Sample records for achieving abuja targets

  1. Application of Geospatial Information System to Assess the Effectiveness of the Mdg Target in Amac Metropolis-Abuja, Nigeria

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    T.T. Youngu


    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the MDG target as it concerns, the state of education in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC metropolis-Nigeria. One of the educational challenges faced in developing countries is how to know which school to send children to. This is mainly due to lack of detailed information as to, what school offers, what type of education, and at what fee. But with Geospatial Information Systems (GIS providing information about primary and secondary schools, Millennium Development Goals’ (MDGs’ vision of literacy for 15-24 year olds will be achieved. The development of geospatial database information system of primary and secondary schools for Garki and Wuse districts, Abuja, was embarked upon to provide timely, consistent and accurate information to decision makers for use in achieving this particular target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The delay in achievement of this target is not because governments in developing countries aren’t putting maximum effort, but because these governments are choosing to put the cart before the horse. Sustainable literacy level cannot be achieved without an effective framework charged with the collection, storage, query, analysis and management of the relevant data. What is needed is a system that provides government with data about all educational facilities within required proximity and determines availability of the required facilities. GIS is that decision making technology, which integrates ‘spatially referenced data’ with a problem solving environment. The method employed was to acquire both spatial and attribute data of every primary and secondary school in Garki and Wuse districts. The spatially referenced database was created using Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS 9.2 software. The database was queried and the results of the queries analyzed. The results showed that 60% of the schools didn’t have access to Internet. Twenty-one (21 percent had no

  2. Reviewing the literature on access to prompt and effective malaria treatment in Kenya: implications for meeting the Abuja targets

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    Tetteh Gladys


    the complexity and unclear messages regarding drug policy changes. Conclusion Kenya, like many other African countries, is still far from achieving the Abuja targets. The government, with support from donors, should invest adequately in mechanisms that promote access to effective treatment. Such approaches should focus on factors influencing multiple dimensions of access and will require the cooperation of all stakeholders working in malaria control.

  3. How to (or not to) … measure performance against the Abuja target for public health expenditure. (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Jones, Alex; Ensor, Tim


    In 2001, African heads of state committed 'to set a target of allocating at least 15% of our annual budget to the improvement of the health sector'. This target has since been used as a benchmark to hold governments accountable. However, it was never followed by a set of guidelines as to how it should be measured in practice. This article sets out some of the areas of ambiguity and argues for an interpretation which focuses on actual expenditure, rather than budgets (which are theoretical), and which captures areas of spending that are subject to government discretion. These are largely domestic sources, but include budget support, which is externally derived but subject to Ministry of Finance sectoral allocation. Theoretical and practical arguments in favour of this recommendation are recommended using a case study from Sierra Leone. It is recommended that all discretionary spending by government is included in the numerator and denominator when calculating performance against the target, including spending by all ministries on health, social health insurance payments, debt relief funds and budget support. Conversely, all forms of private payment and earmarked aid should be excluded. The authors argue that the target, while an important vehicle for tracking political commitment to the sector, should be assessed intelligently by governments, which have legitimate wider public finance objectives of maximizing overall social returns, and should be complemented by a wider range of indicators, to avoid distortions.

  4. Achieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica

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    Abdullahi Olabode ABDULKADRI


    Full Text Available ieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica Abstract: The high cost of energy in Jamaica, one of the highest in the Caribbean region, is usually cited as a hindrance to industrial development and efficiency, especially in the manufacturing sector. High energy cost is also considered to be a national energy security issue and the government is taking steps to ensure adequate supply of energy at affordable prices. In the current National Development Plan, the government has set a target for renewable energy sources to supply 20% of the country's energy need by the year 2030. Using a linear programing model of energy planning, we examine how realistically this target could be achieved. Our findings indicate that the 20% renewable energy target is technically achievable with the optimal plan showing a mixture of wind power, hydropower and bagasse power but no solar power. However, when the timeline for investment in new generating capacities that will ensure the attainment of the target is considered, it becomes highly improbable that the target will be met. This study fills the gap that exists in evidence-based analysis of energy policy in Jamaica.

  5. Cooperation Mechanisms To Achieve Eu Renewable Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Pade, Lise-Lotte; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten


    for cooperation mechanisms such as joint support schemes for promoting renewable energy to meet the 2020 targets. The potential coordination benefits, with more efficient localisation and composition of renewable investment, can be achieved by creating new areas/sub-segments of renewable technologies where...... connection of new capacity to the electricity grid and cost sharing rules for electricity transmission expansion are examined and examples given. The influence of additional renewable capacity on domestic/regional power market prices can be a barrier. The market will be influenced by for example an expansion...... of the wind capacity resulting in lower prices, which will affect existing conventional producers. This development will be opposed by conventional producers, whereas consumers will support such a strategy. A major barrier is the timing of RES targets and the uncertainty regarding future targets. We...

  6. Assessment of Recreational Facilities in Federal Capital City, Abuja, Nigeria

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    Cyril Kanayo Ezeamaka


    Full Text Available Abuja Master Plan provided development of adequate Green Areas and other Recreational Facilities within the Federal Capital City (FCC, as part of its sustainability principles and provided for these recreational facilities within each neighborhood (FCDA, 1979. However, there have been several recent foul cries about the negative development of recreational facilities and the abuse of the Master Plan in the FCC.  The motivation for carrying out this study arose from the observation that recreational facilities in Phase 1 of the Federal Capital City Abuja are not clearly developed as intended by the policy makers and thus, the need to identify the recreational facilities in the Phase 1 of FCC and observe their level of development as well as usage. The field survey revealed that the Central Business District and Gazupe have higher numbers of recreational facilities with 45 and 56. While Wuse II (A08 and Wuse II (A07 Districts have lesser recreational facilities with 10 and 17. The field survey further revealed that all the districts in Phase 1 have over 35% cases of land use changes from recreational facilities to other use. The survey shows that over 65% of these recreational facilities are fully developed. The study also shows that just about 11% of the recreational sporting facilities were developed in line with the Abuja Master Plan in Phase 1. The study revealed that recreational facilities in Phase 1 of the FCC, Abuja has not being developed in compliance with the Abuja Master Plan.

  7. Notes on the History of Abuja, Central Nigeria




    This paper is concerned with aspects of the history of Abuja in the Central Nigerian region -- an area designated as the new Federal capital of Nigeria. We examine some aspects of inter-group relations and then reflect on technological and economic development in the area. In the course of discussion, we reflect on aspects of iron technology, textile, leather processing and pottery and comment on issues related to trade in the region.

  8. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets. (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo


    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  9. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among nonpregnant women attending a tertiary health care facility in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Emeribe AU


    Full Text Available Anthony Uchenna Emeribe,1 Idris Abdullahi Nasir,2 Justus Onyia,2 Alinwachukwu Loveth Ifunanya31Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Tsafe, Zamfara State, NigeriaBackground: Candida spp. are normal flora of the vagina that eventually become pathogenic under some prevailing conditions, and thus present as a common etiology of vulvovaginitis. When prompt recognition and laboratory confirmation is not achieved, this could lead to devastating genital discomfort and a major reason for frequent hospital visits.Aims: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that aimed to determine the prevalence and some associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC among nonpregnant women attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Subjects and methods: A pair of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples was collected from each of 200 individual participating subjects. They were separately inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated aerobically at 33°C for 48 hours. Ten percent KOH wet mount and Gram staining was done on swabs and colonies, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.Results: Of the 200 participating subjects, the prevalence of Candida albicans was 6.5% and that of non-albicans candidiasis 7.5%. Candidiasis was observed mostly among the 20- to 30-year age-group. All subjects with Candida-positive culture had been on antibacterial therapy prior to participating in this study – 28 (100%. There was a statistical relationship between the prevalence of VVC with previous antibacterial therapy (P<0.05, but not with age or other prevailing health conditions studied (P>0.05.Conclusion: The outcome of this study

  10. What would it take to achieve the Paris temperature targets? (United States)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia


    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit warming to 2 or 1.5°C above preindustrial level, although combined Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are likely insufficient to achieve these targets. We propose a set of idealized emission pathways consistent with the targets. If countries reduce emissions in line with their INDCs, the 2°C threshold could be avoided only if net zero greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) are achieved by 2085 and late century negative emissions are considerably in excess of those assumed in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 (net -5 Gt CO2/yr, compared with -1.5 Gt CO2/yr in RCP2.6). More aggressive near-term reductions would allow 2°C to be avoided with less end-of-century carbon removal capacity. A 10% cut in GHGEs by 2030 (relative to 2015) could likely achieve 2°C with RCP2.6 level negative emissions. The 1.5°C target requires GHGEs to be reduced by almost a third by 2030 and net zero by 2050, while a 50 year overshoot of 1.5°C allows net zero GHGEs by 2060.

  11. High prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men and transgender women attending trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria

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    Babajide Keshinro


    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted infection (STI and HIV prevalence have been reported to be higher amongst men who have sex with men (MSM in Nigeria than in the general population. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population using laboratory-based universal testing. Methods: TRUST/RV368 represents a cohort of MSM and transgender women (TGW recruited at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS. Participants undergo a structured comprehensive assessment of HIV-related risks and screening for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HIV. Crude and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Log-binomial regression was used to explore factors associated with prevalent HIV infection and STIs. Results: From March 2013 to January 2016, 862 MSM and TGW (316 in Lagos and 546 in Abuja underwent screening for HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea at study enrolment. Participants’ median age was 24 years [interquartile range (IQR 21–27]. One-third (34.2% were identified as gay/homosexual and 65.2% as bisexual. The overall prevalence of HIV was 54.9%. After adjusting for the RDS recruitment method, HIV prevalence in Abuja was 43.5% (95% CI 37.3–49.6% and in Lagos was 65.6% (95% CI 54.7–76.5%. The RDS-weighted prevalence of chlamydia was 17.0% (95% CI 11.8–22.3% in Abuja and 18.3% (95% CI 11.1–25.4% in Lagos. Chlamydia infection was detected only at the anorectal site in 70.2% of cases. The RDS-weighted prevalence of gonorrhoea was 19.1% (95% CI 14.6–23.5% in Abuja and 25.8% (95% CI 17.1–34.6% in Lagos. Overall, 84.2% of gonorrhoea cases presented with anorectal infection only. Over 95% of STI cases were asymptomatic. In a multivariable model, increased risk for chlamydia/gonorrhoea was associated with younger age, gay/homosexual sexual orientation

  12. High prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men and transgender women attending trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria (United States)

    Keshinro, Babajide; Crowell, Trevor A; Nowak, Rebecca G; Adebajo, Sylvia; Peel, Sheila; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Rodriguez-Hart, Cristina; Baral, Stefan D; Walsh, Melissa J; Njoku, Ogbonnaya S; Odeyemi, Sunday; Ngo-Ndomb, Teclaire; Blattner, William A; Robb, Merlin L; Charurat, Manhattan E; Ake, Julie


    Introduction Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevalence have been reported to be higher amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria than in the general population. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population using laboratory-based universal testing. Methods TRUST/RV368 represents a cohort of MSM and transgender women (TGW) recruited at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Participants undergo a structured comprehensive assessment of HIV-related risks and screening for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HIV. Crude and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Log-binomial regression was used to explore factors associated with prevalent HIV infection and STIs. Results From March 2013 to January 2016, 862 MSM and TGW (316 in Lagos and 546 in Abuja) underwent screening for HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea at study enrolment. Participants’ median age was 24 years [interquartile range (IQR) 21–27]. One-third (34.2%) were identified as gay/homosexual and 65.2% as bisexual. The overall prevalence of HIV was 54.9%. After adjusting for the RDS recruitment method, HIV prevalence in Abuja was 43.5% (95% CI 37.3–49.6%) and in Lagos was 65.6% (95% CI 54.7–76.5%). The RDS-weighted prevalence of chlamydia was 17.0% (95% CI 11.8–22.3%) in Abuja and 18.3% (95% CI 11.1–25.4%) in Lagos. Chlamydia infection was detected only at the anorectal site in 70.2% of cases. The RDS-weighted prevalence of gonorrhoea was 19.1% (95% CI 14.6–23.5%) in Abuja and 25.8% (95% CI 17.1–34.6%) in Lagos. Overall, 84.2% of gonorrhoea cases presented with anorectal infection only. Over 95% of STI cases were asymptomatic. In a multivariable model, increased risk for chlamydia/gonorrhoea was associated with younger age, gay/homosexual sexual orientation and higher

  13. Clinical and demographic characteristics of women with intrauterine adhesion in abuja, Nigeria. (United States)

    Efetie, Efena R; Umezulike, Augustine C; Okafor, Ugochukwu V


    Objective. Infertility menstrual abnormalities continue to constitute a significant bulk of gynecological consultation in Africa. Both of these problems are sometimes traced to intrauterine adhesions which are preventable in the majority of cases. Study Design. A retrospective analysis of intrauterine adhesions at the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria, was carried out, covering the period from 1st September 1999 to 1st September 2004. A total of 72 cases were analyzed. Statical analysis was done using X(2). Results. The incidence of intrauterine adhesions was 1.73% of new patients. Mean age ± SD was 29.97 ± 4.82 years. Patients who were Para 0 to 1 constituted 81.9% of the total. Intrauterine adhesions significantly (P < 0.02) occurred in nulliparae. The majority (68%) were educated only up to secondary level which was significant (P < 0.05). Menstrual abnormalities were present in 90.3%. The commonest predisposing factor identified was a history of dilatation and curettage or uterine evacuation. Conclusion. Intrauterine adhesions are associated with lower educational status and low parity. Increasing educational targets nationally, poverty alleviation, nationwide retraining in manual vacuum aspiration, and wider application of this technique are recommended.

  14. Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Women with Intrauterine Adhesion in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Efena R. Efetie


    Full Text Available Objective. Infertility menstrual abnormalities continue to constitute a significant bulk of gynecological consultation in Africa. Both of these problems are sometimes traced to intrauterine adhesions which are preventable in the majority of cases. Study Design. A retrospective analysis of intrauterine adhesions at the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria, was carried out, covering the period from 1st September 1999 to 1st September 2004. A total of 72 cases were analyzed. Statical analysis was done using 2. Results. The incidence of intrauterine adhesions was 1.73% of new patients. Mean age ± SD was 29.97±4.82 years. Patients who were Para 0 to 1 constituted 81.9% of the total. Intrauterine adhesions significantly (<0.02 occurred in nulliparae. The majority (68% were educated only up to secondary level which was significant (<0.05. Menstrual abnormalities were present in 90.3%. The commonest predisposing factor identified was a history of dilatation and curettage or uterine evacuation. Conclusion. Intrauterine adhesions are associated with lower educational status and low parity. Increasing educational targets nationally, poverty alleviation, nationwide retraining in manual vacuum aspiration, and wider application of this technique are recommended.

  15. Tree Species Richness, Diversity, and Vegetation Index for Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

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    Aladesanmi D Agbelade


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the tree species richness and diversity of urban and periurban areas of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT, Abuja, Nigeria, and produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for the territory. Data were collected from urban (Abuja city and periurban (Lugbe areas of the FCT using both semistructured questionnaire and inventory of tree species within green areas. In the study location, all trees with diameter at breast height (dbh ≥ 10 cm were identified; their dbh was measured and frequency was taken. The NDVI was calculated in ArcGIS 10.3 environment using standard formula. A cumulative total of twenty-nine (29 families were encountered within the FCT, with 27 occurring in Abuja city (urban centre and 12 in Lugbe (periurban centre of the FCT. The results of Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′ for the two centres are 3.56 and 2.24 while Shannon’s maximum diversity index (Hmax is 6.54 (Abuja city and 5.36 (Lugbe for the urban (Abuja city and periurban (Lugbe areas of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT. The result of tree species evenness (Shannon’s equitability (EH index in urban and periurban centres was 0.54 and 0.42, respectively. The study provided baseline information on urban and periurban forests in the FCT of Nigeria, which can be used for the development of tree species database of the territory.

  16. Managing Pre-Construction and Construction Risks on Project Sites in Abuja-Nigeria

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    Jimoh R.A.


    Full Text Available Managing risks in construction projects has been acknowledged as a key direction process for the purposes of attaining the project goal in terms of time, cost, quality, safety, and environmental sustainability. Hence, the paper evaluated pre-construction and construction risks on active project sites in Abuja-Nigeria. This was achieved using survey method through the self-administration of 35 questionnaires to the professionals handling the 35 identified projects being undertaking at that time. Results showed that errors and omissions in design and improperly defined project scope had mean score values of 3.03 and 2.54, respectively, were the construction risks most experienced by the professionals during pre-construction. On the other hand, fluctuation in market prices and delays with mean score values of 3.14 and 2.74, respectively, were the construction risks experienced by the professionals during the construction phase of the projects. It is recommended that procurement methods such as construction management should be adopted and stakeholders should keep to their own side of the bargain to avoid unnecessary delays.

  17. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbonmarket, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex,dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. Themodeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared.Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reductionrequirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA' s withdrawal. Totalcosts vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs wouldsharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigationstrategies drops to only 0-16%.

  18. The likelihood of achieving quantified road safety targets: a binary logistic regression model for possible factors. (United States)

    Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Lee, C Y


    In past several decades, many countries have set quantified road safety targets to motivate transport authorities to develop systematic road safety strategies and measures and facilitate the achievement of continuous road safety improvement. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the setting of quantified road safety targets and road fatality reduction, in both the short and long run, by comparing road fatalities before and after the implementation of a quantified road safety target. However, not much work has been done to evaluate whether the quantified road safety targets are actually achieved. In this study, we used a binary logistic regression model to examine the factors - including vehicle ownership, fatality rate, and national income, in addition to level of ambition and duration of target - that contribute to a target's success. We analyzed 55 quantified road safety targets set by 29 countries from 1981 to 2009, and the results indicate that targets that are in progress and with lower level of ambitions had a higher likelihood of eventually being achieved. Moreover, possible interaction effects on the association between level of ambition and the likelihood of success are also revealed.

  19. The Use of Social Networking among Senior Secondary School Students in Abuja Municipal Area of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria (United States)

    Ali, F. A. Farah; Aliyu, Umar Yanda


    The present study examined the use of social networking among senior secondary school students in Abuja Municipal Area Council of FCT. The study employed quantitative method for data collection involving questionnaire administration. Fifteen questions with Likert model and ten yes/no responses in a questionnaire were personally administered to 400…

  20. Therapeutic Target Achievement in Type 2 Diabetic Patients after Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia Management

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    Ah Young Kang


    Full Text Available BackgroundOur study group established "3H care" in 2002. The meaning of "3H care" attain and maintain adequate controls over hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. This study evaluated the achievement of target goals after one year or more of "3H care" by specialists in our diabetic clinic.MethodsThis was a retrospective study of 200 type 2 diabetic patients who received "3H care" for one year or more in our diabetic clinic. We evaluated achievement of target goals for metabolic controls as suggested by the American Diabetes Association.ResultsOverall, 200 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled, of whom 106 were males (53% and 94 were females (47%. After one year of "3H care," the mean HbA1c was 7.2±1.5% and the percentage of patients achieving glycemic control (HbA1c <7% was 51.8%. However only 32.2% of hypertensive patients achieved the recommended target. After one year of "3H care," the percentages of those who achieved the target value for dyslipidemia were 80.0% for total cholesterol, 66.3% for low density lipoprotein cholesterol, 57.9% for triglyceride, and 51.8% for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The percentage that achieved all three targets level was only 4.4% after one year and 14.8% after two years.ConclusionThe results of this study demonstrate that only a minor proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes achieved the recommended goals despite the implementation of "3H care." It is our suggestion that better treatment strategies and methods should be used to control hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.

  1. Applying trait-based models to achieve functional targets for theory-driven ecological restoration. (United States)

    Laughlin, Daniel C


    Manipulating community assemblages to achieve functional targets is a key component of restoring degraded ecosystems. The response-and-effect trait framework provides a conceptual foundation for translating restoration goals into functional trait targets, but a quantitative framework has been lacking for translating trait targets into assemblages of species that practitioners can actually manipulate. This study describes new trait-based models that can be used to generate ranges of species abundances to test theories about which traits, which trait values and which species assemblages are most effective for achieving functional outcomes. These models are generalisable, flexible tools that can be widely applied across many terrestrial ecosystems. Examples illustrate how the framework generates assemblages of indigenous species to (1) achieve desired community responses by applying the theories of environmental filtering, limiting similarity and competitive hierarchies, or (2) achieve desired effects on ecosystem functions by applying the theories of mass ratios and niche complementarity. Experimental applications of this framework will advance our understanding of how to set functional trait targets to achieve the desired restoration goals. A trait-based framework provides restoration ecology with a robust scaffold on which to apply fundamental ecological theory to maintain resilient and functioning ecosystems in a rapidly changing world.

  2. Hypospadias repair and outcome in Abuja, Nigeria: A 5-year single-centre experience (United States)

    Aisuodionoe-Shadrach, Oseremen Inokhoife; Atim, Terkaa; Eniola, Bolarinwa Sefiu; Ohemu, Alexander Akogwu


    Background: To determine the outcome of hypospadias repair in children. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all patients with hypospadias managed at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria from January 2009 to December 2013. Results: Twenty-four cases of hypospadias had corrective surgery during the 5-year period under review. Seventy-five percent of the patients (n = 18) were seen after the 1st year of life. There were two peaks of ages at corrective repair; 45.8% between age 1 and 3 years and 29.1% between age 5 and 10 years. The average age at time of surgery was 44.9 months. Distal hypospadias were more common (58.4%), followed by glanular (20.8%) and proximal (20.8%) hypospadias. Associated anomalies included chordee, maldescended testicles and inguinal hernia in 20.8%, 4.1% and 8.3% cases, respectively. Operative techniques were single-stage procedures in 79.1% of patients consisting of simple circumcision in two cases (10.5%), Mathieu's peri-meatal based flap in four cases (21%), meatal advancement and glanuloplasty incorporated in three cases (16%) and Snodgrass tubularised incised urethral plate tubularised incised plate in 10 cases (52.5%). The remaining 20.9% (n = 5) had multi-staged procedures. The most common post-operative complications were urethrocutenous fistula in nine patients (33.3%) and metal stenosis in 3 patients (12.5%). Conclusions: Our results show that hypospadia repair is froth with attendant high complications in our setting. PMID:25659549


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    Igor Raguzin


    Full Text Available This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sharing methodology used for Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper presents some main existing policies and measures for achieving this ambitious target, including feed-in tariffs, guarantees of origin, and greenhouse gas emissions taxation. It is addressed the necessity for creating enabling environment for promotion of renewable energy sources and gradually remove barriers for its stronger penetration on the energy market.

  4. Achieving 80% greenhouse gas reduction target in Saudi Arabia under low and medium oil prices

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    Alshammari, Yousef M.


    COP 21 led to a global agreement to limit the earth\\'s rising temperature to less than 2 °C. This will require countries to act upon climate change and achieve a significant reduction in their greenhouse gas emissions which will play a pivotal role in shaping future energy systems. Saudi Arabia is the World\\'s largest exporter of crude oil, and the 11th largest CO2 emitter. Understanding the Kingdom\\'s role in global greenhouse gas reduction is critical in shaping the future of fossil fuels. Hence, this work presents an optimisation study to understand how Saudi Arabia can meet the CO2 reduction targets to achieve the 80% reduction in the power generation sector. It is found that the implementation of energy efficiency measures is necessary to enable meeting the 80% target, and it would also lower costs of transition to low carbon energy system while maintaining cleaner use of hydrocarbons with CCS. Setting very deep GHG reduction targets may be economically uncompetitive in consideration of the energy supply requirements. In addition, we determine the breakeven price of crude oil needed to make CCS economically viable. Results show important dimension for pricing CO2 and the role of CCS compared with alternative sources of energy.


    Russell, Marie; Silverman, Angela; Fleg, Jerome L.; Lee, Elisa T.; Mete, Mihriye; Weir, Matthew; Wilson, Charlton; Yeh, Fawn; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Wm. James


    Background Although lipid management in diabetes is standard practice, goals often are neither met nor maintained. Strategies for achieving lower targets have not been explored. The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) randomized patients with diabetes to standard versus aggressive lipid and blood pressure goals for 36 months. Objective To report strategies used to achieve and maintain lipid goals and to report adverse events (AEs). Methods Adults with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease (N=499) were randomized to standard (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]≤100 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]≤130 mg/dL) or aggressive (LDL-C≤70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C≤100 mg/dL) targets. An algorithm started with statin monotherapy, adding intestinally acting agents as required to reach LDL-C targets. Triglyceride [TG]-lowering agents were next used to reach non-HDL-C goals. Lipid management was performed by mid-level practitioners, with physician consultation, using point-of-care lipid determinations. Results On average, both groups achieved the LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals within 12 months and maintained them throughout the study. At 36 months, mean (SD) LDL-C and non-HDL-C were 72 (24) and 102 (29) mg/dL in the aggressive group (AGG) and 104 (20) and 138 (26) mg/dL, respectively, in the standard group (STD); systolic blood pressure targets were 115 and 130 mmHg, respectively. 68% of participants reached target LDL-C for >50% of the visits and 46% for >75% of visits. At 36 months, the AGG averaged 1.5 lipid lowering medications and the STD 1.2. Statins were used in 91% and 68% of the AGG and STD; ezetimibe by 31% and 10%; fibrates by 8% and 18%. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed; AEs occurred in 18% of the AGG and 14% of the STD. Conclusion Standard and aggressive lipid targets can be safely maintained in diabetic patients. Standardized algorithms, point-of-care lipid testing, and non

  6. Why use of interventions targeting outdoor biting mosquitoes will be necessary to achieve malaria elimination

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    Nicodem James Govella


    Full Text Available By definition, elimination of malaria means permanent reduction to zero of locally incidence of infections. Achieving this goal among other reasons, it requires fully understanding on where and when persons are most exposed to malaria vectors as these are fundamental for targeting interventions to achieve maximum impact. While elimination can be possible in some settings with low malaria transmission intensity and dominated with late and indoor biting of vectors using Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRs, it’s difficult and even impossible in areas with high and where majority of human exposure to transmission occurs outside human dwellings. Recently in response to wide spread use of LLIN and IRS, human risk of exposure to transmission is increasingly spread across the entire night so that much of it occurs outdoors and before bed time. This modification of vector populations and behaviour has now been reported from across Africa, Asia and from the Solomon Islands. Historical evidence shows that even in areas with intervention coverage exceeding 90% of human population it was so hard to even push prevalence down below the pre elimination threshold of 1% being compromised mainly with the outdoor residual transmission. Malaria control experts must however continue to deliver interventions that tackle indoor transmission but considerable amount of resources that target mosquitoes outside of houses and outside of sleeping hours will therefore be required to sustain and go beyond existing levels of malaria control and achieve elimination.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Koshel'skaya


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of long-term combined antihypertensive therapy (AHT based on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS blockers, indapamide and calcium channel blocker (CCB in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM in accordance with target blood pressure (BP <130/80 mm Hg achievement rate, dynamics of 24-hour BP profile, metabolic indices, and local stiffness of the main arteries. Besides, to study the effects of the CCB addition to dual therapy on these parameters. Material and methods. Patients (16 men, 31 women, 57.2±6.6 years old with arterial hypertension degrees 1–3 and mild to moderate DM type 2 were included into the study. The patients were treated with perindopril (5–10 mg/day or valsartan (80–160 mg/day in combination with indapamide SR (1.5 mg/day and amlodipine (5–10 mg/day. Examination included office BP measurement and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, common carotid arteries sonarography , evaluation of serum levels of potassium, creatinine, uric acid, glucose metabolism and lipid profile parameters, calculation of insulin resistance index (HOMA at baseline and after 30–32 weeks of treatment. Results. Target BP was achieved in 86.7% of patients. Evenly reduction of day and night BP without reflex tachycardia and hypotension episodes was observed. Office BP decreased from 149.5±12.0/90.0±8.3 to 125.0±7.6/76.8±4.9 mm Hg (p<0.05 and average daily BP (ABPM decreased to 120.1±10.0/71.7±6.9 mmHg. Three drugs were needed to achieve target BP in baseline systolic BP >150 mm Hg (office or >134 mmHg (ABPM. Marked beneficial effect on the morphological and functional characteristics of the vascular wall and its elastic properties, improvement of glycemic control, tissue insulin sensitivity and lipids profile were found. These effects were associated mainly with amlodipine inclusion into the therapy. Conclusion. The combined AHT based on RAAS blockers, indapamide SR and CCB provides achievement of

  8. Comparison of public and private school teachers and school principals’ opinions in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Deniz Ozcan


    Full Text Available This study aims to examine public and private school teachers’ opinions on different aspects of their professional associations and provisions and also asks principals about teachers’ conduct and their views on the Nigerian curriculum. To conduct this study, qualitative and quantitative research models were used to investigate differences between the two organizations. Quantitative data was collected by distributing questionnaires to 118 teachers in the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC, Nigeria. To conduct the qualitative analysis, 15 teachers from two schools were selected (a total of 30 teachers to answer 5 discussion questions concerning their views on the Nigerian educational system. The findings revealed that private school teachers are at an advantage when it comes to provision of resources and technology, professional development and to some degree salaries. Both public and private school teachers felt being a teacher did not bring them respect in their community. Government policy makers need to study private schools and how they operate to see how they can make changes to produce the revolutionary reform needed in education. 30 principals’ interviews revealed that public school teachers are not easily held accountable for misconduct due to the structure of leadership, while private school teachers are held accountable and any form of unprofessionalism easily leads to termination of employment.

  9. Airborne pollen and fungal spores in Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria). (United States)

    Ezike, Dimphna Nneka; Nnamani, Catherine V; Ogundipe, Oluwatoyin T; Adekanmbi, Olushola H


    The ambient atmosphere is dominated with pollen and spores, which trigger allergic reactions and diseases and impact negatively on human health. A survey of pollen and fungal spores constituents of the atmosphere of Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria) was carried out for 1 year (June 1, 2011-May 31, 2012). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and abundance of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere and their relationship with meteorological parameters. Airborne samples were trapped using modified Tauber-like pollen trap, and the recipient solutions were subjected to acetolysis. Results revealed the abundance of fungal spores, pollen, fern spores, algal cysts and diatoms in decreasing order of dominance. The atmosphere was qualitatively and quantitatively dominated by pollen during the period of late rainy/harmattan season than the rainy season. Numerous fungal spores were trapped throughout the sampling periods among which Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Curvularia spp. dominated. These fungi have been implicated in allergic diseases and are dermatophytic, causing diverse skin diseases. Other pathogenic fungi found in the studied aeroflora were Dreschlera spp., Helminthosporium spp., Torula spp., Pithomyces spp., Tetraploa spp., Nigrospora ssp., Spadicoides spp., Puccinia spp. and Erysiphe graminis. Total pollen and fungal spores counts do not show significant correlation with meteorological parameters.

  10. Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. (United States)

    Omeiza, Gabriel K; Ajayi, Itopa E; Ode, Okwoche J


    Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria.

  11. Aetiology and presentation of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint: report of 23 cases from Abuja, Nigeria. (United States)

    Bello, Seidu Adebayo; Aluko Olokun, Bayo; Olaitan, Abayomi Ademola; Ajike, Sunday O


    Several studies have reviewed the management of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), but only a few focused on the aetiology and clinical features. We retrospectively studied the aetiology and clinical features of patients with ankylosis of the TMJ who presented to the Maxillofacial Unit, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, between 2004 and 2009. There were 13 male and 10 female patients, M:F ratio 1.3:1, age range 6-62, mean (SD) 20 (13) years. The aetiological factors were trauma (n=11) that comprised falls (n=6), untreated fractures of the zygomatic arch (n=4) and myositis ossificans (n=1); infection (n=9), that comprised cancrum oris (n=3) and ear infection (n=6); congenital or unknown (n=2), and coronoid hyperplasia (n=1). The maximum interincisal distance at presentation ranged from 0 to 25 mm (mean (SD) 6.7 (7.2) mm). Seventeen had facial deformities. The diagnoses recorded were as follows: left extracapsular ankylosis, (n=8); right intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=6); left intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=4); bilateral intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=4), and bilateral intracapsular fibrous ankylosis (n=1). Extreme poverty was the main predisposing factor. There is a need for a concerted effort among healthcare providers, policy makers, and the world in general to eradicate poverty and improve healthcare to limit the incidence of ankylosis of the TMJ.

  12. Categorisation Of Clay Deposits In The Federal Capital Territory Of Abuja

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    Manukaji John U.


    Full Text Available Clay deposits in the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja were investigated with a view to categorizing them in order to determine their suitability as insulating refractory material. Thesamples were collected from three different locations in the territory, namely Sheda, Abaji and Karimu, and labeled A, B, and C. In order toproject a better representation of the territory, the samples were mined from ten cites each. The mined clay samples from the ten cites were mixed properly and a representative specimen for test from that location was produced using the cone and quartering system as recommended by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM. Atomic Absorption Spectrometer(AAS was used to determine the chemical composition, while other established processes were used to determine other insulating properties likeparticle size distribution, specific gravity, bulk density, solid density, water absorption, apparent porosity, permeability to air, refractoriness, thermal shock resistance, modulus of rupture, linear shrinkage and thermal conductivity. The chemical analysis showed that all the samples had high percentages of silica and alumina, thereby classifying them as Alumino-silicates.

  13. Optimal models with maximizing probability of first achieving target value in the preceding stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林元烈; 伍从斌; 康波大


    Decision makers often face the need of performance guarantee with some sufficiently high proba-bility. Such problems can be modelled using a discrete time Markov decision process (MDP) with a probabilitycriterion for the first achieving target value. The objective is to find a policy that maximizes the probabilityof the total discounted reward exceeding a target value in the preceding stages. We show that our formula-tion cannot be described by former models with standard criteria. We provide the properties of the objectivefunctions, optimal value functions and optimal policies. An algorithm for computing the optimal policies forthe finite horizon case is given. In this stochastic stopping model, we prove that there exists an optimal deter-ministic and stationary policy and the optimality equation has a unique solution. Using perturbation analysis,we approximate general models and prove the existence of ε-optimal policy for finite state space. We give anexample for the reliability of the satellite systems using the above theory. Finally, we extend these results tomore general cases.


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    S.J.M.N.G. Samarakoon


    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify how young students set educational targets in major competency levels of their education namely, GCE Ordinary Level (O/L, GCE Advanced Level (A/L, First Degree and Post-Graduate level, and how far they achieve those targets or deviate, which can be used as a yardstick to measure the impact and relevance of education in Sri Lanka. The study was conducted in the Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka in 2011. A questionnaire was provided to 150 respondents who were selected based on formal systematic random sampling method. The study reveals that students select their future field of education during the period of GCE O/L based on their performance and set future targets accordingly. The ‘white collar job mentality’ is infused to most students during this period with considerable contribution from parents, family members, teachers and other social networks, which intensifies competition in the job market later on. The Chi-square test concluded that there is a relationship between the selection of subject stream at A/L and family income at 5% level of significance (P value=0.043, probability 95%, which later determines job prospects and their payoffs. Additionally, 67% of the undergraduates in the sample have decided to follow a postgraduate degree due to the challenges in the job market. The paper concludes that though youth aspirations and social mobility are based on education, they are also heavily conditioned by structural realities such as family wealth, status, and life opportunities, as well as unequal distributions of education facilities.

