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Sample records for achieving abuja targets

  1. Towards achieving Abuja targets: identifying and addressing barriers to access and use of insecticides treated nets among the poorest populations in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuma, Jane; Okungu, Vincent; Ntwiga, Janet; Molyneux, Catherine

    2010-03-16

    barriers through providing free ITNs to vulnerable groups, but the success of these interventions depends largely on the degree to which other barriers to access are addressed. Only if additional efforts are directed towards addressing non-financial barriers to access, will high coverage levels be achieved and sustained.

  2. Towards achieving Abuja targets: identifying and addressing barriers to access and use of insecticides treated nets among the poorest populations in Kenya

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    Okungu Vincent

    2010-03-01

    resources have been directed towards addressing affordability barriers through providing free ITNs to vulnerable groups, but the success of these interventions depends largely on the degree to which other barriers to access are addressed. Only if additional efforts are directed towards addressing non-financial barriers to access, will high coverage levels be achieved and sustained.

  3. Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria

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    T.T. Youngu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS providing information about primary and secondary schools, Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs’ vision of literacy for 15-24 year olds will be achieved. The development of geospatial database information system of primary and secondary schools for Garki and Wuse districts, Abuja, was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The delay in achievement of this target is not because governments in developing countries aren’t putting maximum effort, but because these governments are choosing to put the cart before the horse. Sustainable literacy level cannot be achieved without an effective framework charged with the collection, storage, query, analysis and management of the relevant data. What is needed is a system that provides government with data about all educational facilities within required proximity and determines availability of the required facilities. GIS is that decision making technology, which integrates ‘spatially referenced data’ with a problem solving environment. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of every primary and secondary school in Garki and Wuse districts. The spatially referenced database was created using Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS 9.2 software. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that 60% of the schools didn’t have access to Internet. Twenty-one (21 percent had no

  4. Utilization of insecticide-treated nets by under-five children in Nigeria: Assessing progress towards the Abuja targets

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    Sofola Olayemi T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Abuja target of increasing the proportion of people sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs to 60% by the year 2005, as one of the measures for malaria control in Africa, has generated an influx of resources for malaria control in several countries in the region. A national household survey conducted in 2005 by the Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria assessed the progress made with respect to ITN ownership and use among pregnant women and children under five years of age since 2000. The survey was the first nationally representative study of ITN use assessing progress towards the Abuja target amongst vulnerable groups. Population and Method A cross-sectional survey of a sample of 7,200 households, selected by a multistage stratified sampling technique from 12 randomly selected states from the six geopolitical zones of the country. Data collection was done during the malarious rainy season (October 2005 using a modified WHO Malaria Indicator Survey structured questionnaire about household ownership and utilization of mosquito nets (treated or untreated from household heads. Results Household ownership of any net was 23.9% (95% CI, 22.8%–25.1% and 10.1% for ITNs (95% CI, 9.2%–10.9%. Education, wealth index, presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, residence, and region by residence were predictive of ownership of any net. The presence of an under-five child in the household, family size, education, presence of health facility in the community, gender of household head, region by residence and wealth index by education predicted ITN ownership. Utilization of any net by children under-five was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.4%–12.6% and 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2% for ITN. Predictors of use of any net among under-five children were fever in the previous two weeks, presence of health facility in the community, caregiver's education, residence, and wealth index by caregiver's education; while religion

  5. Reviewing the literature on access to prompt and effective malaria treatment in Kenya: implications for meeting the Abuja targets

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    Tetteh Gladys

    2009-10-01

    the complexity and unclear messages regarding drug policy changes. Conclusion Kenya, like many other African countries, is still far from achieving the Abuja targets. The government, with support from donors, should invest adequately in mechanisms that promote access to effective treatment. Such approaches should focus on factors influencing multiple dimensions of access and will require the cooperation of all stakeholders working in malaria control.

  6. How to (or not to) … measure performance against the Abuja target for public health expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Jones, Alex; Ensor, Tim

    2014-07-01

    In 2001, African heads of state committed 'to set a target of allocating at least 15% of our annual budget to the improvement of the health sector'. This target has since been used as a benchmark to hold governments accountable. However, it was never followed by a set of guidelines as to how it should be measured in practice. This article sets out some of the areas of ambiguity and argues for an interpretation which focuses on actual expenditure, rather than budgets (which are theoretical), and which captures areas of spending that are subject to government discretion. These are largely domestic sources, but include budget support, which is externally derived but subject to Ministry of Finance sectoral allocation. Theoretical and practical arguments in favour of this recommendation are recommended using a case study from Sierra Leone. It is recommended that all discretionary spending by government is included in the numerator and denominator when calculating performance against the target, including spending by all ministries on health, social health insurance payments, debt relief funds and budget support. Conversely, all forms of private payment and earmarked aid should be excluded. The authors argue that the target, while an important vehicle for tracking political commitment to the sector, should be assessed intelligently by governments, which have legitimate wider public finance objectives of maximizing overall social returns, and should be complemented by a wider range of indicators, to avoid distortions.

  7. Territory Abuja, Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    country named Abuja 8,000 km2 in size greatly impacted on all spheres of lives of the ... E- mfilaba @yahoo.co.uk ... the urban poor - the job seekers in the ... gender roles as women started to become ... respect of peoples' views and culture and ... aged in-laws and children. The ..... Multi-national Corporations and individual.

  8. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

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    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  9. Achieving target refraction after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Shira S; Chee, Yewlin E; Haddadin, Ramez I; Veldman, Peter B; Borboli-Gerogiannis, Sheila; Brauner, Stacey C; Chang, Kenneth K; Chen, Sherleen H; Gardiner, Matthew F; Greenstein, Scott H; Kloek, Carolyn E; Chen, Teresa C

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the difference between target and actual refraction after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation at an academic teaching institution's Comprehensive Ophthalmology Service. Retrospective study. We examined 1275 eye surgeries for this study. All consecutive cataract surgeries were included if they were performed by an attending or resident surgeon from January through December 2010. Postoperative refractions were compared with preoperative target refractions. Patients were excluded if they did not have a preoperative target refraction documented or if they did not have a recorded postoperative manifest refraction within 90 days. The main outcome measure was percentage of cases achieving a postoperative spherical equivalent ± 1.0 diopter (D) of target spherical equivalent. We performed 1368 cataract surgeries from January through December of 2010. Of these, 1275 (93%) had sufficient information for analysis. Of the included cases, 94% (1196 of 1275) achieved ± 1.0 D of target refraction by 90 days after cataract surgery. This paper establishes a new benchmark for a teaching hospital, where 94% of patients achieved within 1.0 D of target refraction after cataract surgery. The refractive outcomes after cataract surgery at this academic teaching institution were higher than average international benchmarks. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Achieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica

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    Abdullahi Olabode ABDULKADRI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica Abstract: The high cost of energy in Jamaica, one of the highest in the Caribbean region, is usually cited as a hindrance to industrial development and efficiency, especially in the manufacturing sector. High energy cost is also considered to be a national energy security issue and the government is taking steps to ensure adequate supply of energy at affordable prices. In the current National Development Plan, the government has set a target for renewable energy sources to supply 20% of the country's energy need by the year 2030. Using a linear programing model of energy planning, we examine how realistically this target could be achieved. Our findings indicate that the 20% renewable energy target is technically achievable with the optimal plan showing a mixture of wind power, hydropower and bagasse power but no solar power. However, when the timeline for investment in new generating capacities that will ensure the attainment of the target is considered, it becomes highly improbable that the target will be met. This study fills the gap that exists in evidence-based analysis of energy policy in Jamaica.

  11. Cooperation Mechanisms To Achieve Eu Renewable Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Pade, Lise-Lotte; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    for cooperation mechanisms such as joint support schemes for promoting renewable energy to meet the 2020 targets. The potential coordination benefits, with more efficient localisation and composition of renewable investment, can be achieved by creating new areas/sub-segments of renewable technologies where...... connection of new capacity to the electricity grid and cost sharing rules for electricity transmission expansion are examined and examples given. The influence of additional renewable capacity on domestic/regional power market prices can be a barrier. The market will be influenced by for example an expansion...... of the wind capacity resulting in lower prices, which will affect existing conventional producers. This development will be opposed by conventional producers, whereas consumers will support such a strategy. A major barrier is the timing of RES targets and the uncertainty regarding future targets. We...

  12. Assessment of Recreational Facilities in Federal Capital City, Abuja, Nigeria

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    Cyril Kanayo Ezeamaka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuja Master Plan provided development of adequate Green Areas and other Recreational Facilities within the Federal Capital City (FCC, as part of its sustainability principles and provided for these recreational facilities within each neighborhood (FCDA, 1979. However, there have been several recent foul cries about the negative development of recreational facilities and the abuse of the Master Plan in the FCC.  The motivation for carrying out this study arose from the observation that recreational facilities in Phase 1 of the Federal Capital City Abuja are not clearly developed as intended by the policy makers and thus, the need to identify the recreational facilities in the Phase 1 of FCC and observe their level of development as well as usage. The field survey revealed that the Central Business District and Gazupe have higher numbers of recreational facilities with 45 and 56. While Wuse II (A08 and Wuse II (A07 Districts have lesser recreational facilities with 10 and 17. The field survey further revealed that all the districts in Phase 1 have over 35% cases of land use changes from recreational facilities to other use. The survey shows that over 65% of these recreational facilities are fully developed. The study also shows that just about 11% of the recreational sporting facilities were developed in line with the Abuja Master Plan in Phase 1. The study revealed that recreational facilities in Phase 1 of the FCC, Abuja has not being developed in compliance with the Abuja Master Plan.

  13. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

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    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  14. evaluation of the environmental noise levels in abuja municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10-14. Noise pollution has been proven to aggravate chronic illnesses like hypertension and other cardiopulmonary diseases.8, 9 .... health hazard of different classes and magnitude ... sound levels in Abuja are fairly good in contrast to the .... Noise and Health 2012; 14(59): ... Information Technologies in Environmental.

  15. Target weight achievement and ultrafiltration rate thresholds: potential patient implications.

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    Flythe, Jennifer E; Assimon, Magdalene M; Overman, Robert A

    2017-06-02

    Higher ultrafiltration (UF) rates and extracellular hypo- and hypervolemia are associated with adverse outcomes among maintenance hemodialysis patients. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recently considered UF rate and target weight achievement measures for ESRD Quality Incentive Program inclusion. The dual measures were intended to promote balance between too aggressive and too conservative fluid removal. The National Quality Forum endorsed the UF rate measure but not the target weight measure. We examined the proposed target weight measure and quantified weight gains if UF rate thresholds were applied without treatment time (TT) extension or interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) reduction. Data were taken from the 2012 database of a large dialysis organization. Analyses considered 152,196 United States hemodialysis patients. We described monthly patient and dialysis facility target weight achievement patterns and examined differences in patient characteristics across target weight achievement status and differences in facilities across target weight measure scores. We computed the cumulative, theoretical 1-month fluid-related weight gain that would occur if UF rates were capped at 13 mL/h/kg without concurrent TT extension or IDWG reduction. Target weight achievement patterns were stable over the year. Patients who did not achieve target weight (post-dialysis weight ≥ 1 kg above or below target weight) tended to be younger, black and dialyze via catheter, and had shorter dialysis vintage, greater body weight, higher UF rate and more missed treatments compared with patients who achieved target weight. Facilities had, on average, 27.1 ± 9.7% of patients with average post-dialysis weight ≥ 1 kg above or below the prescribed target weight. In adjusted analyses, facilities located in the midwest and south and facilities with higher proportions of black and Hispanic patients and higher proportions of patients with shorter TTs were more likely to

  16. Sixth Africa malaria day in 2006: how far have we come after the Abuja Declaration?

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    Wanga Charles L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Each year on the 25th April Africa and the rest of the world commemorate Africa Malaria Day as was agreed upon at the African Summit on Roll Back Malaria held in Abuja, Nigeria on 25th April 2000. The summit also called upon the United Nations to declare the period 2001–2010 a decade for malaria. The 1st Africa Malaria Day was commemorated with the theme "Communities Play a Central Role in Tackling Malaria". The 6th Africa Malaria Day was observed in 2006 with the theme "Get Your ACT Together" and the slogan "Universal Access to Effective Malaria Treatment is a Human Right". This article by the Secretariat of the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM was also part of the commemorations for the day. MIM was founded in 1997 as an alliance of institutions and individuals concerned with the malaria problem, and aiming at maximizing the impact of scientific research on malaria through strengthening African research capacity and coordinated global collaboration. The MIM Secretariat has been hosted in rotation by the founding institutions, and is being hosted for the first time in Africa by the African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. This article reviews the malaria situation in Africa six years after the Abuja Declaration, highlighting the disease burden trends, failures, achievements, challenges, and the way forward.

  17. Notes on the History of Abuja, Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS-EMEAGWALI, Gloria

    1989-01-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of the history of Abuja in the Central Nigerian region -- an area designated as the new Federal capital of Nigeria. We examine some aspects of inter-group relations and then reflect on technological and economic development in the area. In the course of discussion, we reflect on aspects of iron technology, textile, leather processing and pottery and comment on issues related to trade in the region.

  18. Abuja declaration calls for action against hazardous traditional practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    The UN Economic Commission for Africa organized a conference in Abuja, Nigeria, last November to review the "Role of Women in Africa in the 1990s" as a follow-up of the "Arusha Strategies" of 1984. Among topics examined were harmful traditional practices, such as early marriage and pregnancy, female circumcision, nutritional taboos, inadequate child spacing and unprotected delivery, which are still found to be current realities in many African countries. These practices often inflict permanent physical, psychological, and emotional damage, even death, and little progress has been achieved in the abolition, the Declaration states. The lives of women in Africa are dominated by traditions. Certain attitudes, structures, and traditional practices, such as female circumcision and nutritional taboos that have harmful effects on the health of women and children, have rarely been officially surveyed. They have not been fully acknowledged by policy makers and opinion leaders, nor have effective steps to stop them been given precedence in health development planning. There is need for action at national as well as subregional and regional levels. Action at the national levels means that: national research institutes should undertake in-depth research on various traditional practices and their effects on women; functional literacy campaigns should sensitize parents and disseminate information on the harmful effects of circumcision, childhood marriage and early pregnancy; guidance and counseling should be provided to adolescent girls as well as to parents to make them understand the harmful physical, social, and mental effects of some traditional practices; religious leaders, traditional rulers, women's organizational, professional bodies and others should act as pressure groups in promoting efforts against harmful practices through traditional and modern means of communication, dissemination of information, and other appropriate ways of communication; and legislative and

  19. What would it take to achieve the Paris temperature targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit warming to 2 or 1.5°C above preindustrial level, although combined Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are likely insufficient to achieve these targets. We propose a set of idealized emission pathways consistent with the targets. If countries reduce emissions in line with their INDCs, the 2°C threshold could be avoided only if net zero greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) are achieved by 2085 and late century negative emissions are considerably in excess of those assumed in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 (net -5 Gt CO2/yr, compared with -1.5 Gt CO2/yr in RCP2.6). More aggressive near-term reductions would allow 2°C to be avoided with less end-of-century carbon removal capacity. A 10% cut in GHGEs by 2030 (relative to 2015) could likely achieve 2°C with RCP2.6 level negative emissions. The 1.5°C target requires GHGEs to be reduced by almost a third by 2030 and net zero by 2050, while a 50 year overshoot of 1.5°C allows net zero GHGEs by 2060.

  20. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among nonpregnant women attending a tertiary health care facility in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Emeribe AU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Uchenna Emeribe,1 Idris Abdullahi Nasir,2 Justus Onyia,2 Alinwachukwu Loveth Ifunanya31Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Tsafe, Zamfara State, NigeriaBackground: Candida spp. are normal flora of the vagina that eventually become pathogenic under some prevailing conditions, and thus present as a common etiology of vulvovaginitis. When prompt recognition and laboratory confirmation is not achieved, this could lead to devastating genital discomfort and a major reason for frequent hospital visits.Aims: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that aimed to determine the prevalence and some associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC among nonpregnant women attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Subjects and methods: A pair of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples was collected from each of 200 individual participating subjects. They were separately inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated aerobically at 33°C for 48 hours. Ten percent KOH wet mount and Gram staining was done on swabs and colonies, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.Results: Of the 200 participating subjects, the prevalence of Candida albicans was 6.5% and that of non-albicans candidiasis 7.5%. Candidiasis was observed mostly among the 20- to 30-year age-group. All subjects with Candida-positive culture had been on antibacterial therapy prior to participating in this study – 28 (100%. There was a statistical relationship between the prevalence of VVC with previous antibacterial therapy (P<0.05, but not with age or other prevailing health conditions studied (P>0.05.Conclusion: The outcome of this study

  1. Stroke risk factors, subtypes, and 30‑day case fatality in Abuja, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke risk factors, subtypes, and 30‑day case fatality in Abuja, Nigeria. ... as well as brain computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and carotid ... We also assessed case fatality and functional outcome at 30 days after stroke.

  2. review article urinary tract infections in a tertiary hospital in abuja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY SEPTEMBER ... Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, National Hospital Abuja, P.M.B 425, Nigeria. ..... reproductive biology2011;156(2):131–6. 34.

  3. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbonmarket, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex,dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. Themodeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared.Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reductionrequirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA' s withdrawal. Totalcosts vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs wouldsharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigationstrategies drops to only 0-16%.

  4. High prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men and transgender women attending trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria

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    Babajide Keshinro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted infection (STI and HIV prevalence have been reported to be higher amongst men who have sex with men (MSM in Nigeria than in the general population. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population using laboratory-based universal testing. Methods: TRUST/RV368 represents a cohort of MSM and transgender women (TGW recruited at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS. Participants undergo a structured comprehensive assessment of HIV-related risks and screening for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HIV. Crude and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Log-binomial regression was used to explore factors associated with prevalent HIV infection and STIs. Results: From March 2013 to January 2016, 862 MSM and TGW (316 in Lagos and 546 in Abuja underwent screening for HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea at study enrolment. Participants’ median age was 24 years [interquartile range (IQR 21–27]. One-third (34.2% were identified as gay/homosexual and 65.2% as bisexual. The overall prevalence of HIV was 54.9%. After adjusting for the RDS recruitment method, HIV prevalence in Abuja was 43.5% (95% CI 37.3–49.6% and in Lagos was 65.6% (95% CI 54.7–76.5%. The RDS-weighted prevalence of chlamydia was 17.0% (95% CI 11.8–22.3% in Abuja and 18.3% (95% CI 11.1–25.4% in Lagos. Chlamydia infection was detected only at the anorectal site in 70.2% of cases. The RDS-weighted prevalence of gonorrhoea was 19.1% (95% CI 14.6–23.5% in Abuja and 25.8% (95% CI 17.1–34.6% in Lagos. Overall, 84.2% of gonorrhoea cases presented with anorectal infection only. Over 95% of STI cases were asymptomatic. In a multivariable model, increased risk for chlamydia/gonorrhoea was associated with younger age, gay/homosexual sexual orientation

  5. High prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men and transgender women attending trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshinro, Babajide; Crowell, Trevor A; Nowak, Rebecca G; Adebajo, Sylvia; Peel, Sheila; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Rodriguez-Hart, Cristina; Baral, Stefan D; Walsh, Melissa J; Njoku, Ogbonnaya S; Odeyemi, Sunday; Ngo-Ndomb, Teclaire; Blattner, William A; Robb, Merlin L; Charurat, Manhattan E; Ake, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevalence have been reported to be higher amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria than in the general population. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population using laboratory-based universal testing. Methods TRUST/RV368 represents a cohort of MSM and transgender women (TGW) recruited at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Participants undergo a structured comprehensive assessment of HIV-related risks and screening for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HIV. Crude and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Log-binomial regression was used to explore factors associated with prevalent HIV infection and STIs. Results From March 2013 to January 2016, 862 MSM and TGW (316 in Lagos and 546 in Abuja) underwent screening for HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea at study enrolment. Participants’ median age was 24 years [interquartile range (IQR) 21–27]. One-third (34.2%) were identified as gay/homosexual and 65.2% as bisexual. The overall prevalence of HIV was 54.9%. After adjusting for the RDS recruitment method, HIV prevalence in Abuja was 43.5% (95% CI 37.3–49.6%) and in Lagos was 65.6% (95% CI 54.7–76.5%). The RDS-weighted prevalence of chlamydia was 17.0% (95% CI 11.8–22.3%) in Abuja and 18.3% (95% CI 11.1–25.4%) in Lagos. Chlamydia infection was detected only at the anorectal site in 70.2% of cases. The RDS-weighted prevalence of gonorrhoea was 19.1% (95% CI 14.6–23.5%) in Abuja and 25.8% (95% CI 17.1–34.6%) in Lagos. Overall, 84.2% of gonorrhoea cases presented with anorectal infection only. Over 95% of STI cases were asymptomatic. In a multivariable model, increased risk for chlamydia/gonorrhoea was associated with younger age, gay/homosexual sexual orientation and higher

  6. Clinical and demographic characteristics of women with intrauterine adhesion in abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efetie, Efena R; Umezulike, Augustine C; Okafor, Ugochukwu V

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Infertility menstrual abnormalities continue to constitute a significant bulk of gynecological consultation in Africa. Both of these problems are sometimes traced to intrauterine adhesions which are preventable in the majority of cases. Study Design. A retrospective analysis of intrauterine adhesions at the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria, was carried out, covering the period from 1st September 1999 to 1st September 2004. A total of 72 cases were analyzed. Statical analysis was done using X(2). Results. The incidence of intrauterine adhesions was 1.73% of new patients. Mean age ± SD was 29.97 ± 4.82 years. Patients who were Para 0 to 1 constituted 81.9% of the total. Intrauterine adhesions significantly (P < 0.02) occurred in nulliparae. The majority (68%) were educated only up to secondary level which was significant (P < 0.05). Menstrual abnormalities were present in 90.3%. The commonest predisposing factor identified was a history of dilatation and curettage or uterine evacuation. Conclusion. Intrauterine adhesions are associated with lower educational status and low parity. Increasing educational targets nationally, poverty alleviation, nationwide retraining in manual vacuum aspiration, and wider application of this technique are recommended.

  7. Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Women with Intrauterine Adhesion in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Efena R. Efetie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Infertility menstrual abnormalities continue to constitute a significant bulk of gynecological consultation in Africa. Both of these problems are sometimes traced to intrauterine adhesions which are preventable in the majority of cases. Study Design. A retrospective analysis of intrauterine adhesions at the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria, was carried out, covering the period from 1st September 1999 to 1st September 2004. A total of 72 cases were analyzed. Statical analysis was done using 2. Results. The incidence of intrauterine adhesions was 1.73% of new patients. Mean age ± SD was 29.97±4.82 years. Patients who were Para 0 to 1 constituted 81.9% of the total. Intrauterine adhesions significantly (<0.02 occurred in nulliparae. The majority (68% were educated only up to secondary level which was significant (<0.05. Menstrual abnormalities were present in 90.3%. The commonest predisposing factor identified was a history of dilatation and curettage or uterine evacuation. Conclusion. Intrauterine adhesions are associated with lower educational status and low parity. Increasing educational targets nationally, poverty alleviation, nationwide retraining in manual vacuum aspiration, and wider application of this technique are recommended.

  8. Managing Pre-Construction and Construction Risks on Project Sites in Abuja-Nigeria

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    Jimoh R.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Managing risks in construction projects has been acknowledged as a key direction process for the purposes of attaining the project goal in terms of time, cost, quality, safety, and environmental sustainability. Hence, the paper evaluated pre-construction and construction risks on active project sites in Abuja-Nigeria. This was achieved using survey method through the self-administration of 35 questionnaires to the professionals handling the 35 identified projects being undertaking at that time. Results showed that errors and omissions in design and improperly defined project scope had mean score values of 3.03 and 2.54, respectively, were the construction risks most experienced by the professionals during pre-construction. On the other hand, fluctuation in market prices and delays with mean score values of 3.14 and 2.74, respectively, were the construction risks experienced by the professionals during the construction phase of the projects. It is recommended that procurement methods such as construction management should be adopted and stakeholders should keep to their own side of the bargain to avoid unnecessary delays.

  9. Tree Species Richness, Diversity, and Vegetation Index for Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aladesanmi D Agbelade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the tree species richness and diversity of urban and periurban areas of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT, Abuja, Nigeria, and produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for the territory. Data were collected from urban (Abuja city and periurban (Lugbe areas of the FCT using both semistructured questionnaire and inventory of tree species within green areas. In the study location, all trees with diameter at breast height (dbh ≥ 10 cm were identified; their dbh was measured and frequency was taken. The NDVI was calculated in ArcGIS 10.3 environment using standard formula. A cumulative total of twenty-nine (29 families were encountered within the FCT, with 27 occurring in Abuja city (urban centre and 12 in Lugbe (periurban centre of the FCT. The results of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′ for the two centres are 3.56 and 2.24 while Shannon’s maximum diversity index (Hmax is 6.54 (Abuja city and 5.36 (Lugbe for the urban (Abuja city and periurban (Lugbe areas of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT. The result of tree species evenness (Shannon’s equitability (EH index in urban and periurban centres was 0.54 and 0.42, respectively. The study provided baseline information on urban and periurban forests in the FCT of Nigeria, which can be used for the development of tree species database of the territory.

  10. Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing factors and early ... Independent predictors of macrosomia were parental high social class (P ... between the macrosomic group (2.5%) and the control group (0.8%) was not ...

  11. Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by Agricultural Science and Extension Teachers in Abuja, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olugbenga Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by agricultural science and extension teachers in Abuja, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives are to: identify the background and demographic characteristics of agricultural science and extension teachers in the study area; examine the factors influencing adoption…

  12. An Action Learning Approach to the Question: Are Ambulance Response Time Targets Achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Alan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, NHS Ambulance Trusts throughout the UK have consistently failed to achieve their response time targets for both actual and potential life-threatening calls. To avoid a media and public outcry, the NHS response has been to change the basic parameters upon which the response time targets are calculated. An action learning study,…

  13. The likelihood of achieving quantified road safety targets: a binary logistic regression model for possible factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Lee, C Y

    2014-12-01

    In past several decades, many countries have set quantified road safety targets to motivate transport authorities to develop systematic road safety strategies and measures and facilitate the achievement of continuous road safety improvement. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the setting of quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction, in both the short and long run, by comparing road fatalities before and after the implementation of a quantified road safety target. However, not much work has been done to evaluate whether the quantified road safety targets are actually achieved. In this study, we used a binary logistic regression model to examine the factors - including vehicle ownership, fatality rate, and national income, in addition to level of ambition and duration of target - that contribute to a target's success. We analyzed 55 quantified road safety targets set by 29 countries from 1981 to 2009, and the results indicate that targets that are in progress and with lower level of ambitions had a higher likelihood of eventually being achieved. Moreover, possible interaction effects on the association between level of ambition and the likelihood of success are also revealed.

  14. Therapeutic Target Achievement in Type 2 Diabetic Patients after Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Young Kang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOur study group established "3H care" in 2002. The meaning of "3H care" attain and maintain adequate controls over hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. This study evaluated the achievement of target goals after one year or more of "3H care" by specialists in our diabetic clinic.MethodsThis was a retrospective study of 200 type 2 diabetic patients who received "3H care" for one year or more in our diabetic clinic. We evaluated achievement of target goals for metabolic controls as suggested by the American Diabetes Association.ResultsOverall, 200 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled, of whom 106 were males (53% and 94 were females (47%. After one year of "3H care," the mean HbA1c was 7.2±1.5% and the percentage of patients achieving glycemic control (HbA1c <7% was 51.8%. However only 32.2% of hypertensive patients achieved the recommended target. After one year of "3H care," the percentages of those who achieved the target value for dyslipidemia were 80.0% for total cholesterol, 66.3% for low density lipoprotein cholesterol, 57.9% for triglyceride, and 51.8% for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The percentage that achieved all three targets level was only 4.4% after one year and 14.8% after two years.ConclusionThe results of this study demonstrate that only a minor proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes achieved the recommended goals despite the implementation of "3H care." It is our suggestion that better treatment strategies and methods should be used to control hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.

  15. Applying trait-based models to achieve functional targets for theory-driven ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Daniel C

    2014-07-01

    Manipulating community assemblages to achieve functional targets is a key component of restoring degraded ecosystems. The response-and-effect trait framework provides a conceptual foundation for translating restoration goals into functional trait targets, but a quantitative framework has been lacking for translating trait targets into assemblages of species that practitioners can actually manipulate. This study describes new trait-based models that can be used to generate ranges of species abundances to test theories about which traits, which trait values and which species assemblages are most effective for achieving functional outcomes. These models are generalisable, flexible tools that can be widely applied across many terrestrial ecosystems. Examples illustrate how the framework generates assemblages of indigenous species to (1) achieve desired community responses by applying the theories of environmental filtering, limiting similarity and competitive hierarchies, or (2) achieve desired effects on ecosystem functions by applying the theories of mass ratios and niche complementarity. Experimental applications of this framework will advance our understanding of how to set functional trait targets to achieve the desired restoration goals. A trait-based framework provides restoration ecology with a robust scaffold on which to apply fundamental ecological theory to maintain resilient and functioning ecosystems in a rapidly changing world.

  16. Nursery cultural practices to achieve targets: A case study in western larch irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Robert F. Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Nursery cultural practices are used to help growers achieve pre-determined size and physiological targets for seedlings. In that regard, irrigation is used to accelerate or slow growth and as a trigger for changing growth phase. In a case study highlighting the effects of irrigation on seedling development, western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedlings were grown...

  17. The role of plant water relations in achieving and maintaining the target seedling

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Mexal; Nabil Khadduri

    2011-01-01

    Water management is one of the most important factors in achieving the target seedling. Water is required for cell growth, nutrient transport, cooling through transpiration, and in small amounts for the photosynthetic reaction. Furthermore, judicious use of limiting water availability during the hardening phase can induce budset and increase seedling cold hardiness....

  18. A method to achieve rapid localised deep heating in a laser irradiated solid density target

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Rapid heating of small buried regions by laser generated fast electrons may be useful for applications such as XUV radiation sources or as drivers for shock experiments. In non-structured targets the heating profile possesses a global maximum near the front surface. This paper presents a new target design that uses resistive guiding to concentrate the fast electron current density at a finite depth inside the target. The choice of geometry uses principles of non-imaging optics. A global temperature maximum at depths up to 50{\\mu}m into the target is achieved. Although theoretical calculations suggest that small source sizes should perform better than large ones, simulations show that a large angular spread at high intensities results in significant losses of the fast electrons to the sides. A systematic parameter scan suggests an optimal laser intensity. A ratio of 1.6 is demonstrated between the maximum ion temperature and the ion temperature at the front surface.

  19. POLICIES AND MEASURES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGETS BY 2020 IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Raguzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sharing methodology used for Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper presents some main existing policies and measures for achieving this ambitious target, including feed-in tariffs, guarantees of origin, and greenhouse gas emissions taxation. It is addressed the necessity for creating enabling environment for promotion of renewable energy sources and gradually remove barriers for its stronger penetration on the energy market.

  20. Adherence to vector preventive measures decrease cases of acute Dengue among Abuja residents, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Abdullahi Nasir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigeria is one of the dengue hyper-endemic nations. This study investigated the level of knowledge about dengue and vector preventive practices and their impacts on acute dengue among febrile patients at Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on febrile patients attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. Blood samples were individually collected from 171 febrile patients residing at Gwagwalada suburb. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to assess subjects’ knowledge about preventive measures against vector breeding and bites. Blood samples were tested for dengue virus Nonstructural glycoprotein-1antigen using enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: Fifteen out of 171 febrile persons (8.8% were Dengue NS1 positive. Sixty percent of the subjects do not know about dengue, while 33% knew about dengue virus infection through television/ radio programs, 5% through healthcare professionals and 2% from friends/families. Those who persistently use indoor residual spraying and long sleeves/trousers during daytime had less cases of DENV NS1 than those who do not. There was statistical association between DENV NS1 and residence in proximity to waste dumpsites (P<0.0001 and frequent use of long sleeve clothing and trousers (P=0.005. However, there was no statistical association between DENV NS1 antigenemia and persistent use of indoor residual spraying and presence of in-door water containers (P>0.05. Conclusions: Findings from this study imply that proper education and adherence to preventive measures minimize people from being susceptible to Dengue virus infections.

  1. The Use of Social Networking among Senior Secondary School Students in Abuja Municipal Area of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, F. A. Farah; Aliyu, Umar Yanda

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use of social networking among senior secondary school students in Abuja Municipal Area Council of FCT. The study employed quantitative method for data collection involving questionnaire administration. Fifteen questions with Likert model and ten yes/no responses in a questionnaire were personally administered to 400…

  2. Principals' Personal Variables and Information and Communication Technology Utilization in Federal Capital Territory Senior Secondary Schools, Abuja, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunshola, Roseline Folashade; Adeniyi, Abiodun

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated principals' personal variables and information and communication technology utilization in Federal Capital Territory (FCT) senior secondary schools, Abuja, Nigeria. The study adopted the correlational research design. The study used a sample of 94 senior secondary schools (including public and private) in FCT. Stratified…

  3. Patent medicine vendors, community pharmacists and STI management in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, A D; Okonkwo, U P

    2010-09-01

    Increasingly, literature indicates that Patent Medicine Vendors (PMVs) and Community Pharmacists (CPs) provide sexual reproductive health services and products to their young patrons. This study explored the validity of literature claims, principally from CPs and PMVs perspective in Abuja, Nigeria. Participants were recruited with convenience sampling based on their willingness to participate in the study and our judgement of their professional competence. They were administered a semi-structured questionnaire, which was modelled after McCracken's long interview. We empirically assessed the validity of CPs and PMVs opinions with an exit interview of seven consenting patrons. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and subjected to iterative thematic analysis. Participants' accounts and our observations indicate that PMVs and CPs serve young people's sexual reproductive healthcare needs in Abuja. CPs and PMVs provide young people with a seamless and non-judgemental access to contraceptives, sexual health advice and post-sexual risk exposure care. The study corroborates literature claims that CPs and PMVs provide sexual reproductive health advice, services and products to young people. However, participants contend that the current pharmacy practice laws in Nigeria constrain the scope and quality of services that young unmarried people require. Because it is unlikely that Nigeria will reinvigorate her primary healthcare system soon, we call for the formal co-option of CPs and PMVs into the sexual reproductive health management system to standardize and improve services.

  4. Achieving 80% greenhouse gas reduction target in Saudi Arabia under low and medium oil prices

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Yousef M.

    2016-11-10

    COP 21 led to a global agreement to limit the earth\\'s rising temperature to less than 2 °C. This will require countries to act upon climate change and achieve a significant reduction in their greenhouse gas emissions which will play a pivotal role in shaping future energy systems. Saudi Arabia is the World\\'s largest exporter of crude oil, and the 11th largest CO2 emitter. Understanding the Kingdom\\'s role in global greenhouse gas reduction is critical in shaping the future of fossil fuels. Hence, this work presents an optimisation study to understand how Saudi Arabia can meet the CO2 reduction targets to achieve the 80% reduction in the power generation sector. It is found that the implementation of energy efficiency measures is necessary to enable meeting the 80% target, and it would also lower costs of transition to low carbon energy system while maintaining cleaner use of hydrocarbons with CCS. Setting very deep GHG reduction targets may be economically uncompetitive in consideration of the energy supply requirements. In addition, we determine the breakeven price of crude oil needed to make CCS economically viable. Results show important dimension for pricing CO2 and the role of CCS compared with alternative sources of energy.

  5. Why use of interventions targeting outdoor biting mosquitoes will be necessary to achieve malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicodem James Govella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available By definition, elimination of malaria means permanent reduction to zero of locally incidence of infections. Achieving this goal among other reasons, it requires fully understanding on where and when persons are most exposed to malaria vectors as these are fundamental for targeting interventions to achieve maximum impact. While elimination can be possible in some settings with low malaria transmission intensity and dominated with late and indoor biting of vectors using Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRs, it’s difficult and even impossible in areas with high and where majority of human exposure to transmission occurs outside human dwellings. Recently in response to wide spread use of LLIN and IRS, human risk of exposure to transmission is increasingly spread across the entire night so that much of it occurs outdoors and before bed time. This modification of vector populations and behaviour has now been reported from across Africa, Asia and from the Solomon Islands. Historical evidence shows that even in areas with intervention coverage exceeding 90% of human population it was so hard to even push prevalence down below the pre elimination threshold of 1% being compromised mainly with the outdoor residual transmission. Malaria control experts must however continue to deliver interventions that tackle indoor transmission but considerable amount of resources that target mosquitoes outside of houses and outside of sleeping hours will therefore be required to sustain and go beyond existing levels of malaria control and achieve elimination.

