition, inconsistent with the findings of many Western studies, this study's results did not support a positive effect of participating in school-based extracurricular activities on educational achievement and psychological well-being. Finally, time spent on working part-time and watching TV was found to be detrimental to achievement, but time spent playing Internet games appeared to be negatively associated with depression symptoms.

  20. Healthy working days: The (positive) effect of work effort on occupational health from a human capital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtasun, Ainhoa; Nuñez, Imanol

    2018-04-01

    The neoclassic economic rationale has taken for granted that the effect of effort on health is negative. However, several studies in the field of occupational health and medicine claim that working is clearly better for health than non-working or being unemployed, as some psychological and physical condition may improve with work effort. This paper analyzes the effect of work effort on occupational health. The proposed human capital approach builds upon the classic economic perspective, that assumes a negative effect of effort on health, and extends it by allowing positive effects, as suggested by occupational researchers. Using a sample from 2010 of 20,000 European workers we find that, under adequate working conditions, the level of effort (measured in working hours) at which health starts to deteriorate is very high (120 h per week). However, if working conditions are not adequate, even a moderate effort (35 h per week) can harm workers health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Big Fish-Little Pond Effect on Affective Factors Based on PISA 2012 Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara BAKAN KALAYCIOĞLU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 2012 PISA Turkey student questionnaire data is considered to determine the big fish-little pond effect. The mathematics self-efficacy, self-concept and anxiety affective factors are examined to explain the relation of each of them with the school type, gender, socioeconomic status, student’s mathematics achievement and school’s mathematics achievement covariates. A total number of 771 students from 88 high schools are in the sample. Factor analyses’ results support the construct validity of the Student Questionnaire’s mathematics self-efficacy, anxiety and self-concept items. Data set is analyzed with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Model and the patterns of association with covariates and affective factors were tested simultaneously. According to the results, Anatolian high school students have a higher mathematics self-efficacy and lower mathematics anxiety than do the general high school students. However, when the student mathematics achievement and school mathematics achievement variables were inserted to the model, school type was not associated with mathematics self-efficacy. Moreover, Anatolian high school student’s mathematics anxiety was higher than that of the general high school students. Student’s mathematics achievement was the most significant predictor of the mathematics self-efficacy, anxiety and self-concept factors. Finally, school’s mathematics achievement was a significant predictor of only mathematics self-concept. The identification of increase in school’s mathematics achievement yields a decrease in the student’s mathematics self-concept may be considered as the most important result of this study. These results provide evidence about the Anatolian high schools’ students experience big fish-little pond effect.

  2. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems.

  3. The Effect of Project Based Learning on Seventh Grade Students’ Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Kızkapan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a significant effect of project based learning approach on seventh grade students’ academic achievement in the structure and properties of matter. In the study, according to the characteristics of quantitative research methods, pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design was used to test the effect of project-based learning and traditional methods on seventh grade students’ academic achievement. Convenience sampling was preferred and 38 students participated in this study. The structure and properties of matter achievement test, lesson plans, and observation checklist were used as data collection instruments. In order to analyze the data obtained from the structure and properties of matter achievement test, independent samples t-test was performed. Based on the results, there is no significant difference between the experimental and control groups' scores which is obtained from their "Achievement test" post-test performance. Discussions based on literature were carried out and suggestions were performed as pre-activities based on project based learning should be performed for the adaptation of students and teachers before treatment.

  4. The effect of renovating an office building on occupants' comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Brohus, H.; Hyldgaard, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    -emitting vinyl floor; the other part of the building was kept unchanged, serving as a control. A comprehensive indoor climate investigation, including a questionnaire study of the occupants' comfort and health, was performed before and after the intervention. The intervention was performed after detailed......An intervention study was performed in an office building in which there were severe indoor climate complaints among the occupants. In one part of the building a new heating and ventilation strategy was implemented by renovating the HVAC system, and a carpet floor material was replaced with a low...... laboratory studies on alternative flooring materials and alternative ventilation strategies. The occupants' adverse perceptions and symptoms were significantly reduced by the intervention. The improvement of the indoor climate was most pronounced in the cellular offices, where both the floor material...

  5. Effects of occupational exposure to noise and dust on blood pressure in Chinese industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingfeng; Wang, Hufei; Yan, Fen; Tang, Kefu; Zhu, Huang; Weng, Zuquan; Wang, Kejian

    2018-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of economy and urbanization, noise and air pollution are becoming major occupational health hazards in the process of industrial production. In this study, we collected data from 7293 industrial workers in China. The association between occupational exposure of noise and dust and blood pressure was investigated. Controlling for demographic variables, including sex, age, and length of service, a stepwise regression model with backward elimination was constructed. The results showed that both noise and dust decreased the level of systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001). This finding prompted the manufacturing industry to reduce noise and dust hazards and protect the occupational health of workers. Prospective studies in different populations are still required to verify the net contribution of noise and dust to the decrease in blood pressure.

  6. Instruction of Statistics via Computer-Based Tools: Effects on Statistics' Anxiety, Attitude, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin; Akdal, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of statistics instruction using computer-based tools, on statistics anxiety, attitude, and achievement. This study was designed as quasi-experimental research and the pattern used was a matched pre-test/post-test with control group design. Data was collected using three scales: a Statistics…

  7. The effects of a digital formative assessment tool on spelling achievement : Results of a randomized experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Janke M.; Visscher, Adrie J.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a randomized experimental design was used to examine the effects of a digital formative assessment tool on spelling achievement of third grade students (eight-to nine-years-olds). The sample consisted of 30 experimental schools (n = 619) and 39 control schools (n = 986). Experimental

  8. Effects of Mobile Devices on K-12 Students' Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingir, S.; Cavlazoglu, B.; Caliskan, O.; Koklu, O.; Intepe-Tingir, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this meta-analytic study, we investigated the effects of mobile devices on student achievement in science, mathematics and reading in grades K-12. Based on our inclusion criteria, we searched the ERIC and PsycINFO databases and identified 14 peer-reviewed research articles published between 2010 and 2014. We identified the device type, subject…

  9. The Effect of Mobile Learning on Students' Achievement and Conversational Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfeky, Abdellah Ibrahim Mohammed; Masadeh, Thouqan Saleem Yakoub

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of Mobile Learning, which is a kind of E-learning that uses mobile devices, on the development of the academic achievement and conversational skills of English language specialty students at Najran University. The study used the quasi-experimental approach. Participants consisted of (50) students who…

  10. The Effects of 3D Computer Simulation on Biology Students' Achievement and Memory Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Tavasuria; Ismail, Zurida

    2014-01-01

    A quasi experimental study was conducted for six weeks to determine the effectiveness of two different 3D computer simulation based teaching methods, that is, realistic simulation and non-realistic simulation on Form Four Biology students' achievement and memory retention in Perak, Malaysia. A sample of 136 Form Four Biology students in Perak,…

  11. The Effect of Multiple Intelligences Strategies on EFL Ninth Graders' Achievement in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallad, Nasreen Y.; Bani Abdelrahman, Abdallah A.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of multiple intelligences strategies comprising logical-mathematical intelligence, verbal-linguistic intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence and interpersonal intelligence on ninth grade students' reading comprehension achievement in an EFL setting. The population of the study consisted of all ninth…

  12. The Effects of Religious Commitment on the Academic Achievement of Urban and Other Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the 1992 National Education Longitudinal Survey, this study examined the effects of student religious commitment on academic achievement. Results indicate that very religious urban and non-urban children performed better on most academic measures than their less religious counterparts, even when controlling for race, gender, and…

  13. Effects of Learning Styles and Interest on Concentration and Achievement of Students in Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojie; Yang, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    Learning concentration deserves in-depth investigation in the field of mobile learning. Therefore, this study examined the interaction effects of learning styles and interest on the learning concentration and academic achievement of students who were asked to learn conceptual knowledge via their mobile phones in a classroom setting. A total of 92…

  14. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  15. Goals, data use, and instruction : the effect of a teacher professional development program on reading achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a

  16. The Effect of Computer Games on Students' Critical Thinking Disposition and Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Mohammad; Derikvandi, Zahra; Moosavipour, Saeed; Khodabandelou, Rouhollah

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to investigate the effect of computer games on student' critical thinking disposition and educational achievement. The research method was descriptive, and its type was casual-comparative. The sample included 270 female high school students in Andimeshk town selected by multistage cluster method. Ricketts…

  17. The Effect of Language Learning Strategies on Proficiency, Attitudes and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habók, Anita; Magyar, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study examines language learning strategy (LLS) use in connexion with foreign language attitude, proficiency and general school achievement among lower secondary students in Years 5 and 8 ( n = 868) in Hungary. An adapted version of the Strategies Inventory for Language Learning questionnaire was used for data collection. The results showed that Hungarian students mainly engage in metacognitive strategies in both years. Differences between more and less proficient language learners' strategy use have also been found. With regard to the effect of LLS on foreign language attitude, the foreign language mark and school achievement, path analysis indicated a good fit in both years. The metacognitive, social and memory strategies primarily influenced foreign language attitudes and marks in Year 5. The metacognitive strategies had a slight impact on school achievement as well as on foreign language marks. We demonstrated the dominant effect of metacognitive strategies and the low effect of memory strategies in Year 8. In addition, metacognitive strategies also influenced foreign language marks. The effect of foreign language marks on school achievement was also remarkable. There was a strong impact on the children's attitudes through these variables.

  18. The Effect of Language Learning Strategies on Proficiency, Attitudes and School Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Habók

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines language learning strategy (LLS use in connexion with foreign language attitude, proficiency and general school achievement among lower secondary students in Years 5 and 8 (n = 868 in Hungary. An adapted version of the Strategies Inventory for Language Learning questionnaire was used for data collection. The results showed that Hungarian students mainly engage in metacognitive strategies in both years. Differences between more and less proficient language learners’ strategy use have also been found. With regard to the effect of LLS on foreign language attitude, the foreign language mark and school achievement, path analysis indicated a good fit in both years. The metacognitive, social and memory strategies primarily influenced foreign language attitudes and marks in Year 5. The metacognitive strategies had a slight impact on school achievement as well as on foreign language marks. We demonstrated the dominant effect of metacognitive strategies and the low effect of memory strategies in Year 8. In addition, metacognitive strategies also influenced foreign language marks. The effect of foreign language marks on school achievement was also remarkable. There was a strong impact on the children’s attitudes through these variables.

