WorldWideScience

Sample records for achievements review volume

  1. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 17, Number 2, Issue 54. Achieving Excellence in a Changing Acquisition Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Fedor, 2004). Resistance occurs because it threatens the status quo ( Beer , 1980; Hannan & Freeman, 1984; Spector, 1989) or increases fear and the...Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18, 19–31. Beer , M. (1980). Organization change and development: A systems view. Santa Monica, CA...2009). A new acquisition brew : Systems engineering and lean six sigma make a great mix. Defense Acquisition Review Journal, 16(1), 100.   APPENDIX

  2. Geode process achieves high volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presli, D.

    1988-01-01

    A system of power reactor liquid waste processing and packaging applied in the USA is described. The system comprises two independent parts including a crystallization device and a cementation one. A 300-fold reduction of the waste volume under the 1135 l/h productivity is provided

  3. Book Reviews: Volume 8

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Chris Frost Media Ethics and Self Regulation, reviewed by Michael Foley Damien Kiberd (ed.) Media in Ireland: The Search for Ethical Journalism, reviewed by David Quin Peter Mason and Derrick Smith Magazine Law: A Practical Guide, reviewed by Eavan Murphy

  4. Book Reviews Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Book Reviews Denis McQuail Media Performance: Mass Communication and the Public Interest, Reviewed by Farrel Corcoran. James Donald, Sentimental Education: Schooling, Popular Culture and the Regulation of Liberty London, Reviewed by Sheelagh Drudy Robert Chapman Selling The Sixties: The Pirates and Pop Music Radio, Reviewed by Pat Dunne Bob Franklin, ed. Televising Democracies with a foreword by Bernard Weatherhill , Reviewed by Brian Farrell Tim Congdon et al Paying for Broadc...

  5. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howles, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  6. Chiral solitons a review volume

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    This review volume on topological and nontopological chiral solitons presents a global view on the current developments of this field in particle and nuclear physics. The book addresses problems in quantization, restoration of translational and rotational symmetry, and the field theoretical approach to solitons which are common problems in the field of solitons. Primarily aimed for graduate students and the novice in the field, the collected articless cover a broad spectrum of topics in formalism as well as phenomenology.

  7. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  8. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as comp...

  9. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  10. Geode process achieves high volume reduction [of power plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presley, David.

    1987-01-01

    The Geode process is a two-step crystallisation and cementation process for power plant liquid wastes. The process is carried out in two steps. The first step provides volume reduction of the liquid waste stream by use of a Mobile Crystalliser Unit; the second step immobilises and stabilises the concentrated waste solution in disposable liners by use of a Mobile Cement Solidification Unit. (author)

  11. Poverty, Academic Achievement, and Giftedness: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Corwith, Susan

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we review research on poverty, both poverty rates and the effects of poverty on academic achievement more generally and on the identification and services for low-income gifted children specifically. This review sets the stage for further discussion of the research findings on identification practices including the efficacy of…

  12. Qualitative Review Synthesis: The Relationship between Inattention and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah Anne; Dueck, Katherine; Rogers, Maria; Tannock, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Background: A body of literature has emerged that links inattentive symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to poor academic achievement. Major variation across studies renders conclusions about this relationship complex. Purpose: This review will provide a qualitative synthesis of these studies that (1) use community samples…

  13. Radwaste cost savings ampersand mixed waste volume reduction achieved with CO2 decontamination - actual utility history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Non-Destructive Cleaning Mobile CO 2 Decontamination Facilities have more than 100 months of operational time conducting decontamination at Nuclear Power Stations. During this time we have compiled an extensive database on what has been decontaminated and the cost savings realized. This paper will discuss the following: (1) how the CO 2 decontamination process works; (2) what kinds of items have been decontaminated, ranging from tools to underwater TV cameras, and from electric motors to lead shielding; (3) liquid radwaste volume reduction; (4) mixed waste volume reduction; and (5) ALARA dose reduction achievements. In all of these areas, the paper will discuss the actual volumes of materials decontaminated, the DF's achieved, the amounts and types of things free released, and the actual cost savings in all of these areas. All of the data presented will be actual utility data and not the vendor's data. All the experiences presented will be actual power plant experiences. This paper will bring the audience current with the developments and achievements realized with this state-of-the-art decontamination technique. Furthermore, it will give the audience real utility data on cost savings, worker dose reduction, radwaste volume reduction, and mixed waste volume reduction

  14. NPR hazards review: (Phase 1, Production only appendixes). Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.R.; Trumble, R.E.

    1962-08-15

    The NPR Hazards Review is being issued in a series of volumes. Volume 1, which has already been published, was of the nature of an expanded summary. It included the results of hazards analyses with some explanatory material to put the results in context. Volume 2 presents results of reviews made after the preparation of Volume 1. It also contains supporting material and details not included in Volume 1. Volumes 1 and 2 together provide a nearly complete ``Design Hazards Review of the NPR.`` However, certain remaining problems still exist and are to be the subject of a continuing R&D program. These problems and programs are discussed in Appendix H. Neither Volume 1 nor Volume 2 treat operational aspects of reactor hazards in detail. This area of concern will be the primary subject of a third volume of the NPR Hazards Review. This third volume, to be prepared and issued at a later date, may also contain information supplementing Volumes 1 and 2.

  15. Achievable conservation potential in British Columbia: A review and critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Bailie, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy conservation of British Columbia's Hydro Utility is being reviewed after a two phase report (Synergetic Resources Corp'n, (1994a,1994b)). Phase 2 is the centre of the attention for this review and critique. The information gained in the Phase 1 analysis answered what boundaries were achievable for electrical conservation. Phase 2 was to estimate the conservation potential (1) through technological and operating change and (2) through lifestyle changes of individuals and society in general. The study is part of a new, largely unexplored area of research for electricity utilities, promoting and planning for electricity conservation. While it succeeded in considering the effects of various initiatives on consumers' decisions when purchasing and using technologies, it's shortcomings limit its usefulness. The three main shortcomings of BC Hydro's report are (1) lack of relevant information, (2) questions on the methodology, and (3) lack of connection between Part 1 and Part 2. 2 refs

  16. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 1. Main achievements of the joint study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glibert, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the main achievements of a joint theoretical study aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR wastes, relying to a certain extent on national practices in this particular area, on the basis of economical and radiological criteria. All individual intermediate steps entering a management route, from radioactive-wastes production up to their disposal in near-surface sites or in a deep repository, have been identified, described and cost-evaluated throughout the study. The radiological impact assessment comprises estimates of both individual and collective doses resulting from normal discharges of radioactive effluents and from disposal of radioactive waste products in near-surfaces sites. All specific data concerning the description of the different management routes considered as well as the methodology applied to evaluate cost and radiological impact are detailed in the subsequent volumes of the series (Volumes 2 to 8)

  17. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  18. Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 33, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Mark R., Ed.; Porter, Lyman W., Ed.

    This volume contains 20 essays on current research in representative areas of psychology. The authors are professors and researchers at universities in the United States, England, Colombia, Poland, Australia, the Netherlands, France, and Canada. A wide range of topics is discussed. Included among these are social psychology of intergroup…

  19. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  20. Topical report review status: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report is published annually

  1. Curriculum Review. Volume 43, Number 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischer, Jennifer; Fordham, Thomas B.

    2004-01-01

    Each month, "Curriculum Review" offers teachers mutual support, the sharing of ideas, and words of encouragement to help them face challenges in the classroom. The May 2004 issue of "Curriculum Review" contains the following articles: (1) "Inspiring Words for Educators"; (2) "We Hear from Readers"; (3) "Last Month in Education"; (4) "What They're…

  2. Reading: Tests and Reviews. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buros, Oscar Krisen, Ed.

    This monograph presents a comprehensive bibliography of all reading tests published in English-speaking countries as of May 1, 1968, as well as a classified index to all tests and reviews in the six Mental Measurements Yearbooks (MMY). The MMY Test Index is a master index or key to all tests, reviews, excerpts, and references to be found in The…

  3. The EUROCALL Review, Volume 22, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Ana, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    "The EUROCALL Review" is EUROCALL's open access online scientific journal. Regular sections include: (1) Reports on EUROCALL Special Interest Groups: up-to-date information on SIG activities; (2) Projects: reports on on-going CALL or CALL-related R&D projects; (3) Recommended websites: reports and reviews of examples of good practice…

  4. The EUROCALL Review, Volume 24, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Ana, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "The EUROCALL Review" is EUROCALL's open access online scientific journal. Regular sections include: (1) Reports on EUROCALL Special Interest Groups: up-to-date information on SIG activities; (2) Projects: reports on on-going CALL or CALL-related R&D projects; (3) Recommended websites: reports and reviews of examples of good practice…

  5. The EUROCALL Review, Volume 22, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Ana, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    "The EUROCALL Review" is EUROCALL's open access online scientific journal. Regular sections include: (1) Reports on EUROCALL Special Interest Groups: up-to-date information on SIG activities; (2) Projects: reports on on-going CALL or CALL-related R&D projects; (3) Recommended websites: reports and reviews of examples of good practice…

  6. The EUROCALL Review, Volume 24, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Ana, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "The EUROCALL Review" is EUROCALL's open access online scientific journal. Regular sections include: (1) Reports on EUROCALL Special Interest Groups: up-to-date information on SIG activities; (2) Projects: reports on on-going CALL or CALL-related R&D projects; (3) Recommended websites: reports and reviews of examples of good practice…

  7. The EUROCALL Review, Volume 21, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Ana, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "The EUROCALL Review" is EUROCALL's open access online scientific journal. Regular sections include: (1) Reports on EUROCALL Special Interest Groups: up-to-date information on SIG activities; (2) Projects: reports on on-going CALL or CALL-related R&D projects; (3) Recommended websites: reports and reviews of examples of good practice…

  8. The EUROCALL Review, Volume 23, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Ana, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    "The EUROCALL Review" is EUROCALL's open access online scientific journal. Regular sections include: (1) Reports on EUROCALL Special Interest Groups: up-to-date information on SIG activities; (2) Projects: reports on on-going CALL or CALL-related R&D projects; (3) Recommended websites: reports and reviews of examples of good practice…

  9. The EUROCALL Review, Volume 23, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Ana, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    "The EUROCALL Review" is EUROCALL's open access online scientific journal. Regular sections include: (1) Reports on EUROCALL Special Interest Groups: up-to-date information on SIG activities; (2) Projects: reports on on-going CALL or CALL-related R&D projects; (3) Recommended websites: reports and reviews of examples of good practice…

  10. NPR hazards review: Volume 1, Phase 1: Production only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.R.; Trumble, R.E.

    1961-10-19

    This document is designed to present as complete a review of the hazards associated with the operation of the N Reactor as is feasible at this time. Where completeness is not possible the problems are indicated and probable paths of solution are suggested. Background material is provided to put the hazards in context. Supplements to this report will be issued when the additional data and information required for completeness are obtained. This review is organized into two parts. The first part issued as Volume I is in the nature of an expanded summary. The second part of the review will be issued in a succeeding volume or volumes and will consist of results of evaluations obtained following the publishing of this volume plus more detailed supporting information.

  11. Naval Law Review, Volume 51, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romero, Joseph; Belliss, Richard D; Tideswell, Tammy P; Antolin-Jenkins, Vida M; O'Neil, Kevin R; Wildhack, III, William A; McLaughlin, Rob; Gonzalez, Jason A; Sarnoski, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    .... This issue of "Naval Law Review" contains the following articles: "Of War and Punishment: 'Time of War' In Military Jurisprudence and a Call for Congress to Define Its Meaning," by LCDR Joseph Romero, JAGC, USN...