  6. ACHIEVING LIPID TARGETS IN ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES--THE SANDS STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marie; Silverman, Angela; Fleg, Jerome L.; Lee, Elisa T.; Mete, Mihriye; Weir, Matthew; Wilson, Charlton; Yeh, Fawn; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Wm. James

    2010-01-01

    Background Although lipid management in diabetes is standard practice, goals often are neither met nor maintained. Strategies for achieving lower targets have not been explored. The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) randomized patients with diabetes to standard versus aggressive lipid and blood pressure goals for 36 months. Objective To report strategies used to achieve and maintain lipid goals and to report adverse events (AEs). Methods Adults with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease (N=499) were randomized to standard (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]≤100 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]≤130 mg/dL) or aggressive (LDL-C≤70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C≤100 mg/dL) targets. An algorithm started with statin monotherapy, adding intestinally acting agents as required to reach LDL-C targets. Triglyceride [TG]-lowering agents were next used to reach non-HDL-C goals. Lipid management was performed by mid-level practitioners, with physician consultation, using point-of-care lipid determinations. Results On average, both groups achieved the LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals within 12 months and maintained them throughout the study. At 36 months, mean (SD) LDL-C and non-HDL-C were 72 (24) and 102 (29) mg/dL in the aggressive group (AGG) and 104 (20) and 138 (26) mg/dL, respectively, in the standard group (STD); systolic blood pressure targets were 115 and 130 mmHg, respectively. 68% of participants reached target LDL-C for >50% of the visits and 46% for >75% of visits. At 36 months, the AGG averaged 1.5 lipid lowering medications and the STD 1.2. Statins were used in 91% and 68% of the AGG and STD; ezetimibe by 31% and 10%; fibrates by 8% and 18%. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed; AEs occurred in 18% of the AGG and 14% of the STD. Conclusion Standard and aggressive lipid targets can be safely maintained in diabetic patients. Standardized algorithms, point-of-care lipid testing, and non

  7. EFFICACY OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Koshel'skaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of long-term combined antihypertensive therapy (AHT based on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS blockers, indapamide and calcium channel blocker (CCB in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM in accordance with target blood pressure (BP <130/80 mm Hg achievement rate, dynamics of 24-hour BP profile, metabolic indices, and local stiffness of the main arteries. Besides, to study the effects of the CCB addition to dual therapy on these parameters. Material and methods. Patients (16 men, 31 women, 57.2±6.6 years old with arterial hypertension degrees 1–3 and mild to moderate DM type 2 were included into the study. The patients were treated with perindopril (5–10 mg/day or valsartan (80–160 mg/day in combination with indapamide SR (1.5 mg/day and amlodipine (5–10 mg/day. Examination included office BP measurement and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, common carotid arteries sonarography , evaluation of serum levels of potassium, creatinine, uric acid, glucose metabolism and lipid profile parameters, calculation of insulin resistance index (HOMA at baseline and after 30–32 weeks of treatment. Results. Target BP was achieved in 86.7% of patients. Evenly reduction of day and night BP without reflex tachycardia and hypotension episodes was observed. Office BP decreased from 149.5±12.0/90.0±8.3 to 125.0±7.6/76.8±4.9 mm Hg (p<0.05 and average daily BP (ABPM decreased to 120.1±10.0/71.7±6.9 mmHg. Three drugs were needed to achieve target BP in baseline systolic BP >150 mm Hg (office or >134 mmHg (ABPM. Marked beneficial effect on the morphological and functional characteristics of the vascular wall and its elastic properties, improvement of glycemic control, tissue insulin sensitivity and lipids profile were found. These effects were associated mainly with amlodipine inclusion into the therapy. Conclusion. The combined AHT based on RAAS blockers, indapamide SR and CCB provides achievement of

  8. Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailafia, Samuel; Okoh, God'spower Richard; Olabode, Hamza Olatunde K; Osanupin, Ramatu

    2017-04-01

    Annual reports have shown that 20% of fruits and vegetables produced are lost to spoilage. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify fungi that are associated with spoilt fruits commonly sold in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, and recommend appropriate control measure. The study was conducted in Gwagwalada metropolis, Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 100 spoilt fruits which include pawpaw (Carica papaya), orange (Citrus sinensis), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) were purchased and examined for the presence of fungal organisms using standard methods. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics (frequency and mean) and analysis of variance (pfrequency of 38%. Fusarium avenaceum followed with the frequency of occurrence of 31% in fruits such as pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes while Penicillium digitatum and Rhizopus stolonifer had the least frequency of 4% each in tomato; and orange and tomato, respectively. Other fungal species were identified as yeast (Saccharomyces species) (10%), Fusarium solani (8%), and Aspergillus flavus (5%). The highest prevalence rate was 70% of A. niger from orange followed by F. avenaceum of which 65% isolates were recovered from pawpaw. Other fungal organisms such as yeast (Saccharomyces species), P. digitatum and R. stolonifer were isolated with varying prevalence (40%, 20%, and 5%) from watermelon, tomato, and orange, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the fungal load of the various fruits studied (analysis of variance=478.2857, p<0.05, F=4.680067 and df=34). The pathogenic fungi species associated with fruits spoilage in this study are of economical and public health significance. A. niger causes black mold in certain fruits and vegetables. Some strains of A. niger have been reported to produce potent mycotoxins called ochratoxins that can be

  9. Hypospadias repair and outcome in Abuja, Nigeria: A 5-year single-centre experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisuodionoe-Shadrach, Oseremen Inokhoife; Atim, Terkaa; Eniola, Bolarinwa Sefiu; Ohemu, Alexander Akogwu

    2015-01-01

    Background: To determine the outcome of hypospadias repair in children. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all patients with hypospadias managed at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria from January 2009 to December 2013. Results: Twenty-four cases of hypospadias had corrective surgery during the 5-year period under review. Seventy-five percent of the patients (n = 18) were seen after the 1st year of life. There were two peaks of ages at corrective repair; 45.8% between age 1 and 3 years and 29.1% between age 5 and 10 years. The average age at time of surgery was 44.9 months. Distal hypospadias were more common (58.4%), followed by glanular (20.8%) and proximal (20.8%) hypospadias. Associated anomalies included chordee, maldescended testicles and inguinal hernia in 20.8%, 4.1% and 8.3% cases, respectively. Operative techniques were single-stage procedures in 79.1% of patients consisting of simple circumcision in two cases (10.5%), Mathieu's peri-meatal based flap in four cases (21%), meatal advancement and glanuloplasty incorporated in three cases (16%) and Snodgrass tubularised incised urethral plate tubularised incised plate in 10 cases (52.5%). The remaining 20.9% (n = 5) had multi-staged procedures. The most common post-operative complications were urethrocutenous fistula in nine patients (33.3%) and metal stenosis in 3 patients (12.5%). Conclusions: Our results show that hypospadia repair is froth with attendant high complications in our setting. PMID:25659549

  10. Optimal models with maximizing probability of first achieving target value in the preceding stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林元烈; 伍从斌; 康波大

    2003-01-01

    Decision makers often face the need of performance guarantee with some sufficiently high proba-bility. Such problems can be modelled using a discrete time Markov decision process (MDP) with a probabilitycriterion for the first achieving target value. The objective is to find a policy that maximizes the probabilityof the total discounted reward exceeding a target value in the preceding stages. We show that our formula-tion cannot be described by former models with standard criteria. We provide the properties of the objectivefunctions, optimal value functions and optimal policies. An algorithm for computing the optimal policies forthe finite horizon case is given. In this stochastic stopping model, we prove that there exists an optimal deter-ministic and stationary policy and the optimality equation has a unique solution. Using perturbation analysis,we approximate general models and prove the existence of ε-optimal policy for finite state space. We give anexample for the reliability of the satellite systems using the above theory. Finally, we extend these results tomore general cases.

  11. YOUTH ASPIRATIONS, SOCIAL MOBILITY AND EDUCATIONAL TARGET ACHIEVEMENT IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.M.N.G. Samarakoon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify how young students set educational targets in major competency levels of their education namely, GCE Ordinary Level (O/L, GCE Advanced Level (A/L, First Degree and Post-Graduate level, and how far they achieve those targets or deviate, which can be used as a yardstick to measure the impact and relevance of education in Sri Lanka. The study was conducted in the Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka in 2011. A questionnaire was provided to 150 respondents who were selected based on formal systematic random sampling method. The study reveals that students select their future field of education during the period of GCE O/L based on their performance and set future targets accordingly. The ‘white collar job mentality’ is infused to most students during this period with considerable contribution from parents, family members, teachers and other social networks, which intensifies competition in the job market later on. The Chi-square test concluded that there is a relationship between the selection of subject stream at A/L and family income at 5% level of significance (P value=0.043, probability 95%, which later determines job prospects and their payoffs. Additionally, 67% of the undergraduates in the sample have decided to follow a postgraduate degree due to the challenges in the job market. The paper concludes that though youth aspirations and social mobility are based on education, they are also heavily conditioned by structural realities such as family wealth, status, and life opportunities, as well as unequal distributions of education facilities.

  12. Systematic procedure for generating operational policies to achieve target crystal size distribution (CSD) in batch cooling crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    A systematic procedure to achieve a target crystal size distribution (CSD) under generated operational policies in batch cooling crystallization is presented. An analytical CSD estimator has been employed in the systematic procedure to generate the necessary operational policies to achieve the ta...

  13. Assessment of an electronic wallet system and determinants of cassava farmers’ participation in off-farm activities in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabi Olugbenga Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed an electronic wallet (e-wallet system and determinants of cassava farmers’ participation in off-farm activities in Abuja, Nigeria. A sample of 67 cassava farmers was selected through a multi-stage sampling technique from six selected agricultural extension blocks. Primary data were used. Data were collected using a well-structured and well-designed questionnaire. The analytical tools used were descriptive statistics and maximum likelihood estimates using the logistic regression model. The results indicated that an electronic-wallet is an innovative, motivational mobile phone technology, the first in sub-Saharan Africa to distribute mobile phones to farmers which bring fertilizers, improved seeds, financial services, and agricultural information tips to farmers, and this increases yields and output. The electronic wallet system targeted 20 million farmers with an intention to distribute 10 million mobile phones to farmers in 4 years. In 2014, 1,000 agro-dealers and fourteen million five hundred farmers were registered on the electronic wallet system respectively. Also, one million two hundred farmers have also received inputs via the electronic-wallet system. The electronic-wallet system added an estimated 30-40 billion dollars to Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product in 2014. Furthermore, the result shows that the age of most sampled cassava farmers fell between 36 and 50 years. About 94% of sampled cassava farmers were male. Off-farm income has the potential to improve the income of farmers. These types of activities undertaken by cassava farmers off the farms include: teaching, tailoring, hunting, pottery, blacksmithing, petty trading, etc. Farmers’ age, farming experience and number of off-farm activities were significant variables influencing farmers’ participation in off-farm activities at P ≤ 0.01; P ≤ 0.10; and P ≤ 0.01 respectively. The coefficient of Nagelkerke (R2 value was 0.751.This shows that the

  14. The pattern of paediatric HIV/AIDS as seen at the National Hospital Abuja Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniyangi, O; Awani, B; Iregbu, K C

    2006-12-01

    Paediatric HIV/AIDS has become a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in our environment. The objective of this paper is to determine the mode of transmission, clinical presentations and outcome of hospital admissions in children with Paediatric HIV/AIDS at the National Hospital Abuja Nigeria. A retrospective study of children with Paediatric HIV/AIDS admitted into the hospital from January December 2000 was done. Screening for HIV infection was based on clinical criteria as recommended by WHO except in 3 children with previously diagnosed HIV seropositivity. One positive ELISA and one positive Western Blot assay diagnosed HIV seropositivity. Forty-three HIV positive children aged six weeks to nine years (mean 16.5 months, SD 26.32) were admitted into the Paediatric unit (exclusive of the newborn unit) of the hospital, accounting for 5.7% of all admissions into the unit. There were 35 infants (81.4%). There were 18 males and 25 females (male: female ratio 1:0.72). The presumed modes of transmission were mother to child transmission 40(93.02%), blood transfusion 2 (4.6%) and an unidentified route 1 (2.3%). All parents were in the reproductive age group and there were 6 discordant couples identified (mother HIV positive, father HIV negative). Common presenting symptoms were fever 16 (37.2.8%), diarrhoea 13 (30.2%), difficult/fast breathing 12 (27.9%) and vomiting 8 (18.6%), while clinical signs were crepitations in the lungs 27 (62.7%), pallor 22 (51.2%), oral thrush 20 (46.5%), hepatomegaly 18 (41.9%), and dehydration 16 (37.2%). Admitting diagnoses were pneumonia 26 (60.5%), septicaemia 4 (9.3%), diarrhoea with dehydration, intestinal obstruction and malnutrition 2 (4.7%) each. There were 14 deaths (mortality rate 32.6%); accounting for 28.57% of total deaths in the paediatric unit during the period. Thirteen (13) (92.8%) deaths occurred in children aged 2 years old and below. The greatest contributors to mortality were pneumonia 10 (71.4%) and septicaemia

  15. Skin Prick Test Analysis in Allergic Rhinitis Patients: A Preliminary Study in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. U. Ibekwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is prevalent in Nigeria, though little information exists on the allergen. We assessed the clinical features of AR patients in our environment based on the allergic rhinitis impact on asthma (ARIA classification. Only patients with positive skin prick test (SPT were recruited. Seventy-four patients participated in the study. AR and asthma comorbidity were observed in 13.5%. The proportion of “sneezers-runners” was higher than “blockers” with significantly more “sneezers-runners” having persistent AR (P=0.007. No relationship was established between these predominant symptoms and the aeroallergens used in this study. Intermittent mild and moderate/severe AR were evident in 13.5% and 31.1%, while persistent mild and moderate/severe were seen in 20.3% and 35.1%, respectively. House dust mites allergen yielded the highest number of positive responses (22.6% followed by tree pollen (16.8%. No relationship was observed between the allergens tested and AR severity. Majority of patients were oligosensitive (33.8% and polysensitive (35.1% and were not significantly associated with AR severity (P=0.07. Most AR patients presenting for treatment in Abuja, Nigeria, had moderate-severe persistent AR and showed similar SPT sensitization pattern with countries having similar climatic conditions. Sensitization patterns were not related to ARIA classification or predominant AR symptoms.

  16. Categorisation Of Clay Deposits In The Federal Capital Territory Of Abuja

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    Manukaji John U.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Clay deposits in the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja were investigated with a view to categorizing them in order to determine their suitability as insulating refractory material. Thesamples were collected from three different locations in the territory, namely Sheda, Abaji and Karimu, and labeled A, B, and C. In order toproject a better representation of the territory, the samples were mined from ten cites each. The mined clay samples from the ten cites were mixed properly and a representative specimen for test from that location was produced using the cone and quartering system as recommended by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM. Atomic Absorption Spectrometer(AAS was used to determine the chemical composition, while other established processes were used to determine other insulating properties likeparticle size distribution, specific gravity, bulk density, solid density, water absorption, apparent porosity, permeability to air, refractoriness, thermal shock resistance, modulus of rupture, linear shrinkage and thermal conductivity. The chemical analysis showed that all the samples had high percentages of silica and alumina, thereby classifying them as Alumino-silicates.

  17. Aetiology and presentation of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint: report of 23 cases from Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Seidu Adebayo; Aluko Olokun, Bayo; Olaitan, Abayomi Ademola; Ajike, Sunday O

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reviewed the management of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), but only a few focused on the aetiology and clinical features. We retrospectively studied the aetiology and clinical features of patients with ankylosis of the TMJ who presented to the Maxillofacial Unit, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, between 2004 and 2009. There were 13 male and 10 female patients, M:F ratio 1.3:1, age range 6-62, mean (SD) 20 (13) years. The aetiological factors were trauma (n=11) that comprised falls (n=6), untreated fractures of the zygomatic arch (n=4) and myositis ossificans (n=1); infection (n=9), that comprised cancrum oris (n=3) and ear infection (n=6); congenital or unknown (n=2), and coronoid hyperplasia (n=1). The maximum interincisal distance at presentation ranged from 0 to 25 mm (mean (SD) 6.7 (7.2) mm). Seventeen had facial deformities. The diagnoses recorded were as follows: left extracapsular ankylosis, (n=8); right intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=6); left intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=4); bilateral intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=4), and bilateral intracapsular fibrous ankylosis (n=1). Extreme poverty was the main predisposing factor. There is a need for a concerted effort among healthcare providers, policy makers, and the world in general to eradicate poverty and improve healthcare to limit the incidence of ankylosis of the TMJ.

  18. Airborne pollen and fungal spores in Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezike, Dimphna Nneka; Nnamani, Catherine V; Ogundipe, Oluwatoyin T; Adekanmbi, Olushola H

    2016-01-01

    The ambient atmosphere is dominated with pollen and spores, which trigger allergic reactions and diseases and impact negatively on human health. A survey of pollen and fungal spores constituents of the atmosphere of Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria) was carried out for 1 year (June 1, 2011-May 31, 2012). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and abundance of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere and their relationship with meteorological parameters. Airborne samples were trapped using modified Tauber-like pollen trap, and the recipient solutions were subjected to acetolysis. Results revealed the abundance of fungal spores, pollen, fern spores, algal cysts and diatoms in decreasing order of dominance. The atmosphere was qualitatively and quantitatively dominated by pollen during the period of late rainy/harmattan season than the rainy season. Numerous fungal spores were trapped throughout the sampling periods among which Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Curvularia spp. dominated. These fungi have been implicated in allergic diseases and are dermatophytic, causing diverse skin diseases. Other pathogenic fungi found in the studied aeroflora were Dreschlera spp., Helminthosporium spp., Torula spp., Pithomyces spp., Tetraploa spp., Nigrospora ssp., Spadicoides spp., Puccinia spp. and Erysiphe graminis. Total pollen and fungal spores counts do not show significant correlation with meteorological parameters.

  19. Comparison of public and private school teachers and school principals’ opinions in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Deniz Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine public and private school teachers’ opinions on different aspects of their professional associations and provisions and also asks principals about teachers’ conduct and their views on the Nigerian curriculum. To conduct this study, qualitative and quantitative research models were used to investigate differences between the two organizations. Quantitative data was collected by distributing questionnaires to 118 teachers in the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC, Nigeria. To conduct the qualitative analysis, 15 teachers from two schools were selected (a total of 30 teachers to answer 5 discussion questions concerning their views on the Nigerian educational system. The findings revealed that private school teachers are at an advantage when it comes to provision of resources and technology, professional development and to some degree salaries. Both public and private school teachers felt being a teacher did not bring them respect in their community. Government policy makers need to study private schools and how they operate to see how they can make changes to produce the revolutionary reform needed in education. 30 principals’ interviews revealed that public school teachers are not easily held accountable for misconduct due to the structure of leadership, while private school teachers are held accountable and any form of unprofessionalism easily leads to termination of employment.

  20. Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

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    Okwoche J. Ode

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05 higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria.

  1. Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeiza, Gabriel K; Ajayi, Itopa E; Ode, Okwoche J

    2012-01-01

    Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria.

  2. Achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 to improve the performance of protected areas and conserve freshwater biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Juffe-Bignoli; Ian Harrison; Stuart HM Butchart; Rebecca Flitcroft; Virgilio Hermoso; Harry Jonas; Anna Lukasiewicz; Michele Thieme; Eren Turak; Heather Bingham; James Dalton; William Darwall; Marine Deguignet; Nigel Dudley; Royal Gardner; Jonathan Higgins; Ritesh Kumar; Simon Linke; G Randy Milton; Jamie Pittock; Kevin G Smith; Arnout van Soesbergen

    2016-01-01

    1. The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011–2020), adopted at the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, sets 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets to be met by 2020 to address biodiversity loss and ensure its sustainable and equitable use. Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 describes what an improved conservation network would look...

  3. Achieving target SBP for lowering the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in persons with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Szymonifka, Jackie; Okin, Peter M

    2017-08-21

    To test the efficacy of achieving target SBP less than 120 mmHg, or less than 140 mmHg, for lowering the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in persons with diabetes mellitus. The study comprised 4732 [mean ± SD age: 63 ± 7 years; 2258 (48%) women] persons with advanced diabetes mellitus. Participants randomly assigned to achieve intensive (<120 mmHg) or standard (<140 mmHg) SBP control were grouped according to whether or not they achieved their respective SBP goal. MACE consisted of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes. During a median 5.0 (interquartile range: 4.2-5.7) years, 1939 (82%) and 2038 (86%) persons achieved SBP targets less than 120 and less than 140 mmHg in each treatment arm, respectively. Overall, 208 (9%) and 237 (10%) persons in the intensive and standard treatment arms experienced MACE. In the intensive treatment arm, multivariable Cox regression revealed no significant reduction in risk of MACE for those who achieved a target SBP less than 120 mmHg. In the standard treatment arm, those who achieved a target SBP less than 140 mmHg displayed a substantial reduction in risk of MACE (hazard ratio = 0.65, P = 0.005), all-cause death (hazard ratio = 0.64, P = 0.02), and nonfatal stroke (hazard ratio = 0.47, P = 0.02) as compared with those whose achieved SBP was 140 mmHg or higher. Achieving a standard SBP goal between 120 and 140 mmHg may prove useful for lowering cardiovascular risk in persons with diabetes mellitus. Achieving a target SBP less than 120 mmHg does not appear to mitigate risk. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT00000620 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT00000620&Search=Search).

  4. Determinants for achieving the LDL-C target of lipid control for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in Taiwan.

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    Li-Ting Ho

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have clearly established the link between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular consequences. Although it has been a common practice for physicians to prescribe lipid-lowering therapy for patients with dyslipidemia, the achievement rate is still not satisfied in Taiwan. Therefore, the determinants for achieving the LDL-C target needed to be clarified for better healthcare of the patients with dyslipidemia.This registry-type prospective observational study enrolled the patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease (CAD and cerebrovascular disease (CVD from 18 medical centers across Taiwan, and clinically followed them for five years. At every clinical visit, vital signs, clinical endpoints, adverse events, concurrent medications and laboratory specimens were obtained as thoroughly as possible. The lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride, liver enzymes, and creatinine phosphokinase were evaluated at baseline, and every year thereafter. The cross sectional observational data was analyzed for this report.Among the 3,486 registered patients, 54% had their LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. By univariate analysis, the patients achieving the LDL-C target were associated with older age, more male sex, taller height, lower blood pressure, more under lipid-lowering therapy, more smoking cessation, more history of CAD, DM, physical activity, but less history of CVD. The multivariate analysis showed statin therapy was the most significant independent determinant for achieving the treatment target, followed by age, history of CAD, diabetes, blood pressure, and sex. However, most patients were on regimens of very-low to low equipotent doses of statins.Although the lipid treatment guideline adherence is improving in recent years, only 54% of the patients with cardiovascular diseases have achieved their LDL-C target in Taiwan

  5. 10 years of Vertigo Clinic at National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusesi, Abiodun D; Abubakar, J

    2016-11-01

    The clinician's major role in management of the dizzy patient involves determining what dizziness is vertigo, and what vertigo is of central or peripheral origin. These demand attention to details of history, otolaryngological workup including vestibular assessment, and often use of diagnostic and management algorithms. There is paucity of published reports of the management outcomes of peripheral vestibular diseases from Africa. Two tertiary care otologist-led dedicated vertigo clinics are located in Abuja, Nigeria. A prospective, non-randomized study of patients presenting with features of peripheral vestibular diseases attending the National Hospital Abuja Nigeria (between May 2005 and April 2014) and CSR Otologics Specialist Clinics (May 2010 to April 2014) was carried out. Both institutions adopted the same diagnostic and management protocols. Data extracted from anonymized databases created for this study include age, sex, vertigo duration (acute 12 weeks), dizziness handicap inventory score at presentation and at subsequent visits, otological and vestibular findings, ice-water caloric testing results, other investigation outcomes, treatments offered and outcomes. 561/575 (97.5 %) of the cases recorded had peripheral vestibular disease. The male-to-female ratio was 290:271. The mean age of the subjects was 44.7 years. Duration of vertigo at presentation was acute in 278 subjects and chronic in 283 subjects. Identifiable clinical diagnostic groups include BPPV (n = 200), Meniere's disease (n = 189), cervicogenic vertigo (n = 35), labyrinthitis (n = 32), Migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) (n = 32), cholesteatoma/perilymph Fistula (n = 10), climacteric vertigo (n = 8) and unclassified vertigo (n = 55). Migraine-associated vertigo recorded the highest DHI score (95 % CI 75 ± 4.3), followed by cholesteatoma/perilymph fistula (95 % CI 72 ± 6.1) and labyrinthitis (95 % CI 62 ± 1.9). Pure tone audiometry (95 % CI 67.3 ± 3

  6. Bacterial isolates associated with pelvic inflammatory disease among female patients attending some hospitals in abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, T H I; Umeh, P O; Irokanulo, E; Baba, M M; Spencer, B B; Umar, A I; Ardzard, S A; Oderinde, S; Onoja, O

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease refers to any infection in the female lower reproductive tract that spreads to the upper reproductive tract. The disease comprises a spectrum of inflammatory disorders of the upper female genital tract, including any combination of endometritis, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess and pelvic peritonitis. PID is not a notifiable disease in most countries, so accurate statistics are not available. This situation is not in any way different here in Nigeria and more so in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja where this research was conducted, there had never been any published report so far on PID. It therefore became pertinent that such studies be carried out to evaluate the bacterial organisms which may be associated with the disease in this part of Nigeria so that health care providers could take a better look at this affliction in women. Endocervical swabs totalling 100 were aseptically collected from patients with confirmed Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), attending some hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria for detection of bacterial pathogens based on cultural and biochemical characterisation tests. Antibiogram was also conducted on the identified bacterial isolates. Out of the 100 samples analysed, 43% yielded pure cultures of bacterial isolates, 2% yielded mixed cultures while no bacterial growths were recorded from the remaining 55% samples. Organisms encountered were Staphylococcus aureus (16%), Escherichia coli (10%), Streptococcus faecalis (8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4%), Streptococcus pyogenes (3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3%), Proteus rettgeri (2%) and Proteus mirabilis (1%). The highest percentage occurrence of pathogenic isolates was observed in polygamous married patients (90%). The age group most affected falls within the mean age 30.5 years (68%) while the least affected group falls within the mean age 40.5 years (5%). There was a significant difference in the acquisition of PID in relation to marital status (P disease with

  7. Engineering fusogenic molecules to achieve targeted transduction of enveloped lentiviral vectors

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    Wang Pin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors with broad tropism are one of the most promising gene delivery systems capable of efficiently delivering genes of interest into both dividing and non-dividing cells while maintaining long-term transgene expression. However, there are needs for developing lentiviral vectors with the capability to deliver genes to specific cell types, thus reducing the "off-target" effect of gene therapy. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of engineering the fusion-active domain of a fusogenic molecule (FM with the aim to improve targeted transduction of lentiviral vectors co-displaying an anti-CD20 antibody (αCD20 and a FM. Results Specific mutations were introduced into the fusion domain of a binding-deficient Sindbis virus glycoprotein to generate several mutant FMs. Lentiviral vectors incorporated with αCD20 and one of the engineered FMs were successfully produced and demonstrated to be able to preferentially deliver genes to CD-20-expressing cells. Lentiviral vectors bearing engineered FMs exhibited 8 to 17-fold enhanced transduction towards target cells as compared to the parental FM. Different levels of enhancement were observed for the different engineered FMs. A pH-dependent study of vector transduction showed that the broader pH range of the engineered FM is a possible mechanism for the resulted increase in transduction efficiency. Conclusion The fusion domain of Sindbis virus glycoprotein is amenable for engineering and the engineered proteins provide elevated capacity to mediate lentiviral vectors for targeted transduction. Our data suggests that application of such an engineering strategy can optimize the two-molecular targeting method of lentiviral vectors for gene delivery to predetermined cells.

  8. Seropositivity ofChlamydophila pneumoniae immunoglobulin G antibody of HIV/AIDS patients in Abuja, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakubu Boyi Ngwai; Izebe KS; Ijele IG; Ishaleku D; Inyang US

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To detect IgG antibody toChlamydophila pneumoniae(CP)in sera ofHIV/AIDS patients and provide rationale for inclusion of routine screening for anti-CP antibodies and anti-chlamydial agents in the Nigerian NationalHIV/AIDS Management Plan.Methods: Serum samples from34 consentingHIV/AIDS patients attended a Government-approved Antiretroviral Treatment Facility in Abuja were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-CP IgG antibody using ImmunoComb® Chlamydia Bivalent IgG Test kit (Orgenics, Israel).Results:Anti-CP IgG antibody was detected in20 (58.8%)of34 patients tested. The detection rate was higher among the males(8/13; 61.5%) than the females (12/21; 57.1%). Patients of the age group 16-30 years had the highest(7/10; 70%) detection of anti-CP IgG antibody.Conclusions:The result of the present study suggests the presence of anti-CP antibodies in sera of the HIV/AIDS patients, and reinforces the need for routine screening for anti-CPantibodies as a necessary intervention to reduce the burden ofChlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infections and to reduceHIV-positive morbidity in Nigeria. The outcome of this study also provides justification for the possible inclusion of anti-chlamydial agents in the NationalHIV/AIDS Management Plan to provide prophylaxis against or treat activeC. pneumoniae infections.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of violence against female sex workers in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Dagunduro, Abosede T

    2014-06-01

    Few studies in Africa provide detailed descriptions of the vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) to violence. To document the prevalence and types of violence experienced by FSWs, identify the risk factors of experiencing violence to women (VAW) and the perpetrators of these acts. An analytical cross sectional survey of 305 brothel-based FSWs and in-depth interview of 20 chairpersons residing in brothels in Abuja, Nigeria was done. The prevalence of VAW six months preceding the survey was 52.5%. Sexual violence was the commonest type (41.9%) of violence experienced, followed by economic (37.7%), physical violence (35.7%) and psychological (31.9%). The main perpetrators of sexual violence were clients (63.8%) and brothel management (18.7%). Sexual violence was significantly more experienced (aOR 2.23; 95%CI 1.15-4.36) by older FSWs than their younger counterparts, by permanent brothel residents (aOR 2.08; 95%CI 1.22-3.55) and among those who had been in the sex industry for more than five years (aOR 2.01; 95%CI 0.98-4.10). Respondents with good knowledge levels of types of violence were less vulnerable to physical violence (aOR 0.45; 95%CI 0.26-0.77). Psychological violence was more likely among FSWs who smoked (aOR 2.16; 95%CI 1.26-3.81). Risk of economic violence decreased with educational levels (aOR 0.54; 95%CI 0.30-0.99 and aOR 0.42; 95%CI 0.22-0.83 for secondary and post secondary respectively). Consequences of the violence included sexually transmitted infections (20%) and HIV (8.0%). Interventions that educate FSWs on their rights and enable them avoid violence are urgently required. Young women need economic and educational empowerments to enable them avoid sex work.

  10. Enhancing the Standard of Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century via Qualitative School-Based Supervision in Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebele, Uju F.; Olofu, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    The study focused on enhancing the standard of teaching and learning in the 21st century via qualitative school-based supervision in secondary schools in Abuja municipal area council. To guide the study, two null hypotheses were formulated. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The sample of the study constituted of 270 secondary…

  11. [Update of planning tables of cholesterol-lowering therapy orientated to achieve LDL therapeutic targets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, Luis; Plana, Núria

    2015-01-01

    This is the third update of a planning-table for use in cholesterol-lowering therapy, so as to obtain LDLc objectives. This is an easy to use laptop tool to help choose the best statin or combination therapy (statin plus ezetimibe) depending on the current LDL concentration of the patient, and the LDLc objective to achieve. It is based on a colour code that indicates the drugs that are efficient enough to help patients to achieve their LDL goal. Along with the table, recommendations are given for the best strategy in order to implement the optimal therapy in a maximum of two clinical encounters. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Urban governance and spatial inequality in service delivery: a case study of solid waste management in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, Onyanta

    2012-09-01

    Spatial inequality in service delivery is a common feature in African cities. Several factors account for the phenomenon but there is growing attention towards urban governance and the role of the state. Urban governance policies such as privatization serve as key strategies through which the state regulates and (re)produces spatial inequality in service delivery. This study examined how governance practices related to privatization and the regulatory role of the state reinforce spatial inequalities in the delivery of solid waste services in Abuja, Nigeria. It focused primarily on the issue of cost recovery. Privatization became a major focus in Abuja in 2003 when the government launched a pilot scheme. Although it has brought improvements in service delivery, privatization has also increased the gap in the quality of services delivered in different parts of the city. Drawing on empirical data, the study revealed that little sensitivity to income and affordability, and to income differentials between neighbourhoods in the fixing of user charges and in the choice of the billing method is contributing to spatial inequalities in service delivery. Furthermore, the study suggests that these practices are linked to a broader issue, a failure of the government to see the people as partners. It therefore calls for more inclusive governance especially in decision-making processes. The study also emphasizes the need for a policy document on solid waste management, as this would encourage a critical assessment of vital issues including how privatization is to be funded, especially in low-income areas.

  13. Treatment scale-up to achieve global HCV incidence and mortality elimination targets: a cost-effectiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nick; McBryde, Emma S; Thompson, Alexander; Doyle, Joseph S; Hellard, Margaret E

    2017-08-01

    The WHO's draft HCV elimination targets propose an 80% reduction in incidence and a 65% reduction in HCV-related deaths by 2030. We estimate the treatment scale-up required and cost-effectiveness of reaching these targets among injecting drug use (IDU)-acquired infections using Australian disease estimates. A mathematical model of HCV transmission, liver disease progression and treatment among current and former people who inject drugs (PWID). Treatment scale-up and the most efficient allocation to priority groups (PWID or patients with advanced liver disease) were determined; total healthcare and treatment costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) compared with inaction were calculated. 5662 (95% CI 5202 to 6901) courses per year (30/1000 IDU-acquired infections) were required, prioritised to patients with advanced liver disease, to reach the mortality target. 4725 (3278-8420) courses per year (59/1000 PWID) were required, prioritised to PWID, to reach the incidence target; this also achieved the mortality target, but to avoid clinically unacceptable HCV-related deaths an additional 5564 (1959-6917) treatments per year (30/1000 IDU-acquired infections) were required for 5 years for patients with advanced liver disease. Achieving both targets in this way cost $A4.6 ($A4.2-$A4.9) billion more than inaction, but gained 184 000 (119 000-417 000) QALYs, giving an ICER of $A25 121 ($A11 062-$A39 036) per QALY gained. Achieving WHO elimination targets with treatment scale-up is likely to be cost-effective, based on Australian HCV burden and demographics. Reducing incidence should be a priority to achieve both WHO elimination goals in the long-term. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Dobutamine stress echo is superior to exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate among patients on beta blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Adam; Pack, Michael; Markiewicz, Richard; John, Jooby; Gaballa, Mohamed; Goldman, Steven; Thai, Hoang

    2005-01-01

    Published guidelines recommend continuing beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in patients undergoing stress testing. We evaluated the role of pharmacological versus exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate (THR) among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade. We compared data from 140 patients who underwent dobutamine stress echo (DSE) and 143 patients who underwent exercise treadmill testing (ETT). In both groups, beta-adrenergic blocker was continued at the time of stress testing. Overall, patients undergoing DSE achieved THR more frequently than ETT. With beta-adrenergic blockade, DSE patients met THR more frequently than ETT patients (p < 0.001). Without beta-adrenergic blockade, there was no difference between either modality in achieving THR. In both DSE and ETT patients, absence of beta-adrenergic blockade increased the odds of achieving THR [odds ratio (OR): 2.46, p = 0.042 and OR: 7.44, p < 0.001, respectively]. Atropine use with DSE increased the odds of achieving THR (OR: 3.76, p = 0.006). In conclusion, pharmacological stress testing appears to be superior to exercise stress testing in achieving THR among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade.