  19. Assessing the Effect of Cooperative Learning on Financial Accounting Achievement among Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuwa, Umar; Abdullah, Zarifah; Hassan, Haslinda

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of cooperative learning approach on financial accounting achievement among secondary school students in Gombe state, Nigeria. A pre-test-post-test-control group design was adopted. 120 students participated in the study were selected randomly from six schools. The students were divided into two equal groups, namely:…

  20. Effects of a Language Arts Service-Learning Project on Sixth-Grade Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 created new instructional intervention practices, reading and writing scores across K-12 and postsecondary levels continue to reflect stagnant achievement outcomes. The research questions in this study concerned the effect of a northern Michigan middle school language arts…

  1. Examining the Effect of Academic Procrastination on Achievement Using LMS Data in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of academic procrastination on e-learning course achievement. Because all of the interactions among students, instructors, and contents in an e-learning environment were automatically recorded in a learning management system (LMS), procrastination such as the delays in weekly scheduled learning and late…

  2. Effects of Ability Grouping on Math Achievement of Third Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emily; Feng, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heterogeneous and homogeneous grouping on the mathematical achievement of students in third grade. Participants were 16 third graders in a self-contained classroom, assigned to either small homogeneous or heterogeneous group for math instruction for 7 weeks. Pretest-posttest scores and growth…

  3. Effects of Computer Assisted Learning Instructions on Reading Achievement among Middle School English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley-Hamlet, Simone O.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Imagine Learning, a computer assisted language learning (CALL) program, on addressing reading achievement for English language learners (ELLs). This is a measurement used in the Accessing Comprehension and Communication in English State-to-State (ACCESS for ELLs or ACCESS) reading scale…

  4. Academic Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of School Psychological Climate on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…

  5. Peer Effects in Urban Schools: Assessing the Impact of Classroom Composition on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years. With a comprehensive individual-and multilevel data set of all students matched to teachers, classrooms, and schools, two empirical strategies are employed. The…

  6. Goals, Data Use, and Instruction: The Effect of a Teacher Professional Development Program on Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…

  7. The Effect of Social Media Usage on Course Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Yazan M.; Nash, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of social media usage as a classroom management tool on students' achievement and their behavior in class. Groups were determined by choosing random samples of different classes. The treatment group included the social media application "whatsapp" which all students and the instructor were asked to…

  8. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  9. The Effects of Using Dynamic Geometry on Eighth Grade Students' Achievement and Attitude towards Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Halime Samur; Akyuz, Didem

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of dynamic geometry based computer instruction on eighth grade students' achievement in geometry and their attitudes toward geometry and technology compared to traditional instruction. Central to the study was a controlled experiment, which contained experimental and control groups both instructed by the same…

  10. The Effect of Learning Cycle Models on Achievement of Students: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    In the study, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of the use of the learning cycle model on the achievements of the students. Doctorate and master theses, made between 2007 and 2016, were searched using the keywords in Turkish and English. As a result of the screening, a total of 123 dissertations, which used learning cycle…

  11. The Effects of Statistical Analysis Software and Calculators on Statistics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Edwin P.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effects of microcomputer-based statistical software and hand-held calculators on the statistics achievement of university males and females. The subjects, 73 graduate students enrolled in univariate statistics classes at a public comprehensive university, were randomly assigned to groups that used either microcomputer-based…

  12. The effect of adaptive performance support system on learning achievements of students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Piet; Stoyanov, Slavi; Mileva, Nevena; Martínez Mediano, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    Kommers, P., Stoyanov, S., Mileva, N., & Kommers, P., Stoyanov, S., Mileva, N., & Martínez Mediano, K. (2008). The effect of adaptive performance support system on learning achievements of students. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning, 18 (3), 351-365

  13. Effects of an Intervention on Math Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Vivian D.; Deris, Aaron R.; Simon, Marilyn K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities score lower than other at-risk groups on state standardized assessment tests. Educators are searching for intervention strategies to improve math achievement for students with learning disabilities. The study examined the effects of a mathematics intervention known as Cover, Copy, and Compare for learning basic…

  14. Effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)

  15. New evidence on the effect of time in school on early achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Lindahl, M.; Oosterbeek, H.; Webbink, D.

    2004-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of expanding enrollment possibilities in early eduction on the achievement of young children. To do so it exploits two features of the Dutch schooling system. First, children are allowed to enroll in school on their fourth birthday. Second, children having their

  16. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Students' Achievement and Views on the Science and Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Sertel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of learning plan implementation prepared with the cooperative learning method. In particular, the study addresses the effect of cooperative learning on students' achievement and their views regarding the "Systems in Our Body" unit of the 6th grade Science and Technology lesson.…

  17. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Prospective Teachers' Achievement and Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karababa, Z. Canan Candas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement of Turkish prospective elementary school teachers' learning of the content of the Turkish language course and on their social interaction in the classroom. The theoretical question addressed was whether the positive interdependence within cooperative groups…

  18. The Effects of Multimedia and Learning Style on Student Achievement in Online Electronics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjono, Herman Dwi

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of multimedia preferences and learning styles on undergraduate student achievement in an adaptive e-learning system for electronics course at the Yogyakarta State University Indonesia. The findings showed that students in which their multimedia preferences and learning style matched with the way the…

  19. The Effectiveness of Contract Learning Strategy on Special Diploma Students' Achievement and Attitudes Towards English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of using the contract learning strategy on special diploma students' achievement and attitudes towards English language; a strategy that has been used in the field of education in general and teaching English language in particular. The subjects of the present study consisted of 41 graduate students…

  20. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Improving Students' Achievement in Third Grade's Science in Bani Kenana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Nisreen Saleh Khader

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying the effectiveness of blended learning in improving students' achievement in the third grade's science in the traditional method. The study sample consisted of (108) male and female students, who were divided into two groups: experimental and control. The experimental group studied the units and changes of the…

  1. Effects of Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Mathematics Education Quality on Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, S. Koza

    2015-01-01

    The two aims of this study are as follows: (1) to compare the differences in mathematics anxiety and achievement in secondary school students according to their perceptions of the quality of their mathematics education via a cluster analysis and (2) to test the effects of the perception of mathematics education quality on anxiety and achievement…

  2. The Effectiveness of Web Assisted English Language Instruction on the Achievement and Attitude of the Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the exercises of English language grammar instruction on the achievement of the students when it is applied on web assisted. The study had been executed in accordance with the experimental study model. The experiment group of the study has used a web site that was prepared and they…

  3. The Effects of Using Color Microfiche Upon Achievement in a Course on Interior Home Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleamoni, Lawrence M.; And Others

    A study was devised to replicate an earlier study which examined the effects of using color microfiche on achievement in a course on interior home design. The microfiche contained representative slides taken from the class lectures. Subjects, who were 136 college students enrolled in the course, were divided into three groups: Group One was…

  4. The Effect of Technology on Learner Attention and Achievement in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, G.; Brand, L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of technology on attention and achievement within a classroom context, taking motivation and concentration into account as well. Lessons in Geography, English and Mathematics were presented to an experimental and a control group consisting of 23 and 22 Grade 8 learners, respectively.…

  5. One to One Technology and Its Effect on Student Academic Achievement and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Al-Bataineh, Mohammed T.; Al-Bataineh, Adel

    2016-01-01

    This research was a quantitative study using 4th grade participants from a Title 1 elementary school in Central Illinois. This study set out to determine whether one to one technology (1:1 will be used hereafter) truly impacts and effects the academic achievement of students. This study's second goal was to determine whether 1:1 Technology also…

  6. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  7. Relevant prior knowledge moderates the effect of elaboration during small group discussion on academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Blankenstein (Floris); D.H.J.M. Dolmans (Diana); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion

  8. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on the Academic Achievement and Knowledge Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Dat

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement and knowledge retention of 110 first-year primary education students toward the psychology subject over the eight weeks of instruction at An Giang University. These tertiary students were divided into two matched groups of 55 to be taught by the same…

  9. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement in a Fourth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiss, Patricia A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cooperative learning on spelling achievement in fourth grade. During the 12-week treatment period, students (n=25) in the experimental group were heterogeneously grouped and received instruction by means of cooperative learning techniques. The control group (n=26), which was not grouped in…

  10. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Achievement and Attitudes during Interactive Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Describes study that investigated the effects of instructional control and gender pairing arrangements on learner achievement, attitudes, and interaction during an interactive video elementary school science lesson. Cooperative learning strategies are discussed, results of statistical analyses are reported, and implications for instructional…

  11. The Effect of Teaching Strategy Based on Multiple Intelligences on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…

  12. The Effects of Career Academies on Academic Achievement and College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Mandy J.

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative ex post facto study investigated the effects of career academies on academic achievement and college readiness. A total of 1,206 12th-grade participants (196 career academy and 1,010 nonacademy students) were used in this study. These participants came from six high schools located in one large urban school district. Each of the…

  13. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not English.…

  14. Student Background and Teacher Effects on Achievement and Attainment in Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Reynolds, David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we have studied the effect of student social background, classroom social context, classroom organisation, and teacher behaviours on mathematics achievement and attainment in English and Welsh primary schools. Data were collected over 2 years as part of a programme evaluation, for which we observed 138 teachers and tested and…

  15. Academic Achievement and Adolescent Drug Use: An Examination of Reciprocal Effects and Correlated Growth Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The primary aim was to examine correlated growth trajectories and reciprocal effects between academic achievement and drug use over the course of junior high school. Methods: One hundred and three male and 98 female students from 3 rural junior high schools were surveyed 4 times over the course of 3 years. Dual trajectory latent growth…

  16. Academic Achievement, Self-Concept and Depression in Taiwanese Children: Moderated Mediation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…

  17. Effects of a Mathematics Cognitive Acceleration Program on Student Achievement and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finau, Teukava; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of a cognitive acceleration program in mathematics classes on Tongan students' achievements, motivation and self-regulation. Cognitive Acceleration in Mathematics Education (CAME) is a program developed at King's College and implemented worldwide with the aim of improving students' thinking skills, mathematics…

  18. PBL in Teacher Education: Its Effects on Achievement and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Tolga; Senemoglu, Nuray

    2017-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) as an educational practice continues to have great impact on all levels of education and across different disciplines. The aim of this experimental study is to examine the effects of PBL on prospective teachers' academic achievements and self-regulation. The treatment group (n = 36) and the control group (n = 21)…

  19. Students' Metacognition and Cognitive Style and Their Effect on Cognitive Load and Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vargas, Omar; Ibáñez-Ibáñez, Jaime; Racines-Prada, Oswaldo

    2017-01-01

    The present research's objective is to examine the effects of metacognitive scaffolding and cognitive style in the Field Dependence-Independence (FDI) dimension on cognitive load (CL) and learning achievement (LA) in high school students, when they interact with a hypermedia environment on philosophy (logic). Fifty-four students belonging to two…

  20. The Effect of Inquiry-Based Learning Method on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based learning method on students' academic achievement in sciences lesson. A total of 40 fifth grade students from two different classes were involved in the study. They were selected through purposive sampling method. The group which was assigned as experimental group was…

  1. Technology's Effect on Achievement in Higher Education: A Stage I Meta-Analysis of Classroom Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…

  2. The effect of technology on learner attention and achievement in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of technology on attention and achievement within a classroom context, taking motivation and concentration into account as well. Lessons in Geography, English and Mathematics were presented to an experimental and a control group consisting of 23 and 22 ...

  3. The Effect of Creative Drama on Student Achievement in the Course of Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özek, Müzeyyen Bulut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of creative drama on student achievement in the Information Technologies course. The study was carried out for the unit "Tomorrow's Technology" which is the first unit of Information Technologies course. For this study, 89 sixth grade students were selected from primary school in…

  4. The Effects of Visual Thinking Strategies on Reading Achievement of Students with Varying Levels of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelvis, Rima R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) curriculum on reading achievement of students with various motivational levels. A 2X2 factorial design was used. The sample population consisted of 104 fourth grade students from an upper middle class school system in Connecticut. All students were administered a…

  5. The Effectiveness of Education Technology for Enhancing Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The present review examines research on the effects of technology use on reading achievement in K-12 classrooms. Unlike previous reviews, this review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. In addition, methodological and substantive features of the studies are investigated to examine the…

  6. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  7. Effects of Computer Based Learning on Students' Attitudes and Achievements towards Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Husamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tuysuz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…

  8. Learning Games and Student Teams: Their Effects on Student Attitudes and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith J.; DeVries, David L.

    A 2x2x3 randomized block design was employed with 117 seventh grade students to investigate the independent and combined effects of a learning game and student teams on students' attitudes and achievement in mathematics. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance revealed that students in classes using games were more positive toward math…

  9. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  10. Effects of Students' Attitude and Self-Concept on Achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other area is the non-cognitive domain, which includes variables such as socio-economic status, students' attitude, personality determinants, peer group influence, self-concept, anxiety, etc. As a result of this, this study investigated the effects of attitude and self-concept on achievement in senior secondary school ...