  12. Volume-outcome association in bariatric surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Boris; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2012-07-01

    To systematically examine the association between annual hospital and surgeon case volume and patient outcomes in bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery remains a technically demanding field with significant risk for morbidity and mortality. To mitigate this risk, minimum annual hospital and surgeon case volume requirements are being set and certain hospitals are being designated as "Bariatric Surgery Centers of Excellence." The effects of these interventions on patient outcomes remain unclear. A comprehensive systematic review on volume-outcome association in bariatric surgery was conducted by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews databases. Abstracts of identified articles were reviewed and pertinent full-text versions were retrieved. Manual search of bibliographies was performed and relevant studies were retrieved. Methodological quality assessment and data extraction were completed in a systematic fashion. Pooling of results was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of the studies. A qualitative summary of results is presented. From a total of 2928 unique citations, 24 studies involving a total of 458,032 patients were selected for review. Two studies were prospective cohorts (level of evidence [LOE] 1), 3 were retrospective cohorts (LOE 3), 2 were retrospective case controls (LOE 3), and 17 were retrospective case series (LOE 4). The overall methodological quality of the reviewed studies was fair. A positive association between annual surgeon volume and patient outcomes was reported in 11 of 13 studies. A positive association between annual hospital volume and patient outcomes was reported in 14 of 17 studies. There is strong evidence of improved patient outcomes in the hands of high-volume surgeons and high-volume centers. This study supports the concept of "Bariatric Surgery Center of Excellence" accreditation; however, future research into the quality of care characteristics of successful bariatric

  13. Review of Random Phase Encoding in Volume Holographic Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Su

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Random phase encoding is a unique technique for volume hologram which can be applied to various applications such as holographic multiplexing storage, image encryption, and optical sensing. In this review article, we first review and discuss diffraction selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms, which is the most important parameter related to multiplexing capacity of volume holographic storage. We then review an image encryption system based on random phase encoding. The alignment of phase key for decryption of the encoded image stored in holographic memory is analyzed and discussed. In the latter part of the review, an all-optical sensing system implemented by random phase encoding and holographic interconnection is presented.

  14. The EUROCALL Review, Volume 21, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Ana, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "The EUROCALL Review" is published online biannually by the European Association for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (EUROCALL). This issue offers regular sections on: (1) up-to-date information on Special Interest Groups; (2) reports on on-going CALL or CALL-related R&D projects in which EUROCALL members participate; (3) reports…

  15. The EUROCALL Review, Volume 20, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Ana, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "The EUROCALL Review" is published online biannually by the European Association for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (EUROCALL). This issue offers regular sections on: (1) up-to-date information on Special Interest Groups; (2) reports on on-going CALL or CALL-related R&D projects in which EUROCALL members participate; (3) reports…

  16. Naval Law Review. Volume 63, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    into a review of the Miranda doctrine.38 The Court explained that Miranda sought to put into place protective warnings to dispel compulsion that...statement to qualify as an invocation of Miranda rights “might add marginally to Miranda’s goal of dispelling the compulsion interest in custodial...Impeccable incident); John Pomfret, Militaries Bulk Up in Southeast Asia; Vietnam, Other Nations Buying Hardware as China Gains Power, WASH. POST

  17. LLE Review quarterly report, July--September 1992. Volume 52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, R.W. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1992, contains articles on methods of balancing the beam power on the OMEGA Upgrade and on the damping of ion-sound waves in laser-produced plasmas. The advanced technology section includes reports on optical nonlinearities in high-temperature superconductors, a method of increasing gas retention time for laser-fusion targets, and a study of stimulated Raman scattering of laser beams in air. Highlights of the research reported in this issue are: An efficient method has been developed for balancing the power in the 60 beams of the OMEGA Upgrade. The method can achieve 2% power balance for both main and foot beams using only four system shots. A study of ion-sound-wave damping has substantially revised and expanded our knowledge of this effect. The damping of ion waves can have important consequences for laser-plasma interaction. The use of femtosecond laser pulses to study the properties of thin-film, high-temperature superconductors is discussed. A method for increasing the gas retention time of polymer-shell laser-fusion targets by overcoating them with a thin layer of aluminum is described. A code has been developed to study stimulated rotational Raman scattering in high-power laser beams propagating through air.

  18. Achieving and maintaining lung volume in the preterm infant: from the first breath to the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Gianluca; Maturana, Andrés; Moya, Fernando R

    2017-10-01

    The main goal for the neonatologist is to facilitate the adaptation to extra-uterine life during initial transition, while minimizing lung injury opening and protecting the premature lung from the first breath onwards. An appropriate management from birth should lead to the achievement of an early functional residual capacity (FRC), and the following steps should aim at maintaining an adequate lung volume. To date, different strategies are available to optimize fetal-neonatal transition and promote lung recruitment. New ventilation approaches, such as sustained lung inflation (SLI) and "open lung strategy", well-established ventilation techniques with a more tailored application and less invasive modalities to administer surfactant have been recently introduced in clinical practice with promising results. given the current status of neonatal care, it seems that lung injury and BPD could be reduced with multiple strategies starting early in the delivery room. Literature underlines the importance of a respiratory tailored management of preterm infants from birth and during the whole NICU stay. What is Known: • Experimental and clinical studies have shown that the transition from fetal to adult type cardiorespiratory circulation needs an adequate lung ventilation. An appropriate management in the delivery room should lead to the achievement of an early FRC, and through the following steps, the neonatologist should aim at maintaining an adequate lung volume. • Literature underlines the importance of a respiratory tailored management of preterm infants during the whole NICU stay to maintain the benefits of a successful postnatal adaption. What is New: • Herewith, we describe the most relevant and recent interventions which can be performed from the delivery room to the NICU stay to guarantee an adequate tradition to postnatal life and an effective cardiorespiratory stability.

  19. Annual review of fluid mechanics. Volume 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumley, J.L.; Van Dyke, M.; Reed, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in theoretical, experimental, and computational fluid mechanics are discussed in a collection of annual review essays. Topics addressed include Lagrangian ocean studies, drag reduction in nature, the hydraulics of rotating strait and sill flow, analytical methods for the development of Reynolds-stress closures in turbulence, and exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Consideration is given to the theory of hurricanes, flow phenomena in CVD of thin films, particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics, symmetry and symmetry-breaking bifurcations in fluid dynamics, turbulent mixing in stratified fluids, numerical simulation of transition in wall-bounded shear flows, fractals and multifractals in fluid turbulence, and coherent motions in the turbulent boundary layer

  20. Annual review of fluid mechanics. Volume 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyke, M.; Wehausen, J.V.; Lumley, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of experimental results and analytical techniques for modelling various flows and the behavior of flows around flown-driven machinery is presented. Attention is given to analytical models for wind flows and power extraction by horizontal axis wind turbines. The phenomena occurring in the impact of compressible fluids with a solid body are described, as are the instabilities, pattern formation, and turbulence in flames. Homogeneous turbulence is explored, theories for autorotation by falling bodies are discussed, and attention is devoted to theoretical models for magneto-atmospheric waves and their presence in solar activity. The design characteristics of low Reynolds number airfoils are explored, and numerical and fluid mechanics formulations for integrable, chaotic, and turbulent vortex motion in two-dimensional flows are reviewed. Finally, measurements and models of turbulent wall jets for engineering purposes are examined

  1. Annual review of energy. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, J. M.; Simmons, M. K.; Wood, D. O.

    Developments in the areas of energy resources and supply technologies, energy end use and conservation, energy policy, energy-related risks and the sociopolitical aspects of energy are reviewed. Progress in solar energy technologies over the last five years is discussed, along with the implications for reactor safety of the accident at Three Mile Island, the derivation of biomass fuels from agricultural products and the application of probabilistic risk assessment to energy technologies. Attention is also given to a program for national survival during an oil crisis, energy conservation in new buildings, the development of a United States synthetic fuel industry, the role of OPEC policies in world oil availability, the social impacts of soft and hard energy systems, and the energy implications of fixed rail mass transportation systems. Additional topics include the energy consumptions of industries, the relative economics of nuclear, coal and oil-fired electricity generation, and the role of petroleum price and allocation regulations in the management of energy shortages.

  2. Britannica Review of Foreign Language Education: Volume 2, 1970 [1969].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Dale L., Ed.

    This is the second volume in an annual series which collects, catalogues, analyzes, and compresses basic information intended to help improve foreign language instruction in America. The review, covering all levels of instruction, primarily concerns itself with the process of individualizing instruction and takes into account the contributions of…

  3. Britannica Review of Foreign Language Education, Volume 3, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Dale L., Ed.

    This third volume in a series on foreign language education reviews the experience, writing, and research in the United States during 1970. The central theme, pluralism in foreign language education, is exemplified in each chapter. This theme suggests that the profession is no longer consciously oriented to a single approach to the learning of a…

  4. Britannica Review of Foreign Language Education: Volume 1, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmaier, Emma Marie, Ed.

    This is the first volume in an annual series which collects, catalogues, analyzes, and compresses basic information intended to help improve foreign language instruction in America. The review, covering all levels of instruction, ranges from equipment selection standards to planning of bilingual programs. It concerns itself with materials…

  5. Investigation of Organizational Factors for Achieving Nurse Retention: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sherestha Joshi , Archana; Nanba, Mineko

    2015-01-01

    Aim:In order to identify the organizational factors which influence leaving intention of nurses, this study aims to review literature and prior research from two major perspectives 1) job satisfaction and 2) organizational commitment.Review method: Literature review of articles which focus on relationships between various factors and employee retention. A special emphasis is given on employees’ behavior in health sector. A literature search was undertaken using two major healthcare related da...

  6. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  7. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume IV. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  8. LLE Review. Volume 68, July--September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period of July-September 1996, includes a description of an important experiment carried out on OMEGA by researchers from LANL, LLNL, and LLE to demonstrate the feasibility of using OMEGA for indirect drive. Additional topics include tetrahedral hohlraums, the speckle properties of phase- converted laser beams, design criteria for SSD phase modulators, and the design of slab amplifiers. Highlights of the research presented in this issue are (1) Results from the proof-of-principle indirect- drive experiments in which up to 40 OMEGA beams were used to irradiate cylindrical hohlraums. Nova results were reproduced, and new capabilities not available on other lasers were demonstrated. (2) A discussion of tetrahedral hohlraums (spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes) as a means of achieving better capsule irradiation uniformity. Tetrahedral hohlraums also allow the use of all 60 OMEGA beams and may provide an alternate route to ignition on the NIF. (3) An analysis of the residual target irradiation nonuniformity due to the fine laser speckle remaining on the beam after being phase converted by the DPP's. A model shows how a uniformly ablating plasma atmosphere reduces the speckle contribution to the effective time-averaged irradiation nonuniformity. (4) A discussion of the theory, design, manufacture, testing, and implementation of the microwave SSD phase modulators used on OMEGA for two-dimensional SSD. The modulators are capable of operating in the gigahertz frequency range. (5) A discussion of the design and performance of a large-aperture, high-gain Nd:glass zig-zag slab amplifier for materials testing. The design incorporates improvements from previous work in addition to improvements obtained from careful design choices guided by analytic calculations

  9. A Review of the Achievements and Policy Lessons of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed the experiences of five English speaking African countries in implementing public management reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. The paper focuses specifically on: (a) the underlying reasons for the adoption of the reforms; (b) the drivers of the actual implementation of the reforms; (c) their ...

  10. Trading volume in financial markets: An introductory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I introduce a short review on the statistical and dynamical properties of the high-frequency trading volume and its relation to other financial quantities such as the price fluctuations and trading value. In addition, I compare these results — which were obtained within the framework of applications of Physics to quantitative financial analysis —with the mainstream financial hypotheses of mixture of distributions (MDH) and sequential arrival of information (SIAH).