  15. 10 years of Vertigo Clinic at National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria: what have we learned? (United States)

    Olusesi, Abiodun D; Abubakar, J


    The clinician's major role in management of the dizzy patient involves determining what dizziness is vertigo, and what vertigo is of central or peripheral origin. These demand attention to details of history, otolaryngological workup including vestibular assessment, and often use of diagnostic and management algorithms. There is paucity of published reports of the management outcomes of peripheral vestibular diseases from Africa. Two tertiary care otologist-led dedicated vertigo clinics are located in Abuja, Nigeria. A prospective, non-randomized study of patients presenting with features of peripheral vestibular diseases attending the National Hospital Abuja Nigeria (between May 2005 and April 2014) and CSR Otologics Specialist Clinics (May 2010 to April 2014) was carried out. Both institutions adopted the same diagnostic and management protocols. Data extracted from anonymized databases created for this study include age, sex, vertigo duration (acute 12 weeks), dizziness handicap inventory score at presentation and at subsequent visits, otological and vestibular findings, ice-water caloric testing results, other investigation outcomes, treatments offered and outcomes. 561/575 (97.5 %) of the cases recorded had peripheral vestibular disease. The male-to-female ratio was 290:271. The mean age of the subjects was 44.7 years. Duration of vertigo at presentation was acute in 278 subjects and chronic in 283 subjects. Identifiable clinical diagnostic groups include BPPV (n = 200), Meniere's disease (n = 189), cervicogenic vertigo (n = 35), labyrinthitis (n = 32), Migraine-associated vertigo (MAV) (n = 32), cholesteatoma/perilymph Fistula (n = 10), climacteric vertigo (n = 8) and unclassified vertigo (n = 55). Migraine-associated vertigo recorded the highest DHI score (95 % CI 75 ± 4.3), followed by cholesteatoma/perilymph fistula (95 % CI 72 ± 6.1) and labyrinthitis (95 % CI 62 ± 1.9). Pure tone audiometry (95 % CI 67.3 ± 3

  16. Seropositivity ofChlamydophila pneumoniae immunoglobulin G antibody of HIV/AIDS patients in Abuja, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakubu Boyi Ngwai; Izebe KS; Ijele IG; Ishaleku D; Inyang US


    Objective:To detect IgG antibody toChlamydophila pneumoniae(CP)in sera ofHIV/AIDS patients and provide rationale for inclusion of routine screening for anti-CP antibodies and anti-chlamydial agents in the Nigerian NationalHIV/AIDS Management Plan.Methods: Serum samples from34 consentingHIV/AIDS patients attended a Government-approved Antiretroviral Treatment Facility in Abuja were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-CP IgG antibody using ImmunoComb® Chlamydia Bivalent IgG Test kit (Orgenics, Israel).Results:Anti-CP IgG antibody was detected in20 (58.8%)of34 patients tested. The detection rate was higher among the males(8/13; 61.5%) than the females (12/21; 57.1%). Patients of the age group 16-30 years had the highest(7/10; 70%) detection of anti-CP IgG antibody.Conclusions:The result of the present study suggests the presence of anti-CP antibodies in sera of the HIV/AIDS patients, and reinforces the need for routine screening for anti-CPantibodies as a necessary intervention to reduce the burden ofChlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infections and to reduceHIV-positive morbidity in Nigeria. The outcome of this study also provides justification for the possible inclusion of anti-chlamydial agents in the NationalHIV/AIDS Management Plan to provide prophylaxis against or treat activeC. pneumoniae infections.

  17. Systematic procedure for generating operational policies to achieve target crystal size distribution (CSD) in batch cooling crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan


    A systematic procedure to achieve a target crystal size distribution (CSD) under generated operational policies in batch cooling crystallization is presented. An analytical CSD estimator has been employed in the systematic procedure to generate the necessary operational policies to achieve the ta...

  18. International target values 2010 for achievable measurement uncertainties in nuclear material accountancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo, E-mail:, E-mail: [Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions

  19. Comparative analysis of prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Chimah CU


    Full Text Available Carol Uzoamaka Chimah,1 Prosper Obunikem Uche Adogu,2 Kofoworola Odeyemi,3 Amobi Linus Ilika4 1Medical Department, Ministry of Defence Headquarters, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine and PHC, Nnamdi Azikiwe University/Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Health, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across societies irrespective of economic status or gender. Most data on IPV before World Health Organization multicountry study (WHOMCS usually came from sources other than the military. Result of this study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may serve as a baseline for future studies in military populations. This study compares the prevalence of the different types of IPV against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria.Methods: Using a multistage sampling technique, 260 women who had intimate male partners were selected from military and civilian communities of Abuja. Collected data on personal characteristics and different types of IPV experienced were analyzed to demonstrate comparison of the association between the different forms of IPV and the respondents’ sociodemographic and partner characteristics in the two study populations using percentages and Χ-square statistics, and P-value was assumed to be significant at ≤0.05.Results: The prevalence of the four major types of IPV was higher among the military respondents than among civilians: controlling behavior, 37.1% versus 29.1%; emotional/psychological abuse, 42.4% versus 13.4%; physical abuse, 19.7% versus 5.9%, and sexual abuse, 9.2% versus 8.8%. Significantly more respondents from the military population (59 [45.4%] compared to civilians (21 [19.4%] were prevented by their partners from seeing their friends (P=0.000. The situation is reversed with regard to permission to seek

  20. Determination of chloramphenicol residues in commercial chicken eggs in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. (United States)

    Mbodi, Felix E; Nguku, P; Okolocha, E; Kabir, J


    The use of antibiotics in poultry can result in residues in eggs. The joint FAO/WHO committee recommended banning the use of chloramphenicol (CAP) in food animals due to its public health hazards of aplastic anaemia, leukaemia, allergy, antibacterial resistance and carcinogenicity. This paper determines the prevalence of CAP residues in chicken eggs and assesses the usage and awareness of its ban amongst poultry farmers in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of registered poultry farmers in FCT was conducted using questionnaires to determine CAP administration in poultry and awareness of its ban. Pooled egg samples were collected from each poultry farm surveyed and from randomly sampled government-owned markets in FCT. Source of eggs by state were identified by the marketer at the time of collection. Samples were analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for the presence of CAP, and prevalence was determined. Of 288 total pooled samples collected, 257 (89.2%) were from the markets and 31 (10.8%) were from poultry farms. A total of 20 (7%) pooled egg samples tested CAP-positive; market eggs originated from 15 (41%) states of the country. Of the market eggs, 16 (6.2%) pooled samples tested positive. Of eggs from poultry farms, four (12.9%) tested positive. Mean CAP concentrations in the positive samples ranged from 0.49 to 1.17 µg kg(-1) (parts per billion). CAP use amongst poultry farmers in FCT was 75.5%; awareness of the CAP ban was 26.3%. Though 66% of veterinarians were unaware of a CAP ban, they were more likely to be aware than other poultry farmers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4). Farm managers who use CAP were more likely to be aware of CAP ban than the farm managers not using CAP (OR = 5.5; p = 0.04). Establishing a drug residue surveillance and control program and enforcement of CAP legislation/regulation is needful to educate and prohibit the widespread CAP use amongst Nigerian poultry farmers.

  1. The Impact of Home Environment Factors on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Garki Area District, Abuja - Nigeria

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    L. T. Dzever


    Full Text Available The study examined the impact of home environment factors on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Garki Area District, Abuja, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was used to select 300 students from six public schools, while the simple random sampling technique was used to administer the questionnaire. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design for the study. Also, data on student’s academic performance was obtained from student’s scores in four selected school subjects. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques; Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple regression analysis (ANOVA. The results result revealed a positive and significant relationship between permissive patenting style with academic performance (p0.05. Also, the result from the study identified income, educational background and occupational level as well as permissive parenting style as the main predictive variables influencing students’ academic performance.

  2. Engineering fusogenic molecules to achieve targeted transduction of enveloped lentiviral vectors

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    Wang Pin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors with broad tropism are one of the most promising gene delivery systems capable of efficiently delivering genes of interest into both dividing and non-dividing cells while maintaining long-term transgene expression. However, there are needs for developing lentiviral vectors with the capability to deliver genes to specific cell types, thus reducing the "off-target" effect of gene therapy. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of engineering the fusion-active domain of a fusogenic molecule (FM with the aim to improve targeted transduction of lentiviral vectors co-displaying an anti-CD20 antibody (αCD20 and a FM. Results Specific mutations were introduced into the fusion domain of a binding-deficient Sindbis virus glycoprotein to generate several mutant FMs. Lentiviral vectors incorporated with αCD20 and one of the engineered FMs were successfully produced and demonstrated to be able to preferentially deliver genes to CD-20-expressing cells. Lentiviral vectors bearing engineered FMs exhibited 8 to 17-fold enhanced transduction towards target cells as compared to the parental FM. Different levels of enhancement were observed for the different engineered FMs. A pH-dependent study of vector transduction showed that the broader pH range of the engineered FM is a possible mechanism for the resulted increase in transduction efficiency. Conclusion The fusion domain of Sindbis virus glycoprotein is amenable for engineering and the engineered proteins provide elevated capacity to mediate lentiviral vectors for targeted transduction. Our data suggests that application of such an engineering strategy can optimize the two-molecular targeting method of lentiviral vectors for gene delivery to predetermined cells.

  3. Dobutamine stress echo is superior to exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate among patients on beta blockers. (United States)

    Sabbath, Adam; Pack, Michael; Markiewicz, Richard; John, Jooby; Gaballa, Mohamed; Goldman, Steven; Thai, Hoang


    Published guidelines recommend continuing beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in patients undergoing stress testing. We evaluated the role of pharmacological versus exercise stress testing in achieving target heart rate (THR) among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade. We compared data from 140 patients who underwent dobutamine stress echo (DSE) and 143 patients who underwent exercise treadmill testing (ETT). In both groups, beta-adrenergic blocker was continued at the time of stress testing. Overall, patients undergoing DSE achieved THR more frequently than ETT. With beta-adrenergic blockade, DSE patients met THR more frequently than ETT patients (p < 0.001). Without beta-adrenergic blockade, there was no difference between either modality in achieving THR. In both DSE and ETT patients, absence of beta-adrenergic blockade increased the odds of achieving THR [odds ratio (OR): 2.46, p = 0.042 and OR: 7.44, p < 0.001, respectively]. Atropine use with DSE increased the odds of achieving THR (OR: 3.76, p = 0.006). In conclusion, pharmacological stress testing appears to be superior to exercise stress testing in achieving THR among patients on beta-adrenergic blockade.

  4. Targeted immunotherapy of cancer with CAR T cells: achievements and challenges. (United States)

    Lipowska-Bhalla, Grazyna; Gilham, David E; Hawkins, Robert E; Rothwell, Dominic G


    The adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells is a relatively new but promising approach in the field of cancer immunotherapy. This therapeutic strategy is based on the genetic reprogramming of T cells with an artificial immune receptor that redirects them against targets on malignant cells and enables their destruction by exerting T cell effector functions. There has been an explosion of interest in the use of CAR T cells as an immunotherapy for cancer. In the pre-clinical setting, there has been a considerable focus upon optimizing the structural and signaling potency of the CAR while advances in bio-processing technology now mean that the clinical testing of these gene-modified T cells has become a reality. This review will summarize the concept of CAR-based immunotherapy and recent clinical trial activity and will further discuss some of the likely future challenges facing CAR-modified T cell therapies.

  5. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton


    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  6. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene. (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire


    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithilesh Kumar Jha


    Full Text Available Modified Release (MR Formulations have a modification in the release mechanism. Modified release dosage forms are developed by altering drug absorption or the site of drug release in order to achieve predetermined clinical objectives. Modified drug release from dosage forms is complemented by the allied processes of drug design, of dosage administration, and of membrane transport and absorption of drug to the biological site of action. Modified-release drugs have complex formulations that can offer an advantage over standard medication for some patients. Modified-release preparations should only be used where there is a clear clinical advantage over conventional-release preparations. In general, Modified-release preparations should be reserved for specific patients where there is a problem with compliance, effectiveness or side-effects which these preparations could help overcome. Modified–release technologies have become indispensable to resolving critical technical, therapeutic, and marketing challenges, such as improving patience compliance, less dosage timings, better safety, better indications, delivering poorly soluble and poorly absorbable API’s, product differentiation, patent protection, product life-cycle extension, and better margins. Modified-release formulation design can be conducted for oral and non-oral administration routes. Possible therapeutic benefits of an MR product include improved efficacy and reduced adverse events, increased convenience and patient compliance, optimized performance, a greater selectivity of activity, or new indications.

  8. Achievement of Target Blood Pressure Levels among Japanese Workers with Hypertension and Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Therapeutic Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagako Kudo

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined Japanese with regard to the achievement rates for target blood pressure levels, or the relationship between these rates and healthy lifestyle characteristics in patients with hypertension as defined by the newly established hypertension management guidelines (JSH2014. The aim of this study was to elucidate achievement rates and examine healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with achievement status among Japanese.This cross-sectional study, conducted in January-December 2012, examined blood pressure control and healthy lifestyle characteristics in 8,001 Japanese workers with hypertension (mean age, 57.0 years; 78.8% were men who participated in a workplace health checkup. Data were collected from workplace medical checkup records and participants' self-administered questionnaires. We divided into 5 groups [G1; young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (65-74 years old without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD (<140/90 mmHg, G2; late-phase elderly patients (≥75 years old without diabetes mellitus or CKD (<150/90 mmHg, G3; diabetic patients (<130/80 mmHg, G4; patients with CKD (<130/80 mmHg, and G5; patients with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (<140/90 mmHg] according to JSH2014. And then, achievement rates were calculated in each group. Multivariate analysis identified healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with "therapeutic failure" of target blood pressure.Target blood pressures were achieved by 60.2% of young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (G1, 71.4% of late-phase elderly patients (G2, 30.5% of diabetic patients (G3, 33.4% of those with chronic kidney disease (G4, and 66.0% of those with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (G5. A body mass index of 18.5-24.9 and non-daily alcohol consumption were protective factors, and adequate sleep was found to contribute to therapeutic success.We found low achievement rates for treatment goals

  9. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity. (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J


    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  10. The Socioeconomic Benefit to Individuals of Achieving the 2020 Targets for Five Preventive Chemotherapy Neglected Tropical Diseases (United States)

    Luyendijk, Marianne; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Niessen, Louis; Stolk, Wilma A.; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Bakker, Roel; Hontelez, Jan A. C.; Richardus, Jan H.; Jacobson, Julie; de Vlas, Sake J.; Severens, Johan L.


    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and trachoma represent the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). They can be controlled or eliminated by means of safe and cost-effective interventions delivered through programs of Mass Drug Administration (MDA)—also named Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT). The WHO defined targets for NTD control/elimination by 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration, which, if achieved, would result in dramatic health gains. We estimated the potential economic benefit of achieving these targets, focusing specifically on productivity and out-of-pocket payments. Methods Productivity loss was calculated by combining disease frequency with productivity loss from the disease, from the perspective of affected individuals. Productivity gain was calculated by deducting the total loss expected in the target achievement scenario from the loss in a counterfactual scenario where it was assumed the pre-intervention situation in 1990 regarding NTDs would continue unabated until 2030. Economic benefits from out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) were calculated similarly. Benefits are reported in 2005 US$ (purchasing power parity-adjusted and discounted at 3% per annum from 2010). Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the influence of changes in input parameters. Results The economic benefit from productivity gain was estimated to be I$251 billion in 2011–2020 and I$313 billion in 2021–2030, considerably greater than the total OPPs averted of I$0.72 billion and I$0.96 billion in the same periods. The net benefit is expected to be US$ 27.4 and US$ 42.8 for every dollar invested during the same periods. Impact varies between NTDs and regions, since it is determined by disease prevalence and extent of disease-related productivity loss. Conclusion Achieving the PCT-NTD targets for 2020 will yield significant economic benefits to affected individuals. Despite large

  11. Malaria in pregnancy; facts from the parasitology laboratory: a ten-year study in Abuja, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibecheozor, N.K.O


    Full Text Available Malaria, which is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes, is the major cause of mortality among the pregnant women in the sub-Saharan Africa. A ten year study of malaria in pregnancy was carried out in Abuja, North Central Nigeria. Thick and thin blood films were stained with the Giemsa methodology. Of the 16760 pregnant women blood samples, 4571 (27.3% were positive for malaria parasites caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 4571 positive cases, 75 (1.7% had parasite density of >5000 parasites/µl of blood; 148 (3.2% had between 500-5000 parasites/µl of blood; 520 (11.4% had between 50 - 500 parasites/µl of blood; while 3828 (83.7% had between 5-50 parasites/µl of blood. With the current estimate of over 4500 deaths of pregnant women in Nigeria due to malaria annually, we must make deliberate efforts to stop these unacceptable and painful losses. The continued use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (M-RDTs methodologies should be discontinued because of its negative implications. Therefore, the microscopic laboratory diagnostic component should be included in ANC at all level of health care facility.

  12. Is the Target of 1 Day of Stay per 1% Total Body Surface Area Burned Achieved in Chemical Burns? (United States)

    Tan, Teresa; Wong, David S Y


    The length of hospital stay (LOS) is a standard parameter used to reflect quality and evaluate outcomes in acute burn care. This study aims to assess whether the target of 1 day of stay per 1% total body surface area (TBSA) burned was achieved in acute chemical burns management and factors affecting the LOS. A retrospective analysis of the records of patients who suffered from chemical burn injuries admitted to a university burn center over a continuous 14-year period was performed.A total of 118 patients were admitted over the period for chemical burns. Only 14% of cases achieved the target stated. Factors associated with lengthening of the hospital stay included TBSA, ocular involvement, the cause of injury, and the need for surgery during the same admission.The LOS in chemical burns frequently exceeds 1 day of stay per 1% TBSA burned. Many factors can contribute to a patient's LOS and are worth exploring in order to see if the impact of these factors could be minimized. Early surgical intervention should help to reduce the LOS if reliable methods of burn wound depth assessment are available.

  13. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Schmidt, Julie Berg


    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd......, the majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood...... 4·4) kg/m2) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan®, 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7...

  14. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Schmidt, Julie Berg;


    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd...... 4·4) kg/m2) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan®, 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7...... in TAG (P LCD within 7 weeks as part of preparation for BS...

  15. Primary care of patients with high cardiovascular risk : Blood pressure, lipid and diabetic target levels and their achievement in Hungary. (United States)

    Szigethy, Endre; Jancsó, Zoltán; Móczár, Csaba; Ilyés, István; Kovács, Eszter; Róbert Kolozsvári, László; Rurik, Imre


    Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for the majority of premature deaths in Hungary as well. Most of them could be prevented with healthy lifestyle of patients and adequate drug prescription of primary care physicians. Earlier European surveys found wide differences between the practices and achievements of different countries in this field. The study was based on and designed according to the framework of previous European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) studies and aimed presenting Hungarian results and comparing with the achievements of other countries and previous Hungarian surveys. Among rural and urban settings, 679 patients under continuous care (236 diabetics, 218 with dyslipidaemia, and 225 with hypertension) were consecutively selected by 20 experienced general practitioners. The mean age of patients was 60.3 years (men) and 64.0 years (women). Among diabetics, less than 7 % of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were found in 42.5 % patients, while only 11.4 % patients had fasting plasma sugar less than 6.0 mmol/L. Of the patients treated for dyslipidaemia, the target level of triglyceride was reached by 40.6 %, recommended total cholesterol by 14.2 % and the HDL-cholesterol by 71.8 %. The therapeutic control of total and HDL-cholesterol was better in men, although women had better triglyceride values. The achievement among patients with hypertension was 42.0 %. Significantly higher blood pressure was measured by patients who were treated with not recommended combinations of antihypertensive medication. A remarkable improvement could be observed in Hungary in the field of secondary prevention. It was greater among patients with hypertension and dyslipidaemia and smaller in diabetes care. Compared to the results of published European surveys, Hungary occupies a good position, but further improvement is still required.

  16. Utilisation of the National Antiretroviral Therapy Guidelines among health care professionals working in Abuja treatment centres, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindiwe I. Zungu


    Full Text Available Background: Access to and utilisations of the National Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines (NATG are valuable factors for effective programme implementation. The objective of this study was to investigate the accessibility of the NATG and their utilisation by health care professionals from five treatment centres in Abuja, Nigeria.Method: A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 2007 using purposively sampled health care professionals. Questionnaires were self-administered to participants who consented in writing to participate in the survey.Results: 97 health care professionals participated in this study with about equal numbers of men and women: 48 (49.5% women and 49 (50.5% men. Of these, 21.6% were unaware of the existence of the NATG in their treatment centres. More than half (51.5% reported that they did not have access to the NATG as opposed to those (48.5% who had access to the guidelines. Furthermore, 16.5% of the participants confirmed that they had access to an institutional copy of the NATG while 14.4% indicated that they had individual copies and only 3.1% stated that they had individual copies and access to the hospital copy as well. Regarding utilisation of the NATG, 41.2% rarely used them, 32.9% never used them and only 25.7% often used them. The most frequent use of the NATG was among pharmacists (38.1% compared to the least frequent use among nurses (20.0%.Conclusion: Poor accessibility of the NATG may have a negative impact on guidelines utilisation among health care professionals in Nigeria.

  17. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A E Adeniji; O V Omonona; D N Obiora; J U Chukudebelu


    Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3–6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 m and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with > 180 m. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7–4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2–0.69 mhos), weak (0.1–0.19 mhos), and poor (> 0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

  18. An intensive nurse-led, multi-interventional clinic is more successful in achieving vascular risk reduction targets than standard diabetes care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacMahon Tone, J


    The aim of this research was to determine whether an intensive, nurse-led clinic could achieve recommended vascular risk reduction targets in patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to standard diabetes management.

  19. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide as integrin-targeting surface decorator of selenium nanoparticles to achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy. (United States)

    Jiang, Wenting; Fu, Yuanting; Yang, Fang; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Ting; Zheng, Wenjie; Zeng, Lilan; Chen, Tianfeng


    The poor permeability of glioma parenchyma represents a major limit for antiglioblastoma drug delivery. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), which has a high binding affinity to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed in glioma cells, was employed in the present study to functionalize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) to achieve antiglioblastoma efficacy. GLP-SeNPs showed satisfactory size distribution, high stability, and selectivity between cancer and normal cells. In U87 glioma cell membrane, which has a high integrin expression level, GLP-SeNPs exhibited significantly higher cellular uptake than unmodified SeNPs. As expected, U87 cells exhibited a greater uptake of GLP-SeNPs than C6 cells with low integrin expression level. Furthermore, the internalization of GLP-SeNPs was inhibited by cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Lys) peptides, suggesting that cellular uptake into U87 cells and C6 cells occurred via αvβ3 integrin-mediated endocytosis. For U87 cells, the cytotoxicity of SeNPs decorated by GLP was enhanced significantly because of the induction of various apoptosis signaling pathways. Internalized GLP-SeNPs triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species downregulation. Therefore, p53, MAPKs, and AKT pathways were activated to advance cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that surface decoration of nanomaterials with GLP could be an efficient strategy for design and preparation of glioblastoma targeting nanodrugs.

  20. Short training in focused cardiac ultrasound in an Internal Medicine department: what realistic skill targets could be achieved? (United States)

    Mozzini, Chiara; Garbin, Ulisse; Fratta Pasini, Anna Maria; Cominacini, Luciano


    The importance of focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) in Internal Medicine care has been recognized by the American Society of Echocardiography. The aim of this study was to test what realistic skill targets could be achieved in FCU, with a relatively short training (theoretical and practical) of 9 h offered to Internal Medicine certification board attending students, and if the addition of further 9 h of training could significantly improve the level of competence. Kappa statistic was used to calculate the inter-observer agreement (trainees/tutor). The agreement between the trainees (who completed the entire training) and the tutor was, respectively, "substantial" (k = 0.71) for the identification of pericardial effusion, "moderate" (k = 0.56-0.54) for the identification of marked right ventricular and left ventricular enlargement, "substantial" (k = 0.77) for the assessment of global cardiac systolic function by visual inspection and "fair" (k = 0.35) for the assessment of size and respiratory change in the diameter of the inferior cave vein (IVC). 18 h training in FCU provided proficiency in obtaining adequate images from the parasternal window without providing the ability to correctly master the apical and subcostal windows. As concerns the interpretative skills, only pericardial effusion and visual estimation of global systolic function could be correctly identified, while ventricular enlargement and IVC prove to be more difficult to evaluate. This study supports incorporating FCU into Internal Medicine fellowship training programs, and should facilitate the design of other similar training courses.

  1. Effects of Achieving Target Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis on Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Resource Utilization: Analysis of Clinical Practice Data (United States)

    Joo, Seongjung; Kawabata, Hugh; Al, Maiwenn J.; Allison, Paul D.; Rutten‐van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Frits, Michelle L.; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Weinblatt, Michael E.


    Objective To evaluate associations between achieving guideline‐recommended targets of disease activity, defined by the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using C‐reactive protein level (DAS28‐CRP) control for intraclass correlation and estimate effects of independent variables on outcomes of the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (M‐HAQ), the EuroQol 5‐domain (EQ‐5D; a quality‐of‐life measure), hospitalization, and durable medical equipment (DME) use, we employed mixed models for continuous outcomes and generalized estimating equations for binary outcomes. Results Among 1,297 subjects, achievement (versus nonachievement) of recommended disease targets was associated with enhanced physical functioning and lower health resource utilization. After controlling for baseline covariates, achievement of disease targets (versus LDA) was associated with significantly enhanced physical functioning based on SDAI ≤3.3 (ΔM‐HAQ −0.047; P = 0.0100) and CDAI ≤2.8 (−0.073; P = 0.0003) but not DAS28‐CRP <2.6 (−0.022; P = 0.1735). Target attainment was associated with significantly improved EQ‐5D (0.022–0.096; P < 0.0030 versus LDA, MDA, or SDA). Patients achieving guideline‐recommended disease targets were 36–45% less likely to be hospitalized (P < 0.0500) and 23–45% less likely to utilize DME (P < 0.0100). Conclusion Attaining recommended target disease‐activity measures was associated with enhanced physical functioning and health‐related quality of life. Some health outcomes were similar in subjects attaining guideline targets versus LDA. Achieving LDA is a worthy clinical objective in some patients. PMID:26238974

  2. Analysis of Settlement Expansion and Urban Growth Modelling Using Geoinformation for Assessing Potential Impacts of Urbanization on Climate in Abuja City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ibrahim Mahmoud


    Full Text Available This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of settlement expansion in Abuja, Nigeria, one of West Africa’s fastest developing cities, using geoinformation and ancillary datasets. Three epochs of Land-use Land-cover (LULC maps for 1986, 2001 and 2014 were derived from Landsat images using support vector machines (SVM. Accuracy assessment (AA of the LULC maps based on the pixel count resulted in overall accuracy of 82%, 92% and 92%, while the AA derived from the error adjusted area (EAA method stood at 69%, 91% and 91% for 1986, 2001 and 2014, respectively. Two major techniques for detecting changes in the LULC epochs involved the use of binary maps as well as a post-classification comparison approach. Quantitative spatiotemporal analysis was conducted to detect LULC changes with specific focus on the settlement development pattern of Abuja, the federal capital city (FCC of Nigeria. Logical transitions to the urban category were modelled for predicting future scenarios for the year 2050 using the embedded land change modeler (LCM in the IDRISI package. Based on the EAA, the result showed that urban areas increased by more than 11% between 1986 and 2001. In contrast, this value rose to 17% between 2001 and 2014. The LCM model projected LULC changes that showed a growing trend in settlement expansion, which might take over allotted spaces for green areas and agricultural land if stringent development policies and enforcement measures are not implemented. In conclusion, integrating geospatial technologies with ancillary datasets offered improved understanding of how urbanization processes such as increased imperviousness of such a magnitude could influence the urban microclimate through the alteration of natural land surface temperature. Urban expansion could also lead to increased surface runoff as well as changes in drainage geography leading to urban floods.

  3. The Relationship between Anxiety and Attitude of Students Learning Turkish as a Foreign Language and Their Achievement on Target Language (United States)

    Gocer, Ali


    The purpose of this study is to assess the anxiety connected with target language of the high school students learning Turkish as a foreign language. In this study, descriptive relational screening model was used. Two scales were used for collecting data. First scale was FLCAS-Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale; it was developed by Horwitz…

  4. The Role of the Collection of Taxes in Achieving Revenue Targets Assigned to The Directorate General Taxes of Mali



    This study examines the relationship between the collection of taxes and revenues generated by financial services, case of the Directorate General of Taxes. Under the Finance law, a revenue target is assigned to each financial service. Our work will focus on the Directorate General of Taxes. Revenues generated by Directorate General of Taxes equal around 40 percent of the Malian Treasury resources. To do this analysis we drafted the situation of macroeconomic indicators of Mali in 2012. Econo...

  5. Enabling implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan: developing investment cases to achieve targets for measles and rubella prevention. (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Strebel, Peter M; Dabbagh, Alya; Cherian, Thomas; Cochi, Stephen L


    Global prevention and control of infectious diseases requires significant investment of financial and human resources and well-functioning leadership and management structures. The reality of competing demands for limited resources leads to trade-offs and questions about the relative value of specific investments. Developing investment cases can help to provide stakeholders with information about the benefits, costs, and risks associated with available options, including examination of social, political, governance, and ethical issues. We describe the process of developing investment cases for globally coordinated management of action plans for measles and rubella as tools for enabling the implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). We focus on considerations related to the timing of efforts to achieve measles and rubella goals independently and within the context of ongoing polio eradication efforts, other immunization priorities, and other efforts to control communicable diseases or child survival initiatives. Our analysis suggests that the interactions between the availability and sustainability of financial support, sufficient supplies of vaccines, capacity of vaccine delivery systems, and commitments at all levels will impact the feasibility and timing of achieving national, regional, and global goals. The timing of investments and achievements will determine the net financial and health benefits obtained. The methodology, framing, and assumptions used to characterize net benefits and uncertainties in the investment cases will impact estimates and perceptions about the value of prevention achieved overall by the GVAP. We suggest that appropriately valuing the benefits of investments of measles and rubella prevention will require the use of integrated dynamic disease, economic, risk, and decision analytic models in combination with consideration of qualitative factors, and that synthesizing information in the form of investment cases may help

  6. Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious HIV targets despite expected donor withdrawal by combining improved ART procurement mechanisms with allocative and implementation efficiencies (United States)

    Benedikt, Clemens; Bokazhanova, Aliya; Đurić, Predrag; Petrenko, Irina; Ganina, Lolita; Kelly, Sherrie L.; Stuart, Robyn M.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Vinichenko, Tatiana; Zhang, Shufang; Hamelmann, Christoph; Manova, Manoela; Masaki, Emiko; Wilson, David P.; Gray, Richard T.


    Background Despite a non-decreasing HIV epidemic, international donors are soon expected to withdraw funding from Kazakhstan. Here we analyze how allocative, implementation, and technical efficiencies could strengthen the national HIV response under assumptions of future budget levels. Methodology We used the Optima model to project future scenarios of the HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan that varied in future antiretroviral treatment unit costs and management expenditure—two areas identified for potential cost-reductions. We determined optimal allocations across HIV programs to satisfy either national targets or ambitious targets. For each scenario, we considered two cases of future HIV financing: the 2014 national budget maintained into the future and the 2014 budget without current international investment. Findings Kazakhstan can achieve its national HIV targets with the current budget by (1) optimally re-allocating resources across programs and (2) either securing a 35% [30%–39%] reduction in antiretroviral treatment drug costs or reducing management costs by 44% [36%–58%] of 2014 levels. Alternatively, a combination of antiretroviral treatment and management cost-reductions could be sufficient. Furthermore, Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious targets of halving new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 2020 compared to 2014 levels by attaining a 67% reduction in antiretroviral treatment costs, a 19% [14%–27%] reduction in management costs, and allocating resources optimally. Significance With Kazakhstan facing impending donor withdrawal, it is important for the HIV response to achieve more with available resources. This analysis can help to guide HIV response planners in directing available funding to achieve the greatest yield from investments. The key changes recommended were considered realistic by Kazakhstan country representatives. PMID:28207809

  7. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region. (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming


    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

  8. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed. (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Benoy, Glenn A; Chow, Thien Lien; Daigle, Jean-Louis; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui


    Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Olugbenga Alabi


    Full Text Available This study examined Probit model analysis of smallholder’s farmers decision to use agrochemical inputs in Gwagwalada and Kuje Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Primary data were used for this study. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered to sixty smallholder’s farmers sampled using a two-stage sampling technique. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Probit model. Eight estimators, age; farm-size; education–level; extension services; access to credit; off-farm income; experiences in farming; in the Probit model were found statistically significant. Results show that the probability of using agrochemical inputs increases with age; farm-size; family-size; education-level; extension services; experiences in farming but decreases where they have off-farm income and access to credits. Mc Fadden Pseudo-R 2 gives 0.6866 and Probit model correctly classified 93%. This study concluded that capacity of agricultural extension agents needs to be improved in the study area to educate farmers to invest in agrochemicals and improved agricultural technologies. Also, Government needs to improve on good road networks and appropriate policies to regulate standard, use, safety needs and environment of use of agrochemicals in the study area.

  10. Information Needs and Use of Library Resources by Special Needs Students in Selected Government Schools in Kaduna State and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Alami Atabor


    Full Text Available This study is on the information needs and use of library resources by special needs students in selected government schools in Kaduna State and Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. The survey technique was employed in the study. Five schools (i.e., Kaduna State Special Education School; Government Technical College, Malali, Kaduna; Alhudahuda College Zaria; Government Secondary School, Kwali and Government Secondary School, Kuje were purposefully selected out of a total of seven. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire for two respondent groups (i.e., special needs students and teachers/librarians. A total of 5 teachers/librarians and 345 special needs students were selected for the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study show that the special needs students have high needs for information on education, employment opportunities, health matter, and human rights. The major information resources in the libraries are books, magazines, newspapers, and few Braille materials. In general, special needs students have a moderate level of satisfaction with the resources in the libraries. The major issue identified by special needs students is insufficient information resources, especially in Braille. On the part of the teachers/librarians, inadequate funds for the acquisition of information resources and the employment of qualified librarians/teachers are found to be the major challenges faced by the libraries.

  11. Coated minispheres of salmon calcitonin target rat intestinal regions to achieve systemic bioavailability: Comparison between intestinal instillation and oral gavage. (United States)

    Aguirre, Tanira A S; Aversa, Vincenzo; Rosa, Mónica; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Coulter, Ivan; Brayden, David J


    Achieving oral peptide delivery is an elusive challenge. Emulsion-based minispheres of salmon calcitonin (sCT) were synthesized using single multiple pill (SmPill®) technology incorporating the permeation enhancers (PEs): sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), sodium caprate (C10), or coco-glucoside (CG), or the pH acidifier, citric acid (CA). Minispheres were coated with an outer layer of Eudragit® L30 D-55 (designed for jejunal release) or Surelease®/Pectin (designed for colonic release). The process was mild and in vitro biological activity of sCT was retained upon release from minispheres stored up to 4months. In vitro release profiles suggested that sCT was released from minispheres by diffusion through coatings due to swelling of gelatin and the polymeric matrix upon contact with PBS at pH6.8. X-ray analysis confirmed that coated minispheres dissolved at the intended intestinal region of rats following oral gavage. Uncoated minispheres at a dose of ~2000I.U.sCT/kg were administered to rats by intra-jejunal (i.j.) or intra-colonic (i.c.) instillation and caused hypocalcaemia. Notable sCT absolute bioavailability (F) values were: 5.5% from minispheres containing NaTDC (i.j), 17.3% with CG (i.c.) and 18.2% with C10 (i.c.). Coated minispheres administered by oral gavage at threefold higher doses also induced hypocalcaemia. A highly competitive F value of 2.7% was obtained for orally-administered sCT-minispheres containing CG (45μmol/kg) and coated with Eudragit®. In conclusion, the SmPill® technology is a potential dosage form for several peptides when formulated with PEs and coated for regional delivery. PK data from instillations over-estimates oral bioavailability and poorly predicts rank ordering of formulations.

  12. Reducing mortality in HIV-infected infants and achieving the 90–90–90 target through innovative diagnosis approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffiq Essajee


    -to-child transmission. Facility-based SMS printers speed up the return of laboratory results and may be of value for other testing services apart from HIV infant diagnosis. Conclusions: New tools and strategies for HIV infant diagnosis could have a significant positive impact on the identification and retention of HIV-infected infants. In order to be most effective, national programmes should carefully consider which ideas to implement and how best to integrate novel strategies into existing systems. There is no single solution that will work everywhere. Rather, a number of approaches need to be considered and should be linked in order to achieve the greatest impact on the continuum of care from testing to treatment.

  13. Achievement of recommended glucose and blood pressure targets in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in clinical practice – study rationale and protocol of DIALOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitt Anselm K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes have 2–4 times greater risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than those without, and this is even further aggravated if they also suffer from hypertension. Unfortunately, less than one third of hypertensive diabetic patients meet blood pressure targets, and more than half fail to achieve target HbA1c values. Thus, appropriate blood pressure and glucose control are of utmost importance. Since treatment sometimes fails in clinical practice while clinical trials generally suggest good efficacy, data from daily clinical practice, especially with regard to the use of newly developed anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive compounds in unselected patient populations, are essential. The DIALOGUE registry aims to close this important gap by evaluating different treatment approaches in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with respect to their effectiveness and tolerability and their impact on outcomes. In addition, DIALOGUE is the first registry to determine treatment success based on the new individualized treatment targets recommended by the ADA and the EASD. Methods DIALOGUE is a prospective observational German multicentre registry and will enrol 10,000 patients with both diabetes and hypertension in up to 700 sites. After a baseline visit, further documentations are scheduled at 6, 12 and 24 months. There are two co-primary objectives referring to the most recent guidelines for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension: 1 individual HbA1c goal achievement with respect to anti-diabetic pharmacotherapy and 2 individual blood pressure goal achievement with different antihypertensive treatments. Among the secondary objectives the rate of major cardio-vascular and cerebro-vascular events (MACCE and the rate of hospitalizations are the most important. Conclusion The registry will be able to gain insights into the reasons for the obvious gap between the demonstrated efficacy and safety of anti

  14. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.