  15. Comparative analysis of prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimah CU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carol Uzoamaka Chimah,1 Prosper Obunikem Uche Adogu,2 Kofoworola Odeyemi,3 Amobi Linus Ilika4 1Medical Department, Ministry of Defence Headquarters, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine and PHC, Nnamdi Azikiwe University/Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Health, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across societies irrespective of economic status or gender. Most data on IPV before World Health Organization multicountry study (WHOMCS usually came from sources other than the military. Result of this study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may serve as a baseline for future studies in military populations. This study compares the prevalence of the different types of IPV against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria.Methods: Using a multistage sampling technique, 260 women who had intimate male partners were selected from military and civilian communities of Abuja. Collected data on personal characteristics and different types of IPV experienced were analyzed to demonstrate comparison of the association between the different forms of IPV and the respondents’ sociodemographic and partner characteristics in the two study populations using percentages and Χ-square statistics, and P-value was assumed to be significant at ≤0.05.Results: The prevalence of the four major types of IPV was higher among the military respondents than among civilians: controlling behavior, 37.1% versus 29.1%; emotional/psychological abuse, 42.4% versus 13.4%; physical abuse, 19.7% versus 5.9%, and sexual abuse, 9.2% versus 8.8%. Significantly more respondents from the military population (59 [45.4%] compared to civilians (21 [19.4%] were prevented by their partners from seeing their friends (P=0.000. The situation is reversed with regard to permission to seek

  16. Non-achievement of clinical targets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, M; Mafauzy, M; Faridah, A R

    2004-06-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether the clinical targets for the control of diabetes recommended by American Diabetes Association can be met in the context of routine diabetes practice. This cross-sectional study was undertaken on 211 type 2 diabetic patients at the Outpatients Diabetes Clinic, Hospital Universisti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) Kubang Kerian, Kelantan between the year 2001-2002. Patients' physical examination and their medical history as well as their family history were obtained by administering a structured questionnaire. Samples of patients' venous blood during fasting were taken and analysed for plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin and lipid profile. Analysis showed that many patients had comorbidities or complications. A large number of them had poor glycaemic control (73%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 75% and 85% subjects were > or = 130 and > or = 80 mmHg, respectively. Body Mass Index (BMI) values of 66% of the patients were outside the clinical target (BMI > or = 25 in male and > or = 24 kg/m2 in female). The lipid profile showed that 96% of the patients had at least one lipid value outside the clinical target level. In this study, 70% of the patients had total cholesterol > or = 5.2 mmol/L, 87% had LDL cholesterol > or = 2.6 mmol/L, 57% had HDL cholesterol less than the normal range, or = 1.71 mmol/L. Complications of diabetes were observed in 48% of the total number of patients. As for the patients' systolic blood pressure, age and duration of diabetes were found to have significant effects. Older subjects with a longer duration of diabetes were more hypertensive. Variables that had significant effects on BMI were age, duration of diabetes, glycaemic control and gender. Younger females and newly diagnosed subjects with better glycaemic control (A1C < 7%) were found to have higher BMI values. The overall clinical targets were suboptimal. The prevalence of hyperlipidaemia and hypertension was high. It is imperative that

  17. Targeted immunotherapy of cancer with CAR T cells: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska-Bhalla, Grazyna; Gilham, David E; Hawkins, Robert E; Rothwell, Dominic G

    2012-07-01

    The adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells is a relatively new but promising approach in the field of cancer immunotherapy. This therapeutic strategy is based on the genetic reprogramming of T cells with an artificial immune receptor that redirects them against targets on malignant cells and enables their destruction by exerting T cell effector functions. There has been an explosion of interest in the use of CAR T cells as an immunotherapy for cancer. In the pre-clinical setting, there has been a considerable focus upon optimizing the structural and signaling potency of the CAR while advances in bio-processing technology now mean that the clinical testing of these gene-modified T cells has become a reality. This review will summarize the concept of CAR-based immunotherapy and recent clinical trial activity and will further discuss some of the likely future challenges facing CAR-modified T cell therapies.

  18. Trade-offs of different land and bioenergy policies on the path to achieving climate targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Patel, Pralit L. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-10-16

    Many papers have shown that bioenergy and land-use are potentially important elements in a strategy to limit anthropogenic climate change. But, significant expansion of bioenergy production can have a large terrestrial footprint. In this paper, we test the implications for land use, the global energy system, carbon cycle, and carbon prices of meeting a specific climate target, using a single fossil fuel and industrial sector policy instrument—the carbon tax, but with five alternative bioenergy and land-use policy architectures. We find that the policies we examined have differing effects on the different segments of the economy. Comprehensive land policies can reduce land-use change emissions, increasing allowable emissions in the energy system, but have implications for the cost of food. Bioenergy taxes and constraints, on the other hand, have little effect on food prices, but can result in increased carbon and energy prices.

  19. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  20. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-05-27

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  1. MODIFIED RELEASE FORMULATIONS TO ACHIEVE THE QUALITY TARGET PRODUCT PROFILE (QTPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithilesh Kumar Jha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Modified Release (MR Formulations have a modification in the release mechanism. Modified release dosage forms are developed by altering drug absorption or the site of drug release in order to achieve predetermined clinical objectives. Modified drug release from dosage forms is complemented by the allied processes of drug design, of dosage administration, and of membrane transport and absorption of drug to the biological site of action. Modified-release drugs have complex formulations that can offer an advantage over standard medication for some patients. Modified-release preparations should only be used where there is a clear clinical advantage over conventional-release preparations. In general, Modified-release preparations should be reserved for specific patients where there is a problem with compliance, effectiveness or side-effects which these preparations could help overcome. Modified–release technologies have become indispensable to resolving critical technical, therapeutic, and marketing challenges, such as improving patience compliance, less dosage timings, better safety, better indications, delivering poorly soluble and poorly absorbable API’s, product differentiation, patent protection, product life-cycle extension, and better margins. Modified-release formulation design can be conducted for oral and non-oral administration routes. Possible therapeutic benefits of an MR product include improved efficacy and reduced adverse events, increased convenience and patient compliance, optimized performance, a greater selectivity of activity, or new indications.

  2. Achievement of Target Blood Pressure Levels among Japanese Workers with Hypertension and Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Therapeutic Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagako Kudo

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined Japanese with regard to the achievement rates for target blood pressure levels, or the relationship between these rates and healthy lifestyle characteristics in patients with hypertension as defined by the newly established hypertension management guidelines (JSH2014. The aim of this study was to elucidate achievement rates and examine healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with achievement status among Japanese.This cross-sectional study, conducted in January-December 2012, examined blood pressure control and healthy lifestyle characteristics in 8,001 Japanese workers with hypertension (mean age, 57.0 years; 78.8% were men who participated in a workplace health checkup. Data were collected from workplace medical checkup records and participants' self-administered questionnaires. We divided into 5 groups [G1; young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (65-74 years old without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD (<140/90 mmHg, G2; late-phase elderly patients (≥75 years old without diabetes mellitus or CKD (<150/90 mmHg, G3; diabetic patients (<130/80 mmHg, G4; patients with CKD (<130/80 mmHg, and G5; patients with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (<140/90 mmHg] according to JSH2014. And then, achievement rates were calculated in each group. Multivariate analysis identified healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with "therapeutic failure" of target blood pressure.Target blood pressures were achieved by 60.2% of young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (G1, 71.4% of late-phase elderly patients (G2, 30.5% of diabetic patients (G3, 33.4% of those with chronic kidney disease (G4, and 66.0% of those with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (G5. A body mass index of 18.5-24.9 and non-daily alcohol consumption were protective factors, and adequate sleep was found to contribute to therapeutic success.We found low achievement rates for treatment goals

  3. Determination of chloramphenicol residues in commercial chicken eggs in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbodi, Felix E; Nguku, P; Okolocha, E; Kabir, J

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in poultry can result in residues in eggs. The joint FAO/WHO committee recommended banning the use of chloramphenicol (CAP) in food animals due to its public health hazards of aplastic anaemia, leukaemia, allergy, antibacterial resistance and carcinogenicity. This paper determines the prevalence of CAP residues in chicken eggs and assesses the usage and awareness of its ban amongst poultry farmers in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of registered poultry farmers in FCT was conducted using questionnaires to determine CAP administration in poultry and awareness of its ban. Pooled egg samples were collected from each poultry farm surveyed and from randomly sampled government-owned markets in FCT. Source of eggs by state were identified by the marketer at the time of collection. Samples were analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for the presence of CAP, and prevalence was determined. Of 288 total pooled samples collected, 257 (89.2%) were from the markets and 31 (10.8%) were from poultry farms. A total of 20 (7%) pooled egg samples tested CAP-positive; market eggs originated from 15 (41%) states of the country. Of the market eggs, 16 (6.2%) pooled samples tested positive. Of eggs from poultry farms, four (12.9%) tested positive. Mean CAP concentrations in the positive samples ranged from 0.49 to 1.17 µg kg(-1) (parts per billion). CAP use amongst poultry farmers in FCT was 75.5%; awareness of the CAP ban was 26.3%. Though 66% of veterinarians were unaware of a CAP ban, they were more likely to be aware than other poultry farmers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4). Farm managers who use CAP were more likely to be aware of CAP ban than the farm managers not using CAP (OR = 5.5; p = 0.04). Establishing a drug residue surveillance and control program and enforcement of CAP legislation/regulation is needful to educate and prohibit the widespread CAP use amongst Nigerian poultry farmers.

  4. Comparative analysis of prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimah, Carol Uzoamaka; Adogu, Prosper Obunikem Uche; Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Ilika, Amobi Linus

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across societies irrespective of economic status or gender. Most data on IPV before World Health Organization multicountry study (WHOMCS) usually came from sources other than the military. Result of this study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may serve as a baseline for future studies in military populations. This study compares the prevalence of the different types of IPV against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling technique, 260 women who had intimate male partners were selected from military and civilian communities of Abuja. Collected data on personal characteristics and different types of IPV experienced were analyzed to demonstrate comparison of the association between the different forms of IPV and the respondents' sociodemographic and partner characteristics in the two study populations using percentages and χ-square statistics, and P-value was assumed to be significant at ≤0.05. The prevalence of the four major types of IPV was higher among the military respondents than among civilians: controlling behavior, 37.1% versus 29.1%; emotional/psychological abuse, 42.4% versus 13.4%; physical abuse, 19.7% versus 5.9%, and sexual abuse, 9.2% versus 8.8%. Significantly more respondents from the military population (59 [45.4%]) compared to civilians (21 [19.4%]) were prevented by their partners from seeing their friends (P=0.000). The situation is reversed with regard to permission to seek health care for self, with civilians reporting a significantly higher prevalence (35 [32.4%]) than did military respondents (20 [15.4%]) (P=0.002). The military respondents were clearly at a higher risk of experiencing all the variants of emotional violence than the civilians (P=0.00). The commonest form of physical violence against women was "being slapped or having something thrown at them, that could hurt

  5. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J

    2016-04-15

    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  6. The Socioeconomic Benefit to Individuals of Achieving the 2020 Targets for Five Preventive Chemotherapy Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyendijk, Marianne; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Niessen, Louis; Stolk, Wilma A.; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Bakker, Roel; Hontelez, Jan A. C.; Richardus, Jan H.; Jacobson, Julie; de Vlas, Sake J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and trachoma represent the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). They can be controlled or eliminated by means of safe and cost-effective interventions delivered through programs of Mass Drug Administration (MDA)—also named Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT). The WHO defined targets for NTD control/elimination by 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration, which, if achieved, would result in dramatic health gains. We estimated the potential economic benefit of achieving these targets, focusing specifically on productivity and out-of-pocket payments. Methods Productivity loss was calculated by combining disease frequency with productivity loss from the disease, from the perspective of affected individuals. Productivity gain was calculated by deducting the total loss expected in the target achievement scenario from the loss in a counterfactual scenario where it was assumed the pre-intervention situation in 1990 regarding NTDs would continue unabated until 2030. Economic benefits from out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) were calculated similarly. Benefits are reported in 2005 US$ (purchasing power parity-adjusted and discounted at 3% per annum from 2010). Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the influence of changes in input parameters. Results The economic benefit from productivity gain was estimated to be I$251 billion in 2011–2020 and I$313 billion in 2021–2030, considerably greater than the total OPPs averted of I$0.72 billion and I$0.96 billion in the same periods. The net benefit is expected to be US$ 27.4 and US$ 42.8 for every dollar invested during the same periods. Impact varies between NTDs and regions, since it is determined by disease prevalence and extent of disease-related productivity loss. Conclusion Achieving the PCT-NTD targets for 2020 will yield significant economic benefits to affected individuals. Despite large

  7. Is the Target of 1 Day of Stay per 1% Total Body Surface Area Burned Achieved in Chemical Burns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teresa; Wong, David S Y

    2016-02-01

    The length of hospital stay (LOS) is a standard parameter used to reflect quality and evaluate outcomes in acute burn care. This study aims to assess whether the target of 1 day of stay per 1% total body surface area (TBSA) burned was achieved in acute chemical burns management and factors affecting the LOS. A retrospective analysis of the records of patients who suffered from chemical burn injuries admitted to a university burn center over a continuous 14-year period was performed.A total of 118 patients were admitted over the period for chemical burns. Only 14% of cases achieved the target stated. Factors associated with lengthening of the hospital stay included TBSA, ocular involvement, the cause of injury, and the need for surgery during the same admission.The LOS in chemical burns frequently exceeds 1 day of stay per 1% TBSA burned. Many factors can contribute to a patient's LOS and are worth exploring in order to see if the impact of these factors could be minimized. Early surgical intervention should help to reduce the LOS if reliable methods of burn wound depth assessment are available.

  8. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Schmidt, Julie Berg

    2016-01-01

    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd......, the majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood...... 4·4) kg/m2) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan®, 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7...

  9. The Impact of Home Environment Factors on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Garki Area District, Abuja - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Dzever

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the impact of home environment factors on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Garki Area District, Abuja, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was used to select 300 students from six public schools, while the simple random sampling technique was used to administer the questionnaire. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design for the study. Also, data on student’s academic performance was obtained from student’s scores in four selected school subjects. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques; Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple regression analysis (ANOVA. The results result revealed a positive and significant relationship between permissive patenting style with academic performance (p0.05. Also, the result from the study identified income, educational background and occupational level as well as permissive parenting style as the main predictive variables influencing students’ academic performance.

  10. Knowledge of breast cancer and practice of breast self examination among female senior secondary school students in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, A R; Ojedokun, C I

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem that is increasing throughout the world especially in developing countries. The study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of breast cancer and practice of breast self examination (BSE) among female senior secondary school students in the municipal council area of Abuja, Nigeria. This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among female senior secondary school students from selected schools in the municipal area council of Abuja. The tool for data collection was a structured self administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Two hundred and eighty-seven students participated in the study. Their mean age was 16.5 +/- 1.4 years. A greater proportion of respondents 163 (56.8%) had poor knowledge of breast cancer while 217 (75.6%) had poor knowledge of BSE. Only 114 (39.7%) of the respondents knew that being a female was a risk factor for breast cancer and the least known risk factors were obesity and aging. The major source of information for breast cancer and BSE among the respondents was the mass media. Only 29 (10.1%) of respondents had practiced BSE. Knowledge of BSE was significantly associated with BSE practice. This study revealed that female secondary school students have poor knowledge of breast cancer. A good proportion of them knew that BSE could be used as a screening method for breast cancer but only few had practiced BSE. There is need for adequate health education on breast cancer and BSE among adolescent females in Nigeria.

  11. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Schmidt, Julie Berg;

    2016-01-01

    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd...... 4·4) kg/m2) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan®, 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7...... in TAG (P LCD within 7 weeks as part of preparation for BS...

  12. Primary care of patients with high cardiovascular risk : Blood pressure, lipid and diabetic target levels and their achievement in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szigethy, Endre; Jancsó, Zoltán; Móczár, Csaba; Ilyés, István; Kovács, Eszter; Róbert Kolozsvári, László; Rurik, Imre

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for the majority of premature deaths in Hungary as well. Most of them could be prevented with healthy lifestyle of patients and adequate drug prescription of primary care physicians. Earlier European surveys found wide differences between the practices and achievements of different countries in this field. The study was based on and designed according to the framework of previous European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) studies and aimed presenting Hungarian results and comparing with the achievements of other countries and previous Hungarian surveys. Among rural and urban settings, 679 patients under continuous care (236 diabetics, 218 with dyslipidaemia, and 225 with hypertension) were consecutively selected by 20 experienced general practitioners. The mean age of patients was 60.3 years (men) and 64.0 years (women). Among diabetics, less than 7 % of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were found in 42.5 % patients, while only 11.4 % patients had fasting plasma sugar less than 6.0 mmol/L. Of the patients treated for dyslipidaemia, the target level of triglyceride was reached by 40.6 %, recommended total cholesterol by 14.2 % and the HDL-cholesterol by 71.8 %. The therapeutic control of total and HDL-cholesterol was better in men, although women had better triglyceride values. The achievement among patients with hypertension was 42.0 %. Significantly higher blood pressure was measured by patients who were treated with not recommended combinations of antihypertensive medication. A remarkable improvement could be observed in Hungary in the field of secondary prevention. It was greater among patients with hypertension and dyslipidaemia and smaller in diabetes care. Compared to the results of published European surveys, Hungary occupies a good position, but further improvement is still required.

  13. An intensive nurse-led, multi-interventional clinic is more successful in achieving vascular risk reduction targets than standard diabetes care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacMahon Tone, J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether an intensive, nurse-led clinic could achieve recommended vascular risk reduction targets in patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to standard diabetes management.

  14. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide as integrin-targeting surface decorator of selenium nanoparticles to achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenting; Fu, Yuanting; Yang, Fang; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Ting; Zheng, Wenjie; Zeng, Lilan; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-08-27

    The poor permeability of glioma parenchyma represents a major limit for antiglioblastoma drug delivery. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), which has a high binding affinity to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed in glioma cells, was employed in the present study to functionalize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) to achieve antiglioblastoma efficacy. GLP-SeNPs showed satisfactory size distribution, high stability, and selectivity between cancer and normal cells. In U87 glioma cell membrane, which has a high integrin expression level, GLP-SeNPs exhibited significantly higher cellular uptake than unmodified SeNPs. As expected, U87 cells exhibited a greater uptake of GLP-SeNPs than C6 cells with low integrin expression level. Furthermore, the internalization of GLP-SeNPs was inhibited by cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Lys) peptides, suggesting that cellular uptake into U87 cells and C6 cells occurred via αvβ3 integrin-mediated endocytosis. For U87 cells, the cytotoxicity of SeNPs decorated by GLP was enhanced significantly because of the induction of various apoptosis signaling pathways. Internalized GLP-SeNPs triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species downregulation. Therefore, p53, MAPKs, and AKT pathways were activated to advance cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that surface decoration of nanomaterials with GLP could be an efficient strategy for design and preparation of glioblastoma targeting nanodrugs.

  15. Malaria in pregnancy; facts from the parasitology laboratory: a ten-year study in Abuja, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibecheozor, N.K.O

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, which is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes, is the major cause of mortality among the pregnant women in the sub-Saharan Africa. A ten year study of malaria in pregnancy was carried out in Abuja, North Central Nigeria. Thick and thin blood films were stained with the Giemsa methodology. Of the 16760 pregnant women blood samples, 4571 (27.3% were positive for malaria parasites caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 4571 positive cases, 75 (1.7% had parasite density of >5000 parasites/µl of blood; 148 (3.2% had between 500-5000 parasites/µl of blood; 520 (11.4% had between 50 - 500 parasites/µl of blood; while 3828 (83.7% had between 5-50 parasites/µl of blood. With the current estimate of over 4500 deaths of pregnant women in Nigeria due to malaria annually, we must make deliberate efforts to stop these unacceptable and painful losses. The continued use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (M-RDTs methodologies should be discontinued because of its negative implications. Therefore, the microscopic laboratory diagnostic component should be included in ANC at all level of health care facility.

  16. Detection of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izebe, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are among the sexually transmitted diseases known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Serum samples from 34 consenting AIDS patients which attended the Government-approved Antiretroviral Treatment (ART Facility at the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD, Abuja between April 2005 and March 2006 were screened by enzyme immunoassay (EIA for the presence of anti-CT antibodies using ImmunoComb® Chlamydia Bivalent IgG Test kit (Orgenics, Israel. Anti-CT antibodies were detected in ten (29.4% of the thirty-four patients tested. The detection rate was higher among the females (33.3% than the males (23.1%. Patients of the age group 31-45 years had the highest detection of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies, followed by those of age group 16-30 years. The result of the present study suggests the presence of anti-CT antibodies in AIDS patients, and reinforces the need for routine screening for anti-CT antibodies as a necessary intervention to reduce the burden of chlamydial diseases and to reduce the risk of HIV and its spread in Nigeria. The outcome of this study also provides justification for the possible inclusion of anti-chlamydial agents in the National AIDS Management Plan to treat associated C. trachomatis infections.

  17. Short training in focused cardiac ultrasound in an Internal Medicine department: what realistic skill targets could be achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzini, Chiara; Garbin, Ulisse; Fratta Pasini, Anna Maria; Cominacini, Luciano

    2015-02-01

    The importance of focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) in Internal Medicine care has been recognized by the American Society of Echocardiography. The aim of this study was to test what realistic skill targets could be achieved in FCU, with a relatively short training (theoretical and practical) of 9 h offered to Internal Medicine certification board attending students, and if the addition of further 9 h of training could significantly improve the level of competence. Kappa statistic was used to calculate the inter-observer agreement (trainees/tutor). The agreement between the trainees (who completed the entire training) and the tutor was, respectively, "substantial" (k = 0.71) for the identification of pericardial effusion, "moderate" (k = 0.56-0.54) for the identification of marked right ventricular and left ventricular enlargement, "substantial" (k = 0.77) for the assessment of global cardiac systolic function by visual inspection and "fair" (k = 0.35) for the assessment of size and respiratory change in the diameter of the inferior cave vein (IVC). 18 h training in FCU provided proficiency in obtaining adequate images from the parasternal window without providing the ability to correctly master the apical and subcostal windows. As concerns the interpretative skills, only pericardial effusion and visual estimation of global systolic function could be correctly identified, while ventricular enlargement and IVC prove to be more difficult to evaluate. This study supports incorporating FCU into Internal Medicine fellowship training programs, and should facilitate the design of other similar training courses.

  18. Impact of Clinical Factors on the Achievement of Target Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients from Ivanovo Region of Russia: Data of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, A R; Posnenkova, O M; Belova, O A; Romanchuk, S V; Popova, Y V; Prokhorov, M D; Gridnev, V I

    2017-08-30

    In Russia, blood pressure (BP) control is below the optimal. The little is known about regional features and barriers to adequate BP control in Russian primary care. To evaluate the impact of clinical factors on achieving the target BP in hypertensive patients in one region of Russia. Retrospective medical data of 2015 on 11,129 patients (31.4% male) with hypertension (Htn) from Ivanovo region of Russia were examined. Achievement of target BP was assessed in all patients. We study association between BP control and clinical factors. 45.9% of studied patients with Htn had controlled BP. The frequency of achieving the target BP in subsets of hypertensive patients was 37.8% in patients with diabetes, 39.5% in patients with coronary artery disease, and 29.9% in patients with chronic heart failure. The main clinical factors associated with achieving the target BP in studied hypertensive patients were the advice on alcohol consumption, advice on smoking cessation, and advice on weight reduction. Therapy with main antihypertensive drugs (in particular, beta-blockers and thiazide diuretics) were also factors of optimal BP control in these patients. Comorbidities (chronic heart failure and cardiovascular diseases requiring the prescription of aspirin and statins) and family history of coronary artery disease were associated with inadequate BP control. A negative effect of some antihypertensive drugs (potassium sparing diuretics, ARBs, ACE-Is, and dihydropyridine CCBs) on BP control that was found out in our study requires further investigation. Other studied factors had no influence on BP control in patients with Htn from Ivanovo region. We identified regional factors of BP control in hypertensive patients from Ivanovo region of Russia. It is shown that individual medical education (in particular, medical advices) is the most important factor of optimal BP control. The intervention with antihypertensive therapy (beta-blockers and thiazide diuretics) facilitates the

  19. Effects of Achieving Target Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis on Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Resource Utilization: Analysis of Clinical Practice Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Seongjung; Kawabata, Hugh; Al, Maiwenn J.; Allison, Paul D.; Rutten‐van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Frits, Michelle L.; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Weinblatt, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations between achieving guideline‐recommended targets of disease activity, defined by the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using C‐reactive protein level (DAS28‐CRP) control for intraclass correlation and estimate effects of independent variables on outcomes of the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (M‐HAQ), the EuroQol 5‐domain (EQ‐5D; a quality‐of‐life measure), hospitalization, and durable medical equipment (DME) use, we employed mixed models for continuous outcomes and generalized estimating equations for binary outcomes. Results Among 1,297 subjects, achievement (versus nonachievement) of recommended disease targets was associated with enhanced physical functioning and lower health resource utilization. After controlling for baseline covariates, achievement of disease targets (versus LDA) was associated with significantly enhanced physical functioning based on SDAI ≤3.3 (ΔM‐HAQ −0.047; P = 0.0100) and CDAI ≤2.8 (−0.073; P = 0.0003) but not DAS28‐CRP <2.6 (−0.022; P = 0.1735). Target attainment was associated with significantly improved EQ‐5D (0.022–0.096; P < 0.0030 versus LDA, MDA, or SDA). Patients achieving guideline‐recommended disease targets were 36–45% less likely to be hospitalized (P < 0.0500) and 23–45% less likely to utilize DME (P < 0.0100). Conclusion Attaining recommended target disease‐activity measures was associated with enhanced physical functioning and health‐related quality of life. Some health outcomes were similar in subjects attaining guideline targets versus LDA. Achieving LDA is a worthy clinical objective in some patients. PMID:26238974

  20. Wildlife detection dog training: A case study on achieving generalization between target odor variations while retaining specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Cor; Schoon, Adee; Heitkönig, I.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife detection dogs are required to correctly discriminate target wildlife species odor from nontarget
    species odors (specificity), while enabling some degree of target odor variation (generality). Because
    there is no standardized training protocol, and little knowledge on training

  1. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A E Adeniji; O V Omonona; D N Obiora; J U Chukudebelu

    2014-04-01

    Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3–6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 m and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with > 180 m. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7–4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2–0.69 mhos), weak (0.1–0.19 mhos), and poor (> 0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

  2. Utilisation of the National Antiretroviral Therapy Guidelines among health care professionals working in Abuja treatment centres, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindiwe I. Zungu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to and utilisations of the National Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines (NATG are valuable factors for effective programme implementation. The objective of this study was to investigate the accessibility of the NATG and their utilisation by health care professionals from five treatment centres in Abuja, Nigeria.Method: A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 2007 using purposively sampled health care professionals. Questionnaires were self-administered to participants who consented in writing to participate in the survey.Results: 97 health care professionals participated in this study with about equal numbers of men and women: 48 (49.5% women and 49 (50.5% men. Of these, 21.6% were unaware of the existence of the NATG in their treatment centres. More than half (51.5% reported that they did not have access to the NATG as opposed to those (48.5% who had access to the guidelines. Furthermore, 16.5% of the participants confirmed that they had access to an institutional copy of the NATG while 14.4% indicated that they had individual copies and only 3.1% stated that they had individual copies and access to the hospital copy as well. Regarding utilisation of the NATG, 41.2% rarely used them, 32.9% never used them and only 25.7% often used them. The most frequent use of the NATG was among pharmacists (38.1% compared to the least frequent use among nurses (20.0%.Conclusion: Poor accessibility of the NATG may have a negative impact on guidelines utilisation among health care professionals in Nigeria.

  3. Changes in heparin dose response slope during cardiac surgery: possible result in inaccuracy in predicting heparin bolus dose requirement to achieve target ACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Junko; Mori, Tetsu; Kodaka, Mitsuharu; Nishiyama, Keiko; Ozaki, Makoto; Komori, Makiko

    2017-09-01

    The substantial interpatient variability in heparin requirement has led to the use of a heparin dose response (HDR) technique. The accuracy of Hepcon-based heparin administration in achieving a target activated clotting time (ACT) using an HDR slope remains controversial. We prospectively studied 86 adult patients scheduled for cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. The total dose of calculated heparin required for patient and pump priming was administered simultaneously to achieve a target ACT of 450 s for HDR on the Hepcon HMS system. Blood samples were obtained after the induction of anesthesia, at 3 min after heparin administration and after the initiation of CPB to measure kaolin ACT, HDR slope, whole-blood heparin concentration based on the HDR slope and anti-Xa heparin concentration, antithrombin and complete blood count. The target ACT of 450 s was not achieved in 68.6% of patients. Compared with patients who achieved the target ACT, those who failed to achieve their target ACT had a significantly higher platelet count at baseline. Correlation between the HDR slope and heparin sensitivity was poor. Projected heparin concentration and anti-Xa heparin concentration are not interchangeable based on the Bland-Altman analysis. It can be hypothesized that the wide discrepancy in HDR slope versus heparin sensitivity may be explained by an inaccurate prediction of the plasma heparin level and/or the change in HDR of individual patients, depending on in vivo factors such as extravascular sequestration of heparin, decreased intrinsic antithrombin activity level and platelet count and/or activity.

  4. The Relationship between Anxiety and Attitude of Students Learning Turkish as a Foreign Language and Their Achievement on Target Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocer, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the anxiety connected with target language of the high school students learning Turkish as a foreign language. In this study, descriptive relational screening model was used. Two scales were used for collecting data. First scale was FLCAS-Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale; it was developed by Horwitz…

  5. Cinacalcet and achievement of the NKF/K-DOQI recommended target values for bone and mineral metabolism in real-world clinical practice--the ECHO observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urena, P.; Jacobson, S.H.; Zitt, E.

    2009-01-01

    /dl) at baseline, despite being prescribed conventional therapies. The proportions of patients achieving the recommended [NKF-K/DOQI(TM) (KDOQI(TM))] targets increased from baseline [4%, 39%, 40% and 46% for iPTH, phosphorus, calcium and calcium-phosphorus product (Ca x P), respectively] to Month 12 (28%, 48%, 51......% and 68%, respectively). At Month 12, 18% of patients had achieved the combined target for iPTH + Ca x P compared with 2% at baseline. Most patients (65%) received ... sevelamer; use of calcium-based phosphate binders increased by 5.6%. There was no unexpected safety or tolerability concerns. CONCLUSION: This analysis of current European clinical practice shows that-consistent with findings from randomized controlled trials and retrospective observational studies...

  6. The Role of the Collection of Taxes in Achieving Revenue Targets Assigned to The Directorate General Taxes of Mali

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the collection of taxes and revenues generated by financial services, case of the Directorate General of Taxes. Under the Finance law, a revenue target is assigned to each financial service. Our work will focus on the Directorate General of Taxes. Revenues generated by Directorate General of Taxes equal around 40 percent of the Malian Treasury resources. To do this analysis we drafted the situation of macroeconomic indicators of Mali in 2012. Econo...

  7. TARGET:?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James M Acton

    2014-01-01

      By 2003. as military planners had become worried that the country's long-range conventional weapons, such as cruise missiles, might be too slow to reach hypothetical distant targets that needed to be struck urgently...

  8. Enabling implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan: developing investment cases to achieve targets for measles and rubella prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Strebel, Peter M; Dabbagh, Alya; Cherian, Thomas; Cochi, Stephen L

    2013-04-18

    Global prevention and control of infectious diseases requires significant investment of financial and human resources and well-functioning leadership and management structures. The reality of competing demands for limited resources leads to trade-offs and questions about the relative value of specific investments. Developing investment cases can help to provide stakeholders with information about the benefits, costs, and risks associated with available options, including examination of social, political, governance, and ethical issues. We describe the process of developing investment cases for globally coordinated management of action plans for measles and rubella as tools for enabling the implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). We focus on considerations related to the timing of efforts to achieve measles and rubella goals independently and within the context of ongoing polio eradication efforts, other immunization priorities, and other efforts to control communicable diseases or child survival initiatives. Our analysis suggests that the interactions between the availability and sustainability of financial support, sufficient supplies of vaccines, capacity of vaccine delivery systems, and commitments at all levels will impact the feasibility and timing of achieving national, regional, and global goals. The timing of investments and achievements will determine the net financial and health benefits obtained. The methodology, framing, and assumptions used to characterize net benefits and uncertainties in the investment cases will impact estimates and perceptions about the value of prevention achieved overall by the GVAP. We suggest that appropriately valuing the benefits of investments of measles and rubella prevention will require the use of integrated dynamic disease, economic, risk, and decision analytic models in combination with consideration of qualitative factors, and that synthesizing information in the form of investment cases may help

  9. Targeting Cancer Protein Profiles with Split-Enzyme Reporter Fragments to Achieve Chemical Resolution for Molecular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    specific for tumor markers, such as folic acid receptors and transpep- tidases, have shown a significant role in future surgical and therapeutic...tissue, providing a more comprehensive knowledge of genetic changes than either individual genetic or proteomic analyses can achieve. To develop an...near-infrared fluorophore, Cy5.5, linked with up to three units of amino-ethoxy-ethoxy- acid (AEEA) at the N-terminal amine of the peptide. Table 1

  10. Emission pathways to achieve 2.0°C and 1.5°C climate targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuanming; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Kato, Etsushi; Shiogama, Hideo; Masui, Toshihiko; Emori, Seita

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the feasibilities of 2.0°C and 1.5°C climate targets by considering the abatement potentials of a full suite of greenhouse gases, pollutants, and aerosols. We revised the inter-temporal dynamic optimization model DICE-2013R by introducing three features as follows. First, we applied a new marginal abatement cost curve derived under moderate assumptions regarding future socioeconomic development—the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways 2 (SSP2) scenario. Second, we addressed emission abatement for not only industrial CO2 but also land-use CO2, CH4, N2O, halogenated gases, CO, volatile organic compounds, SOx, NOx, black carbon and organic carbon. Third, we improved the treatment of the non-CO2 components in the climate module based on MAGICC 6.0. We obtained the following findings: (1) It is important to address the individual emissions in an analysis of low stabilization scenarios because abating land-use CO2, non-CO2 and aerosol emissions also contributes to maintaining a low level of radiative forcing and substantially affects the climate costs. (2) The 2.0°C target can be efficiently reached under the assumptions of the SSP2 scenario. (3) The 1.5°C target can be met with early deep cuts under the assumption of a temperature overshoot, and it will triple the carbon price and double the mitigation cost compared with the 2.0°C case.