  11. LLE review quarterly report, July--September 1991. Volume 48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanimagi, P.A. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, contains articles describing the results of imploding-target burnthrough experiments using smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), and a practical nonlocal model for electron transport in laser plasmas. The section on advanced technology includes a report on explosion fraction measurements of water-cooled xenon flashlamps, results on perfluorinated copolymer coatings for high-power laser applications, and a time-resolved study of surface disordering of Pb(110). A brief report reviewing the projects from the high school summer student program is also included. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  12. A review of volume-area scaling of glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, David B; Pfeffer, W Tad; Kaser, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Volume-area power law scaling, one of a set of analytical scaling techniques based on principals of dimensional analysis, has become an increasingly important and widely used method for estimating the future response of the world's glaciers and ice caps to environmental change. Over 60 papers since 1988 have been published in the glaciological and environmental change literature containing applications of volume-area scaling, mostly for the purpose of estimating total global glacier and ice cap volume and modeling future contributions to sea level rise from glaciers and ice caps. The application of the theory is not entirely straightforward, however, and many of the recently published results contain analyses that are in conflict with the theory as originally described by Bahr et al. (1997). In this review we describe the general theory of scaling for glaciers in full three-dimensional detail without simplifications, including an improved derivation of both the volume-area scaling exponent γ and a new derivation of the multiplicative scaling parameter c . We discuss some common misconceptions of the theory, presenting examples of both appropriate and inappropriate applications. We also discuss potential future developments in power law scaling beyond its present uses, the relationship between power law scaling and other modeling approaches, and some of the advantages and limitations of scaling techniques.

  13. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 2000). Volume 85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sources, John M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2000-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October-December 2000, begins with an article by R. Betti, M. Umansky, V. Lobatchev, V. N. Goncharov, and R. L. McCrory, who report on the development of a model for the deceleration phase of an imploding inertial fusion capsule (p. 1). The model shows that the ablative flow off the inner shell surface plays a critical role in reducing the growth rate and suppressing short-wavelength modes in the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Other articles in this volume are: The Effect of Shock Heating on the Stability of Laser-Driven Targets; Spherical Cavity Expansion in Material with Densification; Design and Performance of a Selectable-Rate Streak-Camera Deflection Ramp Generator; Unique High-Bandwidth, UV Fiber Deliver System for OMEGA Diagnostics Applications; Fabrication and Properties of an Ultrafast NbN Hot-Electron Single-Photon detector; and, Preliminary Design of NIF 2-D SSD.

  14. LLE Review: Volume 63. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period of April--June 1995, includes a description of the initial performance results of the upgraded OMEGA laser system. A series of acceptance tests were completed, demonstrating that all 60 beams can irradiate targets with more energy and better beam balance than was required by the Department of Energy's acceptance criteria. Other articles in this volume include a description of a novel energy measurement system used to diagnose all 60 OMEGA beams; a theoretical calculation of the cutoff wave number of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability, applicable to both direct and indirect drive; a description of a new algorithm used for designing distributed phase plates that will produce super-Gaussian focal-plane irradiance profiles: a study of the photoresponse of high-T c YBCO thin films; and a description of magnetorheological finishing, a new process for optics polishing

  15. LLE Review quarterly report, October--December 1992. Volume 53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhofer, D.D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review covers the three-month period October--December 1992. On 18 December, the OMEGA Laser Facility fired its last shot. It will be decommissioned during the next quarter to make room for the OMEGA Upgrade Laser Facility. This volume deals with two areas of interest for the OMEGA Upgrade, the development of advanced x-ray and neutron diagnostics and the development of long-pulse (>1-ns) laser sources. The first three articles discuss the development of time-dependent diagnostics. The development of an x-ray framing camera is described and measurements of the high-voltage pulse propagation in the camera are presented. Time-resolved and time-integrated neutron diagnostics for the OMEGA Upgrade are then discussed. Two schemes for the generation of >1-ns laser pulses are presented. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  16. LLE review. Volume 65. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehly, T.R. [ed.

    1996-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1995, contains a description of the generation and characterization of continuous, deep-surface-relief phase plates that are more efficient and versatile than previous designs. The LLE program plan has scheduled a number of enhancements to OMEGA`s performance and uniformity, the first of which is the implementation of these new distributed phase plates. Other articles in this volume include the discussion of an x-ray diagnostic method to measure shell-fuel mixing, the theoretical analysis of ablation-front stability, a description of a major subsystem in the OMEGA control system software, a study of the population inversions in intensely pumped Nd:YLF, and a description of a new ultrafast laser system and its uses.

  17. LLE review. Quarterly report, January 1994--March 1994, Volume 58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period Jan - Mar 1994, contains articles on backlighting diagnostics; the effect of electron collisions on ion-acoustic waves and heat flow; using PIC code simulations for analysis of ultrashort laser pulses interacting with solid targets; creating a new instrument for characterizing thick cryogenic layers; and a description of a large-aperture ring amplifier for laser-fusion drivers. Three of these articles - backlighting diagnostics; characterizing thick cryogenic layers; and large-aperture ring amplifier - are directly related to the OMEGA Upgrade, now under construction. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  18. LLE Review quarterly report, April--June 1993. Volume 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, R.J. [ed.

    1993-10-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April--June 1993, contains articles on spectral features from argon-filled target implosions on OMEGA, and on the theory of an implicit difference scheme for the Fokker-Planck equation. The advanced technology section includes reports on a novel polymer liquid-crystal wave plate and a new scheme for phase conversion of the OMEGA Upgrade beams that results in greater, smoother energy deposition on fusion targets. Finally, reports on the as-designed configuration of the OMEGA newly configured glass development laser system are summarized.

  19. LLE review. Quarterly report, April 1997--June 1997. Volume 71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1997, includes an article discussing the results from recent experiments performed on OMEGA. These experiments used a new beam-smoothing device-distributed polarization rotators-in concert with existing techniques to improve the on-target uniformity of each beam. The result of this improved radiation uniformity was a substantive reduction in imprinting-the nonuniformity caused by the laser. A novel way to study the time dependence of this imprinting is also presented in this article

  20. LLE review: Quarterly report, April--June 1992. Volume 51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, R.W. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April--June 1992, contains articles on laser-plasma interaction experiments in long-scale-length plasmas and on the theory of a new form of the stimulated Brillouin scattering instabilitity. The advanced technology section includes reports on the optical response of superconducting films, the development of high-reflectance transport mirrors for the OMEGA Upgrade, and a new high-brightness mono-mode laser oscillator. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

  1. LLE Review. Quarterly report, January--March 1992: Volume 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, R.L. [ed.

    1992-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January--March 1992, contains articles on the use of diffraction gratings in laser applications, and the fabrication of gratings for use in these applications. there are two articles on the use of lasers to explore fundamental physics issues and an article on the use of a solid-state diode array for x-ray imaging. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

  2. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1996). Volume 67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeldon, Mark D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    1996-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1996, contains articles detailing several nonlinear processes associated with lasers and their use, as well as an article describing the computer control systems necessary to maintain and operate a large laser system such as the 60-beam OMEGA laser. The specific topics discussed in this issue include stimulated scattering in laser plasmas, power exchange between interacting laser beams, charged particles interacting with a laser pulse, thermal equilibration of optically excited states, an overview of the laser control system software in OMEGA, and a technique for cancellation of the nonlinear phase accumulation in short-pulse lasers.

  3. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Reviewer`s checklist: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant`s HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 2 is a complete set of the guidelines contained in Volume 1, Part 2, but in a checklist format that can be used by reviewers to assemble sets of individual guidelines for use in specific design reviews. The checklist provides space for reviewers to enter guidelines evaluations and comments.

  4. Volume of Anesthetic Agents and IANB Success: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Amin Salem; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Rahimi, Saeed; Zand, Vahid; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an evidence-based answer to the question: "Is 3.6-mL volume of an anesthetic agent more effective than 1.8-mL volume in providing anesthesia for mandibular molars?" Following formulation of research question and keyword selection, a comprehensive search of the following databases was conducted: Cochrane library, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, ProQuest, and Clinicaltrials.gov. Three-phase eligibility appraisal and quality assessment of the studies were carried out by 2 independent reviewers. To reduce clinical heterogeneity, the included studies were divided into 2 groups: studies on healthy teeth and studies on teeth with pulpitis. The data of included studies were statistically combined through meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model. A total of 20,778 records were initially retrieved from the search. Following screening and eligibility assessment, 8 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included for qualitative synthesis. Of those, 5 studies were qualified for meta-analysis. In the irreversible pulpitis group, increasing the volume of anesthetic agent from 1.8 to 3.6 mL significantly increased the success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (risk ratio = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.67-3.59, p < .001). However, there was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion regarding healthy teeth.

  5. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  6. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices

  7. A Systematic Review of the Relationships between Principal Characteristics and Student Achievement. REL 2016-091

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Herrington, Carolyn D.

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement was created for educators, administrators, policy-makers, and other individuals interested in a comprehensive catalogue of research on relations between principal characteristics and student achievement. It synthesizes what is known about…

  8. Review of progress in the theory of volume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    With the demonstration of large current densities extracted from hydrogen-discharge-type negative ion sources there has been a new emphasis directed toward the further development of these volume-type sources. Along with this emphasis has been a rapid increase in our understanding of the underlying atomic processes that occur in hydrogen-negative-ion discharges, together with a rapid evolution of the geometric configuration of these ion sources. An account of the development of the atomic processes in negative hydrogen discharges has been given in a recent review. Here we shall emphasize these atomic developments as they bear on the tandem high-density ion-source configuration. 32 refs., 10 figs

  9. LLE Review quarterly report, January--March 1995. Volume 62

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This volume of the LLE review, covering the period of January-March 1995, contains articles on the evaluation of the mechanism for laser damage in OMEGA UV multilayer coatings using a combination of conventional laser-damage characterization methods and atomic force microscopy; a dual-amplitude, fiber-coupled waveguide integrated-optic modulation device for generating temporally shaped optical pulses in OMEGA-, a proposal for modifying the indirect-drive irradiation geometry of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to provide the additional flexibility for performing direct-drive experiments; direct measurements of terminal-level lifetime in several different Nd:YLF laser media; an overview of the materials science issues, basic mechanisms, and potential device applications for light-emitting porous silicon; and a study of the time-dependent reflection and surface temperatures for laser-irradiated dental hard tissue at two CO{sub 2} laser wavelengths.

  10. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1988). Volume 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremens, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1988-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1988, contains several articles on important diagnostics used during a recent high-density target experiment series; a report on a novel technique for improving laser illumination uniformity on laser-fusion experiments; and a report on non local electron transport simulations as applied to laser produced plasmas. The advanced technology section has an article discussing multiphoton ionization using the T3 (table-top-terrawatt) laser system; and a discussion of a new computer code to model x-ray refraction in line-focus geometry. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  11. LLE review. Volume 61, Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This volume of the LLE review, covering the period of October--December 1994, contains articles on a diagnostic method employing krypton spectroscopy for measurement of temperature and shell-fuel mixing in high-temperature implosions; the first direct assessment of the ion-acoustic decay instability in a large-scale length, hot plasma; measurements of polarization mode dispersion and group-velocity walkaway in birefringent media using a frequency domain interferometer; an evaluation of the magnetic flux dynamics occurring in an optically triggered, thin-film superconducting switch; the effect of slurry fluid chemistry on particle size distribution during aqueous polishing of optical glass; and the influence of thermal and mechanical processing history in the preparation of well-ordered liquid crystal elastomer systems

  12. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1998). Volume 75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Reuben [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    1998-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April–June 1998, includes a report on a recent series of experiments, performed by A. Babushkin, M. Guardalben, R. Keck, and W. Seka, that demonstrate a new scheme for converting the infrared light of OMEGA to the third harmonic in the ultraviolet over a bandwidth that is significantly wider than has been previously attainable. This innovative scheme, employing a second tripling crystal in addition to the doubler-tripler pair currently in use, was proposed by D. Eimerl at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and adapted to the OMEGA system by S. Craxton and S. Oskoui, a recent participant in LLE’s Summer High-School Research Program. Wider bandwidths on OMEGA will allow the use of broadband beam smoothing with faster smoothing times than have been employed until now.