    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Koshel'skaya


    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the dynamics of intrarenal vascular resistance (IRVR, circadian blood pressure (BP profile and glomerular filtration rate (GFR in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM who achieved the target BP levels (<130/80 mmHg due to long-term combined antihypertensive therapy with or without renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS inhibitors. Material and methods. Patients (n=61 with HT and DM without clinical symptoms of nephroangiopathy were included into the open randomized study , 59 of these patients completed study. Patients of Group 1 (n=41 received therapy with valsartan (n=20, 80–160 mg/day , or perindopril (n=21, 5–10 mg/day , in combination with indapamide retard, 1.5 mg/day , and amlodipine, 5–10 mg/day. Patients of Group 2 (n=18 received amlodipine (5–10 mg/day in combination with indapamide retard (1.5 mg/day and metoprolol succinate (50–100 mg/day. Initially and after 30–32 weeks of therapy the following examinations were performed: duplex ultrasound scanning of the main renal (MRA and intrarenal arteries (IRA with resistive index (RI calculation, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, GFR calculation (by Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results. The target BP levels were achieved in all patients of both groups. Patient’s baseline characteristics including age, sex, duration of disease, office BP , GFR, RI in MRA and IRA did not differ in the groups as well as decrease in office BP due to treatment. However patients of Group 2 had higher levels of systolic BP and systolic BP load at night time than these in patients of Group 1 during all period of the treatment. In patients of Group 2 RI in MRA and arcuate IRA were increased from 0.67±0.06 to 0.69±0.06 (p=0.02 and from 0.62±0.07 to 0.64±0.06 (p=0.02, respectively. The increase in IRA was positively associated with systolic BP at night time in these patients (r=0.6; p=0.01. There were no significant changes of IRA in Group 1 totally

  16. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl


    Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the welfare of mankind. Accordingly, policy makers have repeatedly stated the goal of slowing climate change and limiting the increase of global mean temperature to less than 2 C above pre-industrial times (the so-called ''two degree target''). Stabilizing the temperature requires drastic reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to nearly zero. As the global system of energy supply currently relies on fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions can only be achieved through a full-scale transformation of the energy system. This thesis investigates the economic requirements and implications of different scenarios that achieve stringent climate mitigation targets. It starts with the analysis of characteristic decarbonization patterns and identifies two particularly relevant aspects of mitigation scenarios: deployment of variable renewable energies (VRE) and decarbonization of the transport sector. After investigating these fields in detail, we turned towards one of the most relevant questions for policy makers and analyzed the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and its economic requirements and implications. All analyses are based on the improvement, application, comparison, and discussion of large-scale IAMs. The novel ''mitigation share'' metric allowed us to identify the relevance of specific technology groups for mitigation and to improve our understanding of the decarbonization patterns of different energy subsectors. It turned out that the power sector is decarbonized first and reaches lowest emissions, while the transport sector is slowest to decarbonize. For the power sector, non-biomass renewable energies contribute most to emission reductions, while the transport sector strongly relies on liquid fuels and therefore requires biomass in combination with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) to reduce emissions. An in-depth investigation of the solar power

  17. Impact of an acute coronary syndrome pathway in achieving target heart rate and utilization of evidence-based doses of beta-blockers. (United States)

    Irani, Farzan; Herial, Nabeel; Colyer, William R


    Beta-blockers remain a cornerstone of therapy in the management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The 2007 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association unstable angina/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction guideline revisions recommend a target heart rate (HR) of 50-60 beats per minute (bpm). Despite improved trends toward utilization of beta-blockers therapy, beta-blockers continue to be underdosed. Guideline-based tools have been shown to improve adherence to evidence-based therapy in patients with ACS. Implementation of a standardized ACS pathway would lead to titration of beta-blockers to recommended dosages with improved HRs in eligible patients. The ACS clinical protocol was implemented at the University of Toledo Medical Center in May 2007. A retrospective study of 516 patients admitted during a comparable 6-month period, before and after the institution of the protocol, was conducted. The preprotocol and protocol group included 237 and 279 patients, respectively. Patient information extracted from the medical records included age, gender, HR on admission, blood pressure on admission, duration of hospital stay, preadmission use of beta-blocker, type of beta-blocker and dosage, discharge beta-blocker and dosage, peak troponin levels, and therapeutic intervention. A target HR of less than 60 bpm was achieved in 19% of the protocol group, as compared with 6% in the preprotocol group (P metoprolol in the protocol group was noted to be significantly higher (118 vs. 80 mg/d; P < 0.001). The institution of an ACS clinical pathway led to utilization of beta-blockers in significantly higher dosages, resulting in improved HR control and increased attainment of target HR.

  18. Split vector systems for ultra-targeted gene delivery: a contrivance to achieve ethical assurance of somatic gene therapy in vivo. (United States)

    Tolmachov, Oleg E


    Tightly controlled spatial localisation of therapeutic gene delivery is essential to maximize the benefits of somatic gene therapy in vivo and to reduce its undesired effects on the 'bystander' cell populations, most importantly germline cells. Indeed, complete ethical assurance of somatic gene therapy can only be achieved with ultra-targeted gene delivery, which excludes the risk of inadvertent germline gene transfer. Thus, it is desired to supplement existing strategies of physical focusing and biological (cell-specific) targeting of gene delivery with an additional principle for the rigid control over spread of gene transfer within the body. In this paper I advance the concept of 'combinatorial' targeting of therapeutic gene transfer in vivo. I hypothesize that it is possible to engineer complex gene delivery vector systems consisting of several components, each one of them capable of independent spread within the human body but incapable of independent facilitation of gene transfer. As the gene delivery augmented by such split vector systems would be reliant on the simultaneous availability of all the vector system components at a predetermined body site, it is envisaged that higher order reaction kinetics required for the assembly of the functional gene transfer configuration would sharpen spatial localisation of gene transfer via curtailing the blurring effect of the vector spread within the body. A particular implementation of such split vector system could be obtained through supplementing a viral therapeutic gene vector with a separate auxiliary vector carrying a non-integrative and non-replicative form of a gene (e.g., mRNA) coding for a cellular receptor of the therapeutic vector component. Gene-transfer-enabling components of the vector system, which would be delivered separately from the vector component loaded with the therapeutic gene cargo, could also be cell-membrane-insertion-proficient receptors, elements of artificial transmembrane channels

  19. Win-win emissions reductions : smart transportation emission reduction strategies can achieve Kyoto targets and provide other economic, social and environmental benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.


    This paper identified 12 transportation solutions that provide a combination of economic, social and environmental benefits. The win-win strategies are cost-effective, technically feasible policy reforms that correct market distortions which promote inefficient travel patterns. In addition to energy conservation and reducing pollution and traffic congestion, the strategies save on road and parking facilities, promote traffic safety and consumer savings, and improve mobility for non-drivers. The basic economic principles that make these benefits possible were examined. The proposed solutions create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports economic development and helps achieve other strategic planning objectives. The strategies include planning reforms; pay-as-you-drive pricing; parking cash-out; parking pricing; road pricing; transportation demand management programs; transit and ride-share improvements; walking and cycling improvements; smart growth; freight transport management; car sharing and revenue-neutral tax shifting. The author claims that if fully implemented, these strategies could reduce motor vehicle emissions and other costs by 30 to 50 per cent, depending on geographic, demographic and economic conditions. It was suggested that the approach could help meet Kyoto emission reduction targets while promoting economic development and increasing consumer benefits. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. 'No delays achiever'. (United States)


    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at

  1. Path towards achieving of China's 2020 carbon emission reduction target-A discussion of low-carbon energy policies at province level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Run, E-mail: [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu Wenjuan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiao Lishan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu Jian; Kao, William [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)


    Following the announcement of the China's 2020 national target for the reduction of the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% compared with 2005 levels, Chinese provincial governments prepared to restructure provincial energy policy and plan their contribution to realizing the State reduction target. Focusing on Fujian and Anhui provinces as case studies, this paper reviews two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target. That of the coastal province of Fujian proposes to do so largely through the development of nuclear power, whilst the coal-rich province of Anhui proposes to do so through its energy consumption rate rising at a lower rate than that of the rise in GDP. In both cases renewable energy makes up a small proportion of their proposed 2020 energy structures. The conclusion discusses in depth concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy. - Research Highlights: {yields} We review two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target of carbon emission in two provinces. {yields} Scenario review of energy structure in Fujian and Anhui Provinces to 2020. {yields} We discuss concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy.

  2. The central importance of the EU emission trading scheme for achievement of the German climate protection target of 40% until 2020; Die zentrale Bedeutung des EU-Emissionshandels zur Erreichung des deutschen Klimaziels in Hoehe von 40 % bis 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Cludius, Johanna


    Both Germany and the European Union have set themselves targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The EU was the forerunner in 2008 when it adopted the Climate and Energy package and set a target of reducing GHG emissions by 20 % by 2020 compared to 1990. Two years later, Germany adopted a range of national GHG targets in the context of the German government's Energy Concept. This includes a 40% emissions reduction target to be met by 2020. One of the main instruments for achieving GHG emissions reduction targets is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), which covers all large industrial and combustion installations in Europe. According to the agreement made in 2008 (Climate and Energy Package), the effort to achieve the EU's 20 % reduction target by 2020 was split between the ETS sector (2/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 21 % reduction in GHG emissions for installations covered under the ETS compared to 2005) and the non-ETS sector (1/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 10 % reduction compared to 2005). Logically, GHG emissions reductions occurring in German ETS installations count both towards the EU and the national target. This research project has been commissioned to analyse whether the ETS in its cur-rent design can contribute its fair share in efforts to meet the national emissions reduc-tion target. This question is particularly relevant in light of the following considerations: - The new German Coalition Agreement, signed in December 2013, reiterated the national target of a 40 % reduction of GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. - At the same time, the new Coalition Agreement stated that changes to the ETS are only to be considered if the EU GHG emissions reduction target will not be met. - There is a surplus of CO2 allowances on the ETS market, which undermines the credibility of the instrument as well as the integrity of the emissions reduction tar-gets (both European and national). At the same

  3. Climate cure 2020. Measures and instruments for achieving Norwegian climate targets to 2020; Klimakur 2020. Tiltak og virkemidler for aa naa norske klimamaal mot 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this scenario, the analysis shows how international climate change agreements and the population's attitude to climate-friendly actions could affect Norway's ability to achieve the objectives of national emission reductions. Political feasibility, technology and carbon price may vary according to how forces will move in future. Some measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may be more robust against future uncertainties than others. Scenario analysis can therefore provide useful perspectives when instruments should be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the years ahead. (AG)

  4. Effectiveness of Powerpoint Presentation On Students’ Cognitive Achievement in Technical Drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amosa Isiaka Gambari


    Full Text Available This paper discusses importance of technology education and evidence of declining performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology subject. Benefits of PowerPoint presentation in classroom instruction as a means to improve classroom teaching in the developing countries are also discussed. The effectiveness of PowerPoint Presentation (PPT for teaching Technical Drawing concepts in Basic Technology was determined using a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent, non-randomized experimental group design. A 2x2x3 factorial design was employed. One hundred JSS 1 students (53 male and 47 female categorized into 29 high, 54 medium and 17 low achievers from two secondary schools in Abuja Metropolis formed the sample. The schools were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught some selected concepts from Technical Drawing using PowerPoint Presentation (PPT while Chalkboard method (CB was used for the control group. A validated Technical Drawing Achievement Test (TDAT comprising a 25-item multiple-choice test was employed for data collection. The reliability coefficient of TDAT was .88 using Kuder-Richardson (KR-20. The hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA and Sidak post-hoc analysis. Results revealed that the students taught with PPT performed better than their counterparts taught with CB. Also, high achievers performed better than medium and low achievers respectfully. The PPT was found also to be gender friendly. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the use of PPT should be encouraged in Nigerian schools.

  5. Segmentation of biological target volumes on multi-tracer PET images based on information fusion for achieving dose painting in radiotherapy. (United States)

    Lelandais, Benoît; Gardin, Isabelle; Mouchard, Laurent; Vera, Pierre; Ruan, Su


    Medical imaging plays an important role in radiotherapy. Dose painting consists in the application of a nonuniform dose prescription on a tumoral region, and is based on an efficient segmentation of biological target volumes (BTV). It is derived from PET images, that highlight tumoral regions of enhanced glucose metabolism (FDG), cell proliferation (FLT) and hypoxia (FMiso). In this paper, a framework based on Belief Function Theory is proposed for BTV segmentation and for creating 3D parametric images for dose painting. We propose to take advantage of neighboring voxels for BTV segmentation, and also multi-tracer PET images using information fusion to create parametric images. The performances of BTV segmentation was evaluated on an anthropomorphic phantom and compared with two other methods. Quantitative results show the good performances of our method. It has been applied to data of five patients suffering from lung cancer. Parametric images show promising results by highlighting areas where a high frequency or dose escalation could be planned.

  6. Achieving net-zero emissions through the reframing of UK national targets in the post-Paris Agreement era (United States)

    Pye, Steve; Li, Francis G. N.; Price, James; Fais, Birgit


    The Paris Agreement provides an international framework aimed at limiting average global temperature rise to well below 2 ∘C, implemented through actions determined at the national level. As the Agreement necessitates a 'net-zero' emissions energy system by 2100, decarbonization analyses in support of national climate policy should consider the post-2050 period. Focusing solely on mitigation objectives for 2030 or 2050 could lead to blindsiding of the challenge, inadequate ambition in the near term, and poor investment choices in energy infrastructure. Here we show, using the UK as an example, that even an ambitious climate policy is likely to fall short of the challenge of net-zero, and that analysis of the post-2050 period is therefore critical. We find that the analysis of detailed, longer-term national pathways that achieve net-zero is important for future reassessment of ambition under nationally determined contributions (NDCs).

  7. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan


    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  8. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan


    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  9. 中国碳减排目标的可达性:能源政策与经济发展%The Achievability of China's Climate Target:Energy Policy and Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In November of 2009, China's State Council announced that the country will cut its carbon intensity ?carbon emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) ?by 40% -45% from 2005 levels by 2020. It is of great significance for combating climate change of China and the world that whether China will achieve this target. This article analyzed the history and current status of energy consumption and economic development of China, the main energy policies that have been adopted and predicted if China would achieve carbon intensity reduction target under different scenarios. The result indicated that it is very possible that China will achieve the target but pointed energy policies are still needed. Finally according to above analysis, the article provided corresponding policy recommendations for the energy consumption and economic development of China in following years. That is, the governments should increase scientific and technological research expenditure, continue eliminating lagging behind productivity and promote the application of advanced technologies; continue readjusting industrial structure and increasing the proportion of tertiary industry; and promote the marketization of energy price.%2009年11月,中国国务院宣布到2020年,在2005年的基础之上将碳排放强度,即单位GDP二氧化碳排放量降低40%~45%.这一目标能否达成对于中国以及全球抵御气候变化都将产生深刻影响.分析我国能源消耗和经济发展的历史和现状,系统梳理到目前为止我国所制定和实施的能源政策,并结合情景分析预测了我国能否达到既定的碳排放强度削减目标.结果表明,我国实现减排目标是乐观的,但仍需要有针对性的政策导向.最后根据以上分析,对我国下一阶段的能源消耗和经济发展政策提出了相应建议,即加大科技支出,继续淘汰落后产能,推动先进生产技术应用;加大产业结构调整力度,大力发展第三产业;推动能源价格市场化进程.


    Denesiuk, E V


    The study involved 23 men after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with comorbid arterial hypertension (AH). Mean age of patients was 56.7 years. Recurrent myocardial infarction was determined in 38.4%, cardiac failure I-III functional classes--100% of the cases. All patients underwent clinical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography, blood lipid profile. Standard comprehensive treatment for two years included an perindopril 5-10 mg/day, beta-blocker bisoprolol--5-10 mg/day, antisclerotic drug atorvastatin--20 mg/day and aspirin--75 mg/day. The patients after treatment was determined by a gradual increase towards the target of AT at 3, 6 and 12 to 24 months. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) before treatment was determined in 47.8%, eccentric--in 52.2% of patients. In the study of degrees of LVH I (initial) the extent to treatment was determined by 4.3%, II (moderate)--26.1%, III (large)--at 69.6%, indicating the development of cardiac remodeling. After the treatment was determined by marked reduction III (large) degree and transfer it in the II (moderate) and I (small) degree of left ventricular hypertrophy due to more or less pronounced changes remodeling left ventricular. The obtained data allow a more detailed and adequately assess the structural and functional outcome variables and determine the regression of myocardial hypertrophy in the background to achieve target blood pressure, which is important in practical cardiology.

  11. 北京城市交通出行合理结构模式的目标--可持续发展的对策%A Sustatinable Travel Model Choice Target for Beijing: What Can Policies and Strategies Achieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海燕; 刘蓉晖; 张蕊


    With the rapid economic growth in Beijing, the demand for travel is increasing continuously.A directly result of which is a continually surge in vehicle ownership. Travel mode share has changed significant during the period 1986 to 2000. The modal split surveys show that, in the past fifteen years,the share of public transport in total demand has decreased slightly. The main modal shift has been from bicycle to car travel. Reviews of the travel modal share situation in similar metropolitan cities around the world suggest that the key to success in managing the increasing travel demand is to adopt policies and strategies which aim to persuade people to choose a sustainable travel mode. Based on the existing traffic data collection and specialist surveys, a sustainable modal choice target has been suggested for Beijing. The policies and strategies to achieve this target modal choice are proposed in this paper which takes into account the experience in both the developed countries and other rapidly developing countries and cities.%随着社会经济的快速发展,北京市居民出行需求日益增加,机动车辆拥有量也随之迅猛上升.北京市1986年和2000年的居民出行调查结果表明,在过去的15年内,居民交通出行模式发生了变化,公交出行比例比原来略有减少,主要的变化是原来的自行车出行这部分中,有很大一部分转变为机动车出行.本文通过对类似规模的几个国际大都市交通出行结构演变过程的回顾,找出其关键之处在于采用政策策略促使居民出行选择有利于城市可持续发展模式;根据广泛调查和专家咨询,确定了一个北京城市交通出行各种方式的合理比例,作为发展目标;并参考发达国家和一些快速发展的国家和城市的经验,提出了达到这个目标的对策和策略.

  12. A survey on the current status of type 2 diabetic patients who failed to achieve the glycemic control target%2型糖尿病血糖控制未达标患者现状调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈名道; 潘长玉; 杨立勇; 李延兵; 肖新华; 冯波; 张秋梅; 李成江


    目的 调查2型糖尿病血糖未达标患者的现状,为制定应对策略提供理论依据.方法 201.年8至10月,收集全国26个城市181家医院血糖未达标的2型糖尿病患者进行问卷调查,调查未达标患者的血糖水平、生活方式干预、血糖监测、药物使用情况等,得到资料比较完整的问卷3 861份,分析患者未达标原因.结果 在统计的未达标患者中,HbA1c均值7.9%,空腹血糖均值8.2 mmol/L,餐后血糖均值11.5 mmol/L.生活方式干预方面,仅25.6%的患者能按医嘱严格进行饮食控制,44.5%的患者基本不进行体育锻炼.分别有35.8%和47.8%的患者不进行空腹和餐后血糖的监测.60岁以上的患者,血糖控制水平与其他年龄组并无差别,但其低血糖发生率高达35.5%,较其他两组(分别为20.8%和21.4%)明显为高(均P<0.05).药物治疗方面,单药治疗及联合治疗患者比例分别为46.1%和51.7%.>60岁的老年组联合用药比例更高(58.7%,与其他年龄组比,P<0.05).75%的患者进行了治疗方案的调整.结论 药物治疗方案不够强化或不适当是患者血糖未达标的主要原因;另外,生活方式不佳,血糖监测不够,患者依从性差也是血糖未达标的重要原因.对于未达标患者,需要进一步强化患者教育,加强生活方式干预,选择更加强化,同时安全、依从性好的降糖治疗方案.对于老年患者降糖的目标值应适当放宽.%Objective To investigate the current status of type 2 diabetic patients who failed to achieve the glycemic control target, and provide theoretic evidences for making corresponding strategies. Methods The 2 diabetic patients who failed to reach the glycemic target were recruited from 181 hospitals in 26 cities and received a standard questionnaire, the conditions of their blood glucose level, lifestyle intervention, blood sugar monitoring, and drug therapy were recorded. Totally 3 861 questionnaires with complete information were collected

  13. Post2012 climate regime options for global GHG emission reduction. Analysis and evaluation of regime options and reduction potential for achieving the 2 degree target with respect to environmental effectiveness, costs and institutional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)


    This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord and provides an in-depth comparison with results arrived at in other model analyses. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO2 emissions by 30 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target, i.e. where the EU adopts a 30 % emission reduction target in 2020 (rather than a 20 % reduction target), while all other countries stick with their ''weak'' pledges. Not included in the calculations is possible financial support for developing countries from industrialized countries as currently discussed in the climate change negotiations and laid out in the Copenhagen Accord. (orig.)

  14. Leader as achiever. (United States)

    Dienemann, Jacqueline


    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  15. Agriculture for development in Iraq?: Estimating the impacts of achieving the agricultural targets of the national development plan 2013–2017 on economic growth, incomes, and gender equality:


    Al-Haboby, Azhr; Breisinger, Clemens; Debowicz, Darío; El-Hakim, Abdul Hussein; Ferguson, Jenna; van Rheenen, Teunis; Telleria, Roberto


    This paper estimates the potential effects of achieving the agricultural goals set out in Iraq’s National Development Plan (NDP) 2013–2017 using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The findings suggest that raising agricultural productivity in accordance with the NDP may more than double average agricultural growth rates and add an average of 0.7 percent each year to economywide gross domestic product during the duration of the plan. As a consequence, the economy not only dive...

  16. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng


    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  17. Target Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  18. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood? (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.


    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  19. Cognitive Processes and Achievement. (United States)

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  20. Achieveing Organizational Excellence Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abzari


    Full Text Available AbstractToday, In order to create motivation and desirable behavior in employees, to obtain organizational goals,to increase human resources productivity and finally to achieve organizational excellence, top managers oforganizations apply new and effective strategies. One of these strategies to achieve organizational excellenceis creating desirable corporate culture. This research has been conducted to identify the path to reachorganizational excellence by creating corporate culture according to the standards and criteria oforganizational excellence. The result of the so-called research is this paper in which researchers foundtwenty models and components of corporate culture and based on the Industry, organizational goals andEFQM model developed a model called "The Eskimo model of Culture-Excellence". The method of theresearch is survey and field study and the questionnaires were distributed among 116 managers andemployees. To assess the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach alpha was measured to be 95% in the idealsituation and 0/97 in the current situation. Systematic sampling was done and in the pre-test stage 45questionnaires were distributed. A comparison between the current and the ideal corporate culture based onthe views of managers and employees was done and finally it has been concluded that corporate culture isthe main factor to facilitate corporate excellence and success in order to achieve organizational effectiveness.The contribution of this paper is that it proposes a localized –applicable model of corporate excellencethrough reinforcing corporate culture.

  1. Achieving form in autobiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas (Nick Meihuizen


    Full Text Available This article argues that, unlike biographies which tend to follow patterns based on conventional expectations, salient autobiographies achieve forms unique to themselves. The article draws on ideas from contemporary formalists such as Peter McDonald and Angela Leighton but also considers ideas on significant form stemming from earlier writers and critics such as P.N. Furbank and Willa Cather. In extracting from these writers the elements of what they consider comprise achieved form, the article does not seek to provide a rigid means of objectively testing the formal attributes of a piece of writing. It rather offers qualitative reminders of the need to be alert to the importance of form, even if the precise nature of this importance is not possible to define. Form is involved in meaning, and this continuously opens up possibilities regarding the reader’s relationship with the work in question. French genetic critic Debray Genette distinguishes between ‘semantic effect’ (the direct telling involved in writing and ‘semiological effect’ (the indirect signification involved. It is the latter, the article argues in summation, which gives a work its singular nature, producing a form that is not predictable but suggestive, imaginative.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NingQuanxin; QiuLizhong


    The goal of this study is to improve instructional classes for “Extensive Reading”. We compare two approaches. The traditional method is based on the original procedure; the method we try is a “task-placemented” one. inspired by the method we try is a “task-placemented” one. inspired by the theory of “Tasks of Ascending Difficulty”.This paper provides a comparative evaluation of our experiments on Extensive Reading. Our aim is to resolve the logistical problem of heavy teaching loads and limited class hours, which often prevents English learners from fulfilling their study targets and our intended learning outcomes. In view of the experimental data,we have managed to establish a “feedback” to test the two hypotheses, and demonstrate that the new approach contributes to efficient acquisition of the information in the presented reading materials. Our study concludes with an interpretation of the function and merits of this approach.

  3. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget


    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  4. Recognizing outstanding achievements (United States)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  5. Achieving English Spoken Fluency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language is first and foremost oral,spoken language,speaking skill is the most important one of the four skills(L,S,R,W)and also it is the most difficult one of the four skills. To have an all-round command of a language one must be able to speak and to understand the spoken language, it is not enough for a language learner only to have a good reading and writing skills. As Englisn language teachers, we need to focus on improving learners' English speaking skill to meet the need of our society and our country and provide learner some useful techniques to achieving their English spoken fluency. This paper focuses on the spoken how to improving learners speaking skill.

  6. Achieving closure at Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.


    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  7. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung


    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  8. Vietnam: achievements and challenges. (United States)

    Tran Tien Duc


    The Vietnamese Government's successful development of the National Population and Family Planning Program has contributed in raising people's awareness on population issues and changing their attitudes and behavior regarding fostering small families. It has also been found to be very effective in substantially decreasing fertility level. In addition, economic levels of many households have been greatly improved since the adoption of a renovation policy. The advancement of welfare accompanied by the provision of better basic social services, including health services, has boost people's health. Several factors behind the achievements of the National Population and Family Planning Program include: 1) Strengthening of the political commitment of national and local leaders; 2) Nationwide mobilization of mass organizations and NGOs; 3) A strong advocacy and information, education and communication program; 4) Provision of various kinds of contraceptives; 5) Effective management of the program by priority; and 6) Support of the international community. Despite such successes, Vietnam is facing a number of new issues such as enlargement of the work force, shifting migration patterns and accelerating urbanization, aging of population, and change of household structure. Nevertheless, the Government of Vietnam is preparing a New Population Strategy aimed to address these issues.

  9. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J;


    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  10. Environmental political targets of the EU: German-French contributions for the achievement of the EU goals. Proceedings; Umweltpolitische Ziele der EU: Deutsch-franzoesische Beitraege zur Zielerreichung. Concepts franco-allemands pour atteindre les objectifs environnementaux de l'UE. Tagungsband. Actes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cail, Sylvain; Moest, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf; Percebois, Jacques (eds.)


    The first German-French workshop on energy economy and sustainability on January 29 and 30, 2009 at Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany) comprised the following lectures: (1) Systematic evaluation of the sustainability in energy projects (Volker Stelzer); (2) Comparative value of various mechanisms of promoting renewable energy sources (Jacques Percebois, Olivier Rousse); (3) Communities as actors in climate protection (Lioba Markl, Nurten Avci); (4) The chain of value of photovoltaic systems containing crystalline silicon (Christin Oeser); (5) The wind power industry as an example of the German-French cooperation for the achievement of environmental political targets of the EU (Katharina Braig, Markus Jenne); (6) A short history of the future of biomass and biofuels in relation to white biotechnologies (Gerard Goma, Carole Molina-Jouve); (7) Generation and feeding of methane from biomass (Frank Graf); (8) Energy evaluation of the thickening of the biomass by rapid pyrolysis (Guillain Mauviel et al.); (9) Future role of renewable energies in European electricity supply (Dominik Moest et al.); (10) A systematic evaluation of the potentials for reducing CO{sub 2} as an element of company management (Sarah Schwarz); (11) A system dynamics model of the German electricity market (Tobias Jaeger).

  11. Different Pathways for Achieving Cleaner Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippl, J.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard


    The 2011 White Paper on Transport of the European Commission spells out a series of targets for 2030 and 2050. One of the 10 targets is explicitly related to urban transport and stipulates: ''Halve the use of 'conventionally fuelled' cars in urban transport by 2030; phase them out in cities by 2050....... Achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030.'' With this paper we present and discuss a roadmap that deals with the question who needs to do what by when in order to reach the White Paper goal for urban transport. The ''stakeholder-driven'' roadmap was developed in the FP7...... project TRANSFORuM. The paper will present the key findings and the suggested action steps identified in the roadmap. The paper will also exemplify three possible urban transformation pathways towards the urban target. This approach emerged from stakeholder consultations which highlighted the need to take...

  12. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia


    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  13. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina


    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  14. Relationships between Student, Teacher, and School Characteristics and Mathematics Achievement (United States)

    Petty, Teresa; Wang, Chuang; Harbaugh, Adam P.


    A variety of factors contributes to student achievement in mathematics, including but not limited to student behaviors and student, teacher, and school characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these factors have an impact on student mathematics achievement. The target population for this study was North Carolina Algebra…

  15. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller


    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  16. 提振精气神抢抓新机遇实现新跨越努力在“十二五”承前启后之年提前实现倍增目标在2013年集团工作会暨党委工作会上的报告(有删节)%Inspiring Essence and Spirit, Seizing New Opportunity,Achieving New Development, Making Great Efforts to Achieve the Output Value Doubling Target in Advance in the Continuity Year of Twelfth Five-Year Period ——A Speech made on the Company Working Conferen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The main tasks and achievements of CYMCO in production and management, foundation management, management control transformation, project construction, resource strategy, reform deepening, capital functioning, technological innovation, Party building and so on in 2012 are summarized in this paper, and the development targets and main tasks in 2013 are also studied and arranged.%总结集团2012年生产经营、基础管理、管控转型、项目建设、资源战略、深化改革、资本运作、科技创新、党的建设等方面的主要工作和取得的成绩.研究部署集团2013年发展目标和主要任务.

  17. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J


    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  18. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza


    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  19. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab


    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  20. Target Space $\

    CERN Document Server

    Huggett, Nick


    This paper investigates the significance of T-duality in string theory: the indistinguishability with respect to all observables, of models attributing radically different radii to space -- larger than the observable universe, or far smaller than the Planck length, say. Two interpretational branch points are identified and discussed. First, whether duals are physically equivalent or not: by considering a duality of the familiar simple harmonic oscillator, I argue that they are. Unlike the oscillator, there are no measurements 'outside' string theory that could distinguish the duals. Second, whether duals agree or disagree on the radius of 'target space', the space in which strings evolve according to string theory. I argue for the latter position, because the alternative leaves it unknown what the radius is. Since duals are physically equivalent yet disagree on the radius of target space, it follows that the radius is indeterminate between them. Using an analysis of Brandenberger and Vafa (1989), I explain wh...

  1. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.


    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  2. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  3. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  4. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement Motivation (United States)

    Maehr, Martin L.


    Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…

  5. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine


    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  6. Recognizing occluded MSTAR targets (United States)

    Bhanu, Bir; Jones, Grinnell, III


    This paper presents an approach for recognizing occluded vehicle targets in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Using quasi-invariant local features, SAR scattering center locations and magnitudes, a recognition algorithm is presented that successfully recognizes highly occluded versions of actual vehicles from the MSTAR public data. Extensive experimental results are presented to show the effect of occlusion on recognition performance in terms of Probability of Correct Identification, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and confusion matrices. The effect of occlusion on performance of this recognition algorithm is accurately predicted. Combined effects such as occlusion and measured positional noise, as well as occlusion and other observed extended operating conditions (e.g., articulation) are also addressed. Although excellent forced recognition results can be achieved at very high (70%) occlusion, practical limitations are found due to the similarity of unoccluded confuser vehicles to highly occluded targets.

  7. Finite Block-Length Achievable Rates for Queuing Timing Channels



    The exponential server timing channel is known to be the simplest, and in some sense canonical, queuing timing channel. The capacity of this infinite-memory channel is known. Here, we discuss practical finite-length restrictions on the codewords and attempt to understand the amount of maximal rate that can be achieved for a target error probability. By using Markov chain analysis, we prove a lower bound on the maximal channel coding rate achievable at blocklength $n$ and error probability $...

  8. Disciplinary climate and student achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortkær, Bent; Reimer, David

    Disciplinary climate has emerged as one of the single most important factors related to student achievement. Using data from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Latvia and Norway we find a significant and nontrivial association...... between the perceived disciplinary climate in the classroom and students’ mathematics performance in Canada, Denmark and Norway. Furthermore we exploit country specific class-size rules in order to single out a subsample with classroom-level data (PISA is sampled by age and not by classes) and find...... that the estimates based on school-level data might underestimate the relationship between disciplinary climate and student achievement. Finally we find evidence for gender differences in the association between disciplinary climate and student achievement that can partly be explained by gender-specific perceptions...

  9. Mathematics Achievement by Immigrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang


    Full Text Available In this study, I examined academic achievement of immigrant children in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Analyzing data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, I gauged the performance gaps relating to the generation of immigration and the home language background. I found immigrant children's math and science achievement to be lower than the others only in England, the U.S., and Canada. Non-English language background was found in each country to relate to poor math and science learning and this disadvantage was stronger among native-born children—presumably children of indigenous groups—than among immigrant children. I also examined the school variation in math performance gaps, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to each country's data. The patterns in which language- and generation-related math achievement gaps varied between schools are different in the five countries.

  10. Implementing Target Value Design. (United States)

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K


    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  11. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan


    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  12. Adolescents' Academic Expectations and Achievement. (United States)

    Sanders, Christopher E.; Field, Tiffany M.; Diego, Miguel A.


    Hypothesis that mother relationships are more influential than father relationships on adolescents' academic expectations and achievement was tested with 80 high school seniors. The mother child relationship was found to be predictive of academic expectations. It suggests that the amount of time they spend together may be the contributing factor.…

  13. The opening of achievement report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The unified plan for Sharqu River has been worked out by experts from Yangtze Water Conservancy Commission, Yangtze Hydraulic Engineering Investigation Academy, and the Academy from T.A.R. A meeting of reporting their achievements has been hold in Lhasa.

  14. Chinese Achievements Attract Worldwide Attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    THE People’s Republic of China was founded 45 years ago. Since the policies of economic and social reform and opening were carried out in the beginning of the 1980s, China has been gradually entering into prosperity and has made inspiring achievements. 1. The living standards of the people and their

  15. Achieving universal access to broadband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders


    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures...

  16. Achieving a sustainable service advantage. (United States)

    Coyne, K P


    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  17. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)


    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  18. Faculty Development: Assessing Learner Achievement. (United States)

    Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen

    This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…

  19. Dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eAst


    Full Text Available Cellular compartmentalization into organelles serves to separate biological processes within the environment of a single cell. While some metabolic reactions are specific to a single organelle, others occur in more than one cellular compartment. Specific targeting of proteins to compartments inside of eukaryotic cells is mediated by defined sequence motifs. To achieve multiple targeting to different compartments cells use a variety of strategies. Here, we focus on mechanisms leading to dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins. In many instances, isoforms of peroxisomal proteins with distinct intracellular localization are encoded by separate genes. But also single genes can give rise to differentially localized proteins. Different isoforms can be generated by use of alternative transcriptional start sites, by differential splicing or ribosomal read-through of stop codons. In all these cases different peptide variants are produced, of which only one carries a peroxisomal targeting signal. Alternatively, peroxisomal proteins contain additional signals that compete for intracellular targeting. Dual localization of proteins residing in both the cytoplasm and in peroxisomes may also result from use of inefficient targeting signals. The recent observation that some bona fide cytoplasmic enzymes were also found in peroxisomes indicates that dual targeting of proteins to both the cytoplasm and the peroxisome might be more widespread. Although current knowledge of proteins exhibiting only partial peroxisomal targeting is far from being complete, we speculate that the metabolic capacity of peroxisomes might be larger than previously assumed.

  20. Enhancing Academic Achievement through Direct Instruction of Social Skills. (United States)

    Bendt, Lori; Nunan, Jan

    This paper examines the impact of the explicit teaching of social skills to enhance academic achievement. The targeted population comprised kindergarten and second grade students in a middle-class community located in central Illinois. The problem of inappropriate behaviors and difficulties interacting with peers and how this may affect academic…

  1. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States)


    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  2. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.; Oort, F.J.