  11. The Effect of Origami-Based Instruction on Spatial Visualization, Geometry Achievement, and Geometric Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Sevil; Aslan-Tutak, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the effect of origami-based geometry instruction on spatial visualization, geometry achievement, and geometric reasoning of tenth-grade students in Turkey. The sample ("n" = 184) was chosen from a tenth-grade population of a public high school in Turkey. It was a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design. A…

  12. The effect of differential training-based occupational therapy on hand and arm function in patients after stroke: Results of the pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repšaitė, Viktorija; Vainoras, Alfonsas; Berškienė, Kristina; Baltaduonienė, Daiva; Daunoravičienė, Algė; Sendžikaitė, Ernesta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of differential training-based occupational therapy on the recovery of arm function and to compare these data with the results obtained after conventional occupational therapy. A total of 27 patients who had suffered a cerebral infarction in the left brain hemisphere were recruited for the study. There were 9 men (33.33%) and 18 women (66.67%). All the patients had paresis of the right arm. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the control group comprised 15 patients who were given conventional occupational therapy (5 times per week) and the study group consisted of 12 patients who underwent conventional occupational therapy (3 times per week) along with occupational therapy based on differential training (2 times per week). In the control group, the mean performance time of only 2 tasks, i.e., flip cards and fold towel, improved significantly (Poccupational therapy sessions, but the patients who underwent conventional occupational therapy along with differential training-based occupational therapy recovered their arm function more effectively than their counterparts after conventional occupational therapy. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of renovating an office building on occupants' comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Brohus, H.; Hyldgaard, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    laboratory studies on alternative flooring materials and alternative ventilation strategies. The occupants' adverse perceptions and symptoms were significantly reduced by the intervention. The improvement of the indoor climate was most pronounced in the cellular offices, where both the floor material......An intervention study was performed in an office building in which there were severe indoor climate complaints among the occupants. In one part of the building a new heating and ventilation strategy was implemented by renovating the HVAC system, and a carpet floor material was replaced with a low...

  14. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-20

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  15. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS), which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this pur...

  16. The effect of chronotype (morningness/eveningness) on medical students' academic achievement in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Hyder O. Mirghani, M.D

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: There is increasing awareness about the effects of circadian misalignment on health and work. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of chronotype on academic achievement among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 140 medical students (64 who averaged an A grade and 76 who averaged a C grade) completing the clinical phase at the medical college of Omdurman University, Sudan. The participants were asked to sign a writ...

  17. Job access, workplace mobility, and occupational achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M. van

    2002-01-01

    Are career opportunities influenced by the place where you live? Does it help your career if you accept a job at a longer distance? What is the best place to live if you want to combine maximum career opportunities with a minimum of commuting and migration costs? Job access, workplace mobility,

  18. Effect of combined occupational exposure to noise and organic solvents on hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Fateheya Mohamed; Aziz, Hisham Mohamed; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; ElGelil, Khaled Said Abd; El-Tahlawy, Eman M

    2012-11-01

    Noise exposure has been commonly regarded as the main hazard of occupational hearing loss. Recent studies indicate that several chemicals, including organic solvents have ototoxic effects. This study aimed at evaluating the hearing of workers exposed to both noise and a mixture of organic solvents at concentrations anticipated as safe. The study comprised three groups. The first one included 70 workers exposed to noise only, the second group consisted of 93 workers exposed to organic solvents and noise, and the control group included 59 individuals exposed to neither noise nor organic solvents. The three groups were matched for age, socioeconomic status, and smoking habit. The results of this study revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two exposed groups as regards the duration of exposure. There was a highly statistically significant difference between the two exposed groups as regards the different types of hearing loss (conductive deafness, sensory neural hearing loss, and mixed type) compared with the control one. Our study reported that sensory neural hearing loss occurred earlier in subjects with combined exposure to noise and solvents at a mean duration of exposure (16.38 ± 9.44 years) compared to (24.53 ± 9.59 years) the subjects with sole exposure to noise. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant regarding this type of hearing impairment (p exposure in the two exposed groups. As regards the results of the environmental monitoring, both noise exposure levels (dB) and levels of different organic solvents measured (mg/m(3)) in different work departments were less than the levels recommended by Egyptian Environmental Law No. 4 for 1994. It is recommended that in the case of combined exposure, noise and solvent levels should be lowered than the permissible limits recommended for either alone.

  19. Toxic response of occupational exposure to ethylene oxide, with particular reference to its respiratory effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Soleimani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Ethylene oxide is used as a sterilizing agent in health care industries. The present study aimed to assess and recognize the nature of pulmonary reactions, if any, associated with occupational exposure to ethylene oxide and to investigate the prevalence of dermal, visual, neurologic, reproductive, hematologic, hepatic and renal disorders .   Methods  Forty exposed and 47 unexposed employees were evaluated . Subjects were interviewed and standard respiratory symptom questionnaire as well as a questionnaire pertaining to symptoms of intoxication with this chemical were administered to them. Furthermore, parameters of pulmonary function were measured during exposure and a few days after exposure ceased Additionally, blood samples were taken for CBC, liver and kidney function tests . Moreover, atmospheric concentrations of ethylene oxide were determined by gas detector tubes .   Results  Respiratory symptoms such as cough and phlegm as well as dermal, visual and neurologic symptoms in exposed workers were significantly more prevalent P≤0.05 . Furthermore, significant decrements in some parameters of pulmonary function during exposure as compared with the values measured after exposure ceased, were noted . Results of biochemical tests were similar in both groups. Mean atmospheric concentration of ethylene oxide was evaluated to be 1.24±1.5 ppm.   Conclusion  The findings of this study indicate that exposure to ethylene oxide even at low concentrations is associated with significant decreases in pulmonary parameters. However, this effect is acute, temporary and reversible. Conversely, exposure to ethylene oxide was not associated with hematotoxic, hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic response, although, dermal, visual and neurologic symptoms were observed.

  20. Multilevel Effects of Student and Classroom Factors on Elementary Science Achievement in Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the USA and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia and Scotland, were reported. Multilevel effects were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modelling, using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 fourth grade dataset. Overall, the results showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the USA and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the USA and Australia. Recommendations for practice and policy were discussed.

  1. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS, which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this purpose, the participating students’ online learning behaviors in LMS were examined by using learning analytics for 14 weeks, and the relationship between students’ behaviors and their academic achievements was analyzed, followed by an analysis of their views about the influence of LMS on their academic achievement. The present study, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected, was carried out with the explanatory mixed method. A total of 71 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results revealed that the students used LMSs as a support to face-to-face education more intensively on course days (at the beginning of the related lessons and at nights on course days and that they activated the content elements the most. Lastly, almost all the students agreed that LMSs helped increase their academic achievement only when LMSs included such features as effectiveness, interaction, reinforcement, attractive design, social media support, and accessibility.

  2. School Context and the Effect ESL Placement on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Achievement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Immigrant adolescents’ academic achievement is crucial to our future economic stability, and Mexican-origin linguistic minority youth in U.S. schools generally demonstrate lower levels of achievement. English as a Second Language (ESL) programs provide an institutional response to these students’ needs, the effect of which may vary by the proportion of immigrant students in the school. Measures Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we estimate the effect of ESL placement on Mexican-origin achievement for first-, second-, and third-generation adolescents separately in schools with many and few immigrant students. Results The estimated effect of ESL placement varies by both immigrant concentration in the school and by students’ generational status. Conclusions We find that ESL enrollment may be protective for second-generation Mexican-origin adolescents in high immigrant concentration schools, and may prove detrimental for first-generation adolescents in contexts with few other immigrant students. PMID:20354570

  3. School Context and the Effect ESL Placement on Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Immigrant adolescents' academic achievement is crucial to our future economic stability, and Mexican-origin linguistic minority youth in U.S. schools generally demonstrate lower levels of achievement. English as a Second Language (ESL) programs provide an institutional response to these students' needs, the effect of which may vary by the proportion of immigrant students in the school. MEASURES: Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study (AHAA) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we estimate the effect of ESL placement on Mexican-origin achievement for first-, second-, and third-generation adolescents separately in schools with many and few immigrant students. RESULTS: The estimated effect of ESL placement varies by both immigrant concentration in the school and by students' generational status. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ESL enrollment may be protective for second-generation Mexican-origin adolescents in high immigrant concentration schools, and may prove detrimental for first-generation adolescents in contexts with few other immigrant students.

  4. Teaching science in a technology rich environment: Probeware's effect on student attitude and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelmanowicz, Marc

    Purpose The use of technology in the science classroom has been a major part of the initiative toward increasing student attitude and achievement in Science, Technology, Education and Math [STEM] education in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the use of probeware in a high school science living environment classroom impacts student attitude towards science and/or student achievement on standards-based assessments. This study sought to answer the following quantitative questions with a qualitative component: To what extent does the use of probeware in a high school level living environment course influence student attitudes toward science compared to students who are not using probeware? What is the impact, if any, on student achievement in a living environment course, as measured by New York State Living Environment Regents [NYSLER] exam grades, between students who use probeware and students who do not? Is there a significant difference between the two groups with regard to achieving mastery on the NYSLER exam? Sample The participants in the study were Living Environment students of a suburban high school outside of New York City. Methods The quasiexperimental study examined the effects of the replacement of traditional scientific equipment with probeware on student attitude and achievement in a living environment classroom. Student attitude was measured by the modified Attitude Toward Science Inventory [mATSI] and student achievement was measured by the New York State Living Environment Regents [NSLER] Exam. Descriptive statistics, ANCOVA and hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to answer the research questions in this study. A qualitative component was included to enhance the understanding of the quantitative analysis. Major Findings Through this study, results demonstrated a statistically significant impact of probeware on student attitude, but did not show a statistically significant impact of

  5. Midterm peer feedback in problem-based learning groups: the effect on individual contributions and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Rachelle J A; van Berkel, Henk J M; Popeijus, Herman E; Leppink, Jimmie; Schmidt, Henk G; Dolmans, Diana H J M

    2014-03-01

    Even though peer process feedback is an often used tool to enhance the effectiveness of collaborative learning environments like PBL, the conditions under which it is best facilitated still need to be investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of individual versus shared reflection and goal setting on students' individual contributions to the group and their academic achievement. In addition, the influence of prior knowledge on the effectiveness of peer feedback was studied. In this pretest-intervention-posttest study 242 first year students were divided into three conditions: condition 1 (individual reflection and goal setting), condition 2 (individual and shared reflection and goal setting), and condition 3 (control group). Results indicated that the quality of individual contributions to the tutorial group did not improve after receiving the peer feedback, nor did it differ between the three conditions. With regard to academic achievement, only males in conditions 1 and 2 showed better academic achievement compared with condition 3. However, there was no difference between both ways of reflection and goal setting with regard to achievement, indicating that both ways are equally effective. Nevertheless, it is still too early to conclude that peer feedback combined with reflection and goal setting is not effective in enhancing students' individual contributions. Students only had a limited number of opportunities to improve their contributions. Therefore, future research should investigate whether an increase in number of tutorial group meetings can enhance the effectiveness of peer feedback. In addition, the effect of quality of reflection and goal setting could be taken into consideration in future research.