  13. LLE review. Volume 61, Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This volume of the LLE review, covering the period of October--December 1994, contains articles on a diagnostic method employing krypton spectroscopy for measurement of temperature and shell-fuel mixing in high-temperature implosions; the first direct assessment of the ion-acoustic decay instability in a large-scale length, hot plasma; measurements of polarization mode dispersion and group-velocity walkaway in birefringent media using a frequency domain interferometer; an evaluation of the magnetic flux dynamics occurring in an optically triggered, thin-film superconducting switch; the effect of slurry fluid chemistry on particle size distribution during aqueous polishing of optical glass; and the influence of thermal and mechanical processing history in the preparation of well-ordered liquid crystal elastomer systems.

  14. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 2000). Volume 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, P. B. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2000-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 2000, includes a report on OMEGA cryogenic target designs for the soon-to-be-commissioned OMEGA Cryogenic Target Handling System. R. P. J. Town, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, V. N. Goncharov, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, and S. Skupsky use two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with a stability analysis model to study the performance of OMEGA cryogenic capsules. They show that these targets are energy-scaled from the NIF ignition designs and have similar 1-D behavior and stability properties. This similarity will facilitate the extrapolation of cryogenic target studies on OMEGA to ignition targets on the NIF. Other articles in this volume are: Imprint Reduction using an Intensity Spike in Omega Cryogenic Targets; Measurement of Preheat Due to Fast Electrons in Laser Implosions; Holographic Transmission Gratings for Spectral Dispersion; Laser Beam Smoothing Caused by the Small-Spatial-Scale B-Integral; Three-Dimensional Modeling of Capsule Implosions in OMEGA Tetrahedral Hohlraums; and, Nanoindentation Hardness of Particles Used in Magnetoheological finishing (MRF).

  15. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 2001). Volume 88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterman, Thomas H. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2001-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2001, features an article by C. Stoeckl, V. Yu. Glebov, J. D. Zuegel, and D. D. Meyerhofer (p. 171) that describes a simple, low-cost, wide dynamic-range, neutron bang time (NBT) detector. This instrument complements the capabilities of the streak camera-based neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD), which is also installed on the OMEGA laser. The new NBT measures the neutron bang time of D2- and DT-filled inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion capsules at neutron yields between 107 and 1011 with an absolute timing accuracy of better than100 ps. This level of accuracy allows the modeling of the implosions to be effectively guided using hydrocode calculations. Other articles in this volume include: Functional Damage Thresholds of Hafnia/Silica Coating Designs for the NIF Laser; High-Gain Direct-Drive Target Designs for the national Ignition Facility; Ultrafast Optoelectronic Interface for Digital Superconducting Electronics; Optimizing the Fabrication of Polyimide Shells; LLE's Summer High School Research Program; FY01 Laser Facility Report; and, National Laser Users' Facility News.

  16. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 2001). Volume 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, William R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2001-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October-December 2001, features “Time-Integrated Light Images of OMEGA Implosions” by P. Morley and W. Seka (p. 1). E. Kowaluk initiated this project for aesthetic rather than scientific reasons when he began taking visible light photographs of imploding OMEGA targets. These beautiful images are used to communicate LLE’s mission to the general public. A closer examination of the images revealed a one-to-one correspondence between the bright spots in the image and each of the 60 laser beams. The intensity of the bright spots has been related to refraction and absorption in the plasma surrounding the imploding target. These photographs are now proving to be the basis of a new laser-plasma interaction diagnostic. Other articles in this volume are titled the following: Analytical Model of Nonlinear, Single-Mode, Classical Rayleigh-Taylor Instability at Arbitrary Atwood Numbers; A High-Pass Phase Plate Design for OMEGA and the NIF; Advanced Tritium Recovery System; Establishing Links Between Single Gold Nanoparticles Buried Inside SiO2 Thin Film and 351-nm Pulsed-Laser-Damage Morphology; Resistive Switching Dynamics in Current-Biased Y-Ba-Cu-O Microbridges Excited by Nanosecond Electrical Pulses; and, Properties of Amorphous Carbon Films.

  17. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 2001). Volume 86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sources, John M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2001-03-01

    This volume of LLE Review, covering January-March 2001, includes a report on the characterization of direct-drive implosion core conditions using time-resolved Ar K-shell spectroscopy. This work was carried out by a team that included S. P. Regan, J. A. Delettrez, P. A. Jaanimagi, B. Yaakobi, V. A. Smalyuk, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, and W. Seka of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University of Rochester; D. A. Haynes, Jr. of the Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin; and C. F. Hooper, Jr. of the Department of Physics, University of Florida. The experiments involved the implosion of polymer shells filled with Ar-doped deuterium gas driven with up to 24-kJ, 1-ns square laser pulses smoothed with 1-THz, 2-D smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS). The emissivity-averaged core electron temperature and density were inferred from the measured time-dependent Ar K-shell spectral line shapes. Electron densities in excess of 2.5 × 1024 cm-3 and electron temperatures ~2.5 keV were measured in these experiments. This represents the highest combination of electron temperature and density measured for these types of implosions in laser-driven inertial fusion experiments. Other articles in this volume are titled: Study of Direct-Drive, DT-Gas-Filled-Plastic-Capsule Implosions Using Nuclear Diagnostics on OMEGA; A Consistent Measurement-Based Picture of Core-Mix in Direct-Drive Implosions on OMEGA; High-Resolution Neutron Imaging of Laser-Imploded DT Targets; The Smoothing Performance of Ultrafast Pickets on the NIF; Tests of EXAFS on OMEGA: Feasibility for Shock Heating Measurements; and, Microhardness and Indention Fracture of Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP).

  18. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1998). Volume 76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Reuben [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    1998-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1998, includes reports on two of the newest subsystems in the OMEGA laser facility. A. V. Okishev, M. D. Skeldon, and W. Seka have developed a highly stable, diode-pumped Nd:YLF master oscillator for the OMEGA laser system. This new master oscillator produces either single-frequency Q-switched pulses or cw radiation for the OMEGA pulse-shaping system. The switch-over between these two regimes requires no laser realignment. The new master oscillator is completely computer controlled and has been operating continuously in OMEGA for six months without operator intervention. A. Babushkin, W. Bittle, S. A. Letzring, M. D. Skeldon, and W. Seka have designed a negative-feedback–controlled regenerative amplifier that has been part of the OMEGA laser system for the past two years. The negative feedback makes the energy output of the regenerative amplifier stable and insensitive to the variations in pulse energy. This amplifier’s long-term output energy stability is the highest ever demonstrated for a millijoule-level laser system, either flashlamp pumped or diode pumped. Other articles in this volume are titled: Transcient Bandwidth Analysis of Photoconductive Microwave Switches Implemented in the OMEGA Pulse-Shaping System; Simulations of Near-Field Intensity Modulations in High-Intensity Laser Beams due to Self- and Cross-Phase Modulation Between Orthogonally Polarized Laser Beams Emerging from a Diamond-Turned KDP Wedge; X-Ray Radiographic System Used to Measure the Evolution of Broadband Imprint in Laser-Driven Planar Targets; Collisionless Damping of Localized Plasma Waves in Laser-Produces Plasmas and Application to Stimulated Raman Scattering in Filaments; LLE's Summer High School Research Program; FY98 Laser Facility Report; and, National Laser Users' Facilty News.

  19. LLE review. Quarterly report, October--December 1991: Volume 49

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, R.L. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1991, contains articles on the analysis of argon-filled target experiments, and a theoretical analysis of the impact of nonlocal heat transport in laser filamentation in plasmas. In the Advanced Technology section there is an article on mechanisms that affect thin-film conductivity, and a report on the gain characteristics of the 20-cm SSA prototype amplifier to be used in the OMEGA Upgrade. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized. Highlights of the research reported in this issue are: argon radiation from argon-filled, polymer-shell targets is used as a core-temperature diagnostic and density diagnostic of the surrounding region in a regime where the argon line radiation is strongly absorbed. A theoretical analysis of the impact of nonlocal heat transport on laser filamentation in plasmas is developed. The resulting model is compared with experimental observations and the implications for ICF are discussed. A study of thermal conductivity in thin films seeks to identify mechanisms that result in degradation of thin-film conductivity. Identifying these mechanisms can lead to changes in the thin-film manufacture that will improve their resistance to laser damage.

  20. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 2002). Volume 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, William R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2002-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2002, features “First Results from Cryogenic Target Implosions on OMEGA” by C. Stoeckl et al. (p. 49). This article describes initial results from direct-drive spherical cryogenic target implosions on the 60-beam OMEGA laser system. These experiments are part of the scientific base leading to direct-drive ignition implosions planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Results shown include neutron yield, secondary-neutron and proton yields, the time of peak neutron emission, and both time-integrated and time-resolved x-ray images of the imploding core. The experimental values are compared with 1-D numerical simulations. The target with an ice-layer nonuniformity of srms = 9 mm showed 30% of the 1-D predicted neutron yield. These initial results are encouraging for future cryogenic implosions on OMEGA and the NIF. Other articles in this issue are titled the following: Equation-of-State Measurements of Porous Materials on OMEGA: Numerical Modeling; Observations of Modulated Shock Waves in Solid Targets Driven by Spatially Modulated Laser Beams; Time-Dependent Electron Thermal Flux Inhibition in direct-Drive Laser Implosions; Precision Spectral Sculpting of Broadband FM Pulses Amplified in a Narrowband Medium; Electric-Field-Induced Motion of Polymer Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flakes in a Moderately Conductive Fluid; and, Femtosecond Response of a Freestanding LT-GaAs Photoconductive Switch.

  1. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July - September 2004). Volume 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Ansgar W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2004-09-01

    The key article in this volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2004, addresses "Shock Propagation in Deuterium-Tritium-Saturated Foam" by T. J. B. Collins (LLE) and A. Poludnenko, A. Cunningham, and A. Frank (UR, Department of Physics and Astronomy) (p. 227). Testing the assumption of homogeneous mixing in fibrous foams saturated with cryogenic deuterium and tritium, shock passage in wetted-foam mixtures was simulated by the adaptive-mesh, two-dimensional hydrodynamic code AstroBEAR. For foam fibers of diameter ~1/10 µm and relevant foam densities, the mixing length behind the shock is found to be of the order of microns. Transverse motion dampens out sufficiently that, at the mixing region's edge farthest from the shock, Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions are obeyed to within a few percent and shock speeds are also within a few percent of their homogeneous values. In addition, questions of feedthrough and feedout are addressed, showing that the stability of the shock front, once it leaves the wetted-foam layer, minimizes the effect of feedthrough. As a result, simulations of whole-foam-pellet implosions may model the wetted foam as a homogeneous mixture.

