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Sample records for achieving behavioral control

  1. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  2. FISCAL POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE FISCAL CONTROL AND ENTITY BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpiu GHERMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an actual theme, determined by achievements of tax control in Moldova and its impact on the behaviour of the entity as important elements of fiscal policy. There are examined different methods for differentiating the problem, supplemented by deduction, induction, synthesis, analysis of defining phenomena of fiscal policy and its elements. The methodology used in this study is based on assessments of the theory, studies and interpretations of specialized literature and analyzes the practical activities specific for taxation at national, European and international levels, depending on which some opinions, conclusions and proposals were founded and formulated, to minimize the impact of tax evasion and fraud.

  3. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  4. Student prosocial behavior and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Spasenović Vera Z.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Attention first focuses on the issue of prosocial behavior defining, making it operational and measuring it. Next consideration is given to the ways that prosocial behavior contributes to academic achievement. It is thought that prosocial behavior can produce indirect effects on student prosocial behavior because it is bound to certain academically relevant forms of behavior leading to successful lear...

  5. Predicting Academic Achievement from Classroom Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Flynt, Cynthia J.

    2008-01-01

    PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT FROM CLASSROOM BEHAVIORS by Cynthia J. Flynt Nancy Bodenhorn & Kusum Singh, Co-Chairs Counselor Education (ABSTRACT) This study examined the influence of behaviors exhibited in the classroom on reading and math achievement in the first, third and eighth grades; and the influence of teacher perceptions on reading and math achievement of African-Americans versus White students and male versus female students. Lastly, the study examined te...

  6. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  7. Student prosocial behavior and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasenović Vera Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Attention first focuses on the issue of prosocial behavior defining, making it operational and measuring it. Next consideration is given to the ways that prosocial behavior contributes to academic achievement. It is thought that prosocial behavior can produce indirect effects on student prosocial behavior because it is bound to certain academically relevant forms of behavior leading to successful learning and work. Also, correlation is interpreted by means of teacher’s preferences of prosocial students, which is reflected in teacher expectations and behavior towards students but in evaluating their work too. In addition, prosocial behavior may produce direct effects, for it is through peer prosocial interactions that positive intellectual exchange is performed, which contributes to more successful mastering of teaching content. The paper provides a survey of investigations whose results indicate that there exists correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Also, consideration is given to possible methods and treatments for encouraging prosocial behavior in school context, especially the role of teacher in the process and the importance of the program for promoting student prosocial skills.

  8. Home media and children's achievement and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls, and for Black but not White boys. Increased video game play was associated with an improved ability to solve applied problems for Black girls but lower verbal achievement for all girls. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems. © 2010 The Author. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases.

  10. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa; de Araújo, Alberto José; de Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. PMID:27832238

  11. Smoking control: challenges and achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da; Araújo, Alberto José de; Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias de; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. RESUMO O tabagismo é o fator de risco mais prevenível e controlável em saúde e, por isso, precisa ter a máxima atenção e ser muito mais enfocado por todos os profissionais da saúde. O tabaco é um produto de alta rentabilidade pela sua grande produção e pelo elevado número de consumidores. As políticas de controle e os recursos terapêuticos para o tabagismo avançaram muito nos últimos anos e têm mostrado resultados altamente satisfatórios, particularmente no Brasil. Entretanto, ainda resta um longo caminho a ser percorrido para que se possa considerar o tabagismo como uma doença controlada sob o ponto de vista da saúde pública. Já se observam modificações do comportamento da sociedade com relação ao tabagismo, mas ainda em escala muito lenta, de modo que os pneumologistas têm nesse setor um campo

  12. Achieving Drug and Alcohol Abstinence Among Recently Incarcerated Homeless Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Case Management With a Health Promotion Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Smeltzer, Jolene; Salem, Benissa E; Yadav, Kartik; Ekstrand, Maria L; Turner, Susan F; Faucette, Mark

    Homeless female ex-offenders (homeless female offenders) exiting jail and prison are at a critical juncture during reentry and transitioning into the community setting. The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of a dialectical behavioral therapy-case management (DBT-CM) program with a health promotion (HP) program on achieving drug and alcohol abstinence among female parolees/probationers residing in the community. We conducted a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial with 130 female parolees/probationers (aged 19-64 years) residing in the community randomly assigned to either DBT-CM (n = 65) or HP (n = 65). The trial was conducted in four community-based partner sites in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, from February 2015 to November 2016. Treatment assignment was carried out using a computer-based urn randomization program. The primary outcome was drug and alcohol use abstinence at 6-month follow up. Analysis was based on data from 116 participants with complete outcome data. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that the DBT-CM program remained an independent positive predictor of decrease in drug use among the DBT-CM participants at 6 months (p = .01) as compared with the HP program participants. Being non-White (p < .05) and having higher depressive symptom scores (p < .05) were associated with lower odds of drug use abstinence (i.e., increased the odds of drug use) at 6 months. DBT-CM increased drug and alcohol abstinence at 6-month follow-up, compared to an HP program.

  13. Home Media and Children’s Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6–12 year olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching television at home in 1997 and 2003 and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computers more than boys and Black children’s achievement benefited more from greater computer use than did that of White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls and Black boys, but not White boys. Greater computer play was also associated with a lower risk of becoming socially isolated among girls. Computer use does not crowd out positive learning-related activities, whereas video game playing does. Consequently, increased video game play had both positive and negative associations with the achievement of girls but not boys. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems. PMID:20840243

  14. Essays on Academic Achievement and Student Behavior in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Wael Soheil

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the student academic achievement through various mechanisms, put in place by the public school district, classroom student behavior, and negative external shocks to the students' living environment. I examine the impacts of various treatments on student short and long run academic outcomes such as math and English test…

  15. Home Environmental and Behavioral Risk Indices for Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Ennis, Chelsea R; Hart, Sara A; Mikolajewski, Amy J; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to identify home environmental and temperament/behavior variables that best predict standardized reading comprehension scores among school-aged children. Data from 269 children aged 9-16 ( M = 12.08; SD = 1.62) were used in discriminant function analyses to create the Home and Behavior indices. Family income was controlled in each index. The final Home and Behavior models each classified around 75% of cases correctly (reading comprehension at grade level vs. not). Each index was then used to predict other outcomes related to reading. Results showed that Home and/or Behavior accounted for 4-7% of the variance in reading fluency and spelling and 20-35% of the variance in parent-rated problems in math, social anxiety, and other dimensions. These metrics show promise as environmental and temperament/behavior risk scores that could be used to predict and potentially screen for further assessment of reading related problems.

  16. Enriching the hierarchical model of achievement motivation: autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-12-01

    The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between achievement motives and outcomes. We tested whether mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous and controlling reasons would jointly explain the relation between achievement motives (i.e., fear of failure and need for achievement) and learning strategies (Study 1). Additionally, we examined whether the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying learners' dominant achievement goal would account for the link between achievement motives and the educational outcomes of learning strategies and cheating (Study 2). Six hundred and six Greek adolescent students (Mage = 15.05, SD = 1.43) and 435 university students (Mage M = 20.51, SD = 2.80) participated in studies 1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, a correlational design was used and the hypotheses were tested via path modelling. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals mediated, respectively, the relation of need for achievement and fear of failure to aspects of learning outcomes. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals could further explain learners' functioning in achievement settings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Achievement and School Behavior among Children with Epilepsy.

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    Matthews, Wendy S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the school behavior of 15 epileptic children with that of diabetic and healthy children. The epileptic children were more likely to attribute the success or failure of their school performance to unknown sources of control, and to hold less positive feelings about school and their own self-worth. (Author)

  18. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

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    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  19. Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 and high school academic achievement: longitudinal latent variable modeling.

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    Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko

    2011-02-28

    Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychoticism and disruptive behavior can be also good predictors of school achievement.

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    Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Widaman, Keith; Mansur-Alves, Marcela; Bacelar, Tatiane Dias; Saldanha, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The relations of Gf (Standard Progressive Matrices Raven), Gc (verbal scale of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version), personality dimensions (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Junior Version), and disruptive behavior (TDAH scale) with school achievement (measured by TDE test and PISA test) were investigated. Two samples of students (total N = 534) representing a broad range of socioeconomic status (SES) participated in this study. Path models were conducted. The results demonstrated that (1) in both samples no sex differences related to school achievement were found; (2) in the first sample, after controlling for age and SES differences, Gf and psychoticism predicted (.38 and -.13, respectively) school achievement (measured by TDE test); (3) in the second sample, after controlling for SES differences to which additional measures were administered, Gf and Gc positively predicted (.22 and .40, respectively) school achievement (measured by PISA test). In addition, psychoticism and disruptive behavior also predicted school performance (-.14 and -.28, respectively). Some theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. The association between educational achievements, career aspirations, achievement motives and oral hygiene behavior among dental students of Udaipur, India.

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    Asawa, Kailash; Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Bhat, Nagesh; Bapat, Salil; Gupta, Vivek; Jalihal, Sagar

    2014-10-01

    There are several factors which influence oral hygiene behavior of an individual. Educational achievements, career aspirations and achievement motives of individuals are some of those factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether educational achievements, career aspirations and achievement motives have associations with oral hygiene behavior among dental students of Udaipur, India. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among all (n=200) 1st year dental students from all dental colleges of Udaipur City, India. Self-administered structured questions were used to assess their educational achievements, career aspirations and oral hygiene behavior (OHB). Achievement motives were assessed using Achievement Motive Scale developed by Lang and Fries (2006). Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression tests were used in data analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Students with better educational achievements undergone regular dental check-up (30.48%) (p=0.03) and used other oral hygiene aids (90.24%) (p=0.01). Tooth brushing frequency, time and replacement time of tooth brush were found to be significantly associated with career aspiration (p=0.007; p=0.002; p=0.00 respectively). Achievement motives did not have statistically significant association with oral hygiene behavior. Educational achievements and career aspirations appear to be associated with oral hygiene behavior of young dental students. Students with higher career aspirations practiced better oral hygiene behavior. There was no significant relationship between achievement motives and oral hygiene behavior.

  2. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  3. The Effect of Perceived Motivational Structure of Classroom on Achievement Behaviors

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    Siavash Talepasand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of perceived motivational structure of classroom on achievement behaviors (the choice of problem, effort, persistence in solving algorithm and flowchart problems. There were 45 high school male students (Mean age = 17 years old in the third grade of computer field in three classes. Classes were divided into two experimental and one control group. Instructional content was given in 10 sessions for 180 minutes. The variables of choice, effort, and persistence were collected by direct as-sessment method. A pre-test and post-test design was used. The Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicated that mastery structure had positive effect on the amount of effort and persistence in solving algorithm and flowchart problems in comparison with control group. Mastery structure in comparison with performance structure increased the amount of effort in solving problems significantly. In addition, an interactive effect between previous achieve-ment and perceived structure of classroom was achieved in a mastery level. The amount of persistence in that of students with very weak previous achievement was more than students with average previous achievement. The find-ing of this study is compatible with the theory of achievement goal and illustrates that the mastery structure plays an effective role in forming achievement behaviors.

  4. Health-Related Behaviors and Academic Achievement Among High School Students - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Tiu, Georgianne F; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Michael, Shannon L; Merlo, Caitlin L; Lee, Sarah M; Bohm, Michele K; Annor, Francis; Ethier, Kathleen A

    2017-09-08

    Studies have shown links between educational outcomes such as letter grades, test scores, or other measures of academic achievement, and health-related behaviors (1-4). However, as reported in a 2013 systematic review, many of these studies have used samples that are not nationally representative, and quite a few studies are now at least 2 decades old (1). To update the relevant data, CDC analyzed results from the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a biennial, cross-sectional, school-based survey measuring health-related behaviors among U.S. students in grades 9-12. Analyses assessed relationships between academic achievement (i.e., self-reported letter grades in school) and 30 health-related behaviors (categorized as dietary behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, violence-related behaviors, and suicide-related behaviors) that contribute to leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents in the United States (5). Logistic regression models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school found that students who earned mostly A's, mostly B's, or mostly C's had statistically significantly higher prevalence estimates for most protective health-related behaviors and significantly lower prevalence estimates for most health-related risk behaviors than did students with mostly D's/F's. These findings highlight the link between health-related behaviors and education outcomes, suggesting that education and public health professionals can find their respective education and health improvement goals to be mutually beneficial. Education and public health professionals might benefit from collaborating to achieve both improved education and health outcomes for youths.

  5. How Do Student Prior Achievement and Homework Behaviors Relate to Perceived Parental Involvement in Homework?

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    José C. Núñez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how students’ prior achievement is related to their homework behaviors (i.e., time spent on homework, homework time management, and amount of homework, and to their perceptions of parental involvement in homework (i.e., parental control and parental support. A total of 1250 secondary students from 7 to 10th grade participated in the study. Structural equation models were fitted to the data, compared, and a partial mediation model was chosen. The results indicated that students’ prior academic performance was significantly associated with both of the students’ homework variables, with direct and indirect results linking achievement and homework behaviors with perceived parental control and support behaviors about homework. Low-achieving students, in particular, perceived more parental control of homework in the secondary grades. These results, together with those of previous research, suggest a recursive relationship between secondary school students’ achievement and their perceptions of parental involvement in homework, which represents the process of student learning and family engagement over time. Study limitations and educational implications are discussed.

  6. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children…

  7. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem

  8. Ethylene Production Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Compliance Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    This July 2006 document is intended to help owners and operators of ethylene processes understand and comply with EPA's maximum achievable control technology standards promulgated on July 12, 2002, as amended on April 13, 2005 and April 20, 2006.

  9. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  10. The effect of A teacher questioning strategy training program on teaching behavior, student achievement, and retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Paul B.; Schuck, Robert F.

    The use of questions in the classroom has been employed throughout the recorded history of teaching. One still hears the term Socratic method during discussions of questioning procedures. The use of teacher questions is presently viewed as a viable procedure for effective instruction. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of training teachers in the use of a questioning technique and the resultant effect upon student learning. The Post-Test Only Control Group Design was used in randomly assigning teachers and students to experimental and control groups. A group of teachers was trained in the use of a specific questioning technique. Follow-up periodic observations were made of questioning technique behavior while teaching science units to groups of students. Post-unit achievement tests were administered to the student groups to obtain evidence of a relationship between the implementation of specific types of teacher questions and student achievement and retention. Analysis of observation data indicated a higher use of managerial and rhetorical questions by the control group than the experimental group. The experimental group employed a greater number of recall and data gathering questions as well as higher order data processing and data verification type questions. The student posttest achievement scores for both units of instruction were greater for the experimental groups than for the control groups. The retention scores for both units were Beater for the experimental groups than for the control groups.

  11. The Decision Tree: A Tool for Achieving Behavioral Change.

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    Saren, Dru

    1999-01-01

    Presents a "Decision Tree" process for structuring team decision making and problem solving about specific student behavioral goals. The Decision Tree involves a sequence of questions/decisions that can be answered in "yes/no" terms. Questions address reasonableness of the goal, time factors, importance of the goal, responsibilities, safety,…

  12. Closing the achievement gap: the association of racial climate with achievement and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Erica; Aber, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school racial climate and students' self-reports of academic and discipline outcomes, including whether racial climate mediated and/or moderated the relationship between race and outcomes. Using the Racial Climate Survey-High School Version (M. Aber et al., unpublished), data were gathered from African American (n = 382) and European American students (n = 1456) regarding their perceptions of racial climate. About 18% of the respondents were low-income and approximately 50% were male. Positive perceptions of the racial climate were associated with higher student achievement and fewer discipline problems. Further, race moderated the relationship between racial climate and both achievement and discipline outcomes. Finally, racial differences in students' grades and discipline outcomes were associated with differences in perceptions of racial climate. Results suggest careful attention should be given to the racial climate of secondary schools, particularly for adolescents who perceive schools as unfair.

  13. Instructional Style, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement Behavior Patterns of Schoolchildren

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    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the performance characteristics and differences between English and Oriya medium school children on various cognitive processing, reading, academic achievement, and teacher perception measures. The sample consists of 243 schoolchildren, 120 from Grade IV and 123 from Grade VII from three different schools of Cuttack city in Orissa, India. The children were individually administered the Figure-Copying, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Matching Familiar Figure Task, Serial Recall, Digit-Span, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children, Block Design, Cloze Reading Comprehension, and Oral Reading tasks. Classroom Achievement scores on different subjects and the teachers’ ratings about their students were also taken. Results revealed that children reading in English medium schools outperformed their Oriya medium counterparts in some cognitive measures such as Figure Copying, MFFT, RPM, and Digit-Span tasks irrespective of levels. However, the children studying in Oriya medium schools scored higher in Reading Comprehension task and commit less error compared with their English medium counterparts. However, in case of academic achievement measures at primary level, the Oriya medium children performed better in social science, whereas the English medium students excelled in first language and mathematics. The teachers of Oriya medium schools also rated their children better in general conduct, motivation, and effort in schoolwork, whereas, at the secondary level, there was no difference between these two groups in academic achievement or teacher perception measures.

  14. Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

  15. New achievements in the EAST plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Q.P., E-mail: qpyuan@ipp.ac.c [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Xiao, B.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Penaflor, B.G.; Piglowski, D.A. [General Atomics, DIII-D National Fusion Facility, San Diego, CA (United States); Liu, L.Z. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Johnson, R.D.; Walker, M.L.; Humphreys, D.A. [General Atomics, DIII-D National Fusion Facility, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In order to realize the low latency and distortion-free signal transmission between the plasma control system (PCS) and servo systems, the digital output structure configured with reflective memory board (RFM) was adopted in EAST PCS. And the enhanced performances are reported. Another achievement made in the latest EAST PCS was the implementation of density control algorithm, which controlled the line average density in either voltage or width modulation mode. The new integrated algorithm improved the precision of density calculation and control performance greatly. The details and experiment results are presented in this paper.

  16. Neuroengineering control and regulation of behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Radzewicz, C.; Mankiewicz, L.; Hottowy, P.; Knapska, E.; Konopka, W.; Kublik, E.; Radwańska, K.; Waleszczyk, W. J.; Wójcik, D. K.

    2014-11-01

    To monitor neuronal circuits involved in emotional modulation of sensory processing we proposed a plan to establish novel research techniques combining recent biological, technical and analytical discoveries. The project was granted by National Science Center and we started to build a new experimental model for studying the selected circuits of genetically marked and behaviorally activated neurons. To achieve this goal we will combine the pioneering, interdisciplinary expertise of four Polish institutions: (i) the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology (Polish Academy of Sciences) will deliver the expertise on genetically modified mice and rats, mapping of the neuronal circuits activated by behavior, monitoring complex behaviors measured in the IntelliCage system, electrophysiological brain activity recordings by multielectrodes in behaving animals, analysis and modeling of behavioral and electrophysiological data; (ii) the AGH University of Science and Technology (Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Sciences) will use its experience in high-throughput electronics to build multichannel systems for recording the brain activity of behaving animals; (iii) the University of Warsaw (Faculty of Physics) and (iv) the Center for Theoretical Physics (Polish Academy of Sciences) will construct optoelectronic device for remote control of opto-animals produced in the Nencki Institute based on the unique experience in laser sources, studies of light propagation and its interaction with condensed media, wireless medical robotic systems, fast readout opto-electronics with control software and micromechanics.

  17. Leading in the Middle: Leadership Behaviors of Middle Level Principals that Promote Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minus, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between middle school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement. In particular, this study investigated the specific principal leadership behaviors of middle level principals that promote student achievement in school. A secondary variable for consideration was student…

  18. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be

  19. Alternative Teaching Strategies; Helping Behaviorally Troubled Children Achieve. A Guide for Teachers and Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Marshall S.; Spivack, George

    This book provides (1) specific information about overt classroom behaviors that affect or reflect academic success or failure, and (2) information and suggestions about alternative teaching strategies that may be used to increase behavioral effectiveness and subsequent academic achievement. The focus of the book is on specific behaviors, behavior…

  20. The Association Between Student Reports of Classmates’ Disruptive Behavior and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Blank

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Classroom disciplinary climate and its correlation to students’ performance is a widely debated issue. Policy reports tend to assume that classroom disruptions interfere with the learning experience. Empirical evidence for this assumption, however, which carefully distinguishes classroom climate from the school climate in general, is still wanting. This study examines the relation between student reports regarding disciplinary infractions to student achievement, with a special focus on classroom disruptions. Multilevel regressions were used to estimate the contribution of classroom and school disciplinary infractions on eighth-grade students’ test scores. Reports of disruptive behavior proved to correlate negatively with test scores, whereas the effect of other school and classroom characteristics, including teachers’ attitudes and school disciplinary policy, were insignificant (controlling for students’ prior achievements. We conclude that a disruptive classroom climate can hinder the learning process and lower the achievement of the entire class, regardless of the conduct of any particular student. Therefore, a special focus on disruptions in the classroom, in contradistinction with school disciplinary climate in general—which is lacking in most studies—emerges as instrumental to the understanding of how school climate relates to student achievement.

  1. Control advances for achieving the ITER baseline scenario on KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidietis, N. W.; Barr, J.; Hahn, S. H.; Humphreys, D. A.; in, Y. K.; Jeon, Y. M.; Lanctot, M. J.; Mueller, D.; Walker, M. L.

    2017-10-01

    Control methodologies developed to enable successful production of ITER baseline scenario (IBS) plasmas on the superconducting KSTAR tokamak are presented: decoupled vertical control (DVC), real-time feedforward (rtFF) calculation, and multi-input multi-output (MIMO) X-point control. DVC provides fast vertical control with the in-vessel control coils (IVCC) while sharing slow vertical control with the poloidal field (PF) coils to avoid IVCC saturation. rtFF compensates for inaccuracies in offline PF current feedforward programming, allowing reduction or removal of integral gain (and its detrimental phase lag) from the shape controller. Finally, MIMO X-point control provides accurate positioning of the X-point despite low controllability due to the large distance between coils and plasma. Combined, these techniques enabled achievement of IBS parameters (q95 = 3.2, βN = 2) with a scaled ITER shape on KSTAR. n =2 RMP response displays a strong dependence upon this shaping. Work supported by the US DOE under Award DE-SC0010685 and the KSTAR project.

  2. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A Bayesian Formulation of Behavioral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Quentin J. M.; Dayan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Helplessness, a belief that the world is not subject to behavioral control, has long been central to our understanding of depression, and has influenced cognitive theories, animal models and behavioral treatments. However, despite its importance, there is no fully accepted definition of helplessness or behavioral control in psychology or…

  4. Effects of achievement goals on challenge seeking and feedback processing: behavioral and FMRI evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woogul Lee

    Full Text Available We conducted behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI research to investigate the effects of two types of achievement goals--mastery goals and performance-approach goals--on challenge seeking and feedback processing. The results of the behavioral experiment indicated that mastery goals were associated with a tendency to seek challenge, both before and after experiencing difficulty during task performance, whereas performance-approach goals were related to a tendency to avoid challenge after encountering difficulty during task performance. The fMRI experiment uncovered a significant decrease in ventral striatal activity when participants received negative feedback for any task type and both forms of achievement goals. During the processing of negative feedback for the rule-finding task, performance-approach-oriented participants showed a substantial reduction in activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and the frontopolar cortex, whereas mastery-oriented participants showed little change. These results suggest that performance-approach-oriented participants are less likely to either recruit control processes in response to negative feedback or focus on task-relevant information provided alongside the negative feedback. In contrast, mastery-oriented participants are more likely to modulate aversive valuations to negative feedback and focus on the constructive elements of feedback in order to attain their task goals. We conclude that performance-approach goals lead to a reluctant stance towards difficulty, while mastery goals encourage a proactive stance.

  5. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-04-21

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p social responsibility (r = .38, p responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.

  6. Perception of coaching behaviors, coping, and achievement in a sport competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel; Gaudreau, Patrick; Franche, Veronique

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived coaching behaviors, coping strategies during a sport competition, and sport achievement. A prospective design was used in which 80 athletes from individual sports completed measures of perceived coaching behaviors two days before a competition (Time 1) and measures of coping and sport achievement within three hours after a sport competition (Time 2). As expected, results of multiple regressions indicated that supportive coaching was a positive predictor of task-oriented coping and sport achievement whereas unsupportive coaching was a positive predictor of disengagement-oriented coping. Both types of coping were significantly associated with sport achievement. Task-oriented coping was a significant partial mediator in the relation between supportive coaching and sport achievement. This study, which contributes to both the coaching and coping literatures, highlights the role of supportive coaching behaviors in the initiation of effective stress management during sport competitions.

  7. Differences in School Behavior and Achievement between Children from Intact, Reconstituted, and Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Darin R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed differences in school behavior and achievement among students (n=530) in grades six through nine from intact, reconstituted, and single-parent families. Students from intact, two-parent families had fewer absences and tardies, higher grade point averages, and fewer negative and more positive teacher behavioral ratings than did those from…

  8. An Analysis of the Relationship of Perceived Principal Instructional Leadership Behaviors and Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Kerry Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to determine if a relationship existed between perceived instructional leadership behaviors of high school principals and student academic achievement. A total of 124 principals and 410 teachers representing 75 high school campuses completed the School Leadership Behaviors Survey (SLBS), an instrument…

  9. Review of Research on the Relationship between School Buildings, Student Achievement, and Student Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthman, Glen, I.; Lemasters, Linda

    The most persistent question in the field of school facility planning relates to that of the relationship between the built environment and the performance and behavior of users, particularly students. Ways in which the built environment affects two student variables--student achievement and student behavior--are explored. The first variable is…

  10. Rural Adolescents' Reading Motivation, Achievement and Behavior across Transition to High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Rintamaa, Margaret; Anderman, Eric M.; Anderman, Lynley H.

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined 1,781 rural students' reading motivation and behavior across the transition from middle to high school. Using expectancy-value theory, they investigated how motivational variables predicted changes in reading behavior and achievement across the transition in terms of their expectancies, values, and out-of-school reading…

  11. Roles of Parents and Annotation Sharing in Children's Learning Behavior and Achievement Using E-Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Liu, Yi-Fan; Chen, Hon-Ren; Huang, Jian-Wun; Li, Jin-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have highlighted the advantages of using e-books for learning, most have compared learning achieved with traditional textbooks with that achieved with e-books in a classroom situation. These studies focused on individual learning instead of on interactions among learners, learning behavior using ebooks after school, and…

  12. Relationships between Problem Behaviors and Academic Achievement in Adolescents: The Unique Role of Attention Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Doran, Jeffrey W.; Newell, Stephanie B.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Barbetti, Victor; Robbins, Brent Dean

    2002-01-01

    This study examined relationships among eight teacher-reported problem behavior syndromes and standardized measures of academic achievement among 58 adolescents in an alternative school. Analysis suggested association between attention problems and academic achievement was primarily due to inattention component of the syndrome rather than the…

  13. The Impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy on Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review explores the potential impact of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) on teacher efficacy and student achievement. Research conducted to date, focusing on increasing teacher efficacy and student achievement, has produced mixed results. Teachers continue to think, emote, and behave in unhelpful ways. REBT appears to…

  14. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  15. Children’s Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam eWeis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g. such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children’s behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children’s behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children’s self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children’s behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children’s school achievement.

  16. Alcohol self-control behaviors of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley Chad; Jobli, Edessa

    2007-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) factor analyze a 13-item adolescent alcohol self-control behavior scale, (2) examine associations between frequency of self-control behavior use and alcohol consumption, and (3) to determine which self-control behaviors best predict alcohol use and consequences. A confidential standardized survey was used to collect data on participant's 30-day frequency, quantity, and heavy use of alcohol; alcohol-related consequences; and alcohol self-control behaviors. A principal component factor analysis produced the following three components: Healthy Alternatives (alpha=.81), Self-regulation (alpha=.72), and Assertive Communication (alpha=.73). MANOVAs indicated strong associations between frequency of use of the three types of self-control behaviors and alcohol consumption (p valuesadolescents, followed by Healthy Alternatives.

  17. Quality Control in Diagnostic Radiology: Experiences and Achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Husaini Salleh; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa

    2015-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency through its Medical Physics Group has been providing Quality Control (QC) services for medical X-ray apparatus used in diagnostic radiology to private clinics and hospitals since the year 1997. The Medical Physics Groups services is endorsed by the Malaysian Ministry Of Health (MOH) and is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 838 and the Atomic Energy Licensing Act, 1984. Until today, the scopes of testing services also include all types of medical x-ray apparatus. The quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology is considered as part of quality assurance program which provide accurate diagnostic information at the lowest cost and the least exposure of the patients to radiation. Many experience and obstacles were faced by Medical Physics Group. This paper will discuss the experiences and achievements of providing QC service from early stage until now so that it can be shared by the citizens of the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The results of quality assurance inspection of all types of X-ray apparatus for medical conducted by Agency Nuclear Malaysia will be presented in brief. (author)

  18. Fuzzy Behaviors for Control of Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Zein-Sabatto

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, an RWI B-14 robot has been used as the development platform to embody some basic behaviors that can be combined to build more complex robotics behaviors. Emergency, avoid-obstacle, left wall- following, right wall-following, and move-to-point behaviors have been designed and embodied as basic robot behaviors. The basic behaviors developed in this research are designed based on fuzzy control technique and are integrated and coordinated to from complex robotics system. More behaviors can be added into the system as needed. A robot task can be defined by the user and executed by the intelligent robot control system. Testing results showed that fuzzy behaviors made the robot move intelligently and adapt to changes in its environment.

  19. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demogr...

  20. COMPUTER CONTROL OF BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIEGEL, LOUIS

    THE LINC COMPUTER PROVIDES A PARTICULAR SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT FOR BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS BY EXECUTING A SEQUENCE OF COMPUTER OPERATIONS IN CONJUNCTION WITH A SPECIALLY DESIGNED INTERFACE. THE INTERFACE IS THE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL CHAMBER AND THE COMPUTER. THE PROGRAM AND INTERFACE OF AN EXPERIMENT INVOLVING A PIGEON…

  1. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  2. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012. The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years. The students completed the VIA-Youth, a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1, teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2, we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of most of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  3. The Staff Perceptions of Behavior and Discipline Survey: A Tool to Help Achieve Systemic Change through Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerborn, Laura L.; Tyre, Ashli D.; King, Joe P.

    2015-01-01

    The practices of schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) are dependent on staff implementation in classroom and common areas throughout the school. Thus, gaining the support and commitment of school staff is a critical step toward reaching full implementation of SWPBS. However, achieving buildingwide support can be challenging; many schools…

  4. Parent Academic Involvement as Related to School Behavior, Achievement, and Aspirations: Demographic Variations Across Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Nancy E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Nowlin, Patrick; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    A longitudinal model of parent academic involvement, behavioral problems, achievement, and aspirations was examined for 463 adolescents, followed from 7th (approximately 12 years old) through 11th (approximately 16 years old) grades. Parent academic involvement in 7th grade was negatively related to 8th-grade behavioral problems and positively related to 11th-grade aspirations. There were variations across parental education levels and ethnicity: Among the higher parental education group, par...

  5. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS), which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this pur...

  6. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  7. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  8. Prevalence of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Gracie A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined articles in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" in which results of functional analyses indicated that problem behavior was maintained by multiple sources of reinforcement. Data for 88 (16.9%) of 521 subjects reported in 168 studies met the criteria for multiple control. Data for 11 subjects (2.1%) involved a single response…

  9. Managing Air Quality - Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  10. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  11. Determining the Effects of LMS Learning Behaviors on Academic Achievement in a Learning Analytic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS, which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of undergraduate students’ LMS learning behaviors on their academic achievements. In line with this purpose, the participating students’ online learning behaviors in LMS were examined by using learning analytics for 14 weeks, and the relationship between students’ behaviors and their academic achievements was analyzed, followed by an analysis of their views about the influence of LMS on their academic achievement. The present study, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected, was carried out with the explanatory mixed method. A total of 71 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results revealed that the students used LMSs as a support to face-to-face education more intensively on course days (at the beginning of the related lessons and at nights on course days and that they activated the content elements the most. Lastly, almost all the students agreed that LMSs helped increase their academic achievement only when LMSs included such features as effectiveness, interaction, reinforcement, attractive design, social media support, and accessibility.

  12. English Learning Achievement and EFL Learners' Cheating Attitudes and Cheating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mehrak; Goli, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was investigating the role of achievement in learning English as a foreign language in EFL learners' cheating attitudes and cheating behaviors. Eight hundred junior high-school students were selected based on random cluster sampling and participated in the study. Their attitudes towards academic dishonesty and their…

  13. The Relationship between Bible Literacy and Academic Achievement and School Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between Bible literacy among secondary school students and their academic achievement and school behavior. One hundred and forty students in the 7th to 12th grade were randomly selected from a Christian school. Four measures of Bible knowledge were combined to obtain an overall measure of Bible literacy. They…

  14. Academic Optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors, and Student Achievement at Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvercin, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among academic optimism, Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs), and student achievement in college preparatory charter schools. A purposeful sample of elementary school teachers from college preparatory charter schools (N = 226) in southeast Texas was solicited to complete the…

  15. The Effect of Social Media Usage on Course Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Yazan M.; Nash, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of social media usage as a classroom management tool on students' achievement and their behavior in class. Groups were determined by choosing random samples of different classes. The treatment group included the social media application "whatsapp" which all students and the instructor were asked to…

  16. What Leadership Behaviors Were Demonstrated by the Principal in a High Poverty, High Achieving Elementary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, E. Hayet J.; Martin, Barbara N.

    2016-01-01

    Examined through the lens of leadership, were the behaviors of a principal as perceived by stakeholders. The following themes emerged: (1) Educating the Whole Child, with the subthemes: (a) providing basic needs; (b) academic interventions based on achievement data; (c) an emphasis on reading; (d) extended academic time; and (e) relationships; and…

  17. Communication Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and the Relationship to Student Achievement in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Gayle A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a correlational design that allowed the researcher to examine the relationship among communication satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and student achievement. High school teachers were surveyed from a convenience sample of 12 school districts in Arizona. Established instruments were used to survey teachers'…

  18. Recent Advances in Developmental Pediatrics Related to Achievement and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Wendy S.; Barabas, Gabor

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances related to the achievement and school behavior in children with tic syndromes, seizure disorders, and minor physical anomolies are discussed. The role of the school psychologist as liaison between the pupil's teacher, family, and physician is described, as well as his or her role with the children themselves. (Author/EGS)

  19. Adolescent behavior and achievement, social capital, and the timing of geographic mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between geographic mobility and adolescent academic achievement and behavior problems. Specifically, it addresses how the effects of moving differ by age and how social capital moderates the impact of moving on children (aged 6 to 15). Children's behavior problems and academic achievement test scores were compared across four survey waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006) and matched to data from their mothers' reports from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The findings indicate that the negative behavioral effects of geographic mobility on adolescents are most pronounced for individuals relocating to a new city, county, or state as opposed to those moving locally (i.e., within the same city). Furthermore, as suggested by a life-course perspective, the negative effects of moving on behavior problems decrease as children get older. The results also show that several social capital factors moderate the effects of moving on behavior but not achievement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Jihui Guo; XinPing Wang; Steve Severtson; Mark Kroll; Mike Nowak

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives can be formulated to facilitate their removal by typical paper recycling unit operations. The investigations described in this paper are focused on determining fundamental properties that control particle size during pulping. While pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with high elastic moduli tend to survive pulping with larger particles, facestock and...

  1. The Effect of Achievement Badges on Students’ Behavior: An Empirical Study in a University-Level Computer Science Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Hakulinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Achievement badges are a form of gamification that are used in an attempt to increase user engagement and motivation in various systems. A badge is typically a graphical icon that appears as a reward for the user after reaching an achievement but that has no practical value. In this study, we describe and evaluate the use of achievement badges in the ANONYMOUS online learning environment where students solve interactive, automatically assessed exercises in a Data Structures and Algorithms course throughout the semester. We conducted an experiment where the students (N=281 were randomly divided into a treatment and a control group, with and without achievement badges. Students in the treatment group were awarded achievement badges, for example, for solving exercises on the first attempt, doing exercises early, or solving all the exercises in a round with full points. Grading was the same for both groups, i.e. collecting badges did not affect the final grade, even though the exercise points themselves did. Students’ activity in ANONYMOUS was logged in order to find out whether the achievement badges had an effect on their behavior. We also collected numerical and open-ended feedback in order to find out students’ attitudes towards the badges. Our results show that achievement badges can be used to affect students’ behavior. Statistically significant differences were observed in the time used per exercise, number of sessions, total time, and normalized total number of badges. Furthermore, the majority of the students reported being motivated by the badges. Based on our findings, achievement badges seem to be a promising method to motivate students and to encourage desired study practices.

  2. Evaluating the Chinese Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie Chau Wai; Lam, Gloria Ling Lee; Tang, Debbie Hoi Ming; Graham-Kevan, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of the Chinese version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (C-CBS-R) as a measure of controlling behaviors in violent Chinese intimate relationships. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 200 Chinese women survivors to elicit qualitative data about their personal experiences of control in intimate relationships. The use of controlling behaviors was also assessed using the C-CBS-R. Interview accounts suggested that the experiences of 91 of the women were consistent with the description of coercive control according to Dutton and Goodman's conceptualization of coercion. Using the split-half validation procedure, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was conducted with the first half of the sample. The area under the curve (AUC) for using the C-CBS-R to identify high control was .99, and the cutoff score of 1.145 maximized both sensitivity and specificity. Applying the cutoff score to the second half gave a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 95%. Overall, the C-CBS-R has demonstrated utility as a measure of controlling behaviors with a cutoff score for distinguishing high from low levels of control in violent Chinese intimate relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Machine throughput improvement achieved using innovative control technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.; Acharya, S.; Mittal, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    In any type of fully or semi automatic machine the control systems plays an important role. The control system on the one hand has to consider the human psychology, intelligence requirement for an operator, and attention needed from him. On the other hand the complexity of the control has also to be understood well before designing a control system that can be handled comfortably and safely by the operator. As far as the user experience/comfort is concerned the design of control system GUI is vital. Considering these two aspects related to the user of the machine it is evident that the control system design is very important because it is has to accommodate the human behaviour and skill sets required/available as well as the capability of the machine under the control of the control system. An intelligently designed control system can enhance the productivity of the machine. (author)

  4. Variation and Control of Process Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicki, Todd; Whitaker, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to highlight the importance of controlling process variability for successful quality assurance (QA). We describe the method of statistical process control for characterizing and controlling a process. Traditionally, QA has been performed by comparing some important measurement (e.g., linear accelerator output) against a corresponding specification. Although useful in determining the fitness of a particular measurement, this approach does not provide information about the underlying process behavior over time. A modern view of QA is to consider the time-ordered behavior of a process. Every process displays characteristic behaviors that are independent of the specifications imposed on it. The goal of modern QA is, not only to ensure that a process is on-target, but that it is also operating with minimal variation. This is accomplished by way of a data-driven approach using process behavior charts. The development of process behavior charts, historically known as control charts, and process behavior (action) limits are described. The effect these concepts have on quality management is also discussed

  5. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  6. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  7. What leadership behaviors were demonstrated by the principal in a high poverty, high achieving elementary school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hayet J. Woods

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Examined through the lens of leadership, were the behaviors of a principal as perceived by stakeholders. The following themes emerged: (1 Educating the Whole Child, with the subthemes: (a providing basic needs; (b academic interventions based on achievement data; (c an emphasis on reading; (d extended academic time; and (e relationships; and (2 Synergy of Expectations, with the subthemes: (a consistent student expectations; (b increased staff accountability; and (c community involvement. The researchers found that the principal by demonstrating behaviors as a change agent, a creator of vision, and a provider of necessary support and strategies, rather than adopting numerous programs, the school personnel were able to increase and sustain academic achievement of the students of poverty as well as their peers. Implications for principal practices, along with leadership preparatory programs are significant.