  6. Academic Achievement in Physics-Chemistry: The Predictive Effect of Attitudes and Reasoning Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N. Vilia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students’ attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student’s attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008. The participants were 470 students (267 girls – 56.8% and 203 boys – 43.2%, aged 14–16 years old (μ = 14.3 ± 0.58. The attitude data were collected using the Attitude toward Physics-Chemistry Questionnaire (ATPCQ and, the Reasoning Test Battery (RTB was used to assess the students reasoning abilities. Achievement was measured using the students’ quarterly (9-week grades in the physics and chemistry subject. The relationships between the attitude dimensions toward Physics-chemistry and the reasoning dimensions and achievement in each of the three school terms were assessed by multiple regression stepwise analyses and standardized regression coefficients (β, calculated with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. Both variables studied proved to be significant predictor variables of school achievement. The models obtained from the use of both variables were always stronger accounting for higher proportions of student’s grade variations. The results show that ATPCQ and RTB had a significantly positive relationship with

  7. Academic Achievement in Physics-Chemistry: The Predictive Effect of Attitudes and Reasoning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilia, Paulo N; Candeias, Adelinda A; Neto, António S; Franco, Maria Da Glória S; Melo, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students' attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student's attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008). The participants were 470 students (267 girls - 56.8% and 203 boys - 43.2%), aged 14-16 years old (μ = 14.3 ± 0.58). The attitude data were collected using the Attitude toward Physics-Chemistry Questionnaire (ATPCQ) and, the Reasoning Test Battery (RTB) was used to assess the students reasoning abilities. Achievement was measured using the students' quarterly (9-week) grades in the physics and chemistry subject. The relationships between the attitude dimensions toward Physics-chemistry and the reasoning dimensions and achievement in each of the three school terms were assessed by multiple regression stepwise analyses and standardized regression coefficients (β), calculated with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. Both variables studied proved to be significant predictor variables of school achievement. The models obtained from the use of both variables were always stronger accounting for higher proportions of student's grade variations. The results show that ATPCQ and RTB had a significantly positive relationship with student's achievement in

  8. Reducing statistics anxiety and enhancing statistics learning achievement: effectiveness of a one-minute strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Wang, Yu-Min; Lee, Li-Tze

    2014-08-01

    Statistical knowledge is widely used in academia; however, statistics teachers struggle with the issue of how to reduce students' statistics anxiety and enhance students' statistics learning. This study assesses the effectiveness of a "one-minute paper strategy" in reducing students' statistics-related anxiety and in improving students' statistics-related achievement. Participants were 77 undergraduates from two classes enrolled in applied statistics courses. An experiment was implemented according to a pretest/posttest comparison group design. The quasi-experimental design showed that the one-minute paper strategy significantly reduced students' statistics anxiety and improved students' statistics learning achievement. The strategy was a better instructional tool than the textbook exercise for reducing students' statistics anxiety and improving students' statistics achievement.

  9. Effect of streaming by gender on student achievement in mathematics in secondary schools in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bosire

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present findings of a study carried out to determine the effect of streaming by gender on secondary school students' achievement in mathematics. In the study we analysed achievement scores on national examinations results for the years 1999 to 2001 of a sample of 1 489 candidates in four secondary schools in Nakuru District, Kenya. Raw data were analysed statistically and the hypotheses tested. Generally, the results indicated that streaming based on gender improved overall student achievement in mathematics and especially that of girls. Although further studies are needed to incorporate this result into official policy, there are strong indications that streaming by gender may be a useful class environment as an intervention towards improving the performance of girls in mathematics in co-educational schools.

  10. The effect of a new prelaboratory procedure on students' achievement in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isom, F. Steven; Rowsey, Robert E.

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop an alternative model, the Prelaboratory Preparation Period (PLPP), to be used to introduce freshman level students to weekly laboratories and to evaluate student academic achievement as the result of attending the Prelaboratory Preparation Period. The sample was composed of 233 students taking introductory chemistry at Auburn University. The data were collected over a four quarter period of time. A posttest-only control group design with five experimental and three control groups was used to investigate the effect of the Prelaboratory Preparation Period. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to determine if significant differences existed between academic achievement of the experimental and control groups. Results of the analysis indicated that a significant difference ( = 0.05) in academic performance existed between the two groups. It was concluded that the Prelaboratory Preparation Period increased the academic achievement of students enrolled in an introductory chemistry course.

  11. A Case Study into the Effects of Posing Good Question on the Students' Math Achievement

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    Masoud Soleymanpour

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous methods are employed to teach mathematics. One of them is posing questions in the math class. This study is intended to investigate the effects of Posing-Good-Questions Method (PGQM on math achievement of the high school first graders in comparison to traditional math teaching methods. The present study is quasi-experimental with experiment and control groups. Research sample consists of 71 girl high school first graders selected through cluster sampling. Instrumentation used by the study is a teacher-made school achievement test. The results obtained from paired samples test, Mann-Whitney and Wilcaxon test found that there is no significant difference between experiment and control groups with this regard. It suggests that owing to some unknown educational barriers, PGQM yields no math achievement among high school students.

  12. Effectiveness of Interventions to Address Visual and Visual-Perceptual Impairments to Improve Occupational Performance in Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sue; Kaldenberg, Jennifer; Selmane, Romeissa; Carlo, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Visual and visual-perceptual impairments occur frequently with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and influence occupational performance. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy to improve occupational performance for adults with visual and visual-perceptual impairments as a result of TBI. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched, and 66 full text articles were reviewed. Sixteen articles were included in the review. Strong evidence supports the use of scanning, limited evidence supports the use of adaptive strategies, and mixed evidence supports the use of cognitive interventions to improve occupational performance for adults with TBI. Evidence related to vision therapy varies on the basis of the specific intervention implemented. Although the strength of the research varied, implications are discussed for practice, education, and research. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. Subgroup effects of occupational therapy-based intervention for people with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marc Sampedro; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen; la Cour, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Background: Many people with advanced cancer have decreased ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). We recently performed a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) assessing the efficacy of an occupational therapy-based program, the ’Cancer Home-Life Intervention’ in people with advanced...

  14. Effectiveness of Occupational Health and Safety Training: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Federico; Chiesi, Andrea; Bisio, Carlo; Panari, Chiara; Pelosi, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This meta-analysis aims to verify the efficacy of occupational health and safety (OHS) training in terms of knowledge, attitude and beliefs, behavior and health. Design/methodology/approach: The authors included studies published in English (2007-2014) selected from ten databases. Eligibility criteria were studies concerned with the…

  15. The effects of prioritize inspections on occupational health hazards control in workplaces in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemah; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Fatemi, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Iran, a newly industrializing country in Middle East, has a workforce of 25 million people. Most employees are working in agriculture, manufacturing, services, construction, commerce sectors, carpet weaving and mining. This article aims to explore the improvement of occupational harmful agents in workplaces due to implement "prioritize inspections". In 2012, the system of "prioritize inspections "was defined for surveillance on enterprises replace of routine inspection. From this system, the enterprises classified on four groups based on health hazards and enterprises with high risk were under more surveillance. The information about each enterprise was collected by health centers, in five provinces and reported by a recommended form to Centre of Environmental and Occupational Health (CEOH). At this program, the inspections from high and medium hazards were increased in all of provinces. The results showed there was a significant difference between the control of health hazards in before and after beginning of "prioritize inspections"(P=0.048). The control of noise, fumes and providing of proper illumination increased from 8 to 10%, 9 to 9.5%, 12.9 to 15.4%, respectively, at under study provinces in 2012 compared to 2011. The surveillance based on "prioritize inspections" increased the quality of occupational health inspections that causes to prevent occupational health diseases.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Disengagement from Futile Struggles with Occupational Planning: A Contextualist-Motivational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Martin J.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    Globalized labor markets confront many adults, both employed and unemployed, with demands arising from career uncertainty that have the potential to jeopardize their occupational planning. This article investigated how individuals in different regions of Germany, which are characterized by different economic opportunities, negotiate such demands…

  17. Executive report : effects of changing HOV lane occupancy requirements : El Monte busway case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    In 1999, the California Legislature passed Senate Bill 63, which lowered the vehicle-occupancy requirement on the El Monte Busway on the San Bernardino (I-10) Freeway from three persons per vehicle (3+) to two persons per vehicle (2+) full time. The ...

  18. Knowledge of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects of age, locality, occupation, media and sports participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Results: Misconceptions about TBI were reported by participants, irrespective of gender, locality, occupation, or history of sports participation. There were no significant differences in knowledge scores across these demographic groups. In particular, healthcare and education workers did not score any higher than other occupations. At least 40% of respondents answered either incorrectly or “I don’t know” on items related to gender differences, the utility of neuroimaging, and patient insight into their impairments. For those in non-medical, professional occupations, the older they were the less they knew about TBI (r = -.299, p = 0.009. In contrast, a positive correlation (r = 0.268, p = 0.018 was found between age and TBI knowledge for workers in healthcare or education. Conclusions: Misconceptions about TBI are present in Australia and are consistent across genders, localities, occupations and sport participation groups. A concern is that risk for misconceptions is not lower in healthcare or education professions. This suggests that professional development for groups most likely to be the frontline referral resources and supports for head injured children and adults may require further training.

  19. The Radical Flank Effect and Cross-occupational Collaboration for Technology Development during a Power Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Emily; Kellogg, Katherine C

    2016-12-01

    This 12-month ethnographic study of an early entrant into the U.S. car-sharing industry demonstrates that when an organization shifts its focus from developing radical new technology to incrementally improving this technology, the shift may spark an internal power struggle between the dominant engineering group and a challenger occupational group such as the marketing group. Analyzing 42 projects in two time periods that required collaboration between engineering and marketing during such a shift, we show how cross-occupational collaboration under these conditions can be facilitated by a radical flank threat, through which the bargaining power of moderates is strengthened by the presence of a more-radical group. In the face of a strong threat by radical members of a challenger occupational group, moderate members of the dominant engineering group may change their perceptions of their power to resist challengers' demands and begin to distinguish between the goals of radical versus more-moderate challengers. To maintain as much power as possible and prevent the more-dramatic change in engineering occupational goals demanded by radical challengers, moderate engineers may build a coalition with moderate challengers and collaborate for incremental technology development.

  20. Wanted: entrepreneurs in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin M; Nelson, David L

    2011-01-01

    The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) has challenged occupational therapy practitioners to advance the profession so that we may become more "powerful" and "widely recognized" by the year 2017 (AOTA, 2007a). To fully achieve this vision, this article argues that the profession should encourage occupational therapy entrepreneurship. As Herz, Bondoc, Richmond, Richman, and Kroll (2005, p.2) stated, "Entrepreneurship may provide us with the means to achieve the outcomes we need to succeed in the current health care environment." This article also argues the urgency of seizing the many opportunities that entrepreneurship offers and recommends specific actions to be taken by AOTA and by therapists.

  1. Effectiveness of creative and productive instructional method towards students' learning achievement in steel structure course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto, Pribadi, Supriyanto, Bambang

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Creative & Productive instructional method compared with conventional method. This research was a quasi-experimental study involving all Civil Engineering students at Universitas Negeri Malang who were taking a course of Steel Structure. The students were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups, 30 students in experimental group and 37 students in the control group. It was assumed that these groups were equal in all relevant aspects; they differed only in the treatment administered. We used the t-test to test the hypothesis. The results of this research suggest that: (l) the use of Creative & Productive instructional method can significantly improve students' learning achievement, (2) the use of Creative & Productive instructional method can significantly improve students' retention, (3) students' motivation has a significant effect on their learning achievement, and (4) students' motivation has a significant effect on their retention.

  2. The effect of occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline on employee performance in a consumer goods company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. O.; Triatmanto, B.; Setiyadi, S.

    2018-04-01

    Employee performance can be the supporting factor of company performance. However, employee performance can be affected by several factors. Employees can have optimal performance if they feel safe, have good working environment and have discipline. The purposes of this research are to analyze the effect of occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline on the employee performance in PPIC Thermo section in a consumer goods company and to find the dominant variable which primarily affects employee performance. This research was conducted by taking data from 47 respondents. The data were collected using questionnaire. The techniques in data analysis is multiple linear regression with SPSS software. The result shows that occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline are simultaneously significant to the employee performance. Discipline holds the dominant factor which affects employee performance.