  2. Effects of Reviewing Annotations and Homework Solutions on Math Learning Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing; Shadiev, Rustam; Li, Jin-Sing

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that making annotations can be a meaningful and useful learning method that promote metacognition and enhance learning achievement. A web-based annotation system, Virtual Pen (VPEN), which provides for the creation and review of annotations and homework solutions, has been developed to foster learning process…

  3. Associations between Dietary Intake and Academic Achievement in College Students: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The impact of diet on academic achievement is a growing area of research. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence examining dietary intake and academic achievement in college/university students. Eight electronic databases were searched for studies published in English to January 2016. To be included, studies must have been conducted in higher education (i.e., college, university) students, reported measures of dietary intake and academic achievement, and reported the association between these. Data were extracted using a standardised tool, and studies were assessed for methodological quality. Seven studies were included, with four rated as positive quality, and the remaining three rated as neutral. Most studies were cross-sectional (n = 4), and conducted in America (n = 5). The most common dietary outcomes were fruit and vegetable (n = 3), and breakfast consumption (n = 3). Standardised grade point average (GPA) was the most common measure of academic achievement (n = 4). Five studies reported small to moderate significant positive associations between diet and academic achievement, including for breakfast, regular meal consumption, and meeting national recommendations for fruit intake. This review examines the current evidence regarding diet and academic achievement in college/university students. The results demonstrate that few studies exist in this population group. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods, comprehensive measures of overall diet, and use standardised assessment and reporting of academic outcomes. PMID:28946663

  4. Associations between Dietary Intake and Academic Achievement in College Students: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Whatnall, Megan C; Patterson, Amanda J; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2017-09-25

    The impact of diet on academic achievement is a growing area of research. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence examining dietary intake and academic achievement in college/university students. Eight electronic databases were searched for studies published in English to January 2016. To be included, studies must have been conducted in higher education (i.e., college, university) students, reported measures of dietary intake and academic achievement, and reported the association between these. Data were extracted using a standardised tool, and studies were assessed for methodological quality. Seven studies were included, with four rated as positive quality, and the remaining three rated as neutral. Most studies were cross-sectional ( n = 4), and conducted in America ( n = 5). The most common dietary outcomes were fruit and vegetable ( n = 3), and breakfast consumption ( n = 3). Standardised grade point average (GPA) was the most common measure of academic achievement ( n = 4). Five studies reported small to moderate significant positive associations between diet and academic achievement, including for breakfast, regular meal consumption, and meeting national recommendations for fruit intake. This review examines the current evidence regarding diet and academic achievement in college/university students. The results demonstrate that few studies exist in this population group. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods, comprehensive measures of overall diet, and use standardised assessment and reporting of academic outcomes.

  5. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 2005). Volume 103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myatt, Jason [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2005-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering April-June 2005, features the following articles. ''High-Density and High ρR Fuel Assembly for Fast-Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion'' by R. Betti and C. Zhou. In this article (p. 117), the authors optimize implosion parameters for fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion and design fast-ignition targets relevant to direct-drive inertial fusion energy (IFE). It is shown that a 750-kJ laser can assemble fuel with VI = 1.7 X 107 cm/s, a = 0.7, t = 400 g/cc, tR = 3 g/cm2, and a hot-spot volume of less than 10% of the compressed core. If fully ignited, this fuel assembly can produce energy gains of 150. In the second article (p. 122), C. Stoeckl, T. R. Boehly, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, J. Miller, V. A. Smalyuk, W. Theobald, B. Yaakobi, and T. C. Sangster, along with J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, and F. H. Séguin (MIT), S. P. Hatchett (LLNL), and R. B. Stephens (GA) describe recent OMEGA experiments that have studied the fuel assembly of gas-filled, cone-in-shell, fast-ignition targets. Using both fusion products and backlit images, an areal density of ~60-70 mg/cm2 was inferred for the dense core assembly. The results are promising for successful integrated fast-ignition experiments on the OMEGA EP facility, scheduled to be completed in 2007. Other articles are titled ''Planar Cryogenic Target Hangling Capability for the OMEGA Laser-Fusion Facility''; "Fourier-Space, Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Measurements of 3-D Laser-Imprinted Modulations in Planar Targets''; ''Technologies for Mitigating Tritum Releases to the Environment''; ''All-Solid-State, Diode-Pumped, Multiharmonic Laser System for Timing Fiducial''; and ''EXAFS Measurement of Iron bcc-to-hcp Phase Transformation in Nanosecond-Laser Shocks''.

  6. A Review of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Shute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between parental involvement (PI and academic achievement, with special focus on the secondary school (middle and high school level. The results first present how individual PI variables correlate with academic achievement and then move to more complex analyses of multiple variables on the general construct described in the literature. Several PI variables with correlations to academic achievement show promise: (a communication between children and parents about school activities and plans, (b parents holding high expectations/aspirations for their children's schooling, and (c parents employing an authoritative parenting style. We end the results section by discussing the findings in light of the limitations of nonexperimental research and the different effects of children's versus parents' perspectives on academic achievement.

  7. Longitudinal Associations Between Childhood Obesity and Academic Achievement: Systematic Review with Focus Group Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N; McGeown, Sarah; Niven, Ailsa; Sproule, John; Saunders, David H; Reilly, John J

    2017-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to review the evidence on longitudinal associations between child and adolescent obesity and academic achievement and to provide perceptions of adolescents with obesity and their parents on this topic. Synthesis of 31 studies (from 17 cohorts) suggested that relationships between obesity and academic achievement are not well established, except for adolescent girls' maths attainment, potentially mediated by both weight-related bullying and executive cognitive functions. Focus groups with adolescent girls with obesity confirmed experiences of psychosocial distress at school particularly during Physical Education. Adolescents perceived that obesity was not related to academic achievement directly, but by their attitude to school. Interventions are warranted to promote psychosocial wellbeing and cognitive abilities linked to academic achievement in adolescent girls with obesity. Physical Education should be a positive experience for children and adolescents with obesity.

  8. LLE Review Quarterly Report. Volume 79, April-June 1999 [Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) Review, covering the period April-June 1999, features a theoretical analysis of direct-drive target performance on National Ignition Facility (NIF). In this article R. P. J. Town, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, V. N. Goncharov, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, R. W. Short, and S. Skupsky detail ignition target designs developed at LLE specifically to achieve successful direct-drive ignition on the NIF facility. A baseline ''all-DT'' target design is described along with a two shock compression analysis, which includes discussion of the parameters leading to variability in shock timing. The modeling and analysis presented flow down to specification requirements for the laser and target parameters to ignite this baseline target design with the NIF laser

  9. LLE Review Quarterly Report October - December 2011. Volume 129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvydky, Alex [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2011-12-01

    This volume of LLE Review, covering October–December 2011, features “Crossed-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive Implosions” by I. V. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, D. H. Edgell, D. T. Michel, D. H. Froula, R. S. Craxton, R. Follett, J. H. Kelly, T. Z. Kosc, J. F. Myatt, T. C. Sangster, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and C. Stoeckl (LLE); V. N. Goncharov and A. V. Maximov (LLE and Department of Mechanical Engineering, U. of Rochester); L. Divol and P. Michel (LLNL); and R. L. McCrory and D. D. Meyerhofer (LLE and Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, U. of Rochester). In this article (p. 1), direct-drive–implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1995)] have shown discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicates the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10% to 20%. The authors attribute this degradation in laser coupling to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET)— which is electromagnetically seeded—low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  10. LLE review, Volume 77. Quarterly report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, S.P. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October--December 1998, includes two articles addressing issues applicable to direct-drive ICF on the National Ignition Facility (NIF): laser-plasma interactions and laser-irradiation uniformity. Additional highlights of the research presented in this issue are: (1) P.B. Radha and S. Skupsky present a novel charged-particle diagnostic that performs simultaneous {rho}R measurements of the fuel, shell, and ablator regions of a compressed ICF target, consisting of an inner DT fuel region, a plastic (CH) shell, and an ablator (CD), by measuring the knock-on deuteron spectrum. (2) F. Dahmani, S. Burns, J. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, and A. Schmid report results from stress-inhibited laser-driven crack propagation and stress-delayed damage-initiation experiments in fused silica at 351 nm. Research is underway presently to determine the ramifications of these findings for large-aperture systems, such as OMEGA. (3) V. Goncharov presents an analytic theory of the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, which shows that the main stabilizing mechanism of the ablation-front perturbations is the dynamic overpressure of the blowoff plasma with respect to the target material. The perturbation evolution during the shock transit time is studied to determine the initial conditions for the Rayleigh-Taylor phase of the instability and to analyze the level of laser imprint on ICF direct-drive targets. (4) J.M. Larkin, W.R. Donaldson, T.H. Foster, and R.S. Knox examine the triplet state of rose bengal, a dye used in photodynamic therapy, that is produced by 1,064-nm excitation of T{sub 1}. (5) R. Adam, M. Currie, R. Sobolewski, O. Harnack, and M. Darula report measurements of the picosecond photoresponse of a current-biased YBCO microbridge coupled to a bicrystal YBCO Josephson junction.

  11. LLE Review quarterly report July--September 1993. Volume 56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, R.J. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July--September 1993, contains articles on self-focusing of broad-bandwidth laser light with angular dispersion, laser patterning of thin-film circuits, and construction of foam-shell fusion targets. Reports on the detailed designs of major subsystems of the OMEGA Upgrade and on the continuing activation of the upgraded Glass Development Laser system are summarized. Descriptions of research proposals for NLUF are also included in this issue. Highlights of the research reported in this issue are: Previous investigations of self-focusing behavior of broad-bandwidth laser light without angular dispersion showed only slight differences when compared to laser light with angular dispersion. A new, numerical investigation of self-focusing with applied angular dispersion shows the development of transverse amplitude modulation, which can act to enhance or impede instantaneous self-focusing. Averaging over one period of phase modulation with imposed bandwidth shows consistent smoothing of the beam, nearly replicating the original spatial profile, including smoothing of induced perturbations due to laser-system imperfections. A continuous-wave argon-ion laser beam is focused onto a Y-Ba-Cu-O thin-film circuit. The laser beam selectively heats the epitaxy, which enriches oxygen in irradiated regions alongside depleted regions. Oxygen enrichment results in the formation of superconducting regions, while oxygen depletion results in semiconducting regions. This maskless operation yields applications in microbridges,coplanar transmisson lines, field-effect transistors, and photoconductive switches. One technique to form thick fusion fuel layers is to use a low-density polymer or aerosol foam matrix to hold the liquid DT. This issue summarizes the results of a collaborative experiment conducted at the Institute for Laser Engineering (ILE) to fabricate foam-shell targets with plastic-layer overcoats.

  12. Review of Research: Effects of Instruction in Morphological Awareness on Literacy Achievement--An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Joanne F.