    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacog

  3. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement (United States)

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.


    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  4. Improved Targeting of Cancers with Nanotherapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Christian; Watson, Andre; Kaplinsky, Joseph John;


    Targeted cancer nanotherapeutics offers numerous opportunities for the selective uptake of toxic chemotherapies within tumors and cancer cells. The unique properties of nanoparticles, such as their small size, large surface-to-volume ratios, and the ability to achieve multivalency of targeting...... ligands on their surface, provide superior advantages for nanoparticle-based drug delivery to a variety of cancers. This review highlights various key concepts in the design of targeted nanotherapeutics for cancer therapy, and discusses physicochemical parameters affecting nanoparticle targeting, along...... with recent developments for cancer-targeted nanomedicines....

  5. The incongruous achiever in adolescence. (United States)

    Kline, S A; Golombek, H


    The authors wished to study some of the internal psychological dynamics of achievement in a nonpatient identified high school population. Questionnaires were administered to the Grade 13 students and their parents in a large high school. A number of students whose achievement and educational plans were not congruous with their general background were selected for interview. The findings suggest that a wide variety of ages and developmental stages can be discerned as critical points in the development of a student's attitude toward higher education. These students have many values in common, and their values appear related to a positive or negative identification with parental values. The students themselves show a wide range of personality integration. They relate in a special way to a wide variety of teachers' personalities.

  6. Database Research: Achievements and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wang; Xiao-Yong Du; Xiao-Feng Meng; Hong Chen


    Database system is the infrastructure of the modern information system. The R&D in the database system moves along by giant steps. This report presents the achievements Renmin University of China (RUC) has made in the past 25 years and at the same time addresses some of the research projects we, RUC, are currently working on. The National Natural Science Foundation of China supports and initiates most of our research projects and these successfully conducted projects have produced fruitful results.

  7. Predicting educational achievement from DNA (United States)

    Selzam, S; Krapohl, E; von Stumm, S; O'Reilly, P F; Rimfeld, K; Kovas, Y; Dale, P S; Lee, J J; Plomin, R


    A genome-wide polygenic score (GPS), derived from a 2013 genome-wide association study (N=127,000), explained 2% of the variance in total years of education (EduYears). In a follow-up study (N=329,000), a new EduYears GPS explains up to 4%. Here, we tested the association between this latest EduYears GPS and educational achievement scores at ages 7, 12 and 16 in an independent sample of 5825 UK individuals. We found that EduYears GPS explained greater amounts of variance in educational achievement over time, up to 9% at age 16, accounting for 15% of the heritable variance. This is the strongest GPS prediction to date for quantitative behavioral traits. Individuals in the highest and lowest GPS septiles differed by a whole school grade at age 16. Furthermore, EduYears GPS was associated with general cognitive ability (~3.5%) and family socioeconomic status (~7%). There was no evidence of an interaction between EduYears GPS and family socioeconomic status on educational achievement or on general cognitive ability. These results are a harbinger of future widespread use of GPS to predict genetic risk and resilience in the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27431296

  8. Media and attention, cognition, and school achievement. (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Vandewater, Elizabeth A


    Marie Evans Schmidt and Elizabeth Vandewater review research on links between various types of electronic media and the cognitive skills of school-aged children and adolescents. One central finding of studies to date, they say, is that the content delivered by electronic media is far more influential than the media themselves. Most studies, they point out, find a small negative link between the total hours a child spends viewing TV and that child's academic achievement. But when researchers take into account characteristics of the child, such as IQ or socioeconomic status, this link typically disappears. Content appears to be crucial. Viewing educational TV is linked positively with academic achievement; viewing entertainment TV is linked negatively with achievement. When it comes to particular cognitive skills, say the authors, researchers have found that electronic media, particularly video games, can enhance visual spatial skills, such as visual tracking, mental rotation, and target localization. Gaming may also improve problem-solving skills. Researchers have yet to understand fully the issue of transfer of learning from electronic media. Studies suggest that, under some circumstances, young people are able to transfer what they learn from electronic media to other applications, but analysts are uncertain how such transfer occurs. In response to growing public concern about possible links between electronic media use and attention problems in children and adolescents, say the authors, researchers have found evidence for small positive links between heavy electronic media use and mild attention problems among young people but have found only inconsistent evidence so far for a link between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and media use. The authors point out that although video games, interactive websites, and multimedia software programs appear to offer a variety of possible benefits for learning, there is as yet little empirical evidence to suggest that

  9. Waiting-time targets. Early learners. (United States)

    Moore, Alison


    Thirteen 'early achiever' sites have volunteered to deliver the new 18-week target ahead of schedule. The sites have highlighted recurring issues for trusts aiming for 18 weeks: orthopaedics, audiology, endoscopy and some smaller specialties have all proved challenging. The target should be seen as a vital step towards a 'no unnecessary delay' system of working and thinking.

  10. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience? (United States)

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.


    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  11. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH


    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  12. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Darling-Hammond


    Full Text Available Using data from a 50-state survey of policies, state case study analyses, the 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Surveys (SASS, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, this study examines the ways in which teacher qualifications and other school inputs are related to student achievement across states. The findings of both the qualitative and quantitative analyses suggest that policy investments in the quality of teachers may be related to improvements in student performance. Quantitative analyses indicate that measures of teacher preparation and certification are by far the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics, both before and after controlling for student poverty and language status. State policy surveys and case study data are used to evaluate policies that influence the overall level of teacher qualifications within and across states. This analysis suggests that policies adopted by states regarding teacher education, licensing, hiring, and professional development may make an important difference in the qualifications and capacities that teachers bring to their work. The implications for state efforts to enhance quality and equity in public education are discussed.

  13. Updates and achievements in virology. (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio


    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  14. Achieving Research University: Indonesian Case (United States)

    Utama, Yos Johan; Ambariyanto


    Today many universities have the vision to become a research university, including in Indonesia. It is based on the desire to play a role in advancing science for the benefit of humanity as well as to enhance the university reputation at the international level. However, in the case of Indonesia, it can only be done by several universities, given the large number of universities with very different capabilities. In addition, another problem is human resources, infrastructure, and research funding. Various targets indicator used to determine its success include the number of publications, patents and industrial products. There is an urgent need to improve all factors that can accelerate the increase in research in Indonesia universities, and has been started by the policy of the current government.

  15. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola


    international mathematics education journal (Laisant & Fehr, 1899). In the times of the Cold War, a similar argument emerged, however the justification was related to keeping the supremacy of the Capitalist West in front of the growing menace of the expansion of the Communist Soviet Union. Nowadays...... as a result, among others, of the growing series of comparative information on educational achievement and development. Such reports can be seen as performances of the comparative logic of Modernity that operates differential positioning, not only among individuals but also among nations, with respect to what...... is considered to be the desired and normal level of development and growth. “Mathematics for all” can be seen as an effect of power that operates on subjects and nations alike to determine who are the individuals/nations who excel, while creating a narrative of inclusion for all those who, by the very same...

  16. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Perotti, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido


    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The so obtained schemes are cascaded with an outer serially-concatenated convolutional code to form a pragmatic coded-modulation system. The resulting schemes exhibit performance very close to the CPM capacity without requiring iterations between the outer decoder and the CPM demodulator. As a result, the receiver exhibits reduced complexity and increased flexibility due to the separation of the demodulation and decoding functions.

  17. Targeting tumor suppressor genes for cancer therapy. (United States)

    Liu, Yunhua; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Han, Cecil; Wang, Liana; Zhang, Xinna; He, Xiaoming; Lu, Xiongbin


    Cancer drugs are broadly classified into two categories: cytotoxic chemotherapies and targeted therapies that specifically modulate the activity of one or more proteins involved in cancer. Major advances have been achieved in targeted cancer therapies in the past few decades, which is ascribed to the increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms for cancer initiation and progression. Consequently, monoclonal antibodies and small molecules have been developed to interfere with a specific molecular oncogenic target. Targeting gain-of-function mutations, in general, has been productive. However, it has been a major challenge to use standard pharmacologic approaches to target loss-of-function mutations of tumor suppressor genes. Novel approaches, including synthetic lethality and collateral vulnerability screens, are now being developed to target gene defects in p53, PTEN, and BRCA1/2. Here, we review and summarize the recent findings in cancer genomics, drug development, and molecular cancer biology, which show promise in targeting tumor suppressors in cancer therapeutics.

  18. Prodrug applications for targeted cancer therapy. (United States)

    Giang, Irene; Boland, Erin L; Poon, Gregory M K


    Prodrugs are widely used in the targeted delivery of cytotoxic compounds to cancer cells. To date, targeted prodrugs for cancer therapy have achieved great diversity in terms of target selection, activation chemistry, as well as size and physicochemical nature of the prodrug. Macromolecular prodrugs such as antibody-drug conjugates, targeted polymer-drug conjugates and other conjugates that self-assemble to form liposomal and micellar nanoparticles currently represent a major trend in prodrug development for cancer therapy. In this review, we explore a unified view of cancer-targeted prodrugs and highlight several examples from recombinant technology that exemplify the prodrug concept but are not identified as such. Recombinant "prodrugs" such as engineered anthrax toxin show promise in biological specificity through the conditionally targeting of multiple cellular markers. Conditional targeting is achieved by structural complementation, the spontaneous assembly of engineered inactive subunits or fragments to reconstitute functional activity. These complementing systems can be readily adapted to achieve conditionally bispecific targeting of enzymes that are used to activate low-molecular weight prodrugs. By leveraging strengths from medicinal chemistry, polymer science, and recombinant technology, prodrugs are poised to remain a core component of highly focused and tailored strategies aimed at conditionally attacking complex molecular phenotypes in clinically relevant cancer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.

  20. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees. (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard


    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  1. Challenges in achieving food security in India. (United States)

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C


    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral.

  2. Competitive Advantage Achievement through Innovation and Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbancova Hana


    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive environment the goal of each organisation is to defeat competition and win new customers. Individuals who are holders of knowledge represent a tool for the generation of innovations. Thanks to their personal creativity, their knowledge, skills and abilities it is possible to generate new innovative ideas that will help organisations to achieve a competitiveadvantage. The aim of the article is to present the findings of a survey targeted at innovations and to identify knowledge as an important element in the process of innovations. Primary data were obtained through a questionnaire survey carried out in organisations in the Czech Republic and evaluated using the tools of descriptive statistics and also the methods of comparison, induction, deduction and synthesis were applied. One of the conclusions of the article is that organisations find it important to innovate and support an innovative culture. Knowledge too is very significant in the innovation process since it represents not only important input, but also output of the transformation process.

  3. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Prakash Upadhyay


    Full Text Available First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India pre­sent a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second world­wide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘tradi­tional con­cept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-de­mographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-devel­opmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nu­tritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agricul­ture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employ­ment and im­proving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene. As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solu­tion needs to be multi-sectoral.

  4. Achieving monospermy or preventing polyspermy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B


    Full Text Available Brian Dale Centre for Assisted Fertilization, Naples, Italy Abstract: Images of sea urchin oocytes with hundreds of spermatozoa attached to their surface have fascinated scientists for over a century and led to the idea that oocytes have evolved mechanisms to allow the penetration of one spermatozoon while repelling supernumerary spermatozoa. Popular texts have extrapolated this concept, to the mammals and amphibians, and in many cases to include all the Phyla. Here, it is argued that laboratory experiments, using sea urchin oocytes deprived of their extracellular coats and inseminated at high densities, are artifactual and that the experiments leading to the idea of a fast block to polyspermy are flawed. Under natural conditions, the number of spermatozoa at the site of fertilization is extremely low, compared with the numbers generated. The sperm:oocyte ratio is regulated first by dilution in externally fertilizing species and the female reproductive tract in those with internal fertilization, followed by a bottleneck created by the oocytes extracellular coats. In order to progress to the oocyte plasma membrane, the fertilizing spermatozoon must encounter and respond to a correct sequence of signals from the oocytes extracellular coats. Those that do not, are halted in their progression by defective signaling and fall to the wayside. Final success and entry is finely tuned by the spermatozoon anchoring to an actin-rich predetermined site on the plasma membrane. In this review, the variation in the form, function, and number of gametes produced across the animal kingdom and the many ways in which sperm–oocyte interactions are regulated to reduce numbers are discussed. Since in nature, final sperm:oocyte ratios approach unity it would appear that selective pressures have favored the achievement of monospermy, rather than the evolution of polyspermy preventing mechanisms. Keywords: monospermy, natural conditions, polyspermy, laboratory

  5. Achieving glycemic control differs between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus starting on metformin and sulfonylureas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, Egbert J.F.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G.; Nijpels, Giel; Bouvy, Marcel L.


    Background: Antidiabetic medication is aimed at attaining tight glycemic control, but patients do not always achieve guideline recommended targets. Available observational studies focusing on both drug treatment and glycemic control have some methodological limitations. Objectives: To describe the r

  6. Hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu Zhang


    Full Text Available To improve the tracking accuracy of hypersonic sliding target in near space, the influence of target hypersonic movement on radar detection and tracking is analyzed, and an IMM tracking algorithm is proposed based on radial velocity compensating and cancellation processing of high dynamic biases under the earth centered earth fixed (ECEF coordinate. Based on the analysis of effect of target hypersonic movement, a measurement model is constructed to reduce the filter divergence which is caused by the model mismatch. The high dynamic biases due to the target hypersonic movement are approximately compensated through radial velocity estimation to achieve the hypersonic target tracking at low systematic biases in near space. The high dynamic biases are further eliminated by the cancellation processing of different radars, in which the track association problem can be solved when the dynamic biases are low. An IMM algorithm based on constant acceleration (CA, constant turning (CT and Singer models is used to achieve the hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space. Simulation results show that the target tracking in near space can be achieved more effectively by using the proposed algorithm.

  7. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J


    was necessary to achieve the overall schedule. Plans had to be developed for the precise location and alignment of laser beam ports. Upon completion of the fabrication of the aluminum target chamber in a temporary structure the 130 ton sphere was moved from the temporary construction enclosure to its final location in the target building. Prior to the installation of a concrete shield and after completion of the welding of the chamber penetrations vacuum leak checking was performed to insure the vacuum integrity of target chamber. The entire spherical chamber external surface supports a 40 cm thick reinforced concrete shield after installation in the target building. The final task is a total survey of the laser ports and the contour machining of spacer plates so that laser devices attached to these ports meet the alignment criteria.

  8. Non-kinetic capabilities: complementing the kinetic prevalence to targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducheine, P.A.L.; Ducheine, P.A.L.; Schmitt, M.N.; Osinga, F.P.B.


    Targeting is used in military doctrine to describe a military operational way, using (military) means to influence a target (or addressee) in order to achieve designated political and/or military goals. The four factors italicized are used to analyse non-kinetic targeting, thereby complementing our

  9. Target Visualization at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Daniel Abraham [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the targets used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure target surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. Using these techniques we are able to produce a detailed view of the shell surface, which in turn allows us to refine target manufacturing and cleaning processes. However, the volume of data produced limits the methods by which this data can be effectively viewed by a user. This paper introduces an image-based visualization system for data exploration of target shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It aims to combine multiple image sets into a single visualization to provide a method of navigating the data in ways that are not possible with existing tools.

  10. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement (United States)

    Edwards, Anthony C.


    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  11. Emerging targets in migraine. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jan; Goadsby, Peter J


    Migraine is a common and highly disabling neurological disorder. Despite the complexity of its pathophysiology, substantial advances have been achieved over the past 20 years in its understanding, as well as the development of pharmacological treatment options. The development of serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists ("triptans") substantially improved the acute treatment of migraine attacks. However, many migraineurs do not respond satisfactorily to triptans and cardiovascular co-morbidities limit their use in a significant number of patients. As migraine is increasingly considered to be a disorder of the brain, and preclinical and clinical data indicate that the observed vasodilation is merely an epiphenomenon, research has recently focused on the development of neurally acting compounds that lack vasoconstrictor properties. This review highlights the most important pharmacological targets for which compounds have been developed that are highly likely to enter or have already advanced into clinical trials for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. In this context, preclinical and clinical data on compounds acting on calcitonin gene-related peptide or its receptor, the 5-HT(1F) receptor, nitric oxide synthase, and acid-sensing ion channel blockers are discussed.

  12. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  13. The History of Target-Controlled Infusion. (United States)

    Struys, Michel M R F; De Smet, Tom; Glen, John Iain B; Vereecke, Hugo E M; Absalom, Anthony R; Schnider, Thomas W


    Target-controlled infusion (TCI) is a technique of infusing IV drugs to achieve a user-defined predicted ("target") drug concentration in a specific body compartment or tissue of interest. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic principles of TCI, the development of TCI systems, and technical and regulatory issues addressed in prototype development. We also describe the launch of the current clinically available systems.

  14. Electrically charged targets (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.


    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  15. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy (United States)

    Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Moir, Ralph W.


    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS2. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of +/- 0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  16. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.


    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  17. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy


    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  18. Applying Cognitive Work Analysis to Time Critical Targeting Functionality (United States)


    Target List/Dynamic Target Queue (DTL/ DTQ ) in the same place. Figure 4-27 shows the task steps involved in achieving Goal 7. 4- 30 Figure 4-27...GUI WG to brainstorm the order of columns in the DTL/ DTQ Table, a critical component of the TCTF CUI, with successful results, which were...Cognitive Work Analysis DTD Display Task Description DTL/ DTQ Dynamic Target List/Dynamic Target Queue FDO Fighter Duty Officer FEBA Forward Edge

  19. Challenges of achieving Good Environmental Status in the Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Alexander


    Full Text Available The sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystem services is dependent on achieving and maintaining an adequate ecosystem state to prevent undue deterioration. Within the European Union, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires member states to achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS, specified in terms of 11 descriptors. We analyzed the complexity of social-ecological factors to identify common critical issues that are likely to influence the achievement of GEnS in the Northeast Atlantic (NEA more broadly, using three case studies. A conceptual model developed using a soft systems approach highlights the complexity of social and ecological phenomena that influence, and are likely to continue to influence, the state of ecosystems in the NEA. The development of the conceptual model raised four issues that complicate the implementation of the MSFD, the majority of which arose in the Pressures and State sections of the model: variability in the system, cumulative effects, ecosystem resilience, and conflicting policy targets. The achievement of GEnS targets for the marine environment requires the recognition and negotiation of trade-offs across a broad policy landscape involving a wide variety of stakeholders in the public and private sectors. Furthermore, potential cumulative effects may introduce uncertainty, particularly in selecting appropriate management measures. There also are endogenous pressures that society cannot control. This uncertainty is even more obvious when variability within the system, e.g., climate change, is accounted for. Also, questions related to the resilience of the affected ecosystem to specific pressures must be raised, despite a lack of current knowledge. Achieving good management and reaching GEnS require multidisciplinary assessments. The soft systems approach provides one mechanism for bringing multidisciplinary information together to look at the problems in a different light.

  20. Neural fuzzy inference network approach to maneuvering target tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红; 刘允才; 韩崇昭; 朱洪艳; 文戎


    In target tracking study, the fast target maneuver detecting and highly accurate tracking are very important.And it is difficult to be solved. For the radar/infrared image fused tracking system, a extend Kalman filter combines with a neural fuzzy inference network to be used in maneuvering target tracking. The features related to the target maneuver are extracted from radar, infrared measurements and outputs of tracking filter, and are sent into the neural fuzzy inference network as inputs firstly, and then the target's maneuver inputs are estimated, so that, the accurate tracking is achieved. The simulation results indicate that the new method is valuable for maneuvering target tracking.

  1. Exploiting novel molecular targets in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Novel molecular targets are being discovered as we learn more about the aberrant processes underlying various cancers. Efforts to translate this knowledge are starting to impact on the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway and angiogenesis have been targeted successfully in colorectal cancer with cetuximab, panitunumab and bevacizumab. Similarly, EGFR-targeting with erlotinib yielded significant survival benefit in pancreatic cancer when combined with gemcitabine. The multi-targeting approach with sorafenib has made it the first agent to achieve significant survival benefit in hepatocellular carcinoma. Efforts to exploit the dysregulated Akt/mTOR pathway in GI cancer therapy are ongoing. These molecular targets can be disrupted by various approaches, including the use of monoclonal antibody to intercept extracellular ligands and disrupt receptor-ligand binding, and small molecule inhibitors that interrupt the activation of intracellular kinases.

  2. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting. (United States)

    Odenbach, Stefan


    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load.

  3. Targeted Cancer Therapies (United States)

    ... targeted therapies are directed against HER-2, including trastuzumab (Herceptin®), which is approved to treat certain breast and ... traditional chemotherapy drugs. For example, the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin®) has been used in combination with docetaxel , ...

  4. ISAC target operation with high proton currents

    CERN Document Server

    Dombsky, M; Schmor, P; Lane, M


    The TRIUMF-ISAC facility target stations were designed for ISOL target irradiations with up to 100 mu A proton beam currents. Since beginning operation in 1998, ISAC irradiation currents have progressively increased from initial values of approx 1 mu A to present levels of up to 40 mu A on refractory metal foil targets. In addition, refractory carbide targets have operated at currents of up to 15 mu A for extended periods. The 1-40 mu A operational regime is achieved by tailoring each target to the thermal requirements dictated by material properties such as beam power deposition, thermal conductivity and maximum operating temperature of the target material. The number of heat shields on each target can be varied in order to match the effective emissivity of the target surface for the required radiative power dissipation. Targets of different thickness, surface area and volume have been investigated to study the effect of diffusion and effusion delays on the yield of radioisotopes. For yields of short-lived p...

  5. Target studies for surface muon production (United States)

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.


    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  6. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith


    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  7. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued...... that tabu search could be used in near real-time decision making systems...

  8. Targeting cytotoxic T lymphocytes for cancer immunotherapy


    Maher, J; Davies, E. T.


    In light of their preeminent role in cellular immunity, there is considerable interest in targeting of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to cancer. This review summarises the active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches under development to achieve this goal, emphasising how recent advances in tumour immunology and gene transfer have impacted upon this field.

  9. Three brief assessments of math achievement. (United States)

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H


    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Cohen


    Full Text Available The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO are: i the promotion of standards and rights at work, to ensure that worker's constitutionally protected rights to dignity, equality and fair labour practices, amongst others, are safeguarded by appropriate legal frameworks; (ii the promotion of employment creation and income opportunities, with the goal being not just the creation of jobs but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality; (iii the provision and improvement of social protection and social security, which are regarded as fundamental to the alleviation of poverty, inequality and the burden of care responsibilities; and (iv the promotion of social dialogue and tripartism. This article considers the progress made towards the attainment of these decent work objectives in South Africa, using five statistical indicators to measure such progress namely: (i employment opportunities; (ii adequate earnings and productive work; (iii stability and security of work; (iv social protection; and (v social dialogue and workplace relations. It concludes that high levels of unemployment and a weakened economy in South Africa have given rise to a growing informal sector and an increase in unacceptable working conditions and exploitation. The rights of workers in the formal sector have not filtered down to those in the informal sector, who remains vulnerable and unrepresented. Job creation initiatives have been undermined by the global recession and infrastructural shortcomings and ambitious governmental targets appear

  11. Predicting Academic Achievement from Classroom Behaviors


    Flynt, Cynthia J.


    PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT FROM CLASSROOM BEHAVIORS by Cynthia J. Flynt Nancy Bodenhorn & Kusum Singh, Co-Chairs Counselor Education (ABSTRACT) This study examined the influence of behaviors exhibited in the classroom on reading and math achievement in the first, third and eighth grades; and the influence of teacher perceptions on reading and math achievement of African-Americans versus White students and male versus female students. Lastly, the study examined te...

  12. Cognitive abilities, sociocultural background and academic achievement


    Diniz, António; Pocinho, Margarida Maria Ferreira Diogo Dias; Almeida,Leandro Silva


    The infl uence of students’ sociocultural background on academic achievement is a well established fact. Research also points out that sociocultural background is related to students’ cognitive abilities and these have an effect on their academic achievement. However, the mediator role of cognitive abilities on the relationship between sociocultural background and academic achievement is less well known. A structural equation model that represents these relationships was tested in a sample...

  13. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure (United States)

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo


    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are. PMID:26977282

  14. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing


    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  15. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga


    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  16. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators? (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H


    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children.

  17. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.


    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  18. Psychoeducational interventions targeting core symptoms to achieve remission and prevent relapses and recurrence in depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.


    Depressive disorders have a high prevalence and incidence, and are associated with a huge burden of disease and economic costs. Most respond satisfactorily to drug therapy and/or psychological intervention, in particular to psychoeducation. By far the best-studied example of this approach is the Cop

  19. Cyclic endomorphin analogs in targeting opioid receptors to achieve pain relief. (United States)

    Janecka, Anna; Gentilucci, Luca


    Endomorphins, the endogenous ligands of the µ-opioid receptor, are attractive candidates for opioid-based pain-relieving agents. These tetrapeptides, with their remarkable affinity for the µ-opioid receptor, display favorable antinociceptive activity when injected directly into the brain of experimental animals. However, the application of endomorphins as clinical analgesics has been impeded by their instability in body fluids and inability to reach the brain after systemic administration. Among numerous modifications of the endomorphin structure aimed at improving their pharmacological properties, cyclization can be viewed as an interesting option. Here, we have summarized recent advances in obtaining endomorphin-based cyclic peptide analogs.

  20. Optimizing the role of tax auditor in attempt to achieve tax revenue target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawan Setianto


    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the role of Tax Auditor in KPP Madya Surabaya. This study uses a case study by collecting the data from Directorate General of Taxation official sources, either in KPP Madya Surabaya, Regional Office of Directorate General of Taxation East Java I, as well as the Directorate of Potency, Compliance, and Revenue. Researcher also conducted interviews with 12 informants consisting of Tax Auditor, Account Representative, Head of Office, as well as officials from the Directorate of Inspection and Billing. There are discrepancies between the expectations of stakeholders and what being  understood/perceived and expected by the Tax Auditor in relation to the role that must be executed. This causes the Tax Auditor to experience a role ambiguity which disrupts the optimizing the implementation of the role. Things that still impede the implementation of the role of the Tax Auditor are: rejection of the Taxpayer; intervention both from inside and outside/difficult to implement the independence in appearance and independence in fact; both physically and psychologically threats; the unclear mutation policy; promotion criteria being implemented inconsistently; and databases that have not been accurate and reliable. 

  1. Exploring climate regimes for differentiation of commitments to achieve the EU climate target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen den MGJ; Berk MM; Lucas P; Eickhout B; Vuuren van DP; KMD


    Dit rapport bevat een kwantitatieve verkenning van verschillende regimes voor lastenverdeling in het internationale klimaatbeleid op basis van mondiale emissieplafonds in overeenstemming met de EU lange termijn klimaatdoelstelling om de mondiaal gemiddelde temperatuurstijging te beperken tot 2 g

  2. Eighth Five-Year Plan Achievements and Ninth Five-Year Targets for CNPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yongkang


    @@ Through more than 40 years of development since the founding of the new China its onshore petroleum industry has already possessed considerably abundant economic and technical strength. Altogether 21 oil and gas producing bases have been established; a total length of 17thousand kilomers oil and gas pipelines have been constructed; 300thousand sets of various kinds of facilities have been equipped,including 816 large and mediumsized rigs; and a well-trained and rather completed petroleum professional contingent has been brougt up with annual operation capabilities of drilling footage of 20 million meters,building crude oil productivity of 20 million tons,and laying long-distance pipelines of 2 thousand kilometers.

  3. Geographically weighted lasso (GWL) study for modeling the diarrheic to achieve open defecation free (ODF) target (United States)

    Arumsari, Nurvita; Sutidjo, S. U.; Brodjol; Soedjono, Eddy S.


    Diarrhea has been one main cause of morbidity and mortality to children around the world, especially in the developing countries According to available data that was mentioned. It showed that sanitary and healthy lifestyle implementation by the inhabitants was not good yet. Inadequacy of environmental influence and the availability of health services were suspected factors which influenced diarrhea cases happened followed by heightened percentage of the diarrheic. This research is aimed at modelling the diarrheic by using Geographically Weighted Lasso method. With the existence of spatial heterogeneity was tested by Breusch Pagan, it was showed that diarrheic modeling with weighted regression, especially GWR and GWL, can explain the variation in each location. But, the absence of multi-collinearity cases on predictor variables, which were affecting the diarrheic, resulted in GWR and GWL modelling to be not different or identical. It is shown from the resulting MSE value. While from R2 value which usually higher on GWL model showed a significant variable predictor based on more parametric shrinkage value.

  4. Rotating target wheel for the FMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Davids, C.N.; Falout, J. [and others


    In anticipation of high intensity beams that will be available from the PII-ECR source injector to ATLAS, a new rotating target wheel was developed for the sliding seal chamber at the FMA. The wheel is 9 inch in diameter and contains up to ten targets. The rotation of the wheel is achieved by a DC motor, a ferrofluidic feedthrough, and a gear mechanism that allows both target rotation and changing the target angle relative to the beam. The nominal rotation speed is 1000 RPM, although higher speeds can be achieved if necessary. The assembly is equipped with an absolute encoder which is read out via a newly developed CAMAC module. This module provides the following main functions: (1) a TTL signal to be used for sweeping the beam when a target frame is about to pass through the beam, (2) a read-out of the target position that can be included in the data event structure, (3) programmable set points for the beam-off signal. The system is presently being tested and will be used in experiments scheduled for March 1995.

  5. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A


    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  6. Mitochondrially targeted fluorescent redox sensors. (United States)

    Yang, Kylie; Kolanowski, Jacek L; New, Elizabeth J


    The balance of oxidants and antioxidants within the cell is crucial for maintaining health, and regulating physiological processes such as signalling. Consequently, imbalances between oxidants and antioxidants are now understood to lead to oxidative stress, a physiological feature that underlies many diseases. These processes have spurred the field of chemical biology to develop a plethora of sensors, both small-molecule and fluorescent protein-based, for the detection of specific oxidizing species and general redox balances within cells. The mitochondrion, in particular, is the site of many vital redox reactions. There is therefore a need to target redox sensors to this particular organelle. It has been well established that targeting mitochondria can be achieved by the use of a lipophilic cation-targeting group, or by utilizing natural peptidic mitochondrial localization sequences. Here, we review how these two approaches have been used by a number of researchers to develop mitochondrially localized fluorescent redox sensors that are already proving useful in providing insights into the roles of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria.

  7. Multimedia Technology and Students' Achievement in Geography (United States)

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil


    In this study done at a community college in South Florida, the achievements of students who spoke English as their second language who had attended their K-12 education outside the United States in their home countries, in a U.S. college course on world geography are compared with the achievements of students in the same classes who spoke English…

  8. Achievement and Its Correlates: Symposium III A. (United States)

    Ismail, Maznah; And Others

    This symposium contains a report of a study which (1) examined the relationship between Malaysian children's perception of control and their academic achievement, by Maznah Ismail and Choo Piang Foong, and two abstracts of studies which (2) investigated achievement motivation and attribution of success in rural and urban Malaysian ethnic groups,…

  9. Professional Learning Communities Impact on Student Achievement (United States)

    Hamilton, Jan L.


    This study examined the impact of the Professional Learning Community model on student achievement in the state of California. Specifically, the study compared student achievement between two school types: Professional Learning Community schools and Non Professional Learning schools. The research utilized existing API scores for California schools…

  10. Physical Environment and Middle Grade Achievement. (United States)

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    This study measured the influence of air conditioning, carpeting, fluorescent lighting, and interior pastel coloring on the academic achievement of eighth grade Georgia pupils in 1975-76 when the variance due to socioeconomic status was statistically controlled. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the achievement scores of students on the…

  11. Health and Nutrition: Preconditions for Educational Achievement. (United States)

    Negussie, Birgit

    This paper discusses the importance of maternal and infant health for children's educational achievement. Education, health, and nutrition are so closely related that changes in one causes changes in the others. Improvement of maternal and preschooler health and nutrition is a precondition for improved educational achievement. Although parental…

  12. Achieving scale strategies for sustained competitive performance. (United States)

    Grube, Mark E; Gish, Ryan S; Tkach, Sasha N


    Growth to achieve scale requires the following strategic initiatives: Having a clear understanding of what the organization is and what it wants to become. Ensuring a structured and rigorous growth process. Leveraging size to achieve benefits of scale. Recognizing the importance of physicians, ambulatory care, and primary care. Establishing and maintaining accountability as growth occurs.

  13. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood


    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  14. Achieve inventory reduction and improve customer service? (United States)

    Moody, M C


    Is it really possible to achieve significant reductions in your manufacturing inventories while improving customer service? If you really want to achieve significant inventory reductions, focus on the root causes, and develop countermeasures and a work plan, to execute your countermeasures. Include measurements for recording your progress, and deploy your countermeasures until they are no longer required, or until new ones are needed.

  15. A Multivariate Model of Achievement in Geometry (United States)

    Bailey, MarLynn; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha


    Previous studies have shown that several key variables influence student achievement in geometry, but no research has been conducted to determine how these variables interact. A model of achievement in geometry was tested on a sample of 102 high school students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among…

  16. Target Studies for Surface Muon Production

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, F; Fuchs, A; Hajdas, W; Hodge, Z; Kettle, P -R; Knecht, A; Lüscher, R; Papa, A; Rutar, G; Wohlmuther, M


    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programmes. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90{\\deg}. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30 - 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizin...

  17. Understanding the contribution of target repetition and target expectation to the emergence of the prevalence effect in visual search. (United States)

    Godwin, Hayward J; Menneer, Tamaryn; Riggs, Charlotte A; Taunton, Dominic; Cave, Kyle R; Donnel, Nick


    Behavior in visual search tasks is influenced by the proportion of trials on which a target is presented (the target prevalence). Previous research has shown that when target prevalence is low (2 % prevalence), participants tend to miss targets, as compared with higher prevalence levels (e.g., 50 % prevalence). There is an ongoing debate regarding the relative contributions of target repetition and the expectation that a target will occur in the emergence of prevalence effects. In order to disentangle these two factors, we went beyond previous studies by directly manipulating participants' expectations regarding how likely a target was to appear on a given trial. This we achieved without using cues or feedback. Our results indicated that both target repetition and target expectation contribute to the emergence of the prevalence effect.

  18. Targeted tumor radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unak Perihan


    Full Text Available Targeted tumor radiotherapy is selectively delivery of curative doses of radiation to malignant sites. The aim of the targeted tumor radiotherapy is to use the radionuclides which have high LET particle emissions conjugated to appropriate carrier molecules. The radionuclides are selectively collected by tumor cells, depositing lethal doses to tumor cells while no admission occur to normal cells. In theory, targeted radiotherapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy since it allows a high radiation dose to be administered without causing normal tissue toxicity, although there are some limitations in the availability of appropriate targeting agents and in the calculations of administered doses. Therefore, for routine clinical applications more progress is still needed. In this article, the potential use of targeted tumor radiotherapy is briefly reviewed. More general aspects and considerations, such as potential radionuclides, mechanisms of tumor targeting was also outlined.

  19. Targeting Notch to target cancer stem cells. (United States)

    Pannuti, Antonio; Foreman, Kimberly; Rizzo, Paola; Osipo, Clodia; Golde, Todd; Osborne, Barbara; Miele, Lucio


    The cellular heterogeneity of neoplasms has been at the center of considerable interest since the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", originally formulated for hematologic malignancies, was extended to solid tumors. The origins of cancer "stem" cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells (TIC; henceforth referred to as CSCs) and the methods to identify them are hotly debated topics. Nevertheless, the existence of subpopulations of tumor cells with stem-like characteristics has significant therapeutic implications. The stem-like phenotype includes indefinite self-replication, pluripotency, and, importantly, resistance to chemotherapeutics. Thus, it is plausible that CSCs, regardless of their origin, may escape standard therapies and cause disease recurrences and/or metastasis after apparently complete remissions. Consequently, the idea of selectively targeting CSCs with novel therapeutics is gaining considerable interest. The Notch pathway is one of the most intensively studied putative therapeutic targets in CSC, and several investigational Notch inhibitors are being developed. However, successful targeting of Notch signaling in CSC will require a thorough understanding of Notch regulation and the context-dependent interactions between Notch and other therapeutically relevant pathways. Understanding these interactions will increase our ability to design rational combination regimens that are more likely to prove safe and effective. Additionally, to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from treatment with Notch-targeting therapeutics, reliable biomarkers to measure pathway activity in CSC from specific tumors will have to be identified and validated. This article summarizes the most recent developments in the field of Notch-targeted cancer therapeutics, with emphasis on CSC.