  3. Effectiveness of Occupation- and Activity-Based Interventions to Improve Everyday Activities and Social Participation for People With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Janet M; Rich, Timothy J; Wise, Elizabeth K

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the effectiveness of occupation- and activity-based interventions to improve everyday activities and areas of occupation and social participation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nineteen studies identified through a comprehensive database search were reviewed and synthesized into five themes: (1) multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary treatment approaches, (2) community-based rehabilitation programs, (3) treatment approaches using client-centered goals and relevant contexts, (4) social skills training and peer mentoring interventions, and (5) community mobility interventions. Evidence supports the use of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches across a variety of settings, with no single treatment approach or setting clearly superior to another. The specific contributions of occupational therapy practitioners and the nature of occupational therapy interventions have not been well studied, making it difficult to determine the extent to which occupation- and activity-based interventions provided by occupational therapy practitioners improve occupational performance and social participation after TBI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents induces a high level of chromosome damage. Lack of an effect of GST polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, Antonella; Giachelia, Manuela; Palma, Selena; Appolloni, Massimo; Padua, Luca; Tranfo, Giovanna; Spagnoli, Mariangela; Tirindelli, Donatella; Cozzi, Renata

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AND) resulted in genetic damage, possibly indicative of adverse health effects in the long term. We performed a chromosomal aberrations (CA) analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a group of 76 trained nurses occupationally exposed to AND. Furthermore, we analysed whether genetic polymorphisms in four metabolic genes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family involved in antineoplastic drugs detoxification (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTA1) had any effect on the yield of chromosomal aberrations in nurses exposed to antineoplastic agents. The exposed group showed a very significant increase of genetic damage (p < 0.0001) potentially indicative of an increased risk of cancer. Unexpectedly, besides the elevated level of chromatid-type aberrations usually related to exposure to chemical agents, we found also severe chromosome damages such as chromosome deletions and dicentric chromosomes, usually related to radiation exposure. No significant association was detected between all GSTs genotypes and chromosome damage. In conclusion, our data show how the occupational exposure to AND is associated to a potential cancer risk, suggesting that current prevention methods do not completely eliminate opportunities for exposure and supporting the need to improve the actual safety practices

  5. Warm-hearted businessmen, competitive housewives? Effects of gender-fair language on adolescents' perceptions of occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervecken, Dries; Gygax, Pascal M; Gabriel, Ute; Guillod, Matthias; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies from countries with grammatical gender languages (e.g., French) found both children and adults to more frequently think of female jobholders and to consider women's success in male dominated occupations more likely when the jobs were described in pair forms (i.e., by explicit reference to male and female jobholders, e.g., inventeuses et inventeurs; French feminine and masculine plural forms for inventors), rather than masculine only forms (e.g., inventors). To gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, we systematically varied the gender connotation of occupations (males overrepresented, females overrepresented, equal share of males and females) and measured additional dependent variables, predicting that gender fair language would reduce the impact of the gender connotation on participants' perceptions. In a sample of 222 adolescents (aged 12-17) from French speaking Switzerland, we found that pair forms attenuated the difference in the ascription of success to male and female jobholders in gendered occupations and attenuated the differential ascription of warmth to prototypical jobholders in male vs. female dominated jobs. However, no effect of language form on the ascription of competence was found. These findings suggest that language policies are an effective tool to impact gendered perceptions, however, they also hint at competence-related gender stereotypes being in decline.

  6. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santaweesuk S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sapsatree Santaweesuk,1,2 Robert S Chapman,1 Wattasit Siriwong1,3 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Srinakarinwirot University Ongkharak Campus, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand; 3Thai Fogarty ITREOH Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1 health education, 2 safety inspection, 3 safety communication, and 4 health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up. We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some

  7. Effect of occupational mobility and health status on life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations: logistic diagonal mobility models analysis of cross-sectional data on eight Chinese provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Life satisfaction research in China is in development, requiring new perspectives for enrichment. In China, occupational mobility is accompanied by changes in economic liberalization and the emergence of occupational stratification. On the whole, however, occupational mobility has rarely been used as an independent variable. Health status is always used as the observed or dependent variable in studies of the phenomenon and its influencing factors. A research gap still exists for enriching this field. Methods The data used in this study were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). The study included nine provinces in China. The survey was conducted from 1989 to 2009.Every survey involved approximately 4400 families or 19,000 individual samples and parts of community data. Results First, we built a 5 × 5 social mobility table and calculated life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations in each table. Second, gender, age, marital status, education level, annual income and hukou, health status, occupational mobility were used as independent variables. Lastly, we used logistic diagonal mobility models to analyze the relationship between life satisfaction and the variables. Model 1 was the basic model, which consisted of the standard model and controlled variables and excluded drift variables. Model 2 was the total model, which consisted of all variables of interest in this study. Model 3 was the screening model, which excluded the insignificant drift effect index in Model 2. Conclusion From the perspective of the analysis of controlled variables, health conditions, direction, and distance of occupational mobility significantly affected life satisfaction of Chinese residents of different occupations. (1) From the perspective of health status, respondents who have not been sick or injured had better life satisfaction than those who had been sick or injured. (2) From the perspective of occupational mobility direction

  8. “Opportunity to Learn” Effect on Mathematics Achievement in Basic Education in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Alberto Cervini Iturre

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between the ‘opportunity to learn’ (OTL offered by the teacher to students in the classroom and their mathematics achievement. The data are 32,156 7th and 6th graders (primary education enrolled in 1,497 classroom of urban schools in Argentina. Multilevel linear modeling with two levels (student and classroom was used to analyze OTL effects on achievement. Student math score was based on an standard test applied to the students at the end of the academic year. Three different indicators from a teacher questionnaire were used to measure OTL concept. It was found that all of them are significant predictors of mathematics test score even after students socioeconomic background, socioeconomic school context and level of educational resources in school were controlled. The data behavior shows that (1 OTL is an important intermediate variable between socioeconomic school context and achievement and (2 it is a multidimensional concept. In consequence different indicators should be used in order to properly estimate the effect of OTL on achievement.

  9. The effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzamani, S Mahmood; Ashoori, Mohammad; Sereshki, Narges Adib

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in an experimental science class in Tehran Province. The method used for this study was experimental by pre-test, post- test with a control group. The boy students with intellectual disabilities from three junior high schools participated in this study. The sample consisted of thirty, 9th grade boy students with intellectual disabilities in the selected schools; the schools were chosen by the multi-stage cluster method. To measure the progress of students in the science class, a teacher made test and the Wechsler intelligence test for matching the groups for IQ were used. To ensure validity, the content validity criteria depended tests calculated by the Lashe method and teachers' perspective were used. The reliability coefficient was obtained by the reliability coefficient of related tests; the percent agreement method and the obtained data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis and Shefe prosecution test. The results showed that there was a significant increase in academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities when using token economy than using social reinforcements compared with the control group. Also, when using social reinforcements, the academic achievement of students was more than the control group. Token economy and social reinforcements increased the academic achievement of students with intellectual disabilities in the science class; and also the effect of token economy reinforcements was more than social reinforcements on the subjects.

  10. The effects of different learning environments on students' motivation for learning and their achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

    2013-09-01

    Research in higher education on the effects of student-centred versus lecture-based learning environments generally does not take into account the psychological need support provided in these learning environments. From a self-determination theory perspective, need support is important to study because it has been associated with benefits such as autonomous motivation and achievement. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of different learning environments on students' motivation for learning and achievement, while taking into account the perceived need support. First-year student teachers (N= 1,098) studying a child development course completed questionnaires assessing motivation and perceived need support. In addition, a prior knowledge test and case-based assessment were administered. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was set up consisting of four learning environments: (1) lectures, (2) case-based learning (CBL), (3) alternation of lectures and CBL, and (4) gradual implementation with lectures making way for CBL. Autonomous motivation and achievement were higher in the gradually implemented CBL environment, compared to the CBL environment. Concerning achievement, two additional effects were found; students in the lecture-based learning environment scored higher than students in the CBL environment, and students in the gradually implemented CBL environment scored higher than students in the alternated learning environment. Additionally, perceived need support was positively related to autonomous motivation, and negatively to controlled motivation. The study shows the importance of gradually introducing students to CBL, in terms of their autonomous motivation and achievement. Moreover, the study emphasizes the importance of perceived need support for students' motivation. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  11. EFFECTS OF 5E LEARNING CYCLE ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Osawaru Ajaja,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning cycle as an instructional strategy on biology andchemistry students achievement. To guide this study, six research hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level ofsignificance. The design of this study was 2x2x3x6 Pre-test Post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design.These included two instructional groups (experimental and control groups, sex (male and female, repeated testing (Pre,Post and follow-up tests, and six weeks of experience. The samples of the study included six senior secondary schools, 112science students, and 12 biology and chemistry teachers. The instruments used for this study were: teacher’s questionnaireon knowledge and use of learning cycle (KULC; and Biology and Chemistry Achievement Test (BCAT. The data collected wereanalyzed with simple percentage, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA and student t-test statistics. The major findings of thestudy included that only 30.43% and 26.31% of biology and chemistry teachers have the knowledge that learning cycle is aninstructional method; all the biology and chemistry teachers sampled have never used learning cycle as an instructionalmethod; learning cycle had a significant effect on students achievement in biology and chemistry; students taught withlearning cycle significantly achieved better in biology/chemistry Post-test than those taught with lecture method; the posttestscores of students in the learning cycle group increased over the period of experience; non-significant difference in Posttestscores between males and females taught with learning cycle; non-significant interaction effect between method andsex on achievement; and a significant higher retention of biology and chemistry knowledge by students taught with learningcycle than those taught with lecture method. It was concluded that the method seems an appropriate instructional modelthat could be used to solve the problems of

  12. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Ring, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships

  13. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the enzymes of the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, while bakers may develop an allergy and occupational asthma symptoms ... counts Continuing education center Find an allergist / immunologist Journals Login / My membership Search your symptoms Shop the ...

  14. Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  15. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann

    2013-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  16. The connection of strategic and operation activity in achieving of enterprise’s effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyanska Alla Stepanivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the relation between strategic enterprise efficiency and its operating activity is investigated. It is proposed to carry out the evaluation of the enterprise’s effectiveness on the basis of consideration as the enterprise’s strategic activity criteria which deal with creating of competitive advantages, achieving of sustainability and enterprise’s development potential in future periods, as well as the criteria of operating effectiveness evaluation. The methodical approach for evaluation of the strategic activities effectiveness on the base of calculating the resulting integral indicator with using of fuzzy logic method is proposed.

  17. Longitudinal Effects of Teacher Use of a Computer Data System on Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Wayman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Does data use make a difference in student achievement? Despite the field’s optimism on this matter, relatively few studies have attempted to quantify the effects of data use. These studies have often used the presence of a data use intervention (e.g., a data system or data coaching as a proxy for use, as opposed to tracking teachers’ direct interactions with data, via data system click logs, for example. Accordingly, the present study sought to address this methodological gap by exploring the 2-year effects of data use through a multilevel cross-classified model of teachers’ system interactions and student achievement. A significant relationship was found between system use and elementary reading, but no significant relationships were found for elementary math, junior high math, or junior high reading. The implications of this study on how to conceptualize and measure use, as well as how to support practitioners, are discussed.