    2010-01-01

    As many studies have now demonstrated that morphological awareness contributes to students' literacy development, there is growing interest in the educational value of instruction in morphological awareness. This review was undertaken to integrate findings of studies that sought to determine whether such instruction contributed to improvement in…

  13. Is there an association between dietary intake and academic achievement: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, T; Goldman, S; Pursey, K; Lim, R

    2017-04-01

    The majority of literature examining the effect of dietary behaviour on academic achievement has focused on breakfast consumption only. Here, we aim to systematically review the literature investigating the broader effects of dietary intake and behaviours on school-aged children's academic achievement. A search was undertaken across seven databases using keywords. For studies to be included, they needed to be conducted in: school-aged children (5-18 years); assess and report: (i) a measure of academic performance; (ii) a measure of dietary intake/behaviour; and (iii) the association between dietary intake/behaviours and academic performance. Forty studies were included in the review. The majority of studies were cross-sectional in design (n = 33) and studied children aged >10 years, with very few reports in younger age groups. More than 30 different dietary assessment tools were used, with only 40% of those using a validated/standardised assessment method. Half the studies collected outcomes of academic achievement objectively from a recognised educational authority, whereas 10 studies used self-reported measures. The dietary outcomes most commonly reported to have positive associations with academic achievement were: breakfast consumption (n = 12) and global diet quality/meal patterns (n = 7), whereas negative associations reported with junk/fast food (n = 9). This review highlights that moderate associations exist for dietary intakes characterised by regular breakfast consumption, lower intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and overall diet quality with respect to outcomes of academic achievement. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods and standardised reporting of academic achievement. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Review of the progress toward achieving heat confinement-the holy grail of photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wangzhong; He, Sha; Seare, William J.; Almutairi, Adah

    2017-08-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) involves the application of normally benign light wavelengths in combination with efficient photothermal (PT) agents that convert the absorbed light to heat to ablate selected cancers. The major challenge in PTT is the ability to confine heating and thus direct cellular death to precisely where PT agents are located. The dominant strategy in the field has been to create large libraries of PT agents with increased absorption capabilities and to enhance their delivery and accumulation to achieve sufficiently high concentrations in the tissue targets of interest. While the challenge of material confinement is important for achieving "heat and lethality confinement," this review article suggests another key prospective strategy to make this goal a reality. In this approach, equal emphasis is placed on selecting parameters of light exposure, including wavelength, duration, power density, and total power supplied, based on the intrinsic properties and geometry of tissue targets that influence heat dissipation, to truly achieve heat confinement. This review highlights significant milestones researchers have achieved, as well as examples that suggest future research directions, in this promising technique, as it becomes more relevant in clinical cancer therapy and other noncancer applications.

  15. Review article: volume expansion in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Adequate size and distribution of the circulating medium are important for cardiovascular function, tissue oxygenation, and fluid homoeostasis. Patients with cirrhosis have cardiovascular dysfunction with a hyperkinetic systemic circulation, abnormal distribution of the blood volume, vasodilation...

  16. LLE Review Quarterly Report January - March 2012. Volume 130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvydky, Alex [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2012-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January–March 2012, features “OMEGA Polar-Drive Target Designs,” by P. B. Radha, J. A. Marozas, F. J. Marshall, A. Shvydky, T. J. B. Collins, V. N. Goncharov, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, and S. Skupsky. This article (p. 57) describes low-adiabat, cryogenic-deuterium–tritium, and warm-plastic-shell polar-drive (PD)–implosion designs for the OMEGA laser. The designs are at two different on-target laser intensities, each at a different in-flight aspect ratio (IFAR). The first design permits one to study implosion energetics and target performance closer to ignition-relevant intensities (7 X 1014 W/cm2 at the quarter-critical surface), where nonlocal heat conduction and laser–plasma interactions can play an important role, but at lower values of IFAR (~22). The second design permits one to study implosion energetics and target performance at a lower intensity (3 X 1014 W/cm2) but at higher IFAR (~32), where the shell instability can play an important role. The higher IFAR designs are accessible on the existing OMEGA Laser System only at lower intensities. Implosions at ignition-relevant intensities can be obtained only by reducing target radius, although only at smaller values of IFAR. Polar-drive geometry requires repointing the laser beams to improve shell symmetry. The higher-intensity designs optimize target performance by repointing beams to a lesser extent and compensate for the reduced equatorial drive by increasing beam energies for the repointed beams and using custom beam profiles that improve equatorial illumination at the expense of irradiation at higher latitudes. These designs will be studied when new phase plates for the OMEGA Laser System, corresponding to the smaller target radii and custom beam profiles, are obtained. Implosion results from the combined set of high-intensity and high-IFAR implosions should yield valuable

  17. Physical Activity, Fitness, Cognitive Function, and Academic Achievement in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E; Hillman, Charles H; Castelli, Darla; Etnier, Jennifer L; Lee, Sarah; Tomporowski, Phillip; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N

    2016-06-01

    The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: 1) among children age 5-13 yr, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? 2) Among children age 5-13 yr, do PA, physical education (PE), and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention? This study used primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on, PA, fitness, or PE/sport participation and cognition, learning, brain function/structure, academic achievement, or concentration/attention were included. Two separate searches were performed to identify studies that focused on 1) cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function and 2) standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention. PubMed, ERIC, PsychInfo, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and Embase were searched (January 1990-September 2014) for studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria for the first search (cognition/learning/brain), and 73 studies met inclusion criteria for the second search (academic achievement/concentration). Articles were grouped by study design as cross-sectional, longitudinal, acute, or intervention trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed for several important study parameters; therefore, results were synthesized and presented by study design. A majority of the research supports the view that physical fitness, single bouts of PA, and PA interventions benefit children's cognitive functioning. Limited evidence was available concerning the effects of PA on learning

  18. Physical Activity, Fitness, Cognitive Function, and Academic Achievement in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Hillman, Charles H.; Castelli, Darla; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Lee, Sarah; Tomporowski, Phillip; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The relation among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. Objective To answer the following questions: (1) among children aged 5-13, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? (2) among children aged 5-13, do PA, physical education, and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention? Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on, PA, fitness or physical education (PE)/sport participation and cognition, learning, brain function/structure, academic achievement, or concentration/attention were included. Data Sources Two separate searches were performed to identify studies that focused on (1) cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function; and (2) standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention. PubMed, ERIC, PsychInfo, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and Embase were searched (January 1990- September 2014) for studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixty-four met inclusion criteria for the first search (cognition/learning/brain) and 73 studies met inclusion criteria for the second search (academic achievement/concentration). Study appraisal and synthesis methods Articles were grouped by study design as cross-sectional, longitudinal, acute, or intervention trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed for several important study parameters, therefore results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results A majority of the research supports the view that physical fitness, single bouts of PA, and PA interventions benefit children's cognitive functioning. Limited

  19. Proceedings of the 1995 U.S. DOE hydrogen program review, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document containes reports from the proceedings of the 1995 U.S. DOE hydrogen program review. Reports are organized under the topics of systems analysis, utilization, storage, and production. This volume, Volume I, contains the reports concerned with systems analysis and utilization. Individual reports were processed separately for the DOE data bases.

  20. Relation between hospital volume and outcome of elective surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henebiens, M.; van den Broek, Th A. A.; Vahl, A. C.; Koelemay, M. J. W.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to analyse the relation between hospital volume and peri-operative mortality in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHOD: The Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched to identify all population based studies reporting on the volume

  1. LLE Review: Quarterly report, July--September 1994. Volume 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, J.P. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    This volume contains articles on efficient generation of second-harmonic radiation from short-pulse lasers; calculation of the stabilization cutoff wave numbers for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability; a high-frequency silicon optical modulator; the angular dependence of stimulated Brillouin scattering; and femtosecond dynamics of ladder polymers. Three of these articles--second-harmonic generation, Rayleigh-Taylor cutoff wave numbers, and angular dependence of Brillouin scattering--are directly related to the OMEGA Upgrade, currently under construction. A summary of the status of the OMEGA Upgrade laser facility and the NLUF News for FY94 are included in this volume.

  2. Review article: volume expansion in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    with low systemic vascular resistance, increased whole-body vascular compliance, and increased arterial compliance. The effectiveness and temporal relations of plasma/blood volume expansion depend highly on the type of load (water, saline, oncotic material, red blood cells). Patients with cirrhosis respond...... in advanced cirrhosis is qualitatively and quantitatively different from that of healthy subjects, and in those with early cirrhosis. Timely handling is essential, but difficult as it is a balance between the risks of excess extravascular volume loading and further circulatory dysfunction in these patients...

  3. Review article: volume expansion in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    in advanced cirrhosis is qualitatively and quantitatively different from that of healthy subjects, and in those with early cirrhosis. Timely handling is essential, but difficult as it is a balance between the risks of excess extravascular volume loading and further circulatory dysfunction in these patients...... in some aspects differently from healthy subjects, owing to their disturbed circulatory function and neurohormonal activation. Thus the increase in cardiac output and suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system during volume expansion may be somewhat blunted...

  4. Is crossed laterality associated with academic achievement and intelligence? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Marta; West, Gillian; Vadillo, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Over the last century, sporadic research has suggested that people whose hand, eye, foot, or ear dominances are not consistently right- or left-sided are at special risk of suffering academic difficulties. This phenomenon is known as crossed laterality. Although the bulk of this research dates from 1960's and 1970's, crossed laterality is becoming increasingly popular in the area of school education, driving the creation of several interventions aimed at restoring or consolidating lateral dominance. However, the available evidence is fragmentary. To determine the impact of crossed laterality on academic achievement and intelligence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles published since 1900. The inclusion criteria for the review required that studies used one or more lateral preference tasks for at least two specific parts of the body; they included a valid measure of crossed laterality; they measured the impact of crossed laterality on academic achievement or intelligence; and they included participants between 3 and 17 years old. The final sample included 26 articles that covered a total population of 3578 children aged 5 to 12. Taken collectively, the results of these studies do not support the claim that there is a reliable association between crossed laterality and either academic achievement or intelligence. Along with this, we detected important shortcomings in the literature, such as considerable heterogeneity among the variables used to measure laterality and among the tasks utilized to measure the outcomes. The educational implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Nutrition Prescription to Achieve Positive Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, management of diet is important in prevention of disease progression and symptom management, however evidence on nutrition prescription is limited. Recent international CKD guidelines and literature was reviewed to address the following question “What is the appropriate nutrition prescription to achieve positive outcomes in adult patients with chronic kidney disease?” Databases included in the search were Medline and CINAHL using EBSCOhost search engine, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published from 2000 to 2009. International guidelines pertaining to nutrition prescription in CKD were also reviewed from 2000 to 2013. Three hundred and eleven papers and eight guidelines were reviewed by three reviewers. Evidence was graded as per the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia criteria. The evidence from thirty six papers was tabulated under the following headings: protein, weight loss, enteral support, vitamin D, sodium, fat, fibre, oral nutrition supplements, nutrition counselling, including protein and phosphate, nutrients in peritoneal dialysis solution and intradialytic parenteral nutrition, and was compared to international guidelines. While more evidence based studies are warranted, the customary nutrition prescription remains satisfactory with the exception of Vitamin D and phosphate. In these two areas, additional research is urgently needed given the potential of adverse outcomes for the CKD patient.

  6. Effects of obesity on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dill Winck

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the effects of obesity on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents. Data source: This is a systematic review, carried out in Pubmed, Lilacs, Scielo and PEDro databases, using the following Keywords: Plethysmography; Whole Body OR Lung Volume Measurements OR Total Lung Capacity OR Functional Residual Capacity OR Residual Volume AND Obesity. Observational studies or clinical trials that assessed the effects of obesity on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents (0-18 years without any other associated disease; in English; Portuguese and Spanish languages were selected. Methodological quality was assessed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Data synthesis: Of the 1,030 articles, only four were included in the review. The studies amounted to 548 participants, predominantly males, with sample size ranging from 45 to 327 individuals. 100% of the studies evaluated nutritional status through BMI (z-score and 50.0% reported the data on abdominal circumference. All demonstrated that obesity causes negative effects on lung volume and capacity, causing a reduction mainly in functional residual capacity in 75.0% of the studies; in the expiratory reserve volume in 50.0% and in the residual volume in 25.0%. The methodological quality ranged from moderate to high, with 75.0% of the studies classified as having high methodological quality. Conclusions: Obesity causes deleterious effects on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents, mainly by reducing functional residual capacity, expiratory reserve volume and residual volume.

  7. ROMPS critical design review. Volume 2: Robot module design documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    The robot module design documentation for the Remote Operated Materials Processing in Space (ROMPS) experiment is compiled. This volume presents the following information: robot module modifications; Easylab commands definitions and flowcharts; Easylab program definitions and flowcharts; robot module fault conditions and structure charts; and C-DOC flow structure and cross references.