  11. Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious HIV targets despite expected donor withdrawal by combining improved ART procurement mechanisms with allocative and implementation efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Clemens; Bokazhanova, Aliya; Đurić, Predrag; Petrenko, Irina; Ganina, Lolita; Kelly, Sherrie L.; Stuart, Robyn M.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Vinichenko, Tatiana; Zhang, Shufang; Hamelmann, Christoph; Manova, Manoela; Masaki, Emiko; Wilson, David P.; Gray, Richard T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite a non-decreasing HIV epidemic, international donors are soon expected to withdraw funding from Kazakhstan. Here we analyze how allocative, implementation, and technical efficiencies could strengthen the national HIV response under assumptions of future budget levels. Methodology We used the Optima model to project future scenarios of the HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan that varied in future antiretroviral treatment unit costs and management expenditure—two areas identified for potential cost-reductions. We determined optimal allocations across HIV programs to satisfy either national targets or ambitious targets. For each scenario, we considered two cases of future HIV financing: the 2014 national budget maintained into the future and the 2014 budget without current international investment. Findings Kazakhstan can achieve its national HIV targets with the current budget by (1) optimally re-allocating resources across programs and (2) either securing a 35% [30%–39%] reduction in antiretroviral treatment drug costs or reducing management costs by 44% [36%–58%] of 2014 levels. Alternatively, a combination of antiretroviral treatment and management cost-reductions could be sufficient. Furthermore, Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious targets of halving new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 2020 compared to 2014 levels by attaining a 67% reduction in antiretroviral treatment costs, a 19% [14%–27%] reduction in management costs, and allocating resources optimally. Significance With Kazakhstan facing impending donor withdrawal, it is important for the HIV response to achieve more with available resources. This analysis can help to guide HIV response planners in directing available funding to achieve the greatest yield from investments. The key changes recommended were considered realistic by Kazakhstan country representatives. PMID:28207809

  12. Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious HIV targets despite expected donor withdrawal by combining improved ART procurement mechanisms with allocative and implementation efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Andrew J; Benedikt, Clemens; Bokazhanova, Aliya; Đurić, Predrag; Petrenko, Irina; Ganina, Lolita; Kelly, Sherrie L; Stuart, Robyn M; Kerr, Cliff C; Vinichenko, Tatiana; Zhang, Shufang; Hamelmann, Christoph; Manova, Manoela; Masaki, Emiko; Wilson, David P; Gray, Richard T

    2017-01-01

    Despite a non-decreasing HIV epidemic, international donors are soon expected to withdraw funding from Kazakhstan. Here we analyze how allocative, implementation, and technical efficiencies could strengthen the national HIV response under assumptions of future budget levels. We used the Optima model to project future scenarios of the HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan that varied in future antiretroviral treatment unit costs and management expenditure-two areas identified for potential cost-reductions. We determined optimal allocations across HIV programs to satisfy either national targets or ambitious targets. For each scenario, we considered two cases of future HIV financing: the 2014 national budget maintained into the future and the 2014 budget without current international investment. Kazakhstan can achieve its national HIV targets with the current budget by (1) optimally re-allocating resources across programs and (2) either securing a 35% [30%-39%] reduction in antiretroviral treatment drug costs or reducing management costs by 44% [36%-58%] of 2014 levels. Alternatively, a combination of antiretroviral treatment and management cost-reductions could be sufficient. Furthermore, Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious targets of halving new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 2020 compared to 2014 levels by attaining a 67% reduction in antiretroviral treatment costs, a 19% [14%-27%] reduction in management costs, and allocating resources optimally. With Kazakhstan facing impending donor withdrawal, it is important for the HIV response to achieve more with available resources. This analysis can help to guide HIV response planners in directing available funding to achieve the greatest yield from investments. The key changes recommended were considered realistic by Kazakhstan country representatives.

  13. Feasibility of achieving the 2025 WHO global tuberculosis targets in South Africa, China, and India: a combined analysis of 11 mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Rein M G J; Menzies, Nicolas A; Sumner, Tom; Huynh, Grace H; Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Wu, Chieh-Yin; Mandal, Sandip; Pandey, Surabhi; Suen, Sze-Chuan; Bendavid, Eran; Azman, Andrew S; Dowdy, David W; Bacaër, Nicolas; Rhines, Allison S; Feldman, Marcus W; Handel, Andreas; Whalen, Christopher C; Chang, Stewart T; Wagner, Bradley G; Eckhoff, Philip A; Trauer, James M; Denholm, Justin T; McBryde, Emma S; Cohen, Ted; Salomon, Joshua A; Pretorius, Carel; Lalli, Marek; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Boccia, Delia; Hosseini, Mehran; Gomez, Gabriela B; Sahu, Suvanand; Daniels, Colleen; Ditiu, Lucica; Chin, Daniel P; Wang, Lixia; Chadha, Vineet K; Rade, Kiran; Dewan, Puneet; Hippner, Piotr; Charalambous, Salome; Grant, Alison D; Churchyard, Gavin; Pillay, Yogan; Mametja, L David; Kimerling, Michael E; Vassall, Anna; White, Richard G

    2016-11-01

    The post-2015 End TB Strategy proposes targets of 50% reduction in tuberculosis incidence and 75% reduction in mortality from tuberculosis by 2025. We aimed to assess whether these targets are feasible in three high-burden countries with contrasting epidemiology and previous programmatic achievements. 11 independently developed mathematical models of tuberculosis transmission projected the epidemiological impact of currently available tuberculosis interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in China, India, and South Africa. Models were calibrated with data on tuberculosis incidence and mortality in 2012. Representatives from national tuberculosis programmes and the advocacy community provided distinct country-specific intervention scenarios, which included screening for symptoms, active case finding, and preventive therapy. Aggressive scale-up of any single intervention scenario could not achieve the post-2015 End TB Strategy targets in any country. However, the models projected that, in the South Africa national tuberculosis programme scenario, a combination of continuous isoniazid preventive therapy for individuals on antiretroviral therapy, expanded facility-based screening for symptoms of tuberculosis at health centres, and improved tuberculosis care could achieve a 55% reduction in incidence (range 31-62%) and a 72% reduction in mortality (range 64-82%) compared with 2015 levels. For India, and particularly for China, full scale-up of all interventions in tuberculosis-programme performance fell short of the 2025 targets, despite preventing a cumulative 3·4 million cases. The advocacy scenarios illustrated the high impact of detecting and treating latent tuberculosis. Major reductions in tuberculosis burden seem possible with current interventions. However, additional interventions, adapted to country-specific tuberculosis epidemiology and health systems, are needed to reach the post-2015 End TB Strategy targets at country level. Bill and Melinda

  14. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

  15. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Benoy, Glenn A; Chow, Thien Lien; Daigle, Jean-Louis; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2012-01-01

    Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions.

  16. Analysis of Settlement Expansion and Urban Growth Modelling Using Geoinformation for Assessing Potential Impacts of Urbanization on Climate in Abuja City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ibrahim Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of settlement expansion in Abuja, Nigeria, one of West Africa’s fastest developing cities, using geoinformation and ancillary datasets. Three epochs of Land-use Land-cover (LULC maps for 1986, 2001 and 2014 were derived from Landsat images using support vector machines (SVM. Accuracy assessment (AA of the LULC maps based on the pixel count resulted in overall accuracy of 82%, 92% and 92%, while the AA derived from the error adjusted area (EAA method stood at 69%, 91% and 91% for 1986, 2001 and 2014, respectively. Two major techniques for detecting changes in the LULC epochs involved the use of binary maps as well as a post-classification comparison approach. Quantitative spatiotemporal analysis was conducted to detect LULC changes with specific focus on the settlement development pattern of Abuja, the federal capital city (FCC of Nigeria. Logical transitions to the urban category were modelled for predicting future scenarios for the year 2050 using the embedded land change modeler (LCM in the IDRISI package. Based on the EAA, the result showed that urban areas increased by more than 11% between 1986 and 2001. In contrast, this value rose to 17% between 2001 and 2014. The LCM model projected LULC changes that showed a growing trend in settlement expansion, which might take over allotted spaces for green areas and agricultural land if stringent development policies and enforcement measures are not implemented. In conclusion, integrating geospatial technologies with ancillary datasets offered improved understanding of how urbanization processes such as increased imperviousness of such a magnitude could influence the urban microclimate through the alteration of natural land surface temperature. Urban expansion could also lead to increased surface runoff as well as changes in drainage geography leading to urban floods.

  17. Coated minispheres of salmon calcitonin target rat intestinal regions to achieve systemic bioavailability: Comparison between intestinal instillation and oral gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Tanira A S; Aversa, Vincenzo; Rosa, Mónica; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Coulter, Ivan; Brayden, David J

    2016-09-28

    Achieving oral peptide delivery is an elusive challenge. Emulsion-based minispheres of salmon calcitonin (sCT) were synthesized using single multiple pill (SmPill®) technology incorporating the permeation enhancers (PEs): sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), sodium caprate (C10), or coco-glucoside (CG), or the pH acidifier, citric acid (CA). Minispheres were coated with an outer layer of Eudragit® L30 D-55 (designed for jejunal release) or Surelease®/Pectin (designed for colonic release). The process was mild and in vitro biological activity of sCT was retained upon release from minispheres stored up to 4months. In vitro release profiles suggested that sCT was released from minispheres by diffusion through coatings due to swelling of gelatin and the polymeric matrix upon contact with PBS at pH6.8. X-ray analysis confirmed that coated minispheres dissolved at the intended intestinal region of rats following oral gavage. Uncoated minispheres at a dose of ~2000I.U.sCT/kg were administered to rats by intra-jejunal (i.j.) or intra-colonic (i.c.) instillation and caused hypocalcaemia. Notable sCT absolute bioavailability (F) values were: 5.5% from minispheres containing NaTDC (i.j), 17.3% with CG (i.c.) and 18.2% with C10 (i.c.). Coated minispheres administered by oral gavage at threefold higher doses also induced hypocalcaemia. A highly competitive F value of 2.7% was obtained for orally-administered sCT-minispheres containing CG (45μmol/kg) and coated with Eudragit®. In conclusion, the SmPill® technology is a potential dosage form for several peptides when formulated with PEs and coated for regional delivery. PK data from instillations over-estimates oral bioavailability and poorly predicts rank ordering of formulations.

  18. Achievement of recommended glucose and blood pressure targets in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in clinical practice – study rationale and protocol of DIALOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitt Anselm K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes have 2–4 times greater risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than those without, and this is even further aggravated if they also suffer from hypertension. Unfortunately, less than one third of hypertensive diabetic patients meet blood pressure targets, and more than half fail to achieve target HbA1c values. Thus, appropriate blood pressure and glucose control are of utmost importance. Since treatment sometimes fails in clinical practice while clinical trials generally suggest good efficacy, data from daily clinical practice, especially with regard to the use of newly developed anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive compounds in unselected patient populations, are essential. The DIALOGUE registry aims to close this important gap by evaluating different treatment approaches in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with respect to their effectiveness and tolerability and their impact on outcomes. In addition, DIALOGUE is the first registry to determine treatment success based on the new individualized treatment targets recommended by the ADA and the EASD. Methods DIALOGUE is a prospective observational German multicentre registry and will enrol 10,000 patients with both diabetes and hypertension in up to 700 sites. After a baseline visit, further documentations are scheduled at 6, 12 and 24 months. There are two co-primary objectives referring to the most recent guidelines for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension: 1 individual HbA1c goal achievement with respect to anti-diabetic pharmacotherapy and 2 individual blood pressure goal achievement with different antihypertensive treatments. Among the secondary objectives the rate of major cardio-vascular and cerebro-vascular events (MACCE and the rate of hospitalizations are the most important. Conclusion The registry will be able to gain insights into the reasons for the obvious gap between the demonstrated efficacy and safety of anti

  19. Reducing mortality in HIV-infected infants and achieving the 90–90–90 target through innovative diagnosis approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffiq Essajee

    2015-12-01

    -to-child transmission. Facility-based SMS printers speed up the return of laboratory results and may be of value for other testing services apart from HIV infant diagnosis. Conclusions: New tools and strategies for HIV infant diagnosis could have a significant positive impact on the identification and retention of HIV-infected infants. In order to be most effective, national programmes should carefully consider which ideas to implement and how best to integrate novel strategies into existing systems. There is no single solution that will work everywhere. Rather, a number of approaches need to be considered and should be linked in order to achieve the greatest impact on the continuum of care from testing to treatment.

  20. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  1. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and level of intervention required to achieve the WHO targets for elimination in the European Union by 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvrehus, Anne Lindebo Holm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the European Union (EU), treatment and cure of HCV with direct-acting antiviral therapies began in 2014. WHO targets are to achieve a 65% reduction in liver-related deaths, a 90% reduction...... countries through a literature search of PubMed and Embase between Jan 1, 2000, and March 31, 2016, and a Delphi process to gain expert consensus and validate inputs. We aggregated country models to create a regional EU model. We used the EU model to forecast HCV disease progression (considering the effect...

  2. The air quality and health co-benefits of alternative post-2020 pathways for achieving peak carbon targets in Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Bi, J.; Huang, Y.; Kinney, P. L.

    2016-12-01

    Jiangsu, which has three national low-carbon pilot cities, is set to be a model province in China for achieving peak carbon targets before 2030. However, according to local planning of responding to climate change, carbon emissions are projected to keep going up before 2020 even the strictest measures are implemented. In other words, innovative measures must be in action after 2020. This work aimed at assessing the air quality and health co-benefits of alternative post-2020 measures to help remove barriers of policy implementation through tying it to local incentives for air quality improvement. To achieve the aim, we select 2010 as baseline year and develop Bussiness As Usual (BAU) and Traditional Carbon Reduction (TCR) scenarios before 2020. Under BAU, only existing climate and air pollution control policies are considered; under TCR, potential climate policies in local planning and existing air pollution control policies are considered. After 2020, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and large-scale substitution of renewable energy seem to be two promising pathways for achieving peak carbon targets. Therefore, two additional scenarios (TCR-IGCC and TCR-SRE) are set after 2020. Based on the projections of future energy balances and industrial productions, we estimate the pollutant emissions and simulate PM2.5 and ozone concentrations by 2017, 2020, 2030 and 2050 using CMAQ. Then using health impact assessment approach, the premature deaths are estimated and monetized. Results show that the carbon peak in Jiangsu will be achieved before 2030 only under TCR-IGCC and TCR-SRE scenarios. Under three policy scenarios, Jiangsu's carbon emission control targets would have substantial effects on primary air pollutant emissions far beyond those we estimate would be needed to meet the PM2.5 concentration targets in 2017. Compared with IGCC with CCS, large-scale substitutions of renewable energy bring

  3. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and level of intervention required to achieve the WHO targets for elimination in the European Union by 2030: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the European Union (EU), treatment and cure of HCV with direct-acting antiviral therapies began in 2014. WHO targets are to achieve a 65% reduction in liver-related deaths, a 90% reduction of new viral hepatitis infections, and 90% of patients with viral hepatitis infections being diagnosed by 2030. This study assessed the prevalence of HCV in the EU and the level of intervention required to achieve WHO targets for HCV elimination. We populated country Markov models for the 28 EU countries through a literature search of PubMed and Embase between Jan 1, 2000, and March 31, 2016, and a Delphi process to gain expert consensus and validate inputs. We aggregated country models to create a regional EU model. We used the EU model to forecast HCV disease progression (considering the effect of immigration) and developed a strategy to acehive WHO targets. We used weighted average sustained viral response rates and fibrosis restrictions to model the effect of current therapeutic guidelines. We used the EU model to forecast HCV disease progression (considering the effect of immigration) under current screening and therapeutic guidelines. Additionally, we back-calculated the total number of patients needing to be screened and treated to achieve WHO targets. We estimated the number of viraemic HCV infections in 2015 to be 3 238 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 2 106 000-3 795 000) of a total population of 509 868 000 in the EU, equating to a prevalence of viraemic HCV of 0·64% (95% UI 0·41-0·74). We estimated that 1 180 000 (95% UI 1 003 000-1 357 000) people were diagnosed with viraemia (36·4%), 150 000 (12 000-180 000) were treated (4·6% of the total infected population or 12·7% of the diagnosed population), 133 000 (106 000-160 000) were cured (4·1%), and 57 900 (43 900-67 300) were newly infected (1·8%) in 2015

  4. EFFECT OF THE COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY WITH TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE ACHIEVEMENT ON INTRARENAL BLOOD FLOW IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Koshel'skaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the dynamics of intrarenal vascular resistance (IRVR, circadian blood pressure (BP profile and glomerular filtration rate (GFR in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM who achieved the target BP levels (<130/80 mmHg due to long-term combined antihypertensive therapy with or without renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS inhibitors. Material and methods. Patients (n=61 with HT and DM without clinical symptoms of nephroangiopathy were included into the open randomized study , 59 of these patients completed study. Patients of Group 1 (n=41 received therapy with valsartan (n=20, 80–160 mg/day , or perindopril (n=21, 5–10 mg/day , in combination with indapamide retard, 1.5 mg/day , and amlodipine, 5–10 mg/day. Patients of Group 2 (n=18 received amlodipine (5–10 mg/day in combination with indapamide retard (1.5 mg/day and metoprolol succinate (50–100 mg/day. Initially and after 30–32 weeks of therapy the following examinations were performed: duplex ultrasound scanning of the main renal (MRA and intrarenal arteries (IRA with resistive index (RI calculation, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, GFR calculation (by Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results. The target BP levels were achieved in all patients of both groups. Patient’s baseline characteristics including age, sex, duration of disease, office BP , GFR, RI in MRA and IRA did not differ in the groups as well as decrease in office BP due to treatment. However patients of Group 2 had higher levels of systolic BP and systolic BP load at night time than these in patients of Group 1 during all period of the treatment. In patients of Group 2 RI in MRA and arcuate IRA were increased from 0.67±0.06 to 0.69±0.06 (p=0.02 and from 0.62±0.07 to 0.64±0.06 (p=0.02, respectively. The increase in IRA was positively associated with systolic BP at night time in these patients (r=0.6; p=0.01. There were no significant changes of IRA in Group 1 totally

  5. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the welfare of mankind. Accordingly, policy makers have repeatedly stated the goal of slowing climate change and limiting the increase of global mean temperature to less than 2 C above pre-industrial times (the so-called ''two degree target''). Stabilizing the temperature requires drastic reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to nearly zero. As the global system of energy supply currently relies on fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions can only be achieved through a full-scale transformation of the energy system. This thesis investigates the economic requirements and implications of different scenarios that achieve stringent climate mitigation targets. It starts with the analysis of characteristic decarbonization patterns and identifies two particularly relevant aspects of mitigation scenarios: deployment of variable renewable energies (VRE) and decarbonization of the transport sector. After investigating these fields in detail, we turned towards one of the most relevant questions for policy makers and analyzed the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and its economic requirements and implications. All analyses are based on the improvement, application, comparison, and discussion of large-scale IAMs. The novel ''mitigation share'' metric allowed us to identify the relevance of specific technology groups for mitigation and to improve our understanding of the decarbonization patterns of different energy subsectors. It turned out that the power sector is decarbonized first and reaches lowest emissions, while the transport sector is slowest to decarbonize. For the power sector, non-biomass renewable energies contribute most to emission reductions, while the transport sector strongly relies on liquid fuels and therefore requires biomass in combination with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) to reduce emissions. An in-depth investigation of the solar power

  6. Impact of an acute coronary syndrome pathway in achieving target heart rate and utilization of evidence-based doses of beta-blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Farzan; Herial, Nabeel; Colyer, William R

    2012-11-01

    Beta-blockers remain a cornerstone of therapy in the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The 2007 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association unstable angina/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction guideline revisions recommend a target heart rate (HR) of 50-60 beats per minute (bpm). Despite improved trends toward utilization of beta-blockers therapy, beta-blockers continue to be underdosed. Guideline-based tools have been shown to improve adherence to evidence-based therapy in patients with ACS. Implementation of a standardized ACS pathway would lead to titration of beta-blockers to recommended dosages with improved HRs in eligible patients. The ACS clinical protocol was implemented at the University of Toledo Medical Center in May 2007. A retrospective study of 516 patients admitted during a comparable 6-month period, before and after the institution of the protocol, was conducted. The preprotocol and protocol group included 237 and 279 patients, respectively. Patient information extracted from the medical records included age, gender, HR on admission, blood pressure on admission, duration of hospital stay, preadmission use of beta-blocker, type of beta-blocker and dosage, discharge beta-blocker and dosage, peak troponin levels, and therapeutic intervention. A target HR of less than 60 bpm was achieved in 19% of the protocol group, as compared with 6% in the preprotocol group (P metoprolol in the protocol group was noted to be significantly higher (118 vs. 80 mg/d; P < 0.001). The institution of an ACS clinical pathway led to utilization of beta-blockers in significantly higher dosages, resulting in improved HR control and increased attainment of target HR.

  7. PROBIT MODEL ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDER’S FARMERS DECISION TO USE AGROCHEMICAL INPUTS IN GWAGWALADA AND KUJE AREA COUNCILS OF FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Olugbenga Alabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined Probit model analysis of smallholder’s farmers decision to use agrochemical inputs in Gwagwalada and Kuje Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Primary data were used for this study. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered to sixty smallholder’s farmers sampled using a two-stage sampling technique. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Probit model. Eight estimators, age; farm-size; education–level; extension services; access to credit; off-farm income; experiences in farming; in the Probit model were found statistically significant. Results show that the probability of using agrochemical inputs increases with age; farm-size; family-size; education-level; extension services; experiences in farming but decreases where they have off-farm income and access to credits. Mc Fadden Pseudo-R 2 gives 0.6866 and Probit model correctly classified 93%. This study concluded that capacity of agricultural extension agents needs to be improved in the study area to educate farmers to invest in agrochemicals and improved agricultural technologies. Also, Government needs to improve on good road networks and appropriate policies to regulate standard, use, safety needs and environment of use of agrochemicals in the study area.

  8. Information Needs and Use of Library Resources by Special Needs Students in Selected Government Schools in Kaduna State and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Alami Atabor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is on the information needs and use of library resources by special needs students in selected government schools in Kaduna State and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. The survey technique was employed in the study. Five schools (i.e., Kaduna State Special Education School; Government Technical College, Malali, Kaduna; Alhudahuda College Zaria; Government Secondary School, Kwali and Government Secondary School, Kuje were purposefully selected out of a total of seven. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire for two respondent groups (i.e., special needs students and teachers/librarians. A total of 5 teachers/librarians and 345 special needs students were selected for the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study show that the special needs students have high needs for information on education, employment opportunities, health matter, and human rights. The major information resources in the libraries are books, magazines, newspapers, and few Braille materials. In general, special needs students have a moderate level of satisfaction with the resources in the libraries. The major issue identified by special needs students is insufficient information resources, especially in Braille. On the part of the teachers/librarians, inadequate funds for the acquisition of information resources and the employment of qualified librarians/teachers are found to be the major challenges faced by the libraries.

  9. Employees’ Participation in Decision Making and the Hospitality Industry in Nigeria. An Investigative Study of Selected Hotels in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isichei Ejikeme Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated employee’s participation in decision making and the hospitality industry in Nigeria, a study of selected hotels in the federal capital territory in Abuja. To guide the study, research questions and hypotheses were designed. An in-depth review of related literature was carried out. Primary data method was used for the study and the instrument used was a questionnaire survey designed using the Likert scale questionnaire format and administered to sixty respondents. Test of reliability of research instrument showed a result of .874 using Cronbach Alpha. Content method was used for validity of the research instrument. Two Hypotheses was postulated in line with the objectives and research question to test the significance of the research problems. The study used linear correlation and regression for analysis of data obtained from research instrument, which proved the alternate hypothesis significant in the two hypotheses tested. Findings in the study showed that employee’s participation in decision making impacts on the performance of hotels in Nigeria. The study concludes there is a positive relationship between extent of employee’s participation in decision making and organisational performance. The study recommends among others that participation of employees’ should not just be partial but holistic to give them a sense of belonging.

  10. Split vector systems for ultra-targeted gene delivery: a contrivance to achieve ethical assurance of somatic gene therapy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachov, Oleg E

    2014-08-01

    Tightly controlled spatial localisation of therapeutic gene delivery is essential to maximize the benefits of somatic gene therapy in vivo and to reduce its undesired effects on the 'bystander' cell populations, most importantly germline cells. Indeed, complete ethical assurance of somatic gene therapy can only be achieved with ultra-targeted gene delivery, which excludes the risk of inadvertent germline gene transfer. Thus, it is desired to supplement existing strategies of physical focusing and biological (cell-specific) targeting of gene delivery with an additional principle for the rigid control over spread of gene transfer within the body. In this paper I advance the concept of 'combinatorial' targeting of therapeutic gene transfer in vivo. I hypothesize that it is possible to engineer complex gene delivery vector systems consisting of several components, each one of them capable of independent spread within the human body but incapable of independent facilitation of gene transfer. As the gene delivery augmented by such split vector systems would be reliant on the simultaneous availability of all the vector system components at a predetermined body site, it is envisaged that higher order reaction kinetics required for the assembly of the functional gene transfer configuration would sharpen spatial localisation of gene transfer via curtailing the blurring effect of the vector spread within the body. A particular implementation of such split vector system could be obtained through supplementing a viral therapeutic gene vector with a separate auxiliary vector carrying a non-integrative and non-replicative form of a gene (e.g., mRNA) coding for a cellular receptor of the therapeutic vector component. Gene-transfer-enabling components of the vector system, which would be delivered separately from the vector component loaded with the therapeutic gene cargo, could also be cell-membrane-insertion-proficient receptors, elements of artificial transmembrane channels

  11. Win-win emissions reductions : smart transportation emission reduction strategies can achieve Kyoto targets and provide other economic, social and environmental benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2005-12-02

    This paper identified 12 transportation solutions that provide a combination of economic, social and environmental benefits. The win-win strategies are cost-effective, technically feasible policy reforms that correct market distortions which promote inefficient travel patterns. In addition to energy conservation and reducing pollution and traffic congestion, the strategies save on road and parking facilities, promote traffic safety and consumer savings, and improve mobility for non-drivers. The basic economic principles that make these benefits possible were examined. The proposed solutions create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports economic development and helps achieve other strategic planning objectives. The strategies include planning reforms; pay-as-you-drive pricing; parking cash-out; parking pricing; road pricing; transportation demand management programs; transit and ride-share improvements; walking and cycling improvements; smart growth; freight transport management; car sharing and revenue-neutral tax shifting. The author claims that if fully implemented, these strategies could reduce motor vehicle emissions and other costs by 30 to 50 per cent, depending on geographic, demographic and economic conditions. It was suggested that the approach could help meet Kyoto emission reduction targets while promoting economic development and increasing consumer benefits. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. Getting to zero the biomedical way in Africa: outcomes of deliberation at the 2013 Biomedical HIV Prevention Forum in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Gottemoeller, Megan; Mburu, Rosemary; Brown, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, biomedical HIV prevention research had engaged multiple African stakeholders. There have however been few platforms to enable regional stakeholders to engage with one another. In partnership with the World AIDS Campaign International, the Institute of Public Health of Obafemi Awolowo University, and the National Agency for the Control of AIDS in Nigeria, the New HIV Vaccine and Microbicide Advocacy Society hosted a forum on biomedical HIV prevention research in Africa. Stakeholders' present explored evidences related to biomedical HIV prevention research and development in Africa, and made recommendations to inform policy, guidelines and future research agenda. The BHPF hosted 342 participants. Topics discussed included the use of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention, considerations for biomedical HIV prevention among key populations; HIV vaccine development; HIV cure; community and civil society engagement; and ethical considerations in implementation of biomedical HIV prevention research. Participants identified challenges for implementation of proven efficacious interventions and discovery of other new prevention options for Africa. Concerns raised included limited funding by African governments, lack of cohesive advocacy and policy agenda for biomedical HIV prevention research and development by Africa, varied ethical practices, and limited support to communities' capacity to actively engaged with clinical trial conducts. Participants recommended that the African Government implement the Abuja +12 declaration; the civil society build stronger partnerships with diverse stakeholders, and develop a coherent advocacy agenda that also enhances community research literacy; and researchers and sponsors of trials on the African continent establish a process for determining appropriate standards for trial conduct on the continent. By highlighting key considerations for biomedical HIV prevention research and development in Africa, the forum has

  13. Efficacy of rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia: an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional and observational study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth N; Arneja, Jaspal

    2013-10-01

    Asian Indians with dyslipidaemia should be treated as aggressively as if they had a CHD risk equivalent-similar to the treatment of patients with diabetes or heart disease. To evaluate efficacy of Rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia, but without known coronary artery disease. The study was an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional, observational study in India involving T2DM patients who require statin therapy to control dyslipidaemia. Data were collected at baseline, interim (8 weeks) and subsequently at 16 weeks of Rosuvastatin (10 and 20 mg) therapy. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed by evaluating whether subjects reached target LDL and total cholesterol levels according to NCEP ATP III guidelines. Four thousand three hundred and sixty-nine patients completed the study. Out of 4369, 1115 (25.52%) have achieved a target LDL level of cholesterol target and 50.06% achieved triglyceride target. The adverse events reported were generally mild. On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that Rosuvastatin safely and beneficially alters the entire spectrum of lipoproteins in Indian patients.

  14. Causes of failure to achieve the low density lipoprotein cholesterol therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk controlled in Lipid and Vascular Risk Units. EROMOT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Clotilde; Plana, Núria; Arnau, Anna; Matas, Laia; Mauri, Marta; Vila, Àlex; Vila, Lluís; Soler, Cristina; Montesinos, Jesús; Masana, Lluís; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2017-09-12

    Determination of the level of achievement of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk treated in Lipid Units, as well as the causes of non-achievement. Multicentre retrospective observational study that included patients over 18 years with high and very high vascular risk, according to the criteria of the 2012 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, referred consecutively to Lipid Units between January and June 2012 and with follow-up two years after the first visit. The study included a total of 243 patients from 16 lipid units. The mean age was 52.2 years (SD 13.7), of whom 62.6% were males, and 40.3% of them were very high risk. At the first visit, 86.8% (25.1% in combination) and 95.0% (47.3% in combination) in the second visit (P<.001) were treated with lipid-lowering treatment. The therapeutic target was achieved by 28% (95 CI: 22.4-34.1). As regards the causes of non-achievement, 24.6% were related to the medication (10.3% maximum tolerated dose and 10.9% due to the appearance of adverse effects), 43.4% due to the physician (19.4% by inertia, 31.7% considering that target already reached), and 46.9% due to the patient, highlighting the therapeutic non-compliance (13,4%). LDL-C targets were achieved in about one-third of patients. The low adherence of the patient, followed by medical inertia are the most frequent causes that can explain these results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. 'No delays achiever'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  16. Path towards achieving of China's 2020 carbon emission reduction target-A discussion of low-carbon energy policies at province level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Run, E-mail: rwang@iue.ac.c [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu Wenjuan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiao Lishan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu Jian; Kao, William [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Following the announcement of the China's 2020 national target for the reduction of the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% compared with 2005 levels, Chinese provincial governments prepared to restructure provincial energy policy and plan their contribution to realizing the State reduction target. Focusing on Fujian and Anhui provinces as case studies, this paper reviews two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target. That of the coastal province of Fujian proposes to do so largely through the development of nuclear power, whilst the coal-rich province of Anhui proposes to do so through its energy consumption rate rising at a lower rate than that of the rise in GDP. In both cases renewable energy makes up a small proportion of their proposed 2020 energy structures. The conclusion discusses in depth concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy. - Research Highlights: {yields} We review two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target of carbon emission in two provinces. {yields} Scenario review of energy structure in Fujian and Anhui Provinces to 2020. {yields} We discuss concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy.

  17. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of allopurinol dose escalation to achieve target serum urate in people with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Lisa K; Chapman, Peter T; Barclay, Murray L; Horne, Anne; Frampton, Christopher; Tan, Paul; Drake, Jill; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of allopurinol dose escalation using a treat-to-target serum urate (SU) approach. A randomised, controlled, parallel-group, comparative clinical trial was undertaken. People with gout receiving at least creatinine clearance (CrCL)-based allopurinol dose for ≥1 month and SU ≥6 mg/dL were recruited. Participants were randomised to continue current dose (control) or allopurinol dose escalation for 12 months. In the dose escalation group, allopurinol was increased monthly until SU was treatment target in most people with gout. Allopurinol dose escalation is well tolerated. ANZCTR12611000845932; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol target achievement in patients on lipid-lowering drugs and stratified by triglyceride levels in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohammed; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Shehab, Abdullah; Al Tamimi, Omer; Al Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al Herz, Shorook; Al Anazi, Faisal; Al Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Alkhadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel Razak; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Al Jassim, Obaid; Al Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad Omar Ahmed S; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in the Arabian Gulf. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) reduction has been proposed as an additional goal to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Data on non-HDL-C goal attainment in patients with high triglycerides (TGs) on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) in the region is scarce. Evaluate non-HDL-C target attainment according to the National Lipid Association in patients on LLDs stratified by TG (200 [2.26] mg/dL [mmol/L]) levels in the Arabian Gulf. Overall, 4383 patients on LLD treatment from 6 Middle Eastern countries participating in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the Undertreatment of Hypercholesterolemia study were evaluated. Patients were classified according to TG levels and ASCVD risk. The overall non-HDL-C goal attainment was 41% of the subjects. Non-HDL-C goal was less likely attained in patients with high TGs (12% vs 27% vs 55%; P < .001). Very high ASCVD risk patients with high TGs attained less their non-HDL-C targets compared with those with lower TG levels (8% vs 23% vs 51%; P < .001). Similarly, high ASCVD risk patients with high TGs also failed more in attaining non-HDL-C targets compared with those with lower TGs (26% vs 42% vs 69%; P < .001). In addition, those with high TG also succeeded less in attaining LDL-C and apolipoprotein B goals (P < .001). A large proportion of very high and high ASCVD patients on LLDs in the Arabian Gulf are not at recommended non-HDL-C targets and hence remain at a substantial residual risk. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The central importance of the EU emission trading scheme for achievement of the German climate protection target of 40% until 2020; Die zentrale Bedeutung des EU-Emissionshandels zur Erreichung des deutschen Klimaziels in Hoehe von 40 % bis 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Cludius, Johanna

    2014-02-15

    Both Germany and the European Union have set themselves targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The EU was the forerunner in 2008 when it adopted the Climate and Energy package and set a target of reducing GHG emissions by 20 % by 2020 compared to 1990. Two years later, Germany adopted a range of national GHG targets in the context of the German government's Energy Concept. This includes a 40% emissions reduction target to be met by 2020. One of the main instruments for achieving GHG emissions reduction targets is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), which covers all large industrial and combustion installations in Europe. According to the agreement made in 2008 (Climate and Energy Package), the effort to achieve the EU's 20 % reduction target by 2020 was split between the ETS sector (2/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 21 % reduction in GHG emissions for installations covered under the ETS compared to 2005) and the non-ETS sector (1/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 10 % reduction compared to 2005). Logically, GHG emissions reductions occurring in German ETS installations count both towards the EU and the national target. This research project has been commissioned to analyse whether the ETS in its cur-rent design can contribute its fair share in efforts to meet the national emissions reduc-tion target. This question is particularly relevant in light of the following considerations: - The new German Coalition Agreement, signed in December 2013, reiterated the national target of a 40 % reduction of GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. - At the same time, the new Coalition Agreement stated that changes to the ETS are only to be considered if the EU GHG emissions reduction target will not be met. - There is a surplus of CO2 allowances on the ETS market, which undermines the credibility of the instrument as well as the integrity of the emissions reduction tar-gets (both European and national). At the same

  20. Climate cure 2020. Measures and instruments for achieving Norwegian climate targets to 2020; Klimakur 2020. Tiltak og virkemidler for aa naa norske klimamaal mot 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    In this scenario, the analysis shows how international climate change agreements and the population's attitude to climate-friendly actions could affect Norway's ability to achieve the objectives of national emission reductions. Political feasibility, technology and carbon price may vary according to how forces will move in future. Some measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may be more robust against future uncertainties than others. Scenario analysis can therefore provide useful perspectives when instruments should be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the years ahead. (AG)

  1. Segmentation of biological target volumes on multi-tracer PET images based on information fusion for achieving dose painting in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelandais, Benoît; Gardin, Isabelle; Mouchard, Laurent; Vera, Pierre; Ruan, Su

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in radiotherapy. Dose painting consists in the application of a nonuniform dose prescription on a tumoral region, and is based on an efficient segmentation of biological target volumes (BTV). It is derived from PET images, that highlight tumoral regions of enhanced glucose metabolism (FDG), cell proliferation (FLT) and hypoxia (FMiso). In this paper, a framework based on Belief Function Theory is proposed for BTV segmentation and for creating 3D parametric images for dose painting. We propose to take advantage of neighboring voxels for BTV segmentation, and also multi-tracer PET images using information fusion to create parametric images. The performances of BTV segmentation was evaluated on an anthropomorphic phantom and compared with two other methods. Quantitative results show the good performances of our method. It has been applied to data of five patients suffering from lung cancer. Parametric images show promising results by highlighting areas where a high frequency or dose escalation could be planned.