  20. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice


    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  1. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  2. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean


    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  3. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students’ Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariha Gull


    Full Text Available Multiple teaching methods are used by teachers in order to improve learning of students. The most popular is lecture method, while very effective is cooperative learning method. Later teaching method had been preferred for teaching science and languages as cited by previous research studies. However, in the subjects of social sciences and humanities, its importance cannot be ignored. Following study is an effort to determine effect of cooperative learning method on students’ achievement in subject of Education.  Qusi experimental design, with pre and post test of control and experimental group was used to achieve target of the study. Sample of the study consisted of 63 female students enrolled in grade 12 of a public college. An achievement test was used as a pre-test, the students were than divided in experimental and control groups. Multiple cooperative learning activities were performed with experimental group by using three common methods of cooperative learning i.e., STAD, TGT and Jigsaw II. The control group was taught by lecture method only. After 8 weeks a post test was administered on both experimental and control group in order to identify difference in achievement. The independent sample t-test was used to measure the mean scores difference between achievement scores of control and treatment groups on pretest.  The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=.825 leading to assumption that both groups were on equal level of achievement before intervention.  Same test was applied to find out difference between two groups before and after intervention.  The results showed that there was a significant difference in scores of control and experimental group in post-test. In addition to this paired sample t-test was conducted to compare the effect of intervention on achievement scores of experimental group.  The results showed that there was significant difference between scores of experimental

  4. Student academic achievement in college chemistry (United States)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  5. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L


    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  6. Target Assembly Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  7. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.


    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  8. A windowless gas target for secondary beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Kishida, T; Shibata, M; Watanabe, H; Tsutsumi, T; Motomura, S; Ideguchi, E; Zhou, X H; Morikawa, T; Kubo, T; Ishihara, M


    A windowless gas target was developed for the production of secondary high-spin isomer beams (HSIB). An sup 1 sup 6 O target in the compound form of CO sub 2 gas was used to produce a sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm beam by using an sup 1 sup 6 O( sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe, 7n) sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm reaction. The target gas pressure was kept constant at 50 Torr. A target thickness of about 1 mg/cm sup 2 was achieved with a 10 cm target length. Gas was recirculated and the consumption was very little.

  9. Personality and academic achievement in nniversity students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Niño de Guzmán


    Full Text Available The correlations among personality, academic performance and other variables in 170 university students were studied, using two instruments validated into the population: the NEOPJ-R, and the EPPS. Other variables as age, study level, self perception of academic achievement and self perception of motivation, and sources of support were included. Jt was confirmed the reliability and validity of both tests and the correlations between them. The results showed associations among academic performance and conscientiousness, endurance,change, and aggression. The academic performance was better explained by achievements triving, deliberation, change, self perception of academic achievement and age.

  10. Limited feedback achieves the empirical capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Eswaran, Krishnan; Sahai, Anant; Gastpar, Michael


    The utility of limited feedback for coding over an individual sequence of DMCs is investigated. This study complements recent results showing how limited or noisy feedback can boost the reliability of communication. A strategy with fixed input distribution $P$ is given that asymptotically achieves rates arbitrarily close to the mutual information induced by $P$ and the state-averaged channel. When the capacity achieving input distribution is the same over all channel states, this achieves rates at least as large as the capacity of the state averaged channel, sometimes called the empirical capacity.

  11. Gene targeting in adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting in nonhuman primates has the potential to produce critical animal models for translational studies related to human diseases. Successful gene targeting in fibroblasts followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been achieved in several species of large mammals but not yet in primates. Our goal was to establish the protocols necessary to achieve gene targeting in primary culture of adult rhesus macaque fibroblasts as a first step in creating nonhuman primate models of genetic disease using nuclear transfer technology. Results A primary culture of adult male fibroblasts was transfected with hTERT to overcome senescence and allow long term in vitro manipulations. Successful gene targeting of the HPRT locus in rhesus macaques was achieved by electroporating S-phase synchronized cells with a construct containing a SV40 enhancer. Conclusion The cell lines reported here could be used for the production of null mutant rhesus macaque models of human genetic disease using SCNT technology. In addition, given the close evolutionary relationship and biological similarity between rhesus macaques and humans, the protocols described here may prove useful in the genetic engineering of human somatic cells.

  12. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.


    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of curr

  13. Nanobody-functionalized polymersomes for tumor-vessel targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debets, M.F.; Leenders, W.P.J.; Verrijp, K.; Zonjee, M.; Meeuwissen, S.A.; Otte-Holler, I.; Hest, J.C.M. van


    Targeted carrier systems (e.g., liposomes or nanoparticles) are used to specifically deliver drugs to a site of interest. Site-direction can be achieved by attachment of targeting molecules, such as peptides, DNA/RNA, or antibodies, to the surface of the carrier. Here, the formation of polymersomes

  14. Recent CAS Achievements in Life Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Recent years have witnessed remarkable progress scored by CAS researchers along with the smooth development of the knowledge innovation program piloted at CAS. The follow-ings are just recent examples of CAS research achievements in life sciences.

  15. The integrated curriculum: experiences, achievements and problems. (United States)

    Gale, J


    In this article the aims, experiences and achievements of vertical and horizontal integration in undergraduate medical education are considered and reviewed, and some problems are identified. It is concluded that a clearer definition of integration would now be helpful.

  16. Cognitive abilities, sociocultural background and academic achievement. (United States)

    Diniz, António; Dias Pocinho, Margarida; Silva Almeida, Leandro


    The influence of students' sociocultural background on academic achievement is a well established fact. Research also points out that sociocultural background is related to students' cognitive abilities and these have an effect on their academic achievement. However, the mediator role of cognitive abilities on the relationship between sociocultural background and academic achievement is less well known. A structural equation model that represents these relationships was tested in a sample (N= 728) of Portuguese junior high school students. Multigroup analysis of the model showed the importance of the cognitive ability mediation effect between sociocultural background and academic achievement in the 7th and 9th grades, but not in the 8th grade. This difference may be the result of the academic transition experienced in the 7th and 9th grades in the Portuguese educational system, which requires parents' higher involvement in school.

  17. Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saúl Lizondo


    Full Text Available Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Thh paper examines the implications of some nominal exchange rate policies aimed or attaining a given real exchange rate target. A policy rule that sets the rate of nominal depreciation as a function of the departures of the real exchange rate from its target level is unable to achieve the target. In contrast, a policv rule that sets the change in the rate of depreciation as a function of those departures may lead the economy to the target, under certain conditions. However, this policy could also lead the economy to a process of accelerating inflation.

  18. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗



    In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58) and two state schools (n= 217)...

  19. Vibrotactile target saliency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Groen, E.l.; Oosterbeek, M.T.J.; Hooge, I.T.C.


    We tested the saliency of a single vibrotractile target (T) among 2 to 7 nontargets (N), presented by 8 tactors that were equally distributed over a horizontal band around the torso. Targets and nontargets had different pulse duration, but the same activation period and no onset asynchrony. T-N simi

  20. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)


    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  1. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  2. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Language Achievement among Peruvian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennia Matos


    Full Text Available We used an achievement goal framework to study the role of motivation in the academic context of a Peruvian sample of 8th to 10th grade high school students (N = 1505. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between students' achievement goals, their use of learning strategies and their academic achievement. Multiple Hierarchical Regressions Analyses identified, as predicted, positive effects of mastery goals, including more use of learning strategies and higher academic achievement, and negative effects of performance avoidance goals, including lower academic achievement. Mixed results were found for pursuing performance approach goals, which predicted a greater use of learning strategies, but were unrelated to academic achievement. The present findings support the external validity of achievement goal theory in a sample of students from a culture that is understudied in the achievement goal literature in particular and the motivational literature in general.

  3. Code Compliant School Buildings Boost Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Lumpkin


    Full Text Available Much of the focus in the literature in raising student achievement has included parental involvement, principal leadership, quality of instruction, students’ socioeconomic status, curriculum, and use of technology. Limited empirical research relates the condition of the school building as a variable that affects student achievement. Furthermore, there is no research that has examined the impact of building codes on achievement outcomes in the state of Florida. This research determined whether academic achievement of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students as measured by the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT increased in new school buildings compliant to the 2000 Florida State Requirements for Educational Facilities. A causal-comparative design determined whether the independent variables, old and new school building influenced student achievement as measured by students’ FCAT mathematics and reading subtest scores. The control group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in old buildings. The experimental group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in new buildings. Transition from an old school into a new school was the treatment. Two hypotheses were formulated for testing and the research question for the inquiry was whether the percentage of students passing the FCAT mathematics and reading subtests increases after transitioning from an old school building into a new 2000 UBC (Uniform Building Code compliant facility.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler


    Full Text Available Recent psychological studies highlight emotional aspects, and they show an important role within individual learning processes. Hereby, positive emotions were supposed to positively influence learning and achievement processes and negative ones do the contrary. In this study, an educational unit “ecosystem lake” was used during which achievement (three tests and emotional variables (interest, well-being, anxiety and boredom; measured at the end of three pre-selected lessons were monitored. The research question was to explore correlations between emotional variables and the learning outcome of the teaching unit. Prior knowledge was regressed against the subsequent tests to account for its confounding effect. Regressions showed a highly significant influence of prior knowledge on the subsequent measurements of achievement. However, after accounting for prior knowledge, a positive correlation between interest/well-being and achievement and a negative correlation between anxiety/boredom and achievement was found. Further research and interventions should try to enhance positive emotions in biology lessons to positively influence achievement.

  5. Selected problems of targeting active labour market policies in Poland


    Monika Maria Maksim; Dominik Sliwicki


    Well targeted active labour market policies create better prospects for achieving higher net employment effects. This article attempts to analyse targeting of active labour market policies in the context of regulations contained in the Act of Employment Promotion and Labour Market Institutions, and current evaluation findings. The paper analyses basic active labour market policies, that have been in place in Poland in 2009. To assess program targeting logistic regression was applied.

  6. Achieving Sustainable Value Planning For Malaysian Public Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faudzi


    Full Text Available Sustainability is the central development issue in the modern economy. Through sustainable development, quality of life can be improved or maintained over time. Since Malaysia is targeting to become a high-income nation by the year 2020, financial investment in public projects should be planned comprehensively so that it will generate immediate and long-term benefits to the country and the people. Within the currently tight financial environment, achieving value for money in public spending is seen as one of the enablers to maintain the right momentum of economic growth. Previous studies have established the importance of integrating sustainability consideration into Value Planning protocol in order to achieve value for money, underpinned by the sustainable development agenda. Despite the establishment of the framework for the integration, the opportunity of such integration within the Malaysian Value Planning protocol for public projects remains unclear. The present state of sustainability consideration within the Value Planning practice should be first evaluated, so that potential interventions to enhance the integration can be introduced. Responding to the gap, this exploratory study was conducted. The data was collected by means of document analysis, interviews and observations; subsequently analysed using the Template Analysis technique. Based on the current practice of Value Planning in Malaysia, ten interventions are proposed to transform the present practice into Sustainable Value Planning. Sustainable Value Planning is seen as a comprehensive concept in achieving value for money in public spending underpinned by the overarching concept of sustainability

  7. A Mediation Analysis of Achievement Motives, Goals, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese


    Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…

  8. Causal Ordering of Academic Self-Concept and Achievement: Effects of Type of Achievement Measure (United States)

    Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen


    Background: The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests,…

  9. M cell targeting by a Claudin 4 targeting peptide can enhance mucosal IgA responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo David D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal immune surveillance is thought to be largely achieved through uptake by specialized epithelial M cells. We recently identified Claudin 4 as an M cell target receptor and developed a Claudin 4 targeting peptide (CPE that can mediate uptake of nanoparticles through Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT M cells. Methods Recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (HA and a version with the CPE peptide at the C-terminal end was used to immunize mice by the intranasal route along with a single dose of cholera toxin as an adjuvant. Serum and mucosal IgG and IgA responses were tested for reactivity to HA. Results We found that the recombinant HA was immunogenic on intranasal administration, and inclusion of the CPE targeting peptide induced higher mucosal IgA responses. This mucosal administration also induced systemic serum IgG responses with Th2 skewing, but targeting did not enhance IgG responses, suggesting that the IgG response to mucosal immunization is independent of the effects of CPE M cell targeting. Conclusions M cell targeting mediated by a Claudin 4-specific targeting peptide can enhance mucosal IgA responses above the response to non-targeted mucosal antigen. Since Claudin 4 has also been found to be regulated in human Peyer's patch M cells, the CPE targeting peptide could be a reasonable platform delivery technology for mucosal vaccination.

  10. Student self-esteem and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nikoleta M.


    Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and

  11. Nuclear target development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.


    The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces thin foil targets needed for experiments performed at the ATLAS and Dynamitron accelerators. Targets are not only produced for the Physics Division but also for other divisions and occasionally for other laboratories and universities. In the past year, numerous targets were fabricated by vacuum evaporation either as self-supporting foils or on various substrates. Targets produced included Ag, Au, {sup 10,11}B, {sup 138}Ba, Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 155,160}Gd, {sup 76}Ge, In, LID, {sup 6}LiH, Melamine, Mg, {sup 142,150}Nd, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 206,208}Pb, {sup 194}Pt, {sup 28}Si, {sup 144,148}Sm, {sup 120,122,124}Sn, Ta, {sup 130}Te, ThF{sub 4}, {sup 46,50}Ti, TiH, U, UF{sub 4}, {sup 182}W and {sup 170}Yb. Polypropylene and aluminized polypropylene, along with metallized Mylar were produced for experiments at ATLAS. A number of targets of {sup 11}B of various thickness were made for the DEP 2-MeV Van de Graff accelerator. An increased output of foils fabricated using our small rolling mill included targets of Au, C, {sup 50}Cr, Cu, {sup 155,160}Gd, Mg, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 105,110}Pd. Sc, Ti, and {sup 64,66}Zn.

  12. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students’ Achievement in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajogbeje Oke James


    Full Text Available The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268 College of Education students offering mathematics as one of their subject combination, was selected using purposive sampling techniques. Three research instruments namely: Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS, Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT were used to collect data for the study. Data collected for the study were analyzed using correlational analysis and ANOVA. The results showed that a significantly low negative correlation coefficient existed between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. There is a negative and significant correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and achievement motivation. Similarly, a positive and significant correlation coefficient also exists between achievement motivation and mathematics achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should adopt activity based strategies and conducive learning environment in order to reduce college students’ anxieties in mathematics learning.

  13. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement (United States)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  14. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia


    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  15. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)


    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  16. STIS target acquisition (United States)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich


    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  17. Layout optimization for multilayer overlay targets (United States)

    Binns, L. A.; Smith, N. P.; Ausschnitt, C. P.; Morningstar, J.; Muth, W.; Schneider, J.; Yerdon, R.


    A novel overlay target developed by IBM and Accent Optical Technologies, Blossom, allows simultaneous overlay measurements of multiple layers (currently, up to 28) with a single target. This is achieved by a rotationally symmetric arrangement of small (4 micron) targets in a 50 micron square area, described more fully in a separate paper. In this paper, we examine the lessons learned in developing and testing the Blossom design. We start by examining proximity effects; the spacing of adjacent targets means that both the precision-like Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) and accuracy of a measurement can be affected by proximity of features. We use a mixture of real and modelled data to illustrate this problem, and find that the layout of Blossom reduces the proximity-induced bias. However, we do find that in certain cases proximity effects can increase the TMU of a particular measurement. The solution is to ensure that parts of the target that interact detrimentally are maximally separated. We present a solution to this, viewing the problem as a constrained Travelling Salesman Problem. We have imposed some global constraints, for example printing front-end and back-end layers on separate targets, and consistency with the overlay measurement strategy. Initially, we assume that pairwise measurements are either critical or non-critical, and optimize the layout so that the critical layers are both not placed adjacent to any prior or intermediate-layer features. We then build upon this structure, to consider the effect of low-energy implants (that cannot be seen once processed) and site re-use possibilities. Beyond this, we also investigate the impact of more strategic optimizations, for example, tuning the number of features on each layer. In each case, we present on-product performance data achieved, and modelled data on some additional target variants / extreme cases.

  18. Achieving high luminosity in the Fermilab Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, S.D.


    Fermilab has embarked upon a program, christened Fermilab III, to raise the luminosity in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider over the next five years by at least a factor of thirty beyond the currently achieved level of 1.6{times}10{sup 30}cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}. Components of the program include implementation of electrostatic separators, Antiproton Source improvements, installation of cold compressors, doubling the existing linac output energy, and the construction of a new accelerator--the Fermilab Main Injector. Basic limitations in the achievement of higher luminosity in the Tevatron, the strategy developed to achieve the Fermilab III goals, and the evolution of luminosity throughout the period will be discussed. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Achievable Precision for Optical Ranging Systems (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.


    Achievable RMS errors in estimating the phase, frequency, and intensity of a direct-detected intensity-modulated optical pulse train are presented. For each parameter, the Cramer-Rao-Bound (CRB) is derived and the performance of the Maximum Likelihood estimator is illustrated. Approximations to the CRBs are provided, enabling an intuitive understanding of estimator behavior as a function of the signaling parameters. The results are compared to achievable RMS errors in estimating the same parameters from a sinusoidal waveform in additive white Gaussian noise. This establishes a framework for a performance comparison of radio frequency (RF) and optical science. Comparisons are made using parameters for state-of-the-art deep-space RF and optical links. Degradations to the achievable errors due to clock phase noise and detector jitter are illustrated.

  20. Home media and children's achievement and behavior. (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L


    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls, and for Black but not White boys. Increased video game play was associated with an improved ability to solve applied problems for Black girls but lower verbal achievement for all girls. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems.

  1. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem SAVAŞ


    Full Text Available In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58 and two state schools (n= 217 in Van. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and Chi-Square analysis. The result of study showed that type of school, family income, studying time, students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses had statistically significant effects on students’ mathematics achievement.

  2. Achieving single channel, full duplex wireless communication

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jung Il


    This paper discusses the design of a single channel full-duplex wireless transceiver. The design uses a combination of RF and baseband techniques to achieve full-duplexing with minimal effect on link reliability. Experiments on real nodes show the full-duplex prototype achieves median performance that is within 8% of an ideal full-duplexing system. This paper presents Antenna Cancellation, a novel technique for self-interference cancellation. In conjunction with existing RF interference cancellation and digital baseband interference cancellation, antenna cancellation achieves the amount of self-interference cancellation required for full-duplex operation. The paper also discusses potential MAC and network gains with full-duplexing. It suggests ways in which a full-duplex system can solve some important problems with existing wireless systems including hidden terminals, loss of throughput due to congestion, and large end-to-end delays. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  3. Targeted Nanotechnology in Glioblastoma Multiforme (United States)

    Glaser, Talita; Han, Inbo; Wu, Liquan; Zeng, Xiang


    Gliomas, and in particular glioblastoma multiforme, are aggressive brain tumors characterized by a poor prognosis and high rates of recurrence. Current treatment strategies are based on open surgery, chemotherapy (temozolomide) and radiotherapy. However, none of these treatments, alone or in combination, are considered effective in managing this devastating disease, resulting in a median survival time of less than 15 months. The efficiency of chemotherapy is mainly compromised by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that selectively inhibits drugs from infiltrating into the tumor mass. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), with their unique biology and their resistance to both radio- and chemotherapy, compound tumor aggressiveness and increase the chances of treatment failure. Therefore, more effective targeted therapeutic regimens are urgently required. In this article, some well-recognized biological features and biomarkers of this specific subgroup of tumor cells are profiled and new strategies and technologies in nanomedicine that explicitly target CSCs, after circumventing the BBB, are detailed. Major achievements in the development of nanotherapies, such as organic poly(propylene glycol) and poly(ethylene glycol) or inorganic (iron and gold) nanoparticles that can be conjugated to metal ions, liposomes, dendrimers and polymeric micelles, form the main scope of this summary. Moreover, novel biological strategies focused on manipulating gene expression (small interfering RNA and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats [CRISPR]/CRISPR associated protein 9 [Cas 9] technologies) for cancer therapy are also analyzed. The aim of this review is to analyze the gap between CSC biology and the development of targeted therapies. A better understanding of CSC properties could result in the development of precise nanotherapies to fulfill unmet clinical needs.

  4. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  5. Achievement Motivation and EEG Spectral Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Vorobyeva


    Full Text Available Achievement motivation is a psychological category which implies a desire to achieve significant (powerful results in certain sphere. According to the results of psychophysiological research people who are motivated for success are very active before they are instructed by the researcher which proves that they aimed at the perception of the referent situation and the intense level of expectations. One of the vital issues today is a problem how genes influence human behaviour. Thus on the basis of contemporary researches we can conclude that such influence is regulated by brain processes.

  6. Achieving competitiveness through supply chain integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan S.; Seerup, Søren


    Supply chain development can take place in several steps, from functional optimisation, then internal integration, dyadic integration and last, integration in chains and networks. Before external integration gives true value, order in own house must be achieved. This paper presents a case study...... of a Danish manufacturer that has gone through a major transformation process, and the paper intends to discuss how such a Business Process Reengineering (BPR) project aimed to achieve internal integration. The paper demonstrates how improved competitiveness can be obtained through a synchronous...

  7. Impact of Metacognition on Guitar Performance Achievement


    Yokuş, Tuba


    This study has been carried out to determine the impact of the development of metacognition on guitar performance achievement in the individual instrument guitar lesson, which is included in the Bachelor’s program of Music Teacher Education in Marmara University Atatürk Faculty of Education, Department of Fine Arts Education, in Turkey. “Experimental Design with Pretest–Posttest Control Group” has been used, in order to achieve the objective of the study. The study sample (N=10) consists of g...

  8. Achieving patient satisfaction: resolving patient complaints. (United States)

    Oxler, K F


    Patients demand to be active participants on and partners with the health care team to design their care regimen. Patients bring unique perceptions and expectations and use these to evaluate service quality and satisfaction. If customer satisfaction is not achieved and a patient complaint results, staff must have the skills to respond and launch a service recovery program. Service recovery, when done with style and panache, can retain loyal customers. Achieving patient satisfaction and resolving patient complaints require commitment from top leadership and commitment from providers to dedicate the time to understand their patients' needs.

  9. Issues in Target Tracking (United States)


    the CUSUM (Page) test yields the quickest detection of a change of distribution for the case of i.i.d. observations [3]. In fact, in a (highly...11. Autocorrelation of the CUSUM increments, sn, under H1 (target present). Issues in Target Tracking RTO-EN-SET-157(2010...restrictive condition that the increments of the cumulative sum, sn, be i.i.d. [3], [22]. Fig. 11 plots the autocorrelation of the CUSUM increments as a

  10. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  11. Emerging Targets in Photopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerch, Michael M; Hansen, Mickel J; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L


    The field of photopharmacology uses molecular photoswitches to establish control over the action of bioactive molecules. It aims to reduce systemic drug toxicity and the emergence of resistance, while achieving unprecedented precision in treatment. By using small molecules, photopharmacology provide

  12. Achieving optimum diffraction based overlay performance (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee; Coogans, Martyn; Fuchs, Andreas; Ponomarenko, Mariya; van der Schaar, Maurits; Vanoppen, Peter


    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) metrology has been shown to have significantly reduced Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) compared to Image Based Overlay (IBO), primarily due to having no measurable Tool Induced Shift (TIS). However, the advantages of having no measurable TIS can be outweighed by increased susceptibility to WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) caused by target damage, process non-uniformities and variations. The path to optimum DBO performance lies in having well characterized metrology targets, which are insensitive to process non-uniformities and variations, in combination with optimized recipes which take advantage of advanced DBO designs. In this work we examine the impact of different degrees of process non-uniformity and target damage on DBO measurement gratings and study their impact on overlay measurement accuracy and precision. Multiple wavelength and dual polarization scatterometry are used to characterize the DBO design performance over the range of process variation. In conclusion, we describe the robustness of DBO metrology to target damage and show how to exploit the measurement capability of a multiple wavelength, dual polarization scatterometry tool to ensure the required measurement accuracy for current and future technology nodes.

  13. Advancing Academic Achievement in the Heterogeneous Classroom. (United States)

    Casey, Linda; And Others

    This master's project analyzed the implementation of a program designed to address the academic needs of all students in a heterogeneous classroom. The targeted population consisted of secondary parochial school students from working and middle class backgrounds in or around a large midwestern metropolitan area. Problems of underachievement were…

  14. Computational design of nanoparticle drug delivery systems for selective targeting. (United States)

    Duncan, Gregg A; Bevan, Michael A


    Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting diseased cells and tissues.

  15. Automatic target recognition based on cross-plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

    Full Text Available Automatic target recognition that relies on rapid feature extraction of real-time target from photo-realistic imaging will enable efficient identification of target patterns. To achieve this objective, Cross-plots of binary patterns are explored as potential signatures for the observed target by high-speed capture of the crucial spatial features using minimal computational resources. Target recognition was implemented based on the proposed pattern recognition concept and tested rigorously for its precision and recall performance. We conclude that Cross-plotting is able to produce a digital fingerprint of a target that correlates efficiently and effectively to signatures of patterns having its identity in a target repository.

  16. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement. (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  17. Perceptions of Parent Involvement in Academic Achievement (United States)

    DePlanty, Jennifer; Coulter-Kern, Russell; Duchane, Kim A.


    The authors sought to understand the types of parent involvement that teachers, parents, and students believe affect the academic achievement of adolescent learners at the junior high school level. Research that included focus groups, interviews, and surveys indicated that teachers and students believed that parent involvement at school was…

  18. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates (United States)

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert


    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  19. Critical Consciousness: A Key to Student Achievement (United States)

    El-Amin, Aaliyah; Seider, Scott; Graves, Daren; Tamerat, Jalene; Clark, Shelby; Soutter, Madora; Johannsen, Jamie; Malhotra, Saira


    Research has suggested that critical consciousness--the ability to recognize and analyze systems of inequality and the commitment to take action against these systems--can be a gateway to academic motivation and achievement for marginalized students. To explore this approach, the authors studied five urban schools that include critical…

  20. Attitudes and Achievement: A Complex Relationship. (United States)

    Robinson, Mary L.

    This paper investigates the popular belief that children's attitudes toward school and particular subjects have a positive relationship with their school and subject achievement. Definitions of attitude by L. L. Thurstone, L. W. Doob, and M. Fishbein are presented as a basis for the investigation. The difficulties involved in assessing attitudes…

  1. Impact of School Technology on Student Achievement (United States)

    Young, Larry Douglas, Jr.


    This study provides an overview of the impact of school technology on elementary students in grades three through five attending public schools in Indiana. The investigation focused on the impact of various technologies on student achievement as measured on Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+). Various comparisons were…

  2. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability (United States)

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  3. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement (United States)

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James


    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  4. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research (United States)

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen


    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  5. 28 CFR 545.28 - Achievement awards. (United States)


    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.28 Achievement awards. (a) With prior approval of... related trades classroom work that is part of a certified apprenticeship program may be granted...

  6. Professional Learning Communities and Student Achievement (United States)

    Jacobs, Thach Kam Yin


    An exploratory quantitative study of professional learning communities and student achievement in the largest school system in the State of North Carolina provides evidence to support systemic implementation of professional learning community practices and activities. A one-way ANOVA was conducted to explore the impact of teachers' perceptions of…

  7. Five Companies Receive IDEA10 Achievement Awards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Prestigious industry awards presented at IDEA10 in Miami Beach this week;special Entrepreneurial Award also presented at IDEA 10 CARY,NC April 28,2010-The IDEA10 Achievement Awards, which recognize the best new nonwoven and engineered fabric products introduced in the past three years,were presented in six different categories

  8. Physics Achievements from the Belle Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Brodzicka, Jolanta; Chang, Paoti; Eidelman, Simon; Golob, Bostjan; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Hayashii, Hisaki; Iijima, Toru; Inami, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kay; Kwon, Youngjoon; Miyabayashi, Kenkichi; Mohanty, Gagan; Nakao, Mikihiko; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Olsen, Stephen; Sakai, Yoshihide; Schwanda, Christoph; Schwartz, Alan; Trabelsi, Karim; Uehara, Sadaharu; Uno, Shoji; Watanabe, Yasushi; Zupanc, Anze


    The Belle experiment, running at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider during the first decade of the century, achieved its original objective of measuring precisely differences between particles and anti-particles in the B system. After collecting 1000 fb-1 of data at various Upsilon resonances, Belle also obtained the many other physics results described in this article.

  9. Achieving Excellence: Mastery Learning in Legal Education. (United States)

    Feinman, J. M.; Feldman, Marc


    Law schools should require excellence of all students, and mastery learning is a technique useful for structuring entire curricula or course segments to achieve high standards. A Rutgers course in contracts, torts, and legal research and writing developed to apply mastery learning strategies has proven successful. (MSE)

  10. Ego Development and Adolescent Academic Achievement (United States)

    Bursik, Krisanne; Martin, Timothy A.


    This study investigated ego developmental differences in adolescent academic orientations and academic achievement. A sample of 142 male and female high school students completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and self-report measures assessing academic locus of control, learning orientation (LO), and grade orientation (GO).…

  11. What Characterises High Achieving Students’ Mathematical Reasoning?


    Haavold, Per Øystein


    This study investigates high achieving students’ mathematical reasoning when given an unfamiliar trigonometric equation. The findings indicate that the students’ way of thinking is strongly linked with imitative reasoning and only when they received some form of guidance, were they able to display flexible and creative mathematical reasoning.

  12. Friend Influence on Achievement during Middle Childhood (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn


    This study was designed to investigate friend influence on academic achievement and task avoidance during middle childhood in a sample of 794 participants in 397 stable same-sex friendship dyads (205 girl dyads and 192 boy dyads) from four municipalities in Finland: two in Central Finland, one in Western Finland, and one in Eastern Finland.…

  13. Competition and achievement goals in work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemeier, H.; Bittner, Jenny V.


    This study examined how competition within teams influences which type of achievement goals employees adopt. We studied how dispositional learning-goal and performance-goal orientation interact with team-level competition and predict whether team members adopt state learning or performance achieveme

  14. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  15. Achievements in Building The Legal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the past three decades,people have gained an increasingly deeper under-standing of the law,and theories on democracy and justice have been en-riched.A socialist legal framework has been developing and the rule of law has becomea basic governing principle.China has made unprecedented achievements in promoting law-based governance.

  16. New Achievements in Well Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Tingdong


    @@ In the first five years of 1990s, new achievements made in China's onshore well logging technology have enhanced the benefits of exploration and development for complex oil and gas reservoirs and have thus showed the trend of the development of China's well logging technology towards the end of this century.

  17. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies. (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik


    Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…

  18. Improving Achievement through Problem-Based Learning (United States)

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer


    In this study, the effect of problem-based learning on students' academic achievement and performance skills in a unit on the human excretory system was investigated. Sixty-one 10th grade students, from two full classes instructed by the same biology teacher, were involved in the study. Classes were randomly assigned as either the experimental or…

  19. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement. (United States)

    Kremer, Philip L.


    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  20. Achieving Sex Equity via Vocational Education. (United States)

    Goetsch, David L.; Gulledge, Earl N.


    Reviews the women's rights movement and discusses the evolution of society's attitudes toward women. Discusses the goals and methods of Okaloosa-Walton Junior College Sex Equity Plan, a vocational education program for achieving sex equity. Highlights five major components: education, student recruitment, self-paced, self-directed instruction, job…

  1. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra (United States)

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.


    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District, Ojo, Lagos,…

  2. Enhancing Communication and Achieving Mutual-benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Gendang; Xu Jianmei


    @@ The Third China International Small & Medium Enterprises Fair and Sino-Italy Small &Medium Enterprises Fair was completed successfully The pageant for international small and medium enterprises, the third China International Small & Medium Enterprises Fair and Sino-Italy Small & Medium Enterprises Fair, was completed successfully recently in Guangzhou.During those several days, the fair has achieved great success.

  3. Only Children, Achievement, and Interpersonal Orientation. (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    Many psychological theories point to the importance of siblings in individual personality development. The impact of sibling status on interpersonal and achievement orientation was examined with undergraduates (N=1782) who completed a series of objective personality measures and a background questionnaire. Sibling status was defined in terms of…

  4. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women. (United States)

    Goldberg, Lois S.


    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  5. Achieving Fluency: Special Education and Mathematics (United States)

    Fennell, Francis


    "Achieving Fluency" presents the understandings that all teachers need to play a role in the education of students who struggle: those with disabilities and those who simply lack essential foundational knowledge. This book serves teachers and supervisors by sharing increasingly intensive instructional interventions for struggling students on…

  6. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement (United States)

    Griffith, John R.


    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  7. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Mathematics Achievement. (United States)

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.


    This study examined the effects of field dependence/independence and the level of operational development on the mathematics achievement of 450 students in grades 6-8. Field-independent students scored significantly higher on total mathematics, concepts, and problem-solving tests. High-operational students scored significantly higher on all tests.…

  8. Principals' Leadership Styles and Student Achievement (United States)

    Harnish, David Alan


    Many schools struggle to meet No Child Left Behind's stringent adequate yearly progress standards, although the benchmark has stimulated national creativity and reform. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of principals' leadership styles, curriculum reform, and student achievement to ascertain possible factors to improve…

  9. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions (United States)

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.


    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  10. Goal Orientations and Adolescent Mathematics Achievement (United States)

    Keys, Tran Dang


    Motivation is a fundamental educational challenge for adolescents in the United States, and particularly for immigrant youth. The motivation to achieve, especially in mathematics, declines during adolescence. Most of what is known about motivation is based on studies of predominately middle-class White students; yet the influx of immigrants over…

  11. Relationship of Study Habits with Mathematics Achievement (United States)

    Odiri, Onoshakpokaiye E.


    The study examined the relationship of study habits of students and their achievement in mathematics. The method used for the study was correlation design. A sample of 500 students were randomly selected from 25 public secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were drawn to gather data on…

  12. Covariation of Cognitive Styles, Intelligence and Achievement. (United States)

    Satterly, D. J.


    A hierarchical factor analysis of 430 pupils' scores was performed on a matrix of correlations between three measures of cognitive style (analytic-synthetic; field independence; leveling-sharpening) and achievement in mathematics, geography, and English. Findings provide some support for the independence of cognitive style from general…

  13. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa


    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…

  14. Low and high achievers in math

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck; Weng, Peter


    In this session we will present the results of the preliminary analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data, which can be used to enhance the teaching of low and high mathematics achievers so as to increase their mathematical knowledge and confidence....

  15. The Highest & Lowest Reliability Achievable with Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Peter W.


    -dependent, it is difficult to assess the reliability of the system. The paper describes the ¿-transformation by which the highest and lowest reliability achievable can be determined for a configuration using components with specified reliabilities. As a by-product we become able to pinpoint the statistical relationships...

  16. Factors Implicated in High Mathematics Achievement (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen J.; Hill, Janelle C.


    The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (2009) mathematical literacy results provide evidence that in Western English-speaking countries, including Australia, the gender gap in achievement appears to be widening in favour of males. In the study reported in this article, the aim was to explore the effects of gender,…

  17. Age and Outstanding Occupational Achievement: Lehman Revisited. (United States)

    Mumford, Michael D.


    Reviews the findings of Lehman's study of age and outstanding occupational achievement along with the explanations of why major contributions most likely occur in young adulthood. Proposes an alternative explanation based on the central developmental tasks facing individuals in young adulthood and middle age. (JAC)

  18. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements (United States)

    Jensen, Mikael


    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  19. Effects of Ability Grouping on Student Achievement. (United States)

    Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.


    Examines the effect of within-class and between-class ability groupings on the academic achievement of gifted elementary and secondary level students. Results showed that gifted students gained more academically than they would have if they had been taught in heterogeneous classes. (PS)

  20. Accelerating Mathematics Achievement Using Heterogeneous Grouping (United States)

    Burris, Carol Corbett; Heubert, Jay P.; Levin, Henry M.


    This longitudinal study examined the effects of providing an accelerated mathematics curriculum in heterogeneously grouped middle school classes in a diverse suburban school district. A quasi-experimental cohort design was used to evaluate subsequent completion of advanced high school math courses as well as academic achievement. Results showed…

  1. Toward Achieving the Dietitian's Goal: Client Education. (United States)

    Wulf, Kathleen M.; Biltz, Peggy

    The role of the dietitian as a teacher of clients who must adhere to a special diet for health reasons is discussed. The objective of this education process is to achieve a complete understanding on the part of the client not only of what is allowed in the diet but also why it is desirable. The dietitian in the professional role as an educator…

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap on ACT & SAT (United States)

    Anderson, David


    Research has focused on four groups of factors and the achievement gap: (1) student characteristics (high school GPA, attendance patterns, courses taken in high school, participation in extra-curricular activities, etc.); (2) family characteristics (family structure, in home, parents' level of education, mobility, etc.); (3) school-based…

  3. Achieving Product Qualities Through Software Architecture Practices (United States)


    2004 by Carnegie Mellon University page 1 Achieving Product Qualities Through Software Architecture Practices Linda Northrop Director, Product ...of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information... Product Qualities Through Software Architecture Practices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  4. Five Companies Receive IDEA10 Achievement Awards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ CARY, NC April 28, 2010 - The IDEA10 Achievement Awards, which recognize the best new nonwoven and engineered fabric products introduced in the past three years, were presented in six different categories during a special ceremony on the second day of IDEA10 International Engineered Fabrics Conference and Exposition, April 28, 2010, in Miami Beach, Florida.