  8. Self-regulated Learning Behavior of College Students of Art and Their Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cuixin

    This study focuses on the relationship between self-regulated learning behavior and their academic achievement of college students of art. The results show that for students of art, the involvements in self-efficacy, intrinsic value and cognitive strategies are closely tied to their performance in the examination. However, test anxiety, as a negative emotional factor is negatively correlated with academic performance. And among the five variables, self-efficacy has the strongest influence on students of art's academic performance.

  9. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Christiane P

    2016-01-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions. (topical review)

  10. Controlling open quantum systems: Tools, achievements, and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge to preserve the relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence...

  11. Improving preschoolers' mathematics achievement with tablets: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, John; Jo, Booil

    2017-09-01

    With a randomized field experiment of 433 preschoolers, we tested a tablet mathematics program designed to increase young children's mathematics learning. Intervention students played Math Shelf, a comprehensive iPad preschool and year 1 mathematics app, while comparison children received research-based hands-on mathematics instruction delivered by their classroom teachers. After 22 weeks, there was a large and statistically significant effect on mathematics achievement for Math Shelf students (Cohen's d = .94). Moderator analyses demonstrated an even larger effect for low achieving children (Cohen's d = 1.27). These results suggest that early education teachers can improve their students' mathematics outcomes by integrating experimentally proven tablet software into their daily routines.

  12. Social and behavioral skills and the gender gap in early educational achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprete, Thomas A; Jennings, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Though many studies have suggested that social and behavioral skills play a central role in gender stratification processes, we know little about the extent to which these skills affect gender gaps in academic achievement. Analyzing data from the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, we demonstrate that social and behavioral skills have substantively important effects on academic outcomes from kindergarten through fifth grade. Gender differences in the acquisition of these skills, moreover, explain a considerable fraction of the gender gap in academic outcomes during early elementary school. Boys get roughly the same academic return to social and behavioral skills as their female peers, but girls begin school with more advanced social and behavioral skills and their skill advantage grows over time. While part of the effect may reflect an evaluation process that rewards students who better conform to school norms, our results imply that the acquisition of social and behavioral skills enhances learning as well. Our results call for a reconsideration of the family and school-level processes that produce gender gaps in social and behavioral skills and the advantages they confer for academic and later success. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage  = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  14. Student perceptions of their biology teacher's interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wade Clay, Jr.

    The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching behavior data were collected using students as the observers. 111 students in an urban influenced, rural high school answered the QTI and BSAI in September 1997 and again in April 1998. At the same time students were pre and post tested using the Biology End of Course Examination (BECE). The QTI has been used primarily in European and Oceanic areas. The instrument was also primarily used in educational stratified environment. This was the first time the BSAI was used to assess student affective learning outcomes. The BECE is a Texas normed cognitive assessment test and it is used by Texas schools districts as the end of course examination in biology. The interpersonal teaching behaviors model was tested to ascertain if predictive power in the USA and in a non-stratified educational environment. Findings indicate that the QTI is an adequate predictor of student achievement in biology. The results were not congruent with the non-USA data and results, this indicates that the QTI is a society/culturally sensitive instrument and the instrument needs to be normed to a particular society/culture before it is used to affect teachers' and students' educational environments.

  15. On achieving a uniform approach to radiation control in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T. N.

    1995-01-01

    Legislation and the associated regulatory processes to control radiation exposure of persons in the workplace, of patients undergoing medical exposures and of members of the public have been in place in all Australian States, including the ACT and NT, for some decades. Most States have completely rewritten their original legislation and all have made minor modifications from time to time. As a consequence, the legislation and the regulatory processes and controls used in all the States differ considerably, although they all have the same intent. For many years now, attempts have been made to overcome problems arising from the differences in the radiation control legislation and practices. These have been through the preparation of recommendations and codes of practice by the Radiation Health Standing Committee (RHSC) of the NHMRC and through discussions by State radiation control officers in the Radiation Control Implementation Panel, which reports to the RHSC. The recommendations and codes of practice can be utilised by the States in their radiation control activities, but this procedure can be restricted by different requirements in State legislation. Despite the efforts to overcome the problems, the main stumbling block to the implementation of uniform control derives from the legislation currently in use in each state. It is seen that changes will take a number of years to implements and that changes to legislation would be a top priority

  16. Problems and achievements of cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. weeds control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Weed control in the cultivation of cotton is critical to the yield and quality of production. The influence of economically important weeds was studied. Chemical control is the most effective method of weed control in cotton but much of the information on it relates to primary weed infestation. Problems with primary weed infestation in cotton have been solved to a significant extent. The question of secondary weed infestation with annual and perennial graminaceous weeds during the period of cotton vegetation is also determined largely by the use of antigraminaceous herbicides. The data related to herbicides to effectively control secondary germinated broadleaf weeds in conventional technology for cotton growing are quite scarce, even globally. We are still seeking effective herbicides for control of these weeds in cotton crops. Studies on their influence on the sowing characteristics of cotton seed and the quality of cotton fiber are still insufficient. In the scientific literature there is not enough information on these questions. The combinations of herbicides, as well as their tank mixtures with fertilizers or plant growth regulators are more efficient than autonomous application. Often during their combined application higher synergistic effect on yield is produced. There is information about cotton cultivars resistant to glyphosate. These cultivars are GMO and they are banned within the European Union, including Bulgaria.

  17. Child perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior and associations with mathematics achievement in Dutch early grade classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Wubbels, T.; Brekelmans, M.; Koomen, H.M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed children's generalized perceptions of teacher interpersonal behavior in terms of two dimensions, control and affiliation, referring to the degree of teacher leadership/management and teacher friendliness/cooperation in the classroom, respectively. An adapted version of the

  18. Chapter 11: The approach to achieving glycaemic control*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-08

    Nov 8, 2012 ... therapy.3–7 The concept of patient-centred care incorporates patients as ... The SEMDSA approach to glycaemic control does not lose focus of ... patient. South African Family Practice 2018; 60(2):8-16 ... pancreatic cancer.

  19. Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program: Evolution, Achievements, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devidas Trimbak Khedkar

    2014-01-01

    For this review, information has been collected from official websites of World Health Organisation (WHO Geneva, WHO South East Asia Regional Office (SEARO New Delhi, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; Government of India and published literature, through search engines like Google, Google Scholar and Pub Med using MeSH Terms "DOTS" and "Tuberculosis Control."

  20. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  1. Behavioral control and reward sensitivity in adolescents’ risk taking behavior : A longitudinal TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  2. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior : A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  3. Behavior problems and children’s academic achievement: A test of growth-curve models with gender and racial differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kristen P.; Flower, Andrea; Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between externalizing and internalizing behavior and children’s academic achievement, particularly in terms of whether these variables varied as a function of gender and race. Data pertaining to externalizing and internalizing behavior, academic achievement, gender, and race from three waves of the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 2028) were used. Results indicate that behavior problems had a negative relationship with academic performance and some of these associations endured over time. Externalizing behavior impacted reading scores more negatively for females compared to males at baseline, but the impact of externalizing behavior on long-term reading outcomes did not vary by gender. Externalizing behavior impacted reading scores more negatively for Black children than White children at multiple points in time. Differences between males, females, Black, and White children concerning behavior and achievement are explained. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future research are also presented. PMID:28529397

  4. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  5. Can Chemical Mouthwash Agents Achieve Plaque/Gingivitis Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Van der Sluijs, Eveline; Ciancio, Sebastian G; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-10-01

    Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Can We Achieve Intuitive Prosthetic Elbow Control Based on Healthy Upper Limb Motor Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manelle Merad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals

  7. Android worksheet application based on discovery learning on students' achievement for vocational high school: Mechanical behavior of materials topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanto, Dwi; Aini, Anisa Nurul; Mulhayatiah, Diah

    2017-05-01

    This research reports a study of student worksheet based on discovery learning on Mechanical Behavior of Materials topics under Android application (Android worksheet application) for vocational high school. The samples are Architecture class X students of SMKN 4 (a public vocational high school) in Tangerang Selatan City, province of Banten, Indonesia. We made 3 groups based on Intellectual Quotient (IQ). They are average IQ group, middle IQ group and high IQ group. The method of research is used as a quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control group design. The technique of sampling is purposive sampling. Instruments used in this research are test instruments and non-test instruments. The test instruments are IQ test and test of student's achievement. For the test of student's achievement (pretest and posttest) we provide 25 multiple choice problems. The non-test instruments are questionnaire responses by the students and the teacher. Without IQ categorized, the result showed that there is an effect of Android worksheet application on student's achievement based on cognitive aspects of Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. However, from the IQ groups point of view, only the middle IQ group and the high IQ group showed a significant effect from the Android worksheet application on student's achievement meanwhile for the average IQ group there was no effect.

  8. The controllability test for behaviors revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.; Piztek, P.

    2005-01-01

    Let B = {w 2 Lloc 1 (R,Rq) | R( d/dt )w = 0}. It is well-know that B is controllable if and only if R(λ) has the same rank for all complex λ. We want to re-examen the proof of this fundamental result. Denote by B1 the behavior B intersected with set of smooth functions. For B1 the proof is easy and

  9. BARTER: Behavior Profile Exchange for Behavior-Based Admission and Access Control in MANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Martinez, Vanessa; Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are very dynamic networks with devices continuously entering and leaving the group. The highly dynamic nature of MANETs renders the manual creation and update of policies associated with the initial incorporation of devices to the MANET (admission control) as well as with anomaly detection during communications among members (access control) a very difficult task. In this paper, we present BARTER, a mechanism that automatically creates and updates admission and access control policies for MANETs based on behavior profiles. BARTER is an adaptation for fully distributed environments of our previously introduced BB-NAC mechanism for NAC technologies. Rather than relying on a centralized NAC enforcer, MANET members initially exchange their behavior profiles and compute individual local definitions of normal network behavior. During admission or access control, each member issues an individual decision based on its definition of normalcy. Individual decisions are then aggregated via a threshold cryptographic infrastructure that requires an agreement among a fixed amount of MANET members to change the status of the network. We present experimental results using content and volumetric behavior profiles computed from the ENRON dataset. In particular, we show that the mechanism achieves true rejection rates of 95% with false rejection rates of 9%.

  10. Student Perceptions of Their Biology Teacher's Interpersonal Teaching Behaviors and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madike, Victor N.

    Inadequate student-teacher interactions in undergraduate courses have been linked to poor student performance. Researchers have noted that students' perceptions of student-teacher relationships may be an important factor related to student performance. The administration of a Mid-Atlantic community college prioritized increasing undergraduate biology student performance. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' biology achievement and their perceptions of interpersonal teaching behaviors and student-teacher interactions in introductory biology courses. Leary's theory on interpersonal communication and the systems communication theory of Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson served as the theoretical foundation. The Wubbel's Likert-scale questionnaire on student-teacher interactions was administered to 318 undergraduate biology students. Non-parametric Spearman's rank correlations revealed a significant direct correlation between students' grades and their perceptions of teachers' interpersonal teaching behaviors. The relationship between student achievement and students' perceptions of student-teacher interactions prompted the recommendation for additional study on the importance of student-teacher interactions in undergraduate programs. A recommendation for local practice included faculty development on strategies for improving student-teacher interactions. The study's implications for positive social change include increased understanding for administrators and instructors on the importance of teacher-student interactions at the community college level.

  11. Increasing prosocial behavior and academic achievement among adolescent African American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Magy; Gibson, Suzanne Semivan; Wilkins, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    African American adolescents disproportionately perform poorly compared to peers in both behavioral and academic aspects of their educational experience. In this study, African American male students participated in an after-school program involving tutoring, group counseling, and various enrichment activities. All students were assessed regarding their behavioral changes using attendance, discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions reports. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA) were used to assess the adolescents' improvement in their skills in reading and mathematics. After the end of the two-year program, initial results showed that the adolescents had increased their daily attendance, decreased discipline referrals, and had no suspensions or expulsions. These results also indicated that although the students entered the program at different skill levels, they were assessed to have the ability to function at their appropriate grade level. Their average improvement in basic skills was at least two grade levels. Implications drawn from the findings include: (a) there is a need to emphasize appropriate assessment prior to beginning a skill improvement program; (b) a need to emphasize the use of individualized learning plans and tutors; and (c) a need to further investigate the role of assessment and intervention in after-school programming in order to close the achievement gap.

  12. Reading comprehension metacognitive strategies as a means for controlling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Aladina Caballero López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Textual comprehension implies the use of various metacognitive strategies by the students when they have to face a text to be competent readers. That is why the objective of this article is to illustrate the application of metacognitive strategies in order to achieve an efficient textual comprehension, taking into account the self – regulation the student exerts over his own learning process. It is applied as the main method historical-logical studies based on a professional-researching systematic practice; at the same time observation is largely used. The main result is the introduction of metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension, which subsequently favor the self-control of personal behavior. The article is the result of a research project sponsored by the department of Special Education. Key words: reading comprehension, metacognitive strategies, behavior self-control.

  13. Relationships between Perceived Parental Involvement in Homework, Student Homework Behaviors, and Academic Achievement: Differences among Elementary, Junior High, and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, J. C.; Suárez, N.; Rosário, P.; Vallejo, G.; Valle, A.; Epstein, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to produce a deeper understanding of the relationship between perceived parental homework involvement (i.e., parental homework control and parental homework support), student homework behaviors (i.e., time spend on homework completion, time management, and amount of homework completed), and student academic achievement. Using…

  14. Mob control models of threshold collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Breer, Vladimir V; Rogatkin, Andrey D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models of mob control with threshold (conformity) collective decision-making of the agents. Based on the results of analysis of the interconnection between the micro- and macromodels of active network structures, it considers the static (deterministic, stochastic and game-theoretic) and dynamic (discrete- and continuous-time) models of mob control, and highlights models of informational confrontation. Many of the results are applicable not only to mob control problems, but also to control problems arising in social groups, online social networks, etc. Aimed at researchers and practitioners, it is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as doctoral candidates specializing in the field of collective behavior modeling.

  15. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. Conclusions It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them. PMID:27284277

  16. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-03-01

    Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21. Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement. It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them.

  17. A cost analysis of implementing a behavioral weight loss intervention in community mental health settings: Results from the ACHIEVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ellen M; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene T; Gennusa, Joseph V; Goldsholl, Stacy; Frick, Kevin D; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J; Daumit, Gail L

    2017-06-01

    In the ACHIEVE randomized controlled trial, an 18-month behavioral intervention accomplished weight loss in persons with serious mental illness who attended community psychiatric rehabilitation programs. This analysis estimates costs for delivering the intervention during the study. It also estimates expected costs to implement the intervention more widely in a range of community mental health programs. Using empirical data, costs were calculated from the perspective of a community psychiatric rehabilitation program delivering the intervention. Personnel and travel costs were calculated using time sheet data. Rent and supply costs were calculated using rent per square foot and intervention records. A univariate sensitivity analysis and an expert-informed sensitivity analysis were conducted. With 144 participants receiving the intervention and a mean weight loss of 3.4 kg, costs of $95 per participant per month and $501 per kilogram lost in the trial were calculated. In univariate sensitivity analysis, costs ranged from $402 to $725 per kilogram lost. Through expert-informed sensitivity analysis, it was estimated that rehabilitation programs could implement the intervention for $68 to $85 per client per month. Costs of implementing the ACHIEVE intervention were in the range of other intensive behavioral weight loss interventions. Wider implementation of efficacious lifestyle interventions in community mental health settings will require adequate funding mechanisms. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  18. Controllable Organic Resistive Switching Achieved by One-Step Integration of Cone-Shaped Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Haifeng; Yi, Mingdong; Nagai, Masaru; Xie, Linghai; Wang, Laiyuan; Hu, Bo; Huang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Conductive filaments (CFs)-based resistive random access memory possesses the ability of scaling down to sub-nanoscale with high-density integration architecture, making it the most promising nanoelectronic technology for reclaiming Moore's law. Compared with the extensive study in inorganic switching medium, the scientific challenge now is to understand the growth kinetics of nanoscale CFs in organic polymers, aiming to achieve controllable switching characteristics toward flexible and reliable nonvolatile organic memory. Here, this paper systematically investigates the resistive switching (RS) behaviors based on a widely adopted vertical architecture of Al/organic/indium-tin-oxide (ITO), with poly(9-vinylcarbazole) as the case study. A nanoscale Al filament with a dynamic-gap zone (DGZ) is directly observed using in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) , which demonstrates that the RS behaviors are related to the random formation of spliced filaments consisting of Al and oxygen vacancy dual conductive channels growing through carbazole groups. The randomicity of the filament formation can be depressed by introducing a cone-shaped contact via a one-step integration method. The conical electrode can effectively shorten the DGZ and enhance the localized electric field, thus reducing the switching voltage and improving the RS uniformity. This study provides a deeper insight of the multiple filamentary mechanisms for organic RS effect. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.

  20. The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D

    2015-06-01

    Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender.

  1. Effects of the family-school cooperation on student social behavior and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nikoleta M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation between a family and school makes provisions for solving problems students face in their interpersonal relations and academic achievement. We are singling out a view of the effects of a micro-system on child's development, which states that immediate interrelations in a micro-system - a family - can effect interrelations in another micro-system -peer groups - or can effect academic achievement. The majority of authors agree that modes and spheres of influences that family exerts are numerous and diverse and that they depend on characteristics of a broader social and cultural community where a child is growing up as well as on parents' abilities and preparations. How successful the family-school cooperation will be is largely determined by teacher's personality and the way he/she is communicating with parents. A joint planning and implementation of decisions reached, identical norms of behavior, commonly adopted goals are a prerequisite for a child's normal development. It is pointed out that school should plan and organize its activities (courses, seminars, forums lectures, discussions, so as to popularize knowledge of pedagogy and psychology among parents as well as teacher training in communication competence.

  2. Achievement goals and emotions: The mediational roles of perceived progress, control, and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathan C; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R; Ranellucci, John

    2016-06-01

    The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the relationship between achievement goals and achievement emotions, whereas the bidirectional theory of affect (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002, Educational Psychologist, 37, 69) proposes that perceived progress mediates this relationship. The present study empirically evaluated three hypothesized mediators of the effects of achievement goals on learning-related emotions as proposed in the control-value theory and the bidirectional theory of affect. Undergraduate students (N = 273) from humanities, social science, and STEM disciplines participated. Participants completed web-based questionnaires evaluating academic achievement goals, perceptions of control, perceived task value, and achievement emotions. Results provided empirical support primarily for perceived progress as a mediator of mastery-approach goal effects on positive emotions (enjoyment, hope), showing indirect effects of mastery- and performance-approach goals on outcome-related emotions (hope, anxiety) via perceived control. Indirect effects of mastery- and performance-approach goals were further observed on anxiety via perceived value, with higher value levels predicting greater anxiety. Study findings partially support Linnenbrink and Pintrich's (2002, Educational Psychologist, 37, 69) bidirectional theory of affect while underscoring the potential for indirect effects of goals on emotions through perceived control as proposed by Pekrun (2006, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315). © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Controlling noise-induced behavior of excitable networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patidar, S; Pototsky, A; Janson, N B

    2009-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the possibility to control the collective behavior of a large network of excitable stochastic units, in which oscillations are induced merely by external random input. Each network element is represented by the FitzHugh-Nagumo system under the influence of noise, and the elements are coupled through the mean field. As known previously, the collective behavior of units in such a network can range from synchronous to non-synchronous spiking with a variety of states in between. We apply the Pyragas delayed feedback to the mean field of the network and demonstrate that this technique is capable of suppressing or weakening the collective synchrony, or of inducing the synchrony where it was absent. On the plane of control parameters we indicate the areas where suppression of synchrony is achieved. To explain the numerical observations on a qualitative level, we use the semi-analytic approach based on the cumulant expansion of the distribution density within Gaussian approximation. We perform bifurcation analysis of the obtained cumulant equations with delay and demonstrate that the regions of stability of its steady state have qualitatively the same structure as the regions of synchrony suppression of the original stochastic equations. We also demonstrate the delay-induced multistability in the stochastic network. These results are relevant to the control of unwanted behavior in neural networks.

  4. Parental Behaviors and Adolescents' Achievement Goals at the Beginning of Middle School: Emotional Problems as Potential Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Recent literature on the determinants of academic motivation has shown that parenting and emotions are central elements in understanding students' achievement goals. The authors of this study set out to examine the predictive relationship between parental behaviors during the last year of elementary school and adolescents' achievement goals at the…

  5. The Variation in Student Achievement and Behavior within a Portfolio Management Model: Early Results from New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachin, Andrew J.; Welsh, Richard Osbourne; Brewer, Dominic James

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of states experimented with alternative governance structures in response to pressure to raise student achievement. Post-Katrina experimentation in New Orleans was widely regarded as a model example of new governance reforms and provided a unique opportunity to learn about the variation in student achievement and behavior within…

  6. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Related to Academic Achievement and School Behavior. Interim Research Report # 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Rosalyn; And Others

    Scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were related to scores on achievement and intelligence tests, and to socioeconomic level and to teachers' ratings of student behavior, in order to test the hypothesis that student self esteem would have a positive effect on academic achievement. There was a small but statistically significant…

  7. Why achievement motivation predicts success in business but failure in politics: the importance of personal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, David G

    2010-12-01

    Several decades of research have established that implicit achievement motivation (n Achievement) is associated with success in business, particularly in entrepreneurial or sales roles. However, several political psychology studies have shown that achievement motivation is not associated with success in politics; rather, implicit power motivation often predicts political success. Having versus lacking control may be a key difference between business and politics. Case studies suggest that achievement-motivated U.S. presidents and other world leaders often become frustrated and thereby fail because of lack of control, whereas power-motivated presidents develop ways to work with this inherent feature of politics. A reevaluation of previous research suggests that, in fact, relationships between achievement motivation and business success only occur when control is high. The theme of control is also prominent in the development of achievement motivation. Cross-national data are also consistent with this analysis: In democratic industrialized countries, national levels of achievement motivation are associated with strong executive control. In countries with low opportunity for education (thus fewer opportunities to develop a sense of personal control), achievement motivation is associated with internal violence. Many of these manifestations of frustrated achievement motivation in politics resemble authoritarianism. This conclusion is tested by data from a longitudinal study of 113 male college students, showing that high initial achievement motivation combined with frustrated desires for control is related to increases in authoritarianism (F-scale scores) during the college years. Implications for the psychology of leadership and practical politics are discussed. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Pamela V.; Onyper, Serge V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. Methods: We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the “Owl-Lark” Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010–2011 through 2013–2014. Results: Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Conclusions: Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. Citation: Thacher PV, Onyper SV. Longitudinal outcomes of start time delay on sleep, behavior, and achievement in high school. SLEEP 2016;39(2):271–281. PMID

  9. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  10. A Model of Parental Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control in Academically Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…

  11. Engineering Sensorial Delay to Control Phototaxis and Emergent Collective Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mite Mijalkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Collective motions emerging from the interaction of autonomous mobile individuals play a key role in many phenomena, from the growth of bacterial colonies to the coordination of robotic swarms. For these collective behaviors to take hold, the individuals must be able to emit, sense, and react to signals. When dealing with simple organisms and robots, these signals are necessarily very elementary; e.g., a cell might signal its presence by releasing chemicals and a robot by shining light. An additional challenge arises because the motion of the individuals is often noisy; e.g., the orientation of cells can be altered by Brownian motion and that of robots by an uneven terrain. Therefore, the emphasis is on achieving complex and tunable behaviors from simple autonomous agents communicating with each other in robust ways. Here, we show that the delay between sensing and reacting to a signal can determine the individual and collective long-term behavior of autonomous agents whose motion is intrinsically noisy. We experimentally demonstrate that the collective behavior of a group of phototactic robots capable of emitting a radially decaying light field can be tuned from segregation to aggregation and clustering by controlling the delay with which they change their propulsion speed in response to the light intensity they measure. We track this transition to the underlying dynamics of this system, in particular, to the ratio between the robots’ sensorial delay time and the characteristic time of the robots’ random reorientation. Supported by numerics, we discuss how the same mechanism can be applied to control active agents, e.g., airborne drones, moving in a three-dimensional space. Given the simplicity of this mechanism, the engineering of sensorial delay provides a potentially powerful tool to engineer and dynamically tune the behavior of large ensembles of autonomous mobile agents; furthermore, this mechanism might already be at work within

  12. Prompting a consumer behavior for pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E S; Farris, J C; Post, D S

    1973-01-01

    A field application of behavior modification studied the relative effectiveness of different prompting procedures for increasing the probability that customers entering a grocery store would select their soft drinks in returnable rather than nonreturnable containers. Six different 2-hr experimental conditions during which bottle purchases were recorded were (1) No Prompt (i.e., control), (2) one student gave incoming customers a handbill urging the purchase of soft drinks in returnable bottles, (3) distribution of the handbill by one student and public charting of each customer's bottle purchases by another student, (4) handbill distribution and charting by a five-member group, (5) handbills distributed and purchases charted by three females. The variant prompting techniques were equally effective, and in general increased the percentage of returnable-bottle customers by an average of 25%.

  13. The behavior-analytic approach to emotional self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Batista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some psychological approaches distinguish behavioral self-control from emotional self-control, the latter being approached with the reference to inside events controlled by the individual himself. This paper offers some directions to a behavior-analytic approach of what has been referred to as emotional self-control. According to Behavior Analysis, no new process is found in emotional self-control, but components that are additional to those found in behavioral self-control, which require appropriate treatment. The paper highlights some determinants of behavioral repertoires taken as instances of emotional self-control: the social context in which self-control is produced and maintained; the conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group; and the degree of participation of the motor apparatus in the emission of emotional responses. Keywords: emotional self-control; emotional responses; inner world; behavior analysis.

  14. Male Undergraduates' HPV Vaccination Behavior: Implications for Achieving HPV-Associated Cancer Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lust, Katherine; Vang, Suzanne; Desai, Jay

    2018-06-01

    Despite the availability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for males, uptake of the vaccine has been low, particularly among young adult males. This study aimed to investigate the levels of HPV vaccination and predictors of HPV vaccine completion in college men ages 18-26. We analyzed data from the 2015 College Student Health Survey, which was administered at 17 post-secondary institutions in Midwest areas. We included only responses from male participants who were ages 18-26 years old, resulting in a sample size of 2516. We used Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization to guide our study design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of HPV vaccine receipt. College-aged males in our sample had a HPV vaccine completion rate of 50.0%. Male students who were younger, had at least one parent who held a graduate degree, had initiated sex, and were enrolled at a private 4-year institution were more likely to have been vaccinated. These findings suggest that HPV vaccination in college-aged men are low. Efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccination in male students who are older, from lower socioeconomic statuses, have not initiated sex, and enrolled at public institutions. Findings also indicate important gender disparities in vaccine uptake that must be addressed in order to achieve optimal vaccine uptake in college-aged males.

  15. Identifying the Behavior Patterns That Influence on Students' Achievement in Psychological Foundations of Learning and Development: A Case of Mekelle University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, J. Master Arul; Eyasu, Mengesha

    2018-01-01

    Generally, the behavior patterns concerns a social significance of values. This paper highlights the various behavior patterns like planner behavior, solution oriented behavior, and prescriptive behavior patterns. The main objective of the present study is to identify the behavior patterns that influence on students' achievement in psychological…

  16. Instructional control of reinforcement learning: A behavioral and neurocomputational investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doll, B.B.; Jacobs, W.J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Frank, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Humans learn how to behave directly through environmental experience and indirectly through rules and instructions. Behavior analytic research has shown that instructions can control behavior, even when such behavior leads to sub-optimal outcomes (Hayes, S (Ed) 1989. Rule-governed behavior:

  17. Reflexivity as a control factor of personal coping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    BEKHTER A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of coping behavior control. The author defines the criteria, levels and aspects of reflexivity within the framework of personal coping behavior. In conclusion the author describes the key facets of coping behavior control and how reflexivity affects them.

  18. Children's Achievement Moderates the Effects of Mothers' Use of Control and Autonomy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei-Yin Ng, Florrie; Kenney-Benson, Gwen A.; Pomerantz, Eva M.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of parents' control and autonomy support on low- and high-achieving children. In Study 1, mothers' (N1=10) involvement with children (7 to 10 years old) in the context of a challenging task was observed. During this interaction, mothers' control predicted diminished engagement and their autonomy support…

  19. Goal Orientations, Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Prospective Teachers: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulus, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…

  20. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  1. Aggressive behavior, protective factors and academic achievement at students inside and outside the system of institutional care

    OpenAIRE

    Maretić Edita; Sindik Joško

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the differences between the aspects of aggressive behavior, their strengths (protective factors) in the prevention of behavioral disorders and academic achievement, in children within and out of institutional forms of education. The study was conducted on a sample of 264 students in seventh and eighth class of elementary school, of whom 134 were in institutional care, while 130 were outside the institutional forms of education. Data were collected by a qu...

  2. The Utrecht Healthy School Project: Connecting adolescent health behavior, academic achievement and Health Promoting Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, V.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviors contribute to the development of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders. Most often these behaviors develop in the teenage years. This thesis addresses the following topics: (1) How do health-related behaviors cluster and affect health in

  3. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  4. Controlling Behaviors in Middle School Youth's Dating Relationships: Reactions and Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly M.; Chigbu, Kingsley U.

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined middle school students' (N = 380) help-seeking behaviors and other reactions to controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Over three-fourths of the participants perpetrated and were victimized by controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Youth used emotional/verbal and dominance/isolation forms…

  5. Parental behavioral and psychological control relationships to self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and antisocial behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın Özdemir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial behaviors and depression among Turkish adolescents. Participants for the present study consisted of 333 adolescents (168 girls, 163 boys) between the age of 13 to 15 with a mean of 13.90 (SD=.514) years. Participants completed measures on behavioral control, psychological control and self-esteem, life satisfaction, antisocial beha...

  6. Contextual control of discriminated operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Todd, Travis P; León, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that changing the context after instrumental (operant) conditioning can weaken the strength of the operant response. That result contrasts with the results of studies of Pavlovian conditioning, in which a context switch often does not affect the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. To begin to make the methods more similar, Experiments 1-3 tested the effects of a context switch in rats on a discriminated operant response (R; lever pressing or chain pulling) that had been reinforced only in the presence of a 30-s discriminative stimulus (S; tone or light). As in Pavlovian conditioning, responses and reinforcers became confined to presentations of the S during training. However, in Experiment 1, after training in Context A, a switch to Context B caused a decrement in responding during S. In Experiment 2, a switch to Context B likewise decreased responding in S when Context B was equally familiar, equally associated with reinforcement, or equally associated with the training of a discriminated operant (a different R reinforced in a different S). However, there was no decrement if Context B had been associated with the same response that was trained in Context A (Experiments 2 and 3). The effectiveness of S transferred across contexts, whereas the strength of the response did not. Experiment 4 found that a continuously reinforced response was also disrupted by context change when the same response manipulandum was used in both training and testing. Overall, the results suggest that the context can have a robust general role in the control of operant behavior. Mechanisms of contextual control are discussed.

  7. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school.

  8. Role of Parenting Style in Achieving Metabolic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA1c values. RESULTS An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and...

  9. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  10. Affectionless control by the same-sex parents increases dysfunctional attitudes about achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori

    2014-08-01

    The affectionless control parenting has been associated with depression in recipients. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this parenting style on dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression. The subjects were 666 Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the care and protection subscales. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and affectionless control (low care/high protection). Dysfunctional attitudes were evaluated by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the achievement, dependency and self-control subscales. Males with paternal affectionless control had higher achievement scores than those with paternal optimal parenting (P=.016). Similarly, females with maternal affectionless control had higher achievement scores than those with maternal optimal parenting (P=.016). The present study suggests that affectionless control by the same-sex parents increases dysfunctional attitudes about achievement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Principals' Self-Perceived Transformational Leadership Behaviors and Academic Achievement in South Carolina Public Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Je-Nata Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between principals' perceptions of their transformational leadership behaviors and academic achievement in the areas of reading, math, science, and social studies in South Carolina public elementary schools. The theoretical framework for this research was provided…

  12. Dressed for Success? The Effect of School Uniforms on Student Achievement and Behavior. NBER Working Paper No. 17337

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Elisabetta; Imberman, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Uniform use in public schools is rising, but we know little about how they affect students. Using a unique dataset from a large urban school district in the southwest United States, we assess how uniforms affect behavior, achievement and other outcomes. Each school in the district determines adoption independently, providing variation over schools…

  13. Academic Achievements, Behavioral Problems, and Loneliness as Predictors of Social Skills among Students with and without Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Sima; Yazdi-Ugav, Orly; Zeev, Aviva

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine to what extent academic achievements, learning disorders, behavior problems and loneliness explain the variance of students' social skills. The differences between students diagnosed with learning disorders and students without learning disorders in all four variables were examined. Participants were 733 elementary…

  14. Measuring the Relationship between Parent, Teacher, and Student Problem Behavior Reports and Academic Achievement: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kaprea; Hannon, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between academic achievement and reports of student problem behavior from teachers, parents, and child self-reports. Participants included 108 teachers, 113 parents/caregivers, and 129 students from an urban school in the Northeast region of the United States. Results suggest parent and child reports were…

  15. The Development of Emotional and Behavioral Self-Regulation and Their Effects on Academic Achievement in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edossa, Ashenafi Kassahun; Schroeders, Ulrich; Weinert, Sabine; Artelt, Cordula

    2018-01-01

    Self-regulation is an essential ability of children to cope with various developmental challenges. This study examines the developmental interplay between emotional and behavioral self-regulation during childhood and the relationship with academic achievement using data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Using cross-lagged panel…

  16. A Cross-Cultural Perspective of Parental Influence on Female Adolescents' Achievement Beliefs and Behaviors in Sport and School Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…

  17. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior: A Longitudinal TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this study we tested whether the imbalance between behavioral control and reward sensitivity underlies risk taking behavior in adolescence, using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 715 adolescents, of which 66% revealed an increased risk for mental health problems. To assess behavioral control at age 11 we used both self-report (effortful control) as well as behavioral measures of cognitive control (i.e., working memory and response inhibition). Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Bangor Gambling Task. The main finding of this study was that effortful control at age 11 was the best predictor of risk taking behavior (alcohol and cannabis use) at age 16, particularly among adolescents who were more reward sensitive. Risk taking behavior in adolescents might be explained by relatively weak behavioral control functioning combined with high sensitivity for reward.

  18. Relationships between Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy, Efforts and Academic Achievement among Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alias Maizam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between the affective learning needs namely, self-efficacy and locus of control, learning efforts and academic achievement among engineering students. For this purpose, a survey was conducted on first year engineering students from two technical universities in Malaysia. Self-efficacy and locus of control were assessed using existing instruments while learning efforts were assessed using a specifically designed instrument based on Carbonaro’s model of learning effort. Academic achievement data were based on cumulative grade point average (CGPA obtained from self-report by participants. The findings indicate that females engineering students tend to have higher self-efficacy compared to males while both groups have similar locus of control and invest in similar learning efforts. Only locus of control is found to be related to academic achievement while self-efficacy is found to be related to efforts. In conclusion, locus of control seems to be an important factor in predicting academic achievement among engineering students.

  19. The Effect of General Objectives Defined by Behavioral Objectives on Achievement in a College Zoology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushin, John W.; Baller, William

    1981-01-01

    Tests the effect of developmental level objectives on student achievement and efficiency in a zoology course. These objectives were found to have no significant effect on achievement, but they did significantly increase student efficiency in learning the content material of the module. (Author)

  20. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micevych, Paul E; Meisel, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) activity-the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa . While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  1. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Micevych

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH, activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN, which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  2. Impact and cost-effectiveness of snail control to achieve disease control targets for schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Nathan C.; Gurarie, David; Yoon, Nara; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Bendavid, Eran; Andrews, Jason R.; King, Charles H.

    2018-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that affects over 240 million people globally. To improve population-level disease control, there is growing interest in adding chemical-based snail control interventions to interrupt the lifecycle of Schistosoma in its snail host to reduce parasite transmission. However, this approach is not widely implemented, and given environmental concerns, the optimal conditions for when snail control is appropriate are unclear. We assessed the potential impact and...

  3. Open Source Tools for Temporally Controlled Rodent Behavior Suitable for Electrophysiology and Optogenetic Manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Solari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain controls behavior requires observing and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animals. Neuronal firing is timed at millisecond precision. Therefore, to decipher temporal coding, it is necessary to monitor and control animal behavior at the same level of temporal accuracy. However, it is technically challenging to deliver sensory stimuli and reinforcers as well as to read the behavioral responses they elicit with millisecond precision. Presently available commercial systems often excel in specific aspects of behavior control, but they do not provide a customizable environment allowing flexible experimental design while maintaining high standards for temporal control necessary for interpreting neuronal activity. Moreover, delay measurements of stimulus and reinforcement delivery are largely unavailable. We combined microcontroller-based behavior control with a sound delivery system for playing complex acoustic stimuli, fast solenoid valves for precisely timed reinforcement delivery and a custom-built sound attenuated chamber using high-end industrial insulation materials. Together this setup provides a physical environment to train head-fixed animals, enables calibrated sound stimuli and precisely timed fluid and air puff presentation as reinforcers. We provide latency measurements for stimulus and reinforcement delivery and an algorithm to perform such measurements on other behavior control systems. Combined with electrophysiology and optogenetic manipulations, the millisecond timing accuracy will help interpret temporally precise neural signals and behavioral changes. Additionally, since software and hardware provided here can be readily customized to achieve a large variety of paradigms, these solutions enable an unusually flexible design of rodent behavioral experiments.

  4. Open Source Tools for Temporally Controlled Rodent Behavior Suitable for Electrophysiology and Optogenetic Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Nicola; Sviatkó, Katalin; Laszlovszky, Tamás; Hegedüs, Panna; Hangya, Balázs

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how the brain controls behavior requires observing and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animals. Neuronal firing is timed at millisecond precision. Therefore, to decipher temporal coding, it is necessary to monitor and control animal behavior at the same level of temporal accuracy. However, it is technically challenging to deliver sensory stimuli and reinforcers as well as to read the behavioral responses they elicit with millisecond precision. Presently available commercial systems often excel in specific aspects of behavior control, but they do not provide a customizable environment allowing flexible experimental design while maintaining high standards for temporal control necessary for interpreting neuronal activity. Moreover, delay measurements of stimulus and reinforcement delivery are largely unavailable. We combined microcontroller-based behavior control with a sound delivery system for playing complex acoustic stimuli, fast solenoid valves for precisely timed reinforcement delivery and a custom-built sound attenuated chamber using high-end industrial insulation materials. Together this setup provides a physical environment to train head-fixed animals, enables calibrated sound stimuli and precisely timed fluid and air puff presentation as reinforcers. We provide latency measurements for stimulus and reinforcement delivery and an algorithm to perform such measurements on other behavior control systems. Combined with electrophysiology and optogenetic manipulations, the millisecond timing accuracy will help interpret temporally precise neural signals and behavioral changes. Additionally, since software and hardware provided here can be readily customized to achieve a large variety of paradigms, these solutions enable an unusually flexible design of rodent behavioral experiments.