  8. Military Review, January 1992. Volume 72, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    exhibited symptoms remarkably similar to ded view of triggering events. Natural disasters those of the battle- scarred soldier. However, it (earthquakes...Peter Gudgin. This volume of the 񓟰" series provides information on tanks and ar- 159 pages. Arms and Armour Pre.s, mored fighting vehicles (AFVs

  9. Review article: volume expansion in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    with low systemic vascular resistance, increased whole-body vascular compliance, and increased arterial compliance. The effectiveness and temporal relations of plasma/blood volume expansion depend highly on the type of load (water, saline, oncotic material, red blood cells). Patients with cirrhosis respond...

  10. A Review of Industrial Relations Research, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Gerald G., Ed.

    This report, with Volume I previously released, appraises selected research in industrial relations since 1956-57. Experts analyze the character and contributions of the research output in their areas of expertise. Contents include: (1) "Public Policy and Labor-Management Relations" by Benjamin Aaron and Paul Seth Meyer, (2) "Manpower Research and…

  11. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Higher Education: A Bibliographic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mayora-Pernía

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a bibliographic review about the relation between locus of control (LC and academic achievement in higher education students. Online repositories were the main source of information. The most important findings show that, (a the LC construct has evolved from being a dichotomist to a multidimensional variable; (b there are very few recent international studies and none of them covers Latin-America; (c interdisciplinary research is scarce and the absence of the qualitative approach is noticeable; and, (d whether direct or indirectly, most studies show a relation between LC and academic achievement in higher education. These findings show the need to address this topic in Latin America. It is suggested to conduct interdisciplinary, longitudinal, qualitative, and quantitative studies under the supervision of institutions and teachers; the results would be used to design interventions to improve que quality of education.

  12. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. Volume 4, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Jack, Ed.; Hutton, Robert S., Ed.

    EXERCISE AND SPORT SCIENCES REVIEWS is a journal, published once per year, in which reviews of research concerning biological, biomechanical, behavioral, and kinesiological aspects of human movement and performance are published. This book contains the following articles: (1) Organizational Processes in Motor Control, by A. M. Gentile and J.…

  13. Topical report review status. Volume 9, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report is published semiannually

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Gravitational Waves, Volume 1: Theory and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Eric

    2008-10-01

    A superficial introduction to gravitational waves can be found in most textbooks on general relativity, but typically, the treatment hardly does justice to a field that has grown tremendously, both in its theoretical and experimental aspects, in the course of the last twenty years. Other than the technical literature, few other sources have been available to the interested reader; exceptions include edited volumes such as [1] and [2], Weber's little book [3] which happily is still in print, and Peter Saulson's text [4] which appears, unfortunately, to be out of print. In addition to these technical references, the story of gravitational waves was famously told by a sociologist of scientific knowledge [5] (focusing mostly on the experimental aspects) and a historian of science [6] (focusing mostly on the theoretical aspects). The book Gravitational Waves, Volume 1, by Michele Maggiore, is a welcome point of departure. This is, as far as I know, the first comprehensive textbook on gravitational waves. It describes the theoretical foundations of the subject, the known (and anticipated) sources, and the principles of detection by resonant masses and laser interferometers. This book is a major accomplishment, and with the promised volume 2 on astrophysical and cosmological aspects of gravitational waves, the community of all scientists interested in this topic will be well served. Part I of the book is devoted to the theoretical aspects of gravitational waves. In chapter 1 the waves are introduced in usual relativist's fashion, in the context of an approximation to general relativity in which they are treated as a small perturbation of the Minkowski metric of flat spacetime. This is an adequate foundation to study how the waves propagate, and how they interact with freely moving masses making up a detector. The waves are presented in the usual traceless-transverse gauge, but the detection aspects are also worked out in the detector's proper rest frame; this dual

  15. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  16. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  17. Low Tidal Volume versus Non-Volume-Limited Strategies for Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkey, Allan J; Goligher, Ewan C; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Hodgson, Carol L; Adhikari, Neill K J; Wunsch, Hannah; Meade, Maureen O; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Hess, Dean; Talmor, Daniel S; Thompson, B Taylor; Brower, Roy G; Fan, Eddy

    2017-10-01

    Trials investigating use of lower tidal volumes and inspiratory pressures for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have shown mixed results. To compare clinical outcomes of mechanical ventilation strategies that limit tidal volumes and inspiratory pressures (LTV) to strategies with tidal volumes of 10 to 15 ml/kg among patients with ARDS. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials investigating LTV mechanical ventilation strategies. We used random effects models to evaluate the effect of LTV on 28-day mortality, organ failure, ventilator-free days, barotrauma, oxygenation, and ventilation. Our primary analysis excluded trials for which the LTV strategy was combined with the additional strategy of higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), but these trials were included in a stratified sensitivity analysis. We performed metaregression of tidal volume gradient achieved between intervention and control groups on mortality effect estimates. We used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology to determine the quality of evidence. Seven randomized trials involving 1,481 patients met eligibility criteria for this review. Mortality was not significantly lower for patients receiving an LTV strategy (33.6%) as compared with control strategies (40.4%) (relative risk [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.08; heterogeneity statistic I 2  = 46%), nor did an LTV strategy significantly decrease barotrauma or ventilator-free days when compared with a lower PEEP strategy. Quality of evidence for clinical outcomes was downgraded for imprecision. Metaregression showed a significant inverse association between larger tidal volume gradient between LTV and control groups and log odds ratios for mortality (β, -0.1587; P = 0.0022). Sensitivity analysis including trials that protocolized an LTV/high PEEP cointervention showed lower mortality associated with LTV (nine trials and 1

  18. Transit Employee Attendance Management Volume 1: Review of Attendance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to: 1)provide background information on the : importance of improving employee attendance stressing the costs and associated : impacts of absenteeism; 2)summarize and review existing research and theories on : the ca...

  19. The DTIC Review. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Volume 4, Number 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cupp, Christian

    1998-01-01

    .... UAVs are a key element within the concept of information dominance. The objective of this issue of The DTIC Review is to review the capabilities, design and architecture of unmanned aerial vehicles common in military and commercial activities. Many challenges remain in UAV development if the United States is to continue to improve our performance of the intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance mission and to fully exploit this technology in the 21st century.

  20. Book review: Fowler's zoo and wild animal medicine (volume 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the eighth volume of Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, the editors have returned to the original, comprehensive, taxa-based format last used in the fifth volume that was released in 2003. The book consists of 82 chapters, divided into taxonomic classes that include amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, and a general topics section. The editors deliberately selected new senior authors who are expert veterinary advisors for the various taxa. This international assemblage of authors is impressive, although the book would have benefited from a greater diversity of disciplinary expertise. Synthesis of the large and expanding body of knowledge about zoo and wild animal medicine is a Sisyphean task, but one that the editors have accomplished well. The chapters were well written and are beautifully illustrated with high-quality images and generally well referenced. Much of the information is summarized in tabular format, which I found both a blessing and a curse. Tabulation of hematologic variables and anesthetic doses is helpful; however, tabulation of information regarding infectious and parasitic diseases results in a loss of detail. For example, methods of diagnosis for some diseases are omitted from some tables. The need for succinctness results in trade-offs, and statements such as “Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis … is one of the most well described pathogens of anurans” with no further information leaves readers unsated. In addition, the book does not have any chapters on fish or invertebrates, which are notable omissions given the importance of these species. Those quibbles aside, this is a must-have book for all zoo and wild animal medicine students and practitioners. However, perhaps it is time to recognize that, during the 36 years since the first volume was published, this discipline has become too large to be contained in 1 book. This is largely because of the success of this book series, and it is a nice problem to have.

  1. LLE review: Quarterly report, April--June 1996. Volume 67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeldon, M.D. [ed.

    1996-11-01

    This volume contains articles detailing several nonlinear processes associated with lasers and their use, as well as an article describing the computer control systems necessary to maintain and operate a large laser system such as the 60-beam OMEGA laser. The specific topics discussed in this issue include stimulated scattering in laser plasmas, power exchange between interacting laser beams, charged particles interacting with a laser pulse, thermal equilibration of optically excited states, an overview of the laser control system software in OMEGA, and a technique for cancellation of the nonlinear phase accumulation in short-pulse lasers.

  2. Naval War College Review. Volume 59, Number 1, Winter 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    the so-called “ Pepsi Challenge,” a blind taste-test designed to help the Pepsi Cola Company achieve a victory over its primary competitor, Coca - Cola ...how- ever, when the sample size was increased to an entire can. The Coca - Cola Com- pany failed to realize this fact and di- verted significant...Be- ing sweeter tasting than Coke, Pepsi was overwhelmingly favored when indi- viduals sampled small amounts of each soda. The results were reversed

  3. Educational Spaces: A Pictorial Review of Significant Spaces. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    A pictorial review presents educational facility designs from around the world as examples of contemporary and inspirational trends in school architecture. Photos showcase exterior and interior design features from primary and secondary, and adult educational facilities. Biographies of some of the architectural firms involved are provided. (GR)

  4. Military Review, October 1991. Volume 71, Number 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    impact on the peacetime the attack, and the concept of fire and maneuver MILITARY REVIEW e October 1991 15 direct/v ~ ~ ~ U rMa ’ se sfedics remo ving onn...completely satis- sports and was always practicing the piano. But raing. pr oat e f o hamineehais- then he added, "How was I supposed to know he tyn

  5. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories -- cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry h...

  6. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heat...

  7. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Review software and user's guide: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant's HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 3 contains an interactive software application of the NUREG-0700, Revision 1 guidance and a user's guide for this software. The software supports reviewers during review preparation, evaluation design using the human factors engineering guidelines, and in report preparation. The user's guide provides system requirements and installation instructions, detailed explanations of the software's functions and features, and a tutorial on using the software

  8. Military Review, March 1992. Volume 72, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    pressure and vehicle configuration conditions in the Persian Gulf. It stepped up its on desert mohilIty, research on dust palliatives in a desert environ ...11 million maps, development of the the- ness owners could not get workers to continue ater plan for environmental cleanup, prime pow- to work during...quality Globil Positioning System (GPS) As this data became available, TEC transformed 30 March 1992 * MILITARY REVIEW Seven Topographic Support System

  9. Review of air quality modeling techniques. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Air transport and diffusion models which are applicable to the assessment of the environmental effects of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation are reviewed. The general classification of models and model inputs are discussed. A detailed examination of the statistical, Gaussian plume, Gaussian puff, one-box and species-conservation-of-mass models is given. Representative models are discussed with attention given to the assumptions, input data requirement, advantages, disadvantages and applicability of each

  10. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 17, Number 2, Issue 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Fedor, 2004). Resistance occurs because it threatens the status quo ( Beer , 1980; Hannan & Freeman, 1984; Spector, 1989) or increases fear and the...Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18, 19–31. Beer , M. (1980). Organization change and development: A systems view. Santa Monica... brew : Systems engineering and lean six sigma make a great mix. Defense Acquisition Review Journal, 16(1), 100.   APPENDIX List of Abbreviations and

  11. Naval War College Review. Volume 66, Number 2, Spring 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Naval Exploits of the Chinese People during the Southern Song and Yuan Periods, by lo Jung -pang (edited by Bruce elleman) reviewed by Charles Horner...speculation. the debate surrounding China’s resource strategy is framed by competing archetypes of China’s rise.23 analysts who view China as a...are arne roksund, The Jeune École: The Strategy of the weak (leiden: brill, 2007); volkmar bueb, Die “ Junge Schule” der französischen Marine