  5. Mathematics Achievement of Vietnamese Grade 5 Pupils (United States)

    Griffin, Patrick


    This article reports the results of a national survey of mathematics achievement at the end of primary school in Vietnam. A sample of more than 72000 students were assessed from 61 provinces. The items were matched to the Vietnam Mathematics curriculum for Year 5 students. Using a skills audit of the items, a variable of Vietnamese mathematics…

  6. Poverty and Educational Achievement: An Analysis Plan. (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas

    This paper describes a series of proposed analyses that would make use of existing information from national surveys of the school-aged population and other large-scale databases in order to illuminate trends in the makeup, life circumstances, schooling, and educational achievement of the population of United States children that is eligible for…

  7. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Language Achievement among Peruvian High School Students


    Lennia Matos; Willy Lens; Maarten Vansteenkiste


    We used an achievement goal framework to study the role of motivation in the academic context of a Peruvian sample of 8th to 10th grade high school students (N = 1505). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between students' achievement goals, their use of learning strategies and their academic achievement. Multiple Hierarchical Regressions Analyses identified, as predicted, positive effects of mastery goals, including more use of learning strategies and hi...

  8. Effect of blended learning to academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Karani Ceylan


    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of blended learning on the middle school students’ academic achievement level and product evaluation scores were investigated. Blended learning provides more effective learning outcome gains through enriching todays’ developing Web Technologies with learning environments. This study was carried out with a total of 53 students enrolled in the experimental group and control group in the 6th grade classrooms during the 2014/2015 school year in a middle school in southwest part of Turkey. The intervention lasted 7 weeks. During the seven weeks, the unit of “problem solving, computer programming and development of Software product”, covered in Educational technologies and Software course, is taught through blended learning environment. The experimental group was taught using blended learning environment which supported with enriched web technologies (such as video-conference, Learning Management System, Discussion blogs , etc.. Whereas the experimental group was given access to all these enriched contents that are presented to the control group only during the classroom environment through present teaching methods. The design of the study includes quantitative method. We collected quantitative data such as academic achievement test and product evaluation scale. Academic achievement test and product evaluation scale were used as quantitative data collection sources. Quantitative data was collected through the evaluation of students’ projects that they developed during the process of the study and the academic achievement tests. During the data analysis phase, independent t-test, frequency and ANOVA tests were used. As a result of this study, it is concluded that blended learning environment had generated a significant difference in students’ academic achievement on behalf of experimental group. Implications of the study for the educational environments were discussed.

  9. Targeting neurons and photons for optogenetics. (United States)

    Packer, Adam M; Roska, Botond; Häusser, Michael


    Optogenetic approaches promise to revolutionize neuroscience by using light to manipulate neural activity in genetically or functionally defined neurons with millisecond precision. Harnessing the full potential of optogenetic tools, however, requires light to be targeted to the right neurons at the right time. Here we discuss some barriers and potential solutions to this problem. We review methods for targeting the expression of light-activatable molecules to specific cell types, under genetic, viral or activity-dependent control. Next we explore new ways to target light to individual neurons to allow their precise activation and inactivation. These techniques provide a precision in the temporal and spatial activation of neurons that was not achievable in previous experiments. In combination with simultaneous recording and imaging techniques, these strategies will allow us to mimic the natural activity patterns of neurons in vivo, enabling previously impossible 'dream experiments'.

  10. Target materials for exotic ISOL beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gottberg, A


    The demand for intensity, purity, reliability and availability of short-lived isotopes far from stability is steadily high, and considerably exceeding the supply. In many cases the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method can provide beams of high intensity and purity. Limitations in terms of accessible chemical species and minimum half-life are driven mainly by chemical reactions and physical processes inside of the thick target. A wide range of materials are in use, ranging from thin metallic foils and liquids to refractory ceramics, while poly-phasic mixed uranium carbides have become the reference target material for most ISOL facilities world-wide. Target material research and development is often complex and especially important post-irradiation analyses are hindered by the high intrinsic radiotoxicity of these materials. However, recent achievements have proven that these investigations are possible if the effort of different facilities is combined, leading to the development of new material matrices t...

  11. Targeting immune checkpoints in malignant glioma (United States)

    Li, Tete; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jingtao


    Malignant glioma is the most common and a highly aggressive cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer immunotherapy, strategies to boost the bodys anti-cancer immune responses instead of directly targeting tumor cells, recently achieved great success in treating several human solid tumors. Although once considered immune privileged and devoid of normal immunological functions, CNS is now considered a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, featuring the recent progresses in neurobiology and neuroimmunology and a highly immunosuppressive state in malignant glioma. In this review, we focus on immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically, antagonizing monoclonal antibodies for programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We discuss advances in the working mechanisms of these immune checkpoint molecules, their status in malignant glioma, and current preclinical and clinical trials targeting these molecules in malignant glioma. PMID:27756892

  12. Lactosamination of liposomes and hepatotropic targeting research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Peng Chen; Lian Zhang; Qiao Sheng Lu; Xiao Rong Feng; Kang Xian Luo


    Site-specific delivery of therapeutic drugs to their target cells is a major scientific challenge for the pharmaceutical sciences. It offers a number of advantages over conventional drug administration. With drug targeting, high local concentrations of the drug can be achieved, thus circumventing many unwanted side effects. Various carriers have been suggested for the delivery of drugs, including liposomes[1 - 5] and (neo ) glycoproteins[6-8]. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) has frequently been utilized for targeting drugs to the parenchymal liver cell[6- 12]. Liposomes have several advantageous characteristics as drug carrier, and particularly, ligandtacked liposomes achieve a highly effective targeting[13]. Hara et al reported that asialofetuin (AF)-tacked liposomes distributed to rat hepatocytes selectively in vivo[14], and ASGP-R mediated the uptake of AF-liposomes encapsulating IFN-γ by isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro[15]. Lactosaminated human serum albumin (L-HSA) is a neoglycoprotein taking number of galactose residue as terminal sugar[6].

  13. Ignition target design for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, S.W.; Pollaine, S.M.; Lindl, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others


    The goal of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to produce significant thermonuclear burn from a target driven with a laser or ion beam. To achieve that goal, the national ICF Program has proposed a laser capable of producing ignition and intermediate gain. The facility is called the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This article describes ignition targets designed for the NIF and their modeling. Although the baseline NIF target design, described herein, is indirect drive, the facility will also be capable of doing direct-drive ignition targets - currently being developed at the University of Rochester.

  14. Achieving low latency and energy consumption by 5G TDD mode optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähetkangas, Eeva; Pajukoski, Kari; Vihriälä, Jaakko


    The target for a new 5G radio access technology is to support multi-Gbps and ms latency connectivity simultaneously at noticeably lower energy consumption and cost compared to the existing 4G technologies, such as LTE-Advanced. Extremely short air interface latency is required to achieve these re...

  15. Sourcing tactics to achieve cost savings: developing a formative method of measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesping, Frank; Schiele, Holger


    Sourcing levers describe tactics to achieve sourcing targets for diverse categories of materials or services. However, relevant research has been prevented inasmuch as the sourcing lever concept lacks explicit conceptualisation and a method of measurement. To fill this gap, this study developed a fo

  16. Achieving Quality Education in Ghana: The Spotlight on Primary Education within the Kumasi Metropolis (United States)

    Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Anin, Emmanuel Kwabena; Vanderpuye, Patience


    Background: Ghana being a member of the United Nations, committed to the Universal Primary Education initiative in 2000 and has since implemented series of educational reforms to meet the target for the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2. Despite the numerous government interventions to achieve the MDG 2, many children in Ghana have been denied…

  17. Academic Culture, Business Culture, and Measuring Achievement Differences: Internal Auditing Views (United States)

    Roth, Benjamin S.


    This study explored whether university internal audit directors' views of culture and measuring achievement differences between their institutions and a business were related to how they viewed internal auditing priorities and uses. The Carnegie Classification system's 283 Doctorate-granting Universities were the target population.…

  18. Impact of Discussion on Peer Evaluations: Perceptions of Low Achievement and Effort (United States)

    Huenecke, Todd M.; Waas, Gregory A.


    The authors placed 5th-grade students into small groups of 3 in order to examine the impact of group discussion and displayed effort on children's evaluations of a low-achieving peer. Low effort by a target peer resulted in negative evaluations across attributional, affective, help-giving, and social response dimensions. Children who participated…

  19. Relationship of Academic, Physical and Social Self-Concepts of Students with Their Academic Achievement (United States)

    Zahra, Asma-Tuz; Arif, Manzoor H.; Yousuf, Muhammad Imran


    This study investigated relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of bachelor degree students. Female students at bachelor were considered the target population. A sample of 1500 students was selected by using two stage cluster sampling technique. An amended form of Self-Descriptive Questionnaire developed by Marsh (1985) was used…

  20. Opportunity to Learn and English Learner Achievement: Is Increased Content Exposure Beneficial? (United States)

    Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Boscardin, Christy Kim


    This investigation examined the impact of opportunity to learn content and skills targeted by a writing assessment on the achievement of English learners (ELs), including the potential for differential impact of increased exposure to literary analysis and writing instruction. Results revealed several factors contributing to students' writing…

  1. Influence of Parenting Styles on the Adolescent Students' Academic Achievement in Kenyan Day Secondary Schools (United States)

    Odongo, Alice Atieno; Aloka, Peter J. O.; Raburu, Pamela


    The present study sought to establish the influence of parenting styles on adolescent academic achievement in day secondary schools in North Rachuonyo Sub-County, Kenya. Baumrind's theory of parenting style informed the study. The Concurrent Triangulation Design was used. The target population comprised 2409 day secondary students registered for…

  2. Refugee Children in South Africa: Access and Challenges to Achieving Universal Primary Education (United States)

    Meda, L.; Sookrajh, R.; Maharaj, B.


    This paper questions whether the second Millennium Development Goal of achieving universal primary education targets by 2015 for all children to complete a full course of primary schooling, can be realised. A key contention of this paper is that this forecast is far-fetched when we take into cognizance refugee children's accessibility to…

  3. Improving Student Achievement in Language Arts through Implementation of Multiple Intelligences Strategies. (United States)

    Geimer, Mandy; Getz, Jennifer; Pochert, Terry; Pullam, Karen

    Student achievement has been low in language arts in Suburban Chicago, Illinois school districts. This action research project was designed to determine the effect of incorporating multiple intelligence strategies into the language arts curriculum. The targeted students were in the second, third, and fifth grades, in a western suburb of Chicago,…

  4. Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement (United States)

    Robinson, Tina


    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

  5. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachauri, S.; van Ruijven, B.J.; Nagai, Y.; Riahi, K.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Brew-Hammond, A.; Nakicenovic, N.


    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targ

  6. Using Advance Organizers to Enhance Pupils' Achievement in Learning Poetry in English Language (United States)

    Muiruri, Mary; Wambugu, Patriciah; Wamukuru, Kuria


    The study was a quasi-experimental that investigated the effects of Advance Organizers (AO) on achievement in poetry. Target population was class seven pupils of Nakuru North Sub-county primary schools in Kenya. 160 pupils were involved in the study. Four sampled schools were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups in Solomon Four…

  7. Production Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  8. Targeted assets risk analysis. (United States)

    Bouwsema, Barry


    Risk assessments utilising the consolidated risk assessment process as described by Public Safety Canada and the Centre for Security Science utilise the five threat categories of natural, human accidental, technological, human intentional and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE). The categories of human intentional and CBRNE indicate intended actions against specific targets. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify which pieces of critical infrastructure represent the likely targets of individuals with malicious intent. Using the consolidated risk assessment process and the target capabilities list, coupled with the CARVER methodology and a security vulnerability analysis, it is possible to identify these targeted assets and their weaknesses. This process can help emergency managers to identify where resources should be allocated and funding spent. Targeted Assets Risk Analysis (TARA) presents a new opportunity to improve how risk is measured, monitored, managed and minimised through the four phases of emergency management, namely, prevention, preparation, response and recovery. To reduce risk throughout Canada, Defence Research and Development Canada is interested in researching the potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to risk assessment and management. The TARA provides a framework against which potential human intentional threats can be measured and quantified, thereby improving safety for all Canadians.

  9. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  10. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.


    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  11. Cooled particle accelerator target (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.


    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  12. Regional sulfur dioxide emissions: shall we achieve the goal? (United States)

    Tan, X.; Shi, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, JY


    Although economic growth is slowing down in the new normal period, air pollution is still a very serious problem in China. The 15% binding goal of sulfur dioxide emission reduction from 2016 to 2020, as stipulated in the 13th Five-Year Plan, has been an ambitious target for the Chinese government. This paper studies the synthetic evaluation and forecasting analysis of sulfur dioxide in China by means of a “grey model” approach combined with the grey relational analysis methods, with the panel data of 31 provinces from 2005 to 2015. Grey analysis used to analyse a system with imperfect information, such that a variety of available solutions is reviewed, and the optimal solution is identified. Some encouraging results show that national emissions and a majority of provinces will achieve the target. Over time, the gap of regional differences is rapidly closing. According to the results of grey relational analysis, we find industrial structure and energy consumption have a more significant impact on sulfur dioxide emissions than GDP. Atmospheric treatment investment and environmental protection manpower play a more important role in emissions variation. Based on the findings, we should distinguish different factors and take different measures to protect the environment.

  13. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries. (United States)

    Roberts, Callum M; Hawkins, Julie P; Gell, Fiona R


    Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy. Marine reserves should be incorporated into modern fishery management because they can achieve many things that conventional tools cannot. Only complete and permanent protection from fishing can protect the most sensitive habitats and vulnerable species. Only reserves will allow the development of natural, extended age structures of target species, maintain their genetic variability and prevent deleterious evolutionary change from the effects of fishing. Species with natural age structures will sustain higher rates of reproduction and will be more resilient to environmental variability. Higher stock levels maintained by reserves will provide insurance against management failure, including risk-prone quota setting, provided the broader conservation role of reserves is firmly established and legislatively protected. Fishery management measures outside protected areas are necessary to complement the protection offered by marine reserves, but cannot substitute for it.

  14. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement. (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu


    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  15. Academic achievement of children of divorced parents. (United States)

    Cherian, V I


    This study investigated the academic achievement of 242 pupils whose parents were divorced and 713 pupils whose parents were neither divorced nor separated. The subjects were in the age range of 13 to 17 yr., with a mean age of 15.6 yr. and they were chosen at random from the total Standard 7 population of Transkei, South Africa. A questionnaire was administered to 1,021 pupils to identify the children of parents divorced or separated and neither divorced nor separated. Analysis of variance indicated that the academic achievement of children whose parents were divorced or separated was significantly lower than that of the children whose parents were neither divorced nor separated.

  16. Stellar Chemical Abundances: In Pursuit of the Highest Achievable Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Bedell, M; Bean, J; Ramirez, I; Leite, P; Asplund, M


    The achievable level of precision on photospheric abundances of stars is a major limiting factor on investigations of exoplanet host star characteristics, the chemical histories of star clusters, and the evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies. While model-induced errors can be minimized through the differential analysis of spectrally similar stars, the maximum achievable precision of this technique has been debated. As a test, we derive differential abundances of 19 elements from high-quality asteroid-reflected solar spectra taken using a variety of instruments and conditions. We treat the solar spectra as being from unknown stars and use the resulting differential abundances, which are expected to be zero, as a diagnostic of the error in our measurements. Our results indicate that the relative resolution of the target and reference spectra is a major consideration, with use of different instruments to obtain the two spectra leading to errors up to 0.04 dex. Use of the same instrument at different epoc...

  17. Stellar chemical abundances: in pursuit of the highest achievable precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Meléndez, Jorge; Leite, Paulo [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Ramírez, Ivan [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1206 (United States); Asplund, Martin, E-mail: [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)


    The achievable level of precision on photospheric abundances of stars is a major limiting factor on investigations of exoplanet host star characteristics, the chemical histories of star clusters, and the evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies. While model-induced errors can be minimized through the differential analysis of spectrally similar stars, the maximum achievable precision of this technique has been debated. As a test, we derive differential abundances of 19 elements from high-quality asteroid-reflected solar spectra taken using a variety of instruments and conditions. We treat the solar spectra as being from unknown stars and use the resulting differential abundances, which are expected to be zero, as a diagnostic of the error in our measurements. Our results indicate that the relative resolution of the target and reference spectra is a major consideration, with use of different instruments to obtain the two spectra leading to errors up to 0.04 dex. Use of the same instrument at different epochs for the two spectra has a much smaller effect (∼0.007 dex). The asteroid used to obtain the solar standard also has a negligible effect (∼0.006 dex). Assuming that systematic errors from the stellar model atmospheres have been minimized, as in the case of solar twins, we confirm that differential chemical abundances can be obtained at sub-0.01 dex precision with due care in the observations, data reduction, and abundance analysis.

  18. Equitable mitigation to achieve the Paris Agreement goals (United States)

    Robiou Du Pont, Yann; Jeffery, M. Louise; Gütschow, Johannes; Rogelj, Joeri; Christoff, Peter; Meinshausen, Malte


    Benchmarks to guide countries in ratcheting-up ambition, climate finance, and support in an equitable manner are critical but not yet determined in the context of the Paris Agreement. We identify global cost-optimal mitigation scenarios consistent with the Paris Agreement goals and allocate their emissions dynamically to countries according to five equity approaches. At the national level, China's Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) is weaker than any of the five equity approaches, India's NDC is aligned with two, and the EU's and the USA's with three. Most developing countries' conditional (Intended) NDCs (INDCs) are more ambitious than the average of the five equity approaches under the 2 °C goal. If the G8 and China adopt the average of the five approaches, the gap between conditional INDCs and 2 °C-consistent pathways could be closed. For an equitable, cost-optimal achievement of the 1.5 °C target, emissions in 2030 are 21% lower (relative to 2010) than for 2 °C for the G8 and China combined, and 39% lower for remaining countries. Equitably limiting warming to 1.5 °C rather than 2 °C requires that individual countries achieve mitigation milestones, such as peaking or reaching net-zero emissions, around a decade earlier.

  19. 2 x 2 Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Cluster Analysis of Students' Motivation (United States)

    Jang, Leong Yeok; Liu, Woon Chia


    This study sought to better understand the adoption of multiple achievement goals at an intra-individual level, and its links to emotional well-being, learning, and academic achievement. Participants were 480 Secondary Two students (aged between 13 and 14 years) from two coeducational government schools. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed the…

  20. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels (United States)

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.


    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  1. The Link between Musical Achievement and Academic Achievement of Young Children (United States)

    Costley, Kevin C.


    During the twentieth century it has been theorized that there is a link between musical achievement and academic achievement of young children. In support of this controversial view, many educators and music specialists promote the relationship between, parent, teacher, and child. The theory is: with cooperative learning experiences in the study…

  2. Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms, Cognitive Processes, School Achievement, and Intelligence-Achievement Relationship in Adolescents (United States)

    Malakar, Partha; Basu, Jayanti


    The aim of the study was to determine whether the general intelligence, cognitive processes, school achievement, and intelligence-achievement relationship of adolescents with subclinical levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms differed from those of their normal counterparts. From an initial large pool of 14-year-old Bengali students in eighth…

  3. Quantum gravity phenomenology. Achievements and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberati, S. [International School for Advanced Study (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    Motivated by scenarios of quantum gravity, Planck-suppressed deviations from Lorentz invariance are expected at observable energies. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays, the most energetic particles ever observed in nature, yielded in the last two years strong constraints on deviations suppressed by O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) and also, for the first time, on space-time foam, stringy inspired models of quantum gravity. We review the most important achievements and discuss future outlooks. (orig.)

  4. Does cultural capital really affect academic achievement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier


    This paper provides new estimates of the causal effect of cultural capital on academic achievement. The author analyzes data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – Children and Young Adults and uses a fixed effect design to address the problem of omitted variable bias which has resulted...... cultural mobility theory (cultural capital more important in low-SES environments) for indicators capturing “concerted cultivation.”...

  5. Achieving 15% Tandem Polymer Solar Cells (United States)


    MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution A - Approved for Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT . Use agency-mandated availability statements to indicate the public availability or distribution limitations of...Photonics, Nature Communications etc. The achievements in Year 2 and 3 are describes below. 1 I. New polymer development, morphology and novel

  6. Effective Factors in Achieving Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Sharghi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The indiscriminate use of chemical inputs led to severe degradation of resources in Iran. Therefore, considering the increasing population and growing demand of agricultural products, it seems necessary to achieve a sustainable agriculture. In this study, sustainable agriculture refers to a kind of agriculture which is ecologically appropriate, economically justifiable, and socially desirable. Approach: There were two objectives for this study .The first objective of this study was to identify the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. The second objective was to categorize the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. In this study the Delphi technique has been used. Sustainable agriculture expert researchers of statistical and related issues were 56 scholars selected from the experts in the research centers of Tehran and Yazd provinces. The instruments used in data collection were three series of questionnaires sent to the researchers via email, fax and mail. Results: Findings have shown that the researchers have identified effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture in Iran as the sections of Infrastructure, policy-making, economy, society, participation, research, extension and education. From the 35 factors exposed to the researchers, the factors of attainment of researches related to sustainable agriculture by agricultural research institutions in Iran, Interaction and participation of researchers, extension educators, farmers and policy-makers of sustainable agriculture, attempt to give priority to those who are the most appropriate from the standpoint of practically creating interactive, logical as well as flexible planning system between different sections dealing with sustainable agriculture have gained the agreement of 100% researchers. Conclusion: The important conclusion is that the communication between extension, farmers and policymaker should be strengthened. So

  7. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia


    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  8. Targeting peroxiredoxins against leukemia. (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Xu; Zhou, Hu-Chen; Yin, Qian-Qian; Wu, Ying-Li; Chen, Guo-Qiang


    Peroxiredoxins (Prx), a family of small non-seleno peroxidases, are important regulators for cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to many signaling pathways and pathogenesis of diseases. Targeting redox homeostasis is being developed as a promising therapeutic strategy for many diseases such as cancers. This mini-review attempts to focus on our recent discoveries on adenanthin as the first natural molecule to specifically target the resolving cysteines of Prx I and Prx II and thus inhibit their peroxidase activities, and its role in differentiation induction in vitro and in vivo of acute myeloid leukemic cells.

  9. Student prosocial behavior and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasenović Vera Z.


    Full Text Available The paper considers correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Attention first focuses on the issue of prosocial behavior defining, making it operational and measuring it. Next consideration is given to the ways that prosocial behavior contributes to academic achievement. It is thought that prosocial behavior can produce indirect effects on student prosocial behavior because it is bound to certain academically relevant forms of behavior leading to successful learning and work. Also, correlation is interpreted by means of teacher’s preferences of prosocial students, which is reflected in teacher expectations and behavior towards students but in evaluating their work too. In addition, prosocial behavior may produce direct effects, for it is through peer prosocial interactions that positive intellectual exchange is performed, which contributes to more successful mastering of teaching content. The paper provides a survey of investigations whose results indicate that there exists correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Also, consideration is given to possible methods and treatments for encouraging prosocial behavior in school context, especially the role of teacher in the process and the importance of the program for promoting student prosocial skills.

  10. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells (United States)

    Yang, Yang


    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  11. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings


    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  12. DPAL: historical perspective and summary of achievements (United States)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Knize, R. J.


    Alkali vapor lasers are under extensive research and development during the past decade because of their potential for scaling to high powers while maintaining a good beam quality. Also, a possibility of using efficient diode lasers for pumping alkali vapor promises high total wall plug efficiency for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL). Since the first DPAL demonstration with output power of 130 mW in 20051, a significant progress in this field was achieved. The output power of about 1 kW in continuous wave (CW) operation with optical efficiency close to 50% was recently demonstrated for a Cs DPAL2. Also, the DPALs based on other alkali metals (Rubidium and Potassium) were demonstrated3,4 . In spite of these significant achievements, there are still several problems in DPAL power scaling exist that must be addressed. Among them are the thermal5 and photoionization6 issues that become important even at power level about several tens of watts. In this paper we present a historical review of the alkali laser research and development, discuss the most important achievements and future perspectives in this field of research.

  13. Social-Emotional Learning and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan P. McCormick


    Full Text Available Social-emotional learning (SEL programs have demonstrated positive effects on children’s social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes, as well as classroom climate. Some programs also theorize that program impacts on children’s outcomes will be partially explained by improvements in classroom social processes, namely classroom emotional support and organization. Yet there is little empirical evidence for this hypothesis. Using data from the evaluation of the SEL program INSIGHTS, this article tests whether assignment to INSIGHTS improved low-income kindergarten and first grade students’ math and reading achievement by first enhancing classroom emotional support and organization. Multilevel regression analyses, instrumental variables estimation, and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW were used to conduct quantitative analyses. Across methods, the impact of INSIGHTS on math and reading achievement in first grade was partially explained by gains in both classroom emotional support and organization. The IPTW method revealed that the program impact on reading achievement in first grade was partially explained through an improvement in classroom organization. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  14. [Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation of female students]. (United States)

    Doi, K


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the two dimensional theory of achievement motivation (Doi, 1982) in female students. Doi's motivation scale were administered to 81 female university students, 58 female students of school of nursing and 77 female students of school of English Language, and the Yatabe-Guilford personality inventory was also administered to the first and the second groups. Affiliative achievement motivation and non-affiliative achievement motivation were extracted by principal component analyses and canonical correlation analyses. Non-affiliative achievement motivation was found to be related to personality type: emotional instability and introversion. These findings differ from achievement motivation concepts (Murray, 1938; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), that include emotional stability and extraversion.

  15. Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change: what does it take?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbu, A.-D. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Griffiths, N.; Morton, G. [Ricardo-AEA (United Kingdom)


    On October 2012, the European Union adopted the Energy Efficiency Directive in reaction to the fact that EU Member States were not on track to reduce primary energy consumption by 20 % by 2020. The implementation of this directive, and other policies that have been adopted in recent years, will require a change in consumer behaviour and energy consumption practices. Within this context, and related to on-going debates on the same subject, a new European Environment Agency (EEA) report argues that correctly navigating the interface between policymaking and human behaviour is key to achieving sustained reductions in energy consumption. As such, the report provides timely and reliable information and analysis to those involved in designing policy measures to reduce energy consumption which target the end consumer. A growing body of evidence in academic literature demonstrates that there is potential for energy savings due to measures targeting behaviour. There is, however, one issue that has not been covered by previous studies, and which the EEA report directly addresses, namely the distinction between consumer behaviour and consumption practices. Most recent academic literature argues that it is the consumption practices themselves that need careful scrutiny as they tend to lock consumers into patterns that are more and more energy intensive and they involve a wide range of actors. From the energy efficiency policy design perspective, this is relevant because these actors need to be involved from the outset of the policy process. The report also argues that a whole range of changes need to take place in the way energy markets function and are regulated in order to enable the consumer to actively engage with these markets. The report however does not include a discussion on the socio-economic implications of these structural changes. During 2013, the EEA will launch a survey via social media and its own website to follow up on conclusions of the report. The aim will

  16. Optimization Studies for ISOL Type High-Powered Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Ronningen, Reginald Martin [Michigan State University


    The research studied one-step and two-step Isotope Separation on Line (ISOL) targets for future radioactive beam facilities with high driver-beam power through advanced computer simulations. As a target material uranium carbide in the form of foils was used because of increasing demand for actinide targets in rare-isotope beam facilities and because such material was under development in ISAC at TRIUMF when this project started. Simulations of effusion were performed for one-step and two step targets and the effects of target dimensions and foil matrix were studied. Diffusion simulations were limited by availability of diffusion parameters for UCx material at reduced density; however, the viability of the combined diffusion?effusion simulation methodology was demonstrated and could be used to extract physical parameters such as diffusion coefficients and effusion delay times from experimental isotope release curves. Dissipation of the heat from the isotope-producing targets is the limiting factor for high-power beam operation both for the direct and two-step targets. Detailed target models were used to simulate proton beam interactions with the targets to obtain the fission rates and power deposition distributions, which were then applied in the heat transfer calculations to study the performance of the targets. Results indicate that a direct target, with specification matching ISAC TRIUMF target, could operate in 500-MeV proton beam at beam powers up to ~40 kW, producing ~8 1013 fission/s with maximum temperature in UCx below 2200 C. Targets with larger radius allow higher beam powers and fission rates. For the target radius in the range 9-mm to 30-mm the achievable fission rate increases almost linearly with target radius, however, the effusion delay time also increases linearly with target radius.

  17. Cancer immunotherapy targeting neoantigens. (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Robbins, Paul F


    Neoantigens are antigens encoded by tumor-specific mutated genes. Studies in the past few years have suggested a key role for neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Here we review the discoveries of neoantigens in the past two decades and the current advances in neoantigen identification. We also discuss the potential benefits and obstacles to the development of effective cancer immunotherapies targeting neoantigens.

  18. Microenvironmental targets in sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhnman


    Full Text Available Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors affecting all age groups. They are typically classified according to their resemblance to corresponding normal tissue. Their heterogeneous features, for example in terms of disease-driving genetic aberrations and body location, complicate both disease classification and development of novel treatment regimens. Many years of failure of improved patient outcome in clinical trials has lead to the conclusion that novel targeted therapies are likely needed in combination with current multimodality regimens. Sarcomas have not, in contrast to the common carcinomas, been the subject for larger systematic studies on how tumor behavior relates to characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. There is consequently an urgent need for identifying suitable molecular targets, not only in tumor cells, but also in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses preclinical and clinical data about potential molecular targets in sarcomas. Studies on targeted therapies involving the tumor microenvironment are prioritized. A greater understanding of the biological context is expected to facilitate more successful design of future clinical trials in sarcoma.

  19. Major Targets for 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ This year, the main targets we have set for economic and social development are: increasing GDP by approximately 8 percent, creating jobs for more than 9 million people, keeping the urban registered unemployment rate no higher than 4.6 percent, holding the rise in consumer prices to around 3 percent, and improving the balance of payments.

  20. Target chambers for gammashpere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G. [and others


    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  1. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  2. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)


    The research project entitled,” Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  3. Shift-invariant target in allocation problems. (United States)

    Mandal, Saumen; Biswas, Atanu


    We provide a template for finding target allocation proportions in optimal allocation designs where the target will be invariant for both shifts in location and scale of the response distributions. One possible application of such target allocation proportions is to carry out a response-adaptive allocation. While most of the existing designs are invariant for any change in scale of the underlying distributions, they are not location invariant in most of the cases. First, we indicate this serious flaw in the existing literature and illustrate how this lack of location invariance makes the performance of the designs very poor in terms of allocation for any drastic change in location, such as the changes from degrees centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit. We illustrate that unless a target allocation is location invariant, it might lead to a completely irrelevant and useless target for allocation. Then we discuss how such location invariance can be achieved for general continuous responses. We illustrate the proposed method using some real clinical trial data. We also indicate the possible extension of the procedure for more than two treatments at hand and in the presence of covariates.

  4. Longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on adolescents' academic achievements. (United States)

    Liu, Kun-Shia; Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yuh-Yih


    This study used nationwide data from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS) to examine the longitudinal effects of educational expectations and achievement attributions on the academic achievements of adolescents. The sample included 2,000 Taiwanese secondary school students, each of whom completed three waves of questionnaires and cognitive tests: the first in grade 7 (in 2001), the second in grade 9 (in 2003), and the third in grade 11 (in 2005). Through multilevel longitudinal analysis, the results showed: (1) educational expectations accounted for a moderate amount of the variance in academic achievements; (2) students with high educational expectations and effort attribution exhibited higher growth rates in their academic achievements; and (3) studentswith lower educational expectations and those attributing success to others showed significantly fewer academic achievements and significantly lower growth rates in such achievements. The results demonstrated that adolescents' educational expectations and achievement attributions play crucial roles in the long-term course of academic accomplishments. Implications for educational practice and further studies are also discussed.

  5. Achieving efficient RNAi therapy: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Gao


    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi has been harnessed to produce a new class of drugs for treatment of various diseases. This review summarizes the most important parameters that govern the silencing efficiency and duration of the RNAi effect such as small interfering RNA (siRNA stability and modification, the type of delivery system and particle sizing methods. It also discusses the predominant barriers for siRNA delivery, such as off-target effects and introduces internalization, endosomal escape and mathematical modeling in RNAi therapy and combinatorial RNAi. At present, effective delivery of RNAi therapeutics in vivo remains a challenge although significant progress has been made in this field.

  6. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science (United States)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.


    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  7. Erosion of Copper Target Irradiated by Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Polosatkin, S V; Grishnyaev, E S; Konstantinov, S G; Shoshin, A A


    Erosion of copper target irradiated by deuterium ion beam with ultimate fluence is studied. The target originally destined for neutron generation represents bulk copper substrate covered by 3-\\mum titanium layer. The target was irradiated by deuterium ion beam generated in Bayard-Alpert type ion source with energy of ions 17.5 keV/nuclear. Maximal fluence in the center of the target achieves 2.5x10^23atoms/cm^2. Measurements of the profile of irradiated target and estimation of fluence shows that physical sputtering is a dominating process that determines the target erosion Most interesting feature is growth of \\mum-size tadpole-shaped structures, localized in the cracks of the surface. RFA analysis of these structures showed extremely large (up to 60%at.) carbon content.

  8. Online RFC-PRM method for infrared target tracking (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Hu, Ruolan; Xu, Yaming; Zhang, Guilin


    A novel online tracking method is proposed based on the response of feature combination (RFC) and relative position map (RPM). First, large numbers of features around the target are achieved after some designed filtering, then a suboptimal feature combination obtained by a given feature selection criteria can be used for next frame. The distinction between the target and background is maximized in the result image. Based on this distinction the target can be segmented out easily. While around the target there always exists some similar regions and will be residue left after filtering. To depress these clutters, the position relationship of local maximal response points cased by the similar regions is recorded as RPM and compared to the last frame. At last, the new feature combination is updated based on the new background around the target. The experiment using small infrared target sequence with different background texture conditions demonstrates the robustness of the new method.

  9. Parallel algorithm for target recognition using a multiclass hash database (United States)

    Uddin, Mosleh; Myler, Harley R.


    A method for recognition of unknown targets using large databases of model targets is discussed. Our approach is based on parallel processing of multi-class hash databases that are generated off-line. A geometric hashing technique is used on feature points of model targets to create each class database. Bit level coding is then performed to represent the models in an image format. Parallelism is achieved during the recognition phase. Feature points of an unknown target are passed to parallel processors each accessing an individual class database. Each processor reads a particular class of hash data base and indexes feature points of the unknown target. A simple voting technique is applied to determine the best match model with the unknown. The paper discusses our technique and the results from testing with unknown FLIR targets.

  10. Editorial: Well Documented Articles Achieve More Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Albers


    Full Text Available This issue offers for the first time supplementary material to articles. It consists of Excel files providing data the research is based on, calculation sheets, and optimization tools. Moreover, text files with pseudo code of algorithms and data of instances used for testing these algorithms as well as a video file with a demonstration of the use of a system in experiments are supplied for download. This material facilitates the understanding of the published articles and the replication of their findings to the benefit of scientific progress. And last but not least, such well documented articles will achieve much more impact.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The skill of Listening with comprehension is anessential part of communication and basic to ESL/EFL learning.Prediction is also a key process in un-derstanding spoken language.This article intends tooffer a definition for prediction in ESL/EFL listening,examines its foundations,draws some insights into itsnature,and illustrates how to develop and employprediction in pre-listening and while-listening stages,also how to‘repair’prediction in the post-listeningstage,in an attempt to help listeners achieve the goalof better understanding.

  12. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D; Lovenheim, Michael F


    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools.

  13. Fruitful Achievements of Auto China 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Nine days'Auto China 2006 was closed on November 27,2006.This exhibition set many records:over 1500 domestic and overseas exhibitors attended the meeting;about 300 foreign exhibitors; catered over 600,000 audiences,among which,32,000 are foreign audiences; 6376 domestic and foreign journalists reported this exhibition.Under the prominent results,there are some more figures.Yao Rui,Vice President of China International Exhibition Center Group Corporation shows that the exhibition improved the achievements in ten industries.