  5. Impact and cost-effectiveness of snail control to achieve disease control targets for schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan C; Gurarie, David; Yoon, Nara; Coulibaly, Jean T; Bendavid, Eran; Andrews, Jason R; King, Charles H

    2018-01-23

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that affects over 240 million people globally. To improve population-level disease control, there is growing interest in adding chemical-based snail control interventions to interrupt the lifecycle of Schistosoma in its snail host to reduce parasite transmission. However, this approach is not widely implemented, and given environmental concerns, the optimal conditions for when snail control is appropriate are unclear. We assessed the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of various snail control strategies. We extended previously published dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness models to simulate mass drug administration (MDA) and focal snail control interventions against Schistosoma haematobium across a range of low-prevalence (5-20%) and high-prevalence (25-50%) rural Kenyan communities. We simulated strategies over a 10-year period of MDA targeting school children or entire communities, snail control, and combined strategies. We measured incremental cost-effectiveness in 2016 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year and defined a strategy as optimally cost-effective when maximizing health gains (averted disability-adjusted life years) with an incremental cost-effectiveness below a Kenya-specific economic threshold. In both low- and high-prevalence settings, community-wide MDA with additional snail control reduced total disability by an additional 40% compared with school-based MDA alone. The optimally cost-effective scenario included the addition of snail control to MDA in over 95% of simulations. These results support inclusion of snail control in global guidelines and national schistosomiasis control strategies for optimal disease control, especially in settings with high prevalence, "hot spots" of transmission, and noncompliance to MDA. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Metabolic Control and Academic Achievement over Time among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Joel B.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Wiebe, Deborah J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Lei, Pui-Wa; Butner, Jonathan E.

    2017-01-01

    The relation between metabolic control (HbA1c) and achievement (grade point average [GPA]) was examined over a period of 2.5 years (every 6 months) employing a dynamical systems approach that allowed for the examination of whether HbA1c was associated with change in subsequent GPA and vice versa. Metabolic control tends to deteriorate (i.e., with…

  7. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  8. MULTILOOP PI CONTROLLER FOR ACHIEVING SIMULTANEOUS TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN SPECIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SENTHILKUMAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the controllers in control system are designed to satisfy either time domain or frequency domain specifications. This work presents the computation of a multiloop PI controller for achieving time and frequency domain specifications simultaneously. The desired time and frequency domain measures are to be specified initially to the design. To obtain the desired value of the performance measures the graphical relationship between the PI controller and the performance criteria is given. Thus by using graphical method a set of PI controller parameters to meet the desired performance measures are obtained in an effective and simpler way. The coupled tank has become a classic design of control engineering for multivariable process. The proposed control strategy has been implemented in the same coupled tank process and validated through simulation studies.

  9. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  10. Children's Sleep and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy; Doane, Leah D.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children's learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children's effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep…

  11. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  12. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  13. Dimensions of Principal Support Behaviors and Their Relationship to Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Student Achievement in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindle, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    This research was designed with the primary purpose of identifying the dimensions of principal support perceived by public high school teachers in Virginia and identifying the relationship between principal support and organizational citizenship behaviors. In addition, this study also examined the relationship between principal support and student…

  14. Controller synthesis for L2 behaviors using rational kernel representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaers, M.E.C.; Weiland, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the controller synthesis problem for the class of linear time-invariant L2 behaviors. We introduce classes of LTI L2 systems whose behavior can be represented as the kernel of a rational operator. Given a plant and a controlled system in this class, an algorithm is developed

  15. Teasing and weight-control behaviors in adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Leme, Ana Carolina B.; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between weight teasing, body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on adaptation and validity research of a North American questionnaire for adolescent girls about physical activity, nutrition, body image, perceptions, and behaviors. The variables used to conduct the study were weight control behaviors, body satisfaction and presence of teasing by family members. Descriptive analyses were carried out by chi-s...

  16. Role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA(1c) values. An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and adherence in the child; a permissive maternal parenting style predicted poor adherence. A higher sense of helplessness in both parents predicted worse glycemic control and lesser adherence to treatment. Parental sense of helplessness was a significant predictor of diabetes control after correcting for other confounders (patient age, sex, and treatment method). An authoritative nonhelpless parenting style is associated with better diabetes control in adolescents. Paternal involvement is important in adolescent diabetes management. These results have implications for psychological interventions.

  17. Implementing Lean Six Sigma to achieve inventory control in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chen

    2017-11-01

    The inventory cost has important impact on the production cost. In order to get the maximum circulation of funds of enterprise with minimum inventory cost, the inventory control with Lean Six Sigma is presented in supply chain management. The inventory includes both the raw material and the semi-finished parts in manufacturing process. Though the inventory is often studied, the inventory control in manufacturing process is seldom mentioned. This paper reports the inventory control from the perspective of manufacturing process by using statistical techniques including DMAIC, Control Chart, and Statistical Process Control. The process stability is evaluated and the process capability is verified with Lean Six Sigma philosophy. The demonstration in power meter production shows the inventory is decreased from 25% to 0.4%, which indicates the inventory control can be achieved with Lean Six Sigma philosophy and the inventory cost in production can be saved for future sustainable development in supply chain management.

  18. Achieving control and synchronization merely through a stochastically adaptive feedback coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Shijie

    2017-07-01

    Techniques of deterministically adaptive feedback couplings have been successfully and extensively applied to realize control or/and synchronization in chaotic dynamical systems and even in complex dynamical networks. In this article, a technique of stochastically adaptive feedback coupling is novelly proposed to not only realize control in chaotic dynamical systems but also achieve synchronization in unidirectionally coupled systems. Compared with those deterministically adaptive couplings, the proposed stochastic technique interestingly shows some advantages from a physical viewpoint of time and energy consumptions. More significantly, the usefulness of the proposed stochastic technique is analytically validated by the theory of stochastic processes. It is anticipated that the proposed stochastic technique will be widely used in achieving system control and network synchronization.

  19. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia eSánchez-Pérez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control -attentional focusing and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9 to 12 years old. Effortful Control components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent´s report; math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only attentional focusing significantly contributed to the variance of children’s mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children’ self-regulation abilities in the context of school.

  20. Achievement of radiative feedback control for long-pulse operation on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K.; Yuan, Q. P.; Xiao, B. J.; Wang, L.; Duan, Y. M.; Chen, J. B.; Zheng, X. W.; Liu, X. J.; Zhang, B.; Xu, J. C.; Luo, Z. P.; Zang, Q.; Li, Y. Y.; Feng, W.; Wu, J. H.; Yang, Z. S.; Zhang, L.; Luo, G.-N.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Hu, J. S.; Li, J.

    2018-05-01

    The active feedback control of radiated power to prevent divertor target plates overheating during long-pulse operation has been developed and implemented on EAST. The radiation control algorithm, with impurity seeding via a supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) system, has shown great success in both reliability and stability. By seeding a sequence of short neon (Ne) impurity pulses with the SMBI from the outer mid-plane, the radiated power of the bulk plasma can be well controlled, and the duration of radiative control (feedforward and feedback) is 4.5 s during a discharge of 10 s. Reliable control of the total radiated power of bulk plasma has been successfully achieved in long-pulse upper single null (USN) discharges with a tungsten divertor. The achieved control range of {{f}rad} is 20%–30% in L-mode regimes and 18%–36% in H-mode regimes. The temperature of the divertor target plates was maintained at a low level during the radiative control phase. The peak particle flux on the divertor target was decreased by feedforward Ne injection in the L-mode discharges, while the Ne pulses from the SMBI had no influence on the peak particle flux because of the very small injecting volume. It is shown that although the radiated power increased, no serious reduction of plasma-stored energy or confinement was observed during the control phase. The success of the radiation control algorithm and current experiments in radiated power control represents a significant advance for steady-state divertor radiation and heat flux control on EAST for near-future long-pulse operation.

  1. The family environment predicts long-term academic achievement and classroom behavior following traumatic brain injury in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durber, Chelsea M; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    This study examined how the family environment predicts long-term academic and behavioral functioning in school following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in early childhood. Using a concurrent cohort, prospective design, 15 children with severe TBI, 39 with moderate TBI, and 70 with orthopedic injury (OI) who were injured when they were 3-7 years of age were compared on tests of academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of school performance and behavior on average 6.83 years postinjury. Soon after injury and at the longer term follow-up, families completed measures of parental psychological distress, family functioning, and quality of the home environment. Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined group differences in academic outcomes and their associations with measures of the early and later family environment. The severe TBI group, but not the moderate TBI group, performed worse than did the OI group on all achievement tests, parent ratings of academic performance, and teacher ratings of internalizing problems. Higher quality early and late home environments predicted stronger academic skills and better classroom behavior for children with both TBI and OI. The early family environment more consistently predicted academic achievement, whereas the later family environment more consistently predicted classroom functioning. The quality of the home environment predicted academic outcomes more strongly than did parental psychological distress or family functioning. TBI in early childhood has long-term consequences for academic achievement and school performance and behavior. Higher quality early and later home environments predict better school outcomes for both children with TBI and children with OI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Investigating Relationship between Discourse Behavioral Patterns and Academic Achievements of Students in SPOC Discussion Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Wenjing; Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Sun, Jianwen; Liu, Sannyuya

    2018-01-01

    As an overt expression of internal mental processes, discourses have become one main data source for the research of interactive learning. To deeply explore behavioral regularities among interactions, this article firstly adopts the content analysis method to summarize students' engagement patterns within a course forum in a small private online…

  3. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  4. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  5. Sexually Harassing Behavior against Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Implications for Achieving Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…

  6. Parent Involvement, Academic Achievement and the Role of Student Attitudes and Behaviors as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research shows inconsistent relationships between parent involvement and academic achievement and often asks why such inconsistencies occur. The research proposes a theoretical model that separates parent involvement into those practices linking parents to children and those practices linking parents to other adults in the school…

  7. Teacher and Principal Perceptions of How Principal Transformational and Instructional Leadership Behaviors Relate to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Because of public concern over the effectiveness of our schools, a new evaluation system was put in place to hold principals and teachers directly accountable for student academic achievement. Part of this evaluation included student performance on state assessments. The purpose of this qualitative study sought to examine how the transformation…

  8. Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties and Academic Achievement in Immigrant Adolescents in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; Mustafa, Sally; Beauregard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The literature emphasizes that the school environment is a key factor for the mental health and academic achievement of immigrant and refugee children. However, few studies examined the role of school environment and peer relationships for these youth attending a special education class. The aim of this paper is to study the association between…

  9. [Relationship between the prone position and achieving head control at 3 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Machado, J L; Rodríguez-Fuentes, G

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the significant increase of mild motor delays and the strong intolerance of infants to be placed on prone position observed in the Physiotherapy Unit of the Maternal and Children's University Hospital of the Canaries (HUMIC), a study was conducted to determine whether positioning infants in the prone position while awake affected the achievement and quality of head control at three months. A prospective comparative practice-based study of a representative sample of 67 healthy infants born in the HUMIC, and divided into an experimental group (n = 35) and control group (n = 32). The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and a parent questionnaire were used as measurement tools. The intervention consisted of regular home visits to the experimental group (from the first to the third month). The two groups were evaluated in their homes at the end of 3 months. The differences in mean raw score of the AIMS at 3 months were, 16.26 in the experimental group and 10.38 in control group (P<.001). The percentile mean was 94 in the experimental group, and less than 50 (42) in the control group. All of the experimental group babies achieved the head control, with only 8 in the control group (25%). The significant findings suggest a direct relationship between the time spent in the prone position when the baby is awake and the achievement of head control at three months. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Aggressive behavior, protective factors and academic achievement at students inside and outside the system of institutional care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maretić Edita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the differences between the aspects of aggressive behavior, their strengths (protective factors in the prevention of behavioral disorders and academic achievement, in children within and out of institutional forms of education. The study was conducted on a sample of 264 students in seventh and eighth class of elementary school, of whom 134 were in institutional care, while 130 were outside the institutional forms of education. Data were collected by a questionnaire, which included two measuring instruments: Check-list of advantages and Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ. The children who live in institutional care showed a higher incidence of aggressive behavior, compared with children who are out of institutional care. Children placed in institutional care have less protective factors for the prevention of behavioral disorders, worse general school success, as well as poorer success in Nature/ Biology, compared to non-institutional children. A negative and statistically significant relationship was found between the incidence of aggressive behaviors and protective factors in the prevention of conduct disorder, as well as between the incidence of aggressive behavior and overall school success. A significant positive correlation was found between the protective factors and success in the English language. The results indicate the necessity to consider alternative forms of care for children without parental care, in close cooperation of all relevant institutions and individuals who take care for children.

  11. Controlling hydrogen behavior in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, H.S.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the aftermath of the incident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), a new and different treatment of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) risks is needed for public safety because of the specific events involving hydrogen generation, transport, and behavior following the core damage. Hydrogen behavior in closed environments such as the TMI-2 containment building is a complex phenomenon that is not fully understood. Hence, an engineering approach is presented for prevention of loss of life, equipment, and environment in case of a large hydrogen generation in an LWR. A six-level defense strategy is described that minimizes the possibility of ignition of released hydrogen gas and otherwise mitigates the consequences of hydrogen release. Guidance is given to reactor manufacturers, utility companies, regulatory agencies, and research organizations committed to reducing risk factors and insuring safety of life, equipment, and environment

  12. Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.

  13. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children’s mathematics achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J.; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A.; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9–12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent’s report); math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock–Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children’s mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children’s self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  14. Instructional control of reinforcement learning: a behavioral and neurocomputational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Bradley B; Jacobs, W Jake; Sanfey, Alan G; Frank, Michael J

    2009-11-24

    Humans learn how to behave directly through environmental experience and indirectly through rules and instructions. Behavior analytic research has shown that instructions can control behavior, even when such behavior leads to sub-optimal outcomes (Hayes, S. (Ed.). 1989. Rule-governed behavior: cognition, contingencies, and instructional control. Plenum Press.). Here we examine the control of behavior through instructions in a reinforcement learning task known to depend on striatal dopaminergic function. Participants selected between probabilistically reinforced stimuli, and were (incorrectly) told that a specific stimulus had the highest (or lowest) reinforcement probability. Despite experience to the contrary, instructions drove choice behavior. We present neural network simulations that capture the interactions between instruction-driven and reinforcement-driven behavior via two potential neural circuits: one in which the striatum is inaccurately trained by instruction representations coming from prefrontal cortex/hippocampus (PFC/HC), and another in which the striatum learns the environmentally based reinforcement contingencies, but is "overridden" at decision output. Both models capture the core behavioral phenomena but, because they differ fundamentally on what is learned, make distinct predictions for subsequent behavioral and neuroimaging experiments. Finally, we attempt to distinguish between the proposed computational mechanisms governing instructed behavior by fitting a series of abstract "Q-learning" and Bayesian models to subject data. The best-fitting model supports one of the neural models, suggesting the existence of a "confirmation bias" in which the PFC/HC system trains the reinforcement system by amplifying outcomes that are consistent with instructions while diminishing inconsistent outcomes.

  15. Motivational control of behavior of the staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Григорьевна Миляева

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for transition to the non-traditional (motivational concept of management of behavior of the staff; substantiates the urgent need to develop a universal innovative approach to the classification of staff to ensure the implementation of motivational models; the original technique based on the separation of employees on the conventional categories and drafting motivation curve; introduce and analyze the results of the pilot of approbation of the author's methodological approach.

  16. Achieving 3-D Nanoparticle Assembly in Nanocomposite Thin Films via Kinetic Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jingyu; Xiao, Yihan; Xu, Ting [UCB

    2017-02-20

    Nanocomposite thin films containing well-ordered nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are ideal candidates for the fabrication of metamaterials. Achieving 3-D assembly of NPs in nanocomposite thin films is thermodynamically challenging as the particle size gets similar to that of a single polymer chain. The entropic penalties of polymeric matrix upon NP incorporation leads to NP aggregation on the film surface or within the defects in the film. Controlling the kinetic pathways of assembly process provides an alternative path forward by arresting the system in nonequilibrium states. Here, we report the thin film 3-D hierarchical assembly of 20 nm NPs in supramolecules with a 30 nm periodicity. By mediating the NP diffusion kinetics in the supramolecular matrix, surface aggregation of NPs was suppressed and NPs coassemble with supramolecules to form new 3-D morphologies in thin films. The present studies opened a viable route to achieve designer functional composite thin films via kinetic control.

  17. USE OF VIDEOGAMES AND COMPUTER GAMES: INFLUENCES ON ATTENTION, MEMORY, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND PROBLEMS BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Germán Rodríguez Celis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify the relationship between video and computergames use on attention, memory, academic performance and problemsbehavior in school children in Bogotá. Memory and attention were assessedusing a set of different scales of ENI Battery (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solís, 2007. For Academic performance, school newsletters were used.Behavioral problems were assessed through the CBCL / 6 -18 questionnaire(Child Behavior Checklist of (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983. 123 children and99 parents were enrolled in 2 factorial design experimental studies. The resultsdid not support the hypothesis of a significant change in memory tests, orintra-subject selective visual and hearing attention. However, these variablesshowed significant differences among children exposed to habitual videogamesconsumption. No differences were found between the level of regular videogames consumption in school children and academic performance variables orbehavioral problems.

  18. Relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, David L; Bacon, Calvin M

    2009-12-01

    The relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control was assessed in a sample of 286 college students (52% men; M age = 24 yr.) who worked an average of 26 hr. per week. Measures were Spector's Work Locus of Control Scale and Podsakoff, et al.'s Organization Citizenship Behavior scale. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated positive association of scores on work locus of control with scores on each of the four tested dimensions of organizational citizenship, as well as total organizational citizenship behavior.

  19. Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of classroom-based physical activity on math achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Have

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of physical activity (PA into the classroom may be an effective way of promoting the learning and academic achievement of children at elementary school. This paper describes the research design and methodology of an intervention study examining the effect of classroom-based PA on mathematical achievement, creativity, executive function, body mass index and aerobic fitness. Methods The study was designed as a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting schoolchildren in 1st grade, and was carried out between August 2012 and June 2013. Eligible schools in two municipalities in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate in the study. After stratification by municipality, twelve schools were randomized to either an intervention group or a control group, comprising a total of 505 children with mean age 7.2 ± 0.3 years. The intervention was a 9-month classroom-based PA program that involved integration of PA into the math lessons delivered by the schools’ math teachers. The primary study outcome was change in math achievement, measured by a 45-minute standardized math test. Secondary outcomes were change in executive function (using a modified Eriksen flanker task and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF questionnaire filled out by the parents, creativity (using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, TTCT, aerobic fitness (by the Andersen intermittent shuttle-run test and body mass index. PA during math lessons and total PA (including time spent outside school were assessed using accelerometry. Math teachers used Short Message Service (SMS-tracking to report on compliance with the PA intervention and on their motivation for implementing PA in math lessons. Parents used SMS-tracking to register their children’s PA behavior in leisure time. Discussion The results of this randomized controlled trial are expected to provide schools and policy-makers with

  20. Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of classroom-based physical activity on math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Have, Mona; Nielsen, Jacob Have; Gejl, Anne Kær; Thomsen Ernst, Martin; Fredens, Kjeld; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard; Wedderkopp, Niels; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Gudex, Claire; Grøntved, Anders; Kristensen, Peter Lund

    2016-04-11

    Integration of physical activity (PA) into the classroom may be an effective way of promoting the learning and academic achievement of children at elementary school. This paper describes the research design and methodology of an intervention study examining the effect of classroom-based PA on mathematical achievement, creativity, executive function, body mass index and aerobic fitness. The study was designed as a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting schoolchildren in 1st grade, and was carried out between August 2012 and June 2013. Eligible schools in two municipalities in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate in the study. After stratification by municipality, twelve schools were randomized to either an intervention group or a control group, comprising a total of 505 children with mean age 7.2 ± 0.3 years. The intervention was a 9-month classroom-based PA program that involved integration of PA into the math lessons delivered by the schools' math teachers. The primary study outcome was change in math achievement, measured by a 45-minute standardized math test. Secondary outcomes were change in executive function (using a modified Eriksen flanker task and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire filled out by the parents), creativity (using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, TTCT), aerobic fitness (by the Andersen intermittent shuttle-run test) and body mass index. PA during math lessons and total PA (including time spent outside school) were assessed using accelerometry. Math teachers used Short Message Service (SMS)-tracking to report on compliance with the PA intervention and on their motivation for implementing PA in math lessons. Parents used SMS-tracking to register their children's PA behavior in leisure time. The results of this randomized controlled trial are expected to provide schools and policy-makers with significant new insights into the potential of classroom

  1. The Exploration of the Associations between Locus of Control and High School Students’ Language Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Eslami-Rasekh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relationships between locus of control (LOC orientation and high school students’ language achievement. The popular categorization of internals and externals was taken into account. The participants of this study were 121 high school students in the second, third and pre-university grades in two public high schools of Isfahan, Iran. One of the instruments used in the study was an adopted version of Julian Rotters’ locus of control (1966 which identified internal and external orientations. The participants’ English scores were regarded as the measure of their achievement. Besides, a questionnaire consisting of 29 items was administered to all 121 students. Responses were put into one way and two-way ANOVA, the regression analysis, the independent t-test, chi-square and linear regression analysis to compare the means of two sets of scores. The findings of this study show a significant relationship between locus control and achievement of high school students. The findings can be used by EFL teachers and syllabus designers.

  2. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  3. Birds achieve high robustness in uneven terrain through active control of landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Daley, Monica A

    2012-06-15

    We understand little about how animals adjust locomotor behaviour to negotiate uneven terrain. The mechanical demands and constraints of such behaviours likely differ from uniform terrain locomotion. Here we investigated how common pheasants negotiate visible obstacles with heights from 10 to 50% of leg length. Our goal was to determine the neuro-mechanical strategies used to achieve robust stability, and address whether strategies vary with obstacle height. We found that control of landing conditions was crucial for minimising fluctuations in stance leg loading and work in uneven terrain. Variation in touchdown leg angle (θ(TD)) was correlated with the orientation of ground force during stance, and the angle between the leg and body velocity vector at touchdown (β(TD)) was correlated with net limb work. Pheasants actively targeted obstacles to control body velocity and leg posture at touchdown to achieve nearly steady dynamics on the obstacle step. In the approach step to an obstacle, the birds produced net positive limb work to launch themselves upward. On the obstacle, body dynamics were similar to uniform terrain. Pheasants also increased swing leg retraction velocity during obstacle negotiation, which we suggest is an active strategy to minimise fluctuations in peak force and leg posture in uneven terrain. Thus, pheasants appear to achieve robustly stable locomotion through a combination of path planning using visual feedback and active adjustment of leg swing dynamics to control landing conditions. We suggest that strategies for robust stability are context specific, depending on the quality of sensory feedback available, especially visual input.

  4. The Best Achievable ℋ2 Tracking Performances for SIMO Feedback Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Hara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the inherent ℋ2 tracking performance limitation of single-input and multiple-output (SIMO linear time-invariant (LTI feedback control systems. The performance is measured by the tracking error between a step reference input and the plant output with additional penalty on control input. We employ the plant augmentation strategy, which enables us to derive analytical closed-form expressions of the best achievable performance not only for discrete-time system, but also for continuous-time system by exploiting the delta domain version of the expressions.

  5. Weight control behaviors of highly successful weight loss maintainers: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2017-04-01

    To describe key behaviors reported by participants in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry and to determine associations between these behaviors and weight loss maintenance. A total of 388 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included demographic information, weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies, dietary intake, and physical activity. Participants lost on average 18 kg, which they had maintained for ~28 months. Their average dietary intake was 2199 kcal/day, with 33 % of energy coming from fat. About 78 % of participants engaged in levels of moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity exceeding 150 min/week (51 % above 250 min/week), with men accumulating 82 more minutes than women (p breakfast. Greater weight loss maintenance was associated with higher levels of physical activity, walking, weight self-monitoring, establishing specific goals, and with reduced portion size use, reduced consumption of carbohydrates, and increased consumption of protein, (p < 0.05). Results indicate that weight loss maintenance is possible through the adoption of a nutritionally-balanced diet and regular participation in physical activity, but also suggest that adopting different (and, to a degree, individualized) set of behavioral strategies is key for achieving success.

  6. The Influence of Locus of Control on Student Financial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Sonya; Cumbie, Julie A.; Bell, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Data on psychological influences of financial behaviors has not been well addressed in student populations, which is concerning given the high levels of general and financial stress experienced by college students. The findings of this study indicate that college students with an external locus of control exhibit the worst financial behaviors.…

  7. Connecting scales: achieving in-field pest control from areawide and landscape ecology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-02-01

    Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Beyond intuitive anthropomorphic control: recent achievements using brain computer interface technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A.; Fifer, Matthew; Rich, Matthew; Pino, Johnathan; Wester, Brock; Johannes, Matthew; Dohopolski, Chris; Helder, John; D'Angelo, Denise; Beaty, James; Bensmaia, Sliman; McLoughlin, Michael; Tenore, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) research has progressed rapidly, with BCIs shifting from animal tests to human demonstrations of controlling computer cursors and even advanced prosthetic limbs, the latter having been the goal of the Revolutionizing Prosthetics (RP) program. These achievements now include direct electrical intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the brain to provide human BCI users feedback information from the sensors of prosthetic limbs. These successes raise the question of how well people would be able to use BCIs to interact with systems that are not based directly on the body (e.g., prosthetic arms), and how well BCI users could interpret ICMS information from such devices. If paralyzed individuals could use BCIs to effectively interact with such non-anthropomorphic systems, it would offer them numerous new opportunities to control novel assistive devices. Here we explore how well a participant with tetraplegia can detect infrared (IR) sources in the environment using a prosthetic arm mounted camera that encodes IR information via ICMS. We also investigate how well a BCI user could transition from controlling a BCI based on prosthetic arm movements to controlling a flight simulator, a system with different physical dynamics than the arm. In that test, the BCI participant used environmental information encoded via ICMS to identify which of several upcoming flight routes was the best option. For both tasks, the BCI user was able to quickly learn how to interpret the ICMSprovided information to achieve the task goals.

  9. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Achievement in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Melissa; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of autistic children. The between-subjects analysis included data from eight autistic children (ages 5 to 7) with four on a gluten-free diet and four serving as controls. The number of attempts needed before…

  10. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S.; Felden, Érico P.G.; Silva, Diego A.S.; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eatin...

  11. The real-time control of planetary rovers through behavior modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David P.

    1991-01-01

    It is not yet clear of what type, and how much, intelligence is needed for a planetary rover to function semi-autonomously on a planetary surface. Current designs assume an advanced AI system that maintains a detailed map of its journeys and the surroundings, and that carefully calculates and tests every move in advance. To achieve these abilities, and because of the limitations of space-qualified electronics, the supporting rover is quite sizable, massing a large fraction of a ton, and requiring technology advances in everything from power to ground operations. An alternative approach is to use a behavior driven control scheme. Recent research has shown that many complex tasks may be achieved by programming a robot with a set of behaviors and activation or deactivating a subset of those behaviors as required by the specific situation in which the robot finds itself. Behavior control requires much less computation than is required by tradition AI planning techniques. The reduced computation requirements allows the entire rover to be scaled down as appropriate (only down-link communications and payload do not scale under these circumstances). The missions that can be handled by the real-time control and operation of a set of small, semi-autonomous, interacting, behavior-controlled planetary rovers are discussed.

  12. The Temporal Effects of Divorces and Separations on Children's Academic Achievement and Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an examination of the effects of the divorce and separation process on children's academic achievement over time. By using child fixed effects and establishing a baseline period that is 4-or-more years prior to a family disruption, I can examine how children are affected in different periods relative to the disruption and whether any negative effects subside, persist, or escalate as time passes from the disruption. With a sample of 7-14 year olds, I find: children are affected at least 2-4 years before the disruption; reading test scores are most affected; and for Reading Comprehension, the negative effects persist and even escalate as time passes from the disruption.

  13. Sex differences in cognitive regulation of psychosocial achievement stress: brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Gur, Ruben C; Derntl, Birgit

    2015-03-01

    Although cognitive regulation of emotion has been extensively examined, there is a lack of studies assessing cognitive regulation in stressful achievement situations. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 23 females and 20 males to investigate cognitive downregulation of negative, stressful sensations during a frequently used psychosocial stress task. Additionally, subjective responses, cognitive regulation strategies, salivary cortisol, and skin conductance response were assessed. Subjective response supported the experimental manipulation by showing higher anger and negative affect ratings after stress regulation than after the mere exposure to stress. On a neural level, right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG) were more strongly activated during regulation than nonregulation, whereas the hippocampus was less activated during regulation. Sex differences were evident: after regulation females expressed higher subjective stress ratings than males, and these ratings were associated with right hippocampal activation. In the nonregulation block, females showed greater activation of the left amygdala and the right STG during stress than males while males recruited the putamen more robustly in this condition. Thus, cognitive regulation of stressful achievement situations seems to induce additional stress, to recruit regions implicated in attention integration and working memory and to deactivate memory retrieval. Stress itself is associated with greater activation of limbic as well as attention areas in females than males. Additionally, activation of the memory system during cognitive regulation of stress is associated with greater perceived stress in females. Sex differences in cognitive regulation strategies merit further investigation that can guide sex sensitive interventions for stress-associated disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  15. An Analysis of Java Programming Behaviors, Affect, Perceptions, and Syntax Errors among Low-Achieving, Average, and High-Achieving Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Andallaza, Thor Collin S.; Castro, Francisco Enrique Vicente G.; Armenta, Marc Lester V.; Dy, Thomas T.; Jadud, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a sample of novice programmer compilation log data, exploring whether (or how) low-achieving, average, and high-achieving students vary in their grasp of these introductory concepts. High-achieving students self-reported having the easiest time learning the introductory programming…

  16. Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant)

  17. When teammates are viewed as rivals: a cross-national investigation of achievement goals and intrateam moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardley, Ian D; Jackson, Ben

    2012-08-01

    This research aimed to (a) determine whether mastery and intrateam performance achievement goals predicted prosocial and antisocial teammate behavior, (b) explore whether effects of intrateam performance goals were mediated by moral disengagement, and (c) examine whether any effects (Study 2 only) were moderated by cohesion. In Study 1, team athletes (N = 282) from Australia completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated that prosocial teammate behavior was positively predicted by mastery approach goals, and negatively predicted by mastery- and intrateam performance avoidance goals, whereas antisocial teammate behavior was positively predicted by intrateam performance-approach and -avoidance goals; these latter effects were mediated by moral disengagement. In Study 2, team athletes (N = 452) from the United Kingdom completed a measure of cohesion in addition to the Study 1 instruments; the analyses largely confirmed the Study 1 findings. However, the undesirable effect of mastery-avoidance goals on prosocial behavior seen in Study 1 was only apparent in Study 2 when individuals held strong perceptions of team cohesion. In sum, this investigation makes a novel contribution to the literature on team functioning in sport, being the first to explore how athletes' normative goals relative to their teammates might shape effective interaction processes.

  18. Taxing behavioral control diminishes sharing and costly punishment in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Instances of altruism in children are well documented. However, the underlying mechanisms of such altruistic behavior are still under considerable debate. While some claim that altruistic acts occur automatically and spontaneously, others argue that they require behavioral control. This study focuses on the mechanisms that give rise to prosocial decisions such as sharing and costly punishment. In two studies it is shown in 124 children aged 6-9 years that behavioral control plays a critical role for both prosocial decisions and costly punishment. Specifically, the studies assess the influence of taxing aspects of self-regulation, such as behavioral control (Study 1) and emotion regulation (Study 2) on subsequent decisions in a Dictator and an Ultimatum Game. Further, children's perception of fairness norms and emotional experience were measured. Taxing children's behavioral control prior to making their decisions reduced sharing and costly punishment of unfair offers, without changing perception of fairness norms or the emotional experience. Conversely, taxing children's emotion regulation prior to making their decisions only led to increased experience of anger at seeing unfair offers, but left sharing, costly punishment and the perception of fairness norms unchanged. These findings stress the critical role of behavioral control in prosocial giving and costly punishment in childhood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Impact of Achieve3000 on Elementary Literacy Outcomes: Evidence from a Two-Year Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman

    2016-01-01

    School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…

  20. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Pamela V; Onyper, Serge V

    2016-02-01

    To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the "Owl-Lark" Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010-2011 through 2013-2014. Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Behavior Self-Control and the Contract Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Everett L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes study to determine the success of university students' behavioral self-control projects. Results indicate that the teaching of self-control principles is easily integrated into personal adjustment classes and can have lasting effects on students' coping skills. (KC)

  2. Aspectos afetivos e o desempenho acadêmico de escolares Affective behavior and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vilela Jacob

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar através do Desenho da Casa-Árvore-Pessoa (HTP e do Teste das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister (TPC o funcionamento afetivo de 50 crianças com idade entre 8 e 12 anos, de ambos os sexos, com nível intelectual médio. Elas foram distribuídas em dois grupos de 25 sujeitos, um deles com atraso escolar, e o outro grupo apresentando desempenho escolar satisfatório e idade compatível à série cursada. Observou-se através destas técnicas que o rendimento escolar rebaixado nas crianças do grupo com atraso escolar pareceu relacionado a sentimentos de fracasso e a uma auto-imagem depreciativa. No grupo de crianças sem atraso escolar predominou, uma melhor utilização dos recursos intelectuais e afetivos, contudo associado a elevado nível de exigência. O estudo das variáveis afetivas e sua associação ao rendimento escolar puderam favorecer uma compreensão mais aprofundada da maneira como as crianças estão experimentando esta etapa do desenvolvimento.Using the House-Tree-Person Drawing (HTP and the Color Pyramid Test (CPT we aimed at characterizing the affective behavior of 50 children of average intellectual level, male and female, aged from 8 to 12 years. Two groups of 25 subjects each were formed: one presenting school delay and another with satisfactory school performance and age compatible with school grade. The used techniques showed that low school performance among the children with school delay seemed to be related to feelings of failure and a low self-esteem. In the group with no school delay prevailed a better use of affective and intellectual resources, but associated to high demand. The study of affective variables and their association with school performance lead to a deeper understanding of the way the children are experiencing their developing stage.

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances. An environmentally friendly UC is a remote controller which utilizes an infrared two-way communication function and becomes capable of dealing with any appliance upon downloading remote control information from the appliance involved. Studies were conducted for the development of controller hardware and software therefor and for the development of electrical home appliances to correspond to their specifications. In relation with energy conservation, studies centered about reduction in power consumption while on standby and unnecessary power consumption. As the result, an environmentally friendly UC protocol was newly developed and, based on the protocol, plural numbers of controllers, appliances, and network gateways were tentatively fabricated, and were examined for their function, behavior, and operational interchangeability. Systems aiming at reducing power consumption while on standby and unnecessary power consumption were built by way of experiment, and were checked for performance. It was then concluded that a reduction of several billion kWh might be achieved. (NEDO)

  4. Locus of Control, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Some Deaf and Typical Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatoye, R. Ademola; Aanu, E. Mosunmola

    2010-01-01

    This study compared locus of control, interest in school and science achievement of typical and deaf secondary school students. The study also investigated influence of students' locus of control and interest in school on general science achievement. Seventy two (72) deaf and 235 typical children were purposively selected from eight secondary…

  5. Achieving atomistic control in materials processing by plasma–surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jeffrey; Chang, Jane P

    2017-01-01

    The continuous down-scaling of electronic devices and the introduction of functionally improved novel materials require a greater atomic level controllability in the synthesis and patterning of thin film materials, especially with regards to deposition uniformity and conformality as well as etching selectivity and anisotropy. The richness of plasma chemistry and the corresponding plasma–surface interactions provide the much needed processing flexibility and efficacy. To achieve the integration of the novel materials into devices, plasma-enhanced atomic layer processing techniques are emerging as the enabling factors to obtain atomic scale control of complex materials and nanostructures. This review focuses on an overview of the role of respective plasma species involved in plasma–surface interactions, addressing their respective and synergistic effects, which is followed by two distinct applications: plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) and atomic layer etching (ALE). For plasma-enhanced ALD, this review emphasizes the use of plasma chemistry to enable alternative pathways to synthesize complex materials at low temperatures and the challenges associated with deposition conformality. For plasma enabled ALE processes, the review focuses on the surface-specific chemical reactions needed to achieve desirable selectivity and anisotropy. (topical review)

  6. Coaching to Augment Mentoring to Achieve Faculty Diversity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon N; Thakore, Bhoomi K; McGee, Richard

    2016-08-01

    The Academy for Future Science Faculty (the Academy) is a novel coaching intervention for biomedical PhD students designed to address limitations in previous efforts to promote faculty diversity. Unlike traditional research mentoring, the Academy includes both group and individual coaching, coaches have no research or evaluation roles with the students, and it is based on social science theories. The authors present a qualitative case study of one of the coaching groups and provide statistical analyses indicating whether one year in the Academy effects students' perceptions of the achievability and desirability of an academic career. The authors tested (July 2012-July 2013), with Northwestern University ethical approval, the Academy via a longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Participants were 121 latter-stage biomedical PhD students. The authors collected data via questionnaires, interviews, and meeting recordings. The case study shows how group career coaching can effectively supplement traditional one-to-one research mentoring; provide new role models for underrepresented minority students; and provide theory-based lenses through which to engage in open conversations about race, gender, and science careers. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that perceived achievability increased in the Academy group from baseline to one-year follow-up (mean, 5.75 versus 6.39) but decreased in the control group (6.58 versus 5.81). Perceived desirability decreased significantly less (P coaching model can effectively supplement traditional research mentoring and promote persistence toward academic careers.

  7. Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS, data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

  8. The interplay of locus of control and academic achievement among Iranian English foreign language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Yazdanpanah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to look at the relationship between locus of control (LOC orientation and academic achievement (ACH ofuniversity-age English Foreign Language (EFL learners. LOC is the extent to which individuals attribute their achievementseither to external influences such as fate or to their own efforts. The sample for the study included 120 students studyingEnglish literature at the department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics of Shiraz University. They were chosen conveniently,on a voluntary basis, from the sophomores, juniors, and seniors. The instrument used was the revised version of LOCquestionnaire (Rotter, 2003 which identifies orientations of internality or externality. The participants' grade point averageswere the measure of their ACH. A number of statistical analyses such as Pearson product-moment correlation, the regressionanalysis, and the T-tests for the independent samples were performed on the data to achieve the objectives of the study. Thefindings of this study revealed that (a the LOC and the socio-economic status (SES have significant relationships with theuniversity EFL students' ACH (b the LOC is a good predictor of the participants' ACH (c the internals perform at higher levels ofachievement than the externals (d there is a significant difference between mid/high SES-students and low SES-students in LOCorientation (e the external students with a mid/high SES achieve significantly lower averages than the external students with alow SES, but the internal students with a mid/high SES achieve only a little lower averages than the internal students with a lowSES (f the internals' grades for the general and the major courses have significant relationships with their LOC, but this is not sofor the externals (g the age and the year of the study do not have significant relationships with LOC and with ACH (h there isno main difference between male and female participants in LOC orientation (i and finally, there is not a

  9. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Losing control: assaultive behavior as a predictor of impulse control disorders in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Derbyshire, Katherine; Grant, Jon E

    2014-11-01

    Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders, an association that has yet to be examined, especially in young adults. The authors conducted a university-wide email survey in the spring of 2011 on 6000 university students. The survey examined assaultive behavior and associated mental health variables (using a clinically validated screening instrument, the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview), stress and mood states, and psychosocial functioning. The rate of response was 35.1% (n=2108). 109 (5.9%) participants reported that they had assaulted another person or destroyed property at some time in their lives. Compared with respondents without lifetime assaultive behavior, those with a history of assaultive or destructive behavior reported more depressive symptoms, more stress, and higher rates of a range of impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, and skin picking disorder). Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for young adults attending college who report problems with assaultive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  12. Procedural Information and Behavioral Control: Longitudinal Analysis of the Intention-Behavior Gap in the Context of Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny Rosenthal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of planned behavior states that individuals act on their intentions, especially when they have behavioral control. The current study examines how seeking recycling-related procedural information—i.e., information about how and where to recycle—is related to behavioral control. Hypothesis testing used hierarchical ordinary least squares regression analysis of longitudinal data from 553 survey respondents. Results supported seven hypotheses. Most notably, procedural information seeking both mediated and moderated the relationship between intention and behavior. Further, the moderation effect was itself mediated by behavioral control. The argument for this mediated moderation is that information seeking enhances behavioral control, and it is primarily behavioral control that moderates the relationship between intention and behavior. These results have implications for the theory of planned behavior and, more generally, for how individuals use information to support their behaviors.