  18. Divorce, approaches to learning, and children's academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis of mediated and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James Clyde; Amato, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) were used to test the hypothesis that approaches to learning (ATL) mediates the link between parental divorce and academic achievement. Fixed effects regression was utilized to test for mediation, and subsequent moderation analyses examining gender and age at time of divorce also were conducted. Results indicated that divorce was associated with less growth in test scores and that ATL mediated 18% and 12% of this association in reading and mathematics respectively. Parental divorce also was associated with larger negative effects for children who experienced divorce at an older age as well as for girls' mathematics test scores. These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of parental divorce on children's academic achievement and underscore the importance of focusing on the variability of child outcomes following parental divorce. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of Scratch environment on student’s achievement in teaching algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tekerek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Scratch environment in teaching algorithm in elementary school 6th grade Information and Communication Technologies course was examined. The research method was experimental method. Control group, pretest-posttest design of experimental research method and a convenience sample consisting of 60 6th grade students were used. The research instrument was achievement test to determine the effect of Scratch on learning algorithm. During the implementation process experiment group studied using Scratch and control group studied with traditional methods. The data was analyzed using independent-samples t-test, paired-samples t-test and ANCOVA statistics. According to findings there is no statically significant difference between posttest achievement scores of experiment and control groups. Similarly, In terms of gender there isn’t a statically significant difference between posttest scores of experiment and control groups.

  20. Effect of parents occupational exposures on risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Epidemiologic research on the effects of parental occupational exposures on fetal development has been limited. The National Natality and Fetal Mortality surveys obtained applicable data of probability samples of live births and fetal deaths which occurred in the US in 1980 among married women. Analyses were conducted for case groups of stillbirths (2,096 mothers, 3,170 fathers), preterm deliveries (<37 weeks completed gestation) (363 mothers, 552 fathers), and small-for gestational-age infants (218 mothers, 371 fathers) compared with controls. Occupational exposures were defined by industry of employment and by imputed exposures based on a job-exposure linkage system. For stillbirth, maternal work in the rubber, plastics, and synthetics industry and lead exposure and paternal employment in the textile industry had the largest odds ratios. Preterm birth was most strongly associated with maternal lead exposure, corroborating previous findings. Twofold increased risk of preterm delivery was found with paternal employment in the glass, clay, and stone; textile; and mining industries. Paternal exposures to x-rays and polyvinyl alcohol were associated with 1.5-fold increase in risk. The occupation of the mother was not associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant, in contrast to paternal employment in the art and textile industries. Several toxic agents were associated with risk elevation of 1.3 or greater for fathers, most notably benzene

  1. Occupational stress and its effect on job performance. A case study of medical house officers of district Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Rubina; Amjad, Shehla; Khan, Delawar

    2008-01-01

    Doctors especially house officers are under a great deal of stress related to a variety of occupational stressors. Occupational stressors contribute to organizational inefficiency, high staff turnover, absenteeism due to sickness, decreased quality, and quantity of practice, increased costs of health care, and decreased job satisfaction. One of the organizational outcomes that affected by occupational stress is job performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of job stress on job performance. The universe of the study is District Abbottabad and the complete population of house officers was targeted which were present at that time were 55. The data obtained through questionnaire was analyzed using the statistical methods including descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlation and multiple regression. The analysis showed strong support for the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between job stress and job performance indicating that there is high job stress in the house officers, resulting in low job performance. Correct stress management should start from improved health and good intrapersonal relationships. The prevention and management of workplace stress requires organizational level interventions, because it is the organization that creates the stress. Success in managing and preventing stress will depend on the culture in the organization. A culture of openness and understanding, rather than of criticism, is essential. Those house officers who had high level of job stress had low job performance. All the factors affected male house officers more than the female house officers.

  2. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful.

  3. The Effect of Students' Attitude and Portfolio Assessment Towards the Achievement of Students' Science Process Skill

    OpenAIRE

    AFRINAWATI, AFRINAWATI

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to discover the effect of students' attitude and portfolio assessment in biology towards the achievement of students' science process skill. The portfolio techniques applied in this research are portfolio process and portfolio product. This research was conducted in 52 and 72 High School in North Jakarta using quasi experiment method. Sample collection used cluster random sampling technique from 42 students. Data was obtained through survey on students' attitude and academ...

  4. The Effect of Web-Based Teaching Method on Academic Achievement in Tourism Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadır Köksalan; Tuncay Sevindik; Atınç Olcay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of web based teaching method on the academic achievement level of undergraduate students in Tourism Education department in the fall semester of 2009-2010 academic year. The research was carried out with 50 students (25 students in control group, 25 students in experimental group) who were studying at Tourism and Travel Management; and Tourism and Hotel Management Programs in Tourism and Hotel Management Vocational High School at Gazia...

  5. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive te...

  6. A's from Zzzz's? The Causal Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Carrell; Teny Maghakian; James E. West

    2011-01-01

    Recent sleep research finds that many adolescents are sleep-deprived because of both early school start times and changing sleep patterns during the teen years. This study identifies the causal effect of school start time on academic achievement by using two policy changes in the daily schedule at the US Air Force Academy along with the randomized placement of freshman students to courses and instructors. Results show that starting the school day 50 minutes later has a significant positive ef...

  7. Effect of Internal Factors and External Factors on Learning Achievement Intermediate Financial Accounting Course I

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, Syamsul; Diana, Nana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of internal and external factors of students on the achievement of intermediate financial accounting courses 1 partially and simultaneously. This type of research is quantitative, while the data used in this study is primary data in the form of questionnaires and secondary data in the form of midterm semester exam on intermediate financial accounting 1 semester odd academic year 2016/2017. Hypothesis testing using multiple regression analy...

  8. Effects of increasing child restraint use in reducing occupant injuries among children aged 0-5 years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao; Nakajima, Yukari

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, child restraint use among preschool children started to increase before compulsory child restraint use for children aged 0-5 years was introduced by legislation in April 2000. This study determined the effects of increased child restraint use in reducing motor vehicle occupant injuries among children aged 0-5 years. We obtained monthly police data of child vehicle occupant injuries from 1990 to 2009. We calculated monthly ratios of morbidity rates per population of children aged 0-5 years to those of children aged 6-9 years. Time trends of the morbidity rate ratios were analyzed using a joinpoint regression model to determine whether there were trend changes in child occupant injuries and when they occurred if there were trend changes. The morbidity rate ratios showed a slightly increasing trend of 0.03% per month (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.02% to 0.09%) until the change-point in December 1997 (95% CI, July 1996 to January 1999), which then changed to a decreasing trend of -0.14% per month (95% CI, -0.16 to -0.11), with an overall trend change of -0.17% (95% CI, -0.23 to -0.11). No change-point was identified in or around April 2000 when compulsory restraint use was introduced. The present study used comparative indicators relative to age groups that were not covered by the legislation and showed that a decreasing trend of occupant morbidity among children aged 0-5 years started before the introduction of compulsory restraint use. This change probably reflects the prelegislative voluntary increase in child restraint use.

  9. Effects of microhabitat and large-scale land use on stream salamander occupancy in the coalfields of Central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Sara E.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale coal mining practices, particularly surface coal extraction and associated valley fills as well as residential wastewater discharge, are of ecological concern for aquatic systems in central Appalachia. Identifying and quantifying alterations to ecosystems along a gradient of spatial scales is a necessary first-step to aid in mitigation of negative consequences to aquatic biota. In central Appalachian headwater streams, apart from fish, salamanders are the most abundant vertebrate predator that provide a significant intermediate trophic role linking aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Stream salamander species are considered to be sensitive to aquatic stressors and environmental alterations, as past research has shown linkages among microhabitat parameters, large-scale land use such as urbanization and logging, and salamander abundances. However, there is little information examining these relationships between environmental conditions and salamander occupancy in the coalfields of central Appalachia. In the summer of 2013, 70 sites (sampled two to three times each) in the southwest Virginia coalfields were visited to collect salamanders and quantify stream and riparian microhabitat parameters. Using an information-theoretic framework, effects of microhabitat and large-scale land use on stream salamander occupancy were compared. The findings indicate that Desmognathus spp. occupancy rates are more correlated to microhabitat parameters such as canopy cover than to large-scale land uses. However, Eurycea spp. occupancy rates had a strong association with large-scale land uses, particularly recent mining and forest cover within the watershed. These findings suggest that protection of riparian habitats is an important consideration for maintaining aquatic systems in central Appalachia. If this is not possible, restoration riparian areas should follow guidelines using quick-growing tree species that are native to Appalachian riparian areas. These types of trees

  10. Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangirana Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. Methods This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention, behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Results Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI, = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007. There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09. However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05. No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic

  11. Working memory and executive functions: effects of training on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titz, Cora; Karbach, Julia

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this review is to illustrate the role of working memory and executive functions for scholastic achievement as an introduction to the question of whether and how working memory and executive control training may improve academic abilities. The review of current research showed limited but converging evidence for positive effects of process-based complex working-memory training on academic abilities, particularly in the domain of reading. These benefits occurred in children suffering from cognitive and academic deficits as well as in healthy students. Transfer of training to mathematical abilities seemed to be very limited and to depend on the training regime and the characteristics of the study sample. A core issue in training research is whether high- or low-achieving children benefit more from cognitive training. Individual differences in terms of training-related benefits suggested that process-based working memory and executive control training often induced compensation effects with larger benefits in low performing individuals. Finally, we discuss the effects of process-based training in relation to other types of interventions aimed at improving academic achievement.

  12. Effects of digital game-based learning on student engagement and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Timothy W.

    This experimental study was designed to determine the effect of digital game-based learning on student engagement and academic achievement. The sample was comprised of 34 students enrolled in a secondary Biology class in a rural public school. The study utilized an experimental pretest-posttest design with switching replications. After random assignment, students participated in one of two supplemental learning activities: playing a digital game designed to review science concepts or participating in a lab to review the same concepts. Students subsequently switched activities. Student achievement data were collected on mastery of science concepts, and student engagement data were collected utilizing self- and teacher-reported measures. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Results demonstrated that the digital game was as effective as the lab activity at increasing teacher-reported student engagement and academic achievement. These findings may be of interest to school administrators or directors of teacher preparation programs on the potential effectiveness of digital games as a learning tool.

  13. Effectiveness of Powerpoint Presentation On Students’ Cognitive Achievement in Technical Drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amosa Isiaka Gambari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses importance of technology education and evidence of declining performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology subject. Benefits of PowerPoint presentation in classroom instruction as a means to improve classroom teaching in the developing countries are also discussed. The effectiveness of PowerPoint Presentation (PPT for teaching Technical Drawing concepts in Basic Technology was determined using a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent, non-randomized experimental group design. A 2x2x3 factorial design was employed. One hundred JSS 1 students (53 male and 47 female categorized into 29 high, 54 medium and 17 low achievers from two secondary schools in Abuja Metropolis formed the sample. The schools were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught some selected concepts from Technical Drawing using PowerPoint Presentation (PPT while Chalkboard method (CB was used for the control group. A validated Technical Drawing Achievement Test (TDAT comprising a 25-item multiple-choice test was employed for data collection. The reliability coefficient of TDAT was .88 using Kuder-Richardson (KR-20. The hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA and Sidak post-hoc analysis. Results revealed that the students taught with PPT performed better than their counterparts taught with CB. Also, high achievers performed better than medium and low achievers respectfully. The PPT was found also to be gender friendly. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the use of PPT should be encouraged in Nigerian schools.