  14. Various Means of Achieving Humor in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.

  15. Achievements and Prospects of China's Hydropower Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Dabing


    @@ Outstanding achievements The scale of hydropower development con-tinuously expanding to a new level As a type of clean and renewable energy resource,water power takes an extremely important position in the energy layout of the world.The theoretic reservation of China's hydro energy is ranked the first in the world.But from the foundation of the year of 1978(the year when the reform and opening-up took place),the hydro energy exploitation in the whole country was less than 10% of the reservation.

  16. A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabisky, E.S. [11 Carnation Place, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States)


    The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation`s future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price

  17. Maximal entanglement achievable by controlled dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, Alessio


    We consider the feedback control of quantum systems comprised of any number of bosonic degrees of freedom. We derive a general upper bound for the logarithmic negativity achievable, at steady state, with continuous Gaussian measurements on the environment and linear driving on the system. Our results apply to rotating wave system-bath couplings and to any quadratic system's Hamiltonian. Furthermore, we apply this upper bound to parametric processes, show it to be tight, and compare it to feedback strategies limited to local measurements.

  18. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing


    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  19. Dogs' Body Language Relevant to Learning Achievement. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki


    The facial expressions and body postures of dogs can give helpful information about their moods and emotional states. People can more effectively obedience train their dogs if we can identify the mannerisms associated with learning in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the dog's body language during operant conditioning to predict achievement in the test that followed by measuring the duration of behaviors. Forty-six untrained dogs (17 males and 26 females) of various breeds were used. Each session consisted of 5 minutes of training with a treat reward followed by 3 minutes of rest and finally an operant conditioning test that consisted of 20 "hand motion" cues. The operant tests were conducted a total of nine times over three consecutive days, and the success numbers were counted. The duration of the dog's behavior, focusing on the dog's eyes, mouth, ears, tail and tail-wagging, was recorded during the operant conditioning sessions before the test. Particular behaviors, including wide-eyes, closed mouth, erect ears, and forward and high tail carriage, without wagging or with short and quick wagging, related to high achievement results. It is concluded that dogs' body language during operant conditioning was related to their success rate.

  20. Understanding how animal groups achieve coordinated movement. (United States)

    Herbert-Read, J E


    Moving animal groups display remarkable feats of coordination. This coordination is largely achieved when individuals adjust their movement in response to their neighbours' movements and positions. Recent advancements in automated tracking technologies, including computer vision and GPS, now allow researchers to gather large amounts of data on the movements and positions of individuals in groups. Furthermore, analytical techniques from fields such as statistical physics now allow us to identify the precise interaction rules used by animals on the move. These interaction rules differ not only between species, but also between individuals in the same group. These differences have wide-ranging implications, affecting how groups make collective decisions and driving the evolution of collective motion. Here, I describe how trajectory data can be used to infer how animals interact in moving groups. I give examples of the similarities and differences in the spatial and directional organisations of animal groups between species, and discuss the rules that animals use to achieve this organisation. I then explore how groups of the same species can exhibit different structures, and ask whether this results from individuals adapting their interaction rules. I then examine how the interaction rules between individuals in the same groups can also differ, and discuss how this can affect ecological and evolutionary processes. Finally, I suggest areas of future research.

  1. Achieving Supply Chain Integration within Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDermotti


    Full Text Available The main driver behind the adoption of supply chain management (SCM philosophy into the construction industry was the successes within other industry sectors. SCM can be defined as network of different organisations, linked upstream and downstream in a chain, aiming to produce quality and value in the services and products for the end consumers through integrated processes and activities. In order to achieve the optimised level of integration of the whole supply chain, the industry has responded in various forms. This paper will discuss different initiatives by the researchers,construction industry,and the UK government in order to achieve optimal level of supply chain integration. This paper will discuss the concept of aggregation,and also look at other supply chain integration related concepts including client-led supply chain, knowledge about the whole supply chain, effects of procurement on integration of supply chain, etc. The paper will give a brief overview and initial findings of a project undertaken by the authors, and also include examples from the UK construction industry on bundling of the supply and demand.

  2. Housing Affordability And Children's Cognitive Achievement. (United States)

    Newman, Sandra; Holupka, C Scott


    Housing cost burden-the fraction of income spent on housing-is the most prevalent housing problem affecting the healthy development of millions of low- and moderate-income children. By affecting disposable income, a high burden affects parents' expenditures on both necessities for and enrichment of their children, as well as investments in their children. Reducing those expenditures and investments, in turn, can affect children's development, including their cognitive skills and physical, social, and emotional health. This article summarizes the first empirical evidence of the effects of housing affordability on children's cognitive achievement and on one factor that appears to contribute to these effects: the larger expenditures on child enrichment by families in affordable housing. We found that housing cost burden has the same relationship to both children's cognitive achievement and enrichment spending on children, exhibiting an inverted U shape in both cases. The maximum benefit occurs when housing cost burden is near 30 percent of income-the long-standing rule-of-thumb definition of affordable housing. The effect of the burden is stronger on children's math ability than on their reading comprehension and is more pronounced with burdens above the 30 percent standard. For enrichment spending, the curve is "shallower" (meaning the effect of optimal affordability is less pronounced) but still significant.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TEODOR


    Full Text Available The land fund of Romania represents a huge potential for agriculture. The potential has proved difficult to achieve, and among the main vulnerabilities researched lately, we have identified the decline in consumption of vegetable crops, fruit and meat, determined by the declining purchasing power in Romania and the European Union's common market. Therefore the degree of achievement of the agricultural potential is directly influenced by economic developments in Romania and EU Member States. The technical endowment of Romanian farmers is an old and still unresolved problem. Even though Romania has benefited from EU pre-accession funds and still benefits from it, they proved to be a poor solution for Romanian farmers with farm machinery equipment. Indicator analysis of the evolution of the number of tractors in Romania in the post-accession period, reveals that the actual number of tractors in the period under review increased overall, but even if the total number of tractors in Romania increased from 2007 until 2012, UAA (ha per a tractor is almost constant.

  4. Automatic target tracking on multi-resolution terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Ming; ZHANG Wei; MURRAY Marie O.; KAUFMAN Arie


    We propose a high-performance path planning algorithm for automatic target tracking in the applications of real-time simulation and visualization of large-scale terrain datasets, with a large number of moving objects (such as vehicles) tracking multiple moving targets. By using a modified Dijkstra's algorithm, an optimal path between each vehicle-target pair over a weighted grid-presented terrain is computed and updated to eliminate the problem of local minima and losing of tracking. Then, a dynamic path re-planning strategy using multi-resolution representation of a dynamic updating region is proposed to achieve high-performance by trading-off precision for efficiency, while guaranteeing accuracy. Primary experimental results showed that our algorithm successfully achieved 10 to 96 frames per second interactive path-replanning rates during a terrain simulation scenario with 10 to 100 vehicles and multiple moving targets.

  5. Gene Targeting in Neuroendocrinology. (United States)

    Candlish, Michael; De Angelis, Roberto; Götz, Viktoria; Boehm, Ulrich


    Research in neuroendocrinology faces particular challenges due to the complex interactions between cells in the hypothalamus, in the pituitary gland and in peripheral tissues. Within the hypothalamus alone, attempting to target a specific neuronal cell type can be problematic due to the heterogeneous nature and level of cellular diversity of hypothalamic nuclei. Because of the inherent complexity of the reproductive axis, the use of animal models and in vivo experiments are often a prerequisite in reproductive neuroendocrinology. The advent of targeted genetic modifications, particularly in mice, has opened new avenues of neuroendocrine research. Within this review, we evaluate various mouse models used in reproductive neuroendocrinology and discuss the different approaches to generate genetically modified mice, along with their inherent advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss a variety of versatile genetic tools with a focus on their potential use in reproductive neuroendocrinology.

  6. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.


    the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...... will need to make efforts to recover all recyclable fractions, and that the increased recycling efforts of only selected municipalities will not be sufficient to reach the target.......Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22...

  7. Foucault on targets. (United States)

    Lynch, John


    This paper seeks to gain an insight into the behavior of a large NHS trust, in its attempt to meet a 90 percent patient access target, in a week long national audit in March 2003. Why did individuals act in dramatically different ways to their norm over this period. The work of Michel Foucault is used to explore these issues. The discourses of power, knowledge, discipline and governmentality are identified as key foucaudian themes that offer an alternative interpretation of how individuals behave in their place of work. The importance of the historical context of discourse within the NHS cannot be underestimated in shaping the behavior of individuals and groups today. Power and knowledge permeate NHS organizations through disciplinary practices and dressage. Governmentality seeks to maintain the status quo through disciplinary processes such as national healthcare targets. The natural response of NHS organizations is therefore, to seek order and conformity rather than disorder and conflict.

  8. Targeting biodefense markets. (United States)

    Olinger, Gene Garrard


    The "World Vaccine Congress 2009" held in Washington D.C. (April 20-23, 2009) sponsored several sessions focused on the vaccine market targeting biodefense. On day one of the congress, a panel discussion outlined the federal progress in medical countermeasure preparedness that included emerging infections, influenza, and biodefense focuses. The second day, a session focused on the biodefense vaccine market with both government and industry members discussing the opportunities and challenges associated with the budding market.

  9. Follicular penetration and targeting. (United States)

    Lademann, Jürgen; Otberg, Nina; Jacobi, Ute; Hoffman, Robert M; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike


    In the past, intercellular penetration was assumed to be the most important penetration pathway of topically applied substances. First hints that follicular penetration needs to be taken into consideration were confirmed by recent investigations, presented during the workshop "Follicular Penetration and Targeting" at the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies", in Berlin 2004. Hair follicles represent an efficient reservoir for the penetration of topically applied substances with subsequent targeting of distinct cell populations, e.g., nestin-expressing follicular bulge cells. The volume of this reservoir can be determined by differential stripping technology. The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles. Topically applied substances can only penetrate into open hair follicle. Knowledge of follicular penetration is of high clinical relevance for functional targeting of distinct follicular regions. Human hair follicles show a hair-cycle-dependent variation of the dense neuronal and vascular network. Moreover, during hair follicle cycling with initiation of anagen, newly formed vessels occur. Thus, the potential of nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells to form neurons and blood vessels was investigated.

  10. Integrating cervical cancer screening with HIV care in a district hospital in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Odafe


    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+ women have a higher risk of developing invasive cervical cancer compared with uninfected women. This study aims to document programmatic experience of integrating cervical cancer screening using Visual Inspection and Acetic Acid (VIA into HIV care as well as to describe patients′ characteristics associated with positive VIA findings amongst HIV+ women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study analysed routine service data collected at the antiretroviral therapy (ART and cervical cancer screening services. Our program integrated screening for cervical cancer using VIA technique to HIV care and treatment services through a combination of stakeholder engagement, capacity building for health workers, creating a bi-directional referral between HIV and reproductive health (RH services and provider initiated counselling and screening for cervical cancer. Information on patients′ baseline and clinical characteristics were captured using an electronic medical records system and then exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Logistic regression model was used to estimate factors that influence VIA results. Results: A total of 834 HIV+ women were offered VIA screening between April 2010 and April 2011, and 805 (96.5% accepted it. Complete data was available for 802 (96.2% women. The mean age at screening and first sexual contact were 32.0 (SD 6.6 and 18.8 (SD 3.5 years, respectively. VIA was positive in 52 (6.5% women while 199 (24.8% had a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Of the 199 who had a STI, eight (4.0% had genital ulcer syndrome, 30 (15.1% had lower abdominal pain syndrome and 161 (80.9% had vaginal discharge syndrome. Presence of lower abdominal pain syndrome was found to be a significant predictor of a positive VIA result ( P = 0.001. Women with lower abdominal pain syndrome appeared to be more likely (OR 47.9, 95% CI: 4.8-480.4, P = 0.001 to have a positive VIA result. Conclusion: The high burden of both HIV and cervical cancer in developing countries makes it a necessity for integrating services that offer early detection and treatment for both diseases. The findings from our study suggest that integrating VIA screening into the package of care offered to HIV+ women is feasible and acceptable.

  11. Neurocognitive impairment associated with predominantly early stage HIV infection in Abuja, Nigeria. (United States)

    Akolo, Christopher; Royal, Walter; Cherner, Mariana; Okwuasaba, Kanayo; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay; Adebiyi, Ruxton; Umlauf, Anya; Hendrix, Terence; Johnson, Joyce; Abimiku, Alashl'e; Blattner, William A


    Detailed neuropsychological testing was performed on 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive (SP) and 77 HIV seronegative (SN) individuals, 86 % with early stage HIV infection in Nigeria, to determine the frequency of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment among the HIV-infected group. The tests were administered to assess the following seven ability domains: speed of information processing, attention/working memory, executive functioning, learning, memory, verbal fluency, and motor function motor. Demographically corrected individual test scores and scores for each domain or reflecting a global deficit (a global deficit score, or GDS) were compared for the SP and SN groups. SP participants were older, had fewer years of education, were more likely to be married, differed in ethnicity, and had higher depression scores than SN individuals. Within the seven ability domains, SP performed worse than SN with respect to speed of information processing, executive function, learning, memory, and verbal fluency and also on the global measure. SP were also more frequently impaired on tests of SIP, and there was a borderline increase in the frequency of global impairment. On the individual tests, SP performed worse than SN on four tests that assessed learning, verbal fluency, memory, and motor function (the Timed Gait). SP subjects, however, performed better than SN on the Finger-tapping test, also a motor task. Performance by SP subjects was not associated on the timed gait which showed a borderline statistically significant correlation with CD4 counts. However, there were significant correlations between viral load measurements and individual tests of speed of information processing, executive function, learning, and verbal fluency and with overall executive function and a borderline correlation with the GDS. Depression scores for SP were associated with impairment on only a single test of executive function. These results demonstrate the ability of these assessments to identify areas of impairment that may be specifically linked to a history of HIV infection among individuals in Nigeria. Confirmation of these findings awaits analyses using data from a larger number of control subjects.

  12. Epidural steroid injection in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahidjo A Kawu


    Full Text Available Objective : This prospective-controlled observational study looked at well-matched patients with spinal pain and radicular symptoms, caused by lumbar intervertebral disc herniation to compare the short-term clinical outcome of transforaminal and interlaminar epidural steroid injection (ESI in a resource challenged tertiary institution in Nigeria. Materials and Methods : 49 patients with radicular symptoms who were matched for age, symptom duration, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and pre-injection revised Oswentry Disability Index (ODI score and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS were assigned into ESI technique. The ODI and VAS score were analyzed immediately after an injection and upon follow-up (average 178.5 days, also with the need for repeated injections and surgical interventions over a 1-year follow-up interval. Result: In the transforaminal group (25 patients, there was a statistically significant improvement in the ODI scores from before the injection (ODI mean 62.4 to immediately after the injection (ODI mean 24.4, P < 0.01, and upon follow-up (ODI mean 20.8, P < 0.01. 9 patients (18.4% required 1 or 2 repeated injections, 3 (6.1% patients underwent surgery and 2 (4% patients lost to follow-up. In the interlaminar group (24 patients, there was a statistically significant improvement in the ODI scores from before the injection (ODI mean 60.7 to immediately after the injection (ODI mean 30.1, P < 0.01, but not upon follow-up (ODI mean 43.2, P = 0.09. 11 (22.4% patients required 1 or 2 repeated injection, 4 (8% patients underwent surgery and 3 (6.1% patients were lost to follow-up. There is an average of 2 fold improvement of transforaminal ESI over interlaminar ESI in a 40 point scale of ODI score on follow-up, which was statistically significant (P < 0.01. The VAS showed similar pattern with the ODI scores in the study. Conclusion : Transforaminal ESI to treat symptomatic lumbar disc herniation resulted in better short-term pain improvement and fewer long-term surgical interventions compared to interlaminar ESI.

  13. The underutilized vegetable plants of the federal capital territory (FCT Abuja of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abubakar


    Full Text Available Promotion and conservation of underutilized indigenous vegetable plants for healthy diet, income generation and food security are the main aims of this ecological survey. Sixty species of flowering plants underutilized as vegetables were collected from the field in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT, across all the six area councils. The family Fabaceae has the highest number of species followed by Asteraceae. Thirty four (56.7%, of the vegetables are herbs, twenty (33.3% are trees, while six (10% species are shrubs. The predominant modes of propagation among the plants are by seeds, followed by stem cutting and of course few are by underground parts of the plants. Seventy percent (70% of the underutilized vegetables collected are wild, while thirty percent (30% are less cultivated. Though these underutilized vegetables abound in FCT environment, only eight percent (8% are sometimes seen in the markets. Some of the underutilized vegetables collected plants viz, Annona senegalensis, Vernonia amygdalina and, Leptadenia hastata to mentioned but a few, are also claimed to be of medicinal importance.

  14. Mediation Outcomes from the Second Sudan Civil War: An Analysis of Abuja and Igad Peace Initiatives (United States)


    opportunity MHS mutually hurting stalemate NCC National Constitutional Committee NDA National Democratic Alliance NIF National Islamic Front PNC...Command Council (RCC) government under the control of the National Islamic Front ( NIF ). In 1993, Bashir assumed the presidency and powers of the RCC...while Turabi served in various political government positions and head of the NIF . Leadership within the NIF and government remained unchallenged

  15. Implementation of Abuja II Accord and Post-Conflict Security in Liberia (United States)


    will return to our peacekeeping posture .63 General Adetunji Olurin ECOMOG field commander, 1992-1993 After the Banjul meeting of 30 May 1990, the...Nigeria’s previous hard line posture on enforcement and exclusion of the warlords.83 81 peace. It also showed that effective third party leverage and equilibration of power and

  16. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis



    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  17. Multi-MW target station: Beam Window Issues and Transverse Film Target

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martinez, A

    The analysis of the EURISOL-DS Multi_MW target precise geometry has proved that large fission yields can be achieved with a 4 MW, providing a technically feasible design to evacuate the power deposited in the liquid mercury. Different designs for the mercury flow have been proposed, which maintain its temperature below the boiling point with moderate flow speeds (maximum 4 m/s).


    CERN Document Server

    Adonai Herrera-Martínez, Yacine Kadi

    The analysis of the EURISOL-DS Multi_MW target precise geometry (Fig.1) has proved that large fission yields can be achieved with a 4 MW, providing a technically feasible design to evacuate the power deposited in the liquid mercury. Different designs for the mercury flow have been proposed, which maintain its temperature below the boiling point with moderate flow speeds (maximum 4 m/s).

  19. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman


    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physics at ELSA, achievements and future

    CERN Document Server

    Thoma, U


    At ELSA interesting results on baryon resonances have been obtained by the CB-ELSA, the CBELSA/TAPS and the SAPHIR collaborations. New resonances were found, in particular a new $\\rm D_{15}(2070)$ decaying into $p\\eta$, was recently observed by the CB-ELSA experiment. The availability of a polarized beam and a polarized target did allow to measure the GDH sum rule up to 2.9 GeV. In the future double polarization experiments will be performed using the Crystal Barrel detector together with new forward detector components. These polarization observables will provide important additional information for the partial wave analyses performed to extract the contributing resonances and their parameters from the data.

  1. Achieving continuity: a story of stellar magnitude (United States)

    Evans, Michael S.


    Scientists tell a story of 2,000 years of stellar magnitude research that traces back to Hipparchus. This story of continuity in practices serves an important role in scientific education and outreach. STS scholars point out many ways that stories of continuity, like many narratives about science, are disconnected from practices. Yet the story of continuity in stellar magnitude is a powerful scientific achievement precisely because of its connection to practice. The historical development of star catalogues shows how specific recording practices connected past and present in a useful way. The narrative of continuity in stellar magnitude, however else it might be subject to STS critique of narrative, maintains its power because of its connection to practice. I suggest that more attention be paid to connections between practice and narrative in STS, and in particular to the ways that historical practices sustain narratives by connecting past and present.

  2. Nuclear plant operation: achieving excellence through quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, L. [Barseback Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden); Bergeron, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Coakley, W. [and others


    Nuclear power operation is characterised by a very high level of safety and availability resulting in economically competitive electricity production. This achievement must not only be maintained but must be further developed if nuclear power is to regain momentum in the light of its widely recognized environmental advantages. Therefore this meeting bring together all those, managers and technical staff, responsible for the operation of the nuclear in order to allow them to exchange views, experience and knowledge on fundamental aspects such as: management philosophy, quality assurance, human resources and international co-operation; focusing on training (incident analysis and management), human factors and experience feedback; maintenance philosophy, life extension and upgrading, organisation and administration. (A.L.B.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ispas Roxana


    Full Text Available In tourism, hotels play an important role and contribute to the economic growth in cities and other places endowed with attractions which are universally recognized. Two elements are essential in the tourism industry system: product quality and human resources. In terms of quality of the hotel services, that is the one that allows to the tourist enterprise to own a competitive advantage, gain competitive differentiation and reputation among customers by achieving a high degree of customer satisfaction. Hotel customer satisfaction would be impossible if the hotel management does not perform periodic evaluations on customer satisfaction and quality, which are the focus of this paper. Therefore, this paper focuses on customer satisfaction measured by the SERVQUAL model.

  4. Array Processing for Radar: Achievements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Nickel


    Full Text Available Array processing for radar is well established in the literature, but only few of these algorithms have been implemented in real systems. The reason may be that the impact of these algorithms on the overall system must be well understood. For a successful implementation of array processing methods exploiting the full potential, the desired radar task has to be considered and all processing necessary for this task has to be eventually adapted. In this tutorial paper, we point out several viewpoints which are relevant in this context: the restrictions and the potential provided by different array configurations, the predictability of the transmission function of the array, the constraints for adaptive beamforming, the inclusion of monopulse, detection and tracking into the adaptive beamforming concept, and the assessment of superresolution methods with respect to their application in a radar system. The problems and achieved results are illustrated by examples from previous publications.

  5. Improving Outcome Measures Other Than Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Anderson Moore


    Full Text Available Research indicates that educational, economic, and life success reflect children’s nonacademic as well as academic competencies. Therefore, longitudinal surveys that assess educational progress and success need to incorporate nonacademic measures to avoid omitted variable bias, inform development of new intervention strategies, and support mediating and moderating analyses. Based on a life course model and a whole child perspective, this article suggests constructs in the domains of child health, emotional/psychological development, educational achievement/attainment, social behavior, and social relationships. Four critical constructs are highlighted: self-regulation, agency/motivation, persistence/diligence, and executive functioning. Other constructs that are currently measured need to be retained, including social skills, positive relationships, activities, positive behaviors, academic self-efficacy, educational engagement, and internalizing/emotional well-being. Examples of measures that are substantively and psychometrically robust are provided.

  6. Achieving HBSE Competencies through Service-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Twill


    Full Text Available Service-learning pedagogy allows social work educators to create meaningful learning opportunities for students and better prepare them for practicum, while at the same time, meeting a community need. This paper outlines the relevance of incorporating service-learning into the social work curriculum, specifically the human behavior and the social environment (HBSE area. Using Bloom’s taxonomy as a guide, the authors propose how the CSWE competencies and practice behaviors specific to HBSE may be assessed using service-learning pedagogy. An example is reviewed to illustrate how service-learning can assist faculty and students achieve the HBSE competencies and practice behaviors. Finally, implications for service-learning as a pedagogical strategy for social work education are discussed.

  7. Double-strand breaks at the target locus stimulate gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. (United States)

    Smih, F; Rouet, P; Romanienko, P J; Jasin, M


    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are recombinogenic lesions in chromosomal DNA in yeast, Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. Recent studies in mammalian cells utilizing the I-Scel endonuclease have demonstrated that in some immortalized cell lines DSBs in chromosomal DNA are also recombinogenic. We have now tested embryonic stem (ES) cells, a non-transformed mouse cell line frequently used in gene targeting studies. We find that a DSB introduced by I-Scel stimulates gene targeting at a selectable neo locus at least 50-fold. The enhanced level of targeting is achieved by transient expression of the I-Scel endonuclease. In 97% of targeted clones a single base pair polymorphism in the transfected homologous fragment was incorporated into the target locus. Analysis of the targeted locus demonstrated that most of the homologous recombination events were 'two-sided', in contrast to previous studies in 3T3 cells in which 'one-sided' homologous events predominated. Thus ES cells may be more faithful in incorporating homologous fragments into their genome than other cells in culture. Images PMID:8559659

  8. Exemplar pediatric collaborative improvement networks: achieving results. (United States)

    Billett, Amy L; Colletti, Richard B; Mandel, Keith E; Miller, Marlene; Muething, Stephen E; Sharek, Paul J; Lannon, Carole M


    A number of pediatric collaborative improvement networks have demonstrated improved care and outcomes for children. Regionally, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Physician Hospital Organization has sustained key asthma processes, substantially increased the percentage of their asthma population receiving "perfect care," and implemented an innovative pay-for-performance program with a large commercial payor based on asthma performance measures. The California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative uses its outcomes database to improve care for infants in California NICUs. It has achieved reductions in central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), increased breast-milk feeding rates at hospital discharge, and is now working to improve delivery room management. Solutions for Patient Safety (SPS) has achieved significant improvements in adverse drug events and surgical site infections across all 8 Ohio children's hospitals, with 7700 fewer children harmed and >$11.8 million in avoided costs. SPS is now expanding nationally, aiming to eliminate all events of serious harm at children's hospitals. National collaborative networks include ImproveCareNow, which aims to improve care and outcomes for children with inflammatory bowel disease. Reliable adherence to Model Care Guidelines has produced improved remission rates without using new medications and a significant increase in the proportion of Crohn disease patients not taking prednisone. Data-driven collaboratives of the Children's Hospital Association Quality Transformation Network initially focused on CLABSI in PICUs. By September 2011, they had prevented an estimated 2964 CLABSI, saving 355 lives and $103,722,423. Subsequent improvement efforts include CLABSI reductions in additional settings and populations.

  9. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations. (United States)

    Lacy, Robert C


    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Achieving success: moving beyond the comfort level. (United States)

    Manji, I


    Understanding the stages of growth, saturation and transition is the first step to setting meaningful career goals. While this concept is fairly new in dentistry, it is not new in other commercial enterprises. Business managers and owners have known for decades that growth stagnates after a period of time. At that point, a new infusion of energy and a reformation of the business's objectives and methods are needed to launch forward into the next phase of growth. Transition management in dentistry represents periods of growth that are followed by saturation and a comparatively rapid changeover to a new practice form. Saturation occurs when the clinical capacity of a practice is exceeded by the needs of a growing patient base. The key transitions in the career of a dentist are those from school to practising, and practising to retirement. A great number of dentists (due to low motivation, the comfort level or poor management skills) never reach the saturation point during their practising career. For these dentists, starting out and retirement are the only transitions that will ever apply to them. Dentists evaluating transition options must first identify which career stage they belong to since their objectives will be different at each stage. Dentists in the growth phase should focus on practice management and achieving saturation before attempting a transition. Since transitions like start-up, retirement, partnerships, associateships and buy-ins have pivotal roles in the life cycle of a practice, transitions must be managed carefully to achieve successful results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P


    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million


    Achieving sustainability relies upon adequate metrics to evaluate the environment and guide decisions. Although adequate assessment is important to prescribing remedies, achieving a sustainable environment cannot be delayed. It must be achieved today as well as tomorrow so that t...

  13. Path To Ignition: US Indirect Target Physics (LIRPP Vol. 12) (United States)

    Cray, M.; Campbell, E. M.


    The United States ICF Program has been pursuing an aggressive research program in preparation for an ignition demonstration on the National Ignition Facility. Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories have collaborated on resolving indirect drive target physics issues on the Nova laser at Livermore National Laboratory. This combined with detailed modeling of laser heated indirectly driven targets likely to achieve ignition, has provided the basis for planning for the NIF. A detailed understanding of target physics, laser performance, and target fabrication is required for developing robust ignition targets. We have developed large-scale computational models to simulate complex physics which occurs in an indirectly driven target. For ignition, detailed understanding of hohlraum and implosion physics is required in order to control competing processes at the few percent level. From crucial experiments performed by Los Alamos and Livermore on the Nova laser, a comprehensive indirect drive database has been assembled. Time integrated and time dependent measurements of radiation drive and symmetry coupled with a detailed set of plasma instability measurements have confirmed our ability to predict hohlraum energetics. Implosion physics campaigns are focused on underdstanding detailed capsule hydrodynamics and instability growth. Target fabrication technology is also an active area of research at Los Alamos, Livermore, and General Atomics for NIF. NIF targets require developing technology in cryogenics and manufacturing in such areas as beryllium shell manufacture. Descriptions of our NIF target designs, experimental results, and fabrication technology supporting NIF target performance predictions will be given.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sustainable development requires the merge of objectives for economic growth, quality of life and environmental protection. If in the 70’s the need to shift towards sustainable development has been made on the basis of environmental concerns, with the Brundtland Report the concept gains economic and social dimensions. Challenges such as technology, globalization, competition, efficiency, competitiveness, determine the businesses need to adapt to the new economy. Support information to doing business in these conditions is given by IT. The transition to the information society is considered a step to achieve sustainable development. Information, which became resource both in the business and in everyday environment, is the challenge that economic and social pillars of sustainable development must potency. Based on the review of interest for the concept "information society" in Europe, this article discusses the impact of the ICT sector on economic and social pillars of sustainable development. Information and Communication Technology, identified as the fifth wave of technological innovation, is the support of information society. It is playing a supporting role for the activities of all areas with a significant impact on the economy and quality of life. Quantification of any process can be achieved through indicators, created to reflect the progression or regression of the proposed targets. Indicators are tools for measuring any process, so their importance is essential for making decision. Using the scheme of interactions between the pillars of sustainable development proposed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, I have emphasized the role of the ICT sector on the social and economic pillar. Based on the relations established, I analyzed the results of the information society indicators at european level. Although in Europe plans and strategies on the transition to a knowledge economy were developed in the last 15

  15. Deflection of uncooperative targets using laser ablation (United States)

    Thiry, Nicolas; Vasile, Massimiliano


    Owing to their ability to move a target in space without requiring propellant, laser-based deflection methods have gained attention among the research community in the recent years. With laser ablation, the vaporized material is used to push the target itself allowing for a significant reduction in the mass requirement for a space mission. Specifically, this paper addresses two important issues which are thought to limit seriously the potential efficiency of a laser-deflection method: the impact of the tumbling motion of the target as well as the impact of the finite thickness of the material ablated in the case of a space debris. In this paper, we developed a steady-state analytical model based on energetic considerations in order to predict the efficiency range theoretically allowed by a laser deflection system in absence of the two aforementioned issues. A numerical model was then implemented to solve the transient heat equation in presence of vaporization and melting and account for the tumbling rate of the target. This model was also translated to the case where the target is a space debris by considering material properties of an aluminium 6061-T6 alloy and adapting at every time-step the size of the computational domain along with the recession speed of the interface in order to account for the finite thickness of the debris component. The comparison between the numerical results and the analytical predictions allow us to draw interesting conclusions regarding the momentum coupling achievable by a given laser deflection system both for asteroids and space debris in function of the flux, the rotation rate of the target and its material properties. In the last section of this paper, we show how a reasonably small spacecraft could deflect a 56m asteroid with a laser system requiring less than 5kW of input power.

  16. Targeted Social Mobilisation in a Global Manhunt

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad; Dsouza, Sohan; McInerney, James; Naroditskiy, Victor; Venanzi, Matteo; Jennings, Nicholas R; deLara, J R; Wahlstedt, Eero; Miller, Steven U


    Social mobilization, the ability to mobilize large numbers of people via social networks to achieve highly distributed tasks, has received significant attention in recent times. This growing capability, facilitated by modern communication technology, is highly relevant to endeavors which require the search for individuals that posses rare information or skill, such as finding medical doctors during disasters, or searching for missing people. An open question remains, as to whether in time-critical situations, people are able to recruit in a targeted manner, or whether they resort to so-called blind search, recruiting as many acquaintances as possible via broadcast communication. To explore this question, we examine data from our recent success in the U.S. State Department's Tag Challenge, which required locating and photographing 5 target persons in 5 different cities in the United States and Europe in less than 12 hours, based only on a single mug-shot. We find that people are able to consistently route info...

  17. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C


    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  18. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0412 TITLE: "Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis " PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yong Teng CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Prost a t e Cancer Metastasi s Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14- 1- 0 41 2 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER YongTeng Se...r egulator in contr olling metastasis of p r ost a t e cancer and i nhi b i t i ng i t prevent s met ast asis . There are no drugs available to tar

  19. Gender as a predictor for academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lestari


    penting profesionalisme, keberhasilan akademik mahasiswa   Abstract   Background: Professionalism is central to maintaining public’s trust in medical profession. Building professionalism during their study time in medical education is possible method to equip students with core attributes of professional behavior of doctor. However, the professional practice might influence not only their future job, but also their recent performance as students. This study aimed to identify the correlation between students’ demographic factors and core attributes of professionalism related to good grade point average achievement. Methods: Fourth year students of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Sultan Agung Islamic in Semarang Indonesia took part in this cross sectional study. The core attributes of professionalism were assessed using short inventory “Assessment of Medical Student Professionalism”, which was developed by some experts using Delphi method. The students’ grade point average (GPA data were collected from the Information Technology Unit of the faculty. Analysis data using Cox-regression with constant time. Results: A total amount of 207 (out of 240 students participated in this study. Our final model indicates that none of the core attributes professionalism which predicts good grade point average (GPA achievement. Female than male students had 35% increased to be good GPA achievement [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.05-1.74]. Conclusion: Female but none of the core attribute of professionalism students was noted to increase academic grade point average. (Health Science Indones 2010; 1: 43 - 50

  20. CERN's Fixed Target Primary Ion Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, Django; Axensalva, Jerome; Bellodi, Giulia; Blas, Alfred; Bodendorfer, Michael; Bohl, Thomas; Cettour-Cave, Stephane; Cornelis, Karel; Damerau, Heiko; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Fabich, Adrian; Ferreira Somoza, Jose; Findlay, Alan; Freyermuth, Pierre; Gilardoni, Simone; Hancock, Steven; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Jensen, Steen; Kain, Verena; Küchler, Detlef; Lombardi, Alessandra; Michet, Alice; O'Neil, Michael; Pasinelli, Sergio; Scrivens, Richard; Steerenberg, Rende; Tranquille, Gerard


    The renewed availability of heavy ions at CERN for the needs of the LHC programme has triggered the interest of the fixed-target community. The project, which involves sending several species of primary ions at various energies to the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron, has now entered its operational phase. The first argon run, with momenta ranging from 13 AGeV/c to 150 AGeV/c, took place from February 2015 to April 2015. This paper presents the status of the project, the performance achieved thus far and an outlook on future plans.