  13. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavior coordination of mobile robotics using supervisory control of fuzzy discrete event systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasiri, Awantha; Mann, George K I; Gosine, Raymond G

    2011-10-01

    In order to incorporate the uncertainty and impreciseness present in real-world event-driven asynchronous systems, fuzzy discrete event systems (DESs) (FDESs) have been proposed as an extension to crisp DESs. In this paper, first, we propose an extension to the supervisory control theory of FDES by redefining fuzzy controllable and uncontrollable events. The proposed supervisor is capable of enabling feasible uncontrollable and controllable events with different possibilities. Then, the extended supervisory control framework of FDES is employed to model and control several navigational tasks of a mobile robot using the behavior-based approach. The robot has limited sensory capabilities, and the navigations have been performed in several unmodeled environments. The reactive and deliberative behaviors of the mobile robotic system are weighted through fuzzy uncontrollable and controllable events, respectively. By employing the proposed supervisory controller, a command-fusion-type behavior coordination is achieved. The observability of fuzzy events is incorporated to represent the sensory imprecision. As a systematic analysis of the system, a fuzzy-state-based controllability measure is introduced. The approach is implemented in both simulation and real time. A performance evaluation is performed to quantitatively estimate the validity of the proposed approach over its counterparts.

  15. Harsh parenting and academic achievement in Chinese adolescents: Potential mediating roles of effortful control and classroom engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingzhong; Deng, Xueli; Du, Xiuxiu

    2018-04-01

    This study examined (a) the potential mediating roles of effortful control and classroom engagement in the association between harsh parenting and adolescent academic achievement, and (b) the potential moderating role of gender. Sixth through eighth graders in rural China (n=815, mean age=12.55years) reported on harsh parenting, effortful control, and classroom engagement. Parents also reported on each other's harsh parenting. Academic achievement was assessed by students' test scores and teacher-rated academic performance. Results of structural equation modeling revealed gender differences in patterns of association among the model variables. Harsh parenting was negatively and directly associated with academic achievement for both boys and girls. It was also negatively and indirectly associated with academic achievement via effortful control and classroom engagement sequentially, forming a common indirect "path" for boys and girls. The indirect negative effect of harsh parenting on boys' academic achievement was mainly realized through the mediator of effortful control, whereas this same indirect effect for girls was mainly realized through the mediator of classroom engagement. Jointly, effortful control and classroom engagement precipitates more indirect effects for boys than for girls in the association between harsh parenting and academic achievement. The discussion analyzes the potential "paths" from harsh parenting to adolescent academic achievement, as well as gender differences in these "paths." The current study has implications for teachers and parents eager to improve students' classroom engagement and academic achievement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Pinched hysteresis behavior in a PID-controlled resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Carrasco-Aguilar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A current-controlled grounded resistor that exhibits a frequency-dependent pinched hysteresis loop is described. A mathematical model describing this behavior is derived and validated numerically, which has the form of a Proportional Integral-Derivative (PID controller. The proposed topology is build by using AD844 commercially available active device configured as second-generation current conveyor and experimental tests are compared with numerical simulations, showing a good agreement among them. Moreover, the proposed PID-controlled resistor can be reconfigured in order to be used in future applications such as programmable analog circuits. Keyword: Pinched hysteresis, Current conveyors, Nonlinear resistor, Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller

  17. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Peer Positive Social Control and Men's Health-Promoting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Janie; Meunier, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Mercerat, Coralie; Gaboury, Isabelle; Tremblay, Gilles; de Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne; Roy, Bernard; Auger, Nathalie; Lavoie, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Men are generally thought to be less inclined to take care of their health. To date, most studies about men's health have focused on deficits in self-care and difficulties in dealing with this sphere of their life. The present study reframes this perspective, using a salutogenic strengths-based approach and seeking to identify variables that influence men to take care of their health, rather than neglect it. This study focuses on the association between peer positive social control and men's health behaviors, while controlling for other important individual and social determinants (sociodemographic characteristics, health self-efficacy, home neighborhood, spousal positive social control, and the restrictive emotionality norm). In a mixed-method study, 669 men answered a self-reported questionnaire, and interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sample of 31 men. Quantitative results indicated that, even after controlling for sociodemographic variables and other important factors, peer positive social control was significantly associated with the six health behaviors measured in the study (health responsibility, nutrition, physical activity, interpersonal relations, stress management, and spirituality). Interview results revealed that peer positive social control influenced men's health behaviors through three different mechanisms: shared activity, being inspired, and serving as a positive role model for others. In summary, friends and coworkers could play a significant role in promoting various health behaviors among adult men in their daily life. Encouraging men to socialize and discuss health, and capitalizing on healthy men as role models appear to be effective ways to influence health behavior adoption among this specific population.

  19. Nutrition Facts Use in Relation to Eating Behaviors and Healthy and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Haynos, Ann F; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-03-01

    Investigate the relationship between use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods and weight-related behaviors. Cross-sectional survey in 2015-2016. Young adult respondents (n = 1,817; 57% women; average age 31.0 ± 1.6 years) to the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults-IV survey, the fourth wave of a longitudinal cohort study. Use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods; healthy, unhealthy, and extreme weight control behaviors; intuitive eating; binge eating. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, ethnicity/race, education, income, and weight status. In women, greater Nutrition Facts use was associated with a 23% and 10% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a 17% greater chance of engaging in binge eating. In men, greater label use was associated with a 27% and 17% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a lower level of intuitive eating. Professionals advising patients and clients on weight management may consider possible gender differences in response to weight loss and management guidance. Since label use was related to engagement in some unhealthy behaviors in addition to healthy behaviors, it is important to consider how individuals may use labels, particularly those at risk for, or engaging in, disordered eating behaviors. Future research investigating potential relationships between Nutrition Facts use, intuitive eating, and binge eating is needed. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictive Models of Procedural Human Supervisory Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    821708, Brest , France. Page 139 of 150 Boussemart, Y. and M. L. Cummings (2010). "Predicting Supervisory Control Behavior with Hidden Markov Models...Strategies for Strike Planning. COGIS 2006 - Cognitive Systems with Interactive Sensors, Paris . Burges, C. (1998). "A Tutorial on Support Vector Machines

  1. The support of autonomy and the control of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, E L; Ryan, R M

    1987-12-01

    In this article we suggest that events and contexts relevant to the initiation and regulation of intentional behavior can function either to support autonomy (i.e., to promote choice) or to control behavior (i.e., to pressure one toward specific outcomes). Research herein reviewed indicates that this distinction is relevant to specific external events and to general interpersonal contexts as well as to specific internal events and to general personality orientations. That is, the distinction is relevant whether one's analysis focuses on social psychological variables or on personality variables. The research review details those contextual and person factors that tend to promote autonomy and those that tend to control. Furthermore, it shows that autonomy support has generally been associated with more intrinsic motivation, greater interest, less pressure and tension, more creativity, more cognitive flexibility, better conceptual learning, a more positive emotional tone, higher self-esteem, more trust, greater persistence of behavior change, and better physical and psychological health than has control. Also, these results have converged across different assessment procedures, different research methods, and different subject populations. On the basis of these results, we present an organismic perspective in which we argue that the regulation of intentional behavior varies along a continuum from autonomous (i.e., self-determined) to controlled. The relation of this organismic perspective to historical developments in empirical psychology is discussed, with a particular emphasis on its implications for the study of social psychology and personality.

  2. Behavioral Problems in Iranian Epileptic Children; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aludari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders in childhood, prevalence of which is increasing. Unpredictable and chronic nature of the disease affects physical, social and mental functions of the children and their family. This study was aimed to compare behavioral problems in epileptic children group versus healthy control group. Materials and Methods This study is a case-control one conducted from January 2013 to June 2016 in Tehran, Iran. The epileptic children in age of 7-10 years old that were diagnosed by neurologist referred to the researcher for further process. Their parents were provided with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL to be completed. For matching by age and gender, the healthy group was sampled after the epilepsy group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used for statistical analysis. Results In this study 94 children with epilepsy and 83 healthy children in age of 7-10 years old were studied. The results indicated that there were significantly higher behavioral problems in the children with epilepsy than in control group in nine categories of seclusiveness, physical complaints, anxiety and depression, social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and other problems. Comparison of two generalized and partial epilepsy groups indicated that there was a significant difference only in attention problems (p = 0.024. Conclusion The present study indicates that the children with epilepsy have more behavioral problems as compared to control group. Therefore, educational and psychological interventions are necessary for supporting desirable psychosocial growth and development of such children.

  3. Students' Big Three Personality Traits, Perceptions of Teacher Interpersonal Behavior, and Mathematics Achievement: An Application of the Model of Reciprocal Causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampous, Kyriakos; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of the Model of Reciprocal Causation (MRC) in examining the relationship between student personality (personal factors), student-perceived teacher interpersonal behavior (environment), and Mathematics achievement (behavior), with the simultaneous investigation of mediating effects…

  4. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Components of School Climate and Leadership Behaviors on Student Achievement: Urban School Districts in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karmen J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate the relationship between the components of school climate and leadership behaviors on student achievement in an urban school district in the mid-atlantic region. School climate and leadership behaviors for the participating school districts was determined by the School Climate Survey (Corner…

  5. Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control-Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students' appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students' boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual…

  6. Children’s Sleep and Academic Achievement: The Moderating Role of Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Anjolii; Berger, Rebecca; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah; Tao, Chun; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Doane, Leah D.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep is thought to interfere with children’s learning and academic achievement (AA). However, existing research and theory indicate there are factors that may mitigate the academic risk associated with poor sleep. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating role of children’s effortful control (EC) on the relation between sleep and AA in young children. One hundred and three 4.5- to 7-year-olds (M = 5.98 years, SD = 0.61) wore a wrist-based actigraph for five continuous weekday nights. Teachers and coders reported on children’s EC. EC was also assessed with a computer-based task at school. Additionally, we obtained a standardized measure of children’s AA. There was a positive main effect of sleep efficiency to AA. Several relations between sleep and AA were moderated by EC and examination of the simple slopes indicated that the negative relation between sleep and AA was only significant at low levels of EC. PMID:28255190

  7. Fuel and control rod failure behavior during degraded core accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    As a part of the pretest and posttest analyses of Light Water Reactor Source Term Experiments (STEP) which are conducted in the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility, this paper investigates the thermodynamic and material behaviors of nuclear fuel pins and control rods during severe core degradation accidents. A series of four STEP tests are being performed to simulate the characteristics of the power reactor accidents and investigate the behavior of fission product release during these accidents. To determine the release rate of the fission products from the fuel pins and the control rod materials, information concerning the timing of the clad failure and the thermodynamic conditions of the fuel pins and control rods are needed to be evaluated. Because the phase change involves a large latent heat and volume expansion, and the phase change is a direct cause of the clad failure, the understanding of the phase change phenomena, particularly information regarding how much of the fuel pin and control rod materials are melted are very important. A simple energy balance model is developed to calculate the temperature profile and melt front in various heat transfer media considering the effects of natural convection phenomena on the melting and freezing front behavior

  8. NEURAL NETWORK INTERACTIONS AND INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR CONTROL DURING ANOREXIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Alan G.; Salter, Dawna S.; Neuner, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    Many models have been proposed over the years to explain how motivated feeding behavior is controlled. One of the most compelling is based on the original concepts of Eliot Stellar whereby sets of interosensory and exterosensory inputs converge on a hypothalamic control network that can either stimulate or inhibit feeding. These inputs arise from information originating in the blood, the viscera, and the telencephalon. In this manner the relative strengths of the hypothalamic stimulatory and inhibitory networks at a particular time dictates how an animal feeds. Anorexia occurs when the balance within the networks consistently favors the restraint of feeding. This article discusses experimental evidence supporting a model whereby the increases in plasma osmolality that result from drinking hypertonic saline activate pathways projecting to neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). These neurons constitute the hypothalamic controller for ingestive behavior, and receive a set of afferent inputs from regions of the brain that process sensory information that is critical for different aspects of feeding. Important sets of inputs arise in the arcuate nucleus, the hindbrain, and in the telencephalon. Anorexia is generated in dehydrated animals by way of osmosensitive projections to the behavior control neurons in the PVH and LHA, rather than by actions on their afferent inputs. PMID:17531275

  9. Mathematical Systems Theory : from Behaviors to Nonlinear Control

    CERN Document Server

    Julius, A; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Rapisarda, Paolo; Scherpen, Jacquelien

    2015-01-01

    This treatment of modern topics related to mathematical systems theory forms the proceedings of a workshop, Mathematical Systems Theory: From Behaviors to Nonlinear Control, held at the University of Groningen in July 2015. The workshop celebrated the work of Professors Arjan van der Schaft and Harry Trentelman, honouring their 60th Birthdays. The first volume of this two-volume work covers a variety of topics related to nonlinear and hybrid control systems. After giving a detailed account of the state of the art in the related topic, each chapter presents new results and discusses new directions. As such, this volume provides a broad picture of the theory of nonlinear and hybrid control systems for scientists and engineers with an interest in the interdisciplinary field of systems and control theory. The reader will benefit from the expert participants’ ideas on exciting new approaches to control and system theory and their predictions of future directions for the subject that were discussed at the worksho...

  10. The Association Between Suicidal Behavior, Attentional Control, and Frontal Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thompson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be difficult to identify those at risk of suicide because suicidal thoughts are often internalized and not shared with others. Yet to prevent suicide attempts it is crucial to identify suicidal thoughts and actions at an early stage. Past studies have suggested that deficits in attentional control are associated with suicide, with the argument that individuals are unable to inhibit negative thoughts and direct resources away from negative information. The current study aimed to investigate the association of suicidal behavior with neurological and behavioral markers, measuring attentional bias and inhibition in two Stroop tasks. Fifty-four participants responded to the color of color words in a standard Stroop task and the color of positive, negative, and neutral words in an emotional Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG activity was recorded from frontal areas during each task and at resting. Participants were separated into a low-risk and high-risk group according to their self-reported suicidal behavior. Participants in the high-risk group showed slower response times in the color Stroop and reduced accuracy to incongruent trials, but faster response times in the emotional Stroop task. Response times to the word “suicide” were significantly slower for the high-risk group. This indicates an attentional bias toward specific negative stimuli and difficulties inhibiting information for those with high levels of suicidal behavior. In the emotional Stroop task the high-risk group showed reduced activity in leftward frontal areas, suggesting limitations in the ability to regulate emotional processing via the left frontal regions. The findings support the argument that deficits in attentional control are related to suicidal behavior. The research also suggests that under certain conditions frontal asymmetry may be associated with suicidal behavior.

  11. The Association Between Suicidal Behavior, Attentional Control, and Frontal Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine; Ong, Elsie Li Chen

    2018-01-01

    It can be difficult to identify those at risk of suicide because suicidal thoughts are often internalized and not shared with others. Yet to prevent suicide attempts it is crucial to identify suicidal thoughts and actions at an early stage. Past studies have suggested that deficits in attentional control are associated with suicide, with the argument that individuals are unable to inhibit negative thoughts and direct resources away from negative information. The current study aimed to investigate the association of suicidal behavior with neurological and behavioral markers, measuring attentional bias and inhibition in two Stroop tasks. Fifty-four participants responded to the color of color words in a standard Stroop task and the color of positive, negative, and neutral words in an emotional Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from frontal areas during each task and at resting. Participants were separated into a low-risk and high-risk group according to their self-reported suicidal behavior. Participants in the high-risk group showed slower response times in the color Stroop and reduced accuracy to incongruent trials, but faster response times in the emotional Stroop task. Response times to the word “suicide” were significantly slower for the high-risk group. This indicates an attentional bias toward specific negative stimuli and difficulties inhibiting information for those with high levels of suicidal behavior. In the emotional Stroop task the high-risk group showed reduced activity in leftward frontal areas, suggesting limitations in the ability to regulate emotional processing via the left frontal regions. The findings support the argument that deficits in attentional control are related to suicidal behavior. The research also suggests that under certain conditions frontal asymmetry may be associated with suicidal behavior. PMID:29593586

  12. Self-control and academic performance: Two field studies on university citizenship behavior and counterproductive academic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed...... that students' self-control impacts university citizenship behavior positively and counterproductive academic behavior negatively. Two correlative field studies, at which one is predictive, using different questionnaires to assess self-control support both hypotheses....

  13. Serotonin control of thermotaxis memory behavior in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinxia Li

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans.

  14. Serotonin control of thermotaxis memory behavior in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxia; Zhao, Yunli; Huang, Xu; Lin, Xingfeng; Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans.

  15. Serotonin Control of Thermotaxis Memory Behavior in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans. PMID:24223727

  16. International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsen, Gunnar

    1976-01-01

    This book includes all papers presented at the International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control held at Berchtesgaden, Federal Republic of Germany, March 8-12, 1976. The Symposium was sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Brussels, and the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn. We believe the book constitutes an important and timely status report on monitoring behavior and supervisory control by human operators of complex man-machine systems in which the computer is sharing key functions with the man. These systems include aircraft and other vehicles, nuclear and more conventional power plants, and processes for the manu­ facture of chemicals, petroleum, and discrete parts. By "monitoring" we mean the systematic observation by a human operator of mul tiple sources of information, e. g. , ranging from integrated display consoles to disparate "live situations". The monitor's purpose is to determine whether operations are norm...

  17. Behavioral response and pain perception to computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system and cartridge syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T D Yogesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study evaluated and compared the pain perception, behavioral response, physiological parameters, and the role of topical anesthetic administration during local anesthetic administration with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD. Design: A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 120 children aged 7-11 years. They were randomly divided into Group A: Receiving injection with CCLAD during first visit; Group B: Receiving injection with cartridge syringe during first visit. They were further subdivided into three subgroups based on the topical application used: (a 20% benzocaine; (b pressure with cotton applicator; (c no topical application. Pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded before and during injection procedure. Objective evaluation of disruptive behavior and subjective evaluation of pain were done using face legs activity cry consolability scale and modified facial image scale, respectively. The washout period between the two visits was 1-week. Results: Injections with CCLAD produced significantly lesser pain response, disruptive behavior (P < 0.001, and pulse rate (P < 0.05 when compared to cartridge syringe injections. Application of benzocaine produced lesser pain response and disruptive behavior when compared to the other two subgroups, although the result was not significant. Conclusion: Usage of techniques which enhance behavioral response in children like injections with CCLAD can be considered as a possible step toward achieving a pain-free pediatric dental practice.

  18. Effects of an Emotion Control Treatment on Academic Emotions, Motivation and Achievement in an Online Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…

  19. Amygdala subsystems and control of feeding behavior by learned cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovich, Gorica D; Gallagher, Michela

    2003-04-01

    A combination of behavioral studies and a neural systems analysis approach has proven fruitful in defining the role of the amygdala complex and associated circuits in fear conditioning. The evidence presented in this chapter suggests that this approach is also informative in the study of other adaptive functions that involve the amygdala. In this chapter we present a novel model to study learning in an appetitive context. Furthermore, we demonstrate that long-recognized connections between the amygdala and the hypothalamus play a crucial role in allowing learning to modulate feeding behavior. In the first part we describe a behavioral model for motivational learning. In this model a cue that acquires motivational properties through pairings with food delivery when an animal is hungry can override satiety and promote eating in sated rats. Next, we present evidence that a specific amygdala subsystem (basolateral area) is responsible for allowing such learned cues to control eating (override satiety and promote eating in sated rats). We also show that basolateral amygdala mediates these actions via connectivity with the lateral hypothalamus. Lastly, we present evidence that the amygdalohypothalamic system is specific for the control of eating by learned motivational cues, as it does not mediate another function that depends on intact basolateral amygdala, namely, the ability of a conditioned cue to support new learning based on its acquired value. Knowledge about neural systems through which food-associated cues specifically control feeding behavior provides a defined model for the study of learning. In addition, this model may be informative for understanding mechanisms of maladaptive aspects of learned control of eating that contribute to eating disorders and more moderate forms of overeating.

  20. Independent directors’ board networks and controlling shareholders’ tunneling behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yunsen; Wang, Yutao; Lin, Le

    2014-01-01

    As one of the channels by which board directors build important relationships, board networks can affect the governance role of independent directors. Defining director board networks as their connections based on direct ties they establish when serving on at least one common board, this paper explores the role of the network centrality of independent directors in restraining tunneling behavior by controlling shareholders in the Chinese capital market. Our empirical evidence shows that tunnel...

  1. Neighborhood Effects in a Behavioral Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Hughes, Amy; McQueen, Amy; Gupta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions intended to modify health behaviors may be influenced by neighborhood effects which can impede unbiased estimation of intervention effects. Examining a RCT designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (N=5,628), we found statistically significant neighborhood effects: average CRC test use among neighboring study participants was significantly and positively associated with individual patient’s CRC test use. This potentially import...

  2. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  3. Identification of Time-Varying Pilot Control Behavior in Multi-Axis Control Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal, Peter M. T.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in fly-by-wire control architectures for rotorcraft have introduced new interest in the identification of time-varying pilot control behavior in multi-axis control tasks. In this paper a maximum likelihood estimation method is used to estimate the parameters of a pilot model with time-dependent sigmoid functions to characterize time-varying human control behavior. An experiment was performed by 9 general aviation pilots who had to perform a simultaneous roll and pitch control task with time-varying aircraft dynamics. In 8 different conditions, the axis containing the time-varying dynamics and the growth factor of the dynamics were varied, allowing for an analysis of the performance of the estimation method when estimating time-dependent parameter functions. In addition, a detailed analysis of pilots adaptation to the time-varying aircraft dynamics in both the roll and pitch axes could be performed. Pilot control behavior in both axes was significantly affected by the time-varying aircraft dynamics in roll and pitch, and by the growth factor. The main effect was found in the axis that contained the time-varying dynamics. However, pilot control behavior also changed over time in the axis not containing the time-varying aircraft dynamics. This indicates that some cross coupling exists in the perception and control processes between the roll and pitch axes.

  4. Genes, Parenting, Self-Control, and Criminal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2016-03-01

    Self-control has been found to predict a wide variety of criminal behaviors. In addition, studies have consistently shown that parenting is an important influence on both self-control and offending. However, few studies have examined the role that biological factors may play in moderating the relationship between parenting, self-control, and offending. Using a sample of adolescent males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 3,610), we explore whether variants of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene interact with parenting to affect self-control and offending. Results reveal that parenting interacts with these genes to influence self-control and offending, and that the parenting-by-gene interaction effect on offending is mediated by self-control. The effects of parenting on self-control and offending are most pronounced for those who carry plasticity alleles for both MAOA and DAT1. Thus, MAOA and DAT1 may be implicated in offending because they increase the negative effects of parenting on self-control. Implications for theory are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Vibration control of an MR vehicle suspension system considering both hysteretic behavior and parameter variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents vibration control responses of a controllable magnetorheological (MR) suspension system considering the two most important characteristics of the system; the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper and the parameter variation of the suspension. In order to achieve this goal, a cylindrical MR damper which is applicable to a middle-sized passenger car is designed and manufactured. After verifying the damping force controllability, the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of the MR damper is identified using the Preisach hysteresis model. The full-vehicle suspension model is then derived by considering vertical, pitch and roll motions. An H ∞ controller is designed by treating the sprung mass of the vehicle as a parameter variation and integrating it with the hysteretic compensator which produces additional control input. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) methodology is adopted by integrating the suspension model with the proposed MR damper. Vibration control responses of the vehicle suspension system such as vertical acceleration are evaluated under both bump and random road conditions

  6. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  7. The Effects of the Children Having Incarcerated Parents Succeeding Group on Delinquent Behavior, Academic Achievement, Self-Esteem, Attendance and Aggressive Behavior with Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Who Have Incarcerated Parents or Guardians

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-White, Dakota L.

    2012-01-01

    A sample of middle school students was investigated to determine whether an intervention group called Children Having Incarcerated Parents (C.H.I.P.S.; King-White & Lipford-Sanders, 2007) was an effective intervention for delinquent behavior, academic achievement, self-esteem, attendance, and aggressive behavior in children of incarcerated…

  8. Dislocation behavior of surface-oxygen-concentration controlled Si wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asazu, Hirotada; Takeuchi, Shotaro; Sannai, Hiroya; Sudo, Haruo; Araki, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Izunome, Koji; Sakai, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated dislocation behavior in the surface area of surface-oxygen-concentration controlled Si wafers treated by a high temperature rapid thermal oxidation (HT-RTO). The HT-RTO process allows us to precisely control the interstitial oxygen concentration ([O i ]) in the surface area of the Si wafers. Sizes of rosette patterns, generated by nano-indentation and subsequent thermal annealing at 900 °C for 1 h, were measured for the Si wafers with various [O i ]. It was found that the rosette size decreases in proportion to the − 0.25 power of [O i ] in the surface area of the Si wafers, which were higher than [O i ] of 1 × 10 17 atoms/cm 3 . On the other hand, [O i ] of lower than 1 × 10 17 atoms/cm 3 did not affect the rosette size very much. These experimental results demonstrate the ability of the HT-RTO process to suppress the dislocation movements in the surface area of the Si wafer. - Highlights: • Surface-oxygen-concentration controlled Si wafers have been made. • The oxygen concentration was controlled by high temperature rapid thermal oxidation. • Dislocation behavior in the surface area of the Si wafers has been investigated. • Rosette size decreased with increasing of interstitial oxygen atoms. • The interstitial oxygen atoms have a pinning effect of dislocations at the surface

  9. Synthetic Control of Exciton Behavior in Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Chaodan; Qin, Haiyan; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Jianhai; Wang, Peng; Peng, Xiaogang

    2017-03-08

    Colloidal quantum dots are promising optical and optoelectronic materials for various applications, whose performance is dominated by their excited-state properties. This article illustrates synthetic control of their excited states. Description of the excited states of quantum-dot emitters can be centered around exciton. We shall discuss that, different from conventional molecular emitters, ground-state structures of quantum dots are not necessarily correlated with their excited states. Synthetic control of exciton behavior heavily relies on convenient and affordable monitoring tools. For synthetic development of ideal optical and optoelectronic emitters, the key process is decay of band-edge excitons, which renders transient photoluminescence as important monitoring tool. On the basis of extensive synthetic developments in the past 20-30 years, synthetic control of exciton behavior implies surface engineering of quantum dots, including surface cation/anion stoichiometry, organic ligands, inorganic epitaxial shells, etc. For phosphors based on quantum dots doped with transition metal ions, concentration and location of the dopant ions within a nanocrystal lattice are found to be as important as control of the surface states in order to obtain bright dopant emission with monoexponential yet tunable photoluminescence decay dynamics.

  10. Achieving transparency and adaptivity in fuzzy control framework : an application to power transformers predictive overload system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Ippolito, L.; Siano, P.

    2004-01-01

    From a technologic point of view, the problem of fuzzy control deals with the real implementation of a controller on a specific hardware. Today, the market of micro-controller offers different solutions able to implement a fuzzy controller varying from application domains to programming language

  11. Neighborhood effects in a behavioral randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Sandi L; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Hughes, Amy; McQueen, Amy; Gupta, Samir

    2014-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions intended to modify health behaviors may be influenced by neighborhood effects which can impede unbiased estimation of intervention effects. Examining a RCT designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (N=5628), we found statistically significant neighborhood effects: average CRC test use among neighboring study participants was significantly and positively associated with individual patient's CRC test use. This potentially important spatially-varying covariate has not previously been considered in a RCT. Our results suggest that future RCTs of health behavior interventions should assess potential social interactions between participants, which may cause intervention arm contamination and may bias effect size estimation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergent collective decision-making: Control, model and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tian

    In this dissertation we study emergent collective decision-making in social groups with time-varying interactions and heterogeneously informed individuals. First we analyze a nonlinear dynamical systems model motivated by animal collective motion with heterogeneously informed subpopulations, to examine the role of uninformed individuals. We find through formal analysis that adding uninformed individuals in a group increases the likelihood of a collective decision. Secondly, we propose a model for human shared decision-making with continuous-time feedback and where individuals have little information about the true preferences of other group members. We study model equilibria using bifurcation analysis to understand how the model predicts decisions based on the critical threshold parameters that represent an individual's tradeoff between social and environmental influences. Thirdly, we analyze continuous-time data of pairs of human subjects performing an experimental shared tracking task using our second proposed model in order to understand transient behavior and the decision-making process. We fit the model to data and show that it reproduces a wide range of human behaviors surprisingly well, suggesting that the model may have captured the mechanisms of observed behaviors. Finally, we study human behavior from a game-theoretic perspective by modeling the aforementioned tracking task as a repeated game with incomplete information. We show that the majority of the players are able to converge to playing Nash equilibrium strategies. We then suggest with simulations that the mean field evolution of strategies in the population resemble replicator dynamics, indicating that the individual strategies may be myopic. Decisions form the basis of control and problems involving deciding collectively between alternatives are ubiquitous in nature and in engineering. Understanding how multi-agent systems make decisions among alternatives also provides insight for designing

  13. Behavioral neurocardiac training in hypertension: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Robert P; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J; Kamath, Markad V; Picton, Peter E; Chessex, Caroline; Hiscock, Natalie; Powell, Jonathan; Catt, Michael; Hendrickx, Hilde; Talbot, Duncan; Chen, Maggie H

    2010-04-01

    It is not established whether behavioral interventions add benefit to pharmacological therapy for hypertension. We hypothesized that behavioral neurocardiac training (BNT) with heart rate variability biofeedback would reduce blood pressure further by modifying vagal heart rate modulation during reactivity and recovery from standardized cognitive tasks ("mental stress"). This randomized, controlled trial enrolled 65 patients with uncomplicated hypertension to BNT or active control (autogenic relaxation), with six 1-hour sessions over 2 months with home practice. Outcomes were analyzed with linear mixed models that adjusted for antihypertensive drugs. BNT reduced daytime and 24-hour systolic blood pressures (-2.4+/-0.9 mm Hg, P=0.009, and -2.1+/-0.9 mm Hg, P=0.03, respectively) and pulse pressures (-1.7+/-0.6 mm Hg, P=0.004, and -1.4+/-0.6 mm Hg, P=0.02, respectively). No effect was observed for controls (P>0.10 for all indices). BNT also increased RR-high-frequency power (0.15 to 0.40 Hz; P=0.01) and RR interval (P0.10). In contrast to relaxation therapy, BNT with heart rate variability biofeedback modestly lowers ambulatory blood pressure during wakefulness, and it augments tonic vagal heart rate modulation. It is unknown whether efficacy of this treatment can be improved with biofeedback of baroreflex gain. BNT, alone or as an adjunct to drug therapy, may represent a promising new intervention for hypertension.

  14. Understanding the independent influence of duty and achievement striving when predicting the relationship between conscientiousness and organizational cultural profiles and helping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Henry; Livne, Ephrat; Marinova, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The theory that 2 facets of the factor conscientiousness, duty and achievement striving, are related to self- or other-centered motives, is supported in 2 studies. In Study 1 (N = 204 undergraduates), the self-centered facet of achievement striving was found to be the most important predictor of attraction toward organizational cultures that were outcome-based, aggressive, and emphasized rewards. Achievement strivers were less attracted to supportive and decisive organizations. In Study 2 (N = 189 part-time MBA students) the other-centered facet of duty was found to be predictive of helping behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Impact of Behavioral Control on the Processing of Nociceptive Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, James W.; Huie, J. Russell; Garraway, Sandra M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Ferguson, Adam R.

    2012-01-01

    How nociceptive signals are processed within the spinal cord, and whether these signals lead to behavioral signs of neuropathic pain, depends upon their relation to other events and behavior. Our work shows that these relations can have a lasting effect on spinal plasticity, inducing a form of learning that alters the effect of subsequent nociceptive stimuli. The capacity of lower spinal systems to adapt, in the absence of brain input, is examined in spinally transected rats that receive a nociceptive shock to the tibialis anterior muscle of one hind leg. If shock is delivered whenever the leg is extended (controllable stimulation), it induces an increase in flexion duration that minimizes net shock exposure. This learning is not observed in subjects that receive the same amount of shock independent of leg position (uncontrollable stimulation). These two forms of stimulation have a lasting, and divergent, effect on subsequent learning: controllable stimulation enables learning whereas uncontrollable stimulation disables it (learning deficit). Uncontrollable stimulation also enhances mechanical reactivity. We review evidence that training with controllable stimulation engages a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent process that can both prevent and reverse the consequences of uncontrollable shock. We relate these effects to changes in BDNF protein and TrkB signaling. Controllable stimulation is also shown to counter the effects of peripheral inflammation (from intradermal capsaicin). A model is proposed that assumes nociceptive input is gated at an early sensory stage. This gate is sensitive to current environmental relations (between proprioceptive and nociceptive input), allowing stimulation to be classified as controllable or uncontrollable. We further propose that the status of this gate is affected by past experience and that a history of uncontrollable stimulation will promote the development of neuropathic pain. PMID:22934018

  16. Impact of behavioral control on the processing of nociceptive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Grau

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available How nociceptive signals are processed within the spinal cord, and whether these signals lead to behavioral signs of neuropathic pain, depends upon their relation to other events and behavior. Our work shows that these relations can have a lasting effect on spinal plasticity, inducing a form of learning that alters the effect of subsequent nociceptive stimuli. The capacity of lower spinal systems to adapt, in the absence of brain input, is examined in spinally transected rats that receive a nociceptive shock to the tibialis anterior muscle of one hind leg. If shock is delivered whenever the leg is extended (controllable stimulation, it induces an increase in flexion duration that minimizes net shock exposure. This learning is not observed in subjects that receive the same amount of shock independent of leg position (uncontrollable stimulation. These two forms of stimulation have a lasting, and divergent, effect on subsequent learning: Controllable stimulation enables learning whereas uncontrollable stimulation disables it (learning deficit. Uncontrollable stimulation also enhances mechanical reactivity (allodynia. We review evidence that training with controllable stimulation engages a BDNF-dependent process that can both prevent and reverse the consequences of uncontrollable shock. We relate these effects to changes in BDNF protein and TrkB signaling. Controllable stimulation is also shown to counter the effects of peripheral inflammation (from intradermal capsaicin. A model is proposed that assumes nociceptive input is gated at an early stage, within the dorsal horn. his gate is sensitive to current environmental relations (between proprioceptive and nociceptive input, allowing stimulation to be classified as controllable or uncontrollable. We further propose that the status of this gate is affected by past experience and that a history of uncontrollable stimulation will promote the development of neuropathic pain.

  17. Improving Aerospace Engineering Students' Achievements by an Open Aero Control Experiment Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, QingHua; Zhang, WeiHua; Huang, ZheZhi; Dong, RongHua

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an aero control experiment apparatus (ACEA) for use in aerospace control practical courses. The ACEA incorporates a systematic multihierarchy learning and teaching method, and was designed to improve aerospace engineering students' understanding of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) control systems. It offers a…

  18. Children's Autonomy and Perceived Control in Learning: A Model of Motivation and Achievement in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ailly, Hsiao

    2003-01-01

    Tests a model of motivation and achievement with data from 50 teachers and 806 Grade 4-6 students in Taiwan. Autonomy as a construct was shown to have ecological validity in Chinese children. The proposed model fit the data well, showing that maternal involvement and autonomy support, as well as teachers' autonomy support, are important for…

  19. Physically Active Math and Language Lessons Improve Academic Achievement : A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J,; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J.; Visscher, Chris

    OBJECTIVES: Using physical activity in the teaching of academic lessons is a new way of learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an innovative physically active academic intervention ("Fit & Vaardig op School" [F&V]) on academic achievement of children. METHODS: Using

  20. Examining the specific effects of context on adaptive behavior and achievement in a rural African community: six case studies from rural areas of Southern province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-02-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn. AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, SD = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes.

  1. Pascal software structures achieve definite control of the 24 MFTF sustaining neutral-beam power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Precise control of large, complex systems is not assured unless there is known to be no unintended interactions in the control system. The software controlling the sustaining neutral-beam power supplies of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility accomplishes this feat. The software structures comprise some 16,000 lines of commented Pascal code, distributed amoung 10 different tasks. Each task may control any of the 24 power supplies. All the tasks are strictly event-driven, and are not subject to any system mode. Since there is no global information in the software, we know that all the power supplies are controlled independently

  2. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  3. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India E-mail: debes.phys@gmail.com (India)

    2016-05-23

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO{sub 26}PO{sub 39}EO{sub 26})] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle–surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  4. The Effects of Maternal Parenting Style and Religious Commitment on Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Risk Behavior among African-American Parochial College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L.; Winsler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic…

  5. Maternal Work Early in the Lives of Children and Its Distal Associations with Achievement and Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; Goldberg, Wendy A.; Prause, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 69 studies (1,483 effect sizes) used random effects models to examine maternal employment during infancy/early childhood in relation to 2 major domains of child functioning: achievement and behavior problems. Analyses of studies that spanned 5 decades indicated that, with a few exceptions, early employment was not…

  6. Health Behavior and Academic Achievement among Adolescents: The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of "Youth in Iceland", a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland.…

  7. Gender Differences in Self-Concept, Locus of Control, and Goal Orientation in Mexican High-Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Cuervo, Angel Alberto; Sánchez Escobedo, Pedro Antonio; Valadez-Sierra, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The study compares self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation characteristics of male and female Mexican high school high-achieving students. Three scales were administered to 220 students; 106 (49%) were males and 114 (51%) females. By means of a discriminant analysis, both groups were compared in relation to the variables such as…

  8. Perceived Academic Control and Academic Emotions Predict Undergraduate University Student Success: Examining Effects on Dropout Intention and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respondek, Lisa; Seufert, Tina; Stupnisky, Robert; Nett, Ulrike E

    2017-01-01

    The present study addressed concerns over the high risk of university students' academic failure. It examined how perceived academic control and academic emotions predict undergraduate students' academic success, conceptualized as both low dropout intention and high achievement (indicated by GPA). A cross-sectional survey was administered to 883 undergraduate students across all disciplines of a German STEM orientated university. The study additionally compared freshman students ( N = 597) vs. second-year students ( N = 286). Using structural equation modeling, for the overall sample of undergraduate students we found that perceived academic control positively predicted enjoyment and achievement, as well as negatively predicted boredom and anxiety. The prediction of dropout intention by perceived academic control was fully mediated via anxiety. When taking perceived academic control into account, we found no specific impact of enjoyment or boredom on the intention to dropout and no specific impact of all three academic emotions on achievement. The multi-group analysis showed, however, that perceived academic control, enjoyment, and boredom among second-year students had a direct relationship with dropout intention. A major contribution of the present study was demonstrating the important roles of perceived academic control and anxiety in undergraduate students' academic success. Concerning corresponding institutional support and future research, the results suggested distinguishing incoming from advanced undergraduate students.

  9. Understanding action control of daily walking behavior among dog owners: a community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E. Rhodes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking among dog owners may be a means to achieve health benefits, yet almost half of owners (approximately 30% of households are not regularly walking their dogs. Current research on the correlates of dog walking has generally considered intention as the primary determinant of behavior, yet the intention-behavior relationship is modest. The purpose of this paper was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multi-process action control (M-PAC, to understand daily walking among dog owners. Method A community sample of adult dog owners (N = 227 in Victoria, Canada completed M-PAC measures of motivational (dog and human outcome expectations, affective judgments, perceived capability and opportunity, regulatory (planning, and reflexive (automaticity, identity processes as well as intention to walk and behavior. Results Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: a non-intenders who were not active (26%; n = 59, b unsuccessful intenders who failed to enact their positive intentions (33%; n = 75, and c successful intenders who were active (40%; n = 91. Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective judgements (r = 0.33, automaticity (r = 0.38, and planning (r = 0.33 distinguished between all three intention-behavior profiles, while identity (r = 0.22 and dog breed size (r = 0.28 differentiated between successful and unsuccessful intenders. Conclusions The majority of dog owners have positive intentions to walk, yet almost half fail to meet these intentions. Interventions focused on affective judgments (e.g., more enjoyable places to walk, behavioral regulation (e.g., setting a concrete plan, habit (e.g., making routines and cues and identity formation (e.g., affirmations of commitment may help overcome difficulties with translating these intentions into action, thus increasing overall levels of walking.