  2. Achieving net-zero emissions through the reframing of UK national targets in the post-Paris Agreement era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Steve; Li, Francis G. N.; Price, James; Fais, Birgit

    2017-03-01

    The Paris Agreement provides an international framework aimed at limiting average global temperature rise to well below 2 ∘C, implemented through actions determined at the national level. As the Agreement necessitates a 'net-zero' emissions energy system by 2100, decarbonization analyses in support of national climate policy should consider the post-2050 period. Focusing solely on mitigation objectives for 2030 or 2050 could lead to blindsiding of the challenge, inadequate ambition in the near term, and poor investment choices in energy infrastructure. Here we show, using the UK as an example, that even an ambitious climate policy is likely to fall short of the challenge of net-zero, and that analysis of the post-2050 period is therefore critical. We find that the analysis of detailed, longer-term national pathways that achieve net-zero is important for future reassessment of ambition under nationally determined contributions (NDCs).

  3. How can we further improve the LDL-cholesterol target level achievement rate based on the Hungarian MULTI GAP 2011 study results and considering the new European dyslipidemia guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Laszlo; Paragh, György; Karadi, Istvan; Reiber, Istvan; Pados, Gyula; Kiss, Zoltan

    2012-09-08

    Despite the continuous improvement of the quality of lipid lowering therapy the achievement of target values is still not satisfactory, mainly in the very high cardiovascular risk category patients, where the goal of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is 1.80 mmol/l. The trends in lipid lowering treatment of 17420 patients from different studies conducted between 2004 and 2010 were compared to that of 1626 patients of MULTI GAP (MULTI Goal Attainment Problem) 2011 treated by general practitioners (GPs) and specialists. In MULTI GAP 2011 the mean LDL-C level ± SD) of patients treated by GPs was found to be 2.87 ±1.01 mmol/l, the target value of 2.50 was achieved by 40% of them, in the specialists' patients the mean LDL-C level proved to be 2.77 ±1.10 mmol/l and the achievement rate was 45%. In the 2.50 mmol/l achievement rate of GPs' patients a satisfactory improvement was observed in the studied years, but the 1.80 mmol/l LDL-C goal in 2011 was attained only in 11% of very high risk cases. There was a linear correlation between the patient compliance estimated by the physicians and the LDL-C achievement rate. As the number of very high risk category patients has been increased according to the new European dyslipidemia guidelines, growing attention needs to be placed on attainment of the 1.80 mmol/l LDL-C level. Based on the results of the MULTI GAP studies, improving patients' adherence and the continuous training of physicians are necessary.

  4. INTRAUTERINE ADHESIONS IN ABUJA, NIGERIA.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Infertility and menstrual abnormalities continue to constitute a significant bulk of gynaecological consultations. Both of these ... IUA can be diagnosed through various methods. ... exogenous steroid hormone therapy to regenerate the.

  5. Effectiveness of Powerpoint Presentation On Students’ Cognitive Achievement in Technical Drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amosa Isiaka Gambari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses importance of technology education and evidence of declining performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology subject. Benefits of PowerPoint presentation in classroom instruction as a means to improve classroom teaching in the developing countries are also discussed. The effectiveness of PowerPoint Presentation (PPT for teaching Technical Drawing concepts in Basic Technology was determined using a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent, non-randomized experimental group design. A 2x2x3 factorial design was employed. One hundred JSS 1 students (53 male and 47 female categorized into 29 high, 54 medium and 17 low achievers from two secondary schools in Abuja Metropolis formed the sample. The schools were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught some selected concepts from Technical Drawing using PowerPoint Presentation (PPT while Chalkboard method (CB was used for the control group. A validated Technical Drawing Achievement Test (TDAT comprising a 25-item multiple-choice test was employed for data collection. The reliability coefficient of TDAT was .88 using Kuder-Richardson (KR-20. The hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA and Sidak post-hoc analysis. Results revealed that the students taught with PPT performed better than their counterparts taught with CB. Also, high achievers performed better than medium and low achievers respectfully. The PPT was found also to be gender friendly. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the use of PPT should be encouraged in Nigerian schools.

  6. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  7. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  8. Achieving professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.E. Thompson

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available In approaching the subject of professionalism the author has chosen to focus on the practical aspects rather than the philosophical issues. In so doing an attempt is made to identify criteria which demonstrate the achievement of the essence of professionalism.

  9. 中国碳减排目标的可达性:能源政策与经济发展%The Achievability of China's Climate Target:Energy Policy and Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊

    2012-01-01

    In November of 2009, China's State Council announced that the country will cut its carbon intensity ?carbon emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) ?by 40% -45% from 2005 levels by 2020. It is of great significance for combating climate change of China and the world that whether China will achieve this target. This article analyzed the history and current status of energy consumption and economic development of China, the main energy policies that have been adopted and predicted if China would achieve carbon intensity reduction target under different scenarios. The result indicated that it is very possible that China will achieve the target but pointed energy policies are still needed. Finally according to above analysis, the article provided corresponding policy recommendations for the energy consumption and economic development of China in following years. That is, the governments should increase scientific and technological research expenditure, continue eliminating lagging behind productivity and promote the application of advanced technologies; continue readjusting industrial structure and increasing the proportion of tertiary industry; and promote the marketization of energy price.%2009年11月,中国国务院宣布到2020年,在2005年的基础之上将碳排放强度,即单位GDP二氧化碳排放量降低40%~45%.这一目标能否达成对于中国以及全球抵御气候变化都将产生深刻影响.分析我国能源消耗和经济发展的历史和现状,系统梳理到目前为止我国所制定和实施的能源政策,并结合情景分析预测了我国能否达到既定的碳排放强度削减目标.结果表明,我国实现减排目标是乐观的,但仍需要有针对性的政策导向.最后根据以上分析,对我国下一阶段的能源消耗和经济发展政策提出了相应建议,即加大科技支出,继续淘汰落后产能,推动先进生产技术应用;加大产业结构调整力度,大力发展第三产业;推动能源价格市场化进程.

  10. [EFFICACY OF STANDARD TWO-YEAR COMPREHENSIVE THERAPY TO ACHIEVE TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE AND REGRESSION DEGREES OF REMODELING OF THE LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION WITH COMORBID HYPERTENSION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denesiuk, E V

    2015-01-01

    The study involved 23 men after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with comorbid arterial hypertension (AH). Mean age of patients was 56.7 years. Recurrent myocardial infarction was determined in 38.4%, cardiac failure I-III functional classes--100% of the cases. All patients underwent clinical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography, blood lipid profile. Standard comprehensive treatment for two years included an perindopril 5-10 mg/day, beta-blocker bisoprolol--5-10 mg/day, antisclerotic drug atorvastatin--20 mg/day and aspirin--75 mg/day. The patients after treatment was determined by a gradual increase towards the target of AT at 3, 6 and 12 to 24 months. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) before treatment was determined in 47.8%, eccentric--in 52.2% of patients. In the study of degrees of LVH I (initial) the extent to treatment was determined by 4.3%, II (moderate)--26.1%, III (large)--at 69.6%, indicating the development of cardiac remodeling. After the treatment was determined by marked reduction III (large) degree and transfer it in the II (moderate) and I (small) degree of left ventricular hypertrophy due to more or less pronounced changes remodeling left ventricular. The obtained data allow a more detailed and adequately assess the structural and functional outcome variables and determine the regression of myocardial hypertrophy in the background to achieve target blood pressure, which is important in practical cardiology.

  11. "By slapping their laps, the patient will know that you truly care for her": A qualitative study on social norms and acceptability of the mistreatment of women during childbirth in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Meghan A; Vogel, Joshua P; Tunçalp, Özge; Fawole, Bukola; Titiloye, Musibau A; Olutayo, Akinpelu Olanrewaju; Oyeniran, Agnes A; Ogunlade, Modupe; Metiboba, Loveth; Osunsan, Olubunmi R; Idris, Hadiza A; Alu, Francis E; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-12-01

    Many women experience mistreatment during childbirth in health facilities across the world. However, limited evidence exists on how social norms and attitudes of both women and providers influence mistreatment during childbirth. Contextually-specific evidence is needed to understand how normative factors affect how women are treated. This paper explores the acceptability of four scenarios of mistreatment during childbirth. Two facilities were identified in Abuja, Nigeria. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs)) were used with a purposive sample of women, midwives, doctors and administrators. Participants were presented with four scenarios of mistreatment during childbirth: slapping, verbal abuse, refusing to help the woman and physical restraint. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize findings, which were interpreted within the study context and an existing typology of mistreatment during childbirth. Eighty-four IDIs and 4 FGDs are included in this analysis. Participants reported witnessing and experiencing mistreatment during childbirth, including slapping, physical restraint to a delivery bed, shouting, intimidation, and threats of physical abuse or poor health outcomes. Some women and providers considered each of the four scenarios as mistreatment. Others viewed these scenarios as appropriate and acceptable measures to gain compliance from the woman and ensure a good outcome for the baby. Women and providers blamed a woman's "disobedience" and "uncooperativeness" during labor for her experience of mistreatment. Blaming women for mistreatment parallels the intimate partner violence literature, demonstrating how traditional practices and low status of women potentiate gender inequality. These findings can be used to facilitate dialogue in Nigeria by engaging stakeholders to discuss how to challenge these norms and hold providers accountable for their actions. Until women and their families are able to freely condemn

  12. 北京城市交通出行合理结构模式的目标--可持续发展的对策%A Sustatinable Travel Model Choice Target for Beijing: What Can Policies and Strategies Achieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海燕; 刘蓉晖; 张蕊

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth in Beijing, the demand for travel is increasing continuously.A directly result of which is a continually surge in vehicle ownership. Travel mode share has changed significant during the period 1986 to 2000. The modal split surveys show that, in the past fifteen years,the share of public transport in total demand has decreased slightly. The main modal shift has been from bicycle to car travel. Reviews of the travel modal share situation in similar metropolitan cities around the world suggest that the key to success in managing the increasing travel demand is to adopt policies and strategies which aim to persuade people to choose a sustainable travel mode. Based on the existing traffic data collection and specialist surveys, a sustainable modal choice target has been suggested for Beijing. The policies and strategies to achieve this target modal choice are proposed in this paper which takes into account the experience in both the developed countries and other rapidly developing countries and cities.%随着社会经济的快速发展,北京市居民出行需求日益增加,机动车辆拥有量也随之迅猛上升.北京市1986年和2000年的居民出行调查结果表明,在过去的15年内,居民交通出行模式发生了变化,公交出行比例比原来略有减少,主要的变化是原来的自行车出行这部分中,有很大一部分转变为机动车出行.本文通过对类似规模的几个国际大都市交通出行结构演变过程的回顾,找出其关键之处在于采用政策策略促使居民出行选择有利于城市可持续发展模式;根据广泛调查和专家咨询,确定了一个北京城市交通出行各种方式的合理比例,作为发展目标;并参考发达国家和一些快速发展的国家和城市的经验,提出了达到这个目标的对策和策略.

  13. A survey on the current status of type 2 diabetic patients who failed to achieve the glycemic control target%2型糖尿病血糖控制未达标患者现状调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈名道; 潘长玉; 杨立勇; 李延兵; 肖新华; 冯波; 张秋梅; 李成江

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查2型糖尿病血糖未达标患者的现状,为制定应对策略提供理论依据.方法 201.年8至10月,收集全国26个城市181家医院血糖未达标的2型糖尿病患者进行问卷调查,调查未达标患者的血糖水平、生活方式干预、血糖监测、药物使用情况等,得到资料比较完整的问卷3 861份,分析患者未达标原因.结果 在统计的未达标患者中,HbA1c均值7.9%,空腹血糖均值8.2 mmol/L,餐后血糖均值11.5 mmol/L.生活方式干预方面,仅25.6%的患者能按医嘱严格进行饮食控制,44.5%的患者基本不进行体育锻炼.分别有35.8%和47.8%的患者不进行空腹和餐后血糖的监测.60岁以上的患者,血糖控制水平与其他年龄组并无差别,但其低血糖发生率高达35.5%,较其他两组(分别为20.8%和21.4%)明显为高(均P<0.05).药物治疗方面,单药治疗及联合治疗患者比例分别为46.1%和51.7%.>60岁的老年组联合用药比例更高(58.7%,与其他年龄组比,P<0.05).75%的患者进行了治疗方案的调整.结论 药物治疗方案不够强化或不适当是患者血糖未达标的主要原因;另外,生活方式不佳,血糖监测不够,患者依从性差也是血糖未达标的重要原因.对于未达标患者,需要进一步强化患者教育,加强生活方式干预,选择更加强化,同时安全、依从性好的降糖治疗方案.对于老年患者降糖的目标值应适当放宽.%Objective To investigate the current status of type 2 diabetic patients who failed to achieve the glycemic control target, and provide theoretic evidences for making corresponding strategies. Methods The 2 diabetic patients who failed to reach the glycemic target were recruited from 181 hospitals in 26 cities and received a standard questionnaire, the conditions of their blood glucose level, lifestyle intervention, blood sugar monitoring, and drug therapy were recorded. Totally 3 861 questionnaires with complete information were collected

  14. Post2012 climate regime options for global GHG emission reduction. Analysis and evaluation of regime options and reduction potential for achieving the 2 degree target with respect to environmental effectiveness, costs and institutional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord and provides an in-depth comparison with results arrived at in other model analyses. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO2 emissions by 30 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target, i.e. where the EU adopts a 30 % emission reduction target in 2020 (rather than a 20 % reduction target), while all other countries stick with their ''weak'' pledges. Not included in the calculations is possible financial support for developing countries from industrialized countries as currently discussed in the climate change negotiations and laid out in the Copenhagen Accord. (orig.)

  15. Leader as achiever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  16. Agriculture for development in Iraq?: Estimating the impacts of achieving the agricultural targets of the national development plan 2013–2017 on economic growth, incomes, and gender equality:

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Haboby, Azhr; Breisinger, Clemens; Debowicz, Darío; El-Hakim, Abdul Hussein; Ferguson, Jenna; van Rheenen, Teunis; Telleria, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the potential effects of achieving the agricultural goals set out in Iraq’s National Development Plan (NDP) 2013–2017 using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The findings suggest that raising agricultural productivity in accordance with the NDP may more than double average agricultural growth rates and add an average of 0.7 percent each year to economywide gross domestic product during the duration of the plan. As a consequence, the economy not only dive...

  17. ABUJA SUSTAINABLE SPATIAL HOUSING DESIGN: A SPATIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bons

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... the destitutes/homeless people in the city. The informal .... solving them, this research recommends retention and sustainable spatial integration of the ... Crisis, Planning, and the Quality of life: Managing the New Historical.

  18. AMONG HOSPITAL WORKERS IN ABUJA, NIGERIA '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “morning after contraception“ or “post-coital contraception “are methods used to ... pregnancies and can decrease the need for induced abortion'. The combine ... hospital workers, a survey of staff of a tertiary health care facility in the Federal ...

  19. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  20. Cortical region-specific engraftment of embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells restores axonal sprouting to a subcortical target and achieves motor functional recovery in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuya eShinoyama

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE at birth could cause cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and epilepsy, which last throughout the individual’s lifetime. However, few restorative treatments for ischemic tissue are currently available. Cell replacement therapy offers the potential to rescue brain damage caused by HI and to restore motor function. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (ES-NPCs to become cortical deep layer neurons, to restore the neural network, and to repair brain damage in an HIE mouse model. ES cells stably expressing the reporter gene GFP are induced to a neural precursor state by stromal cell co-culture. Forty-hours after the induction of HIE, animals were grafted with ES-NPCs targeting the deep layer of the motor cortex in the ischemic brain. Motor function was evaluated 3 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry and neuroanatomical tracing with GFP were used to analyze neuronal differentiation and axonal sprouting. ES-NPCs could differentiate to cortical neurons with pyramidal morphology and expressed the deep layer-specific marker, Ctip2. The graft showed good survival and an appropriate innervation pattern via axonal sprouting from engrafted cells in the ischemic brain. The motor functions of the transplanted HIE mice also improved significantly compared to the sham-transplanted group. These findings suggest that cortical region specific engraftment of preconditioned cortical precursor cells could support motor functional recovery in the HIE model. It is not clear whether this is a direct effect of the engrafted cells or due to neurotrophic factors produced by these cells. These results suggest that cortical region-specific NPC engraftment is a promising therapeutic approach for brain repair.

  1. Cortical region-specific engraftment of embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells restores axonal sprouting to a subcortical target and achieves motor functional recovery in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoyama, Mizuya; Ideguchi, Makoto; Kida, Hiroyuki; Kajiwara, Koji; Kagawa, Yoshiteru; Maeda, Yoshihiko; Nomura, Sadahiro; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) at birth could cause cerebral palsy (CP), mental retardation, and epilepsy, which last throughout the individual's lifetime. However, few restorative treatments for ischemic tissue are currently available. Cell replacement therapy offers the potential to rescue brain damage caused by HI and to restore motor function. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (ES-NPCs) to become cortical deep layer neurons, to restore the neural network, and to repair brain damage in an HIE mouse model. ES cells stably expressing the reporter gene GFP are induced to a neural precursor state by stromal cell co-culture. Forty-hours after the induction of HIE, animals were grafted with ES-NPCs targeting the deep layer of the motor cortex in the ischemic brain. Motor function was evaluated 3 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry and neuroanatomical tracing with GFP were used to analyze neuronal differentiation and axonal sprouting. ES-NPCs could differentiate to cortical neurons with pyramidal morphology and expressed the deep layer-specific marker, Ctip2. The graft showed good survival and an appropriate innervation pattern via axonal sprouting from engrafted cells in the ischemic brain. The motor functions of the transplanted HIE mice also improved significantly compared to the sham-transplanted group. These findings suggest that cortical region specific engraftment of preconditioned cortical precursor cells could support motor functional recovery in the HIE model. It is not clear whether this is a direct effect of the engrafted cells or due to neurotrophic factors produced by these cells. These results suggest that cortical region-specific NPC engraftment is a promising therapeutic approach for brain repair.

  2. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  3. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  4. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  5. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Adoptees' Educational Achievements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Fuglsang

    to country of origin. The results suggest that the relatively small gap between non-kin adoptees’ and non-adoptees’ educational achievements widens between ages 20 and 25. Moreover, the results show some differences in educational outcomes among non-kin adoptees with different countries of origin.......This study analyses educational achievement at age 20 for 3,180 non-kin adoptees and at age 25 for 1,559 non-kin adoptees in Denmark by comparing them to non-adoptees. The study also analyses whether there are within-group differences in the educational achievement of non-kin adoptees according...

  7. Disparity in academic achievement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    female and male students in colleges of teachers' education in Oromia, and to identify variables attributing to ... and social services (Dereje, Dawit & ... related to student attitudes (motivation; .... community commitment to children's ... and getting involved in social and academic .... study, and gender patterns in achievement.

  8. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  9. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  10. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  11. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  12. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  13. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  14. Improving Student Achievement through Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Chip; Hansen, Cynthia; Jensen, Jane

    This report describes a program for improving moral character to increase academic achievement. Targeted population consisted of middle school students in a growing middle class community in a northern suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem, an absence of proper moral character, was documented through data collected from discipline referrals to…

  15. Achieveing Organizational Excellence Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abzari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractToday, In order to create motivation and desirable behavior in employees, to obtain organizational goals,to increase human resources productivity and finally to achieve organizational excellence, top managers oforganizations apply new and effective strategies. One of these strategies to achieve organizational excellenceis creating desirable corporate culture. This research has been conducted to identify the path to reachorganizational excellence by creating corporate culture according to the standards and criteria oforganizational excellence. The result of the so-called research is this paper in which researchers foundtwenty models and components of corporate culture and based on the Industry, organizational goals andEFQM model developed a model called "The Eskimo model of Culture-Excellence". The method of theresearch is survey and field study and the questionnaires were distributed among 116 managers andemployees. To assess the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach alpha was measured to be 95% in the idealsituation and 0/97 in the current situation. Systematic sampling was done and in the pre-test stage 45questionnaires were distributed. A comparison between the current and the ideal corporate culture based onthe views of managers and employees was done and finally it has been concluded that corporate culture isthe main factor to facilitate corporate excellence and success in order to achieve organizational effectiveness.The contribution of this paper is that it proposes a localized –applicable model of corporate excellencethrough reinforcing corporate culture.

  16. Targeting bacterial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Mattias E; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Castagner, Bastien

    2012-04-23

    Protein toxins constitute the main virulence factors of several species of bacteria and have proven to be attractive targets for drug development. Lead candidates that target bacterial toxins range from small molecules to polymeric binders, and act at each of the multiple steps in the process of toxin-mediated pathogenicity. Despite recent and significant advances in the field, a rationally designed drug that targets toxins has yet to reach the market. This Review presents the state of the art in bacterial toxin targeted drug development with a critical consideration of achieved breakthroughs and withstanding challenges. The discussion focuses on A-B-type protein toxins secreted by four species of bacteria, namely Clostridium difficile (toxins A and B), Vibrio cholerae (cholera toxin), enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (Shiga toxin), and Bacillus anthracis (anthrax toxin), which are the causative agents of diseases for which treatments need to be improved. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Achieving form in autobiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas (Nick Meihuizen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that, unlike biographies which tend to follow patterns based on conventional expectations, salient autobiographies achieve forms unique to themselves. The article draws on ideas from contemporary formalists such as Peter McDonald and Angela Leighton but also considers ideas on significant form stemming from earlier writers and critics such as P.N. Furbank and Willa Cather. In extracting from these writers the elements of what they consider comprise achieved form, the article does not seek to provide a rigid means of objectively testing the formal attributes of a piece of writing. It rather offers qualitative reminders of the need to be alert to the importance of form, even if the precise nature of this importance is not possible to define. Form is involved in meaning, and this continuously opens up possibilities regarding the reader’s relationship with the work in question. French genetic critic Debray Genette distinguishes between ‘semantic effect’ (the direct telling involved in writing and ‘semiological effect’ (the indirect signification involved. It is the latter, the article argues in summation, which gives a work its singular nature, producing a form that is not predictable but suggestive, imaginative.

  18. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  19. FEWER HOURS MORE ACHIEVEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NingQuanxin; QiuLizhong

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study is to improve instructional classes for “Extensive Reading”. We compare two approaches. The traditional method is based on the original procedure; the method we try is a “task-placemented” one. inspired by the method we try is a “task-placemented” one. inspired by the theory of “Tasks of Ascending Difficulty”.This paper provides a comparative evaluation of our experiments on Extensive Reading. Our aim is to resolve the logistical problem of heavy teaching loads and limited class hours, which often prevents English learners from fulfilling their study targets and our intended learning outcomes. In view of the experimental data,we have managed to establish a “feedback” to test the two hypotheses, and demonstrate that the new approach contributes to efficient acquisition of the information in the presented reading materials. Our study concludes with an interpretation of the function and merits of this approach.

  20. Achieving English Spoken Fluency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鲜杰

    2000-01-01

    Language is first and foremost oral,spoken language,speaking skill is the most important one of the four skills(L,S,R,W)and also it is the most difficult one of the four skills. To have an all-round command of a language one must be able to speak and to understand the spoken language, it is not enough for a language learner only to have a good reading and writing skills. As Englisn language teachers, we need to focus on improving learners' English speaking skill to meet the need of our society and our country and provide learner some useful techniques to achieving their English spoken fluency. This paper focuses on the spoken how to improving learners speaking skill.

  1. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  2. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  3. Achieving closure at Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  4. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  5. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  6. Vietnam: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Tien Duc

    1999-01-01

    The Vietnamese Government's successful development of the National Population and Family Planning Program has contributed in raising people's awareness on population issues and changing their attitudes and behavior regarding fostering small families. It has also been found to be very effective in substantially decreasing fertility level. In addition, economic levels of many households have been greatly improved since the adoption of a renovation policy. The advancement of welfare accompanied by the provision of better basic social services, including health services, has boost people's health. Several factors behind the achievements of the National Population and Family Planning Program include: 1) Strengthening of the political commitment of national and local leaders; 2) Nationwide mobilization of mass organizations and NGOs; 3) A strong advocacy and information, education and communication program; 4) Provision of various kinds of contraceptives; 5) Effective management of the program by priority; and 6) Support of the international community. Despite such successes, Vietnam is facing a number of new issues such as enlargement of the work force, shifting migration patterns and accelerating urbanization, aging of population, and change of household structure. Nevertheless, the Government of Vietnam is preparing a New Population Strategy aimed to address these issues.

  7. Environmental political targets of the EU: German-French contributions for the achievement of the EU goals. Proceedings; Umweltpolitische Ziele der EU: Deutsch-franzoesische Beitraege zur Zielerreichung. Concepts franco-allemands pour atteindre les objectifs environnementaux de l'UE. Tagungsband. Actes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cail, Sylvain; Moest, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf; Percebois, Jacques (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    The first German-French workshop on energy economy and sustainability on January 29 and 30, 2009 at Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany) comprised the following lectures: (1) Systematic evaluation of the sustainability in energy projects (Volker Stelzer); (2) Comparative value of various mechanisms of promoting renewable energy sources (Jacques Percebois, Olivier Rousse); (3) Communities as actors in climate protection (Lioba Markl, Nurten Avci); (4) The chain of value of photovoltaic systems containing crystalline silicon (Christin Oeser); (5) The wind power industry as an example of the German-French cooperation for the achievement of environmental political targets of the EU (Katharina Braig, Markus Jenne); (6) A short history of the future of biomass and biofuels in relation to white biotechnologies (Gerard Goma, Carole Molina-Jouve); (7) Generation and feeding of methane from biomass (Frank Graf); (8) Energy evaluation of the thickening of the biomass by rapid pyrolysis (Guillain Mauviel et al.); (9) Future role of renewable energies in European electricity supply (Dominik Moest et al.); (10) A systematic evaluation of the potentials for reducing CO{sub 2} as an element of company management (Sarah Schwarz); (11) A system dynamics model of the German electricity market (Tobias Jaeger).

  8. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...... results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on the secondary mirror, largely co-aligned with the telescope. This CHU accurately determines the telescope......'s pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target...

  9. Different Pathways for Achieving Cleaner Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippl, J.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 White Paper on Transport of the European Commission spells out a series of targets for 2030 and 2050. One of the 10 targets is explicitly related to urban transport and stipulates: ''Halve the use of 'conventionally fuelled' cars in urban transport by 2030; phase them out in cities by 2050....... Achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030.'' With this paper we present and discuss a roadmap that deals with the question who needs to do what by when in order to reach the White Paper goal for urban transport. The ''stakeholder-driven'' roadmap was developed in the FP7...... project TRANSFORuM. The paper will present the key findings and the suggested action steps identified in the roadmap. The paper will also exemplify three possible urban transformation pathways towards the urban target. This approach emerged from stakeholder consultations which highlighted the need to take...

  10. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  11. ACHIEVING OPTIMAL SCHOOL CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar SHIHADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of optimal school climate is the basis of educational, social and moral work in school. Optimal educa-tional climate in a school is a condition for learning and development of all those attending the educational establishment (pupils, teachers and parents. The school is responsible for the personal, cognitive, emotional, social and moral develop-ment of pupils. The educational team has the ability and commitment to promote an educational climate. Improvement of study achievements of pupils is related, as well as conditional, to optimal climate. "A climate in an educational establishment is a key factor that affects the creation of environment which develops personal security and sense of affiliation, value and mutual respect" [12].FORMAREA UNEI ATMOSFERE OPTIMALE ÎN ŞCOALĂ Formarea unei atmosfere optimale în şcoala medie este baza lucrului educaţional, social şi moral în şcoală. Atmosfera educaţională în şcoală este o condiţie pentru instruirea şi dezvoltarea tuturor celor înrolaţi în instituţia educaţională (elevi, profesori şi părinţi. Şcoala poartă răspundere de condiţiile favorabile în dezvoltarea personală, cognitivă, emoţională, socială şi morală a elevilor. Echipa de profesori are abilitatea şi angajamentul de a promova condiţii educaţionale favorabile. Îmbunătăţirea realizărilor elevilor la învăţătură este legată şi condiţionată de climatul optim. „Atmosfera în instituţia educaţională este factorul-cheie care afectează crearea unui mediu ce dezvoltă securitatea personală şi sentimentul de afiliere, valoarea şi respectul reciproc" [12].

  12. Exomars Mission Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    days). During the exploration the Rover will use the TGO-2016 for the communications with Earth. This paper will outline the Exomars 2016 mission design, first in flight achievement and performance results and provide a description of the major design drivers of the 2020 mission, with a view to highlight lessons learnt aspects that must be considered for future mission design.

  13. Targeted phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonun Sanga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machines for the hand, foot or scalp. It has many disadvantages, due to which new phototherapy techniques have been developed. These new techniques are called targeted phototherapy. They include excimer laser, the intense pulse light (IPL system, photodynamic therapy, and an ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to operate by hand. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages including lower risk of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, and shorter duration of treatment. But they also have disadvantages such as high costs and inability to use them for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy, its mechanisms of action, and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to conventional phototherapy.

  14. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  15. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  16. Relationships between Student, Teacher, and School Characteristics and Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Teresa; Wang, Chuang; Harbaugh, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of factors contributes to student achievement in mathematics, including but not limited to student behaviors and student, teacher, and school characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these factors have an impact on student mathematics achievement. The target population for this study was North Carolina Algebra…

  17. 提振精气神抢抓新机遇实现新跨越努力在“十二五”承前启后之年提前实现倍增目标在2013年集团工作会暨党委工作会上的报告(有删节)%Inspiring Essence and Spirit, Seizing New Opportunity,Achieving New Development, Making Great Efforts to Achieve the Output Value Doubling Target in Advance in the Continuity Year of Twelfth Five-Year Period ——A Speech made on the Company Working Conferen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董英

    2013-01-01

    The main tasks and achievements of CYMCO in production and management, foundation management, management control transformation, project construction, resource strategy, reform deepening, capital functioning, technological innovation, Party building and so on in 2012 are summarized in this paper, and the development targets and main tasks in 2013 are also studied and arranged.%总结集团2012年生产经营、基础管理、管控转型、项目建设、资源战略、深化改革、资本运作、科技创新、党的建设等方面的主要工作和取得的成绩.研究部署集团2013年发展目标和主要任务.

  18. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  19. Target Space $\

    CERN Document Server

    Huggett, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the significance of T-duality in string theory: the indistinguishability with respect to all observables, of models attributing radically different radii to space -- larger than the observable universe, or far smaller than the Planck length, say. Two interpretational branch points are identified and discussed. First, whether duals are physically equivalent or not: by considering a duality of the familiar simple harmonic oscillator, I argue that they are. Unlike the oscillator, there are no measurements 'outside' string theory that could distinguish the duals. Second, whether duals agree or disagree on the radius of 'target space', the space in which strings evolve according to string theory. I argue for the latter position, because the alternative leaves it unknown what the radius is. Since duals are physically equivalent yet disagree on the radius of target space, it follows that the radius is indeterminate between them. Using an analysis of Brandenberger and Vafa (1989), I explain wh...

  20. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  1. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  2. Achievements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    A historic decision was taken by the Preparatory Commission of the International Seabed Authority (PRE-PCOM) on 17 th August 1987 It was decided to allocate to India exclusive rights for the exploration of polymetallic nodules in an area of about...

  3. Recognizing occluded MSTAR targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanu, Bir; Jones, Grinnell, III

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for recognizing occluded vehicle targets in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Using quasi-invariant local features, SAR scattering center locations and magnitudes, a recognition algorithm is presented that successfully recognizes highly occluded versions of actual vehicles from the MSTAR public data. Extensive experimental results are presented to show the effect of occlusion on recognition performance in terms of Probability of Correct Identification, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and confusion matrices. The effect of occlusion on performance of this recognition algorithm is accurately predicted. Combined effects such as occlusion and measured positional noise, as well as occlusion and other observed extended operating conditions (e.g., articulation) are also addressed. Although excellent forced recognition results can be achieved at very high (70%) occlusion, practical limitations are found due to the similarity of unoccluded confuser vehicles to highly occluded targets.

  4. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace

    1988-01-01

    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  5. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…

  6. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  7. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  8. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  9. Poor Results for High Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  10. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  11. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  12. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approaches to malaria control in the current efforts for households in the respective LGAs. The. 4 ... beyond the Abuja targets of 2000 . The target now .... Table 4: Parental educational levels and household possession of bed nets in Benin-City.

  14. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Implementing Target Value Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-04-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  16. Finite Block-Length Achievable Rates for Queuing Timing Channels

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The exponential server timing channel is known to be the simplest, and in some sense canonical, queuing timing channel. The capacity of this infinite-memory channel is known. Here, we discuss practical finite-length restrictions on the codewords and attempt to understand the amount of maximal rate that can be achieved for a target error probability. By using Markov chain analysis, we prove a lower bound on the maximal channel coding rate achievable at blocklength $n$ and error probability $...

  17. Dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eAst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular compartmentalization into organelles serves to separate biological processes within the environment of a single cell. While some metabolic reactions are specific to a single organelle, others occur in more than one cellular compartment. Specific targeting of proteins to compartments inside of eukaryotic cells is mediated by defined sequence motifs. To achieve multiple targeting to different compartments cells use a variety of strategies. Here, we focus on mechanisms leading to dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins. In many instances, isoforms of peroxisomal proteins with distinct intracellular localization are encoded by separate genes. But also single genes can give rise to differentially localized proteins. Different isoforms can be generated by use of alternative transcriptional start sites, by differential splicing or ribosomal read-through of stop codons. In all these cases different peptide variants are produced, of which only one carries a peroxisomal targeting signal. Alternatively, peroxisomal proteins contain additional signals that compete for intracellular targeting. Dual localization of proteins residing in both the cytoplasm and in peroxisomes may also result from use of inefficient targeting signals. The recent observation that some bona fide cytoplasmic enzymes were also found in peroxisomes indicates that dual targeting of proteins to both the cytoplasm and the peroxisome might be more widespread. Although current knowledge of proteins exhibiting only partial peroxisomal targeting is far from being complete, we speculate that the metabolic capacity of peroxisomes might be larger than previously assumed.

  18. Disciplinary climate and student achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortkær, Bent; Reimer, David

    between the perceived disciplinary climate in the classroom and students’ mathematics performance in Canada, Denmark and Norway. Furthermore we exploit country specific class-size rules in order to single out a subsample with classroom-level data (PISA is sampled by age and not by classes) and find......Disciplinary climate has emerged as one of the single most important factors related to student achievement. Using data from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Latvia and Norway we find a significant and nontrivial association...... that the estimates based on school-level data might underestimate the relationship between disciplinary climate and student achievement. Finally we find evidence for gender differences in the association between disciplinary climate and student achievement that can partly be explained by gender-specific perceptions...

  19. Mathematics Achievement by Immigrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I examined academic achievement of immigrant children in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Analyzing data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, I gauged the performance gaps relating to the generation of immigration and the home language background. I found immigrant children's math and science achievement to be lower than the others only in England, the U.S., and Canada. Non-English language background was found in each country to relate to poor math and science learning and this disadvantage was stronger among native-born children—presumably children of indigenous groups—than among immigrant children. I also examined the school variation in math performance gaps, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to each country's data. The patterns in which language- and generation-related math achievement gaps varied between schools are different in the five countries.

  20. Improved Targeting of Cancers with Nanotherapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Christian; Watson, Andre; Kaplinsky, Joseph John;

    2017-01-01

    Targeted cancer nanotherapeutics offers numerous opportunities for the selective uptake of toxic chemotherapies within tumors and cancer cells. The unique properties of nanoparticles, such as their small size, large surface-to-volume ratios, and the ability to achieve multivalency of targeting...... ligands on their surface, provide superior advantages for nanoparticle-based drug delivery to a variety of cancers. This review highlights various key concepts in the design of targeted nanotherapeutics for cancer therapy, and discusses physicochemical parameters affecting nanoparticle targeting, along...... with recent developments for cancer-targeted nanomedicines....

  1. Achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S; Banu, L A; Chowdhury, T A; Rubayet, S; Khatoon, S

    2011-09-01

    Bangladesh has made commendable progress in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Since 1990, there has been a remarkable reduction in maternal and child mortality, with an estimated 57% reduction in child mortality and 66% in maternal mortality. This review highlights that, whereas Bangladesh is on track for achieving MDG 4 and 5A, progress in universal access to reproductive health (5B) is not yet at the required pace to achieve the targets set for 2015. In addition, Bangladesh needs to further enhance activities to improve newborn health and promote skilled attendance at birth. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  2. Waiting-time targets. Early learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison

    2007-04-05

    Thirteen 'early achiever' sites have volunteered to deliver the new 18-week target ahead of schedule. The sites have highlighted recurring issues for trusts aiming for 18 weeks: orthopaedics, audiology, endoscopy and some smaller specialties have all proved challenging. The target should be seen as a vital step towards a 'no unnecessary delay' system of working and thinking.