  1. Open Targets: a platform for therapeutic target identification and validation (United States)

    Koscielny, Gautier; An, Peter; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Cham, Jennifer A.; Fumis, Luca; Gasparyan, Rippa; Hasan, Samiul; Karamanis, Nikiforos; Maguire, Michael; Papa, Eliseo; Pierleoni, Andrea; Pignatelli, Miguel; Platt, Theo; Rowland, Francis; Wankar, Priyanka; Bento, A. Patrícia; Burdett, Tony; Fabregat, Antonio; Forbes, Simon; Gaulton, Anna; Gonzalez, Cristina Yenyxe; Hermjakob, Henning; Hersey, Anne; Jupe, Steven; Kafkas, Şenay; Keays, Maria; Leroy, Catherine; Lopez, Francisco-Javier; Magarinos, Maria Paula; Malone, James; McEntyre, Johanna; Munoz-Pomer Fuentes, Alfonso; O'Donovan, Claire; Papatheodorou, Irene; Parkinson, Helen; Palka, Barbara; Paschall, Justin; Petryszak, Robert; Pratanwanich, Naruemon; Sarntivijal, Sirarat; Saunders, Gary; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Smith, Thomas; Sondka, Zbyslaw; Stegle, Oliver; Tang, Y. Amy; Turner, Edward; Vaughan, Brendan; Vrousgou, Olga; Watkins, Xavier; Martin, Maria-Jesus; Sanseau, Philippe; Vamathevan, Jessica; Birney, Ewan; Barrett, Jeffrey; Dunham, Ian


    We have designed and developed a data integration and visualization platform that provides evidence about the association of known and potential drug targets with diseases. The platform is designed to support identification and prioritization of biological targets for follow-up. Each drug target is linked to a disease using integrated genome-wide data from a broad range of data sources. The platform provides either a target-centric workflow to identify diseases that may be associated with a specific target, or a disease-centric workflow to identify targets that may be associated with a specific disease. Users can easily transition between these target- and disease-centric workflows. The Open Targets Validation Platform is accessible at PMID:27899665

  2. Targeted anticancer therapy: overexpressed receptors and nanotechnology. (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alrokayan, Salman A; Kumar, Sudhir


    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to cancer cells and tissues is a promising field due to its potential to spare unaffected cells and tissues, but it has been a major challenge to achieve success in these therapeutic approaches. Several innovative approaches to targeted drug delivery have been devised based on available knowledge in cancer biology and on technological advancements. To achieve the desired selectivity of drug delivery, nanotechnology has enabled researchers to design nanoparticles (NPs) to incorporate anticancer drugs and act as nanocarriers. Recently, many receptor molecules known to be overexpressed in cancer have been explored as docking sites for the targeting of anticancer drugs. In principle, anticancer drugs can be concentrated specifically in cancer cells and tissues by conjugating drug-containing nanocarriers with ligands against these receptors. Several mechanisms can be employed to induce triggered drug release in response to either endogenous trigger or exogenous trigger so that the anticancer drug is only released upon reaching and preferentially accumulating in the tumor tissue. This review focuses on overexpressed receptors exploited in targeting drugs to cancerous tissues and the tumor microenvironment. We briefly evaluate the structure and function of these receptor molecules, emphasizing the elegant mechanisms by which certain characteristics of cancer can be exploited in cancer treatment. After this discussion of receptors, we review their respective ligands and then the anticancer drugs delivered by nanotechnology in preclinical models of cancer. Ligand-functionalized nanocarriers have delivered significantly higher amounts of anticancer drugs in many in vitro and in vivo models of cancer compared to cancer models lacking such receptors or drug carrying nanocarriers devoid of ligand. This increased concentration of anticancer drug in the tumor site enabled by nanotechnology could have a major impact on the efficiency of cancer

  3. Low intensity beam target unit

    CERN Multimedia


    This is a wheel fitted with many targets around its periphery (each with three longitudinally arranged thin rods) of which one is placed into the beam via a rotation of the wheel. Upstream of each target is placed a luminescent screen, aligbed on each target axis and viewed with a TV camera, to make sure that one is hitting the target. This target unit was probably used to study target's behaviour (like beam heating). Gualtiero Del Torre stands on the left, Pierre Gerdil on the right.

  4. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Current achievements and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. Dentistry is undergoing yet another change to benefit mankind, this time by transforming itself to the nanodentistry. A variety of nanostructures such as nanorobots, nanospheres, nanofibers, nanorods, etc., have been studied for various applications in dentistry and medicine. Preventive dentistry has also utilized nanodentistry to develop the nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. However, due to insufficient evidence on potential hazards on human health and environment, nanotechnology has become a controversial issue. It is documented that nanomaterials can enter the human body through several routes and can pose a threat to human health by interacting with the DNA. The present article focuses on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in dentistry.

  5. Achieving Natural Flood Management through collaboration (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Byers, Samantha; Thomas, Ted; Welton, Phil


    Recent flooding in the UK has brought much attention to the field of Natural flood Management (NFM) as a means of helping to reduce flood risk to communities. Key questions exist in the field, which include quantifying the impact of NFM and maintaining it. In addition, agencies and at-risk communities look for ways of delivering NFM in a tightly stretched financial climate. Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. NFM can tick many boxes and target many funding opportunities. This paper discusses the NFM component of the Lustrum Beck Flood Alleviation Scheme (Stockton-On-Tees, UK), and explains how a multi-agency approach had to be considered to allow elements of the scheme to be delivered. A startling 70 different landowners and agencies manage the land in the Lustrum Beck catchment (~40km2). A partnership between the Environment Agency and the Forestry Commission is planning to work on a demonstration site in the centre of the catchment. The paper goes on to explain the importance of this demonstration area in the context of the wider scheme.

  6. Targeting adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Bodo


    Full Text Available Abstract Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG, insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET, however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs, activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ a ‘master’ regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity.

  7. Target Housing Material Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    With gas cooling, heat transfer coefficients are low compared to water. The benefit of gas from a heat transfer point of view is that there is really no upper temperature limit for the coolant, as compared to water, which is limited ultimately by the critical point, and in practice the critical heat flux. In our case with parallel flow channels, water is limited to even lower operating limits by nucleate boiling. So gas can get as hot as the containment material will allow, but to get the density and heat transfer up to something reasonable, we must also increase pressure, thus increasing stress on the containment, namely the front and back faces. We are designing to ASME BPVC, which, for most materials allows a maximum stress of UTS/3. So we want the highest possible UTS. For reference, the front face stress in the 12 mm target at 300 psi was about 90 MPa. The inconel 718 allowable stress at 900°C is 1/3 of 517 or 172 MPa. So we are in a very safe place, but the uTS is dropping rapidly with temperature above 900°C. As we increase target diameter, the challenge will be to keep the stress down. We are probably looking at keeping the allowable at or above the present value, and at as high a temperature as possible.

  8. Targeted therapy in melanoma. (United States)

    Kudchadkar, Ragini R; Smalley, Keiran S M; Glass, L Frank; Trimble, James S; Sondak, Vernon K


    Since the discovery of activating mutations in the BRAF oncogene in melanoma, there has been remarkable progress in the development of targeted therapies for unresectable and metastatic melanoma. We review the latest developments in our understanding of the role of BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway signaling in melanoma, and the development of inhibitors of this pathway. We also explore alternative mutations seen in melanoma, such as NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11, and the drug development that is ongoing based on this biology. Strategies for the management of the vexing clinical problem of BRAF inhibitor resistance, primarily via combination therapy, are outlined. With the recent approval of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib for stage IV metastatic melanoma, use of this agent is expanding in the United States. Thus, management of the skin toxicities of this agent, such as squamous cell carcinomas, "acneiform" eruptions, hand-foot syndrome, and panniculitis, will be a growing problem facing dermatologists today. We discuss the toxicities of targeted agents in use for melanoma, in particular the dermatologic effects and the management of these skin toxicities.

  9. Medical biotechnology trends and achievements in iran. (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh


    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers' role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology.

  10. Achieving Reliable Communication in Dynamic Emergency Responses (United States)

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N.; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G.


    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  11. Achieving Symmetry with Polar Direct Drive (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, N.; Murphy, T.; Cobble, J.; Tregillis, I.; Bradley, P.; Hakel, P.; Hsu, S.; Kyrala, G.; Obrey, K.; Schmitt, M.; Kanzleiter, R.; Baumgaertel, J.; Batha, S.


    Direct Drive, widely used on Omega, provides high coupling energy and core temperatures per drive. NIF's much higher power offers a prospect for attaining hotter, larger cores enabling higher fidelity burn experiments. To use Omega's knowledge on NIF involves understanding the differences between PDD and SDD. Achieving symmetric implosions in PDD is essential for attaining high temperatures and neutron yields. LANL team tested laser cone-power tuning designs done with rad-hydro code HYDRA utilizing a flux-limited heat conduction (FLHC) model on NIF and Omega. Both campaigns produced symmetric implosions in PDD configuration. Omega campaign confirmed P2 tunability that was in agreement with the simulations, while in experiments on NIF |P2| role of LPI effects which are often left out in simulations. We found that when I > 1015W/cm2 on NIF, FLHC model in HYDRA was insufficient to accurately predict symmetry, bright equatorial self-emission band, and enhanced hot electron population. We were able to account for these effects by including CBET and non-local heat transfer models. Here we present out analysis of PDD symmetry data. We report on hot electron and CBET effects and assess our ability to model them with rad-hydro codes. We will also discuss laser intensity limits in PDD. Work performed by LANL under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the USDoE.

  12. Academic Achievement of University Students with Dyslexia. (United States)

    Olofsson, Åke; Taube, Karin; Ahl, Astrid


    Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students.

  13. Achievement motivation and competition: perceptions and responses. (United States)

    Scanlan, T K; Ragan, J T


    This study investigated the influence of achievement motivation (Nach) on how individuals perceive an evaluative competition situation, whether they prefer to perform in this type of setting, and whether they seek the inherent appraisal information regarding their motoric competence. Specifically, perceived threat to self esteem was examined as indicated by state anxiety responses and measured by the Competitive Short Form of the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. State anxiety was assessed at rest, while performing a motor task alone in a nonevaluative setting, and during competition against an equal ability opponent. Situation perference and information seeking behavior were assessed at the conclusion of the closely paced competition. Subjects were asked whether they had perferred performing in the noncompetition or competition situation and were given the opportunity to select the relative ability level of a future opponent. As predicted, the major findings indicated that high Nach males experienced less threat during competition than low Nach males. Further, more high than low Nach individuals perferred the competition situation to the noncompetition situation and sought the evaluative ability information to a greater extent by choosing opponents of equal or greater relative ability for a future hypothetical competition.

  14. Achieving High Data Throughput in Research Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WarrenMatthews; LesCottrell


    After less than a year of operation ,the BaBar experiment at SLAC has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB.Around 20 TB of data has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon,France,and around 40TB of simulated data has been imported from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory(LLNL),BaBar Collaborators plan to double data collection each year and export a third of the data to IN2P3.So within a few years the SLAC OC3 (155Mbps) connection will be fully utilized by file transfer to France alone.Upgrades to infrastructure is essential and detailed understanding of performance issues and the requirements for reliable high throughput transfers is critical.In this talk results from active and passive monitoring and direct measurements of throughput will be reviewed.Methods for achieving the ambitious requirements will be discussed.

  15. Plasma Medicine: Current Achievements and Future Prospects (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir


    Research on the biomedical applications of low temperature plasmas started with small scale experiments that were simply aimed at discovering what happens to biological cells when exposed to the chemically rich environment of plasma. These early experiments took place in the mid to late 1990s. As interest in this multidisciplinary field dramatically rose, various engineering and physics groups collaborated with biologists and medical experts to investigate the use of plasma technology as a basis for innovative medical approaches to cure various diseases. However, many questions concerning the fundamental mechanisms involved in cell-plasma interaction remained unanswered. As a result various workshops were organized to gather the diverse research community in the field of plasma medicine in order to have a fruitful exchange of ideas regarding the scientific challenges that needed to be surmounted to advance and expand the field's knowledge base. The present GEC workshop continues this important tradition of scientific cooperation since there is still a significant lack of understanding of many of the biochemical and molecular pathways that come into play when biological cells are exposed to plasmas. In this talk, first background information on the various plasma devices developed in our institute will be presented. This will be followed by a summary of our work on the effects of plasmas on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The talk will be concluded by presenting our vision of the future of the field and an outline of the main challenges that need to be overcome if practical medical applications are to be achieved.

  16. Efficacy of nanoparticles in achieving hemostasis (United States)

    Schmitt, Carrie Catherine

    Uncontrollable hemorrhage is significant cause of preventable death in the military and civilian setting. Hemostatic wound dressings have been created in an attempt to rectify this problem, but none currently on the market are highly effective at controlling hemorrhage resulting in a need for an effective hemostatic wound dressing. This study investigated the effects of gold, silver, and silica nanoparticles on blood coagulation time in order to determine if nanoparticle incorporation into a hemostatic wound dressing would effectively achieve hemostasis. Gold, silver, and silica nanoparticles were experimented with two different ex vivo studies to determine their effects on coagulation. A modified Lee White Method and a rotational viscometer were utilized to assess the nanoparticles ability to clot blood. Results obtained from the modified Lee White Method proved inconsistent and inconclusive demonstrating a need for improved testing methods. Results acquired from viscometer testing demonstrated that silica was effective in decreasing coagulation time indicating its potential use as a hemostatic agent and its prospective incorporation into a hemostatic wound dressing.

  17. Students' Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies (United States)

    Fernández-Alonso, Rubén; Álvarez-Díaz, Marcos; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Muñiz, José


    The optimum time students should spend on homework has been widely researched although the results are far from unanimous. The main objective of this research is to analyze how homework assignment strategies in schools affect students' academic performance and the differences in students' time spent on homework. Participants were a representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 26,543) with a mean age of 14.4 (±0.75), 49.7% girls. A test battery was used to measure academic performance in four subjects: Spanish, Mathematics, Science, and Citizenship. A questionnaire allowed the measurement of the indicators used for the description of homework and control variables. Two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated. The relationship between academic results and homework time is negative at the individual level but positive at school level. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an increase in the differences in student time spent on homework. An optimum amount of homework is proposed which schools should assign to maximize gains in achievement for students overall.

  18. Accelerator-based fusion with a low temperature target (United States)

    Phillips, R. E.; Ordonez, C. A.


    Neutron generators are in use in a number of scientific and commercial endeavors. They function by triggering fusion reactions between accelerated ions (usually deuterons) and a stationary cold target (e.g., containing tritium). This setup has the potential to generate energy. It has been shown that if the energy transfer between injected ions and target electrons is sufficiently small, net energy gain can be achieved. Three possible avenues are: (a) a hot target with high electron temperature, (b) a cold non-neutral target with an electron deficiency, or (c) a cold target with a high Fermi energy. A study of the third possibility is reported in light of recent research that points to a new phase of hydrogen, which is hypothesized to be related to metallic hydrogen. As such, the target is considered to be composed of nuclei and delocalized electrons. The electrons are treated as conduction electrons, with the average minimum excitation energy being approximately equal to 40% of the Fermi energy. The Fermi energy is directly related to the electron density. Preliminary results indicate that if the claimed electron densities in the new phase of hydrogen were achieved in a target, the energy transfer to electrons would be small enough to allow net energy gain.

  19. Numerical Simulation of the Response of an Aluminum Target Impacted by an Intense Laser Driven Flyer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiuguang; GU Yuan; FU Sizu; LUO Pingqing; MA Minxun


    Numerical calculations of the response of an aluminum target impacted by an aluminum flyer driven by an intense laser are presented. The state of the accelerated flyer and the characteristics of shock wave propagation in the target are described in detail. If the parameters of laser and flyer-target structure are selected reasonably, an approximately symmetric impact can be realized between the flyer and the target, also the shock wave in the target has a wide stable range. Therefore the absolute measurement for the equation of state (EOS) can be almost achieved in laser EOS experiments with the bothside-step-target of suitable thickness.

  20. What Happens to the Fish's Achievement in a Little Pond? A Simultaneous Analysis of Class-Average Achievement Effects on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept (United States)

    Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen


    Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wenyu; Li Hua; Zhu Guangxi


    Through analyzing the different height parameter of 3D surface between the artificial target and complex background based on the description of average Holder constant of fractional Brownian motion, a novel method of target detection based on wavelet transformation and Holder constant is proposed. The wavelet Holder constants are calculated and linearly interpolated in a series of images, the target is detected by testing the linearity errof The more accurate localization can be achieved using two images of the same region but with difIerent scaling parameters.The application results of this algorithm for target detection are also given, and show that this method has good performance of noise immunity. This method is also suitable for identifying specific targets in complex background.

  2. Achieving excellence in veterans healthcare--a balanced scorecard approach. (United States)

    Biro, Lawrence A; Moreland, Michael E; Cowgill, David E


    This article provides healthcare administrators and managers with a framework and model for developing a balanced scorecard and demonstrates the remarkable success of this process, which brings focus to leadership decisions about the allocation of resources. This scorecard was developed as a top management tool designed to structure multiple priorities of a large, complex, integrated healthcare system and to establish benchmarks to measure success in achieving targets for performance in identified areas. Significant benefits and positive results were derived from the implementation of the balanced scorecard, based upon benchmarks considered to be critical success factors. The network's chief executive officer and top leadership team set and articulated the network's primary operating principles: quality and efficiency in the provision of comprehensive healthcare and support services. Under the weighted benchmarks of the balanced scorecard, the facilities in the network were mandated to adhere to one non-negotiable tenet: providing care that is second to none. The balanced scorecard approach to leadership continuously ensures that this is the primary goal and focal point for all activity within the network. To that end, systems are always in place to ensure that the network is fully successful on all performance measures relating to quality.

  3. How to achieve a sustainable future for Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinc Robert


    Full Text Available According to the Lisbon declaration from 2000 the goal of European Union is to become by 2010 the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-driven economy and by 2025 a sustainable knowledge society. The EU however faces some strong challenges on the road toward these goals and is evidently lagging behind both USA and Japan. Our analysis is based on six dimensions of these challenges, including the economic challenge, the demographic challenge, the scientific challenge, the challenge of higher education, the challenge of European governance and identity/system of values, and the environmental/ecotechnological challenge. We argue that if we are to provide a sustainable secure environment and prosperity for next generations, we have to act now at least with developments in particular in the direction of clean, cheap, and renewable energy sources with an emphasis on basic, curiosity driven research which through scientific breakthroughs, is the only realistic solution to solving world's energy requirements. Such an action could for example facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to solar power in a relatively short time of about two decades, and help EU achieve its declared sustainability targets.

  4. Bonding, Achievement, and Activities: School Bonding, Academic Achievement, and Participation in Extracurricular Activities (United States)

    Howard, Anissa K.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie


    Utilizing a single-group interrupted time series design (Creswell, 2003), this pilot study examined the relationship between academic achievement, school bonding, and the extracurricular activity participation of "uninvolved" students (n=11) who participated in a voluntary support group at a suburban high school in the southeast. Results…

  5. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment (United States)

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer


    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  6. Associations of Future Expectations, Negative Friends, and Academic Achievement in High-Achieving African American Adolescents (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Corprew, Charles S., III; Becker, Jonathan E.


    The relations of future expectations (general and academic) to academic outcomes were examined in a sample of 129 African American high-achieving adolescents (majority female participants, n = 92). This study was interested in the multidimensional nature of future expectations. Results from the study confirm the hypothesis that academic future…

  7. Adolescents' Perceptions of Teachers' Caring and Achievement Press Related to Sex, Track, Program, and Achievement. (United States)

    Bender, David S.

    A group of 3,000 7th through 12th graders were surveyed to investigate their perceptions of how much teachers cared about them and the degree to which they felt teachers urged them to achieve. Of the adolescents surveyed, 39% felt that teachers never or rarely seem to care about them. This is a crucial dimension, since teacher warmth has been…

  8. Reading Achievement, Attitude toward Reading, and Reading Self-Esteem of Historically Low Achieving Students (United States)

    Kaniuka, Theodore S.


    The main purpose of schools is to improve the academic performance of all students and more recently with special regard to those that have historically struggled to meet state achievement goals. In an effort to attain these goals, educators have utilized many approaches including enhancing student self-esteem as a precursor to improving the…

  9. A New Look at Student Achievement. Critical Issues in Student Achievement. Paper No. 2. (United States)

    Rood, Magdalena

    To enhance activities and programs directed toward improving the teaching of reading, writing, and thinking skills in the southwest region, this document, part of a series of papers on this issue is presented. A new look at student achievement is necessary because the information age is making new demands. There has been a shift in education away…

  10. Achievement Motivation among Urban Adolescents: Work Hope, Autonomy Support, and Achievement-Related Beliefs (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Walsh-Blair, Lynn Y.; Blustein, David L.; Bempechat, Janine; Seltzer, Joanne


    Drawing upon expectancy value, hope, and self-determination theories, this study explores the contributions of work-based beliefs and autonomy support as predictors of adaptive achievement-related beliefs. Two hundred and one urban high school students who were enrolled in a work-based learning program completed measures of work hope, autonomy…

  11. Achievement Motivation Training for Potential High School Dropouts. Achievement Motivation Development Project Working Paper Number 4. (United States)

    McClelland, David C.

    This pilot project sought to determine if instruction in achievement motivation would help potential dropouts to complete their schooling. Subjects were tenth grade students in a suburban Boston high school. A one-week residential course during winter and spring vacations was taken by one group of six boys and a second group of four. Equated…

  12. A Note on Inflation Targeting. (United States)

    Lai, Ching-chong; Chang, Juin-jen


    Presents a pedagogical graphical exposition to illustrate the stabilizing effect of price target zones. Finds that authorities' commitment to defend a price target zone affects the public's inflation expectations and, in turn, reduces actual inflation. (RLH)

  13. Bradycardia During Targeted Temperature Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Nielsen, Niklas; Hassager, Christian


    OBJECTIVES: Bradycardia is common during targeted temperature management, likely being a physiologic response to lower body temperature, and has recently been associated with favorable outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in smaller observational studies. The present study sought...... to confirm this finding in a large multicenter cohort of patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33°C and explore the response to targeted temperature management targeting 36°C. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a prospective randomized study. SETTING: Thirty-six ICUs in 10 countries. PATIENTS......: We studied 447 (targeted temperature management = 33°C) and 430 (targeted temperature management = 36°C) comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with available heart rate data, randomly assigned in the targeted temperature management trial from 2010 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Targeted...

  14. Scaling of exploding pusher targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuckolls, J.H.


    A theory of exploding pusher laser pusher targets is compared to results of LASNEX calculations and to Livermore experiments. A scaling relationship is described which predicts the optimum target/pulse combinations as a function of the laser power.

  15. CERN achievements in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giuseppe Eugenio


    Full Text Available Twenty years after a Letter of Intent by the GSI and LBL groups for the “Study of particle production and target fragmentation in central 20Ne on Pb reactions, at 12 GeV per nucleon energy of the CERN PS external beam" [1], based on the results found by the NA45/CERES, NA49, NA50, and WA97/NA57 experiments at the SPS, CERN announced compelling evidence for the formation of a new state of matter in heavyion collisions at CERN-SPS energies [2]. Some of the experiments were indeed the 2nd or 3rd generation successors of the apparatuses originally proposed by the GSI-LBL collaboration. Actually, the CERN ion program initiated at the SPS with the acceleration of oxygen ions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon only in 1986, and continued with sulphur ions at 200 GeV/nucleon up to 1993. The rest is history: lead-ion beams at 160 GeV/nucleon became available at the SPS in 1994; the LHC accelerated and collided lead beams at a center of mass energy per nucleon pair √sNN = 2.76 TeV in 2010. Heavy ion physics is definitely in the future program of CERN: ALICE will operate a major upgrade of its detectors during the second long shutdown of the LHC, in 2018-2019, and the associated physics program will span the third and fourth LHC runs, till late 2020s.

  16. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement. (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.


    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  17. Exploring Students' Conception and Expectations of Achievement in Physical Education (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe


    Achievement in a domain is normally defined by the experts within the curricula. This exploratory study reported student conception of achievement in physical education, attempting to address two questions: (1) what do students expect to achieve and (2) how do students view the achievement in physical education. Students (N = 48) purposefully…

  18. Temperament, Personality and Achievement Goals among Chinese Adolescent Students (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang


    Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…

  19. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research (United States)

    Shi, Tujin; Song, Ehwang; Nie, Song; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.


    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed. PMID:27302376

  20. Advances in targeted proteomics and applications to biomedical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA


    Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity (Shi et al., Proteomics, 12, 1074–1092, 2012) herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed.

  1. Biocrystallography in Switzerland: achievements and future perspectives. (United States)

    Grütter, Markus G


    The first protein crystallography group in Switzerland was installed at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel approximately 40 years ago. Since then protein crystallography has grown and matured remarkably and is now established in the molecular biology, biochemistry or biological medicine departments of most major Swiss Universities as well as in the pharmaceutical industry and in biotech startup companies. Swiss X-ray biocrystallography groups have made remarkable contributions from the beginning and have brought Switzerland to the forefront in biostructural research during the last 5 to 10 years. Switzerland has now a leading position in the areas of supramolecular complexes, membrane proteins and structure-based drug design in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Protein crystallography on the outer membrane protein ompF as well as the development of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization methodology has been pioneered at the Biozentrum. The latter found its somewhat late recognition through the recent explosion in structure determinations of the seven transmembrane helix G-coupled receptors. Highlights from Swiss structural biology groups in the field of supramolecular complexes include the structures of ribosomal particles, of the nucleosome and the pilus assembly complex of uropathogenic E. coli. On the membrane protein side advances in the field of ABC transporters and ion channels are world-recognized achievements of Swiss structural biology. Dedicated laboratories at many academic and industrial institutions, their current research programs, the availability of excellent infrastructure and the continuing efforts to build new facilities such as the SwissFEL indicate an even brighter future for structural biology in Switzerland.

  2. Malaria vaccine-is it still required? Are vaccine alternatives enough to achieve malaria control?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fsadni Claudia


    Despite ongoing continuous research towards developing a malaria vaccine, we have still not achieved this target and the malaria parasite continues to kill thousands, especially children in developing countries. However, current control methods have had good results in some countries. Can these control methods be enough or should people still keep hoping for a vaccine? Would eradication of malaria be a possibility if no vaccine remains available?

  3. Achieving 90–90–90 in paediatric HIV: adolescence as the touchstone for transition success



    Introduction: The number of children less than 15 years estimated to be living with HIV globally approximated 3.2 million in 2013. Young people aged 15 to 24 years living with HIV approximated 4 million. The survival of these children and adolescents into adulthood poses new and urgent challenges of transition from the paediatric to adolescent to adult healthcare settings due to emerging developmental, psychosocial and comorbid issues. In order to achieve treatment targets of 90–90–90 across ...

  4. ORION laser target diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others


    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  5. [Targeted therapies for melanoma]. (United States)

    Leiter, U; Meier, F; Garbe, C


    Since the discovery of activating mutations in the BRAF oncogene and also stimulation of immune mediated antitumor response in melanoma, there has been remarkable progress in the development of targeted therapies for unresectable and metastatic melanoma. This article addresses the latest developments of BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway signaling. In addition, the development of drugs to attack alternative mutations in melanoma, such as NRAS and KIT is described. Strategies for the management of BRAF inhibitor resistance, such as with combination therapy, are outlined. Antitumor immune therapies with monoclonal antibodies such as ipilimumab which acts by promoting T-cell activation or antibody blockade of programmed death-1 (PD-1) led to a long term response in metastatic melanoma. Results of latest clinical studies including the toxicity profile are described. Due to selective kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockade, the therapy of unresectable metastatic melanoma has greatly improved and long-term survival of patients with metastatic melanoma seems a real possibility.

  6. ORION laser target diagnostics. (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P


    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  7. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers



    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  8. A multiple sampling ionization chamber for the External Target Facility (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Tang, S. W.; Ma, P.; Lu, C. G.; Yang, H. R.; Wang, S. T.; Yu, Y. H.; Yue, K.; Fang, F.; Yan, D.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, Z. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z. Y.; Duan, L. M.; Sun, B. H.


    A multiple sampling ionization chamber used as a particle identification device for high energy heavy ions has been developed for the External Target Facility. The performance of this detector was tested with a 239Pu α source and RI beams. A Z resolution (FWHM) of 0.4-0.6 was achieved for nuclear fragments of 18O at 400 AMeV.

  9. Targeting small airways in asthma: Improvement in clinical benefit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter


    Background and Aim: Disease control is not achieved in a substantial proportion of patients with asthma. Recent advances in aerosol formulations and delivery devices may offer more effective therapy. This review will focus on the importance and potential clinical benefit of targeting the lung...

  10. Yunnan Copper Group Finalized Three Year Development Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>According to news from Yunnan Copper (Group) Co.,Ltd,the Group Company has put forward its three year development target,namely by the end of 2012 to achieve resource reserve of 15 million tons (in which copper

  11. Analyzing Turkey's data from TIMSS 2007 to investigate regional disparities in eighth grade science achievement (United States)

    Erberber, Ebru

    Turkey is expected to be a full member of the European Union (EU) by 2013. In the course of its integration into the EU, Turkey has been simultaneously facing access, quality, and equity issues in education. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made on increasing the access. However, improving the country's low level of education quality and achieving equity in quality education across the regions continue to be a monumental challenge in Turkey. Most recently, results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 indicated that Turkey's educational achievement at the eighth grade, the end of compulsory primary education in Turkey, was far below that of other countries in the EU. Considering Turkey's long standing socioeconomic disparities between the western and eastern parts of the country, the challenges of improving overall education quality are coupled with the challenges of achieving equity in learning outcomes for students across the regions. This dissertation used data from TIMSS 2007 to document the extent of Turkey's regional differences in science achievement at the eighth grade and to investigate factors associated with these differences. Findings from a series of analyses using hierarchical linear models suggested that attempts to increase Turkish students' achievement and close the achievement gaps between regions should target the students in the undeveloped regions, particularly in Southeastern Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia. Designing interventions to improve competency in Turkish and to compensate for the shortcomings of insufficient parental education, limited home educational resources, poor school climate for academic achievement, and inadequate instructional equipment and facilities might be expected to close the regional achievement gaps as well as raise the overall achievement level in Turkey.

  12. Right on target!

    CERN Multimedia


    On 4 March, when the production of superconducting cable was nearing the half-way point, a magic number appeared on the display board on the fourth floor of Building 30: only 1000 dipoles left to be produced! 232 of them had already been delivered to CERN. This achievement coincided with the fourth Review of LHC Superconducting Cables and Magnet Production. The meeting was attended by independent international experts gathered to assess the production of the LHC magnets (see photo below). "The feasibility of our plan, which provides for the completion of magnet production by the summer of 2006, has been confirmed" underlined Lucio Rossi, Head of the Magnets and Superconductors Group (AT Department). During the last week of February, an unprecedented delivery rate of 10 dipoles per week was reached. Hats off to all those concerned! The experts from the Review of LHC Superconducting Cables and Magnet Production, accompanied by the committee's secretary and the Head of the Magnets and Supercon...

  13. SMET: systematic multiple enzyme targeting - a method to rationally design optimal strains for target chemical overproduction. (United States)

    Flowers, David; Thompson, R Adam; Birdwell, Douglas; Wang, Tsewei; Trinh, Cong T


    Identifying multiple enzyme targets for metabolic engineering is very critical for redirecting cellular metabolism to achieve desirable phenotypes, e.g., overproduction of a target chemical. The challenge is to determine which enzymes and how much of these enzymes should be manipulated by adding, deleting, under-, and/or over-expressing associated genes. In this study, we report the development of a systematic multiple enzyme targeting method (SMET), to rationally design optimal strains for target chemical overproduction. The SMET method combines both elementary mode analysis and ensemble metabolic modeling to derive SMET metrics including l-values and c-values that can identify rate-limiting reaction steps and suggest which enzymes and how much of these enzymes to manipulate to enhance product yields, titers, and productivities. We illustrated, tested, and validated the SMET method by analyzing two networks, a simple network for concept demonstration and an Escherichia coli metabolic network for aromatic amino acid overproduction. The SMET method could systematically predict simultaneous multiple enzyme targets and their optimized expression levels, consistent with experimental data from the literature, without performing an iterative sequence of single-enzyme perturbation. The SMET method was much more efficient and effective than single-enzyme perturbation in terms of computation time and finding improved solutions.

  14. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030 (United States)

    Pachauri, Shonali; van Ruijven, Bas J.; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa


    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US200565-86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially.

  15. Defining conservation targets on a landscape-scale (United States)

    Benscoter, A.M.; Romanach, Stephanie; Brandt, Laura A.


    Conservation planning, the process of deciding how to protect, conserve, enhance and(or) minimize loss of natural and cultural resources, is a fundamental process to achieve conservation success in a time of rapid environmental change. Conservation targets, the measurable expressions of desired resource conditions, are an important tool in biological planning to achieve effective outcomes. Conservation targets provide a focus for planning, design, conservation action, and collaborative monitoring of environmental trends to guide landscape-scale conservation to improve the quality and quantity of key ecological and cultural resources. It is essential to have an iterative and inclusive method to define conservation targets that is replicable and allows for the evaluation of the effectiveness of conservation targets over time. In this document, we describe a process that can be implemented to achieve landscape-scale conservation, which includes defining conservation targets. We also describe what has been accomplished to date (September 2015) through this process for the Peninsular Florida Landscape Conservation Cooperative (PFLCC).

  16. Telemedicine and diabetes: achievements and prospects. (United States)

    Franc, S; Daoudi, A; Mounier, S; Boucherie, B; Dardari, D; Laroye, H; Neraud, B; Requeda, E; Canipel, L; Charpentier, G


    Health authorities currently have high expectations for telemedicine (TM), as it addresses several major challenges: to improve access to healthcare (especially for patients in underserved or remote areas); to overcome the scarcity of specialists faced with epidemic disease; and to reduce the costs of healthcare while improving quality. The aims of TM in the field of diabetes differ according to the type of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes (T1DM) associated with complex insulin regimens, the goal of TM is to help patients achieve better control of their blood glucose levels through accurate adjustment of insulin doses. In type 2 diabetes (T2DM), while therapeutic adjustments may be necessary, improvement in blood glucose control is based primarily on behavioural changes (reduced calorie and carbohydrate intakes, increased physical activity). Many TM studies focusing on management of blood glucose levels have been published, but most failed to demonstrate any superiority of TM vs traditional care. While previously published meta-analyses have shown a slight advantage at best for TM, these meta-analyses included a mix of studies of varying durations and different populations (both T1DM and T2DM patients, adults and children), and tested systems of inconsistent quality. Studies published to date on TM suggest two currently promising approaches. First, handheld communicating devices, such as smartphones, loaded with software to apply physicians' prescriptions, have been shown to improve glycaemic control. These systems provide immediate assistance to the patient (such as insulin-dose calculation and food choice optimization at meals), and all data stored in the smartphone can be transmitted to authorized caregivers, enabling remote monitoring and even teleconsultation. These systems, initially developed for T1DM, appear to offer many possibilities for T2DM, too. Second, systems combining an interactive Internet system (or a mobile phone coupled to a remote server) with a

  17. Reactor potential for magnetized target fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, J.E


    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is a possible pathway to thermonuclear fusion different from both magnetic fusion and inertial confinement fusion. An imploding cylindrical metal liner compresses a preheated and magnetized plasma configuration until thermonuclear conditions are achieved. In this report the Magnetized Target Fusion concept is evaluated and a zero-dimensional computer model of the plasma, liner and circuit as a connected system is designed. The results of running this code are that thermonuclear conditions are achieved indeed, but only during a very short time. At peak compression the pressure from the compressed plasma and magnetic field is so large reversing the liner implosion into an explosion. The time period of liner motion reversal is termed the dwell time and is crucial to the performance of the fusion system. Parameters as liner thickness and plasma density are certainly of significant importance to the dwell time, but it seems like a reactor based on the MTF principle hardly can become economic if not innovative solutions are introduced. In the report two such solutions are presented as well.

  18. A Lightweight Approach to Performance Portability with targetDP

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Alan


    Leading HPC systems achieve their status through use of highly parallel devices such as NVIDIA GPUs or Intel Xeon Phi many-core CPUs. The concept of performance portability across such architectures, as well as traditional CPUs, is vital for the application programmer. In this paper we describe targetDP, a lightweight abstraction layer which allows grid-based applications to target data parallel hardware in a platform agnostic manner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our pragmatic approach by presenting performance results for a complex fluid application (with which the model was co-designed), plus a separate lattice QCD particle physics code. For each application, a single source code base is seen to achieve portable performance, as assessed within the context of the Roofline model. TargetDP can be combined with MPI to allow use on systems containing multiple nodes: we demonstrate this through provision of scaling results on traditional and GPU-accelerated large scale supercomputers.

  19. Energy Efficient Moving Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks. (United States)

    Wen, Yingyou; Gao, Rui; Zhao, Hong


    Moving target tracking in wireless sensor networks is of paramount importance. This paper considers the problem of state estimation for L-sensor linear dynamic systems. Firstly, the paper establishes the fuzzy model for measurement condition estimation. Then, Generalized Kalman Filter design is performed to incorporate the novel neighborhood function and the target motion information, improving with an increasing number of active sensors. The proposed measurement selection approach has some advantages in time cost. As such, if the desired accuracy has been achieved, the parameter initialization for optimization can be readily resolved, which maximizes the expected lifespan while preserving tracking accuracy. Through theoretical justifications and empirical studies, we demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieves substantially superior performances over conventional methods in terms of moving target tracking under the resource-constrained wireless sensor networks.

  20. Closing the achievement gap: the association of racial climate with achievement and behavioral outcomes. (United States)

    Mattison, Erica; Aber, Mark S


    This study investigated the relationship between school racial climate and students' self-reports of academic and discipline outcomes, including whether racial climate mediated and/or moderated the relationship between race and outcomes. Using the Racial Climate Survey-High School Version (M. Aber et al., unpublished), data were gathered from African American (n = 382) and European American students (n = 1456) regarding their perceptions of racial climate. About 18% of the respondents were low-income and approximately 50% were male. Positive perceptions of the racial climate were associated with higher student achievement and fewer discipline problems. Further, race moderated the relationship between racial climate and both achievement and discipline outcomes. Finally, racial differences in students' grades and discipline outcomes were associated with differences in perceptions of racial climate. Results suggest careful attention should be given to the racial climate of secondary schools, particularly for adolescents who perceive schools as unfair.