  10. Transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC modulates behavioral performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Matani

    Full Text Available Electric brain stimulations such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS, and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS electrophysiologically modulate brain activity and as a result sometimes modulate behavioral performances. These stimulations can be viewed from an engineering standpoint as involving an artificial electric source (DC, noise, or AC attached to an impedance branch of a distributed parameter circuit. The distributed parameter circuit is an approximation of the brain and includes electric sources (neurons and impedances (volume conductors. Such a brain model is linear, as is often the case with the electroencephalogram (EEG forward model. Thus, the above-mentioned current stimulations change the current distribution in the brain depending on the locations of the electric sources in the brain. Now, if the attached artificial electric source were to be replaced with a resistor, or even a negative resistor, the resistor would also change the current distribution in the brain. In light of the superposition theorem, which holds for any linear electric circuit, attaching an electric source is different from attaching a resistor; the resistor affects each active electric source in the brain so as to increase (or decrease in some cases of a negative resistor the current flowing out from each source. From an electrophysiological standpoint, the attached resistor can only control the extracellular impedance and never causes forced stimulation; we call this technique transcranial extracellular impedance control (tEIC. We conducted a behavioral experiment to evaluate tEIC and found evidence that it had real-time enhancement and depression effects on EEGs and a real-time facilitation effect on reaction times. Thus, tEIC could be another technique to modulate behavioral performance.

  11. The effects of maternal parenting style and religious commitment on self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American parochial college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L; Winsler, Adam

    2009-04-01

    This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior. Participants also completed youth report measures of parental religiosity and perceived maternal parenting style. Correlational analyses show authoritative parenting to be associated with high levels of academic performance and study skills. Additional correlations revealed that highly religious students tend to perform well academically, study better, and engage in fewer risk behaviors than youth less committed to religion. Although no direct relations were observed between parenting style and student religiosity, maternal parenting style was found to moderate relations between parental and student religiosity. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the population studied.

  12. Academic Achievement and Behavioral Health among Asian American and African American Adolescents: Testing the Model Minority and Inferior Minority Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the model minority and inferior minority assumptions by examining the relationship between academic performance and measures of behavioral health in a subsample of 3,008 (22%) participants in a nationally representative, multicultural sample of 13,601 students in the 2001 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey, comparing Asian…

  13. High Self-Control Predicts More Positive Emotions, Better Engagement, and Higher Achievement in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; Gaerlan, Marianne Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The control-value theory of academic emotions has emerged as a useful framework for studying the antecedents and consequences of different emotions in school. This framework focuses on the role of control-related and value-related appraisals as proximal antecedents of emotions. In this study, we take an individual differences approach to examine…

  14. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear...

  15. A Path Analysis of the Effects of Principal Professional Orientation towards Leadership, Professional Teacher Behavior, and School Academic Optimism on School Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne M. Mitchell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of the principal’s professional orientation towards leadership/enabling school structure (ESS on two mediating variables, school academic optimism (SAO and professional teacher behavior (PTB, on the outcome variable school reading achievement (RA. Data were drawn from a sample of 54 schools (including 45 elementary schools and nine middle schools; the school was the unit of analysis. Data analysis supported a path to RA in which a structural variable, ESS was the immediate antecedent of SAO and PTB. Two control variables, school level and SES, were included in the model. SES had a significant effect on SAO but not on PTB. School level had a negative effect on both PTB and SAO suggesting that both variables were higher in elementary school and declined in middle school. SES paired with SAO in predicting RA. As expected, SAO had a greater effect on RA than SES. The significance of the findings lies in the confirmation of SAO as an important influence on RA and in demonstrating the importance of ESS in establishing a context in which AO and PTB can flourish.

  16. The Empowering Role of Mobile Apps in Behavior Change Interventions: The Gray Matters Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, Phillip J; Nugent, Chris D; McClean, Sally I; Cleland, Ian; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Clark, Christine J; Norton, Maria C

    2016-08-02

    Health education and behavior change programs targeting specific risk factors have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing the development of future diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) shares many of the same risk factors, most of which can be addressed via behavior change. It is therefore theorized that a behavior change intervention targeting these risk factors would likely result in favorable rates of AD prevention. The objective of this study was to reduce the future risk of developing AD, while in the short term promoting vascular health, through behavior change. The study was an interventional randomized controlled trial consisting of subjects who were randomly assigned into either treatment (n=102) or control group (n=42). Outcome measures included various blood-based biomarkers, anthropometric measures, and behaviors related to AD risk. The treatment group was provided with a bespoke "Gray Matters" mobile phone app designed to encourage and facilitate behavior change. The app presented evidence-based educational material relating to AD risk and prevention strategies, facilitated self-reporting of behaviors across 6 behavioral domains, and presented feedback on the user's performance, calculated from reported behaviors against recommended guidelines. This paper explores the rationale for a mobile phone-led intervention and details the app's effect on behavior change and subsequent clinical outcomes. Via the app, the average participant submitted 7.3 (SD 3.2) behavioral logs/day (n=122,719). Analysis of these logs against primary outcome measures revealed that participants who improved their high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during the study duration answered a statistically significant higher number of questions per day (mean 8.30, SD 2.29) than those with no improvement (mean 6.52, SD 3.612), t97.74=-3.051, P=.003. Participants who decreased their body mass index (BMI) performed significantly better in attaining their recommended daily goals

  17. Controlled study of child health supervision: behavioral results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guteilus, M F; Kirsch, A D; MacDonald, S; Brooks, M R; McErlean, T

    1977-09-01

    Extensive child health supervision, with emphasis on counseling and anticipatory guidance, was provided for the first three years of life to an experimental series of 47 normal first-born black infants from low-income families living in the environs of Children's Hospital in Washington, D.C. The mothers were unmarried schoolgirls in normal physical and mental health. A control series consisted of 48 similar mother-child dyads from the same area. Data were collected, in part by an outside evaluator, at yearly intervals on both experimental and control series in a form suitable for coding on computer cards. Comparison of differences in behavioral results between the two series showed statistically significant findings in favor of the experimental children, as well as numerous favorable trends during the first six years of life. Positive effects became evident in diet and eating, habits, in some developmental problems of growing up (such as toilet training), and in certain abstract qualities including self-confidence. Significant differences were also noted between the experimental and control mothers for various child rearing practices and personality characteristics. No significant difference or trend favored the control series. We believe that a causal relationship existed between the intervention and at least some of the significant findings.

  18. Achieving the same for less: improving mood depletes blood glucose for people with poor (but not good) emotion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Karen; Totterdell, Peter; Miles, Eleanor; Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found that acts of self-control like emotion regulation deplete blood glucose levels. The present experiment investigated the hypothesis that the extent to which people's blood glucose levels decline during emotion regulation attempts is influenced by whether they believe themselves to be good or poor at emotion control. We found that although good and poor emotion regulators were equally able to achieve positive and negative moods, the blood glucose of poor emotion regulators was reduced after performing an affect-improving task, whereas the blood glucose of good emotion regulators remained unchanged. As evidence suggests that glucose is a limited energy resource upon which self-control relies, the implication is that good emotion regulators are able to achieve the same positive mood with less cost to their self-regulatory resource. Thus, depletion may not be an inevitable consequence of engaging in emotion regulation.

  19. Achievable Performance of Zero-Delay Variable-Rate Coding in Rate-Constrained Networked Control Systems with Channel Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barforooshan, Mohsen; Østergaard, Jan; Stavrou, Fotios

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an upper bound on the minimum data rate required to achieve a prescribed closed-loop performance level in networked control systems (NCSs). The considered feedback loop includes a linear time-invariant (LTI) plant with single measurement output and single control input. Moreover......, in this NCS, a causal but otherwise unconstrained feedback system carries out zero-delay variable-rate coding, and control. Between the encoder and decoder, data is exchanged over a rate-limited noiseless digital channel with a known constant time delay. Here we propose a linear source-coding scheme...

  20. Structural elements in achieving legislative tobacco control in NSW, 1955-95: political reflections and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Claire; Chapman, Simon

    2006-02-01

    To analyse structural factors revealed by politicians that shaped legislation on tobacco control in New South Wales, 1955-95. Parliamentary debates and other records were collected. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 17 Members of Parliament (MPs) who were significantly involved, and then analysed for structural elements. Tobacco industry lobbying had a significant but limited influence on policy making, being exerted largely through social interactions with executives and based on concerns about the economic impact on third parties. MPs saw health advocates' chief functions as (1) generating community concern about the issue and support for control measures, and (2) bringing any new information to political attention, providing pro-control arguments and data through the media. Factors that delayed tobacco control policies included: the conservative stance of Premiers and major parties, commitments to unanimous federal action, and rivalry between parties. Factors that facilitated control policies included: reforms that gave the Legislative Council increased power, the use of parliamentary committees, and backbencher and grass roots support. Tobacco control policy and legislation has been the product of political structures that gave power to those MPs in the least powerful positions--minor parties, Members of the Legislative Council (MLCs), backbenchers, women and party rank and file--rather than to major parties and their executives. Advocates should make the most of their access points to the political process, providing information, arguments and support and demonstrating public opinion in favour of further control.

  1. ACHIEVING HIGH INTEGRITY OF PROCESS-CONTROL SOFTWARE BY GRAPHICAL DESIGN AND FORMAL VERIFICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALANG, WA; Kramer, B.J.

    The International Electrotechnical Commission is currently standardising four compatible languages for designing and implementing programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The language family includes a diagrammatic notation that supports the idea of software ICs to encourage graphical design

  2. Receiver-Assisted Congestion Control to Achieve High Throughput in Lossy Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Shu, Yantai; Yang, Oliver; Luo, Jiarong

    2010-04-01

    Many applications would require fast data transfer in high-speed wireless networks nowadays. However, due to its conservative congestion control algorithm, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) cannot effectively utilize the network capacity in lossy wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a receiver-assisted congestion control mechanism (RACC) in which the sender performs loss-based control, while the receiver is performing delay-based control. The receiver measures the network bandwidth based on the packet interarrival interval and uses it to compute a congestion window size deemed appropriate for the sender. After receiving the advertised value feedback from the receiver, the sender then uses the additive increase and multiplicative decrease (AIMD) mechanism to compute the correct congestion window size to be used. By integrating the loss-based and the delay-based congestion controls, our mechanism can mitigate the effect of wireless losses, alleviate the timeout effect, and therefore make better use of network bandwidth. Simulation and experiment results in various scenarios show that our mechanism can outperform conventional TCP in high-speed and lossy wireless environments.

  3. Application of optimal control principles to describe the supervisory control behavior of AAA crew members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, C.; Valentino, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    Supervisory decision making and control behavior within a C(3) oriented, ground based weapon system is being studied. The program involves empirical investigation of the sequence of control strategies used during engagement of aircraft targets. An engagement is conceptually divided into several stages which include initial information processing activity, tracking, and ongoing adaptive control decisions. Following a brief description of model parameters, two experiments which served as initial investigation into the accuracy of assumptions regarding the importance of situation assessment in procedure selection are outlined. Preliminary analysis of the results upheld the validity of the assumptions regarding strategic information processing and cue-criterion relationship learning. These results indicate that this model structure should be useful in studies of supervisory decision behavior.

  4. A wirelessly-powered homecage with animal behavior analysis and closed-loop power control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoyao Jia; Zheyuan Wang; Canales, Daniel; Tinkler, Morgan; Chia-Chun Hsu; Madsen, Teresa E; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new EnerCage-homecage system, EnerCage-HC2, for longitudinal electrophysiology data acquisition experiments on small freely moving animal subjects, such as rodents. EnerCage-HC2 is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transmission (WPT), closed-loop power control, bidirectional data communication via Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Microsoft Kinect® based animal behavior tracking and analysis. The EnerCage-HC2 achieves a homogeneous power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 14% on average, with ~42 mW power delivered to the load (PDL) at a nominal height of 7 cm by the closed-loop power control mechanism. The Microsoft Kinect® behavioral analysis algorithm can not only track the animal position in real-time but also classify 5 different types of rodent behaviors: standstill, walking, grooming, rearing, and rotating. A proof-of-concept in vivo experiment was conducted on two awake freely behaving rats while successfully operating a one-channel stimulator and generating an ethogram.

  5. Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gr. Delchev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides are more effective than when applied alone on sorghum crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. The use of herbicide antidotes for the treatment of seeds in sorghum is a safe way to overcome its high sensitivity to many herbicides. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of annual graminaceous weeds in sorghum crops are quite scarce even worldwide. Problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information on sorghum relates to the conventional technology for weed control. There is no information about the new Concep technology in grain sorghum. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature on control of these volunteers.

  6. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  7. Contributions of Anopheles larval control to malaria suppression in tropical Africa: review of achievements and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K; Lynch, M

    2007-03-01

    Malaria vector control targeting the larval stages of mosquitoes was applied successfully against many species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in malarious countries until the mid-20th Century. Since the introduction of DDT in the 1940s and the associated development of indoor residual spraying (IRS), which usually has a more powerful impact than larval control on vectorial capacity, the focus of malaria prevention programmes has shifted to the control of adult vectors. In the Afrotropical Region, where malaria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles funestus Giles and members of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex, gaps in information on larval ecology and the ability of An. gambiae sensu lato to exploit a wide variety of larval habitats have discouraged efforts to develop and implement larval control strategies. Opportunities to complement adulticiding with other components of integrated vector management, along with concerns about insecticide resistance, environmental impacts, rising costs of IRS and logistical constraints, have stimulated renewed interest in larval control of malaria vectors. Techniques include environmental management, involving the temporary or permanent removal of anopheline larval habitats, as well as larviciding with chemical or biological agents. This present review covers large-scale trials of anopheline larval control methods, focusing on field studies in Africa conducted within the past 15 years. Although such studies are limited in number and scope, their results suggest that targeting larvae, particularly in human-made habitats, can significantly reduce malaria transmission in appropriate settings. These approaches are especially suitable for urban areas, where larval habitats are limited, particularly when applied in conjunction with IRS and other adulticidal measures, such as the use of insecticide treated bednets.

  8. Achieving efficient poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based supercapacitors by controlling the polymerization kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jen-Hsien [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chih-Wei, E-mail: gchu@gate.sinica.edu.t [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we have prepared a series of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with various molecular weight by using an inhibitor, imidazole (Im). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the PEDOT with larger molecular weight enhances the polymer chain ordering and stacking which leads to higher conductivity. With increasing the amount of Im, the conductivity of PEDOT can be increased from 4.01 S cm{sup -1} (Im = 0.0 M) to 153.6 S cm{sup -1} (Im = 1.8 M). Comparisons of the cyclic voltammetry (CV), it enables correlation between the conductivity and specific capacitance, which is important for understanding the electrochemical capacitive behavior of conjugated polymer for pseudo-capacitor application. The PEDOT prepared with 1.8 M Im shows a specific capacitance of 124 F g{sup -1}, which is 2.2 times larger than the one without Im (57 F g{sup -1}).

  9. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ACHIEVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ACHIEVEMENT. APPROXIMATELY 40 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1952 TO 1965. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, ACHIEVEMENT BEHAVIOR, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, AND SOCIAL-CLASS BACKGROUND. A RELATED REPORT IS ED…

  10. Achievement of control of bronchial asthma at the stage of medical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygus I.M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An inspection is conducted 70 patients on intermittent bronchial asthma at the stage of intensifying. The special program of medical rehabilitation, which includes the modified methods of medical physical culture, physical therapy facilities, is offered in permanent establishment. Application of this program brought to the height of size of Asthma Control Test from 17,41±0,35 to 24,03±0,32 points over. Control of flow of disease which did not come at treatment of patients only by medicinal preparations was arrived at in all cases of application of the program of medical rehabilitation.

  11. Neural and Hormonal Control of Postecdysial Behaviors in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin H.; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    The shedding of the old exoskeleton that occurs in insects at the end of a molt (a process called ecdysis) is typically followed by the expansion and tanning of a new one. At the adult molt, these postecdysial processes include expanding and hardening the wings. Here we describe recent advances in understanding the neural and hormonal control of wing expansion and hardening, focusing on work done in Drosophila where genetic manipulations have permitted a detailed investigation of postecdysial processes and their modulation by sensory input. To place this work in context, we briefly review recent progress in understanding the neuroendocrine regulation of ecdysis, which appears to be largely conserved across insect species. Investigations into the neuroendocrine networks that regulate ecdysial and postecdysial behaviors, will provide insights into how stereotyped, yet environmentally-responsive, sequences are generated, as well as into how they develop and evolve. PMID:24160420

  12. Prompting a consumer behavior for pollution control1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E. Scott; Farris, John C.; Post, David S.

    1973-01-01

    A field application of behavior modification studied the relative effectiveness of different prompting procedures for increasing the probability that customers entering a grocery store would select their soft drinks in returnable rather than nonreturnable containers. Six different 2-hr experimental conditions during which bottle purchases were recorded were (1) No Prompt (i.e., control), (2) one student gave incoming customers a handbill urging the purchase of soft drinks in returnable bottles, (3) distribution of the handbill by one student and public charting of each customer's bottle purchases by another student, (4) handbill distribution and charting by a five-member group, (5) handbills distributed and purchases charted by three females. The variant prompting techniques were equally effective, and in general increased the percentage of returnable-bottle customers by an average of 25%. PMID:16795418

  13. Control of body weight by eating behavior in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modjtaba eZandian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen.

  14. Nonlinear Control of an Active Magnetic Bearing System Achieved Using a Fuzzy Control with Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng-Chi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on active magnetic bearing (AMB systems are increasing in popularity and practical applications. Magnetic bearings cause less noise, friction, and vibration than the conventional mechanical bearings; however, the control of AMB systems requires further investigation. The magnetic force has a highly nonlinear relation to the control current and the air gap. This paper proposes an intelligent control method for positioning an AMB system that uses a neural fuzzy controller (NFC. The mathematical model of an AMB system comprises identification followed by collection of information from this system. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC, the parameters of which are adjusted using a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, is applied to the unbalanced vibration in an AMB system. The AMB system exhibited a satisfactory control performance, with low overshoot, and produced improved transient and steady-state responses under various operating conditions. The NFC has been verified on a prototype AMB system. The proposed controller can be feasibly applied to AMB systems exposed to various external disturbances; demonstrating the effectiveness of the NFC with self-learning and self-improving capacities is proven.

  15. Achieving control and interoperability through unified model-based systems and software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Ingham, Michel; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Control and interoperation of complex systems is one of the most difficult challenges facing NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. An integrated but diverse array of vehicles, habitats, and supporting facilities, evolving over the long course of the enterprise, must perform ever more complex tasks while moving steadily away from the sphere of ground support and intervention.

  16. 29 CFR 779.219 - Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.219 Unified operation may... through “unified operation.” It is clear from the definition that if the described activities are performed through unified operation they will be part of the enterprise whether they are performed by one...

  17. Controlled biomass removal - the key parameter to achieve enhanced biological phosphorus removal in biofilm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, E.

    1999-01-01

    the influence of the following processes on EBPR in biofilms was evaluated: (1) mass transfer limitation for oxygen (2) mass transfer limitation for organic substrate, (3) lack of controlled removal of biomass from the system. It was shown that mass transfer of soluble components (oxygen and organic substrate...

  18. The effects of chronic achievement motivation and achievement primes on the activation of achievement and fun goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-12-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.

  19. Achieving Optimal Quantum Acceleration of Frequency Estimation Using Adaptive Coherent Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghiloo, M; Jordan, A N; Murch, K W

    2017-11-03

    Precision measurements of frequency are critical to accurate time keeping and are fundamentally limited by quantum measurement uncertainties. While for time-independent quantum Hamiltonians the uncertainty of any parameter scales at best as 1/T, where T is the duration of the experiment, recent theoretical works have predicted that explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians can yield a 1/T^{2} scaling of the uncertainty for an oscillation frequency. This quantum acceleration in precision requires coherent control, which is generally adaptive. We experimentally realize this quantum improvement in frequency sensitivity with superconducting circuits, using a single transmon qubit. With optimal control pulses, the theoretically ideal frequency precision scaling is reached for times shorter than the decoherence time. This result demonstrates a fundamental quantum advantage for frequency estimation.

  20. Determining the impact of computer-aided control of educational achievements for the health of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Savonova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the health of students during the control of knowledge on the example of studying valeological disciplines. In the experiment involved 186 students. Age 17-19 years. The positive effect of regular thematic automated monitoring the health of students. In particular, during unit of knowledge and at exam time. Showed a statistically significant reduction in the average level of reactive anxiety in students of the experimental group, compared to its initial values (before the final test, it fell by 37.91. For comparison, before final testing of the control group, it only reduced by 10.42%. It was determined that a regular automated testing knowledge can be used to organize healthkeeping support professional development of future teachers.

  1. Real time plasma feedback control: An overview of Tore-Supra achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Bucalossi, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Gil, C.; Grisolia, C.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Kazarian, F.; Moulin, D.; Pascal, J.Y.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    2001-01-01

    Stable and reliable fusion plasma operation requires increasingly advanced control systems. This is especially true for steady-state operation in advanced modes, when several parameters are to be simultaneously optimised: e.g. the current profile, which has been related to the formation of internal transport barrier, and the density, which plays a crucial role both in the fusion power and in the plasma wall interactions. At a more technological level, good management of the power entering and leaving the plasma is required, by efficient additional heating coupling, and with a full control of radiation and convection losses and distribution to the first wall elements. For these goals, several feed-back mechanisms have been developed with success on Tore-Supra, in the past four years. Most of them are based on software, implemented in a set of micro-computers connected through a VME network. (author)

  2. Ebola: a holistic approach is required to achieve effective management and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Anna; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Saidu, Yauba; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa has already caused substantial mortality and dire human and economic consequences. It continues to represent an alarming public health threat in the region and beyond and jeopardizes the provision of health care and other services in the affected countries. The scale of the epidemic has accelerated research efforts for diagnostics, treatment, and prevention galvanized through increased availability of funding. Our knowledge relating to the virus, disease pathogenesis, risk factors, dynamics of transmission, and epidemic control is increasing, and sociocultural factors have emerged as critical determinants for the success and failure of control efforts. However, there is a long way to go. In this review we summarize the current knowledge, examine the sociocultural context in West Africa, and outline priority areas for future research. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Operating gains achieved by a new generation of remotely controlled manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djedidi, A.; Selliez-Vandernotte, C.; Malcolm, F.

    2014-01-01

    A high performance remotely controlled mechanical master slave arm with direct transmission via cable and transmission rods has been converted to a new generation manipulator with electrical master slave arm and motion module with integrated software. The redesigned powered manipulator with software control improves efficiency and ergonomics while increasing operating field space. The mechanical master arm has been replaced by an electrical robotic master arm using haptic technology. The movements initiated by the operator are transmitted in real time to the slave arm via the servo-motors inside the motion module. The mechanical link between master and slave is eliminated and some mechanical constraints have been replaced by software applications. The operator benefits from an improved working position and vibration filtering plus full range high performance force feedback with reduced effort requirement. (authors)

  4. Old ideas to innovate tuberculosis control: preventive treatment to achieve elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, Roland; Loddenkemper, Robert; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Sotgiu, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Centis, Rosella; van der Werf, Marieke J; Dara, Masoud; Detjen, Anne; Gondrie, Peter; Reichman, Lee; Blasi, Francesco; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2013-09-01

    The introduction of new rapid diagnostic tools for tuberculosis (TB) and the promising TB drugs pipeline together with the development of a new World Health Organization Strategy post 2015 allows new discussions on how to direct TB control. The European Respiratory Society's European Forum for TB Innovation was created to stimulate discussion on how to best take advantage of old and new opportunities, and advances, to improve TB control and eventually progress towards the elimination of TB. While TB control is aimed at reducing the incidence of TB by early diagnosis and treatment of infectious cases of TB, TB elimination requires focus on sterilising the pool of latently infected individuals, from which future TB cases would be generated. This manuscript describes the three core components that are necessary to implement the elimination strategy fully. 1) Improve diagnosis of latent TB infected individuals. 2) Improve regimens to treat latent TB infection. 3) ensure public health commitment to make both 1) and 2) possible. Old and new evidence is critically described, focusing on the European commitment to reach elimination and on the innovative experiences and best practices available.

  5. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  6. Controlling chaotic behavior in CO2 and other lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Additional substantial experimental progress has been made, in the third month of the project, in setting up equipment and testing for producing chaotic behavior with a CO2 laser. The project goal is to synchronize and control chaos in CO2 and other lasers, and thereby increase the power in ensembles of coupled laser sources. Numerous investigations into the chaos regime have been made, a second CO2 laser has been brought on stream, and work is progressing in the fourth month toward coupling the two lasers and control of the first laser. It is also intended to submit at least two papers to the Second Experimental Chaos Conference which is supported by the Office of Naval Research. Abstracts to those two papers are attached. Last month's report discussed the experimental investigation of nonlinear dynamics of CO2 lasers which involved a new technique of inducing chaos. In this new technique, an acoustically modulated feedback of the laser light was used and led to chaotic dynamics at a very low modulation frequency of 375 Hz. Since then, new results have been obtained by an Electro-Optical Modulation (EOM) technique. In the new setup, the electro-optical modulator is placed in an external cavity outside the laser.

  7. Assessing God Locus of Control as a Factor in College Students' Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study explored God locus of control beliefs (ie, God's control over behavior) regarding their influence on alcohol use and sexual behavior as an alternative religiosity measure to religious behaviors, which does not capture perceived influence of religiosity. Additionally, demographic differences in religious beliefs were…

  8. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  9. Self-Control and Academic Performance: Two Field Studies on University Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Academic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Self-control affects, among other things, individuals' performance and criminal or deviant behavior. Herein, the construct of self-control is linked to rather specific criteria in an academic context, as derived from findings in the area of organizational psychology. Specifically, it is assumed that students' self-control impacts university…

  10. A Study of Learning Achievement and Learning Behavior in Biology on “Genes and Chromosomes” Using Storyline Teaching for 12th Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ubonwan Leawudomchai; Kittima Panprueksa; Somsiri Singlop; Thanawuth Latwong

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study learning achievement and learning behavior in Biology on “genes and chromosomes” using storyline teaching for 12th grade students. The sample for this research consisted of 36 twelfth grade students from Piboonbumpen Demonstration School in the first semester of 2014. The sample was randomly selected for the experimental group using cluster random sampling. The research instruments were the lesson plans using storyline teaching on g...

  11. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  12. Naturally Acquired Learned Helplessness: The Relationship of School Failure to Achievement Behavior, Attributions, and Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dona S.

    1981-01-01

    Personality and behavioral consequences of learned helplessness were monitored in children experiencing failure in school. The predictive quality of learned helplessness theory was compared with that of value expectancy theories. Low self-concept was predicted significantly by school failure, internal attributions for failure, and external…

  13. Comparison of Four Teacher Training Procedures in Achieving Teacher and Pupil "Translation" Behaviors in Secondary School Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Gregg B.

    A study was designed to determine whether different training procedures could change specific behaviors of 39 intern teachers and their pupils in secondary school social studies classes. Interns were randomly assigned to four training groups each of which received typescripts from the 1953 McCarthy investigations which were to be used the next day…

  14. Sleep Duration, Positive Attitude toward Life, and Academic Achievement: The Role of Daytime Tiredness, Behavioral Persistence, and School Start Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is…

  15. Have Gender Gaps in Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, and Learning Behaviors across Two ECLS-K Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Joseph R.; Lubienski, Sarah T.; Timmer, Jennifer D.; Makowski, Martha B.; Miller, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K:1999) revealed gender gaps in mathematics achievement and teacher perceptions. However, recent evidence suggests that gender gaps have closed on state tests, raising the question of whether such gaps are absent in the ECLS-K:2011 cohort.…

  16. Behavioral control in at-risk toddlers: the influence of the family check-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelleby, Elizabeth C; Shaw, Daniel S; Cheong, Jeewon; Chang, Hyein; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of one component of emotion regulation, behavioral control, in the growth of children's early behavior problems by examining whether increases in parental positive behavior support brought about by a family-centered intervention were associated with greater child behavioral control, and whether greater behavioral control at age 3 mediated the association between improvements in aspects of positive behavior support from ages 2 to 3 and decreases in growth of behavior problems from ages 2 to 4. The sample included 713 at-risk children (50% female) and their primary caregivers (50% European American, 28% African American, 13% biracial, 9% other) who were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Children had a mean age of 29.91 months at the initial assessment. Data were collected through home visits at child ages 2 to 4, which involved questionnaires for primary caregivers and structured and unstructured play activities for children with primary and alternative caregivers and siblings. Results indicated that the intervention improved parental positive behavior support and reduced growth of child behavior problems. One dimension of positive behavior support, proactive parenting, was modestly associated with behavioral control at age 3, which in turn was significantly associated with growth in behavior problems from ages 2 to 4, with greater behavioral control related to lower levels of growth in behavior problems. Results provide support for the notion that proactive parenting is an important factor in the development of children's behavioral control and that behavioral control plays an important role in the growth of behavior problems.

  17. Understanding the control of ingestive behavior in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E; Moore, Carla J; Ethun, Kelly F; Johnson, Zachary P

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Ingestive behavior in free-ranging populations of nonhuman primates is influenced by resource availability and social group organization and provides valuable insight on the evolution of ecologically adaptive behaviors and physiological systems. As captive populations were established, questions regarding proximate mechanisms that regulate food intake in these animals could be more easily addressed. The availability of these captive populations has led to the use of selected species to understand appetite control or metabolic physiology in humans. Recognizing the difficulty of quantitating food intake in free-ranging groups, the use of captive, singly-housed animals provided a distinct advantage though, at the same time, produced a different social ecology from the animals' natural habitat. However, the recent application of novel technologies to quantitate caloric intake and energy expenditure in free-feeding, socially housed monkeys permits prospective studies that can accurately define how food intake changes in response to any number of interventions in the context of a social environment. This review provides an overview of studies examining food intake using captive nonhuman primates organized into three areas: a) neurochemical regulation of food intake in nonhuman primates; b) whether exposure to specific diets during key developmental periods programs differences in diet preferences or changes the expression of feeding related neuropeptides; and c) how psychosocial factors influence appetite regulation. Because feeding patterns are driven by more than just satiety and orexigenic signals, appreciating how the social context influences pattern of feeding in nonhuman primates may be quite informative for understanding the biological complexity of feeding in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy-Neutral Data Collection Rate Control for IoT Animal Behavior Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Wilhelm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy-neutral operation (ENO is a major concern for Internet of things (IoT sensor systems. Animals can be tagged with IoT sensors to monitor their movement and behavior. These sensors wirelessly upload collected data and can receive parameters to change their operation. Typically, the behavior monitors are powered by a battery where the system relies upon harvesting solar radiation for sustainable operation. Solar panels typically are used as the harvesting mechanism and can have a level of uncertainty regarding consistent energy delivery due to factors such as adverse weather, foliage, time of day, and individual animal behavior. The variability of available energy inevitably creates a trade-off in the rate at which data can be collected with respect to incoming and stored energy. The objective of this research was to investigate and simulate methods and parameters that can control the data collection rate of an IoT behavior monitor to achieve sustained operation with unknown and random energy harvesting. Analysis and development of a control system were performed by creating a software model of energy consumption and then simulating using different initial conditions and random energy harvesting rates for evaluation. The contribution of this effort was the exploration into the usage of a discrete-time gain scheduled Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID that was tuned to a specific device configuration, using battery state of charge as an input, and found to maintain a battery level set-point, reject small solar harvesting energy disturbances, and maintain a consistent data collection rate throughout the day.

  19. A brief report on the relationship between self-control, video game addiction and academic achievement in normal and ADHD students

    OpenAIRE

    Haghbin, Maryam; Shaterian, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Davood; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Over the last two decades, research into video game addiction has grown increasingly. The present research aimed to examine the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement of normal and ADHD high school students. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that (i) there would be a relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement (ii) video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would ...

  20. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Haga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2014-11-11

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor. Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59-95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40-1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p =0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p =0.12). Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications.

  1. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Haga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor. Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59–95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40–1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.12). Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications

  2. Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control Systems: Achieving National Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    This project was part of a regional initiative in the five counties of Central New York (CNY) that received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and four other federal agencies through the 2012 Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (AMJIAC). The CNY initiative was focused on cultivating the emergent regional cluster in “Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control (AM-TEC).” As one component of the CNY AM-TEC initiative, the DOE-funded project supported five research & development seed projects that strategically targeted: 1) needs and opportunities of CNY AM-TEC companies, and 2) the goal of DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) to reduce energy consumption by 50% across product life-cycles over 10 years. The project also sought to fulfill the AMO mission of developing and demonstrating new, energy-efficient processing and materials technologies at a scale adequate to prove their value to manufacturers and spur investment. The five seed projects demonstrated technologies and processes that can reduce energy intensity and improve production as well as use less energy throughout their lifecycles. The project was conducted over three years in two 18-month budget periods. During the first budget period, two projects proposed in the original AMJAIC application were successfully completed: Seed Project 1 focused on saving energy in heat transfer processes via development of nano structured surfaces to significantly increase heat flux; Seed Project 2 addressed saving energy in data centers via subzero cooling of the computing processors. Also during the first budget period, a process was developed and executed to select a second round of seed projects via a competitive request for proposals from regional companies and university collaborators. Applicants were encouraged to form industry-academic partnerships to leverage experience and resources of public and private sectors in the CNY region. Proposals were

  3. The Prevalence and Typologies of Controlling Behaviors in a General Population Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Sleath, Emma; Tramontano, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and typologies of controlling behaviors within a general population sample. Participants ( N = 427) completed the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Prevalence of perpetration and victimization of controlling behaviors was relatively high, although the frequency and severity of the behaviors was mainly low level. Five clusters were established based on the use of five types of controlling behaviors: economic, threatening, intimidating, emotional, and isolating. Significant differences were found between the perpetration clusters and (a) minor physical assault, (b) severe physical assault, (c) minor psychological aggression, and (d) severe psychological aggression. Furthermore, significant differences were found between the victimization clusters and (a) physical assault, (b) minor psychological aggression, and (c) severe psychological aggression. It is clear that controlling behaviors are a feature within general population relationships, and further research is required to understand when such behaviors become problematic, and what needs to be done to prevent this from happening.

  4. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Hemingway

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicines and 13 vector control products. In addition, there are several next-generation diagnostic tools and reference methods currently in development, with many expected to be introduced in the next decade. The development and adoption of these tools, bolstered by strategies that ensure rapid uptake in target populations, intensified mechanisms for information management, surveillance, and response, and continued financial and political commitment are all essential to achieving global eradication.

  5. Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of classroom-based physical activity on math achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Mona; Nielsen, Jacob Have; Gejl, Anne Kær

    2016-01-01

    was a 9-month classroom-based PA program that involved integration of PA into the math lessons delivered by the schools' math teachers. The primary study outcome was change in math achievement, measured by a 45-minute standardized math test. Secondary outcomes were change in executive function (using...... a modified Eriksen flanker task and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire filled out by the parents), creativity (using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, TTCT), aerobic fitness (by the Andersen intermittent shuttle-run test) and body mass index. PA during math...... lessons and total PA (including time spent outside school) were assessed using accelerometry. Math teachers used Short Message Service (SMS)-tracking to report on compliance with the PA intervention and on their motivation for implementing PA in math lessons. Parents used SMS-tracking to register...

  6. A new boundary control scheme for simultaneous achievement of H-mode and radiative cooling (SHC boundary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.

    1995-05-01

    We have proposed a new boundary control scheme (SHC boundary), which could allow simultaneous achievement of the H-mode type confinement improvement and radiative cooling with wide heat flux distribution. In our proposed configuration, a low m island layer sharply separates a plasma confining region from an open 'ergodic' boundary. The degree of openness in the ergodic boundary must be high enough to make the plasma pressure constant along the field line, which in turn separates low density plasma just outside the plasma confining region (the key external condition for achieving a good H-mode discharge) from very high density, cold radiative plasma near the wall (required for effective edge radiative cooling). Examples of such proposed SHC boundaries for Heliotron typed devices and tokamaks are presented. (author)

  7. El difícil camino del control sanitario de la tuberculosis The difficult road to achieve sanitary tuberculosis control

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Peña M; Victorino Farga C

    2012-01-01

    La tuberculosis (TB) sigue siendo una patología prevalente a nivel mundial. Chile tiene un Programa de Control de la Tuberculosis eficaz desde el año 1973, el que ha permitido disminuir la incidencia anual de la enfermedad en 50% cada década, hasta alcanzar el año 2000 una tasa de 20 x 100.000 habitantes ("umbral de la etapa de eliminación "). Sin embargo, desde entonces el país ha presentado un descenso menor, llegando a una situación estacionaria, con tasas cercanas a 13 x 100.000 los años ...