  3. The History of Target-Controlled Infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, Michel M. R. F.; De Smet, Tom; Glen, John (Iain) B.; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Schnider, Thomas W.

    Target-controlled infusion (TCI) is a technique of infusing IV drugs to achieve a user-defined predicted (target) drug concentration in a specific body compartment or tissue of interest. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic principles of TCI, the development of TCI systems, and technical

  4. Childhood malignancies in University of Abuja Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2011-12-20

    Dec 20, 2011 ... ... with this disease.1,2,3. In Nigeria, the management of cancers is still froth with ... of the reach of many children, death from disease is likely to occur in .... nacial resources with communicable diseases and envi- ronmental ...

  5. 1 Office Rental Determinants in WUSE Commercial District of Abuja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... This pattern is seldom stable as new adjustments are always taking place, including ... readily available data to aid the investment decision-making process. They ... policies. He concluded that the analysis of office property markets is most ... inflation and therefore subject to national economic influences.

  6. ' Veterinary Teaching Hospital. University qfAbuja. Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease is characterised by high mortality close to l00%, diarrhoea, fever and coughing. The virus .... cholera, but hog cholera is caused by a different virus and ulcers were not ... enhance prevention and control programmes. Unauthorised ...

  7. The Abuja +12 Declaration: Implications for HIV Response in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    ensuring the uptake of HIV preventive measures for these populations. ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the conduct of life saving research ... Drug use and sex work are also criminalized in many African countries. These laws and ...

  8. a profile of wound infections in national hospital abuja

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Iregbu KC1, Uwaezuoke NS, Nwajiobi-Princewill IP, Eze SO, Medugu N , Shettima S, Modibbo Z. .... particularly to the third generation cephalosporins and gentamicin. This level ... Wonud infections in two health institutionsin Ile Ife, Nigeria:A.

  9. Microbial quality of soft drinks sold in Abuja, Nigeria | Okpalugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study assessed the microbial quality of sixteen brands of soft drink ... from soft drinks was determined using the antibiotic sensitivity test (zones of inhibition). ... Visual inspection of packages, quality assessment of soft drinks ...

  10. 1 Office Rental Determinants in WUSE Commercial District of Abuja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-07

    May 7, 2015 ... Rent is the economic return to land resources. It is also the ... determinants that influence office property rents in the country. This paper ..... rate on real estate loans, interest rate on commerce, Monetary Policy Rate. (MPR) ...

  11. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  12. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  13. The opening of achievement report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The unified plan for Sharqu River has been worked out by experts from Yangtze Water Conservancy Commission, Yangtze Hydraulic Engineering Investigation Academy, and the Academy from T.A.R. A meeting of reporting their achievements has been hold in Lhasa.

  14. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  15. Chinese Achievements Attract Worldwide Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE People’s Republic of China was founded 45 years ago. Since the policies of economic and social reform and opening were carried out in the beginning of the 1980s, China has been gradually entering into prosperity and has made inspiring achievements. 1. The living standards of the people and their

  16. Achieving universal access to broadband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures...

  17. Adolescents' Academic Expectations and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christopher E.; Field, Tiffany M.; Diego, Miguel A.

    2001-01-01

    Hypothesis that mother relationships are more influential than father relationships on adolescents' academic expectations and achievement was tested with 80 high school seniors. The mother child relationship was found to be predictive of academic expectations. It suggests that the amount of time they spend together may be the contributing factor.…

  18. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  19. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  20. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  1. Faculty Development: Assessing Learner Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen

    This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…

  2. Enhancing Academic Achievement through Direct Instruction of Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendt, Lori; Nunan, Jan

    This paper examines the impact of the explicit teaching of social skills to enhance academic achievement. The targeted population comprised kindergarten and second grade students in a middle-class community located in central Illinois. The problem of inappropriate behaviors and difficulties interacting with peers and how this may affect academic…

  3. Achieving Excellence through Outcome-Based Instructional Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen E.; Spady, William G.

    1984-01-01

    Instruction in flexible groups at the Center School accommodates variability in student achievement and aptitude, increases time targeted to specific needs, addresses fairly large groups, reduces the problems of individualized instructional systems, and offers curricular units sequenced according to a hierarchy of skills and concepts, with…

  4. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  5. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  6. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.; Oort, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals),

  7. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.; Oort, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacog

  8. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  9. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  10. The incongruous achiever in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, S A; Golombek, H

    1974-06-01

    The authors wished to study some of the internal psychological dynamics of achievement in a nonpatient identified high school population. Questionnaires were administered to the Grade 13 students and their parents in a large high school. A number of students whose achievement and educational plans were not congruous with their general background were selected for interview. The findings suggest that a wide variety of ages and developmental stages can be discerned as critical points in the development of a student's attitude toward higher education. These students have many values in common, and their values appear related to a positive or negative identification with parental values. The students themselves show a wide range of personality integration. They relate in a special way to a wide variety of teachers' personalities.

  11. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap......-closing initiatives. We find that Americans are more concerned about—and more supportive of proposals to close—wealth-based achievement gaps than Black-White or Hispanic-White gaps. Americans also explain the causes of wealth-based gaps more readily. © 2016 AERA.......For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers’ and policymakers’ efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public’s views...

  12. Media and attention, cognition, and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Vandewater, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    Marie Evans Schmidt and Elizabeth Vandewater review research on links between various types of electronic media and the cognitive skills of school-aged children and adolescents. One central finding of studies to date, they say, is that the content delivered by electronic media is far more influential than the media themselves. Most studies, they point out, find a small negative link between the total hours a child spends viewing TV and that child's academic achievement. But when researchers take into account characteristics of the child, such as IQ or socioeconomic status, this link typically disappears. Content appears to be crucial. Viewing educational TV is linked positively with academic achievement; viewing entertainment TV is linked negatively with achievement. When it comes to particular cognitive skills, say the authors, researchers have found that electronic media, particularly video games, can enhance visual spatial skills, such as visual tracking, mental rotation, and target localization. Gaming may also improve problem-solving skills. Researchers have yet to understand fully the issue of transfer of learning from electronic media. Studies suggest that, under some circumstances, young people are able to transfer what they learn from electronic media to other applications, but analysts are uncertain how such transfer occurs. In response to growing public concern about possible links between electronic media use and attention problems in children and adolescents, say the authors, researchers have found evidence for small positive links between heavy electronic media use and mild attention problems among young people but have found only inconsistent evidence so far for a link between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and media use. The authors point out that although video games, interactive websites, and multimedia software programs appear to offer a variety of possible benefits for learning, there is as yet little empirical evidence to suggest that

  13. Database Research: Achievements and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wang; Xiao-Yong Du; Xiao-Feng Meng; Hong Chen

    2006-01-01

    Database system is the infrastructure of the modern information system. The R&D in the database system moves along by giant steps. This report presents the achievements Renmin University of China (RUC) has made in the past 25 years and at the same time addresses some of the research projects we, RUC, are currently working on. The National Natural Science Foundation of China supports and initiates most of our research projects and these successfully conducted projects have produced fruitful results.

  14. Predicting educational achievement from DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzam, S; Krapohl, E; von Stumm, S; O'Reilly, P F; Rimfeld, K; Kovas, Y; Dale, P S; Lee, J J; Plomin, R

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide polygenic score (GPS), derived from a 2013 genome-wide association study (N=127,000), explained 2% of the variance in total years of education (EduYears). In a follow-up study (N=329,000), a new EduYears GPS explains up to 4%. Here, we tested the association between this latest EduYears GPS and educational achievement scores at ages 7, 12 and 16 in an independent sample of 5825 UK individuals. We found that EduYears GPS explained greater amounts of variance in educational achievement over time, up to 9% at age 16, accounting for 15% of the heritable variance. This is the strongest GPS prediction to date for quantitative behavioral traits. Individuals in the highest and lowest GPS septiles differed by a whole school grade at age 16. Furthermore, EduYears GPS was associated with general cognitive ability (~3.5%) and family socioeconomic status (~7%). There was no evidence of an interaction between EduYears GPS and family socioeconomic status on educational achievement or on general cognitive ability. These results are a harbinger of future widespread use of GPS to predict genetic risk and resilience in the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27431296

  15. Creative Accounting Practices in Nigerian Banks | Akenbor | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve the purpose of this study research questions were raised, hypotheses were ... banks currently operating in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT)- Abuja. ... in Nigerian banks is to boost the market value of shares; users of accounting ...

  16. Targeting tumor suppressor genes for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhua; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Han, Cecil; Wang, Liana; Zhang, Xinna; He, Xiaoming; Lu, Xiongbin

    2015-12-01

    Cancer drugs are broadly classified into two categories: cytotoxic chemotherapies and targeted therapies that specifically modulate the activity of one or more proteins involved in cancer. Major advances have been achieved in targeted cancer therapies in the past few decades, which is ascribed to the increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms for cancer initiation and progression. Consequently, monoclonal antibodies and small molecules have been developed to interfere with a specific molecular oncogenic target. Targeting gain-of-function mutations, in general, has been productive. However, it has been a major challenge to use standard pharmacologic approaches to target loss-of-function mutations of tumor suppressor genes. Novel approaches, including synthetic lethality and collateral vulnerability screens, are now being developed to target gene defects in p53, PTEN, and BRCA1/2. Here, we review and summarize the recent findings in cancer genomics, drug development, and molecular cancer biology, which show promise in targeting tumor suppressors in cancer therapeutics.

  17. Prodrug applications for targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Irene; Boland, Erin L; Poon, Gregory M K

    2014-09-01

    Prodrugs are widely used in the targeted delivery of cytotoxic compounds to cancer cells. To date, targeted prodrugs for cancer therapy have achieved great diversity in terms of target selection, activation chemistry, as well as size and physicochemical nature of the prodrug. Macromolecular prodrugs such as antibody-drug conjugates, targeted polymer-drug conjugates and other conjugates that self-assemble to form liposomal and micellar nanoparticles currently represent a major trend in prodrug development for cancer therapy. In this review, we explore a unified view of cancer-targeted prodrugs and highlight several examples from recombinant technology that exemplify the prodrug concept but are not identified as such. Recombinant "prodrugs" such as engineered anthrax toxin show promise in biological specificity through the conditionally targeting of multiple cellular markers. Conditional targeting is achieved by structural complementation, the spontaneous assembly of engineered inactive subunits or fragments to reconstitute functional activity. These complementing systems can be readily adapted to achieve conditionally bispecific targeting of enzymes that are used to activate low-molecular weight prodrugs. By leveraging strengths from medicinal chemistry, polymer science, and recombinant technology, prodrugs are poised to remain a core component of highly focused and tailored strategies aimed at conditionally attacking complex molecular phenotypes in clinically relevant cancer.

  18. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  19. Relationship between the Learning Styles Preferences and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, H.; Samad, N. Abd; Faiz, N. S. Mohd; Roddin, R.; Kankia, J. D.

    2017-08-01

    The individual learning differences that have been much explored relate to differences in personality, learning styles, strategies and conceptual of learning. This article studies the learning style profile exhibited by students towards the academic achievement in Malaysian Polytechnic. The relationship between learning styles of Polytechnic students and their academic achievement based on VARK learning styles model. The target population was international business students of Malaysian Polytechnic. By means of randomly sampling method, 103 students were selected as sample of research. By descriptive - survey research method and a questionnaire adapted from VARK Learning Style Index, required data were collected. According to the results, no significantly difference between learning style and academic achievement of students. Students academic achievement was quite similar to their individual learning styles. These facts reveal that each learning style has its own strengths and weaknesses.

  20. Updates and achievements in virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  1. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Darling-Hammond

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using data from a 50-state survey of policies, state case study analyses, the 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Surveys (SASS, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, this study examines the ways in which teacher qualifications and other school inputs are related to student achievement across states. The findings of both the qualitative and quantitative analyses suggest that policy investments in the quality of teachers may be related to improvements in student performance. Quantitative analyses indicate that measures of teacher preparation and certification are by far the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics, both before and after controlling for student poverty and language status. State policy surveys and case study data are used to evaluate policies that influence the overall level of teacher qualifications within and across states. This analysis suggests that policies adopted by states regarding teacher education, licensing, hiring, and professional development may make an important difference in the qualifications and capacities that teachers bring to their work. The implications for state efforts to enhance quality and equity in public education are discussed.

  2. Target-tracking algorithm for omnidirectional vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chengtao; Weng, Xiangyu; Fan, Bing; Zhu, Qidan

    2017-05-01

    Omnidirectional vision with the advantage of a large field-of-view overcomes the problem that a target is easily lost due to the narrow sight of perspective vision. We improve a target-tracking algorithm based on discriminative tracking features in several aspects and propose a target-tracking algorithm for an omnidirectional vision system. (1) An elliptical target window expression model is presented to represent the target's outline, which can adapt to the deformation of an object and reduce background interference. (2) The background-weighted linear RGB histogram target feature is introduced, which decreases the weight of the background feature. (3) The Bhattacharyya coefficients-based feature identification method is employed, which reduces the computation time of the tracking algorithm. (4) An adaptive target scale and orientation measurement method is applied to adapt to severe deformations of the target's outline. (5) A model update strategy is put forward, which is based on similarity measurements to achieve an effective and accurate model update. The experimental results show the proposed algorithm can achieve better performance than the state-of-the-art algorithms when using omnidirectional vision to perform long-term target-tracking tasks.

  3. Efforts to Achieve Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Leung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity is a blessing as long as good health is not lost. However, the tendency to have a decline on normal physiological activities is inevitable because of the natural processes of degeneration at all levels: molecular, cellular and organic. Hence, the elderly people frequently suffer from cardiovascular problems and skeletal deteriorations that gradually develop to disabilities. Awareness of factors leading to unhealthy aging has led to the formation of different professional groups that aim at the maintenance of health of aging community. The approach tends to be target orientated for the European and US groups, aiming at hormonal replacements and detoxifi cation. In contrast, the oriental groups have been keeping their traditional belief of prevention and internal balance, using nutritional arrangements and non-strenuous exercise as means of maintaining health.

  4. Achieving Research University: Indonesian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Yos Johan; Ambariyanto

    2017-02-01

    Today many universities have the vision to become a research university, including in Indonesia. It is based on the desire to play a role in advancing science for the benefit of humanity as well as to enhance the university reputation at the international level. However, in the case of Indonesia, it can only be done by several universities, given the large number of universities with very different capabilities. In addition, another problem is human resources, infrastructure, and research funding. Various targets indicator used to determine its success include the number of publications, patents and industrial products. There is an urgent need to improve all factors that can accelerate the increase in research in Indonesia universities, and has been started by the policy of the current government.

  5. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Perotti, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The so obtained schemes are cascaded with an outer serially-concatenated convolutional code to form a pragmatic coded-modulation system. The resulting schemes exhibit performance very close to the CPM capacity without requiring iterations between the outer decoder and the CPM demodulator. As a result, the receiver exhibits reduced complexity and increased flexibility due to the separation of the demodulation and decoding functions.

  6. Laval nozzles for cluster-jet targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergemoeller, Ann-Katrin; Bonaventura, Daniel; Grieser, Silke; Koehler, Esperanza; Taeschner, Alexander; Khoukaz, Alfons [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Cluster-jet targets are highly suited as internal targets for storage ring experiments. Here the target beam itself is produced by the expansion of pre-cooled gases within fine Laval nozzles. With such targets high and constant target beam thicknesses can be achieved and adjusted continuously during operation. At the prototype cluster-jet target for the PANDA experiment, which was built up and set successfully into operation at the University of Muenster, density structures within the cluster beam directly behind the nozzle have been observed. Therefore, a tilting system was installed, allowing for an adjustment of the nozzle system relative to the experimental setup. With this installation target densities of more than 2 x 10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2} at a distance of 2.1 m behind the nozzle were achieved. To study the impact of the Laval nozzle geometry on the beam structures and the achievable density, an improved nozzle production method was established. With this technique it is possible to produce with high efficiency fine micrometer-sized nozzles with variable geometries, e.g. different opening angles, opening diameters or lengths of the exit trumpet. The method for the production of Laval nozzles are presented, and new perspectives are discussed.

  7. Hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the tracking accuracy of hypersonic sliding target in near space, the influence of target hypersonic movement on radar detection and tracking is analyzed, and an IMM tracking algorithm is proposed based on radial velocity compensating and cancellation processing of high dynamic biases under the earth centered earth fixed (ECEF coordinate. Based on the analysis of effect of target hypersonic movement, a measurement model is constructed to reduce the filter divergence which is caused by the model mismatch. The high dynamic biases due to the target hypersonic movement are approximately compensated through radial velocity estimation to achieve the hypersonic target tracking at low systematic biases in near space. The high dynamic biases are further eliminated by the cancellation processing of different radars, in which the track association problem can be solved when the dynamic biases are low. An IMM algorithm based on constant acceleration (CA, constant turning (CT and Singer models is used to achieve the hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space. Simulation results show that the target tracking in near space can be achieved more effectively by using the proposed algorithm.

  8. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    was necessary to achieve the overall schedule. Plans had to be developed for the precise location and alignment of laser beam ports. Upon completion of the fabrication of the aluminum target chamber in a temporary structure the 130 ton sphere was moved from the temporary construction enclosure to its final location in the target building. Prior to the installation of a concrete shield and after completion of the welding of the chamber penetrations vacuum leak checking was performed to insure the vacuum integrity of target chamber. The entire spherical chamber external surface supports a 40 cm thick reinforced concrete shield after installation in the target building. The final task is a total survey of the laser ports and the contour machining of spacer plates so that laser devices attached to these ports meet the alignment criteria.

  9. Non-kinetic capabilities: complementing the kinetic prevalence to targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.A.L.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting is used in military doctrine to describe a military operational way, using (military) means to influence a target (or addressee) in order to achieve designated political and/or military goals. The four factors italicized are used to analyse non-kinetic targeting, thereby complementing our

  10. Non-kinetic capabilities: complementing the kinetic prevalence to targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.A.L.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting is used in military doctrine to describe a military operational way, using (military) means to influence a target (or addressee) in order to achieve designated political and/or military goals. The four factors italicized are used to analyse non-kinetic targeting, thereby complementing our

  11. Non-kinetic capabilities: complementing the kinetic prevalence to targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting is used in military doctrine to describe a military operational way, using (military) means to influence a target (or addressee) in order to achieve designated political and/or military goals. The four factors italicized are used to analyse non-kinetic targeting, complementing our

  12. Assessment of Pupils’ Personal Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Strokova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the new state educational standards, based on the competence approach, requires some new criteria, procedures and diagnostic tools for estimating pupils’ personal achievements. However, there is a lack of necessary guidelines and recommendations for such objective evaluation and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of educational establishments. The urgent need for unified monitoring instruments induced the author to develop a criteria-diagnostic complex providing the options for evaluating the important personal development aspects – intellectual, value-oriented and moral. The author recommends a self-assessment method for evaluating the intellectual qualities (i.e. self-dependency, critical thinking, logics, flexibility, depth, originality, etc., intellectual competences, and moral traits. The method is based on the tests – «Pupil in his own eyes» and «Pupil in the expert teachers’ eyes». For examining the value orientation, the author takes the classical method by M. Rokich. The approbation of the complex evaluation method was carried out in Tyumen schools and lyceums regarding the last year pupils. The research findings and proposed assessment tools can be used by headmasters and school teachers for monitoring the pupils’ personal growth. 

  13. Assessment of Pupils’ Personal Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Strokova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the new state educational standards, based on the competence approach, requires some new criteria, procedures and diagnostic tools for estimating pupils’ personal achievements. However, there is a lack of necessary guidelines and recommendations for such objective evaluation and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of educational establishments. The urgent need for unified monitoring instruments induced the author to develop a criteria-diagnostic complex providing the options for evaluating the important personal development aspects – intellectual, value-oriented and moral. The author recommends a self-assessment method for evaluating the intellectual qualities (i.e. self-dependency, critical thinking, logics, flexibility, depth, originality, etc., intellectual competences, and moral traits. The method is based on the tests – «Pupil in his own eyes» and «Pupil in the expert teachers’ eyes». For examining the value orientation, the author takes the classical method by M. Rokich. The approbation of the complex evaluation method was carried out in Tyumen schools and lyceums regarding the last year pupils. The research findings and proposed assessment tools can be used by headmasters and school teachers for monitoring the pupils’ personal growth. 

  14. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.

  15. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  16. Competitive Advantage Achievement through Innovation and Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbancova Hana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive environment the goal of each organisation is to defeat competition and win new customers. Individuals who are holders of knowledge represent a tool for the generation of innovations. Thanks to their personal creativity, their knowledge, skills and abilities it is possible to generate new innovative ideas that will help organisations to achieve a competitiveadvantage. The aim of the article is to present the findings of a survey targeted at innovations and to identify knowledge as an important element in the process of innovations. Primary data were obtained through a questionnaire survey carried out in organisations in the Czech Republic and evaluated using the tools of descriptive statistics and also the methods of comparison, induction, deduction and synthesis were applied. One of the conclusions of the article is that organisations find it important to innovate and support an innovative culture. Knowledge too is very significant in the innovation process since it represents not only important input, but also output of the transformation process.

  17. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral.

  18. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Prakash Upadhyay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India pre­sent a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second world­wide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘tradi­tional con­cept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-de­mographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-devel­opmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nu­tritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agricul­ture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employ­ment and im­proving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene. As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solu­tion needs to be multi-sectoral.

  19. Target Visualization at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Daniel Abraham [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the targets used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure target surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. Using these techniques we are able to produce a detailed view of the shell surface, which in turn allows us to refine target manufacturing and cleaning processes. However, the volume of data produced limits the methods by which this data can be effectively viewed by a user. This paper introduces an image-based visualization system for data exploration of target shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It aims to combine multiple image sets into a single visualization to provide a method of navigating the data in ways that are not possible with existing tools.

  20. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  1. Emerging targets in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jan; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a common and highly disabling neurological disorder. Despite the complexity of its pathophysiology, substantial advances have been achieved over the past 20 years in its understanding, as well as the development of pharmacological treatment options. The development of serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists ("triptans") substantially improved the acute treatment of migraine attacks. However, many migraineurs do not respond satisfactorily to triptans and cardiovascular co-morbidities limit their use in a significant number of patients. As migraine is increasingly considered to be a disorder of the brain, and preclinical and clinical data indicate that the observed vasodilation is merely an epiphenomenon, research has recently focused on the development of neurally acting compounds that lack vasoconstrictor properties. This review highlights the most important pharmacological targets for which compounds have been developed that are highly likely to enter or have already advanced into clinical trials for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. In this context, preclinical and clinical data on compounds acting on calcitonin gene-related peptide or its receptor, the 5-HT(1F) receptor, nitric oxide synthase, and acid-sensing ion channel blockers are discussed.

  2. Stakeholder Engagement: Achieving Sustainability in the Construction Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Fearon; Edward Ochieng; Menoka Bal; David Bryde

    2013-01-01

    Achieving sustainability-related targets in construction projects is increasingly becoming a key performance driver. Yet sustainability is a complex concept in projects and there are many diverse stakeholders. Some stakeholders are generally recognized as important, i.e., the client and main contractor, yet there are others not always perceived as such and whose absence from the decision-making processes may result in a failure to address sustainability issues. Hence there is a need for a sys...

  3. Achieving glycemic control differs between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus starting on metformin and sulfonylureas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, Egbert J.F.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G.; Nijpels, Giel; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Antidiabetic medication is aimed at attaining tight glycemic control, but patients do not always achieve guideline recommended targets. Available observational studies focusing on both drug treatment and glycemic control have some methodological limitations. Objectives: To describe the r

  4. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  5. The History of Target-Controlled Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struys, Michel M R F; De Smet, Tom; Glen, John Iain B; Vereecke, Hugo E M; Absalom, Anthony R; Schnider, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Target-controlled infusion (TCI) is a technique of infusing IV drugs to achieve a user-defined predicted ("target") drug concentration in a specific body compartment or tissue of interest. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic principles of TCI, the development of TCI systems, and technical and regulatory issues addressed in prototype development. We also describe the launch of the current clinically available systems.

  6. Predicting the Reliability of Drug-target Interaction Predictions with Maximum Coverage of Target Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peón, Antonio; Naulaerts, Stefan; Ballester, Pedro J

    2017-06-19

    Many computational methods to predict the macromolecular targets of small organic molecules have been presented to date. Despite progress, target prediction methods still have important limitations. For example, the most accurate methods implicitly restrict their predictions to a relatively small number of targets, are not systematically validated on drugs (whose targets are harder to predict than those of non-drug molecules) and often lack a reliability score associated with each predicted target. Here we present a systematic validation of ligand-centric target prediction methods on a set of clinical drugs. These methods exploit a knowledge-base covering 887,435 known ligand-target associations between 504,755 molecules and 4,167 targets. Based on this dataset, we provide a new estimate of the polypharmacology of drugs, which on average have 11.5 targets below IC50 10 µM. The average performance achieved across clinical drugs is remarkable (0.348 precision and 0.423 recall, with large drug-dependent variability), especially given the unusually large coverage of the target space. Furthermore, we show how a sparse ligand-target bioactivity matrix to retrospectively validate target prediction methods could underestimate prospective performance. Lastly, we present and validate a first-in-kind score capable of accurately predicting the reliability of target predictions.

  7. Achieving monospermy or preventing polyspermy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brian Dale Centre for Assisted Fertilization, Naples, Italy Abstract: Images of sea urchin oocytes with hundreds of spermatozoa attached to their surface have fascinated scientists for over a century and led to the idea that oocytes have evolved mechanisms to allow the penetration of one spermatozoon while repelling supernumerary spermatozoa. Popular texts have extrapolated this concept, to the mammals and amphibians, and in many cases to include all the Phyla. Here, it is argued that laboratory experiments, using sea urchin oocytes deprived of their extracellular coats and inseminated at high densities, are artifactual and that the experiments leading to the idea of a fast block to polyspermy are flawed. Under natural conditions, the number of spermatozoa at the site of fertilization is extremely low, compared with the numbers generated. The sperm:oocyte ratio is regulated first by dilution in externally fertilizing species and the female reproductive tract in those with internal fertilization, followed by a bottleneck created by the oocytes extracellular coats. In order to progress to the oocyte plasma membrane, the fertilizing spermatozoon must encounter and respond to a correct sequence of signals from the oocytes extracellular coats. Those that do not, are halted in their progression by defective signaling and fall to the wayside. Final success and entry is finely tuned by the spermatozoon anchoring to an actin-rich predetermined site on the plasma membrane. In this review, the variation in the form, function, and number of gametes produced across the animal kingdom and the many ways in which sperm–oocyte interactions are regulated to reduce numbers are discussed. Since in nature, final sperm:oocyte ratios approach unity it would appear that selective pressures have favored the achievement of monospermy, rather than the evolution of polyspermy preventing mechanisms. Keywords: monospermy, natural conditions, polyspermy, laboratory

  8. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  9. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Moir, Ralph W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS2. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of +/- 0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  10. Applying Cognitive Work Analysis to Time Critical Targeting Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Target List/Dynamic Target Queue (DTL/ DTQ ) in the same place. Figure 4-27 shows the task steps involved in achieving Goal 7. 4- 30 Figure 4-27...GUI WG to brainstorm the order of columns in the DTL/ DTQ Table, a critical component of the TCTF CUI, with successful results, which were...Cognitive Work Analysis DTD Display Task Description DTL/ DTQ Dynamic Target List/Dynamic Target Queue FDO Fighter Duty Officer FEBA Forward Edge

  11. Conducting monetary policy with inflation targets

    OpenAIRE

    George A. Kahn; Klara Parrish

    1998-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, a number of central banks have adopted numerical inflation targets as a guide for monetary policy. The targets are intended to help central banks achieve and maintain price stability by specifying an explicit goal for monetary policy based on a given time path for a particular measure of inflation. In some cases the targets are expressed as a range for inflation over time, while in other cases they are expressed as a path for the inflation rate itself. The measure of in...

  12. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  13. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  14. Optimal Systolic Blood Pressure Target After SPRINT: Insights from a Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Toklu, Bora; Gianos, Eugenia; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Weintraub, Howard; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Messerli, Franz H

    2017-06-01

    The optimal on-treatment blood pressure (BP) target has been a matter of debate. The recent SPRINT trial showed significant benefits of a BP target of targets. Trial arms were grouped into 5 systolic BP target categories: 1) targets. However, the point estimate favored lower BP targets (targets (targets of target. There was a significant increase in serious adverse effects with systolic BP targets of target for the outcome of serious adverse effects. Cluster plots for combined efficacy and safety showed that a systolic BP target of target of <130 mm Hg achieved optimal balance between efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Children's Educational Completion Rates and Achievement: Implications for Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy (2006-10)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Bezuayehu, T.O.

    2005-01-01

    The major development objectives of the Ethiopian Government are to reduce poverty and improve primary school enrolment and educational achievement (SDPRP, 2002). However, education performance indicators show that only access¿related targets have been achieved, while educational quality declined in

  16. Isochoric Heating of Reduced Mass Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akli, Kramer [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This report summarizes the experimental results of a study aimed at achieving star-like plasmas in the laboratory by isochrically heating solid-density targets with intense lasers. Of special interest is the investigation of spatial/temporal temperature and density gradients and their dependence on the target geometry and mass. The investigation was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, solid targets with variable transverse and longitudinal dimensions were investigated. We found that electron beam recirculation is enhanced for reduced mass targets. As a result, the temperature gradients are minimized for these targets yielding more uniform temperature hot plasmas. In the second phase, reduced mass targets were irradiated with intense ultra-short laser pulses. Bright monochromatic x-rays and broadband Extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV or XUV) emissions were achieved by optimizing the electrostatic sheath fields surrounding the target. The study also revealed that this laser-driven source of radiation has a small source size, short duration, and high photon fluxes suitable for point projection radiography and for probing matter under extreme environments.

  17. Exploiting novel molecular targets in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Novel molecular targets are being discovered as we learn more about the aberrant processes underlying various cancers. Efforts to translate this knowledge are starting to impact on the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway and angiogenesis have been targeted successfully in colorectal cancer with cetuximab, panitunumab and bevacizumab. Similarly, EGFR-targeting with erlotinib yielded significant survival benefit in pancreatic cancer when combined with gemcitabine. The multi-targeting approach with sorafenib has made it the first agent to achieve significant survival benefit in hepatocellular carcinoma. Efforts to exploit the dysregulated Akt/mTOR pathway in GI cancer therapy are ongoing. These molecular targets can be disrupted by various approaches, including the use of monoclonal antibody to intercept extracellular ligands and disrupt receptor-ligand binding, and small molecule inhibitors that interrupt the activation of intracellular kinases.

  18. Neural fuzzy inference network approach to maneuvering target tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红; 刘允才; 韩崇昭; 朱洪艳; 文戎

    2004-01-01

    In target tracking study, the fast target maneuver detecting and highly accurate tracking are very important.And it is difficult to be solved. For the radar/infrared image fused tracking system, a extend Kalman filter combines with a neural fuzzy inference network to be used in maneuvering target tracking. The features related to the target maneuver are extracted from radar, infrared measurements and outputs of tracking filter, and are sent into the neural fuzzy inference network as inputs firstly, and then the target's maneuver inputs are estimated, so that, the accurate tracking is achieved. The simulation results indicate that the new method is valuable for maneuvering target tracking.

  19. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/23589545 . Kummar S, Murgo AJ, Tomaszewski JE, Doroshow JH. Therapeutic targeting of cancer cells: Era of molecularly targeted agents. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, ...

  20. Targeted Cancer Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes, hair depigmentation) Problems with blood clotting and wound healing High blood pressure Gastrointestinal perforation (a rare side effect of some targeted therapies) Certain side effects of some targeted therapies have ...

  1. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load.

  2. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Peter J

    2017-07-14

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  3. Target studies for surface muon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2016-02-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  4. ISAC target operation with high proton currents

    CERN Document Server

    Dombsky, M; Schmor, P; Lane, M

    2003-01-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC facility target stations were designed for ISOL target irradiations with up to 100 mu A proton beam currents. Since beginning operation in 1998, ISAC irradiation currents have progressively increased from initial values of approx 1 mu A to present levels of up to 40 mu A on refractory metal foil targets. In addition, refractory carbide targets have operated at currents of up to 15 mu A for extended periods. The 1-40 mu A operational regime is achieved by tailoring each target to the thermal requirements dictated by material properties such as beam power deposition, thermal conductivity and maximum operating temperature of the target material. The number of heat shields on each target can be varied in order to match the effective emissivity of the target surface for the required radiative power dissipation. Targets of different thickness, surface area and volume have been investigated to study the effect of diffusion and effusion delays on the yield of radioisotopes. For yields of short-lived p...

  5. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  6. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued...

  7. Targeting cytotoxic T lymphocytes for cancer immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, J; Davies, E. T.

    2004-01-01

    In light of their preeminent role in cellular immunity, there is considerable interest in targeting of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to cancer. This review summarises the active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches under development to achieve this goal, emphasising how recent advances in tumour immunology and gene transfer have impacted upon this field.

  8. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued...... that tabu search could be used in near real-time decision making systems...

  9. Randomized trial of achieving healthy lifestyles in psychiatric rehabilitation: the ACHIEVE trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guallar Eliseo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among persons with serious mental illness. These conditions likely contribute to premature cardiovascular disease and a 20 to 30 percent shortened life expectancy in this vulnerable population. Persons with serious mental illness need effective, appropriately tailored behavioral interventions to achieve and maintain weight loss. Psychiatric rehabilitation day programs provide logical intervention settings because mental health consumers often attend regularly and exercise can take place on-site. This paper describes the Randomized Trial of Achieving Healthy Lifestyles in Psychiatric Rehabilitation (ACHIEVE. The goal of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a behavioral weight loss intervention among persons with serious mental illness that attend psychiatric rehabilitation programs. Participants randomized to the intervention arm of the study are hypothesized to have greater weight loss than the control group. Methods/Design A targeted 320 men and women with serious mental illness and overweight or obesity (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 will be recruited from 10 psychiatric rehabilitation programs across Maryland. The core design is a randomized, two-arm, parallel, multi-site clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of an 18-month behavioral weight loss intervention to usual care. Active intervention participants receive weight management sessions and physical activity classes on-site led by study interventionists. The intervention incorporates cognitive adaptations for persons with serious mental illness attending psychiatric rehabilitation programs. The initial intensive intervention period is six months, followed by a twelve-month maintenance period in which trained rehabilitation program staff assume responsibility for delivering parts of the intervention. Primary outcomes are weight loss at six and 18 months. Discussion Evidence-based approaches to the high burden

  10. Addressing Academic Dishonesty among the Highest Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angela D.; Murdock, Tamera B.; Grotewiel, Morgan M.

    2017-01-01

    Although research shows that higher-achieving students report engaging in cheating behaviors less frequently than lower-achieving students, the cheating rates among this population are still startling. Certain aspects of the context of being a high-achieving student support academic dishonesty. We investigate integrity among the highest achievers…

  11. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  12. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  13. Challenges of achieving Good Environmental Status in the Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystem services is dependent on achieving and maintaining an adequate ecosystem state to prevent undue deterioration. Within the European Union, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires member states to achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS, specified in terms of 11 descriptors. We analyzed the complexity of social-ecological factors to identify common critical issues that are likely to influence the achievement of GEnS in the Northeast Atlantic (NEA more broadly, using three case studies. A conceptual model developed using a soft systems approach highlights the complexity of social and ecological phenomena that influence, and are likely to continue to influence, the state of ecosystems in the NEA. The development of the conceptual model raised four issues that complicate the implementation of the MSFD, the majority of which arose in the Pressures and State sections of the model: variability in the system, cumulative effects, ecosystem resilience, and conflicting policy targets. The achievement of GEnS targets for the marine environment requires the recognition and negotiation of trade-offs across a broad policy landscape involving a wide variety of stakeholders in the public and private sectors. Furthermore, potential cumulative effects may introduce uncertainty, particularly in selecting appropriate management measures. There also are endogenous pressures that society cannot control. This uncertainty is even more obvious when variability within the system, e.g., climate change, is accounted for. Also, questions related to the resilience of the affected ecosystem to specific pressures must be raised, despite a lack of current knowledge. Achieving good management and reaching GEnS require multidisciplinary assessments. The soft systems approach provides one mechanism for bringing multidisciplinary information together to look at the problems in a different light.