  14. Academic achievement and adolescent drug use: an examination of reciprocal effects and correlated growth trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim was to examine correlated growth trajectories and reciprocal effects between academic achievement and drug use over the course of junior high school. One hundred and three male and 98 female students from 3 rural junior high schools were surveyed 4 times over the course of 3 years. Dual trajectory latent growth models were estimated. Growth trajectories of school achievement and drug use over the course of junior high were highly correlated. Students who demonstrated deteriorating achievement during the course of junior high school showed an increase in drug use during this same time frame. Cross-process regressions indicated that students who demonstrated superior academic achievement in sixth grade exhibited a shallower rate of increase in drug use (ie, their drug use escalated to a lesser extent). The processes of academic disengagement (as marked by deteriorating grades) and drug use during adolescence appear to be related to one another. Prevention initiatives aimed at keeping adolescents academically engaged in school may have protective benefits against escalation of drug use.

  15. The effect of seating preferences of the medical students on educational achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Parva, Mohammad; Ahrari, Iman; Tavana, Samar; Hemyari, Camellia; Pakshir, Keyvan; Jafari, Peyman; Sahraian, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The seat selection and classroom dynamics may have mutual influence on the student performance and participation in both assigned and random seating arrangement. The aim of the study was to understand the influence of seat selection on educational achievement. The seating positions of the medical students were recorded on an architectural plan during each class session and the means and standard deviations of the students' locations were calculated in X and Y orientations. The locations of the students in the class were analyzed based on three architectural classifications: interactional zone, distance from the board, and access to the aisles. Final exam scores were used to measure the students' educational achievement. Our results demonstrate that there is a statistically significant relationship between the student's locations in the class and their attendance and educational achievements. two factors may effect on educational achievement: student seating in the high interactional zone and minimal changes in seating location. Seating in the high interaction zone was directly associated with higher performance and inversely correlated with the percentage of absences. This observation is consistent with the view that students in the front of the classroom are likely more motivated and interact with the lecturer more than their classmates.

  16. Are training and transfer effects of working memory updating training modulated by achievement motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Xu, Yiwenjie; Fu, Junjun; Maes, Joseph H R

    2017-11-28

    Previous studies examining effects of working memory (WM) updating training revealed mixed results. One factor that might modulate training gains, and possibly also transfer of those gains to non-trained cognitive tasks, is achievement motivation. In the present Studies 1 and 2, students with either a high (HAM) or low (LAM) achievement motivation completed a 14-day visuospatial WM updating training program. In Study 2, the students also performed a set of tasks measuring other executive functions and fluid intelligence prior to and after training. In both studies, the HAM students displayed a larger training gain than the LAM students. Study 2 revealed that after training, both groups showed better performance on the near-transfer but not far-transfer tasks. Importantly, the differential training gain was not associated with better post-training performance for the HAM compared to the LAM students on any of the transfer tasks. These results are taken to support a modulatory role of achievement motivation on WM training benefits, but not on transfer of those benefits to other tasks. Possible reasons for the general improvement on the near-transfer tasks and the absence of a modulatory role of achievement motivation on transfer-task performance are discussed.

  17. Effects of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls on urinary metabolites of neurotransmitters: A cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putschögl, Franziska Maria; Gaum, Petra Maria; Schettgen, Thomas; Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika; Lang, Jessica

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are chemicals which were used for industrial purposes and are known to induce various adverse health effects. They are also known to be neurotoxic and numerous targets within the central nervous system have been identified in previous studies. Specifically, the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) are influenced by PCBs as indicated in studies involving animals. However, limited evidence has been published documenting PCB induced changes in the neurotransmitter system in humans. In the present study, we examined the association between a higher PCB body burden following occupational exposure and possible changes in human neurotransmitter metabolites. Within a medical surveillance programme called HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) that monitors adverse health effects of occupational PCB exposure, urine samples were obtained (n(T1) = 166; n(T2) = 177 and n(T3) = 141). The urinary concentrations of the metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA; for DA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA; for NE) were analyzed. Blood samples were obtained by vena puncture in order to determine the internal exposure to PCBs with human biomonitoring. A cross-sectional analysis indicated a significant negative effect of PCB exposure on HVA and VMA. Longitudinally, an initially higher exposure to higher chlorinated PCBs was followed by constant reduced HVA level over three consecutive years. Exploratory analyses show different long-term effects for different PCBs according to their chlorination degree. A higher exposure with lower chlorinated PCBs leads to an increase of VMA and HVA. Conversely, a higher exposure to all PCBs results in a reduction of HVA. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to document changes in neurotransmitter metabolites after occupational PCB exposure in humans. This finding advances evidence obtained from past research, and identifies one potential pathomechanism in the central dopaminergic system of

  18. Interactive support effects on career agency and occupational engagement among young adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Lyndsey.; Jeske, Debora.

    2016-01-01

    The PIC model by Gati and Asher describes three career decision making stages: pre-screening, in-depth exploration, and choice of career options. We consider the role that three different forms of support (general career support by parents, emotional/instrumental support, and informational support) may play for young adults in each of these three decision-making stages. The authors further propose that different forms of support may predict career agency and occupational engagement, which are...

  19. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on short-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Framke, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Ole Henning; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    with a crude RR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.69–0.99) and an adjusted RR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.69–1.01). Conclusions: Pre-school employees participating in an organizational-level occupational health intervention focusing on the core task at work had a lower incidence of short-term sickness absence during a 29-month follow...

  20. The effectiveness of Family Science and Technology Workshops on parental involvement, student achievement, and student curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, Lora Bechard

    The literature suggests that parental involvement in schools results in positive changes in students and that schools need to provide opportunities for parents to share in the learning process. Workshops are an effective method of engaging parents in the education of their children. This dissertation studies the effects of voluntary Family Science and Technology Workshops on elementary children's science interest and achievement, as well as on parents' collaboration in their child's education. The study involved 35 second and third-grade students and their parents who volunteered to participate. The parental volunteers were randomly assigned to either the control group (children attending the workshops without a parent) or the treatment group (children attending the workshops with a parent). The study was conducted in the Fall of 1995 over a four-week period. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to determine the effects of the workshops on children's science achievement and science curiosity, as well as on parents' involvement with their child's education. The study revealed that there was no significant statistical difference at the.05 level between the treatment/control groups in children's science achievement or science curiosity, or in parent's involvement with their children's education. However, the study did focus parental attention on effective education and points the way to more extensive research in this critical learning area. This dual study, that is, the effects of teaching basic technology to young students with the support of their parents, reflects the focus of the Salve Regina University Ph.D. program in which technology is examined in its effects on humans. In essence, this program investigates what it means to be human in an age of advanced technology.

  1. Trajectories of Math and Reading Achievement in Low Achieving Children in Elementary School: Effects of Early and Later Retention in Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Stephanie E.; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of retention or promotion in first grade on growth trajectories in mathematics and reading achievement over the elementary school years (grades 1–5). From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance, 363 children who were either promoted (n = 251) or retained (n = 112) in first grade could be successfully matched on 72 background variables. Achievement was measured annually using Woodcock-Johnson W scores; scores of retained children were shifted back one year to permit same-grade comparisons. Using longitudinal growth curve analysis, trajectories of math and reading scores for promoted and retained children were compared. Retained children received a one year boost in achievement; this boost fully dissipated by the end of elementary school. The pattern of subsequent retention in grades 2, 3 and 4 and placement in special education of the sample during the elementary school years is also described and their effects are explored. Policy implications for interventions for low achieving children are considered. PMID:23335818

  2. Occupational stressors in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikpeyma

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNursing provides a wide range of potential workplace stressors as it is  a profession that requires a high level of skill, teamworking in a variety of situations and provision  of 24-hour delivery of care .Occupational stress is a major factor of Staff sickness an  absenteeism.This study investigates the main occupational stressors in nursing profession in the  hope of identification and reducing it.MethodsIn this study a questionnaire consisting of three parts:demoghraphic data,the nurses  background and questions about occupational stress from Revised index fulfilled by 140 nurses.ResultsLack of reward for work well done(48/6%, Heavy workload(46/4% ,lack of Participation in decisions (39/3% , poor Control of work place(38/4%and lack of job  development (36/4% have been the main sources of Occupational stress for nurses.chronic  diseases, Night Shift working and working hours were positively associated with occupstional  stress.Conclusion Analysis indicated that effects of work factors on occupational stress are more than demoghraphic data. The findings of this study can assist health service organisations to provide an attractive working climate in order to decrease side effects and consequences of occupational stress. Furthermore, understanding this situation can help to develop coping strategies in order to reduce work-related stress.

  3. The effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in 5th grade science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Pamela Mccrea

    2007-12-01

    At-risk students show consistent patterns of under achievement and social maladjustment in school which leads to their demise in high school (McMillian & Reed, 1994). Similarly, special education students are at increased risk of not completing high school and do not perform as well on national achievement tests than their nondisabled peers (Land & Legters, 2002). It is possible that students at-risk for academic failure will not meet graduation requirements unless interventions are put in place to alleviate this problem. It has been documented that science textbooks contain difficult vocabulary and high reading levels that are challenging for struggling students. Using approaches such as activities oriented instruction, which supports the cooperative learning/peer tutoring model is one approach that has been successful with normally achieving and special education students. This research examined the effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements with peer tutoring on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in science. A crossover design was implemented in three fifth grade inclusive classes, consisting of typically achieving students, students at-risk, and students with learning disabilities. The participants included 16 at-risk students, three special education students and 44 normally achieving students. The science review activities were implemented during two consecutive science units. One unit covered Earth and Space science. The other unit covered Light and Sound. Each curriculum enhancement had identification and production level activities. The identification level provided prompts; the production level did not provide prompts. Pretest and posttest were administered. Overall findings of the study revealed a significant interaction between experimental condition and treatment order, suggesting an advantage for students using differentiated curriculum enhancements. Main effects analysis suggested that students performed better on one

  4. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  5. Advance organizers in a gross anatomy dissection course and their effects on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Kyung; Nam, Kwang-Il; Oh, Sun-A; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong; Hitchcock, Maurice A

    2013-04-01

    We presented two kinds of advance organizers (AOs), video clips and prosection, for a gross anatomy dissection course and compared their effects on academic achievement and student perception of the learning experience. In total, 141 students at Chonnam National University Medical School were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 (n = 70) was provided with video clips AO, whereas Group 2 (n = 71) was provided with prosection AO, the use of cadaveric specimens dissected by the course instructor. Student self-assessment scores regarding the learning objectives of upper limb anatomy improved significantly in both groups. Academic achievement scores in Group 2 were significantly higher than those in Group 1, although the self-assessment scores were not significantly different between the groups. Additionally, students in Group 2 responded significantly more positively to the statements about perception of the learning experience such as helping them understand the course content and concepts, decreasing anxiety about the dissection course, and participating actively in the dissection. It would seem that the application of prosection as an AO improved academic achievement and increased student engagement and satisfaction. This study will contribute to designing effective AOs and developing a teaching and learning strategy for a gross anatomy dissection course. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Guided Lesson Study: Effects on Teacher Competence and Students’ Achievement in Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lou S. Lucenario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Guided Lesson Study (PCKLS as an intervention to develop PCK competencies among teachers and consequently enhance student achievement in terms of conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Using quasi-experimental design, teacher competencies and student achievement in the PCKLS group and the conventional group were compared. In the PCKLS group, the intervention involved planning the lesson by the research team, teaching the planned lesson while PCK observations were made by the researcher and another teacher from the group, including a feedback meeting, implementing the improvements in the reteach stage of the lesson study cycle by another teacher from the research team, and, finally, revising lesson plans based on the consolidated suggestions for improvement. Analyses of data showed that there was a significant difference in the science teacher competencies of the PCKLS group teacher respondents compared to those of the conventional group. Also, student respondents showed a significant increase on mean scores in terms of conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Therefore, it was concluded that PCKLS was an effective method to develop the teachers’ PCK competencies and student achievement in terms of conceptual understanding and problem solving. This study recommends that this intervention be used across chemistry topics and in other science classes such as Biology, Earth and Environmental Science, Physics, and Mathematics.