  8. Men, bodily control, and health behaviors: the importance of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni; Pietilä, Ilkka; Ojala, Hanna; King, Neal

    2013-01-01

    To conduct an intersectional analysis of relations between gender and age in the health behaviors of middle-aged men, informed by cross-national comparison between Finland and the United States. Thematic and discourse analysis of data from interviews conducted among professional and working-class, middle-aged men in the U.S. and Finland. Respondents report that middle age inspires them to regard many bodily changes as more than transitory; and they assume a sense of responsibility that can lead to greater self-care. Men reported using such strategies as discipline, routine, and monitoring in their attempts to forestall aging. The men face contradictions: While they may adopt ideologies of masculinity and control and accept responsibility for influencing their health, their bodies may also present them with age-based limitations to their abilities to do so. How men respond to these changes varies by context, including their aging and these nations' different systems of health care. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Introducing The Fling – An innovative serious game to train behavioral control in adolescents : Protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, W. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364138254; Veltkamp, R. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084742984; Beun, R. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075105888; van der Schoot, R.; Peeters, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322993806

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral control weaknesses are a strong predictor of problematic behaviors in adolescents, such as heavy alcohol use. Heavy alcohol use at this young age can lead to health and school-related problems and is a severe societal problem. Strengthening of cognitive control mechanisms through

  10. Achievements, current status and prospects for Russian-American cooperation in nuclear material physical protection, control and accounting - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    The process of upgrading the material physical protection, control and accounting systems is an ongoing and long-term process that consists of modernization measuring equipment and methodologies, improving, data exchange and processing technologies, and improving administrative procedures. The positive results that was already achieved form a foundation upon which this collaboration may extend into other new and important areas, such as - the second and third lines of defence, which are directed toward countering illegal trafficking not only in nuclear materials, but in other hazardous substances that constitute a threat to the nuclear sites and national security of the countries [ru

  11. Tunable shape memory behaviors of poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) achieved by adding poly(L-lactide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi-xing; Liao, Fei; He, Zhen-zhen; Yang, Jing-hui; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yong; Gao, Xiao-ling

    2015-01-01

    In this work, different contents of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) (20–50 wt%) were introduced into poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) to prepare the samples with a tunable shape memory behavior. Morphological characterization demonstrated that with increasing PLLA content from 20 to 50 wt%, the blend morphology changed from sea-island structure to cocontinuous structure. In all the samples, PLLA was amorphous and it did not affect the crystallization of polyethylene part in the EVA component. The presence of PLLA greatly enhanced the storage modulus of samples, especially at relatively low temperatures. The shape memory behaviors of samples were systematically investigated and the results demonstrated that the EVA/PLLA blends exhibited a tunable shape memory effect. On one hand, PLLA accelerated the shape fixation and enhanced the fixity ratio of samples. On the other hand, PLLA reduced the dependence of shape fixity of samples on fixity temperatures. Specifically, for the first time, a critical recovery temperature was observed for the immiscible shape memory polymer blends. In this work, the critical recovery temperature was about 53 °C. At recovery temperature below the critical value, the blends exhibited smaller recovery ratios compared with the pure EVA, however, at recovery temperature above 53 °C, the blends exhibited higher recovery ratios. (paper)

  12. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  13. Analysis of torque transmitting behavior and wheel slip prevention control during regenerative braking for high speed EMU trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Xu, Guo-Qing; Zheng, Chun-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The wheel-rail adhesion control for regenerative braking systems of high speed electric multiple unit trains is crucial to maintaining the stability, improving the adhesion utilization, and achieving deep energy recovery. There remain technical challenges mainly because of the nonlinear, uncertain, and varying features of wheel-rail contact conditions. This research analyzes the torque transmitting behavior during regenerative braking, and proposes a novel methodology to detect the wheel-rail adhesion stability. Then, applications to the wheel slip prevention during braking are investigated, and the optimal slip ratio control scheme is proposed, which is based on a novel optimal reference generation of the slip ratio and a robust sliding mode control. The proposed methodology achieves the optimal braking performance without the wheel-rail contact information. Numerical simulation results for uncertain slippery rails verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  14. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Health behavior and academic achievement among adolescents: the relative contribution of dietary habits, physical activity, body mass index, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfúsdóttir, Inga Dóra; Allegrante, John P

    2010-02-01

    This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of Youth in Iceland , a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland. The model demonstrated good fit with chi-square of 2685 (n = 5,810, df = 180), p Comparative Fit Index value of .94, and a root mean square error of approximation of .049. Lower BMI, physical activity, and good dietary habits were all associated with higher academic achievement; however, health behavior was positively and robustly associated with greater self-esteem. Self-esteem was positively influenced both through physical activity (beta = .16) and the consumption of fruits and vegetables (beta = .14). In contrast, poor dietary habits negatively influenced self-esteem and academic achievement, and self-esteem was negatively influenced by increasing levels of BMI (beta = -.05).

  16. Distributed Nonlinear Control with Event-Triggered Communication to Achieve Current-Sharing and Voltage Regulation in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    combining the state-dependent tolerance with a nonnegative offset. In order to design the event-triggered principle and guarantee the global stability, a generalized dc microgrid model is proposed and proven to be positive definite, based on which Lyapunov-based approach is applied. Furthermore, considering......A distributed nonlinear controller is presented to achieve both accurate current-sharing and voltage regulation simultaneously in dc microgrids considering different line impedances’ effects among converters. Then, an improved event-triggered principle for the controller is introduced through...... for precise real-time information transmission, without sacrificing system performance. Experimental results obtained from a dc microgrid setup show the robustness of the new proposal under normal, communication failure, communication delay and plug-and-play operation conditions. Finally, communication...

  17. Investigation of Learning Behaviors and Achievement of Vocational High School Students Using an Ubiquitous Physics Tablet PC App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Siska Wati Dewi; Hwang, Wu-Yuin

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we designed and developed an app called Ubiquitous-Physics (U-Physics) for mobile devices like tablet PC or smart phones to help students learn the principles behind a simple pendulum in Physics. The unique characteristic of U-Physics is the use of sensors on mobile devices to collect acceleration and velocity data during pendulum swings. The data collected are transformed to facilitate students' understanding of the pendulum time period. U-Physics helped students understand the effects of pendulum mass, length, and angle in relation to its time period. In addition, U-Physics was equipped with an annotation function such as textual annotation to help students interpret and understand the concepts and phenomena of the simple pendulum. U-Physics also generated graphs automatically to demonstrate the time period during which the pendulum was swinging. Results showed a significant positive correlation between interpreting graphs and applying formula. This finding indicated that the ability to interpret graphs has an important role in scientific learning. Therefore, we strongly recommend that physics teachers use graphs to enrich students' information content and understanding and negative correlation between pair coherence and interpreting graphs. It may be that most of the participants (vocational high school students) have limited skill or confidence in physics problem solving; so, they often seek help from teachers or their high-achieving peers. In addition, the findings also indicated that U-Physics can enhance students' achievement during a 3-week time period. We hope that this app can be globally used to learn physics in the future.

  18. The Tobacco-Free Village Program: Helping Rural Areas Implement and Achieve Goals of Tobacco Control Policies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilesh; Patil, Deepak; Kadam, Rajashree; Fernandes, Genevie

    2017-09-27

    India has 274 million tobacco users and a tobacco use prevalence of 38% in rural areas. Tobacco consumption causes 1 million deaths and costs the health system nearly US$23 billion annually. Tobacco control policies exist but lack proper implementation. In this article, we review the Tobacco-free Village (TfV) program conducted in Maharashtra state in India and describe its process to help villages in rural India achieve "tobacco-free" status (i.e., the sale and use of tobacco are prohibited by law). We reviewed program documents and conducted 22 qualitative interviews with program staff and village-level stakeholders. From 2008 to 2014, Salaam Mumbai Foundation implemented the TfV program in 60 villages in Maharashtra state. The program used a number of strategies to help villages become tobacco free, including collaborating with a community-based organization, leveraging existing health workers, conducting a situation analysis, training health workers, engaging stakeholders, developing TfV assessment criteria, mobilizing the community, conducting health education, imposing sanctions, and offering incentives. By 2014, 4 villages had achieved tobacco-free status according to 11 assessment criteria. Successful villages demonstrated strong local leader involvement, ownership of the program, and commitment to the cause by residents. The TfV program faced barriers including poor motivation of health workers, difficulty in changing social norms of tobacco use, and refusal of local vendors to stop tobacco sales due to financial losses. This low-cost, community-driven program holds promise for helping public health practitioners and governments implement and achieve the goals of tobacco control policies, especially in resource-scarce settings. © Chatterjee et al.

  19. Effectiveness of Cognitive – Behavioral Therapy on The Decreasing of Relapse of Addiction to Norcotic In The Collegian Students And It s influence on The Increasing of Their Achievement Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Alavi Langroodi

    2015-05-01

    Results: Results showed that cognitive - behavioral therapy, was effective in reducing the recurrence rate of drug addicted students. Conclusion: With regard to the effective use of effective, cognitive - behavioral therapy in reducing drug relapse and increase the motivation of individuals, Education program aimed at reducing drug relapse and increase the incentive for progress must be made. Keywords: Cognitive – Behavioral Therapy, addiction, achievement motivation.

  20. Designing molecular structure to achieve ductile fracture behavior in a stiff and strong 2D polymer, "graphylene".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz-Rosado, E; Beaudet, T D; Balu, R; Wetzel, E D

    2016-06-07

    As the simplest two-dimensional (2D) polymer, graphene has immensely high intrinsic strength and elastic stiffness but has limited toughness due to brittle fracture. We use atomistic simulations to explore a new class of graphene/polyethylene hybrid 2D polymer, "graphylene", that exhibits ductile fracture mechanisms and has a higher fracture toughness and flaw tolerance than graphene. A specific configuration of this 2D polymer hybrid, denoted "GrE-2" for the two-carbon-long ethylene chains connecting benzene rings in the inherent framework, is prioritized for study. MD simulations of crack propagation show that the energy release rate to propagate a crack in GrE-2 is twice that of graphene. We also demonstrate that GrE-2 exhibits delocalized failure and other energy-dissipating fracture mechanisms such as crack branching and bridging. These results demonstrate that 2D polymers can be uniquely tailored to achieve a balance of fracture toughness with mechanical stiffness and strength.

  1. Activity of Raphé Serotonergic Neurons Controls Emotional Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Teissier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established role of serotonin signaling in mood regulation, causal relationships between serotonergic neuronal activity and behavior remain poorly understood. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that selectively increasing serotonergic neuronal activity in wild-type mice is anxiogenic and reduces floating in the forced-swim test, whereas inhibition has no effect on the same measures. In a developmental mouse model of altered emotional behavior, increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors correlate with reduced dorsal raphé and increased median raphé serotonergic activity. These mice display blunted responses to serotonergic stimulation and behavioral rescues through serotonergic inhibition. Furthermore, we identify opposing consequences of dorsal versus median raphé serotonergic neuron inhibition on floating behavior, together suggesting that median raphé hyperactivity increases anxiety, whereas a low dorsal/median raphé serotonergic activity ratio increases depression-like behavior. Thus, we find a critical role of serotonergic neuronal activity in emotional regulation and uncover opposing roles of median and dorsal raphé function.

  2. Activity of Raphé Serotonergic Neurons Controls Emotional Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teissier, Anne; Chemiakine, Alexei; Inbar, Benjamin; Bagchi, Sneha; Ray, Russell S; Palmiter, Richard D; Dymecki, Susan M; Moore, Holly; Ansorge, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Despite the well-established role of serotonin signaling in mood regulation, causal relationships between serotonergic neuronal activity and behavior remain poorly understood. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that selectively increasing serotonergic neuronal activity in wild-type mice is anxiogenic and reduces floating in the forced-swim test, whereas inhibition has no effect on the same measures. In a developmental mouse model of altered emotional behavior, increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors correlate with reduced dorsal raphé and increased median raphé serotonergic activity. These mice display blunted responses to serotonergic stimulation and behavioral rescues through serotonergic inhibition. Furthermore, we identify opposing consequences of dorsal versus median raphé serotonergic neuron inhibition on floating behavior, together suggesting that median raphé hyperactivity increases anxiety, whereas a low dorsal/median raphé serotonergic activity ratio increases depression-like behavior. Thus, we find a critical role of serotonergic neuronal activity in emotional regulation and uncover opposing roles of median and dorsal raphé function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Model-on-Demand Predictive Control for Nonlinear Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a data-centric modeling and predictive control approach for nonlinear hybrid systems. System identification of hybrid systems represents a challenging problem because model parameters depend on the mode or operating point of the system. The proposed algorithm applies Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to generate a local linear approximation of the nonlinear hybrid system at each time step, using a small subset of data selected by an adaptive bandwidth selector. The appeal of the MoD approach lies in the fact that model parameters are estimated based on a current operating point; hence estimation of locations or modes governed by autonomous discrete events is achieved automatically. The local MoD model is then converted into a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) system representation which can be used directly in a model predictive control (MPC) law for hybrid systems using multiple-degree-of-freedom tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed MoD predictive control algorithm for nonlinear hybrid systems is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive behavioral intervention problem inspired by Fast Track, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be useful for adaptive intervention problems exhibiting both nonlinear and hybrid character. PMID:21874087

  4. Parental behavioral and psychological control and problematic internet use among Chinese adolescents: the mediating role of self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Li, Dongping; Newman, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has reported contradictory effects of parental control on adolescents' problematic Internet use (PIU). To reconcile the discrepant findings, the current study examined the differential effects of parental behavioral control (solicitation and restriction) and psychological control (guilt induction, love withdrawal, and authority assertion) on adolescents' PIU. The mediating effect of self-control on the relationships between parental control and PIU was also examined. A total of 694 Chinese adolescents (M=13.67 years) completed questionnaire measures of parental behavioral control, psychological control, self-control, and PIU. After adjusting for age, gender, and family financial status, it was found that parental restriction (a form of behavioral control) was negatively associated with PIU, whereas love withdrawal (a form of psychological control) was positively associated with PIU. Increased self-control was associated with decreased PIU, and changes in self-control at least partially mediated the differential effects of parental behavioral and psychological control on PIU. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Internet-based cognitive-behavior therapy for procrastination: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Forsell, Erik; Svensson, Andreas; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2015-08-01

    Procrastination can be a persistent behavior pattern associated with personal distress. However, research investigating different treatment interventions is scarce, and no randomized controlled trial has examined the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT). Meanwhile, Internet-based CBT has been found promising for several conditions, but has not yet been used for procrastination. Participants (N = 150) were randomized to guided self-help, unguided self-help, and wait-list control. Outcome measures were administered before and after treatment, or weekly throughout the treatment period. They included the Pure Procrastination Scale, the Irrational Procrastination Scale, the Susceptibility to Temptation Scale, the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-report version, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Quality of Life Inventory. The intention-to-treat principle was used for all statistical analyses. Mixed-effects models revealed moderate between-groups effect sizes comparing guided and unguided self-help with wait-list control; the Pure Procrastination Scale, Cohen's d = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.29, 1.10], and d = 0.50, 95% CI [0.10, 0.90], and the Irrational Procrastination Scale, d = 0.81 95% CI [0.40, 1.22], and d = 0.69 95% CI [0.29, 1.09]. Clinically significant change was achieved among 31.3-40.0% for guided self-help, compared with 24.0-36.0% for unguided self-help. Neither of the treatment conditions was found to be superior on any of the outcome measures, Fs(98, 65.17-72.55) .19. Internet-based CBT could be useful for managing self-reported difficulties due to procrastination, both with and without the guidance of a therapist. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Behavior Modification of Studying Through Study Skills Advice and Self-Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven

    1975-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of two behavioral self-control procedures as additions to the typical treatment for college students' study behavior--study skills advice. Predicted self-monitoring would be an effective treatment addition to study skills advice and study skills advice would be superior to the control groups. Results supported…

  7. Randomized Trial of Anger Control Training for Adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhdolsky, Denis G.; Vitulano, Lawrence A.; Carroll, Deirdre H.; McGuire, Joseph; Leckman, James F.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A randomized trial to examine the efficacy of anger control training for treating adolescents with Tourette's syndrome and disruptive behavior reveals that those administered with the anger control training showed a decrease in their Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale score by 52 percent as compared with a decrease of 11 percent in the treatment as…

  8. Inhibitory behavioral control: A stochastic dynamic causal modeling study comparing cocaine dependent subjects and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangsuo Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine dependence is associated with increased impulsivity in humans. Both cocaine dependence and impulsive behavior are under the regulatory control of cortico-striatal networks. One behavioral laboratory measure of impulsivity is response inhibition (ability to withhold a prepotent response in which altered patterns of regional brain activation during executive tasks in service of normal performance are frequently found in cocaine dependent (CD subjects studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, little is known about aberrations in specific directional neuronal connectivity in CD subjects. The present study employed fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM to study the effective (directional neuronal connectivity associated with response inhibition in CD subjects, elicited under performance of a Go/NoGo task with two levels of NoGo difficulty (Easy and Hard. The performance on the Go/NoGo task was not significantly different between CD subjects and controls. The DCM analysis revealed that prefrontal–striatal connectivity was modulated (influenced during the NoGo conditions for both groups. The effective connectivity from left (L anterior cingulate cortex (ACC to L caudate was similarly modulated during the Easy NoGo condition for both groups. During the Hard NoGo condition in controls, the effective connectivity from right (R dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to L caudate became more positive, and the effective connectivity from R ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC to L caudate became more negative. In CD subjects, the effective connectivity from L ACC to L caudate became more negative during the Hard NoGo conditions. These results indicate that during Hard NoGo trials in CD subjects, the ACC rather than DLPFC or VLPFC influenced caudate during response inhibition.

  9. Achieving sub-50 nm controlled diameter of aperiodic Si nanowire arrays by ultrasonic catalyst removal for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaliyawala, Harsh A.; Purohit, Zeel; Khanna, Sakshum; Ray, Abhijit; Pati, Ranjan K.; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2018-05-01

    We report an alternative approach to fabricate the vertically aligned aperiodic Si nanowire arrays by controlling the diameter of the Ag nanoparticles and tuneable ultrasonic removal. The process begins by sputtering the Ag thin film (t=5 nm) on the Si/SiO2 substrates. Followed by Ag thin film, annealed for various temperature (T=300°C, 400°C, 500°C and 600°C) to selectively achieve a high density, well-spaced and diameter controlled Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the Si/SiO2 substrates. The sacrificial layer of AgNPs size indicates the controlled diameter of the Si nanowire arrays. Image J analysis for various annealed samples gives an indication of the high density, uniformity and equal distribution of closely packed AgNPs. Furthermore, the AgNPs covered with Au/Pd mesh (5 nm) as a template, was removed by ultrasonication in the etchant solution for several times in different intervals of preparation. The conventional and facile metal assisted electroless etching approach was finally employed to fabricate the vertically aperiodic sub-50 nm SiNWAs, can be applicable to various nanoscale opto-electronic applications.

  10. Emergent literacy skills, behavior problems and familial antecedents of reading difficulties: a follow-up study of reading achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Hugo Câmara; Perdry, Hervé; Soria, Carmen; Pulgar, Salomé; Cusin, Françoise; Dellatolas, Georges

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the relation between emergent literacy skills, teachers' reports of behavioral problems, and word reading achievement in a community sample of French students. Family background was investigated and included familial antecedents of reading difficulties (Fa/Rd) and parents' educational level. The analyses explored the pattern of concurrent relations between behavioral, familial and emergent literacy measures in a sample of 812 preschoolers, and their predictive power in explaining word reading achievement in a sub-sample of 150 children followed from kindergarten to fifth grade. Word reading at fifth grade was predicted by kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and letter knowledge. Teachers' reports of inattention symptoms at each grade level were associated with early reading skills and with subsequent word reading. Fa/Rd were concurrently and longitudinally associated with emergent literacy skills, teachers' reported inattention and word reading. These results indicate that children with a family history of reading difficulties are at increased risk for the co-occurrence of reading difficulties and attention problems from kindergarten onward. These findings confirm the shared influence of Fa/Rd on the comorbidity between inattention symptoms and reading difficulties in a non-diagnosed community sample of preschool children followed through late elementary school. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving urban African Americans' blood pressure control through multi-level interventions in the Achieving Blood Pressure Control Together (ACT) study: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Patti L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Roter, Debra L; Bone, Lee R; Wolff, Jennifer L; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Levine, David M; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Cooper, Lisa A; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie J; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Albert, Michael C; Monroe, Dwyan; Simmons, Michelle; Hickman, Debra; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Matens, Richard; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Ameling, Jessica M; Charlston, Jeanne; Sam, Tanyka S; Carson, Kathryn A; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Crews, Deidra C; Greer, Raquel C; Sneed, Valerie; Flynn, Sarah J; DePasquale, Nicole; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-07-01

    Given their high rates of uncontrolled blood pressure, urban African Americans comprise a particularly vulnerable subgroup of persons with hypertension. Substantial evidence has demonstrated the important role of family and community support in improving patients' management of a variety of chronic illnesses. However, studies of multi-level interventions designed specifically to improve urban African American patients' blood pressure self-management by simultaneously leveraging patient, family, and community strengths are lacking. We report the protocol of the Achieving Blood Pressure Control Together (ACT) study, a randomized controlled trial designed to study the effectiveness of interventions that engage patient, family, and community-level resources to facilitate urban African American hypertensive patients' improved hypertension self-management and subsequent hypertension control. African American patients with uncontrolled hypertension receiving health care in an urban primary care clinic will be randomly assigned to receive 1) an educational intervention led by a community health worker alone, 2) the community health worker intervention plus a patient and family communication activation intervention, or 3) the community health worker intervention plus a problem-solving intervention. All participants enrolled in the study will receive and be trained to use a digital home blood pressure machine. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will be patients' blood pressure control at 12months. Results from the ACT study will provide needed evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive multi-level interventions to improve urban African American patients' hypertension control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender orientation and alcohol-related weight control behavior among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; Barr, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Weight control behavior was assessed via the Compensatory-Eating-and-Behaviors-in Response-to-Alcohol-Consumption-Scale. Control variables included sex, race/ethnicity, age, and depressive symptoms. Gender orientation was measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The prevalence and probability of alcohol-related weight control behavior using ordinal logistic regression are reported. Men and women do not significantly differ in compensatory-weight-control-behavior. However, regression models suggest that recent binge drinking, other substance use, and masculine orientation are positively associated with alcohol-related weight control behavior. Sex was not a robust predictor of weight control behavior. Masculine orientation should be considered a possible risk factor for these behaviors and considered when designing prevention and intervention strategies.

  13. Frequent nonprescription stimulant use and risky behaviors in college students: the role of effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Adam M; Graziano, Paulo A; Balkhi, Amanda M; McNamara, Joseph P H; Cottler, Linda B; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. A sample of 555 college students was collected between August 2010 and February 2012. Students completed several self-report measures assessing their drug use history, attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms, temperament, and risky behaviors beyond drug use. Those who reported more frequent NPSU were more likely to engage in high-risk behavior across all 4 domains studied. Further, effortful control abilities partially mediated the link between NPSU and risky behaviors. These results highlight the associated risks of frequent NPSU for college students as well as provide future directions for examining effortful control as a potentially important mechanism linking NPSU to other risky behaviors.

  14. The Relationship between Health Locus of Control and Health Behaviors in Emergency Medicine Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhoseinzadeh, Mansour; Gheibizadeh, Mahin; Moradikalboland, Mehrnaz

    2017-10-01

    Health locus of control defined as individual beliefs based on past experiences in health issues and having external or internal control over them, could affect health. Health locus of control plays a role in health behaviors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health locus of control and health behavior in emergency medical personnel in Ahvaz during 2016. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, which began in August 2016 for a period of six months on 215 emergency medical personnel in Ahvaz who were selected randomly. The data were collected by a demographic questionnaire, Rotter's locus of control questionnaire, and health behavior questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software, version 22. The correlation between variables was estimated by Pearson's correlation coefficient and independent t test. The level of significance for all statistical tests was set at 0.05. We found no significant relationship between health locus of control (external and internal) and health behavior (P>0.05).Health behaviors were very good in terms of personal health (86.5%), nutrition (53%), and sleep and rest (48.4%), and poor in terms of physical activity (52.6%) and stress management (79.5%). Furthermore, 79.5% of the emergency personnel, in general, had poor heath behaviors. Leaders and officials in the field of health must necessarily design programs in relation to health locus of control and the factors developing and affecting it as well as the role of health locus of control in doing correct behaviors.

  15. Intelligent Systems Approach for Automated Identification of Individual Control Behavior of a Human Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.; Cardullo, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator?s control behavior, however little research has been done to identify an individual based on control behavior. The hypothesis investigated is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Two enhancements to existing human operator models, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented. One enhancement accounts for the testing control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust the control strategy. This uses the Artificial Neural Network which can be fine-tuned to model the testing control. Another enhancement takes the form of an equiripple filter which conditions the control system power spectrum. A novel automated parameter identification technique was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models. This utilizes a Genetic Algorithm based optimization engine called the Bit-Climbing Algorithm. Enhancements were validated using experimental data obtained from three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. This manuscript also addresses applying human operator models to evaluate the effectiveness of motion feedback when simulating actual pilot control behavior in a flight simulator.

  16. Overall asthma control achieved with budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy for patients on different treatment steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östlund Ollie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adjusting medication for uncontrolled asthma involves selecting one of several options from the same or a higher treatment step outlined in asthma guidelines. We examined the relative benefit of introducing budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FORM maintenance and reliever therapy (Symbicort SMART® Turbuhaler® in patients previously prescribed treatments from Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA Steps 2, 3 or 4. Methods This is a post hoc analysis of the results of five large clinical trials (>12000 patients comparing BUD/FORM maintenance and reliever therapy with other treatments categorised by treatment step at study entry. Both current clinical asthma control during the last week of treatment and exacerbations during the study were examined. Results At each GINA treatment step, the proportion of patients achieving target levels of current clinical control were similar or higher with BUD/FORM maintenance and reliever therapy compared with the same or a higher fixed maintenance dose of inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA (plus short-acting β2-agonist [SABA] as reliever, and rates of exacerbations were lower at all treatment steps in BUD/FORM maintenance and reliever therapy versus same maintenance dose ICS/LABA (P Conclusions BUD/FORM maintenance and reliever therapy may be a preferable option for patients on Steps 2 to 4 of asthma guidelines requiring a more effective treatment and, compared with other fixed dose alternatives, is most effective in the higher treatment steps.

  17. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (pmathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Driver's behavioral adaptation to adaptive cruise control (ACC): the case of speed and time headway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio Francesco; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel; Simões, Anabela

    2014-06-01

    The Adaptive Cruise Control is an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) that allows maintaining given headway and speed, according to settings pre-defined by the users. Despite the potential benefits associated to the utilization of ACC, previous studies warned against negative behavioral adaptations that might occur while driving with the system activated. Unfortunately, up to now, there are no unanimous results about the effects induced by the usage of ACC on speed and time headway to the vehicle in front. Also, few studies were performed including actual users of ACC among the subjects. This research aimed to investigate the effect of the experience gained with ACC on speed and time headway for a group of users of the system. In addition, it explored the impact of ACC usage on speed and time headway for ACC users and regular drivers. A matched sample driving simulator study was planned as a two-way (2×2) repeated measures mixed design, with the experience with ACC as between-subjects factor and the driving condition (with ACC and manually) as within-subjects factor. The results show that the usage of ACC brought a small but not significant reduction of speed and, especially, the maintenance of safer time headways, being the latter result greater for ACC users, probably as a consequence of their experience in using the system. The usage of ACC did not cause any negative behavioral adaptations to the system regarding speed and time headway. Based on this research work, the Adaptive Cruise Control showed the potential to improve road safety for what concerns the speed and the time headway maintained by the drivers. The speed of the surrounding traffic and the minimum time headway settable through the ACC seem to have an important effect on the road safety improvement achievable with the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Study of the Effect of Self-control on Academic Procrastination Behavior in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 正

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-regulated factors and academic procrastination behavior in college students. The factors examined were Locus of control(LOC) on belief level and Reformative and Redressive Self-control and external self-control on behavioral levels. 298 college students were asked to respond to 3 scales, which were LOC scale, RRS scale, and academic procrastination scale. Main results was as follows: 1. There were significant negative rela...

  20. Analysis of control rod behavior based on numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, D. G.; Park, J. K.; Park, N. G.; Suh, J. M.; Jeon, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The main function of a control rod is to control core reactivity change during operation associated with changes in power, coolant temperature, and dissolved boron concentration by the insertion and withdrawal of control rods from the fuel assemblies. In a scram, the control rod assemblies are released from the CRDMs (Control Rod Drive Mechanisms) and, due to gravity, drop rapidly into the fuel assemblies. The control rod insertion time during a scram must be within the time limits established by the overall core safety analysis. To assure the control rod operational functions, the guide thimbles shall not obstruct the insertion and withdrawal of the control rods or cause any damage to the fuel assembly. When fuel assembly bow occurs, it can affect both the operating performance and the core safety. In this study, the drag forces of the control rod are estimated by a numerical simulation to evaluate the guide tube bow effect on control rod withdrawal. The contact condition effects are also considered. A full scale 3D model is developed for the evaluation, and ANSYS - commercial numerical analysis code - is used for this numerical simulation. (authors)

  1. Distributed Recurrent Neural Forward Models with Synaptic Adaptation and CPG-based control for Complex Behaviors of Walking Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakyasingha eDasgupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of 1 central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, 2 distributed (at each leg recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and 3 searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to sensorimotor prediction outperforms the previous state of the art adaptive neuron

  2. Mixed methods evaluation of a randomized control pilot trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Cook, Emily; Chen, Yvonnes; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda; Estabrooks, Paul

    2013-02-01

    This Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low health literacy skills have emerged as two public health concerns in the United States (US); however, there is limited research on how to effectively address these issues among adults. As guided by health literacy concepts and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this randomized controlled pilot trial applied the RE-AIM framework and a mixed methods approach to examine a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intervention (SipSmartER), as compared to a matched-contact control intervention targeting physical activity (MoveMore). Both 5-week interventions included two interactive group sessions and three support telephone calls. Executing a patient-centered developmental process, the primary aim of this paper was to evaluate patient feedback on intervention content and structure. The secondary aim was to understand the potential reach (i.e., proportion enrolled, representativeness) and effectiveness (i.e. health behaviors, theorized mediating variables, quality of life) of SipSmartER. Twenty-five participants were randomized to SipSmartER (n=14) or MoveMore (n=11). Participants' intervention feedback was positive, ranging from 4.2-5.0 on a 5-point scale. Qualitative assessments reavealed several opportunties to improve clarity of learning materials, enhance instructions and communication, and refine research protocols. Although SSB consumption decreased more among the SipSmartER participants (-256.9 ± 622.6 kcals), there were no significant group differences when compared to control participants (-199.7 ± 404.6 kcals). Across both groups, there were significant improvements for SSB attitudes, SSB behavioral intentions, and two media literacy constructs. The value of using a patient-centered approach in the developmental phases of this intervention was apparent, and pilot findings suggest decreased SSB may be achieved through targeted health literacy and TPB strategies. Future efforts are needed to examine

  3. Controlling Coaching Behaviors and Athlete Burnout: Investigating the Mediating Roles of Perfectionism and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcza-Renner, Kelly; Eklund, Robert C; Morin, Alexandre J; Habeeb, Christine M

    2016-02-01

    This investigation sought to replicate and extend earlier studies of athlete burnout by examining athlete-perceived controlling coaching behaviors and athlete perfectionism variables as, respectively, environmental and dispositional antecedents of athlete motivation and burnout. Data obtained from NCAA Division I swimmers (n = 487) within 3 weeks of conference championship meets were analyzed for this report. Significant indirect effects were observed between controlling coaching behaviors and burnout through athlete perfectionism (i.e., socially prescribed, self-oriented) and motivation (i.e., autonomous, amotivation). Controlling coaching behaviors predicted athlete perfectionism. In turn, self-oriented perfectionism was positively associated with autonomous motivation and negatively associated with amotivation, while socially prescribed perfectionism was negatively associated with autonomous motivation and positively associated with controlled motivation and amotivation. Autonomous motivation and amotivation, in turn, predicted athlete burnout in expected directions. These findings implicate controlling coaching behaviors as potentially contributing to athlete perfectionism, shaping athlete motivational regulations, and possibly increasing athlete burnout.

  4. The social control of behavior control: behavior modification, Individual Rights, and research ethics in America, 1971-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    In 1971, the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights began a three-year study to investigate the federal funding of all research involving behavior modification. During this period, operant programs of behavior change, particularly those implemented in closed institutions, were subjected to specific scrutiny. In this article, I outline a number of scientific and social factors that led to this investigation and discuss the study itself. I show how behavioral scientists, both individually and through their professional organizations, responded to this public scrutiny by (1) self-consciously altering their terminology and techniques; (2) considering the need to more effectively police their professional turf; and (3) confronting issues of ethics and values in their work. Finally, I link this episode to the formation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, whose recommendations resulted in changes to the ethical regulation of federally funded human subjects research that persist to the present day. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Behavior control in the sensorimotor loop with short-term synaptic dynamics induced by self-regulating neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem eToutounji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and skills of living systems depend on the distributed control provided by specialized and highly recurrent neural networks. Learning and memory in these systems is mediated by a set of adaptation mechanisms, known collectively as neuronal plasticity. Translating principles of recurrent neural control and plasticity to artificial agents has seen major strides, but is usually hampered by the complex interactions between the agent's body and its environment. One of the important standing issues is for the agent to support multiple stable states of behavior, so that its behavioral repertoire matches the requirements imposed by these interactions. The agent also must have the capacity to switch between these states in time scales that are comparable to those by which sensory stimulation varies. Achieving this requires a mechanism of short-term memory that allows the neurocontroller to keep track of the recent history of its input, which finds its biological counterpart in short-term synaptic plasticity. This issue is approached here by deriving synaptic dynamics in recurrent neural networks. Neurons are introduced as self-regulating units with a rich repertoire of dynamics. They exhibit homeostatic properties for certain parameter domains, which result in a set of stable states and the required short-term memory. They can also operate as oscillators, which allow them to surpass the level of activity imposed by their homeostatic operation conditions. Neural systems endowed with the derived synaptic dynamics can be utilized for the neural behavior control of autonomous mobile agents. The resulting behavior depends also on the underlying network structure, which is either engineered, or developed by evolutionary techniques. The effectiveness of these self-regulating units is demonstrated by controlling locomotion of a hexapod with eighteen degrees of freedom, and obstacle-avoidance of a wheel-driven robot.

  6. Does the perception that God controls health outcomes matter for health behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Carr, Lucas J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between God Locus of Health Control, health behaviors, and beliefs utilizing a cross-sectional online survey (N = 549). Results indicated that God Locus of Health Control was correlated with alcohol use, physical activity, perceived risk of chronic disease, and beliefs that poor health behaviors contribute to chronic disease (all p values God Locus of Health Control was only an independent correlate of the belief that physical inactivity contributed to chronic disease. Insights from this study may be important for future faith-based health behavior change interventions.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ASSESSMENT MODEL AND METHOD TOWARD THE SCIENCE LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT BY CONTROLLING THE STUDENTS? PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE OF MATHEMATICS.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam rumbalifar; I. g. n. Agung; Burhanuddin tola.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to study the influence of the assessment model and method toward the science learning achievement by controlling the students? previous knowledge of mathematics. This study was conducted at SMP East Seram district with the population of 295 students. This study applied a quasi-experimental method with 2 X 2 factorial design using the ANCOVA model. The findings after controlling the students\\' previous knowledge of mathematics show that the science learning achievement of th...

  8. An Overview on Study of Identification of Driver Behavior Characteristics for Automotive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver characteristics have been the research focus for automotive control. Study on identification of driver characteristics is provided in this paper in terms of its relevant research directions and key technologies involved. This paper discusses the driver characteristics based on driver’s operation behavior, or the driver behavior characteristics. Following the presentation of the fundamental of the driver behavior characteristics, the key technologies of the driver behavior characteristics are reviewed in detail, including classification and identification methods of the driver behavior characteristics, experimental design and data acquisition, and model adaptation. Moreover, this paper discusses applications of the identification of the driver behavior characteristics which has been applied to the intelligent driver advisory system, the driver safety warning system, and the vehicle dynamics control system. At last, some ideas about the future work are concluded.

  9. Deviant Peer Behavior and Adolescent Delinquency: Protective Effects of Inhibitory Control, Planning, or Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Forman-Alberti, Alissa B

    2018-05-09

    We examined relations between adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior and delinquency as moderated by inhibitory control, planning, and decision making in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development at age 15 (N = 991). Adolescents reported perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Inhibitory control, planning, and decision making were assessed behaviorally. Delinquency was evaluated with a latent variable comprised of parent-guardian perceptions of adolescent delinquency and adolescent self-reports. Only inhibitory control moderated the relationship between deviant peer behavior and delinquency, showing that better inhibition protected against delinquency in contexts of high levels of adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Findings are discussed in the context of theories of adolescent delinquency and risk taking. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  10. Recent Progress in the Control of Fish Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a survey of recent activities in developing techniques for controlling fish behaviour over short and medium distances. The bases for control are described with reference to the sensory system of the fish and a simple model of fish behaviour. It is suggested that an effective way of controlling fish behaviour is by means of conditioning, in which reward or punishment is used in connection with an acoustical or visual signal. A number of possible applications which have been tested in practice are described.

  11. KINETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EUFLAMMATION: THE INDUCTION OF CONTROLLED INFLAMMATION WITHOUT OVERT SICKNESS BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Tarr, Andrew J.; Liu, Xiaoyu; Reed, Nathaniel S.; Quan, Ning

    2014-01-01

    We found recently that controlled progressive challenge with subthreshold levels of E.coli can confer progressively stronger resistance to future reinfection-induced sickness behavior to the host. We have termed this type of inflammation “euflammation”. In this study, we further characterized the kinetic changes in the behavior, immunological, and neuroendocrine aspects of euflammation. Results show euflammatory animals only display transient and subtle sickness behaviors of...

  12. The Marketing & Positive Impacts of Behavioral Control System on Societies & Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Adel Mostafa; Ahmed Mohamed Tawfik

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral control systems are one of the most prominent tools used by managers and marketers for different internal and external purposes. One of the most important external purposes they have been used for is influencing consumer behavior. This paper explores the positive effects of implementing such systems on societies. It discusses consumer perception of the systems, their influence on their financial behavior in different contexts, how can they create order and how as well ...

  13. The role of executive control in young children's serious gaming behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, E. van de; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined (1) how executive control contributed to in-game behaviors in young children while playing a serious game, (2) whether the levels of control changed when the game was played repeatedly, and (3) how the first experience with the game mediated the role of executive control

  14. Dysregulated behaviors in bulimia nervosa: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara Freire Brito César; Martins, C.; Brandão, Isabel; Torres, António Roma; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is often related to self-control difficulties and to dysregulated behaviours. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of self-injurious behaviour, suicide attempts, and other dysregulated behaviours in BN, using two control groups (a healthy group and a general psychiatric group), and also to examine the association between these behaviours and alleged sexual abuse in BN.Method: Women (N = 233) aged between 13 and 38 years old were evaluated using a semi-st...

  15. A brief report on the relationship between self-control, video game addiction and academic achievement in normal and ADHD students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghbin, Maryam; Shaterian, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Davood; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades, research into video game addiction has grown increasingly. The present research aimed to examine the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement of normal and ADHD high school students. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that (i) there would be a relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement (ii) video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between male and female students, and (iii) the relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between normal students and ADHD students. The research population comprised first grade high school students of Khomeini-Shahr (a city in the central part of Iran). From this population, a sample group of 339 students participated in the study. The survey included the Game Addiction Scale (Lemmens, Valkenburg & Peter, 2009), the Self-Control Scale (Tangney, Baumeister & Boone, 2004) and the ADHD Diagnostic checklist (Kessler et al., 2007). In addition to questions relating to basic demographic information, students' Grade Point Average (GPA) for two terms was used for measuring their academic achievement. These hypotheses were examined using a regression analysis. Among Iranian students, the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement differed between male and female students. However, the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, academic achievement, and type of student was not statistically significant. Although the results cannot demonstrate a causal relationship between video game use, video game addiction, and academic achievement, they suggest that high involvement in playing video games leaves less time for engaging in academic work.

  16. Risk and Protective Factors for Difficulty Controlling Violent Behavior in National Guard and Reserve Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Miranda; Rathod, Sujit D; Cohen, Gregory; Sampson, Laura; Ursano, Robert; Gifford, Robert; Fullerton, Carol; Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Violent behavior is an important problem for military service members and veterans. A representative cohort of U.S. Reserve and National Guard personnel ( N = 1,293) were interviewed to assess self-reported problems controlling violent behavior, deployment traumas, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and social support. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the associations of violent behavior with risk and protective factors. Problems controlling violent behavior were uncommon among male (3.3%) and female (1.7%) service members. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) showed associations between violent behavior and deployment traumas (aPR = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.34, 2.08]), PTSD (aPR = 9.95, 95% CI = [5.09, 19.48]), and PTSD symptom severity (aPR for each additional PTSD symptom = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.06, 1.09]). Social support was associated with lower prevalence of violent behavior (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = [0.52, 0.76]). The association between violent behavior and alcohol abuse was not statistically significant (aPR = 1.94, 95% CI = [0.92, 4.09]). Results were consistent when the population was restricted to personnel who had deployed to a war zone. Problems controlling violent behavior were less common in this cohort than has been documented in other studies. Associations of violent behavior with risk and protective factors are consistent with prior research.