  14. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  15. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  16. Stakeholder Engagement: Achieving Sustainability in the Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Fearon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Achieving sustainability-related targets in construction projects is increasingly becoming a key performance driver. Yet sustainability is a complex concept in projects and there are many diverse stakeholders. Some stakeholders are generally recognized as important, i.e., the client and main contractor, yet there are others not always perceived as such and whose absence from the decision-making processes may result in a failure to address sustainability issues. Hence there is a need for a systematic approach to engage with stakeholders with high salience in relation to sustainability. This paper reports the results of an exploratory study involving interviews with construction project practitioners that are involved in sustainability in some way. Data were collected from the practitioners in terms of the processes for engaging with stakeholders to deliver sustainability. The data suggests six steps to a stakeholder engagement process: (i identification; (ii relating stakeholders to different sustainability-related targets; (iii prioritization; (iv managing; (v measuring performance; and (vi putting targets into action. The results suggest that understanding the different sustainability agendas of stakeholders and measuring their performance using key performance indicators are important stages to be emphasized in any stakeholder engagement process to achieve sustainability-related goals.

  17. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  18. Mitochondrially targeted fluorescent redox sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kylie; Kolanowski, Jacek L; New, Elizabeth J

    2017-04-06

    The balance of oxidants and antioxidants within the cell is crucial for maintaining health, and regulating physiological processes such as signalling. Consequently, imbalances between oxidants and antioxidants are now understood to lead to oxidative stress, a physiological feature that underlies many diseases. These processes have spurred the field of chemical biology to develop a plethora of sensors, both small-molecule and fluorescent protein-based, for the detection of specific oxidizing species and general redox balances within cells. The mitochondrion, in particular, is the site of many vital redox reactions. There is therefore a need to target redox sensors to this particular organelle. It has been well established that targeting mitochondria can be achieved by the use of a lipophilic cation-targeting group, or by utilizing natural peptidic mitochondrial localization sequences. Here, we review how these two approaches have been used by a number of researchers to develop mitochondrially localized fluorescent redox sensors that are already proving useful in providing insights into the roles of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria.

  19. Rotating target wheel for the FMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Davids, C.N.; Falout, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In anticipation of high intensity beams that will be available from the PII-ECR source injector to ATLAS, a new rotating target wheel was developed for the sliding seal chamber at the FMA. The wheel is 9 inch in diameter and contains up to ten targets. The rotation of the wheel is achieved by a DC motor, a ferrofluidic feedthrough, and a gear mechanism that allows both target rotation and changing the target angle relative to the beam. The nominal rotation speed is 1000 RPM, although higher speeds can be achieved if necessary. The assembly is equipped with an absolute encoder which is read out via a newly developed CAMAC module. This module provides the following main functions: (1) a TTL signal to be used for sweeping the beam when a target frame is about to pass through the beam, (2) a read-out of the target position that can be included in the data event structure, (3) programmable set points for the beam-off signal. The system is presently being tested and will be used in experiments scheduled for March 1995.

  20. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ajogbeje Oke James; Borisade Fidelis Tunde; Aladesaye Charles Ademuyiwa; Ayodele Oludolapo Bolanle

    2013-01-01

    .... The study examined the relationship between College of Education students' achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students...

  1. Target Studies for Surface Muon Production

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, F; Fuchs, A; Hajdas, W; Hodge, Z; Kettle, P -R; Knecht, A; Lüscher, R; Papa, A; Rutar, G; Wohlmuther, M

    2015-01-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programmes. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90{\\deg}. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30 - 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizin...

  2. Understanding the contribution of target repetition and target expectation to the emergence of the prevalence effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Hayward J; Menneer, Tamaryn; Riggs, Charlotte A; Taunton, Dominic; Cave, Kyle R; Donnel, Nick

    2016-06-01

    Behavior in visual search tasks is influenced by the proportion of trials on which a target is presented (the target prevalence). Previous research has shown that when target prevalence is low (2 % prevalence), participants tend to miss targets, as compared with higher prevalence levels (e.g., 50 % prevalence). There is an ongoing debate regarding the relative contributions of target repetition and the expectation that a target will occur in the emergence of prevalence effects. In order to disentangle these two factors, we went beyond previous studies by directly manipulating participants' expectations regarding how likely a target was to appear on a given trial. This we achieved without using cues or feedback. Our results indicated that both target repetition and target expectation contribute to the emergence of the prevalence effect.

  3. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  4. Targeting Notch to target cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, Antonio; Foreman, Kimberly; Rizzo, Paola; Osipo, Clodia; Golde, Todd; Osborne, Barbara; Miele, Lucio

    2010-06-15

    The cellular heterogeneity of neoplasms has been at the center of considerable interest since the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", originally formulated for hematologic malignancies, was extended to solid tumors. The origins of cancer "stem" cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells (TIC; henceforth referred to as CSCs) and the methods to identify them are hotly debated topics. Nevertheless, the existence of subpopulations of tumor cells with stem-like characteristics has significant therapeutic implications. The stem-like phenotype includes indefinite self-replication, pluripotency, and, importantly, resistance to chemotherapeutics. Thus, it is plausible that CSCs, regardless of their origin, may escape standard therapies and cause disease recurrences and/or metastasis after apparently complete remissions. Consequently, the idea of selectively targeting CSCs with novel therapeutics is gaining considerable interest. The Notch pathway is one of the most intensively studied putative therapeutic targets in CSC, and several investigational Notch inhibitors are being developed. However, successful targeting of Notch signaling in CSC will require a thorough understanding of Notch regulation and the context-dependent interactions between Notch and other therapeutically relevant pathways. Understanding these interactions will increase our ability to design rational combination regimens that are more likely to prove safe and effective. Additionally, to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from treatment with Notch-targeting therapeutics, reliable biomarkers to measure pathway activity in CSC from specific tumors will have to be identified and validated. This article summarizes the most recent developments in the field of Notch-targeted cancer therapeutics, with emphasis on CSC.

  5. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  6. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children.

  7. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  8. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  9. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  10. Cyclic endomorphin analogs in targeting opioid receptors to achieve pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Anna; Gentilucci, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Endomorphins, the endogenous ligands of the µ-opioid receptor, are attractive candidates for opioid-based pain-relieving agents. These tetrapeptides, with their remarkable affinity for the µ-opioid receptor, display favorable antinociceptive activity when injected directly into the brain of experimental animals. However, the application of endomorphins as clinical analgesics has been impeded by their instability in body fluids and inability to reach the brain after systemic administration. Among numerous modifications of the endomorphin structure aimed at improving their pharmacological properties, cyclization can be viewed as an interesting option. Here, we have summarized recent advances in obtaining endomorphin-based cyclic peptide analogs.

  11. Eighth Five-Year Plan Achievements and Ninth Five-Year Targets for CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yongkang

    1996-01-01

    @@ Through more than 40 years of development since the founding of the new China its onshore petroleum industry has already possessed considerably abundant economic and technical strength. Altogether 21 oil and gas producing bases have been established; a total length of 17thousand kilomers oil and gas pipelines have been constructed; 300thousand sets of various kinds of facilities have been equipped,including 816 large and mediumsized rigs; and a well-trained and rather completed petroleum professional contingent has been brougt up with annual operation capabilities of drilling footage of 20 million meters,building crude oil productivity of 20 million tons,and laying long-distance pipelines of 2 thousand kilometers.

  12. Geographically weighted lasso (GWL) study for modeling the diarrheic to achieve open defecation free (ODF) target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumsari, Nurvita; Sutidjo, S. U.; Brodjol; Soedjono, Eddy S.

    2014-03-01

    Diarrhea has been one main cause of morbidity and mortality to children around the world, especially in the developing countries According to available data that was mentioned. It showed that sanitary and healthy lifestyle implementation by the inhabitants was not good yet. Inadequacy of environmental influence and the availability of health services were suspected factors which influenced diarrhea cases happened followed by heightened percentage of the diarrheic. This research is aimed at modelling the diarrheic by using Geographically Weighted Lasso method. With the existence of spatial heterogeneity was tested by Breusch Pagan, it was showed that diarrheic modeling with weighted regression, especially GWR and GWL, can explain the variation in each location. But, the absence of multi-collinearity cases on predictor variables, which were affecting the diarrheic, resulted in GWR and GWL modelling to be not different or identical. It is shown from the resulting MSE value. While from R2 value which usually higher on GWL model showed a significant variable predictor based on more parametric shrinkage value.

  13. Optimizing the role of tax auditor in attempt to achieve tax revenue target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawan Setianto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the role of Tax Auditor in KPP Madya Surabaya. This study uses a case study by collecting the data from Directorate General of Taxation official sources, either in KPP Madya Surabaya, Regional Office of Directorate General of Taxation East Java I, as well as the Directorate of Potency, Compliance, and Revenue. Researcher also conducted interviews with 12 informants consisting of Tax Auditor, Account Representative, Head of Office, as well as officials from the Directorate of Inspection and Billing. There are discrepancies between the expectations of stakeholders and what being  understood/perceived and expected by the Tax Auditor in relation to the role that must be executed. This causes the Tax Auditor to experience a role ambiguity which disrupts the optimizing the implementation of the role. Things that still impede the implementation of the role of the Tax Auditor are: rejection of the Taxpayer; intervention both from inside and outside/difficult to implement the independence in appearance and independence in fact; both physically and psychologically threats; the unclear mutation policy; promotion criteria being implemented inconsistently; and databases that have not been accurate and reliable. 

  14. Psychoeducational interventions targeting core symptoms to achieve remission and prevent relapses and recurrence in depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2008-01-01

    Depressive disorders have a high prevalence and incidence, and are associated with a huge burden of disease and economic costs. Most respond satisfactorily to drug therapy and/or psychological intervention, in particular to psychoeducation. By far the best-studied example of this approach is the Cop

  15. Exploring climate regimes for differentiation of commitments to achieve the EU climate target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen den MGJ; Berk MM; Lucas P; Eickhout B; Vuuren van DP; KMD

    2003-01-01

    Dit rapport bevat een kwantitatieve verkenning van verschillende regimes voor lastenverdeling in het internationale klimaatbeleid op basis van mondiale emissieplafonds in overeenstemming met de EU lange termijn klimaatdoelstelling om de mondiaal gemiddelde temperatuurstijging te beperken tot 2 g

  16. Psychoeducational interventions targeting core symptoms to achieve remission and prevent relapses and recurrence in depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2008-01-01

    Depressive disorders have a high prevalence and incidence, and are associated with a huge burden of disease and economic costs. Most respond satisfactorily to drug therapy and/or psychological intervention, in particular to psychoeducation. By far the best-studied example of this approach is the Cop

  17. Cognitive abilities, sociocultural background and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz, António; Pocinho, Margarida Maria Ferreira Diogo Dias; Almeida,Leandro Silva

    2011-01-01

    The infl uence of students’ sociocultural background on academic achievement is a well established fact. Research also points out that sociocultural background is related to students’ cognitive abilities and these have an effect on their academic achievement. However, the mediator role of cognitive abilities on the relationship between sociocultural background and academic achievement is less well known. A structural equation model that represents these relationships was tested in a sample...

  18. Predicting Academic Achievement from Classroom Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Flynt, Cynthia J.

    2008-01-01

    PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT FROM CLASSROOM BEHAVIORS by Cynthia J. Flynt Nancy Bodenhorn & Kusum Singh, Co-Chairs Counselor Education (ABSTRACT) This study examined the influence of behaviors exhibited in the classroom on reading and math achievement in the first, third and eighth grades; and the influence of teacher perceptions on reading and math achievement of African-Americans versus White students and male versus female students. Lastly, the study examined te...

  19. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  20. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  1. Reducing the racial achievement gap: a social-psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Geoffrey L; Garcia, Julio; Apfel, Nancy; Master, Allison

    2006-09-01

    Two randomized field experiments tested a social-psychological intervention designed to improve minority student performance and increase our understanding of how psychological threat mediates performance in chronically evaluative real-world environments. We expected that the risk of confirming a negative stereotype aimed at one's group could undermine academic performance in minority students by elevating their level of psychological threat. We tested whether such psychological threat could be lessened by having students reaffirm their sense of personal adequacy or "self-integrity." The intervention, a brief in-class writing assignment, significantly improved the grades of African American students and reduced the racial achievement gap by 40%. These results suggest that the racial achievement gap, a major social concern in the United States, could be ameliorated by the use of timely and targeted social-psychological interventions.

  2. Psychosocial Keys to African American Achievement? Examining the Relationship between Achievement and Psychosocial Variables in High Achieving African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Dante D.; Roberson, Cyrell C. B.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2017-01-01

    Grit, growth mindset, ethnic identity, and other group orientation are four psychosocial variables that have been associated with academic achievement in adolescent populations. In a sample of 105 high achieving African American high school students (cumulative grade point average [GPA] > 3.0), we examined whether these four psychosocial…

  3. ACHIEVING "DECENT WORK" IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Cohen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO are: i the promotion of standards and rights at work, to ensure that worker's constitutionally protected rights to dignity, equality and fair labour practices, amongst others, are safeguarded by appropriate legal frameworks; (ii the promotion of employment creation and income opportunities, with the goal being not just the creation of jobs but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality; (iii the provision and improvement of social protection and social security, which are regarded as fundamental to the alleviation of poverty, inequality and the burden of care responsibilities; and (iv the promotion of social dialogue and tripartism. This article considers the progress made towards the attainment of these decent work objectives in South Africa, using five statistical indicators to measure such progress namely: (i employment opportunities; (ii adequate earnings and productive work; (iii stability and security of work; (iv social protection; and (v social dialogue and workplace relations. It concludes that high levels of unemployment and a weakened economy in South Africa have given rise to a growing informal sector and an increase in unacceptable working conditions and exploitation. The rights of workers in the formal sector have not filtered down to those in the informal sector, who remains vulnerable and unrepresented. Job creation initiatives have been undermined by the global recession and infrastructural shortcomings and ambitious governmental targets appear

  4. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are. PMID:26977282

  5. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  6. Gene targeting in adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting in nonhuman primates has the potential to produce critical animal models for translational studies related to human diseases. Successful gene targeting in fibroblasts followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been achieved in several species of large mammals but not yet in primates. Our goal was to establish the protocols necessary to achieve gene targeting in primary culture of adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts as a first step in creating nonhuman primate models of genetic disease using nuclear transfer technology. Results A primary culture of adult male fibroblasts was transfected with hTERT to overcome senescence and allow long term in vitro manipulations. Successful gene targeting of the HPRT locus in rhesus macaques was achieved by electroporating S-phase synchronized cells with a construct containing a SV40 enhancer. Conclusion The cell lines reported here could be used for the production of null mutant rhesus macaque models of human genetic disease using SCNT technology. In addition, given the close evolutionary relationship and biological similarity between rhesus macaques and humans, the protocols described here may prove useful in the genetic engineering of human somatic cells.

  7. A windowless gas target for secondary beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Kishida, T; Shibata, M; Watanabe, H; Tsutsumi, T; Motomura, S; Ideguchi, E; Zhou, X H; Morikawa, T; Kubo, T; Ishihara, M

    1999-01-01

    A windowless gas target was developed for the production of secondary high-spin isomer beams (HSIB). An sup 1 sup 6 O target in the compound form of CO sub 2 gas was used to produce a sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm beam by using an sup 1 sup 6 O( sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe, 7n) sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm reaction. The target gas pressure was kept constant at 50 Torr. A target thickness of about 1 mg/cm sup 2 was achieved with a 10 cm target length. Gas was recirculated and the consumption was very little.

  8. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of

  9. Nanobody-functionalized polymersomes for tumor-vessel targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debets, M.F.; Leenders, W.P.J.; Verrijp, K.; Zonjee, M.; Meeuwissen, S.A.; Otte-Holler, I.; Hest, J.C.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Targeted carrier systems (e.g., liposomes or nanoparticles) are used to specifically deliver drugs to a site of interest. Site-direction can be achieved by attachment of targeting molecules, such as peptides, DNA/RNA, or antibodies, to the surface of the carrier. Here, the formation of polymersomes

  10. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of curr

  11. Achievement of LDL Cholesterol Goal and Adherence to Statin by Diabetes Patients in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Zainab Mat; Yaacob, Lili Husniati; Hassan, Norul Badriah; Ismail, Saiful Bahari; Draman, Nani; Yusoff, Siti Suhaila Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Statins are a class of potent drugs that can be used to reduce cholesterol, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, their effectiveness is limited if adherence to treatment is poor. The objectives of the study are to estimate the proportion of diabetic patient who has achieved LDL-C goal and to determine the association of LDL-C achievement with socio demographic factors and statin therapy adherence. This is a cross-sectional study involving 234 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dyslipidaemia attending an outpatient clinic in a hospital in Kelantan. Interviews and self-administered questionnaires were used to determine their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Adherence to therapy was assessed using the Medication Compliance Questionnaire (MCQ). The associations between the achievement of LDL targets and sociodemographic/clinical factors, including adherence, were analysed with simple logistic regression. About 37.6% of patients achieved their LDL-C target. The percentage of patients who adhered to statin use was 98.3%, and 20.5% of these patients reported full adherence. There was no significant association between achievement of LDL-C targets with adherence or any other sociodemographic factors, such as age, gender and educational or economic status (all P-value < 0.05). Despite a high level of adherence, the majority of patients failed to achieve LDL-C targets. More concerted efforts are needed to improve this.

  12. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  13. Vibrotactile target saliency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Groen, E.l.; Oosterbeek, M.T.J.; Hooge, I.T.C.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the saliency of a single vibrotractile target (T) among 2 to 7 nontargets (N), presented by 8 tactors that were equally distributed over a horizontal band around the torso. Targets and nontargets had different pulse duration, but the same activation period and no onset asynchrony. T-N simi

  14. Segmented Target Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhi, Abdul Rahman; Frank, Nathan; Gueye, Paul; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A proposed segmented target would improve decay energy measurements of neutron-unbound nuclei. Experiments like this have been performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) located at Michigan State University. Many different nuclei are produced in such experiments, some of which immediately decay into a charged particle and neutron. The charged particles are bent by a large magnet and measured by a suite of charged particle detectors. The neutrons are measured by the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and Large Multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA). With the current target setup, a nucleus in a neutron-unbound state is produced with a radioactive beam impinged upon a beryllium target. The resolution of these measurements is very dependent on the target thickness since the nuclear interaction point is unknown. In a segmented target using alternating layers of silicon detectors and Be-targets, the Be-target in which the nuclear reaction takes place would be determined. Thus the experimental resolution would improve. This poster will describe the improvement over the current target along with the status of the design. Work supported by Augustana College and the National Science Foundation grant #0969173.

  15. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  16. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  17. Vibrotactile target saliency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Groen, E.l.; Oosterbeek, M.T.J.; Hooge, I.T.C.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the saliency of a single vibrotractile target (T) among 2 to 7 nontargets (N), presented by 8 tactors that were equally distributed over a horizontal band around the torso. Targets and nontargets had different pulse duration, but the same activation period and no onset asynchrony. T-N simi

  18. Achieve inventory reduction and improve customer service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M C

    2000-05-01

    Is it really possible to achieve significant reductions in your manufacturing inventories while improving customer service? If you really want to achieve significant inventory reductions, focus on the root causes, and develop countermeasures and a work plan, to execute your countermeasures. Include measurements for recording your progress, and deploy your countermeasures until they are no longer required, or until new ones are needed.

  19. Achieving scale strategies for sustained competitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Mark E; Gish, Ryan S; Tkach, Sasha N

    2008-05-01

    Growth to achieve scale requires the following strategic initiatives: Having a clear understanding of what the organization is and what it wants to become. Ensuring a structured and rigorous growth process. Leveraging size to achieve benefits of scale. Recognizing the importance of physicians, ambulatory care, and primary care. Establishing and maintaining accountability as growth occurs.

  20. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  1. Achievement and Its Correlates: Symposium III A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Maznah; And Others

    This symposium contains a report of a study which (1) examined the relationship between Malaysian children's perception of control and their academic achievement, by Maznah Ismail and Choo Piang Foong, and two abstracts of studies which (2) investigated achievement motivation and attribution of success in rural and urban Malaysian ethnic groups,…

  2. Professional Learning Communities Impact on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jan L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…

  3. A Multivariate Model of Achievement in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, MarLynn; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that several key variables influence student achievement in geometry, but no research has been conducted to determine how these variables interact. A model of achievement in geometry was tested on a sample of 102 high school students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among…

  4. Health and Nutrition: Preconditions for Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Birgit

    This paper discusses the importance of maternal and infant health for children's educational achievement. Education, health, and nutrition are so closely related that changes in one causes changes in the others. Improvement of maternal and preschooler health and nutrition is a precondition for improved educational achievement. Although parental…

  5. High academic achievement in psychotic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defries, Z; Grothe, L

    1978-02-01

    The authors studied 21 schizophrenic and borderline college students who achieved B+ or higher grade averages and underwent psychotherapy while in college. High academic achievement was found to provide relief from feelings of worthlessness and ineffectuality resulting from poor relationships with parents, siblings, and peers. Psychotherapy and the permissive yet supportive college atmosphere reinforced the students' self-esteem.

  6. Physical Environment and Middle Grade Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    This study measured the influence of air conditioning, carpeting, fluorescent lighting, and interior pastel coloring on the academic achievement of eighth grade Georgia pupils in 1975-76 when the variance due to socioeconomic status was statistically controlled. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the achievement scores of students on the…

  7. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  8. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  9. Multimedia Technology and Students' Achievement in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this study done at a community college in South Florida, the achievements of students who spoke English as their second language who had attended their K-12 education outside the United States in their home countries, in a U.S. college course on world geography are compared with the achievements of students in the same classes who spoke English…

  10. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  11. A Multivariate Model of Achievement in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, MarLynn; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that several key variables influence student achievement in geometry, but no research has been conducted to determine how these variables interact. A model of achievement in geometry was tested on a sample of 102 high school students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among…

  12. Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saúl Lizondo

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Thh paper examines the implications of some nominal exchange rate policies aimed or attaining a given real exchange rate target. A policy rule that sets the rate of nominal depreciation as a function of the departures of the real exchange rate from its target level is unable to achieve the target. In contrast, a policv rule that sets the change in the rate of depreciation as a function of those departures may lead the economy to the target, under certain conditions. However, this policy could also lead the economy to a process of accelerating inflation.

  13. The cluster-jet target for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergemoeller, Ann-Katrin; Koehler, Esperanza; Grieser, Silke; Taeschner, Alexander; Ortjohann, Hans-Werner; Bonaventura, Daniel; Khoukaz, Alfons [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2013-07-01

    A cluster-jet target will be the first one of two planned internal targets for the PANDA experiment at FAIR. At the University of Muenster the target prototype was built up in complete PANDA geometry and successfully set into operation. Areal target densities of more than 2 x 10{sup 15} atoms/cm{sup 2} at a distance of 2.1 m behind the nozzle were achieved by the installation of a new tilting system. This device allows for an adjustment of the nozzle relative to the experimental setup. The thickness is reproducible, constant in time, and variable over several orders of magnitude by the adjustment of the stagnation pressure and temperature before the nozzle. Depending on the experimental program the target beam size and shape should be variable and should guarantee a low residual gas background. That can be realized with the application of special shaped skimmers for the target beam preparation. The cluster beam shape can be visualized by a new monitoring system based on a Micro Channel Plate. This enables a direct observation of an ionized cluster beam at a phosphor screen in combination with a CCD camera. In this presentation an overview of the cluster-jet target, various special features, and images of the cluster beam is presented and discussed.

  14. Selected problems of targeting active labour market policies in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Maria Maksim; Dominik Sliwicki

    2012-01-01

    Well targeted active labour market policies create better prospects for achieving higher net employment effects. This article attempts to analyse targeting of active labour market policies in the context of regulations contained in the Act of Employment Promotion and Labour Market Institutions, and current evaluation findings. The paper analyses basic active labour market policies, that have been in place in Poland in 2009. To assess program targeting logistic regression was applied.

  15. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students’ Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariha Gull

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple teaching methods are used by teachers in order to improve learning of students. The most popular is lecture method, while very effective is cooperative learning method. Later teaching method had been preferred for teaching science and languages as cited by previous research studies. However, in the subjects of social sciences and humanities, its importance cannot be ignored. Following study is an effort to determine effect of cooperative learning method on students’ achievement in subject of Education.  Qusi experimental design, with pre and post test of control and experimental group was used to achieve target of the study. Sample of the study consisted of 63 female students enrolled in grade 12 of a public college. An achievement test was used as a pre-test, the students were than divided in experimental and control groups. Multiple cooperative learning activities were performed with experimental group by using three common methods of cooperative learning i.e., STAD, TGT and Jigsaw II. The control group was taught by lecture method only. After 8 weeks a post test was administered on both experimental and control group in order to identify difference in achievement. The independent sample t-test was used to measure the mean scores difference between achievement scores of control and treatment groups on pretest.  The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=.825 leading to assumption that both groups were on equal level of achievement before intervention.  Same test was applied to find out difference between two groups before and after intervention.  The results showed that there was a significant difference in scores of control and experimental group in post-test. In addition to this paired sample t-test was conducted to compare the effect of intervention on achievement scores of experimental group.  The results showed that there was significant difference between scores of experimental

  16. Fixed-target physics at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Maurice, Emilie Amandine

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has the unique possibility, among the LHC experiments, to be operated in fixed target mode, using its internal gas target SMOG. The energy scale achievable at the LHC and the excellent detector capabilities for vertexing, tracking and particle identification allow a wealth of measurements of great interest for cosmic ray and heavy ions physics. We report the first measurements made in this configuration: the measurement of antiproton production in proton-helium collisions and the measurements of open and hidden charm production in proton-argon collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\textrm{NN}} =$ 110 GeV.

  17. M cell targeting by a Claudin 4 targeting peptide can enhance mucosal IgA responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo David D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal immune surveillance is thought to be largely achieved through uptake by specialized epithelial M cells. We recently identified Claudin 4 as an M cell target receptor and developed a Claudin 4 targeting peptide (CPE that can mediate uptake of nanoparticles through Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT M cells. Methods Recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (HA and a version with the CPE peptide at the C-terminal end was used to immunize mice by the intranasal route along with a single dose of cholera toxin as an adjuvant. Serum and mucosal IgG and IgA responses were tested for reactivity to HA. Results We found that the recombinant HA was immunogenic on intranasal administration, and inclusion of the CPE targeting peptide induced higher mucosal IgA responses. This mucosal administration also induced systemic serum IgG responses with Th2 skewing, but targeting did not enhance IgG responses, suggesting that the IgG response to mucosal immunization is independent of the effects of CPE M cell targeting. Conclusions M cell targeting mediated by a Claudin 4-specific targeting peptide can enhance mucosal IgA responses above the response to non-targeted mucosal antigen. Since Claudin 4 has also been found to be regulated in human Peyer's patch M cells, the CPE targeting peptide could be a reasonable platform delivery technology for mucosal vaccination.

  18. Enriching the hierarchical model of achievement motivation: autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-12-01

    The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between achievement motives and outcomes. We tested whether mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous and controlling reasons would jointly explain the relation between achievement motives (i.e., fear of failure and need for achievement) and learning strategies (Study 1). Additionally, we examined whether the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying learners' dominant achievement goal would account for the link between achievement motives and the educational outcomes of learning strategies and cheating (Study 2). Six hundred and six Greek adolescent students (Mage = 15.05, SD = 1.43) and 435 university students (Mage M = 20.51, SD = 2.80) participated in studies 1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, a correlational design was used and the hypotheses were tested via path modelling. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals mediated, respectively, the relation of need for achievement and fear of failure to aspects of learning outcomes. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals could further explain learners' functioning in achievement settings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Nuclear target development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces thin foil targets needed for experiments performed at the ATLAS and Dynamitron accelerators. Targets are not only produced for the Physics Division but also for other divisions and occasionally for other laboratories and universities. In the past year, numerous targets were fabricated by vacuum evaporation either as self-supporting foils or on various substrates. Targets produced included Ag, Au, {sup 10,11}B, {sup 138}Ba, Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 155,160}Gd, {sup 76}Ge, In, LID, {sup 6}LiH, Melamine, Mg, {sup 142,150}Nd, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 206,208}Pb, {sup 194}Pt, {sup 28}Si, {sup 144,148}Sm, {sup 120,122,124}Sn, Ta, {sup 130}Te, ThF{sub 4}, {sup 46,50}Ti, TiH, U, UF{sub 4}, {sup 182}W and {sup 170}Yb. Polypropylene and aluminized polypropylene, along with metallized Mylar were produced for experiments at ATLAS. A number of targets of {sup 11}B of various thickness were made for the DEP 2-MeV Van de Graff accelerator. An increased output of foils fabricated using our small rolling mill included targets of Au, C, {sup 50}Cr, Cu, {sup 155,160}Gd, Mg, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 105,110}Pd. Sc, Ti, and {sup 64,66}Zn.

  20. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  1. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  2. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  3. STIS target acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich

    1997-01-01

    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  4. Limited feedback achieves the empirical capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Eswaran, Krishnan; Sahai, Anant; Gastpar, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The utility of limited feedback for coding over an individual sequence of DMCs is investigated. This study complements recent results showing how limited or noisy feedback can boost the reliability of communication. A strategy with fixed input distribution $P$ is given that asymptotically achieves rates arbitrarily close to the mutual information induced by $P$ and the state-averaged channel. When the capacity achieving input distribution is the same over all channel states, this achieves rates at least as large as the capacity of the state averaged channel, sometimes called the empirical capacity.

  5. Personality and academic achievement in nniversity students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Niño de Guzmán

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlations among personality, academic performance and other variables in 170 university students were studied, using two instruments validated into the population: the NEOPJ-R, and the EPPS. Other variables as age, study level, self perception of academic achievement and self perception of motivation, and sources of support were included. Jt was confirmed the reliability and validity of both tests and the correlations between them. The results showed associations among academic performance and conscientiousness, endurance,change, and aggression. The academic performance was better explained by achievements triving, deliberation, change, self perception of academic achievement and age.

  6. Layout optimization for multilayer overlay targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, L. A.; Smith, N. P.; Ausschnitt, C. P.; Morningstar, J.; Muth, W.; Schneider, J.; Yerdon, R.

    2006-03-01

    A novel overlay target developed by IBM and Accent Optical Technologies, Blossom, allows simultaneous overlay measurements of multiple layers (currently, up to 28) with a single target. This is achieved by a rotationally symmetric arrangement of small (4 micron) targets in a 50 micron square area, described more fully in a separate paper. In this paper, we examine the lessons learned in developing and testing the Blossom design. We start by examining proximity effects; the spacing of adjacent targets means that both the precision-like Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) and accuracy of a measurement can be affected by proximity of features. We use a mixture of real and modelled data to illustrate this problem, and find that the layout of Blossom reduces the proximity-induced bias. However, we do find that in certain cases proximity effects can increase the TMU of a particular measurement. The solution is to ensure that parts of the target that interact detrimentally are maximally separated. We present a solution to this, viewing the problem as a constrained Travelling Salesman Problem. We have imposed some global constraints, for example printing front-end and back-end layers on separate targets, and consistency with the overlay measurement strategy. Initially, we assume that pairwise measurements are either critical or non-critical, and optimize the layout so that the critical layers are both not placed adjacent to any prior or intermediate-layer features. We then build upon this structure, to consider the effect of low-energy implants (that cannot be seen once processed) and site re-use possibilities. Beyond this, we also investigate the impact of more strategic optimizations, for example, tuning the number of features on each layer. In each case, we present on-product performance data achieved, and modelled data on some additional target variants / extreme cases.

  7. HIRDLS instrument radiometric calibration black body targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepplewhite, Christopher L.; Watkins, Robert E. J.; Row, Frederick; Barnett, John J.; Peters, Daniel M.; Palmer, Christopher W. P.; Wolfenden, Roger; Djotni, Karim; Arter, Philip I.

    2003-11-01

    The pre-launch calibration of the HIRDLS instrument took place in a dedicated facility at the University of Oxford. One aspect of this calibration was the determination of the response of the instrument to black body radiation. This was achieved with the use of purpose built full aperture black body targets which were mounted in the vacuum chamber together with all of the calibration equipment. Special attention was placed on the absolute knowledge of the emission from these targets. This was done through a combination of thermometric sensor calibration traceable to the International Temperature Standard (ITS-90), surface emission measurements, cavity design and modeling and controlling the stray light sources in the vacuum chamber. This paper describes the design requirements, implementation and performance achieved.

  8. Targeted Nanotechnology in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Talita; Han, Inbo; Wu, Liquan; Zeng, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas, and in particular glioblastoma multiforme, are aggressive brain tumors characterized by a poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Current treatment strategies are based on open surgery, chemotherapy (temozolomide) and radiotherapy. However, none of these treatments, alone or in combination, are considered effective in managing this devastating disease, resulting in a median survival time of less than 15 months. The efficiency of chemotherapy is mainly compromised by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that selectively inhibits drugs from infiltrating into the tumor mass. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), with their unique biology and their resistance to both radio- and chemotherapy, compound tumor aggressiveness and increase the chances of treatment failure. Therefore, more effective targeted therapeutic regimens are urgently required. In this article, some well-recognized biological features and biomarkers of this specific subgroup of tumor cells are profiled and new strategies and technologies in nanomedicine that explicitly target CSCs, after circumventing the BBB, are detailed. Major achievements in the development of nanotherapies, such as organic poly(propylene glycol) and poly(ethylene glycol) or inorganic (iron and gold) nanoparticles that can be conjugated to metal ions, liposomes, dendrimers and polymeric micelles, form the main scope of this summary. Moreover, novel biological strategies focused on manipulating gene expression (small interfering RNA and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats [CRISPR]/CRISPR associated protein 9 [Cas 9] technologies) for cancer therapy are also analyzed. The aim of this review is to analyze the gap between CSC biology and the development of targeted therapies. A better understanding of CSC properties could result in the development of precise nanotherapies to fulfill unmet clinical needs.

  9. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  10. Cognitive abilities, sociocultural background and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, António; Dias Pocinho, Margarida; Silva Almeida, Leandro

    2011-11-01

    The influence of students' sociocultural background on academic achievement is a well established fact. Research also points out that sociocultural background is related to students' cognitive abilities and these have an effect on their academic achievement. However, the mediator role of cognitive abilities on the relationship between sociocultural background and academic achievement is less well known. A structural equation model that represents these relationships was tested in a sample (N= 728) of Portuguese junior high school students. Multigroup analysis of the model showed the importance of the cognitive ability mediation effect between sociocultural background and academic achievement in the 7th and 9th grades, but not in the 8th grade. This difference may be the result of the academic transition experienced in the 7th and 9th grades in the Portuguese educational system, which requires parents' higher involvement in school.

  11. Scaffolding to Support Better Achievement in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Mareta Murdiyani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the National Science Education Standards, teachers should emphasize students’ interests, needs, experiences, inquiry, collaboration and understanding in their classrooms. One of the characteristics of inquiry is using scaffolding. Because of the benefits, it is important to investigate the effect of scaffolding on achievement in mathematics. Based on some relevant previous studies, scaffolding can be used to support better achievement in mathematics. In scaffolding, teacher’s guidance decreases gradually and student’s autonomy increases gradually. By giving guidance, teacher revises student’s misconceptions; while by giving autonomy, teacher supports student’s motivation in learning. Minimizing misconceptions and maximizing motivation can lead students to better achievement in mathematics. Many studies in this paper emphasize the importance of teachers' contribution in giving scaffolding to their students. Further research should be conducted to investigate the role of other people surrounding the students, such as parent and peer, in supporting effective scaffolding. Keywords: scaffolding, achievement in mathematics, misconceptions, motivation

  12. Academic Achievement Survey and Educational Assessment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The recent "Nationwide academic achievement and study situation survey" was clearly influenced by the idea of "authentic assessment", an educational assessment perspective focused on "quality" and "engagement". However, when "performance assessment", the assessment method corresponding to this…

  13. Achieving optimal business performance through business practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving optimal business performance through business practices: ... it is often articulated that best business practices produce superlative business performance. ... strategic planning practices, human resource management practices, risk ...