  7. The effect of iodine-deficiency disorders on academic achievement of schoolchildren in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolka, Eskinder; Shiferaw, Solomon; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of iodine deficiency on academic achievement of schoolchildren in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. School-based comparative cross-sectional study. Primary school in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. A sample population of 270 children with goitre and 264 without goitre. All students in each class were examined for the presence of goitre and classified based on WHO recommendations. Among children with goitre, a higher proportion (54·8 %) was female and the proportion increased with age. The odds of scoring low on school performance was higher among children whose fathers were illiterate (adjusted OR = 1·9; 95 % CI 1·1, 3·5) and those who were absent for more than 5 d in the last academic year (adjusted OR = 1·5; 95 % CI 1·1, 2·3). Goitre was significantly associated with low academic achievement (adjusted OR = 1·8; 95 % CI 1·2, 2·5). The study showed that the presence of goitre has a negative effect on academic achievement even after accounting for parental education and absenteeism from school. Awareness of endemic goitre and its impact on school performance, and an emphasis on prevention and control by concerned bodies, are recommended to alleviate the problem.

  8. Effects of Gloves and Pulling Task on Achievable Downward Pull Forces on a Rung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschorner, Kurt E; Slota, Gregory P; Pliner, Erika M; Spaho, Egli; Seo, Na Jin

    2018-03-01

    Objective We examined the impacts of pulling task (breakaway and pull-down tasks at different postures), glove use, and their interaction on achievable downward pull forces from a ladder rung. Background Posture, glove use, and the type of pulling task are known to affect the achievable forces. However, a gap in the literature exists regarding how these factors affect achievable downward pulling forces, which are relevant to recovery from a perturbation during ladder climbing. Methods Forty subjects completed four downward pulling tasks (breakaway force; pull force at maximum height, shoulder height, and a middle height), using three glove conditions with varying coefficient of friction (COF) levels (cotton glove, low COF; bare hand, moderate COF; and latex-coated glove, high COF) with their dominant and nondominant hand. The outcome variable was the maximum force normalized to body weight. Results The highest forces were observed for the highest hand postures (breakaway and maximum height). Increased COF led to higher forces and had a larger effect on breakaway force than the other tasks. The dominant hand was associated with higher forces than the nondominant hand. Male subjects generated greater forces than female subjects, particularly for higher hand positions. Conclusion This study suggests that a higher hand position on the ladder, while avoiding low-friction gloves, may be effective for improving recovery from ladder perturbations. Application This study may guide preferred climbing strategies (particularly those that lead to a higher hand position) for improving recovery from a perturbation during ladder climbing.

  9. The effects of mastery learning correctives on academic achievement and student affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Sean Vincent

    This study was conducted to examine the differences in high school biology achievement and student affect towards teacher and content from the use of individualized correctives as part of mastery learning. An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used during the fall 2011 semester. Over a thirteen-week period, 99 students in five general-level biology classes received mastery learning instruction covering several state standards. Of the 99 students, 50 received individualized correctives based on the results of formative assessment. The other 49 students received a non-individualized study guide after the formative assessment. A written summative examination was used to measure achievement. The Instructional Affect Assessment Instrument (IAAI) was used to measure student affect. The written summative evaluation and the IAAI were administered as a pretest to assure the independence of the covariate and treatment effect. Data were analyzed with a multivariate repeated measures test and ANCOVAs. No differences were found between the individualized corrective group and the general study guide group in terms of achievement or student affect toward content or teacher. Results indicate that individualized correctives were not the key factor in mastery learning for this population and type of science content. Further study on the impact of individualized correctives in different subject areas and populations is recommended as well as additional research on the effect of repeated testing.

  10. The Effect of Co-Teaching on Student Achievement in Ninth Grade Physical Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFever, Karen M.

    Co-teaching is a method that is increasing within schools across the US as educators strive to leave no child behind. It is a costly method, having two paid instructors in one classroom, with an average of 24 students shared between them. If it significantly increases the achievement of all students, it is well worth the costs involved. However, few studies have analyzed the effectiveness of this method on student achievement. This research follows the academic accomplishments of students in a ninth grade physical science course. Nine sections of the course "Force and Motion" were taught with a single teacher, and two additional sections were co-taught, one led by a science-certified and special educator, and another co-taught by two science certified teachers. Subgroup achievement performance was analyzed to determine whether significant differences exist between students with or without IEPs, as well as other factors such as free and reduced lunch status or gender. The results show significance with the presence of a co-teacher, while there is minimal effect size of co-teaching in this study for students with IEPs. The benefactors in these ninth grade co-taught classes were the students without IEPs, an unintended result of co-teaching.

  11. Which Depressive Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Are Perceived by Patients as Interfering Most with Occupational Functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning. This study sought to determine which depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients with MDD to have the greatest interference on work functioning. Methods. 164 consecutive patients with MDD by DSM-IV criteria completed a standard assessment that included a self-rated questionnaire about the degree to which symptoms and side effects interfered with work functioning. Results. The symptoms perceived by patients as interfering most with work functioning were fatigue and low energy, insomnia, concentration and memory problems, anxiety, and irritability. The medication side effects rated as interfering most with work functioning were daytime sedation, insomnia, headache, and agitation/anxiety. There were no differences between men and women in symptoms or side effects that were perceived as interfering with work functioning. Limitations. This was a cross-sectional study; only subjective assessments of work functioning were obtained; the fact that patients were using varied medications acts as a potential confound. Conclusions. Specific depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients as interfering more with occupational functioning than others. These factors should be considered in treatment selection (e.g., in the choice of antidepressant in working patients with MDD.

  12. Essays on Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  13. The Effect of Collaborative Strategic Reading on Grade Six Students’ Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Tamah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the language skills to master by Indonesian EFL learners is reading. In order to assist learners comprehend reading texts, teachers are challenged to apply various teaching strategies. As this paper focuses on teaching reading, two teaching strategies dealing with reading instruction are compared. To be specific, in this paper the writers conduct a study to find the difference between Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR and teacher-centered teaching strategy (by applying skimming and scanning. This study was a quasi experimental, which was conducted upon the sixth graders of an elementary school. The finding showed that reading achievements of the students who are taught using CSR and teacher-centered teaching strategy are not significantly different. Nevertheless, this study using Cohen’s d formula finds that CSR gave a small effect on students’ reading achievement.

  14. HEALTH-RISK BEHAVIOUR IN REGARD OF FAMILY STRUCTURE AND ITS EFFECT ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács, Karolina Eszter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of health-risk behaviours like smoking, alcohol consumption and substance use is usually higher in adolescence. In addition, its appearance is higher among students coming from non-intact families. These factors also have a strong influence on academic achievement as students from fragile families and students having these health-damaging habits tend to be less effective. According to our results, four different student clusters can be detected regarding health behaviour (traditional risk-takers, hard risk-takers, ambivalent students and risk-avoiders. Ambivalent students reached the best achievement while hard risk-takers showed the poorest efficacy. Finally, students from intact families showed better results compared to their peers from single-parent or patchwork families.

  15. Effects of Thematic-Based Instruction on Students’ Academic Achievement and Attitudes Towards English Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Baş

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of thematic-based instruction on elementary students’ academic achievement and attitudes towards English course. The research was carried out in 2011–2012 education-instruction year in an elementary school in Niğde province. Totally 60 students in two different classes in the 6th grade of this school participated in the study. The pre/post-test control group quasi-experimental research model was used in this study. In order to test the significance between the groups, the independent samples t test was adopted in the study. The results of the research showed a significant difference amongst academic achievement and attitudes towards course in favor of the experimental group.

  16. The Feminization of Primary Education: Effects of Teachers' Sex on Pupil Achievement, Attitudes and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert

    2007-03-01

    Since the mid-1990s, considerable concern has been expressed about the feminization of education. The underlying assumption is that the increasing number of female teachers is leading to a lack of male role models, which may then have negative consequences for the achievement and behaviour of boys in particular. For this reason, policy is currently being pursued in several countries to increase the number of male teachers. In the present article, the theoretical foundation for this policy will be shown to be weak at best. To test this empirically, a large-scale study of Dutch primary schools was conducted, which involved 5181 grade eight pupils, 251 teachers and 163 schools. This study confirmed that teacher sex has no effect whatsoever on the achievement, attitudes or behaviour of pupils. This finding holds for both boys and girls, for both minority and non-minority pupils and for both children from lower and higher social-economic milieus.

  17. A new high school science program and its effect on student achievement in mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Robert

    Student achievement in mathematics and science is a high educational priority worldwide. The American educational system is not meeting its objectives for these subjects: our students are performing below international standards. The problem is endemic, leading to the conclusion that it is structural. During the last seven years, I have led the creation and implementation of a program whose aim is to address this problem. The structure of this program stresses horizontal and vertical curriculum articulations in order to increase curriculum efficiency and meaningfulness to students. My first aim, in conducting this study, was to determine the program's effectiveness. Since this was a long term program created in a real world environment it would be difficult to use experimental or quasi-experimental analysis. However, I was able to develop a plausible argument for the effectiveness of the program by using two measures to create a baseline for student aptitude and three measures to determine student achievement. Together these showed that the school's students, while typical of those in New Jersey, achieved very positive results in mathematic and science. The likelihood that the new program was responsible for this was enhanced by the fact that the verbal and mathematical aptitudes of the students were comparable, but their achievement in areas outside mathematic and science were not exceptional. My second aim was to provide documentation so that the program could be replicated at other schools. This included the scope and sequence of the mathematics and science courses; the curricula of the physics courses; an explanation the pedagogical approach used in the physics courses, and sample chapters of a textbook being written to support the first year physic course. Whiles those documents supply a snapshot of the current state of the program; they are probably insufficient to replicate it. This would also require an understanding of the program's rationale. Towards this

  18. Pygmalion effects in the classroom : Teacher expectancy effects on students' math achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, Alena; Flunger, Barbara; Nagengast, Benjamin; Jonkmann, Kathrin; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    According to the Pygmalion effect, teachers' expectancies affect students' academic progress. Many empirical studies have supported the predictions of the Pygmalion effect, but the effect sizes have tended to be small to moderate. Furthermore, almost all existing studies have examined teacher

  19. Examining the Influence of Occupational Therapy and Its Effectiveness in Long-Term Care on Dementia Patients Through Ontology-Based Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kwoting; Change, Chingwei; Yuliao, Miao; Chi, Yenping

    Over the past decade, the number of long-term care (LTC) residents has increased, and many have accepted treatments such as medication, rehabilitation and occupational therapy. This study discusses the effectiveness of occupational therapy when given to dementia patients of different contexts. The results of this study showed that patients of a good condition in the first stage present a more positive attitude towards participation in the occupational therapy designed by the institution; therefore, they have a greater chance of their condition improving or remaining the same. However, patients of an average condition have a more passive attitude towards taking part in any therapy; therefore, they have a greater chance of their condition deteriorating. In conclusion, occupational therapy has an effect on all kinds of patients.

  20. WHEDA study: effectiveness of occupational therapy at home for older people with dementia and their caregivers--the design of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial evaluating a Dutch programme in seven German centres.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt-Radloff, S.; Graff, M.J.L.; Leonhart, R.; Schornstein, K.; Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Huell, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent Dutch mono-centre randomised controlled trial has shown that occupational therapy improves daily functioning in dementia. The aim of this present study is to compare the effects of the Dutch community occupational therapy programme with a community occupational therapy