  17. Highly competitive reindeer males control female behavior during the rut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Body

    Full Text Available During the rut, female ungulates move among harems or territories, either to sample mates or to avoid harassment. Females may be herded by a male, may stay with a preferred male, or aggregate near a dominant male to avoid harassment from other males. In fission-fusion group dynamics, female movement is best described by the group's fission probability, instead of inter-harem movement. In this study, we tested whether male herding ability, female mate choice or harassment avoidance influence fission probability. We recorded group dynamics in a herd of reindeer Rangifer tarandus equipped with GPS collars with activity sensors. We found no evidence that the harassment level in the group affected fission probability, or that females sought high rank (i.e. highly competitive and hence successful males. However, the behavior of high ranked males decreased fission probability. Male herding activity was synchronous with the decrease of fission probability observed during the rut. We concluded that male herding behavior stabilized groups, thereby increasing average group size and consequently the opportunity for sexual selection.

  18. Dynamic behavior and chaos control in a complex Riccati-type map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is devoted to analyze the dynamic behavior of a Riccati- type map with complex variables and complex parameters. Fixed points and their asymptotic stability are studied. Lyapunov exponent is computed to indicate chaos. Bifurcation and chaos are discussed. Chaotic behavior of the map has been controlled by ...

  19. Effects of PMTO in foster families with children with behavior problems : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Overbeek, G.J.; Oort, F.J.; Arntz, M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of Parent Management Training Oregon for foster parents with foster children (aged 4–12) with severe externalizing behavior problems in long-term foster care arrangements. Foster children’s behavior problems are challenging for

  20. Can Collateral Behavior Account for Transitions in the Stimulus Control of Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David C.

    2017-01-01

    The task of extending Skinner's (1957) interpretation of verbal behavior includes accounting for the moment-to-moment changes in stimulus control as one speaks. A consideration of the behavior of the reader reminds us of the continuous evocative effect of verbal stimuli on readers, listeners, and speakers. Collateral discriminative responses to…

  1. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhodes, R.E.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that

  2. Evolving and Controlling Perimeter, Rendezvous, and Foraging Behaviors in a Computation-Free Robot Swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    in extreme environments. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.11 [ Artificial Intelligence ]: Distributed Artificial In- telligence—multiagent systems...coherence and coordination; I.2.9 [ Artificial Intelligence ]: Robotics— intelligent vehi- cles Keywords swarm robotics, evolutionary algorithms...collective behaviors. Rubenstein et al. [12] studied how to collectively transport items using a simple control signals and behaviors. Others have looked

  3. Parental Control is Not Unconditionally Detrimental for Externalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcinar, Berna; Baydar, Nazli

    2014-01-01

    The association of three different strategies of maternal control (behavioral, psychological, and physical), and maternal warmth with children's externalizing behaviors were analyzed in an observational study of 3-year-old children in Turkey ("N" = 123). The results indicated that (i) mothers exercised all three types of control…

  4. Treatment of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior with Procedural Variations of Differential Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidert, Pamela L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Dozier, Claudia L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the assessment and treatment of 2 children with autism spectrum disorder whose problem behaviors (self-injury, aggression, and disruption) were multiply controlled. Results of functional analyses indicated that the children's problem behaviors were maintained by both positive reinforcement (attention) and negative reinforcement (escape…

  5. Evaluating the combined effectiveness of influenza control strategies and human preventive behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Mao

    Full Text Available Control strategies enforced by health agencies are a major type of practice to contain influenza outbreaks. Another type of practice is the voluntary preventive behavior of individuals, such as receiving vaccination, taking antiviral drugs, and wearing face masks. These two types of practices take effects concurrently in influenza containment, but little attention has been paid to their combined effectiveness. This article estimates this combined effectiveness using established simulation models in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, USA. Three control strategies are investigated, including: Targeted Antiviral Prophylaxis (TAP, workplace/school closure, community travel restriction, as well as the combination of the three. All control strategies are simulated with and without regard to individual preventive behavior, and the resulting effectiveness are compared. The simulation outcomes suggest that weaker control strategies could suffice to contain influenza epidemics, because individuals voluntarily adopt preventive behavior, rendering these weaker strategies more effective than would otherwise have been expected. The preventive behavior of individuals could save medical resources for control strategies and avoid unnecessary socio-economic interruptions. This research adds a human behavioral dimension into the simulation of control strategies and offers new insights into disease containment. Health policy makers are recommended to review current control strategies and comprehend preventive behavior patterns of local populations before making decisions on influenza containment.

  6. Pilot Control Behavior Discrepancies Between Real and Simulated Flight Caused by Limited Motion Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, P.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Flight simulators provide a flexible, efficient, and safe environment for research and training at much lower costs than real flight. The ultimate validity of any simulation would be achieved when – for a particular task – human cognitive and psychomotor behavior in the simulator corresponds

  7. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of false safety behavior elimination therapy: a unified cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Norman B; Buckner, Julia D; Pusser, Andrea; Woolaway-Bickel, Kelly; Preston, Jennifer L; Norr, Aaron

    2012-09-01

    We tested the efficacy of a unified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol for anxiety disorders. This group treatment protocol, termed false safety behavior elimination therapy (F-SET), is a cognitive-behavioral approach designed for use across various anxiety disorders such as panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). F-SET simplifies, as well as broadens, key therapeutic elements of empirically validated treatments for anxiety disorders to allow for easier delivery to heterogeneous groups of patients with anxiety psychopathology. Patients with a primary anxiety disorder diagnosis (N=96) were randomly assigned to F-SET or a wait-list control. Data indicate that F-SET shows good efficacy and durability when delivered to mixed groups of patients with anxieties (i.e., PD, SAD, GAD) by relatively inexperienced clinicians. Findings are discussed in the context of balancing treatment efficacy and clinical utility. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Life events, locus of control, and behavioral problems among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Kurita, H; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Liu, L; Ma, D

    2000-12-01

    This study examined associations of life events and locus of control with behavioral problems among 1,365 Chinese adolescents by using the Youth Self-Report (YSR), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC), and the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems was 10.7% (95% CI = 9.9-11.5%). Logistic-regression analyses showed that a total of 13 negative life events mainly coming from academic domain and interpersonal relationships, high life-stress score, and high external locus score significantly increased the risk for behavioral problems. Life stress and locus of control significantly interacted with behavioral problems. These findings support the linkage between stressful life events and psychopathology in a general population of adolescents from mainland China, and demonstrate the stress-moderating effects of locus of control on psychopathology as well.

  10. Experimental Investigation on Fatigue Behavior of Epoxy Resin under Load and Displacement Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Mehrdad Shokrieh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of epoxy resin including tensile and flexural modulus, tensile and flexural strength for static conditions are currently studied. The frequency effect as significant parameter at room temperature is investigated and fatigue behavior of the epoxy resin in tension-tension loading conditions for different frequencies of 2, 3 and 5 Hz are obtained. The epoxy resin has been taken under flexural bending fatigue loading and fatigue life is investigated. The results of the experiments show the values of 2.5 and 3 GPa of tensile and flexural modules and 59.98 and 110.02 MPa of tensile and flexural strengths for the resin, respectively. To achieve a linear load-deflection relationship in a three-point bending experiment, a maximum allowable deflection of 5 mm is acquired. The relationship between the frequency and fatigue life shows higher frequency results in lower fatigue life. Loading with frequency of 2 Hz has provided 5.8 times more fatigue life compared with 5 Hz loading. For a tension-tension fatigue loading condition, the variation of tensile module of epoxy resin shows no noticeable change during the fatigue loading condition. This module decreases significantly only in the primary and failure cycles close to the fracture point. In further experiments, fatigue behavior of epoxy resin was tested under flexural bending fatigue loadings with controlled deflection at room temperature. Maximum applied normalized stresses versus the number of cycles to failure curve are illustrated and it can be performed in order to predict the number of cycles to failure for the resin in arbitrary applied normal stresses as well.

  11. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  12. Position control of a wheeled mobile robot including tire behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Schouten, H.E.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced driver assistance systems are increasingly available on road vehicles. These systems require a thorough development procedure, an important part of which consists of hardware-in-the-loop experiments in a controlled environment. To this end, a facility called Vehicle Hardware-In-the-Loop

  13. Supervisory Control of (max,+) automata: a behavioral approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan; Lahaye, S.; Boimond, J.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2009), s. 525-549 ISSN 0924-6703 Grant - others:EU Projekt(XE) EU.ICT.DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : timed discrete-event systems * supervisory control * formal power series * (max,+) * automata Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2009

  14. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load.

  15. Sleep Deprivation Promotes Habitual Control over Goal-Directed Control: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2017-12-06

    Sleep is one of the most fundamental processes of life, playing an important role in the regulation of brain function. The long-term lack of sleep can cause memory impairments, declines in learning ability, and executive dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on instrumental learning behavior, particularly goal-directed and habitual actions in humans, and investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Healthy college students of either gender were enrolled and randomly divided into sleep deprivation group and sleep control group. fMRI data were collected. We found that one night of sleep deprivation led to greater responsiveness to stimuli that were associated with devalued outcomes in the slips-of-action test, indicating a deficit in the formation of goal-directed control and an overreliance on habits. Furthermore, sleep deprivation had no effect on the expression of acquired goal-directed action. The level of goal-directed action after sleep deprivation was positively correlated with baseline working memory capacity. The neuroimaging data indicated that goal-directed learning mainly recruited the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), the activation of which was less pronounced during goal-directed learning after sleep deprivation. Activation of the vmPFC during goal-directed learning during training was positively correlated with the level of goal-directed action performance. The present study suggests that people rely predominantly on habits at the expense of goal-directed control after sleep deprivation, and this process involves the vmPFC. These results contribute to a better understanding of the effects of sleep loss on decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation has become extremely important over the past half century, given the continued decline in sleep duration in industrialized societies. Our results provide novel evidence that goal-directed action may be

  16. Antagonistic control of social versus repetitive self-grooming behaviors by separable amygdala neuronal subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J

    2014-09-11

    Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocial behavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estrogenic control of behavioral sex change in the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-Hunkin, K Erica; Heinz, Heather M; Hawkins, M Beth; Godwin, John

    2013-12-01

    Estrogens activate male-typical sexual behavior in several mammalian and avian models. Estrogen signaling also appears critical in the control of sex change in some fishes, in which it is instead decreases in estradiol levels that may permit development of male-typical behaviors. The bluehead wrasse is a protogynous hermaphrodite that exhibits rapid increases in aggressive and male-typical courtship behavior as females undergo sex change. Removal of the ovaries does not prevent these changes. In two field experiments involving gonadally-intact and gonadectomized females, estradiol (E2) implants prevented behavioral sex change in large females who were made the largest members of their social groups through removals of more dominant fish. In contrast, cholesterol-implanted control females showed full behavioral sex change, along with a higher frequency both of aggressive interactions and of male-typical courtship displays than occurred in E2-implanted animals. To assess potential neural correlates of these behavioral effects of E2, we evaluated abundances of aromatase mRNA using in situ hybridization. Aromatase mRNA was more abundant in the POA of E2-implanted females than in cholesterol-implanted controls in gonadally-intact females. The lack of behavioral sex change coupled with increased levels of aromatase mRNA are consistent with an inhibitory role for E2, likely of neural origin, in regulating socially controlled sex change.

  18. Out of control!? How loss of self-control influences prosocial behavior: the role of power and moral values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Joosten

    Full Text Available Lack of self-control has been suggested to facilitate norm-transgressing behaviors because of the operation of automatic selfish impulses. Previous research, however, has shown that people having a high moral identity may not show such selfish impulses when their self-control resources are depleted. In the present research, we extended this effect to prosocial behavior. Moreover, we investigated the role of power in the interaction between moral identity and self-control depletion. More specifically, we expected that power facilitates the externalization of internal states, which implies that for people who feel powerful, rather than powerless, depletion decreases prosocial behavior especially for those low in moral identity. A laboratory experiment and a multisource field study supported our predictions. The present finding that the interaction between self-control depletion and moral identity is contingent upon people's level of power suggests that power may enable people to refrain from helping behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that if organizations want to improve prosocial behaviors, it may be effective to situationally induce moral values in their employees.

  19. Out of Control!? How Loss of Self-Control Influences Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Power and Moral Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Anne; van Dijke, Marius; Van Hiel, Alain; De Cremer, David

    2015-01-01

    Lack of self-control has been suggested to facilitate norm-transgressing behaviors because of the operation of automatic selfish impulses. Previous research, however, has shown that people having a high moral identity may not show such selfish impulses when their self-control resources are depleted. In the present research, we extended this effect to prosocial behavior. Moreover, we investigated the role of power in the interaction between moral identity and self-control depletion. More specifically, we expected that power facilitates the externalization of internal states, which implies that for people who feel powerful, rather than powerless, depletion decreases prosocial behavior especially for those low in moral identity. A laboratory experiment and a multisource field study supported our predictions. The present finding that the interaction between self-control depletion and moral identity is contingent upon people’s level of power suggests that power may enable people to refrain from helping behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that if organizations want to improve prosocial behaviors, it may be effective to situationally induce moral values in their employees. PMID:26024380

  20. Dynamical Behaviors of Rumor Spreading Model with Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Xia Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumor has no basis in fact and flies around. And in general, it is propagated for a certain motivation, either for business, economy, or pleasure. It is found that the web does expose us to more rumor and increase the speed of the rumors spread. Corresponding to these new ways of spreading, the government should carry out some measures, such as issuing message by media, punishing the principal spreader, and enhancing management of the internet. In order to assess these measures, dynamical models without and with control measures are established. Firstly, for two models, equilibria and the basic reproduction number of models are discussed. More importantly, numerical simulation is implemented to assess control measures of rumor spread between individuals-to-individuals and medium-to-individuals. Finally, it is found that the amount of message released by government has the greatest influence on the rumor spread. The reliability of government and the cognizance ability of the public are more important. Besides that, monitoring the internet to prevent the spread of rumor is more important than deleting messages in media which already existed. Moreover, when the minority of people are punished, the control effect is obvious.

  1. Internet Connection Control based on Idle Time Using User Behavior Pattern Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fahrul Hardiansyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of smartphone ability is rapidly increasing the power consumption. Many methods have been proposed to reduce smartphone power consumption. Most of these methods use the internet connection control based on the availability of the battery power level regardless of when and where a waste of energy occurs. This paper proposes a new approach to control the internet connection based on idle time using user behavior pattern analysis. User behavior patterns are used to predict idle time duration. Internet connection control performed during idle time. During idle time internet connection periodically switched on and off by a certain time interval. This method effectively reduces a waste of energy. Control of the internet connection does not interfere the user because it is implemented on idle time. Keywords: Smartphone, User Behavior, Pattern Recognition, Idle Time, Internet Connection Control

  2. ArControl: An Arduino-Based Comprehensive Behavioral Platform with Real-Time Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinfeng; Li, Haohong

    2017-01-01

    Studying animal behavior in the lab requires reliable delivering stimulations and monitoring responses. We constructed a comprehensive behavioral platform (ArControl: Arduino Control Platform) that was an affordable, easy-to-use, high-performance solution combined software and hardware components. The hardware component was consisted of an Arduino UNO board and a simple drive circuit. As for software, the ArControl provided a stand-alone and intuitive GUI (graphical user interface) application that did not require users to master scripts. The experiment data were automatically recorded with the built in DAQ (data acquisition) function. The ArControl also allowed the behavioral schedule to be entirely stored in and operated on the Arduino chip. This made the ArControl a genuine, real-time system with high temporal resolution (<1 ms). We tested the ArControl, based on strict performance measurements and two mice behavioral experiments. The results showed that the ArControl was an adaptive and reliable system suitable for behavioral research.

  3. A multitasking behavioral control system for the Robotic All-Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    An approach for a robotic control system which implements so called 'behavioral' control within a realtime multitasking architecture is proposed. The proposed system would attempt to ameliorate some of the problems noted by some researchers when implementing subsumptive or behavioral control systems, particularly with regard to multiple processor systems and realtime operations. The architecture is designed to allow synchronous operations between various behavior modules by taking advantage of a realtime multitasking system's intertask communications channels, and by implementing each behavior module and each interconnection node as a stand-alone task. The potential advantages of this approach over those previously described in the field are discussed. An implementation of the architecture is planned for a prototype Robotic All Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover (RATLER) currently under development and is briefly described.

  4. Randomized Controlled Trial for Behavioral Smoking and Weight Control Treatment: Effect of Concurrent Versus Sequential Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry; Pingitore, Regina; Doran, Neal; Schneider, Kristin; Hedeker, Don

    2004-01-01

    The authors compared simultaneous versus sequential approaches to multiple health behavior change in diet, exercise, and cigarette smoking. Female regular smokers (N = 315) randomized to 3 conditions received 16 weeks of behavioral smoking treatment, quit smoking at Week 5, and were followed for 9 months after quit date. Weight management was…

  5. School-based obesity policy, social capital, and gender differences in weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Thomas, Breanca

    2013-06-01

    We examined the associations among school-based obesity policies, social capital, and adolescents' self-reported weight control behaviors, focusing on how the collective roles of community and adopted policies affect gender groups differently. We estimated state-level ecologic models using 1-way random effects seemingly unrelated regressions derived from panel data for 43 states from 1991 to 2009, which we obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. We used multiplicative interaction terms to assess how social capital moderates the effects of school-based obesity policies. School-based obesity policies in active communities were mixed in improving weight control behaviors. They increased both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors among boys but did not increase healthy weight control behaviors among girls. Social capital is an important contextual factor that conditions policy effectiveness in large contexts. Heterogeneous behavioral responses are associated with both school-based obesity policies and social capital. Building social capital and developing policy programs to balance outcomes for both gender groups may be challenging in managing childhood obesity.

  6. B4C control rod behavior during severe accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, M.

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of various types of boron carbides (pellets, powder) as well as the degradation of B 4 C control rod segments were investigated in the temperature range between 800 and 1600 deg C. Mass spectrometric gas analysis was used to determine oxidation rates in transient and isothermal tests. The oxidation kinetics of boron carbide are determined by the formation of a liquid boron oxide layer and its loss due to the reaction with surplus steam to form volatile boric acids and at temperatures above 1500 deg C by direct evaporation. Under these test conditions linear oxidation kinetics are established soon after oxidation has initiated. The oxidation kinetics are strongly influenced by the thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions, in particular by the steam flow rate. Only very low amounts of methane were ever produced in these tests. Enhanced degradation of B 4 C control rods starts with the rapid formation of eutectic melts in the systems B 4 C-stainless steel (SS) and SS-Zircaloy at temperatures above 1250 deg C. Initially, this melt is kept within a ZrO 2 scale externally formed at the Zircaloy guide tube. The absorber melt is rapidly oxidized after failure of the oxide shell and aggressively attacks adjacent fuel claddings. (author)

  7. Controlling Your "App"etite: How Diet and Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps Lead to Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Belvedere, Lindsay M; Andreasen, Rebecca; Frandsen, Christine; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, obesity has become a serious public health crisis in the United States. Although the problem of obesity is being addressed through a variety of strategies, the use of mobile apps is a relatively new development that could prove useful in helping people to develop healthy dietary habits. Though such apps might lead to health behavior change, especially when relevant behavior change theory constructs are integrated into them, the mechanisms by which these apps facilitate behavior change are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify which behavior change mechanisms are associated with the use of diet- and nutrition-related health apps and whether the use of diet- and nutrition-related apps is associated with health behavior change. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a total of 217 participants. Participants responded to questions on demographics, use of diet and nutrition apps in the past 6 months, engagement and likability of apps, and changes in the participant's dietary behaviors. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior, after controlling for potential confounding variables. The majority of study participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements regarding app use increasing their motivation to eat a healthy diet, improving their self-efficacy, and increasing their desire to set and achieve health diet goals. Additionally, majority of participants strongly agreed that using diet/nutrition apps led to changes in their behavior, namely increases in actual goal setting to eat a healthy diet (58.5%, 127/217), increases in their frequency of eating healthy foods (57.6%, 125/217), and increases in their consistency of eating healthy foods (54.4%, 118/217). Participants also responded favorably to questions related to engagement and likability of diet/nutrition apps. A number of predictors were also positively

  8. Intelligent systems approach for automated identification of individual control behavior of a human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.

    Acceptable results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator's control behavior. However, little research has been done in an attempt to identify an individual based on his/her control behavior. The main hypothesis investigated in this dissertation is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Furthermore, inter-person differences are manifested in the amplitude and frequency content of the non-linear component of the control behavior. Two enhancements to the existing models of the human operator, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented in this dissertation. One of the proposed enhancements accounts for the "testing" control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust his/her control strategy. Such enhancement uses the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which can be fine-tuned to model the "testing" control behavior of a given individual. The other model enhancement took the form of an equiripple filter (EF), which conditions the power spectrum of the control signal before it is passed through the plant dynamics block. The filter design technique uses Parks-McClellan algorithm, which allows parameterization of the desired levels of power at certain frequencies. A novel automated parameter identification technique (APID) was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models of the human operator. APID utilizes a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimization engine called the Bit-climbing Algorithm (BCA). Proposed model enhancements were validated using the experimental data obtained at three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. Validation analysis involves comparison of the actual and simulated control

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Mosing

    Full Text Available Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control. We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of

  10. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural

  11. Control of longitudinal collective behavior in the Muon Collider rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-Hao

    1997-05-01

    The longitudinal bunch collective effects in a Muon Collider ring are theoretically examined. The situation involves an intense bunch, a short bunch, a small momentum compaction, a rather large impedance compared with the stability threshold criterion, and luminosity life time limited by muon decay to a thousand turns. Qualitative descriptions of stability are given and a scaling law for the instability threshold is derived. Numerical simulation results for the impedance-related instabilities are given for two cases of current interest - a 250 GeV x 250 GeV demonstration machine and a 2 TeV x 2 TeV high energy machine. The results of these simulations are in good agreement with the predictions of the scaling law and show that the longitudinal collective effects are controllable with a proper choice of parameters (viz. rf voltage, rf frequency, linear and non-linear longitudinal chromaticity)

  12. The Marketing & Positive Impacts of Behavioral Control System on Societies & Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Adel Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral control systems are one of the most prominent tools used by managers and marketers for different internal and external purposes. One of the most important external purposes they have been used for is influencing consumer behavior. This paper explores the positive effects of implementing such systems on societies. It discusses consumer perception of the systems, their influence on their financial behavior in different contexts, how can they create order and how as well as to what extent should it be implemented and finally how can minimize negative consumer behavior. A judgment based sample of typical consumers was surveyed using questionnaires for collecting primary data on these aspects. Secondary data from Egypt, Singapore and Malaysia was also used as an example of using behavioral control systems. Results show that consumers in general have a positive attitude towards imposing such systems. However, there were worries about misuse, abuse and overuse of theses systems’ policies. Consequently, data shows that behavioral control systems can positively enhance and influence consumer behavior as long as it is used to balance both consumer and retailer interests in a moderate, risk free manner.

  13. High blood pressure and sedentary behavior in adolescents are associated even after controlling for confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; De Andrade, Selma Maffei; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether high blood pressure (HBP) is associated with sedentary behavior in young people even after controlling for potential confounders (gender, age, socioeconomic level, tobacco, alcohol, obesity and physical activity). In this epidemiological study, 1231 adolescents were evaluated. Blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric device and waist circumference with an inextensible tape. Sedentary behavior (watching television, computer use and playing video games) and physical activity were assessed by a questionnaire. We used mean and standard deviation to describe the statistical analysis, and the association between HBP and sedentary behavior was assessed by the chi-squared test. Binary logistic regression was used to observe the magnitude of association and cluster analyses (sedentary behavior and abdominal obesity; sedentary behavior and physical inactivity). HBP was associated with sedentary behaviors [odds ratio (OR) = 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.41-3.96], even after controlling for various confounders (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.03-2.75). In cluster analysis the combination of sedentary behavior and elevated abdominal obesity contributed significantly to an increased likelihood of having HBP (OR = 13.51, CI 7.21-23.97). Sedentary behavior was associated with HBP, and excess fat in the abdominal region contributed to the modulation of this association.

  14. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly AK Carhuatanta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual’s genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior.

  15. Information-seeking behavior during residency is associated with quality of theoretical learning, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice: a strobe-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3-6; range, 1-10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33-4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09-4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46-11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the specialty (OR, 3.33; 95

  16. Information-seeking Behavior During Residency Is Associated With Quality of Theoretical Learning, Academic Career Achievements, and Evidence-based Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the

  17. The role of the dorsolateral tegmentum in the control of male sexual behavior: a reevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Carbente, J C; Camacho, F J; Paredes, R G

    2006-06-30

    The medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA/AH) plays a key role in the control of male sexual behavior. Independently of the type, MPOA/AH lesions permanently eliminate male sexual behavior in the rat. The MPOA/AH projects among other structures to the dorsolateral tegmentum (DLT). Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the DLT or the unilateral electrolytic destruction of the MPOA/HA combined with a contralateral electrolytic lesion of the DLT eliminate male sexual behavior. In the present experiment, we evaluated if neurotoxic lesions of the DLT produce the same behavioral deficits as those observed after electrolytic lesions. This would allow us to evaluate if neurons of the DLT or the fibers passing through this area are important in the control of male sexual behavior. To this aim, sexually experience male rats were tested for socio-sexual behavior, partner preference and motor execution in order to determine if the possible behavioral changes could be attributed to alterations in sexual motivation or motor execution. One week after the bilateral DLT lesions the animals were evaluated in the same behavioral tests. The lesions were identified by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuronal nuclear protein (Neu-N) immunohistochemistry. No significant consistent effects upon sexual behavior were observed in any of the groups, including the group with clear bilateral damage of the DLT. A reduction in the percentage of males displaying ejaculation in the first post-lesion test was observed for all groups injected with quinolinic acid. No effects upon partner preference or motor coordination were observed after the lesion in any of the groups. The lack of effect of DLT neurotoxic lesions upon mating suggests that neurons of this structure are not involved in the control of male sexual behavior.

  18. Self-organization of critical behavior in controlled general queueing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Ph.; Hongler, M.-O.

    2004-01-01

    We consider general queueing models of the (G/G/1) type with service times controlled by the busy period. For feedback control mechanisms driving the system to very high traffic load, it is shown the busy period probability density exhibits a generic -((3)/(2)) power law which is a typical mean field behavior of SOC models

  19. Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control during early adolescence. Found that monitoring was anteceded by proactive parenting style and advantageous family-ecological characteristics. Psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and mothers' report of earlier child…

  20. Self-organization of critical behavior in controlled general queueing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ph.; Hongler, M.-O.

    2004-03-01

    We consider general queueing models of the (G/G/1) type with service times controlled by the busy period. For feedback control mechanisms driving the system to very high traffic load, it is shown the busy period probability density exhibits a generic - {3}/{2} power law which is a typical mean field behavior of SOC models.

  1. Containment-based Distributed Coordination Control to Achieve Both Bounded Voltage and Precise Current Sharing in Reverse-Droop-based DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Wang, Haojie; Jin, Zheming

    2017-01-01

    A highly flexible and reliable control strategy is proposed to achieve bounded voltage and precise current sharing, which is implemented in a reverse-droop-based dc Micro-Grid. To acquire the fast-dynamic response, the reverse droop control is used to replace the V-I droop control in the primary...... sharing among converters. Combined the proposed controllers with the electrical part of the dc Micro-Grid, a model is fully developed to analyze the sensitivity of different control coefficients. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method....

  2. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Computer-Based Training in Math and Working Memory Improves Cognitive Skills and Academic Achievement in Primary School Children: Behavioral Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Sánchez-Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Student academic achievement has been positively related to further development outcomes, such as the attainment of higher educational, employment, and socioeconomic aspirations. Among all the academic competences, mathematics has been identified as an essential skill in the field of international leadership as well as for those seeking positions in disciplines related to science, technology, and engineering. Given its positive consequences, studies have designed trainings to enhance children's mathematical skills. Additionally, the ability to regulate and control actions and cognitions, i.e., executive functions (EF, has been associated with school success, which has resulted in a strong effort to develop EF training programs to improve students' EF and academic achievement. The present study examined the efficacy of a school computer-based training composed of two components, namely, working memory and mathematics tasks. Among the advantages of using a computer-based training program is the ease with which it can be implemented in school settings and the ease by which the difficulty of the tasks can be adapted to fit the child's ability level. To test the effects of the training, children's cognitive skills (EF and IQ and their school achievement (math and language grades and abilities were evaluated. The results revealed a significant improvement in cognitive skills, such as non-verbal IQ and inhibition, and better school performance in math and reading among the children who participated in the training compared to those children who did not. Most of the improvements were related to training on WM tasks. These findings confirmed the efficacy of a computer-based training that combined WM and mathematics activities as part of the school routines based on the training's impact on children's academic competences and cognitive skills.

  4. Computer-Based Training in Math and Working Memory Improves Cognitive Skills and Academic Achievement in Primary School Children: Behavioral Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Castillo, Alejandro; López-López, José A; Pina, Violeta; Puga, Jorge L; Campoy, Guillermo; González-Salinas, Carmen; Fuentes, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Student academic achievement has been positively related to further development outcomes, such as the attainment of higher educational, employment, and socioeconomic aspirations. Among all the academic competences, mathematics has been identified as an essential skill in the field of international leadership as well as for those seeking positions in disciplines related to science, technology, and engineering. Given its positive consequences, studies have designed trainings to enhance children's mathematical skills. Additionally, the ability to regulate and control actions and cognitions, i.e., executive functions (EF), has been associated with school success, which has resulted in a strong effort to develop EF training programs to improve students' EF and academic achievement. The present study examined the efficacy of a school computer-based training composed of two components, namely, working memory and mathematics tasks. Among the advantages of using a computer-based training program is the ease with which it can be implemented in school settings and the ease by which the difficulty of the tasks can be adapted to fit the child's ability level. To test the effects of the training, children's cognitive skills (EF and IQ) and their school achievement (math and language grades and abilities) were evaluated. The results revealed a significant improvement in cognitive skills, such as non-verbal IQ and inhibition, and better school performance in math and reading among the children who participated in the training compared to those children who did not. Most of the improvements were related to training on WM tasks. These findings confirmed the efficacy of a computer-based training that combined WM and mathematics activities as part of the school routines based on the training's impact on children's academic competences and cognitive skills.

  5. Threat Interference Biases Predict Socially Anxious Behavior: The Role of Inhibitory Control and Minute of Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-07-01

    The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task. Minute of speech and general inhibitory control (indexed by the color-word Stroop) were examined as within-subject and between-subject moderators, respectively. Highly socially anxious participants (N=135) completed the emotional and color-word Stroop blocks prior to completing a 4-minute videotaped speech task, which was later coded for anxious behaviors (e.g., speech dysfluency). Mixed-effects regression analyses revealed that general inhibitory control moderated the relationship between both conscious and unconscious threat interference bias and anxious behavior (though not avoidance), such that lower threat interference predicted higher levels of anxious behavior, but only among those with relatively weaker (versus stronger) inhibitory control. Minute of speech further moderated this relationship for unconscious (but not conscious) social-threat interference, such that lower social-threat interference predicted a steeper increase in anxious behaviors over the course of the speech (but only among those with weaker inhibitory control). Thus, both trait and state differences in inhibitory control resources may influence the behavioral impact of threat biases in social anxiety. Copyright © 2015

  6. Perceived behavioral control as a potential precursor of walking three times a week: Patient's perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background Behavior change theories can identify people’s main motivations to engage in recommended health practices and thus provide better tools to design interventions, particularly human centered design interventions. Objectives This study had two objectives: (a) to identify salient beliefs about walking three times a week for 30 minutes nonstop among patients with hypertension in a low-resource setting and, (b) to measure the relationships among intentions, attitudes, perceived social pressure and perceived behavioral control about this behavior. Methods Face-to-face interviews with 34 people living with hypertension were conducted in September-October 2011 in Lima, Peru, and data analysis was performed in 2015. The Reasoned Action Approach was used to study the people’s decisions to walk. We elicited people’s salient beliefs and measured the theoretical constructs associated with this behavior. Results Results pointed at salient key behavioral, normative and control beliefs. In particular, perceived behavioral control appeared as an important determinant of walking and a small set of control beliefs were identified as potential targets of health communication campaigns, including (not) having someone to walk with, having work or responsibilities, or having no time. Conclusions This theory-based study with a focus on end-users provides elements to inform the design of an intervention that would motivate people living with hypertension to walk on a regular basis in low-resource settings. PMID:29451917

  7. Tuning the Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Balance to Control the Structure of Chitosan Films and Their Protein Release Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Jose; Sudre, Guillaume; Royaud, Isabelle; Montserret, Roland; Verrier, Bernard; Rochas, Cyrille; Delair, Thierry; David, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    The control over the crystallinity of chitosan and chitosan/ovalbumin films can be achieved via an appropriate balance of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions during the film formation process, which then controls the release kinetics of ovalbumin. Chitosan films were prepared by solvent casting. The presence of the anhydrous allomorph can be viewed as a probe of the hydrophobic conditions at the neutralization step. The semicrystalline structure, the swelling behavior of the films, the protein/chitosan interactions, and the release behavior of the films were impacted by the DA and the film processing parameters. At low DAs, the chitosan films neutralized in the solid state corresponded to the most hydrophobic environment, inducing the crystallization of the anhydrous allomorph with and without protein. The most hydrophilic conditions, leading to the hydrated allomorph, corresponded to non-neutralized films for the highest DAs. For the non-neutralized chitosan acetate (amorphous) films, the swelling increased when the DA decreased, whereas for the neutralized chitosan films, the swelling decreased. The in vitro release of ovalbumin (model protein) from chitosan films was controlled by their swelling behavior. For fast swelling films (DA = 45%), a burst effect was observed. On the contrary, a lag time was evidenced for DA = 2.5% with a limited release of the protein. Furthermore, by blending chitosans (DA = 2.5% and 45%), the release behavior was improved by reducing the burst effect and the lag time. The secondary structure of ovalbumin was partially maintained in the solid state, and the ovalbumin was released under its native form.

  8. Behavior Management Strategies for Teachers: Achieving Instructional Effectiveness, Student Success, and Student Motivation--Every Teacher and Any Student Can! 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Joan C.; Rowland, Sidney T.

    This book provides tested methods for teachers to use in their behavior management and instructional efforts, offering strategies for maintaining and increasing appropriate behaviors as well as preventing and remediating inappropriate behaviors. Section 1, "Understanding Behavior and Selected Models," includes (1) "Understanding…

  9. Math-related career aspirations and choices within Eccles et al.'s expectancy-value theory of achievement-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Fani; Tsai, Yi-Miau; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2017-08-01

    Which occupation to pursue is one of the more consequential decisions people make and represents a key developmental task. Yet the underlying developmental processes associated with either individual or group differences in occupational choices are still not well understood. This study contributes toward filling this gap, focusing in particular on the math domain. We examined two aspects of Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy-value theory of achievement-related behaviors: (a) the reciprocal associations between adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs and adolescents' career plans and (b) the multiplicative association between expectancies and values in predicting occupational outcomes in the math domain. Our analyses indicate that adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs about math and their math- or science-related career plans reported at the beginning and end of high school predict each other over time, with the exception of intrinsic interest in math. Furthermore, multiplicative associations between adolescents' expectancy and subjective task value beliefs about math predict math-related career attainment approximately 15 years after graduation from high school. Gender differences emerged regarding career-related beliefs and career attainment, with male students being more likely than female to both pursue and attain math-related careers. These gender differences could not be explained by differences in beliefs about math as an academic subject. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Methylphenidate and stimulus control of avoidance behavior1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretch, Roger; Skinner, Nicholas

    1967-01-01

    The introduction of a warning signal that preceded a scheduled shock modified the temporal distribution of free-operant avoidance responses. With response-shock and shock-shock intervals held constant, response rates increased only slightly when the response-signal interval was reduced. The result is consistent with Sidman's (1955) findings under different conditions, but at variance with Ulrich, Holz, and Azrin's (1964) findings under similar conditions. Methylphenidate in graded doses increased response rates, modifying frequency distributions of interresponse times. Drug treatment may have disrupted a “temporal discrimination” formed within the signal-shock interval. More simply, methylphenidate influenced response rates by increasing short response latencies after signal onset; this effect was more prominent than the drug's tendency to increase the frequency of pre-signal responses. When signal-onset preceded shock by 2 sec, individual differences in performance were marked; methylphenidate suppressed responding in one rat as a function of increasing dose levels to a greater degree than in a second animal, but both subjects received more shocks than under control conditions. PMID:6050059

  11. Effects of Self-Control, Social Control, and Social Learning on Sexting Behavior among South Korean Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Moak, Stacy; Walker, Jeffery T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emerging phenomenon of sexting, scientific investigation with criminological perspectives has been limited. Utilizing data collected from 1,612 randomly selected youth in South Korea, this study begins the investigation into which criminological theory best explains sexting behaviors. Theories considered include self-control, social…

  12. Brain and behavioral inhibitory control of kindergartners facing negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitory control (IC) - one of the most critical functions underlying a child's ability to self-regulate - develops significantly throughout the kindergarten years. Experiencing negative emotions imposes challenges on executive functioning and may specifically affect IC. In this study, we examined kindergartners' IC and its related brain activity during a negative emotional situation: 58 children (aged 5.5-6.5 years) performed an emotion-induction Go/NoGo task. During this task, we recorded children's performance and brain activity, focusing on the fronto-central N2 component in the event-related potential (ERP) and the power of its underlying theta frequency. Compared to Go trials, inhibition of NoGo trials was associated with larger N2 amplitudes and theta power. The negative emotional experience resulted in better IC performance and, at the brain level, in larger theta power. Source localization of this effect showed that the brain activity related to IC during the negative emotional experience was principally generated in the posterior frontal regions. Furthermore, the band power measure was found to be a more sensitive index for children's inhibitory processes than N2 amplitudes. This is the first study to focus on kindergartners' IC while manipulating their emotional experience to induce negative emotions. Our findings suggest that a kindergartner's experience of negative emotion can result in improved IC and increases in associated aspects of brain activity. Our results also suggest the utility of time-frequency analyses in the study of brain processes associated with response inhibition in young children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  14. Trust in Organizational and Workplace Deviant Behavior The Moderating Effect of Locus of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman Abdul Rahim; Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2008-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate the moderating role of locus of control (LOC) in the relationship between trust in organization (TiO) and workplace deviant behavior (WDB). Three forms of deviant behavior are identified: interpersonal deviance, production deviance, and property deviance. The regression analyses carried out on a sample of 355 employees show mixed results. Trust in organization (TiO) demonstrates a negative relationship with production deviance and property deviance. In contrast...

  15. Using a digital game for training desirable behavior in cognitive-behavioral therapy of burnout syndrome: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhorst, Thomas; van den Brule, Daphne; Visch, Valentijn; Melles, Marijke; van Tienhoven, Sam; Sinkbaek, Helle; Schrieken, Bart; Tan, Eduard S-H; Lange, Alfred

    2015-02-01

    Burnout is a globally increasing illness, and as a result, many forms of burnout therapy have arisen. The use of digital games can be psychotherapeutically effective because they can transform exercises that are by themselves unattractive into intrinsically motivated action. This pilot study aims to test whether a specially designed game contributes to patients learning desired behavior and achieving other specific therapeutic goals in an online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based burnout treatment context. In total, 101 participants took part in the experiment, under four conditions: (a) Game+Therapy, (b) Therapy Only, (c) Game Only, and (d) No Game+No Therapy. Pre- and postmeasures were taken online. Results showed that the two therapy conditions (Game+Therapy and Therapy Only) showed a greater decrease in complaints and disengagement, and a stronger increase in coping skills than the nontherapy conditions (Game Only and No Game+No Therapy). As expected, the Game+Therapy condition outperformed the Therapy Only condition on combined improvement measures of burnout symptoms. However, analyses of individual measures showed no effects. It can be cautiously concluded that the therapeutic digital game may be a useful tool when embedded in a therapeutic burnout treatment program and is probably more efficient than CBT, as it is used in current practice.