  14. TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION EFFECTS ON TEACHERS’ ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji SALEH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the effects of technology integration on teachers’ achievement. The previous literature in this regard was reviewed and a sample of teachers was chosen from 7-9 grade teachers. The sample consisted of 50 teachers males and females with different years of experience and different number of training courses. The questionnaire included paragraphs about the effect of technology integration on their achievement in school and in teaching. The results showed a great effect of technology integration on teachers’ achievement. The results also showed no differences attributed to teacher’s gender and that there were differences attributed to teacher’s years of experience and number of training courses. The article shows the aspects in which the achievement of teachers was influenced by technology integration.

  15. Achieving optimal business performance through business practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    management practices, risk management practices, performance ... 1As businesses constantly seek out new and better ways of achieving competitive ..... performance management helps managers to sense uncertain situations earlier and.

  16. Recent CAS Achievements in Life Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Recent years have witnessed remarkable progress scored by CAS researchers along with the smooth development of the knowledge innovation program piloted at CAS. The follow-ings are just recent examples of CAS research achievements in life sciences.

  17. Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Leonard, Julia A.; Jacoby Senghor, Drew S.; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F.O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the difference in academic achievement between higher- and lower-income students (i.e., the income achievement gap) is substantial and growing. Here, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of this gap in adolescents (n = 58) in whom academic achievement was measured by statewide standardized testing. Cortical gray matter volume was significantly greater in students from higher-income backgrounds (n = 35) compared to students from lower-income backgrounds (n = 23), but cortical white matter volume and total cortical surface area did not differ between groups. Cortical thickness in all lobes of the brain was greater in students from higher-income than lower-income backgrounds. Thicker cortex, particularly in temporal and occipital lobes, was associated with better test performance. These results represent the first evidence that cortical thickness differs across broad swaths of the brain between higher- and lower-income students, and that cortical thickness is related to academic achievement test scores. PMID:25896418

  18. School Segregation and Racial Academic Achievement Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean F. Reardon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since James Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine sixteen distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find clear evidence that one aspect of segregation in particular—the disparity in average school poverty rates between white and black students’ schools—is consistently the single most powerful correlate of achievement gaps, a pattern that holds in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. This implies that high-poverty schools are, on average, much less effective than lower-poverty schools and suggests that strategies that reduce the differential exposure of black, Hispanic, and white students to poor schoolmates may lead to meaningful reductions in academic achievement gaps.

  19. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  20. Emerging Targets in Photopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerch, Michael M; Hansen, Mickel J; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L

    2016-01-01

    The field of photopharmacology uses molecular photoswitches to establish control over the action of bioactive molecules. It aims to reduce systemic drug toxicity and the emergence of resistance, while achieving unprecedented precision in treatment. By using small molecules, photopharmacology provide

  1. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Language Achievement among Peruvian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennia Matos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We used an achievement goal framework to study the role of motivation in the academic context of a Peruvian sample of 8th to 10th grade high school students (N = 1505. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between students' achievement goals, their use of learning strategies and their academic achievement. Multiple Hierarchical Regressions Analyses identified, as predicted, positive effects of mastery goals, including more use of learning strategies and higher academic achievement, and negative effects of performance avoidance goals, including lower academic achievement. Mixed results were found for pursuing performance approach goals, which predicted a greater use of learning strategies, but were unrelated to academic achievement. The present findings support the external validity of achievement goal theory in a sample of students from a culture that is understudied in the achievement goal literature in particular and the motivational literature in general.

  2. Issues in Target Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    the CUSUM (Page) test yields the quickest detection of a change of distribution for the case of i.i.d. observations [3]. In fact, in a (highly...11. Autocorrelation of the CUSUM increments, sn, under H1 (target present). Issues in Target Tracking RTO-EN-SET-157(2010...restrictive condition that the increments of the cumulative sum, sn, be i.i.d. [3], [22]. Fig. 11 plots the autocorrelation of the CUSUM increments as a

  3. VSOP Science Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Hirabayashi, H.; Inoue, M.; 平林, 久; 井上, 允

    1991-01-01

    The VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) started in 1989,and the observations will start in 1995. VSOP Science targets are reviewed in relation to Japanese VLBI activities. Regions surrounding accreting disks and jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) will be the most important targets. The physics and distances to water vapor masing regions in and outside the Galaxy can be studied in more detail. VSOP can cover various objects like young supernova and gravitational lensing objects.

  4. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58) and two state schools (n= 217)...

  5. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  6. Code Compliant School Buildings Boost Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Lumpkin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the focus in the literature in raising student achievement has included parental involvement, principal leadership, quality of instruction, students’ socioeconomic status, curriculum, and use of technology. Limited empirical research relates the condition of the school building as a variable that affects student achievement. Furthermore, there is no research that has examined the impact of building codes on achievement outcomes in the state of Florida. This research determined whether academic achievement of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students as measured by the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT increased in new school buildings compliant to the 2000 Florida State Requirements for Educational Facilities. A causal-comparative design determined whether the independent variables, old and new school building influenced student achievement as measured by students’ FCAT mathematics and reading subtest scores. The control group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in old buildings. The experimental group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in new buildings. Transition from an old school into a new school was the treatment. Two hypotheses were formulated for testing and the research question for the inquiry was whether the percentage of students passing the FCAT mathematics and reading subtests increases after transitioning from an old school building into a new 2000 UBC (Uniform Building Code compliant facility.

  7. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL VARIABLES AND SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent psychological studies highlight emotional aspects, and they show an important role within individual learning processes. Hereby, positive emotions were supposed to positively influence learning and achievement processes and negative ones do the contrary. In this study, an educational unit “ecosystem lake” was used during which achievement (three tests and emotional variables (interest, well-being, anxiety and boredom; measured at the end of three pre-selected lessons were monitored. The research question was to explore correlations between emotional variables and the learning outcome of the teaching unit. Prior knowledge was regressed against the subsequent tests to account for its confounding effect. Regressions showed a highly significant influence of prior knowledge on the subsequent measurements of achievement. However, after accounting for prior knowledge, a positive correlation between interest/well-being and achievement and a negative correlation between anxiety/boredom and achievement was found. Further research and interventions should try to enhance positive emotions in biology lessons to positively influence achievement.

  8. Special education and later academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Jennifer; Huntington, Noelle; Molino, Janine; Barbaresi, William

    2013-02-01

    To determine whether grade at entry to special education is associated with improved reading achievement in children with reading disorders (RD) and whether the effect of grade at entry to special education differs by socioeconomic status (SES). The authors conducted a secondary data analysis using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative cohort of children followed longitudinally from kindergarten through eighth grade (1998-2007). Using data from the fifth grade wave of ECLS-K, the authors identified children with RD (n = 290). The outcome of interest was change in score on the reading achievement test, which was developed by ECLS-K staff, between first and fifth grade. Using multiple linear regression, the authors modeled outcome as a function of a child's grade at entry to special education, controlling for several covariates. Early entry to special education (by first grade vs second or third grade) was associated with larger gains in reading achievement between first and fifth grade (p special education by first grade versus second grade gained 4.5 more points on the reading achievement test (p special education by first grade versus third grade gained 1.7 more points on the reading achievement test (p special education between children from families of low and higher SES. For children with RD, early entry to special education is associated with improved reading achievement during elementary school.

  9. Achieving Sustainable Value Planning For Malaysian Public Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faudzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is the central development issue in the modern economy. Through sustainable development, quality of life can be improved or maintained over time. Since Malaysia is targeting to become a high-income nation by the year 2020, financial investment in public projects should be planned comprehensively so that it will generate immediate and long-term benefits to the country and the people. Within the currently tight financial environment, achieving value for money in public spending is seen as one of the enablers to maintain the right momentum of economic growth. Previous studies have established the importance of integrating sustainability consideration into Value Planning protocol in order to achieve value for money, underpinned by the sustainable development agenda. Despite the establishment of the framework for the integration, the opportunity of such integration within the Malaysian Value Planning protocol for public projects remains unclear. The present state of sustainability consideration within the Value Planning practice should be first evaluated, so that potential interventions to enhance the integration can be introduced. Responding to the gap, this exploratory study was conducted. The data was collected by means of document analysis, interviews and observations; subsequently analysed using the Template Analysis technique. Based on the current practice of Value Planning in Malaysia, ten interventions are proposed to transform the present practice into Sustainable Value Planning. Sustainable Value Planning is seen as a comprehensive concept in achieving value for money in public spending underpinned by the overarching concept of sustainability

  10. TOP PRIORITI QMS PRINCIPLES FOR ACHIEVING BUSINESS EXCELLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vujović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main target of this paper is to select top priority principles of QMS for achieving business excellence. This could be done from the standpoint of significant of principles. That means that. organization should make more attention to this principles in the way for making excellent results. This paper has been developed as a tendency of researchers in the Center for quality-Faculty of mechanical engineering in Podgorica to establish a model for improvement of business processes performances based on quality management system through comparison with top organizational performances characterized by criteria i.e. particularities of the business excellence model. Correlation of principles of the quality management system with QMS principles has been established to that effect. Weight coefficients have been also determined for each principle individually. Thereby key principles were identified, namely priorities in terms of achieving business excellence i.e. areas (principles were given priorities, that is to say principles that play the biggest part in achieving business excellence.

  11. Causal Ordering of Academic Self-Concept and Achievement: Effects of Type of Achievement Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Background: The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests,…

  12. A Mediation Analysis of Achievement Motives, Goals, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…

  13. Can Within-Race Achievement Comparisons Help Narrow Between-Race Achievement Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Reports on the low achievement of African American students tend to focus on Black-White achievement gaps. This study draws from official reports that also consider within-race achievement differences. An argument is presented that within-race comparisons are likely to reveal important causal factors that may go unnoticed when between-race…

  14. Computational design of nanoparticle drug delivery systems for selective targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gregg A; Bevan, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting diseased cells and tissues.

  15. Automatic target recognition based on cross-plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

    Full Text Available Automatic target recognition that relies on rapid feature extraction of real-time target from photo-realistic imaging will enable efficient identification of target patterns. To achieve this objective, Cross-plots of binary patterns are explored as potential signatures for the observed target by high-speed capture of the crucial spatial features using minimal computational resources. Target recognition was implemented based on the proposed pattern recognition concept and tested rigorously for its precision and recall performance. We conclude that Cross-plotting is able to produce a digital fingerprint of a target that correlates efficiently and effectively to signatures of patterns having its identity in a target repository.

  16. Student self-esteem and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nikoleta M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and

  17. Target materials for exotic ISOL beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gottberg, A

    2016-01-01

    The demand for intensity, purity, reliability and availability of short-lived isotopes far from stability is steadily high, and considerably exceeding the supply. In many cases the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method can provide beams of high intensity and purity. Limitations in terms of accessible chemical species and minimum half-life are driven mainly by chemical reactions and physical processes inside of the thick target. A wide range of materials are in use, ranging from thin metallic foils and liquids to refractory ceramics, while poly-phasic mixed uranium carbides have become the reference target material for most ISOL facilities world-wide. Target material research and development is often complex and especially important post-irradiation analyses are hindered by the high intrinsic radiotoxicity of these materials. However, recent achievements have proven that these investigations are possible if the effort of different facilities is combined, leading to the development of new material matrices t...

  18. Targeting neurons and photons for optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Adam M; Roska, Botond; Häusser, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Optogenetic approaches promise to revolutionize neuroscience by using light to manipulate neural activity in genetically or functionally defined neurons with millisecond precision. Harnessing the full potential of optogenetic tools, however, requires light to be targeted to the right neurons at the right time. Here we discuss some barriers and potential solutions to this problem. We review methods for targeting the expression of light-activatable molecules to specific cell types, under genetic, viral or activity-dependent control. Next we explore new ways to target light to individual neurons to allow their precise activation and inactivation. These techniques provide a precision in the temporal and spatial activation of neurons that was not achievable in previous experiments. In combination with simultaneous recording and imaging techniques, these strategies will allow us to mimic the natural activity patterns of neurons in vivo, enabling previously impossible 'dream experiments'.

  19. Targeting immune checkpoints in malignant glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tete; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-01-01

    Malignant glioma is the most common and a highly aggressive cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer immunotherapy, strategies to boost the bodys anti-cancer immune responses instead of directly targeting tumor cells, recently achieved great success in treating several human solid tumors. Although once considered immune privileged and devoid of normal immunological functions, CNS is now considered a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, featuring the recent progresses in neurobiology and neuroimmunology and a highly immunosuppressive state in malignant glioma. In this review, we focus on immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically, antagonizing monoclonal antibodies for programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We discuss advances in the working mechanisms of these immune checkpoint molecules, their status in malignant glioma, and current preclinical and clinical trials targeting these molecules in malignant glioma. PMID:27756892

  20. Lactosamination of liposomes and hepatotropic targeting research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Peng Chen; Lian Zhang; Qiao Sheng Lu; Xiao Rong Feng; Kang Xian Luo

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific delivery of therapeutic drugs to their target cells is a major scientific challenge for the pharmaceutical sciences. It offers a number of advantages over conventional drug administration. With drug targeting, high local concentrations of the drug can be achieved, thus circumventing many unwanted side effects. Various carriers have been suggested for the delivery of drugs, including liposomes[1 - 5] and (neo ) glycoproteins[6-8]. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) has frequently been utilized for targeting drugs to the parenchymal liver cell[6- 12]. Liposomes have several advantageous characteristics as drug carrier, and particularly, ligandtacked liposomes achieve a highly effective targeting[13]. Hara et al reported that asialofetuin (AF)-tacked liposomes distributed to rat hepatocytes selectively in vivo[14], and ASGP-R mediated the uptake of AF-liposomes encapsulating IFN-γ by isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro[15]. Lactosaminated human serum albumin (L-HSA) is a neoglycoprotein taking number of galactose residue as terminal sugar[6].

  1. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students’ Achievement in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajogbeje Oke James

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268 College of Education students offering mathematics as one of their subject combination, was selected using purposive sampling techniques. Three research instruments namely: Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS, Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT were used to collect data for the study. Data collected for the study were analyzed using correlational analysis and ANOVA. The results showed that a significantly low negative correlation coefficient existed between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. There is a negative and significant correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and achievement motivation. Similarly, a positive and significant correlation coefficient also exists between achievement motivation and mathematics achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should adopt activity based strategies and conducive learning environment in order to reduce college students’ anxieties in mathematics learning.

  2. Production Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  3. Targeted assets risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwsema, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessments utilising the consolidated risk assessment process as described by Public Safety Canada and the Centre for Security Science utilise the five threat categories of natural, human accidental, technological, human intentional and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE). The categories of human intentional and CBRNE indicate intended actions against specific targets. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify which pieces of critical infrastructure represent the likely targets of individuals with malicious intent. Using the consolidated risk assessment process and the target capabilities list, coupled with the CARVER methodology and a security vulnerability analysis, it is possible to identify these targeted assets and their weaknesses. This process can help emergency managers to identify where resources should be allocated and funding spent. Targeted Assets Risk Analysis (TARA) presents a new opportunity to improve how risk is measured, monitored, managed and minimised through the four phases of emergency management, namely, prevention, preparation, response and recovery. To reduce risk throughout Canada, Defence Research and Development Canada is interested in researching the potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to risk assessment and management. The TARA provides a framework against which potential human intentional threats can be measured and quantified, thereby improving safety for all Canadians.

  4. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  5. Ignition target design for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, S.W.; Pollaine, S.M.; Lindl, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    The goal of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to produce significant thermonuclear burn from a target driven with a laser or ion beam. To achieve that goal, the national ICF Program has proposed a laser capable of producing ignition and intermediate gain. The facility is called the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This article describes ignition targets designed for the NIF and their modeling. Although the baseline NIF target design, described herein, is indirect drive, the facility will also be capable of doing direct-drive ignition targets - currently being developed at the University of Rochester.

  6. Target Detection and Ranging through Lossy Media using Chaotic Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A chaotic radar system has been developed for through-wall detection and ranging of targets. The chaotic signal generated by an improved Colpitts oscillator is designed as a probe signal. Ranging to target is achieved by the cross-correlation between the time-delayed reflected return signal and the replica of the transmitted chaotic signal. In this paper, we explore the performance of the chaotic radar system for target detection and ranging through lossy media. Experimental results show that the designed chaotic radar has the advantages of high range resolution, unambiguous correlation profile, and can be used for through wall target detection and sensing.

  7. Price-level Targeting versus Inflation Targeting: A Free Lunch?

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Lars E O

    1996-01-01

    Price-level targeting (without base drift) and inflation targeting (with base drift) are compared under commitment and discretion, with persistence in unemployment. Price-level targeting is often said to imply more short-run inflation variability and thereby more employment variability than inflation targeting. Counter to this conventional wisdom, under discretion a price-level target results in lower inflation variability than an inflation target (if unemployment is at least moderately persi...

  8. Cooled particle accelerator target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2005-06-14

    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  9. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  10. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  11. Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills.

  12. Home media and children's achievement and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls, and for Black but not White boys. Increased video game play was associated with an improved ability to solve applied problems for Black girls but lower verbal achievement for all girls. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems.

  13. Achievable Precision for Optical Ranging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.

    2012-01-01

    Achievable RMS errors in estimating the phase, frequency, and intensity of a direct-detected intensity-modulated optical pulse train are presented. For each parameter, the Cramer-Rao-Bound (CRB) is derived and the performance of the Maximum Likelihood estimator is illustrated. Approximations to the CRBs are provided, enabling an intuitive understanding of estimator behavior as a function of the signaling parameters. The results are compared to achievable RMS errors in estimating the same parameters from a sinusoidal waveform in additive white Gaussian noise. This establishes a framework for a performance comparison of radio frequency (RF) and optical science. Comparisons are made using parameters for state-of-the-art deep-space RF and optical links. Degradations to the achievable errors due to clock phase noise and detector jitter are illustrated.

  14. Achieving single channel, full duplex wireless communication

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a single channel full-duplex wireless transceiver. The design uses a combination of RF and baseband techniques to achieve full-duplexing with minimal effect on link reliability. Experiments on real nodes show the full-duplex prototype achieves median performance that is within 8% of an ideal full-duplexing system. This paper presents Antenna Cancellation, a novel technique for self-interference cancellation. In conjunction with existing RF interference cancellation and digital baseband interference cancellation, antenna cancellation achieves the amount of self-interference cancellation required for full-duplex operation. The paper also discusses potential MAC and network gains with full-duplexing. It suggests ways in which a full-duplex system can solve some important problems with existing wireless systems including hidden terminals, loss of throughput due to congestion, and large end-to-end delays. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  15. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem SAVAŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58 and two state schools (n= 217 in Van. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and Chi-Square analysis. The result of study showed that type of school, family income, studying time, students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses had statistically significant effects on students’ mathematics achievement.

  16. Achieving high luminosity in the Fermilab Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, S.D.

    1991-05-01

    Fermilab has embarked upon a program, christened Fermilab III, to raise the luminosity in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider over the next five years by at least a factor of thirty beyond the currently achieved level of 1.6{times}10{sup 30}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}. Components of the program include implementation of electrostatic separators, Antiproton Source improvements, installation of cold compressors, doubling the existing linac output energy, and the construction of a new accelerator--the Fermilab Main Injector. Basic limitations in the achievement of higher luminosity in the Tevatron, the strategy developed to achieve the Fermilab III goals, and the evolution of luminosity throughout the period will be discussed. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  18. Targeting peroxiredoxins against leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Xu; Zhou, Hu-Chen; Yin, Qian-Qian; Wu, Ying-Li; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2013-01-15

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx), a family of small non-seleno peroxidases, are important regulators for cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to many signaling pathways and pathogenesis of diseases. Targeting redox homeostasis is being developed as a promising therapeutic strategy for many diseases such as cancers. This mini-review attempts to focus on our recent discoveries on adenanthin as the first natural molecule to specifically target the resolving cysteines of Prx I and Prx II and thus inhibit their peroxidase activities, and its role in differentiation induction in vitro and in vivo of acute myeloid leukemic cells.

  19. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  20. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  1. Achievement Motivation and EEG Spectral Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Vorobyeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Achievement motivation is a psychological category which implies a desire to achieve significant (powerful results in certain sphere. According to the results of psychophysiological research people who are motivated for success are very active before they are instructed by the researcher which proves that they aimed at the perception of the referent situation and the intense level of expectations. One of the vital issues today is a problem how genes influence human behaviour. Thus on the basis of contemporary researches we can conclude that such influence is regulated by brain processes.

  2. Impact of Metacognition on Guitar Performance Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Yokuş, Tuba

    2013-01-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the impact of the development of metacognition on guitar performance achievement in the individual instrument guitar lesson, which is included in the Bachelor’s program of Music Teacher Education in Marmara University Atatürk Faculty of Education, Department of Fine Arts Education, in Turkey. “Experimental Design with Pretest–Posttest Control Group” has been used, in order to achieve the objective of the study. The study sample (N=10) consists of g...

  3. Achieving patient satisfaction: resolving patient complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxler, K F

    1997-07-01

    Patients demand to be active participants on and partners with the health care team to design their care regimen. Patients bring unique perceptions and expectations and use these to evaluate service quality and satisfaction. If customer satisfaction is not achieved and a patient complaint results, staff must have the skills to respond and launch a service recovery program. Service recovery, when done with style and panache, can retain loyal customers. Achieving patient satisfaction and resolving patient complaints require commitment from top leadership and commitment from providers to dedicate the time to understand their patients' needs.

  4. National GDP, Science Interest and Science Achievement: A Person-by-Nation Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drob, Elliot M. Tucker; Cheung, Amanda K.; Briley, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy, with important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a dataset drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we document large interest by SES and interest by per capita gross domestic product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in higher opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility, but in many cases, an empirical reality. PMID:25304883

  5. Advancing Academic Achievement in the Heterogeneous Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Linda; And Others

    This master's project analyzed the implementation of a program designed to address the academic needs of all students in a heterogeneous classroom. The targeted population consisted of secondary parochial school students from working and middle class backgrounds in or around a large midwestern metropolitan area. Problems of underachievement were…

  6. Achieving optimum diffraction based overlay performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee; Coogans, Martyn; Fuchs, Andreas; Ponomarenko, Mariya; van der Schaar, Maurits; Vanoppen, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) metrology has been shown to have significantly reduced Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) compared to Image Based Overlay (IBO), primarily due to having no measurable Tool Induced Shift (TIS). However, the advantages of having no measurable TIS can be outweighed by increased susceptibility to WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) caused by target damage, process non-uniformities and variations. The path to optimum DBO performance lies in having well characterized metrology targets, which are insensitive to process non-uniformities and variations, in combination with optimized recipes which take advantage of advanced DBO designs. In this work we examine the impact of different degrees of process non-uniformity and target damage on DBO measurement gratings and study their impact on overlay measurement accuracy and precision. Multiple wavelength and dual polarization scatterometry are used to characterize the DBO design performance over the range of process variation. In conclusion, we describe the robustness of DBO metrology to target damage and show how to exploit the measurement capability of a multiple wavelength, dual polarization scatterometry tool to ensure the required measurement accuracy for current and future technology nodes.

  7. Achieving Proficiency Goals through Competency Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Walter H.; Strasheim, Lorraine

    The Indiana Foreign Language Generic Competencies for Levels 1-4 define language-learning outcomes in terms of communicative competencies within generic cultural contexts. Nine cultural contexts (travel/transportation, the "world" of the target language, school and education, family and home, leisure time, meeting personal needs, world…

  8. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  9. Active Target Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Draznik, Peter; Frank, Nathan

    2012-10-01

    We have simulated an existing experimental design to determine the resolution improvement upon energy measurements of neutron unbound nuclei. A number of experiments of this type have been performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), located at Michigan State University. An excited nucleus is typically produced with a radioactive beam interacting with a passive Beryllium target. Many different nuclei are produced in experiment, each of which immediately decays into a charged particle and neutron. The charged particles are detected and the neutrons interact in scintillation detectors such as the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and Large Multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA). In our simulation, we have constructed an active target that provides additional information such that the point of nuclear interaction within the target may be determined. This information improves the resolution in decay energy measurements of neutron unbound isotopes. This presentation will cover some aspects of the simulation process, as well as showing some of the results that demonstrate the simulated improvement over a passive target.

  10. Target chambers for gammashpere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  11. Microenvironmental targets in sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhnman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors affecting all age groups. They are typically classified according to their resemblance to corresponding normal tissue. Their heterogeneous features, for example in terms of disease-driving genetic aberrations and body location, complicate both disease classification and development of novel treatment regimens. Many years of failure of improved patient outcome in clinical trials has lead to the conclusion that novel targeted therapies are likely needed in combination with current multimodality regimens. Sarcomas have not, in contrast to the common carcinomas, been the subject for larger systematic studies on how tumor behavior relates to characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. There is consequently an urgent need for identifying suitable molecular targets, not only in tumor cells, but also in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses preclinical and clinical data about potential molecular targets in sarcomas. Studies on targeted therapies involving the tumor microenvironment are prioritized. A greater understanding of the biological context is expected to facilitate more successful design of future clinical trials in sarcoma.

  12. Major Targets for 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ This year, the main targets we have set for economic and social development are: increasing GDP by approximately 8 percent, creating jobs for more than 9 million people, keeping the urban registered unemployment rate no higher than 4.6 percent, holding the rise in consumer prices to around 3 percent, and improving the balance of payments.

  13. Cancer immunotherapy targeting neoantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Robbins, Paul F

    2016-02-01

    Neoantigens are antigens encoded by tumor-specific mutated genes. Studies in the past few years have suggested a key role for neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Here we review the discoveries of neoantigens in the past two decades and the current advances in neoantigen identification. We also discuss the potential benefits and obstacles to the development of effective cancer immunotherapies targeting neoantigens.

  14. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  15. New Achievements in Well Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Tingdong

    1996-01-01

    @@ In the first five years of 1990s, new achievements made in China's onshore well logging technology have enhanced the benefits of exploration and development for complex oil and gas reservoirs and have thus showed the trend of the development of China's well logging technology towards the end of this century.

  16. Improving Achievement through Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effect of problem-based learning on students' academic achievement and performance skills in a unit on the human excretory system was investigated. Sixty-one 10th grade students, from two full classes instructed by the same biology teacher, were involved in the study. Classes were randomly assigned as either the experimental or…

  17. 28 CFR 545.28 - Achievement awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.28 Achievement awards. (a) With prior approval of... related trades classroom work that is part of a certified apprenticeship program may be granted...

  18. Critical Consciousness: A Key to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Aaliyah; Seider, Scott; Graves, Daren; Tamerat, Jalene; Clark, Shelby; Soutter, Madora; Johannsen, Jamie; Malhotra, Saira

    2017-01-01

    Research has suggested that critical consciousness--the ability to recognize and analyze systems of inequality and the commitment to take action against these systems--can be a gateway to academic motivation and achievement for marginalized students. To explore this approach, the authors studied five urban schools that include critical…

  19. Prediction of Achievement in Clinical Pharmacy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lee S.

    1978-01-01

    A study sought to identify student characteristics which account for academic achievement in clinical pharmacy courses. Preclinical grade point average was the best predictor. Subscales of the California Personality Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, work experience, sex, and age were the other predictor variables. (SW)

  20. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  1. Closing the Achievement Gap on ACT & SAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David

    2010-01-01

    Research has focused on four groups of factors and the achievement gap: (1) student characteristics (high school GPA, attendance patterns, courses taken in high school, participation in extra-curricular activities, etc.); (2) family characteristics (family structure, in home, parents' level of education, mobility, etc.); (3) school-based…

  2. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District, Ojo, Lagos,…

  3. Effects of Ability Grouping on Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the effect of within-class and between-class ability groupings on the academic achievement of gifted elementary and secondary level students. Results showed that gifted students gained more academically than they would have if they had been taught in heterogeneous classes. (PS)

  4. Accelerating Mathematics Achievement Using Heterogeneous Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Carol Corbett; Heubert, Jay P.; Levin, Henry M.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of providing an accelerated mathematics curriculum in heterogeneously grouped middle school classes in a diverse suburban school district. A quasi-experimental cohort design was used to evaluate subsequent completion of advanced high school math courses as well as academic achievement. Results showed…

  5. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  6. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District, Ojo, Lagos,…

  7. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  8. Achieving Sex Equity via Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetsch, David L.; Gulledge, Earl N.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the women's rights movement and discusses the evolution of society's attitudes toward women. Discusses the goals and methods of Okaloosa-Walton Junior College Sex Equity Plan, a vocational education program for achieving sex equity. Highlights five major components: education, student recruitment, self-paced, self-directed instruction, job…

  9. Only Children, Achievement, and Interpersonal Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    Many psychological theories point to the importance of siblings in individual personality development. The impact of sibling status on interpersonal and achievement orientation was examined with undergraduates (N=1782) who completed a series of objective personality measures and a background questionnaire. Sibling status was defined in terms of…

  10. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lois S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  11. Enhancing Communication and Achieving Mutual-benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Gendang; Xu Jianmei

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Third China International Small & Medium Enterprises Fair and Sino-Italy Small &Medium Enterprises Fair was completed successfully The pageant for international small and medium enterprises, the third China International Small & Medium Enterprises Fair and Sino-Italy Small & Medium Enterprises Fair, was completed successfully recently in Guangzhou.During those several days, the fair has achieved great success.

  12. Achieving Fluency: Special Education and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Francis

    2011-01-01

    "Achieving Fluency" presents the understandings that all teachers need to play a role in the education of students who struggle: those with disabilities and those who simply lack essential foundational knowledge. This book serves teachers and supervisors by sharing increasingly intensive instructional interventions for struggling students on…

  13. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…

  14. Designing of Student Learning Achievement Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to solve the following problematic issue: how the most essential elements of student learning achievement evaluation should be properly designed? The answers are pursued by the validation of identification of evaluation types, formulation of evaluation criteria and choice of assessment methods. Designing of the most essential…

  15. Friend Influence on Achievement during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence on academic achievement and task avoidance during middle childhood in a sample of 794 participants in 397 stable same-sex friendship dyads (205 girl dyads and 192 boy dyads) from four municipalities in Finland: two in Central Finland, one in Western Finland, and one in Eastern Finland.…

  16. What Characterises High Achieving Students’ Mathematical Reasoning?

    OpenAIRE

    Haavold, Per Øystein

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates high achieving students’ mathematical reasoning when given an unfamiliar trigonometric equation. The findings indicate that the students’ way of thinking is strongly linked with imitative reasoning and only when they received some form of guidance, were they able to display flexible and creative mathematical reasoning.

  17. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  18. Principals' Leadership Styles and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    Many schools struggle to meet No Child Left Behind's stringent adequate yearly progress standards, although the benchmark has stimulated national creativity and reform. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of principals' leadership styles, curriculum reform, and student achievement to ascertain possible factors to improve…

  19. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Mathematics Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the effects of field dependence/independence and the level of operational development on the mathematics achievement of 450 students in grades 6-8. Field-independent students scored significantly higher on total mathematics, concepts, and problem-solving tests. High-operational students scored significantly higher on all tests.…

  20. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  1. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  2. Toward Achieving the Dietitian's Goal: Client Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Kathleen M.; Biltz, Peggy

    The role of the dietitian as a teacher of clients who must adhere to a special diet for health reasons is discussed. The objective of this education process is to achieve a complete understanding on the part of the client not only of what is allowed in the diet but also why it is desirable. The dietitian in the professional role as an educator…

  3. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  4. Age and Outstanding Occupational Achievement: Lehman Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the findings of Lehman's study of age and outstanding occupational achievement along with the explanations of why major contributions most likely occur in young adulthood. Proposes an alternative explanation based on the central developmental tasks facing individuals in young adulthood and middle age. (JAC)

  5. Does High School Homework Increase Academic Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff

    2017-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that homework improves students' academic achievement, the majority of these studies use data on students' homework time from retrospective questionnaires, which may be less accurate than time-diary data. We use data from the combined Child Development Supplement (CDS) and the Transition to Adulthood Survey…

  6. Evaluation of Principals; Leadership Excellence Achievement Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, George B.; Hersey, Paul W.

    1981-01-01

    The Leadership Excellence Achievement Plan (LEAP) presented here is a way for principals to improve leadership ability with an emphasis on evaluation. It first recommends formulating a precise definition of the principal's job divided into three areas: technical competencies, administrative skills, and performance goals. Among the technical…

  7. Achieving Excellence: Mastery Learning in Legal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, J. M.; Feldman, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Law schools should require excellence of all students, and mastery learning is a technique useful for structuring entire curricula or course segments to achieve high standards. A Rutgers course in contracts, torts, and legal research and writing developed to apply mastery learning strategies has proven successful. (MSE)

  8. Attitudes and Achievement: A Complex Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mary L.

    This paper investigates the popular belief that children's attitudes toward school and particular subjects have a positive relationship with their school and subject achievement. Definitions of attitude by L. L. Thurstone, L. W. Doob, and M. Fishbein are presented as a basis for the investigation. The difficulties involved in assessing attitudes…

  9. Critical Consciousness: A Key to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Aaliyah; Seider, Scott; Graves, Daren; Tamerat, Jalene; Clark, Shelby; Soutter, Madora; Johannsen, Jamie; Malhotra, Saira

    2017-01-01

    Research has suggested that critical consciousness--the ability to recognize and analyze systems of inequality and the commitment to take action against these systems--can be a gateway to academic motivation and achievement for marginalized students. To explore this approach, the authors studied five urban schools that include critical…

  10. Five Companies Receive IDEA10 Achievement Awards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Prestigious industry awards presented at IDEA10 in Miami Beach this week;special Entrepreneurial Award also presented at IDEA 10 CARY,NC April 28,2010-The IDEA10 Achievement Awards, which recognize the best new nonwoven and engineered fabric products introduced in the past three years,were presented in six different categories

  11. Relationship between Creativity and Academic Achievement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Akintunde, S. O. - Department of Business Administration and Management,. Moshood Abiola ... CGPA scores of a sample of randomly selected 235 HNDII business ... may have the innate or genetic ability for creativity, yet parents and teachers ... difference in academic achievement of Malaysian and American students.

  12. The Highest & Lowest Reliability Achievable with Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Peter W.

    1977-01-01

    -dependent, it is difficult to assess the reliability of the system. The paper describes the ¿-transformation by which the highest and lowest reliability achievable can be determined for a configuration using components with specified reliabilities. As a by-product we become able to pinpoint the statistical relationships...

  13. Factors Implicated in High Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Hill, Janelle C.

    2013-01-01

    The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2009) mathematical literacy results provide evidence that in Western English-speaking countries, including Australia, the gender gap in achievement appears to be widening in favour of males. In the study reported in this article, the aim was to explore the effects of gender,…

  14. Professional Learning Communities and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Thach Kam Yin

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory quantitative study of professional learning communities and student achievement in the largest school system in the State of North Carolina provides evidence to support systemic implementation of professional learning community practices and activities. A one-way ANOVA was conducted to explore the impact of teachers' perceptions of…

  15. Assessing and Grading Student Achievement. ERS Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Glen E.; Craver, James M.

    The primary purpose of this report is to describe the practices and procedures used by school districts to assess and grade student achievement. In April of 1988, the Educational Research Service conducted a nationwide survey of the grading and reporting practices and procedures using a stratified random sample of public school districts. The…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  17. Perceptions of Parent Involvement in Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePlanty, Jennifer; Coulter-Kern, Russell; Duchane, Kim A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors sought to understand the types of parent involvement that teachers, parents, and students believe affect the academic achievement of adolescent learners at the junior high school level. Research that included focus groups, interviews, and surveys indicated that teachers and students believed that parent involvement at school was…

  18. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  19. Age and Outstanding Occupational Achievement: Lehman Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the findings of Lehman's study of age and outstanding occupational achievement along with the explanations of why major contributions most likely occur in young adulthood. Proposes an alternative explanation based on the central developmental tasks facing individuals in young adulthood and middle age. (JAC)

  20. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…