  16. School-Based Obesity-Prevention Policies and Practices and Weight-Control Behaviors among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors

  17. Risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors among Korean adolescents: Multilevel analysis of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongjoo; Austin, S Bryn; Subramanian, S V; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Franko, Debra L; Rodgers, Rachel F; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) in South Korean adolescents at multiple levels, including individual, family, school, and geographic area. We drew participants from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, conducted in 2015, with 65,529 adolescents (31,687 girls, 33,842 boys) aged 12-18 years. DWCB was defined as engaging in any of the following behaviors for weight control over the past month: fasting, one-food diet (eating only one food over an extended period of time for weight control), vomiting, and taking laxatives/diuretics/unprescribed diet pills. Sex-stratified four-level multilevel logistic models examined potential predictors of DWCB, including age, body-mass index, puberty, perceived household economic status, parental education, living structure, school type and sex-composition, percentage of students participating in school nutrition programs, and urbanicity. Overall, 6.2% of Korean adolescents (8.9% of girls, 3.7% of boys) exhibited any DWCB. We found significant between-school variation among girls and boys and between-classroom variation among girls. Older age, overweight/obesity, pubertal maturity, high household economic status (vs. mid-range economic status), and vocational schooling (vs. general) were positively associated with DWCB among girls and boys. Low household economic status (vs. mid-range economic status), higher parental education, and coeducational schooling (vs. single-sex) were positively associated with DWCB among girls only. The findings suggest that DWCB are prevalent among Korean adolescents across age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Social contextual factors including school and familial environmental factors, as well as individual characteristics, should be considered when developing effective prevention strategies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Influence of psychosocial factors on self-care behaviors and glycemic control in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosansu, Gulhan; Erdogan, Semra

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of psychosocial factors on self-care behavior and glycemic control in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study used a cross-sectional questionnaire survey design (N = 350). Data were collected using the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale and the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire. The relationship between the study variables was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling. Self-efficacy was associated with social support, outcome expectancies, perceived interference, educational level, and self-care and A1C. According to the structural equation model, self-efficacy was the predictor variable that influenced both self-care and glycemic control. Self-efficacy in achieving desired health outcomes was found to play a central role in Turkish patients. Although interventions are planned and implemented to achieve and maintain self-management in individuals with diabetes, strengthening psychosocial factors, particularly self-efficacy, may contribute to adjustment to disease and good glycemic control in the long term.

  19. Towards Behavior Control for Evolutionary Robot Based on RL with ENN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingan Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a behavior-switching control strategy of anevolutionary robotics based on Artificial NeuralNetwork (ANN and Genetic Algorithms (GA. This method is able not only to construct thereinforcement learning models for autonomous robots and evolutionary robot modules thatcontrol behaviors and reinforcement learning environments, and but also to perform thebehavior-switching control and obstacle avoidance of an evolutionary robotics (ER intime-varying environments with static and moving obstacles by combining ANN and GA.The experimental results on thebasic behaviors and behavior-switching control have demonstrated that ourmethod can perform the decision-making strategy and parameters set opimization ofFNN and GA by learning and can escape successfully from the trap of a localminima and avoid \\emph{"motion deadlock" status} of humanoid soccer robotics agents,and reduce the oscillation of the planned trajectory betweenthe multiple obstacles by crossover and mutation. Some results of the proposed algorithmhave been successfully applied to our simulation humanoid robotics soccer team CIT3Dwhich won \\emph{the 1st prize} of RoboCup Championship and ChinaOpen2010 (July 2010 and \\emph{the $2^{nd}$ place}of the official RoboCup World Championship on 5-11 July, 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey.As compared with the conventional behavior network and the adaptive behavior method,the genetic encoding complexity of our algorithm is simplified, and the networkperformance and the {\\em convergence rate $\\rho$} have been greatlyimproved.

  20. Individualism-Collectivism, Social Self-Control and Adolescent Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Bennett, Brooke L; Regmi, Sakshi; Idrisov, Bulat; Galimov, Artur; Akhmadeeva, Leila; Sussman, Steve

    2018-06-07

    Individualism and collectivism are cultural syndromes that have been associated with adolescent problem behavior in studies conducted in the U.S. and Southeast Asia. However, research investigating the mechanisms of how cultural orientation impacts health risk behaviors has been limited. This study tested a new model explaining the relationship between cultural orientation (i.e., individualism, collectivism) and adolescent problem behavior (i.e., substance use and risky sex) in terms of interpersonal self-regulation (i.e., social self-control). As such, the study is rooted in theories of the role of culture in developing self-regulation. Participants were high school students (N = 716) from the Bashkirtostan Republic of the Russian Federation. Adolescents from the Russian Federation tend to show high prevalence of cigarette smoking and binge drinking. People of the Russian Federation in general are traditionally collectivist in orientation, although increased globalization and post-Soviet capitalism may indicate high individualist values in younger generation Russians. Using path analysis we found that in addition to having direct effects, higher individualism indirectly affected substance use and risky sexual behavior through social self-control and negative life events. Higher collectivism was found to have a direct protective effect on risky sexual behavior and a direct effect on social self-control. However, collectivism was not found to have indirect effects on substance use or risky sexual behavior. Higher individualism appears to function as a risk factor for adolescent problem behavior and this relationship may be mediated by lower social self-control. Culturally-tailored prevention programs utilizing the individualism-collectivism framework may benefit from addressing social self-control.

  1. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  2. Health locus of control and self-care behaviors in diabetic foot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abredari, Hamid; Bolourchifard, Fariba; Rassouli, Maryam; Nasiri, Navideh; Taher, Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot affects more than 25% of diabetic patients and finally up to 20% of cases result in amputation. The most important factor resulting in severe complications or even death is lack of self-care. Health locus of control has been introduced as one of health factors and predicting factors of self-care. This research was performed for analyzing the correlation between self-care behaviors and health locus of control in diabetic foot patients. In this descriptive study, 120 patients with diabetic foot were chosen using convenience sampling from endocrine clinic and wards of endocrine and vascular surgery of Teleqani Hospital of Shahid Beheshti Medical University. The data were gathered by demographic, self-care behavior, and health locus of control questionnaires. The t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and spearman coefficient were used to analyze the data. RESULTS of this research showed that there is a direct and significant relation between selfcare behaviors and internal health locus of control (plocus of control (plocus of control improve and strengthen patients' self-care behaviors and their involvement in treatment.

  3. Effectiveness of teaching cognitive-behavioral techniques on locus of control in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtak, Mohammad; Habibzadeh, Shahram; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Rjaei-Khiavi, Abdollah

    2017-10-01

    Many of the cognitive behavioral models and therapeutic protocols developed so far for psychological disorders and chronic diseases have proved effective through clinical research. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of teaching cognitive-behavioral techniques on locus of control in hemodialysis patients. This controlled clinical trial study was conducted in 2015 with 76 patients selected by census and treated with a hemodialysis machine in the dialysis department of Vali-Asr Hospital in the city of Meshkinshahr. A total of four patients were excluded because of their critical conditions while the rest, who were recruited, were randomly divided into two equal groups of 36 patients as the intervention and control groups. First, the locus of control was measured in both groups through a pretest, and cognitive-behavioral techniques were then taught to the intervention group during eight 45 to 90-minute sessions. The locus of control in patients of both groups was finally re-measured through a posttest. Data were collected using Rotter's Locus of Control Inventory. The Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney U test were respectively used in SPSS18 for data analysis. In the pretest and posttest stages respectively, 4.8% and 14.3% of samples in the control group as well as 14.3% and 33.3% of samples in the intervention group enjoyed internal locus of control. The difference between the pretest and posttest scores of internal locus of control in the intervention group was significant (p=0.004), which indicates the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic intervention on internalization of locus of control in this group. Given the external locus of control in most of the study patients and also the positive significant effect of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy on internalization of locus of control in this group of patients, it appears necessary to have a psychology resident present in the hemodialysis department to teach the necessary cognitive-behavioral

  4. A new role for GABAergic transmission in the control of male rat sexual behavior expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela; Canseco-Alba, Ana

    2017-03-01

    GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABA A receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state. To test this hypothesis, in the present work we investigated the effect of GABA A receptor blockade in sexually exhausted males 24h after copulation to satiety, once the sexual inhibitory state is established, and compared it with its effect in sexually experienced rats. Results showed that low doses of systemically administered bicuculline induced sexual behavior expression in sexually exhausted rats, but lacked an effect on copulation of sexually experienced animals. Intra-VTA bilateral infusion of bicuculline did not modify sexual behavior of sexually experienced rats, but induced sexual behavior expression in all the sexually exhausted males. Hence, GABA plays a role in the control of sexual behavior expression at the VTA. The role played by GABAergic transmission in male sexual behavior expression of animals with distinct sexual behavior conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Control of Social Approach-Avoidance Behavior: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldewaij, Reinoud; Koch, Saskia B J; Volman, Inge; Toni, Ivan; Roelofs, Karin

    The ability to control our automatic action tendencies is crucial for adequate social interactions. Emotional events trigger automatic approach and avoidance tendencies. Although these actions may be generally adaptive, the capacity to override these emotional reactions may be key to flexible behavior during social interaction. The present chapter provides a review of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this ability and their relation to social psychopathologies. Aberrant social behavior, such as observed in social anxiety or psychopathy, is marked by abnormalities in approach-avoidance tendencies and the ability to control them. Key neural regions involved in the regulation of approach-avoidance behavior are the amygdala, widely implicated in automatic emotional processing, and the anterior prefrontal cortex, which exerts control over the amygdala. Hormones, especially testosterone and cortisol, have been shown to affect approach-avoidance behavior and the associated neural mechanisms. The present chapter also discusses ways to directly influence social approach and avoidance behavior and will end with a research agenda to further advance this important research field. Control over approach-avoidance tendencies may serve as an exemplar of emotional action regulation and might have a great value in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the development of affective disorders.

  6. Parental Perceived Control and Social Support: Linkages to Change in Parenting Behaviors During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Glatz, Terese; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2018-06-01

    Prior studies have found that parents' perceptions of control over their lives and their social support may both be important for parenting behaviors. Yet, few studies have examined their unique and interacting influence on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. This longitudinal study of rural parents in two-parent families (N = 636) investigated (a) whether perceived control and social support when their youth were in sixth grade were independently or interactively associated with changes in parenting behaviors (discipline, standard setting) and parent-child warmth and hostility 6 months later and (b) if these linkages differed by parent gender. We also investigated the interactive links between perceived control, social support, and parenting. Specifically, we tested if parents' perceived control moderated the linkages between social support and parenting and if these linkages differed by parent gender. Greater perceived control predicted more increases in parents' consistent discipline and standard setting, whereas greater social support predicted increases in parent-child warmth and decreases in parent-child hostility. Parental perceived control moderated the effect of social support on parental warmth: For mothers only, social support was significantly linked to parent-child warmth only when mothers had low (but not high) perceived self-control. The discussion focuses on reasons why perceived control and social support may have associations with different aspects of parenting and why these might differ for mothers and fathers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  7. A smartphone application of alcohol resilience treatment for behavioral self-control training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Albers, Jörg; Gao, Tian

    2012-01-01

    of the treatment rationale, it is realistic, reasonable and manageable to transform the method into a smartphone application. An ART app in Android system and an accessory of bilateral tactile stimulation were developed and will be used in a study with behavioral self-control training. This paper presents...... the design and realization of the smartphone based ART application. The design of a pilot study, which is to examine the benefits of a smartphone application providing behavioral self-control training, is also reported in this paper....

  8. The role of behavioral, normative and control beliefs in breast self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tania E; White, Katherine M

    2008-01-01

    A limited number of studies have been conducted examining the role of beliefs in the prediction of breast self-examination (BSE) behavior in Australian women, particularly women under 50 years of age for which it is the primary method of early detection of breast cancer. The present research investigated the differences in behavioral, normative and control beliefs between BSE performers and non-performers, within a theory of planned behavior framework, to assist in the development of specific education programs aimed at increasing BSE amongst this demographic group. Two hundred and fifty-three women enrolled in an undergraduate psychology course completed a questionnaire assessing beliefs regarding BSE. One month later, these women reported their BSE behavior during the previous month. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify belief-based differences between BSE performers and non-performers. Underlying behavioral and control, but not normative, beliefs about BSE distinguished between BSE performers and non-performers. Performers were more likely than non-performers to believe that engaging in BSE would be associated with identifying a lump or breast change sooner and detecting a breast cancer earlier in its course. Non-performers were more likely to perceive factors such as forgetting to perform the behavior, lack of time, lack of knowledge about how to perform the behavior, laziness, and a lack of confidence in their ability to identify lumps and breast changes as factors preventing their control over the performance of BSE. The belief-based differences between BSE performers and non-performers found in this study can be used to inform health promotion strategies aimed at increasing BSE behavior in women less than 50 years of age.

  9. Driving behaviors and on-duty road accidents: a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Emmanuel; Chiron, Mireille; Davezies, Philippe; Bergeret, Alain; Charbotel, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A case-control study was carried out to identify driving behaviors associated with the risk of on-duty road accident and to compare driving behaviors according to the type of journey (on duty, commuting, and private) for on-duty road accident victims. Cases were recruited from the Rhône Road Trauma Registry between January 2004 and October 2005 and were on duty at the time of the accident. Control subjects were recruited from the electoral rolls of the case subjects' constituencies of residence. Cases' and controls' driving behavior data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. A logistic regression was performed to identify behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents, taking into account age, sex, place of residence, road accident risk exposure, socio-occupational category, and type of road user. A second analysis focused specifically on the case subjects, comparing their self-assessed usual behaviors according to the type of journey. Significant factors for multivariate analysis of on-duty road accidents were female gender, history of on-duty road accidents during the previous 10 years, severe time pressure at work, and driving a vehicle not belonging to the driver. On-duty road accident victims reported behavioral risk factors more frequently in relation to driving for work than driving for private reasons or commuting: nonsystematic seat belt use, cell phone use at least once daily while driving, and history of accidents with injury during the previous 10 years. This study provides knowledge on behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents and differences in behavior according to the type of journey for subjects who have been on-duty road accident victims. These results will be useful for the design of on-duty road risk prevention.

  10. The Effect of Visual Cueing and Control Design on Children's Reading Achievement of Audio E-Books with Tablet Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Yu; Huang, Chung-Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of learner grade, visual cueing, and control design on children's reading achievement of audio e-books with tablet computers. This research was a three-way factorial design where the first factor was learner grade (grade four and six), the second factor was e-book visual cueing (word-based, line-based, and…

  11. An Examination of the Influence of Self Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Perceptions of Parent Involvement on Academic Achievement of Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myree, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Current research indicates that there is an on-going concern for the graduation rate of African American students in urban settings. This particular study sought to investigate the impact of students' self-efficacy, locus of control, and parental involvement on academic achievement via a targeted sample of urban African American high school…

  12. PI and PID controller tuning rule design for processes with delay, to achieve constant gain and phase margins for all values of delay

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Aidan

    2001-01-01

    This paper will discuss the design of PI and PID controller tuning rules to compensate processes with delay, that are modelled in a number of ways. The rules allow the achievement of constant gain and phase margins as the delay varies.

  13. Risk-sensitive optimal feedback control accounts for sensorimotor behavior under uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne J Nagengast

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many aspects of human motor behavior can be understood using optimality principles such as optimal feedback control. However, these proposed optimal control models are risk-neutral; that is, they are indifferent to the variability of the movement cost. Here, we propose the use of a risk-sensitive optimal controller that incorporates movement cost variance either as an added cost (risk-averse controller or as an added value (risk-seeking controller to model human motor behavior in the face of uncertainty. We use a sensorimotor task to test the hypothesis that subjects are risk-sensitive. Subjects controlled a virtual ball undergoing Brownian motion towards a target. Subjects were required to minimize an explicit cost, in points, that was a combination of the final positional error of the ball and the integrated control cost. By testing subjects on different levels of Brownian motion noise and relative weighting of the position and control cost, we could distinguish between risk-sensitive and risk-neutral control. We show that subjects change their movement strategy pessimistically in the face of increased uncertainty in accord with the predictions of a risk-averse optimal controller. Our results suggest that risk-sensitivity is a fundamental attribute that needs to be incorporated into optimal feedback control models.

  14. Behavior therapy for children with Tourette disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Scahill, Lawrence; Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L; Chang, Susanna; Ginsburg, Golda S; Deckersbach, Thilo; Dziura, James; Levi-Pearl, Sue; Walkup, John T

    2010-05-19

    Tourette disorder is a chronic and typically impairing childhood-onset neurologic condition. Antipsychotic medications, the first-line treatments for moderate to severe tics, are often associated with adverse effects. Behavioral interventions, although promising, have not been evaluated in large-scale controlled trials. To determine the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral intervention for reducing tic severity in children and adolescents. Randomized, observer-blind, controlled trial of 126 children recruited from December 2004 through May 2007 and aged 9 through 17 years, with impairing Tourette or chronic tic disorder as a primary diagnosis, randomly assigned to 8 sessions during 10 weeks of behavior therapy (n = 61) or a control treatment consisting of supportive therapy and education (n = 65). Responders received 3 monthly booster treatment sessions and were reassessed at 3 and 6 months following treatment. Comprehensive behavioral intervention. Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (range 0-50, score >15 indicating clinically significant tics) and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale (range 1 [very much improved] to 8 [very much worse]). Behavioral intervention led to a significantly greater decrease on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (24.7 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 23.1-26.3] to 17.1 [95% CI, 15.1-19.1]) from baseline to end point compared with the control treatment (24.6 [95% CI, 23.2-26.0] to 21.1 [95% CI, 19.2-23.0]) (P tic worsening was reported by 4% of children (5/126). Treatment gains were durable, with 87% of available responders to behavior therapy exhibiting continued benefit 6 months following treatment. A comprehensive behavioral intervention, compared with supportive therapy and education, resulted in greater improvement in symptom severity among children with Tourette and chronic tic disorder. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00218777.

  15. Effect of psychological distress on weight concern and weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Kabir, Ali; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shokouh, Pedram; Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic disorders like coronary artery diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancers, and psychiatric disorders. Stress may contribute to weight gain by disrupting weight concern, and lead to uncontrolled eating behavior. This study aimed to investigate the effects of stress on weight concern and control behaviors in normal weight and obese adults. A total of 9544 subjects were selected by multi-stage random sampling from three provinces in central Iran. Information related to weight concern and control behavior was registered in normal weight and obese participants. Psychological distress was measured by a 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and subjects were divided into high and low stress groups. Logistic regression was used for analysis. The mean age of participants was 38.7 ± 15.5 years and 50% (4772) of them were males. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for age, sex and education of high stress to low stress level for weight concern, weight control behavior and acceptable physical activity behavior was more than 1; but the OR was less than 1 for waist circumference, obesity and healthy diet behavior. Among obese participants, higher levels of stress were associated with lower weight concern with OR, 95%CI: 0.821, (0.682 - 0.988), lower acceptable physical activity with OR = 0.833, 95%CI: (0.624 - 0.912), but higher rates of healthy diet behavior with OR = 1.360, 95% CI: (1.040 - 1.780). Individuals with high stress level have lower weight concern and lower physical activity; therefore, they are prone to weight gain and obesity. It could be concluded that stress management should be considered as a crucial component of obesity prevention and control programs.

  16. Using of information–motivation–behavioral skills model on nutritional behaviors in controlling anemia among girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Peyman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem worldwide, which also is reported among Iranian adolescent girls. This problem results from the inadequate intake of dietary iron or low iron intake in diet. Regarding the application of health education models, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of educational program based on Information–Motivation–Behavioral skills (IMB model in relation to preventive nutritional behaviors against iron deficiency anemia. In this study, 120 participants were selected among Iranian high school girls. The participants were equally allocated to experimental and control groups. The educational intervention was performed as a four-hour workshop designed based on the IMB model constructs for the experimental group. The data were collected using a standard questionnaire based on the IMB constructs, measuring body mass index, and determining average heme iron consumption. The data were gathered before and 3 months after the intervention. The experimental group after the intervention showed a significant increase compared to the control group in the mean scores of IMB with regard to nutritional iron deficiency anemia. In the experimental group, the average daily intake of dietary heme iron increased by 0.10±0.52 mg. Regarding the positive effect of education in promoting iron-rich diets in high school girls, workshops based on the IMB model are suggested to be held in schools aiming at preventing iron deficiency anemia.

  17. The relationship between radon knowledge, concern and behavior, and health values, health locus of control and preventive health behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.J.; Probart, C.K.; Dorman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding similarities between health-related and radon-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors may suggest application of effective strategies of radon-related education in targeted populations. A mail survey was returned by 300 randomly selected homeowners in a community at risk for high home radon concentrations (50% response). While 64% were concerned, only 7% tested their homes. The expected association between radon knowledge, radon concern, and information-seeking was identified. In addition, those who tested their homes had greater knowledge and did more information seeking. Health values and radon concern were only weakly related. Environmental concern explained the greatest variance in radon concern (10%). Internal health locus of controls were more likely to have high radon concern. Of the preventive health behaviors, not smoking and seat belt use were the best predictors of variance in radon concern (5%). Segmenting the population is suggested for best educational outcome. Relating information to environmental issues may be helpful. Health-conscious people may need awareness of risks. Issues of self-control and radon testing and reduction may be helpful for some. Synergy between smoke and radon, compounded by smokers lack of concern suggests targeting smokers for education efforts

  18. How does a specific learning and memory system in the mammalian brain gain control of behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert J; Hong, Nancy S

    2013-11-01

    This review addresses a fundamental, yet poorly understood set of issues in systems neuroscience. The issues revolve around conceptualizations of the organization of learning and memory in the mammalian brain. One intriguing, and somewhat popular, conceptualization is the idea that there are multiple learning and memory systems in the mammalian brain and they interact in different ways to influence and/or control behavior. This approach has generated interesting empirical and theoretical work supporting this view. One issue that needs to be addressed is how these systems influence or gain control of voluntary behavior. To address this issue, we clearly specify what we mean by a learning and memory system. We then review two types of processes that might influence which memory system gains control of behavior. One set of processes are external factors that can affect which system controls behavior in a given situation including task parameters like the kind of information available to the subject, types of training experience, and amount of training. The second set of processes are brain mechanisms that might influence what memory system controls behavior in a given situation including executive functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex; switching mechanisms mediated by ascending neurotransmitter systems, the unique role of the hippocampus during learning. The issue of trait differences in control of different learning and memory systems will also be considered in which trait differences in learning and memory function are thought to potentially emerge from differences in level of prefrontal influence, differences in plasticity processes, differences in ascending neurotransmitter control, differential access to effector systems like motivational and motor systems. Finally, we present scenarios in which different mechanisms might interact. This review was conceived to become a jumping off point for new work directed at understanding these issues. The outcome of

  19. Determinants of aggressive behavior: Interactive effects of emotional regulation and inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Hsieh

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior can be defined as any behavior intended to hurt another person, and it is associated with many individual and social factors. This study examined the relationship between emotional regulation and inhibitory control in predicting aggressive behavior. Seventy-eight participants (40 males completed self-report measures (Negative Mood Regulation Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, a stop signal task, and engaged in a modified version of Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP exercise, in which the outcome was used as a measure of direct physical aggression. We used a hierarchical, mixed-model multiple regression analysis test to examine the effects of emotion regulation and inhibitory control on physical reactive aggression. Results indicated an interaction between emotion regulation and inhibitory control on aggression. For participants with low inhibitory control only, there was a significant difference between high and low emotion regulation on aggression, such that low emotion regulation participants registered higher aggression than high emotion regulation participants. This difference was not found among participants with high inhibitory control. These results have implications for refining and targeting training and rehabilitation programs aimed at reducing aggressive behavior.

  20. Trastornos de alimentación y control personal de la conducta Eating disorders and personal behavioral control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraide Lugli-Rivero

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Explorar el control personal de la conducta en sus tres aspectos: control objetivo, control subjetivo y creencias de control en mujeres con trastornos alimentarios, en riesgo de padecer trastornos alimentarios y normales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Es un estudio transversal que se llevó a cabo en Caracas, Venezuela, en 1997. Se trabajó con una muestra de 87 mujeres, 21 con trastornos alimentarios subclínicos, 33 en riesgo y 33 normales. Se utilizaron los siguientes instrumentos: Test de actitudes hacia la alimentación, Entrevista diagnóstica internacional compuesta, Inventario de autocontrol, Inventario de autoeficacia percibida para el autocontrol de la conducta e Inventario de locus de control. Los datos fueron analizados mediante el análisis de varianza y para las comparaciones post hoc se utilizó la prueba Student-Neuman-Keuls. RESULTADOS: Se encontró que las personas con trastornos alimentarios presentan dificultad en la emisión de conductas de autocontrol, menor sentimiento de eficacia personal para autorregular la conducta y mayor creencia en el control de otros poderosos sobre sus actos y consecuencias. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados encontrados constituyen una primera aproximación para entender el papel que juega la variable psicológica "control personal de la conducta" como factor protector o de riesgo en el desarrollo de la anorexia o bulimia nerviosa. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlOBJECTIVE: To explore the three components of personal behavioral control: Objective control, subjective control and control beliefs among normal women, women at risk of anorexia or bulimia and women with sub-clinical eating disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 1997, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Caracas, Venezuela. The study population consisted of 87 women: 21 with sub-clinical eating disorders, 33 at risk of having an eating disorder, and 33 normal women

  1. The Influence of Culture and Adoption Status on the Development of Behavioral Inhibition, Anxiety, Temperament, and Parental Control

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Jennifer Yu

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that child behavioral phenotypes such as behavioral inhibition and aspects of parental control behavior may be shaped by culturally-informed socialization goals. Specifically, in accord with collectivistic values for interpersonal harmony and self-discipline, East Asian parents tend to support children's behavioral inhibition (BI; Chen & French, 2008) and utilize more parental control strategies such as encouragement of moderate emotional expressivity and restricti...

  2. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  3. Self-control in Online Discussions: Disinhibited Online Behavior as a Failure to Recognize Social Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voggeser, Birgit J; Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S

    2017-01-01

    In an online experiment we examined the role of self-control in recognizing social cues in the context of disinhibited online behavior (e.g., flaming and trolling). We temporarily lowered participants' self-control capacity with an ego depletion paradigm (i.e., color Stroop task). Next, we measured participants' sensitivity to social cues with an emotional Stroop task containing neutral, negative, and taboo words. Sensitivity to social cues is represented by the increase in reaction time to negative and especially taboo words compared to neutral words. As expected, undepleted participants were slower to process the color of negative and taboo words. By contrast, depleted participants (i.e., those with lowered self-control capacity) did not react differently to taboo or negative words than they did to neutral words. The experiment illustrates that self-control failure may manifest itself in a failure to recognize social cues. The finding underlines the importance of self-control in understanding disinhibited online behavior: Many instances of disinhibited online behavior may occur not because people are unable to control themselves, but because they do not realize that a situation calls for self-control in the first place.

  4. Self-control in Online Discussions: Disinhibited Online Behavior as a Failure to Recognize Social Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit J. Voggeser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an online experiment we examined the role of self-control in recognizing social cues in the context of disinhibited online behavior (e.g., flaming and trolling. We temporarily lowered participants' self-control capacity with an ego depletion paradigm (i.e., color Stroop task. Next, we measured participants' sensitivity to social cues with an emotional Stroop task containing neutral, negative, and taboo words. Sensitivity to social cues is represented by the increase in reaction time to negative and especially taboo words compared to neutral words. As expected, undepleted participants were slower to process the color of negative and taboo words. By contrast, depleted participants (i.e., those with lowered self-control capacity did not react differently to taboo or negative words than they did to neutral words. The experiment illustrates that self-control failure may manifest itself in a failure to recognize social cues. The finding underlines the importance of self-control in understanding disinhibited online behavior: Many instances of disinhibited online behavior may occur not because people are unable to control themselves, but because they do not realize that a situation calls for self-control in the first place.

  5. Mother-child agreement on behavioral ratings in Tourette syndrome: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termine, Cristiano; Luoni, Chiara; Selvini, Claudia; Bandera, Valentina; Balottin, Umberto; Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    In Tourette syndrome, motor and phonic tics are associated with a spectrum of psychiatric disorders. As proxy report instruments are commonly used to assess children with Tourette syndrome, we investigated the relationship between child and mother ratings of behavioral problems. We enrolled 28 children with Tourette syndrome (25 males; mean age, 13.9 years) and 61 gender- and age-matched healthy controls (55 males; mean age, 14.7 years). Clinicians completed measures of tic severity, and all children completed the Youth Self-Report version of the Child Behavior Checklist, while their mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. In the clinical group, Youth Self-Report scores were significantly lower than mothers' Child Behavior Checklist scores across the majority of subscales (especially affect and somatization). In contrast, for the control group, mother and child ratings only differed for the externalizing behavior subscales. Clinicians should be aware of these differences between self and mother ratings for specific behavioral problems in Tourette syndrome.

  6. Asymptotic behavior of dynamical and control systems under perturbation and discretization

    CERN Document Server

    Grüne, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This book provides an approach to the study of perturbation and discretization effects on the long-time behavior of dynamical and control systems. It analyzes the impact of time and space discretizations on asymptotically stable attracting sets, attractors, asumptotically controllable sets and their respective domains of attractions and reachable sets. Combining robust stability concepts from nonlinear control theory, techniques from optimal control and differential games and methods from nonsmooth analysis, both qualitative and quantitative results are obtained and new algorithms are developed, analyzed and illustrated by examples.

  7. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991

  8. Simulation of the Dynamic Behavior of an Asynchronous Machine Using Direct Self-Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the major steps that have to be gone for the implementation of the mathematical model of the asynchronous machine in SciLab / Scicos. This implemented ASM model, will be used to check the dynamic behavior of the system, the current diagrams as well as the behavior motor speed and the torque, if the input signal has a pulsation form. This implementation’s are made in Scilab / Scicos environment, a clone of the MATLAB, which provides number-crunching power similar to MATLAB, at a much better cost/performance ratio. The implemented model offers the possibility to analyze the behaviors of the asynchronous machine in different dynamic situations: speed, torques, current in motor or generator regime and to study its behavior in different possible control schemes.

  9. A new cellular automaton for signal controlled traffic flow based on driving behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Yan-Yan

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of signal controlled traffic largely stems from the various driving behaviors developed in response to the traffic signal. However, the existing models take a few driving behaviors into account and consequently the traffic dynamics has not been completely explored. Therefore, a new cellular automaton model, which incorporates the driving behaviors typically manifesting during the different stages when the vehicles are moving toward a traffic light, is proposed in this paper. Numerical simulations have demonstrated that the proposed model can produce the spontaneous traffic breakdown and the dissolution of the over-saturated traffic phenomena. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the slow-to-start behavior and the inch-forward behavior can foster the traffic breakdown. Particularly, it has been discovered that the over-saturated traffic can be revised to be an under-saturated state when the slow-down behavior is activated after the spontaneous breakdown. Finally, the contributions of the driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown have been examined. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grand No. 2012CB723303) and the Beijing Committee of Science and Technology, China (Grand No. Z1211000003120100).

  10. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingxiao [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Xin, E-mail: xding@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Tian, Lingling, E-mail: lingling_tian@nus.edu.sg [Center of Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology (Donghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center of Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of CNS Regeneration (GHMICR), Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. - Highlights: • Bead diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was controlled by varying solvent ratio and polymer concentration. • The effect of the addition of particle drugs on BD of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was studied. • The corresponding release behaviors of nanofibers with different BD loading micro-particle drugs were investigated. • Bead-on-string nanofibers with bigger BD could alleviate the initial burst release.

  11. The control of beads diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers and the corresponding release behaviors of embedded drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingxiao; Ding, Xin; Tian, Lingling; Hu, Jiyong; Yang, Xudong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-01-01

    Bead-on-string nanofibers, with appropriate control of the beads diameter, are potential fibrous structures for efficient encapsulation of particle drugs in micron scales and could achieve controlled drug release for tissue engineering applications. In this study, the beads diameter of electrospun bead-on-string nanofibers was controlled by adjusting the concentration of spinning polymer, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone. The images of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that bead-on-string nanofibers could be successfully obtained only with a certain range of PLGA solution concentration. Moreover, with the decrease in the solvent ratio of chloroform to acetone, the range was left-shifted towards a smaller concentration. In addition, increase in the PLGA solution concentration within the range the beads diameter became greater and the shape of the beads changed from oval to slender when increasing the PLGA concentration within the range. The bead-on-string nanofibers with different beads diameter were further used to load micro-particle drugs of tetracycline hydrochloride, as a model drug, to examine the release behavior of nanofibers scaffold. The release profiles of drug loaded bead-on-string nanofibers demonstrated the possibility to alleviate the burst drug release by means of beads diameter control. - Highlights: • Bead diameter of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was controlled by varying solvent ratio and polymer concentration. • The effect of the addition of particle drugs on BD of bead-on-string electrospun nanofibers was studied. • The corresponding release behaviors of nanofibers with different BD loading micro-particle drugs were investigated. • Bead-on-string nanofibers with bigger BD could alleviate the initial burst release.

  12. Achieveing Organizational Excellence Through

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Abzari; Mohammadreza Dalvi

    2009-01-01

    AbstractToday, In order to create motivation and desirable behavior in employees, to obtain organizational goals,to increase human resources productivity and finally to achieve organizational excellence, top managers oforganizations apply new and effective strategies. One of these strategies to achieve organizational excellenceis creating desirable corporate culture. This research has been conducted to identify the path to reachorganizational excellence by creating corporate culture according...

  13. Cognitive behavioral therapy vs. Tai Chi for late life insomnia and inflammatory risk: a randomized controlled comparative efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R; Olmstead, Richard; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; Breen, Elizabeth C; Witarama, Tuff; Yokomizo, Megumi; Lavretsky, Helen; Carroll, Judith E; Motivala, Sarosh J; Bootzin, Richard; Nicassio, Perry

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the comparative efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), Tai Chi Chih (TCC), and sleep seminar education control (SS) on the primary outcome of insomnia diagnosis, and secondary outcomes of sleep quality, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and inflammation in older adults with insomnia. Randomized controlled, comparative efficacy trial. Los Angeles community. 123 older adults with chronic and primary insomnia. Random assignment to CBT, TCC, or SS for 2-hour group sessions weekly over 4 months with follow-up at 7 and 16 months. Insomnia diagnosis, patient-reported outcomes, polysomnography (PSG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. CBT performed better than TCC and SS in remission of clinical insomnia as ascertained by a clinician (P 3.0 mg/L) at 16 months (odds ratio [OR], 0.26 [95% CI, 0.07-0.97] P insomnia was associated with lower levels of CRP (P insomnia remission. PSG measures did not change. Treatment of late-life insomnia is better achieved and sustained by cognitive behavioral therapies. Insomnia treatment and remission reduces a marker of inflammatory risk, which has implications for cardiovascular morbidity and diabetes observed with sleep disturbance in epidemiologic surveys. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hafen, Christopher A; Hessel, Elenda T; Szwedo, David E; Spilker, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior.

  15. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  16. Effects of reducing children's television and video game use on aggressive behavior: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T N; Wilde, M L; Navracruz, L C; Haydel, K F; Varady, A

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to aggression in the media and children's aggressive behavior is well documented. However, few potential solutions have been evaluated. To assess the effects of reducing television, videotape, and video game use on aggressive behavior and perceptions of a mean and scary world. Randomized, controlled, school-based trial. Two sociodemographically and scholastically matched public elementary schools in San Jose, Calif. Third- and fourth-grade students (mean age, 8.9 years) and their parents or guardians. Children in one elementary school received an 18-lesson, 6-month classroom curriculum to reduce television, videotape, and video game use. In September (preintervention) and April (postintervention) of a single school year, children rated their peers' aggressive behavior and reported their perceptions of the world as a mean and scary place. A 60% random sample of children were observed for physical and verbal aggression on the playground. Parents were interviewed by telephone and reported aggressive and delinquent behaviors on the child behavior checklist. The primary outcome measure was peer ratings of aggressive behavior. Compared with controls, children in the intervention group had statistically significant decreases in peer ratings of aggression (adjusted mean difference, -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.6 to -0.2; P =.03) and observed verbal aggression (adjusted mean difference, -0.10 act per minute per child; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.03; P =.01). Differences in observed physical aggression, parent reports of aggressive behavior, and perceptions of a mean and scary world were not statistically significant but favored the intervention group. An intervention to reduce television, videotape, and video game use decreases aggressive behavior in elementary schoolchildren. These findings support the causal influences of these media on aggression and the potential benefits of reducing children's media use.

  17. Trust in Organizational and Workplace Deviant Behavior The Moderating Effect of Locus of Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Abdul Rahim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to investigate the moderating role of locus of control (LOC in the relationship between trust in organization (TiO and workplace deviant behavior (WDB. Three forms of deviant behavior are identified: interpersonal deviance, production deviance, and property deviance. The regression analyses carried out on a sample of 355 employees show mixed results. Trust in organization (TiO demonstrates a negative relationship with production deviance and property deviance. In contrast, trust in organization (TiO is positively related to interpersonal deviance. Furthermore, locus of control (LOC is found to moderate the relationship between trust in organization (TiO and deviant behaviors. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  18. A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

    2014-09-01

    The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations.

  19. Behavioral self-regulation for weight loss in young adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Rena R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining young adults in a brief behavioral weight loss intervention tailored for this age group, and to assess the preliminary efficacy of an intervention that emphasizes daily self-weighing within the context of a self-regulation model. Methods Forty young adults (29.1 ± 3.9 years, range 21–35, average BMI of 33.36 ± 3.4 were randomized to one of two brief behavioral weight loss interventions: behavioral self-regulation (BSR or adapted standard behavioral treatment (SBT. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment (10 weeks, and follow-up (20 weeks. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using general linear modeling in SPSS version 14.0. Results Participants in both groups attended an average of 8.7 out of 10 group meetings, and retention rates were 93% and 88% for post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Both groups achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment (BSR = -6.4 kg (4.0; SBT = -6.2 kg (4.5 and follow-up (BSR = -6.6 kg (5.5; SBT = -5.8 kg (5.2, p p = .84. Across groups, there was a positive association between frequency of weighing at follow-up and overall weight change at follow-up (p = .01. Daily weighing was not associated with any adverse changes in psychological symptoms. Conclusion Young adults can be recruited and retained in a behavioral weight loss program tailored to their needs, and significant weight losses can be achieved and maintained through this brief intervention. Future research on the longer-term efficacy of a self-regulation approach using daily self-weighing for weight loss in this age group is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration # NCT00488228

  20. Effects of controlled element dynamics on human feedforward behavior in ramp-tracking tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurense, Vincent A; Pool, Daan M; Damveld, Herman J; van Paassen, Marinus René M; Mulder, Max

    2015-02-01

    In real-life manual control tasks, human controllers are often required to follow a visible and predictable reference signal, enabling them to use feedforward control actions in conjunction with feedback actions that compensate for errors. Little is known about human control behavior in these situations. This paper investigates how humans adapt their feedforward control dynamics to the controlled element dynamics in a combined ramp-tracking and disturbance-rejection task. A human-in-the-loop experiment is performed with a pursuit display and vehicle-like controlled elements, ranging from a single integrator through second-order systems with a break frequency at either 3, 2, or 1 rad/s, to a double integrator. Because the potential benefits of feedforward control increase with steeper ramp segments in the target signal, three steepness levels are tested to investigate their possible effect on feedforward control with the various controlled elements. Analyses with four novel models of the operator, fitted to time-domain data, reveal feedforward control for all tested controlled elements and both (nonzero) tested levels of ramp steepness. For the range of controlled element dynamics investigated, it is found that humans adapt to these dynamics in their feedforward response, with a close to perfect inversion of the controlled element dynamics. No significant effects of ramp steepness on the feedforward model parameters are found.