  12. Naval War College Review. Volume 62, Number 1, Winter 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Africa and its constituent nations and people than the United States has customarily brought to bear on policy. This vision must be couched in reality...The Man Who Invented the Pacific War (London: Mac - donald, 1990). 1 4 0 N A V A L W A R C O L L E G E R E V I E W T:\\Academic\\NWC Review\\Winter 2009

  13. Military Review, September 1994. Volume 74, Number 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    national and intemational military commands also reflect adaptation to the new environment . The range of opera- tions and command structures deployed...Collapse of, globill oi-dci that ecIInOcrd 1101 tile wtill infpnove 1/ac e.fjicieizcv and finidin £’XA eSOnIlCtiOn WFOu~ght’O NVw W ill 11r 6I Rahe of...to achieve greater collective capability than the individual pieces can accomplish on their own. AJFP modifies this concept to tile joint environment

  14. Shared Communications: Volume 1. A Summary and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, O

    2004-09-22

    This paper provides a review of examples from the literature of shared communication resources and of agencies and/or organizations that share communication resources. The primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system communications involving transit. Citations will not be limited, however, to rural activities, or to ITS implementation, or even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. Literature references to issues that contribute to both successful and failed efforts at sharing communication resources are reviewed. The findings of this literature review indicate that: (1) The most frequently shared communication resources are information/data resources, (2) Telecommunications infrastructure and technologies are the next most frequently shared resources, (3) When resources are successfully shared, all parties benefit, (4) A few unsuccessful attempts of sharing resources have been recorded, along with lessons learned, (5) Impediments to sharing include security issues, concerns over system availability and reliability, service quality and performance, and institutional barriers, (6) Advantages of sharing include financial benefits to agencies from using shared resources and benefits to the public in terms of congestion mitigation, information transfer (e.g., traveler information systems), mobility (e.g., welfare-to-work paratransit), and safety (e.g., speed of incident response, incident avoidance), (7) Technology-based solutions exist to address technology-based concerns, and (8) Institutional issues can be addressed through leadership, enhanced knowledge and skills, open communication, responsiveness, and attractive pricing structures.

  15. Association between circadian preference and academic achievement: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Natale, Vincenzo; Randler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The association between circadian preference and academic achievement has been assessed through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The literature searches retrieved 1647 studies; 31 studies, with a total sample size of 27 309 participants, fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. With reference to all these 31 studies, before running the meta-analysis, the sign of the correlation between the investigated variables was set in a way that a positive correlation showed that eveningness was related to worse academic performance. The meta-analysis yielded a small overall effect size of 0.143 (CI [0,129; 0,156]) under a fixed effects model (Z = 20.584, p academic performance, both in school pupils and university students; for the first time, it has been shown that such relationship changes over time, being weaker in university students.

  16. Review of spectral imaging technology in biomedical engineering: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; He, Xiaofu; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Xu, Dongrong; Guo, Fangmin

    2013-10-01

    Spectral imaging is a technology that integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy to get both spatial and spectral information from an object. Although this technology was originally developed for remote sensing, it has been extended to the biomedical engineering field as a powerful analytical tool for biological and biomedical research. This review introduces the basics of spectral imaging, imaging methods, current equipment, and recent advances in biomedical applications. The performance and analytical capabilities of spectral imaging systems for biological and biomedical imaging are discussed. In particular, the current achievements and limitations of this technology in biomedical engineering are presented. The benefits and development trends of biomedical spectral imaging are highlighted to provide the reader with an insight into the current technological advances and its potential for biomedical research.

  17. Video Cases in Teacher Education: A review study on intended and achieved learning objectives by video cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Walter; Van der Werff, Anne; Hummel, Hans; Van Geert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This literature review focuses on the use of video cases in the education of preservice teachers as a means of achieving higher order learning objectives that are necessary for gaining situated knowledge. An overview of both intended and achieved learning objectives in relevant studies involving

  18. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolow, R.H. [ed.] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Anderson, D. [ed.] [Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Harte, J. [ed.] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Thirteen papers are included in this volume. The titles and authors are: From Physics to Development Strategies by Jose Goldemberg; Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles D. Keeling; Science and Nonscience Concerning Human-Caused Climate Warming by J. D. Mahlman; Consumption of Materials in the United States, 1990--1995 by Grecia Matos and Lorie Wagner; Future Technologies for Energy-Efficient Iron and Steel Making by Jeroen de Beer, Ernst Worrell, and Kornelis Blok; The O{sub 2} Balance of the Atmosphere: A Tool for Studying the Fate of Fossil Fuel CO{sub 2} by Michael L. Bender, Mark Battle, and Ralph F. Keeling; Mexican Electric End-Use Efficiency: Experiences to Date by Rafael Friedmann and Claudia Sheinbaum; Drinking Water in Developing Countries by Ashok Gadgil; Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges by Marilyn A. Brown, Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey; Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries by Jayant A. Sathaye and N. H. Ravindranath; Toward a Productive Divorce: Separating DOE Cleanups from Transition Assistance by M. Russell; Recycling Metals for the Environment by Iddo K. Wernick and Nickolas J. Themelis; and Environmentally Conscious Chemical Process Design by J. A. Cano-Ruiz and G. J. McRae.

  19. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume I. Review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topies covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, Public Utilities Commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review: Volume 24, No. 2, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram, multipurpose laboratory that conducts research in the physical, chemical, and life sciences; in fusion, fission, and fossil energy; and in energy conservation and other energy-related technologies. This review outlines some current endeavors of the lab. A state of the laboratory presentation is given by director, Alvin Trivelpiece. Research of single crystals for welding is described. The Science Alliance, a partnership between ORNL and the University of Tennessee, is chronicled. And several incites into distinguished personnel at the laboratory are given. (GHH)

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review: Volume 24, No. 2, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram, multipurpose laboratory that conducts research in the physical, chemical, and life sciences; in fusion, fission, and fossil energy; and in energy conservation and other energy-related technologies. This review outlines some current endeavors of the lab. A state of the laboratory presentation is given by director, Alvin Trivelpiece. Research of single crystals for welding is described. The Science Alliance, a partnership between ORNL and the University of Tennessee, is chronicled. And several incites into distinguished personnel at the laboratory are given. (GHH)

  2. Nuclear Safety: Volume 29, No. 3: Technical progress review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant development in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope included the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. Effects of obesity on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, Aline Dill; Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Soares, Rafaela Borges; da Silva, Juliana Severo; Woszezenki, Cristhiele Taís; Zanatta, Letiane Bueno

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effects of obesity on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents. This is a systematic review, carried out in Pubmed, Lilacs, Scielo and PEDro databases, using the following Keywords: Plethysmography; Whole Body OR Lung Volume Measurements OR Total Lung Capacity OR Functional Residual Capacity OR Residual Volume AND Obesity. Observational studies or clinical trials that assessed the effects of obesity on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents (0-18 years) without any other associated disease; in English; Portuguese and Spanish languages were selected. Methodological quality was assessed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Of the 1,030 articles, only four were included in the review. The studies amounted to 548 participants, predominantly males, with sample size ranging from 45 to 327 individuals. 100% of the studies evaluated nutritional status through BMI (z-score) and 50.0% reported the data on abdominal circumference. All demonstrated that obesity causes negative effects on lung volume and capacity, causing a reduction mainly in functional residual capacity in 75.0% of the studies; in the expiratory reserve volume in 50.0% and in the residual volume in 25.0%. The methodological quality ranged from moderate to high, with 75.0% of the studies classified as having high methodological quality. Obesity causes deleterious effects on lung volume and capacity in children and adolescents, mainly by reducing functional residual capacity, expiratory reserve volume and residual volume. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Achievement Goal Theory in Motor Skill Instruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K; Chinn, Katherine M; Robinson, Leah E

    2017-12-01

    Over the past two decades, achievement goal theory (AGT) has been used as a theoretical framework to design and implement motor skill programming in young children. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effects of AGT in motor skill interventions and programming in children aged 0-12 years. This systematic literature search was conducted using three databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Studies were included if they met the following four inclusion criteria: (1) had an intervention with a gross motor outcome, (2) used an intervention grounded in AGT, (3) included young children (aged 0-12 years), and (4) were written in English. Studies were rated according to methodological reporting quality. All literature searches and reporting were consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the sample. All studies reported that AGT motor skill interventions were effective for improving motor skills in young children. Studies varied in regard to intervention groups, duration, dosage, and the personnel responsible for implementing the intervention. None of the included studies met the requirements to be considered as having high methodological quality. Based on these findings, AGT is an effective theoretical approach for designing and implementing motor skill interventions for young children.

  5. Achieving the four dimensions of food security for resettled refugees in Australia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlis, Tanya; Islam, Wasima; Upton, Penney

    2018-04-01

    Food security is defined by four dimensions: food availability, access, utilisation and stability. Resettled refugees face unique struggles securing these dimensions and, thus, food security when moving to a new country. This systematic review aimed to identify the challenges Australian refugees experience in achieving the four dimensions of food security. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed; the SPIDER tool was used to determine eligibility criteria. Three databases were searched using terms relating to food in/security and refugees from 2000 to 20 May 2017. Seven articles were retained for analysis. Studies were categorised against the four dimensions, with four studies identifying challenges against all dimensions. Challenges contributing to high levels of food insecurity in each dimension included: availability and cost of traditional foods, difficulty in accessing preferred food outlets, limited food knowledge and preparation skills and food stability due to low income and social support. Food insecurity adversely impacts refugee health and integration. Methodical research framed by the four dimensions of food security is imperative to address challenges to securing food security in refugee groups and assisting in the development of sustainable interventions. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  6. Achieving better energy-efficient air conditioning – A review of technologies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K.J.; Chou, S.K.; Yang, W.M.; Yan, J.

    2013-01-01

    Air conditioning is essential for maintaining thermal comfort in indoor environments, particularly for hot and humid climates. Today, air conditioning, comprising cooling and dehumidification, has become a necessity in commercial and residential buildings and industrial processes. It accounts for a major share of the energy consumption of a building or facility. In tropical climates, the energy consumed by heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) can exceed 50% of the total energy consumption of a building. This significant figure is primarily due to the heavy duty placed on cooling technologies to remove both sensible and latent heat loads. Therefore, there is tremendous potential to improve the overall efficiency of the air-conditioning systems in buildings. Based on today’s practical technology for cooling, the major components of a chiller plant are (1) compressors, (2) cooling towers, (3) pumps (chilled and cooling water) and (4) fans in air handling units. They all consume mainly electricity to operate. When specifying the kW/R ton of a plant, there are two levels of monitoring cooling efficiency: (1) at the efficiency of the chiller machines or the compressors which consume a major amount of electricity; and (2) at the overall efficiency of cooling plants which include the cooling towers, pumps for moving coolant (chilled and cooling water) to all air-handling units. Pragmatically, a holistic approach is necessary towards achieving a low energy input per cooling achieved such as 0.6 kW/R ton cooling or lower by considering all aspects of the cooling plant. In this paper, we present a review of recent innovative cooling technology and strategies that could potentially lower the kW/R ton of cooling systems – from the existing mean of 0.9 kW/R ton towards 0.6 kW/R ton or lower. The paper, broadly divided into three key sections (see Fig. 2), begins with a review of the recent novel devices that enhances the energy efficiency of cooling systems at

  7. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Process and guidelines: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant's HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 1 consists of two major parts. Part 1 describes those aspects of the review process of the HSI design that are important to identifying and resolving human engineering discrepancies. Part 2 contains detailed guidelines for a human factors engineering review which identify criteria for assessing the implementation of an applicant's or licensee's HSI design

  8. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Process and guidelines: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant`s HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 1 consists of two major parts. Part 1 describes those aspects of the review process of the HSI design that are important to identifying and resolving human engineering discrepancies. Part 2 contains detailed guidelines for a human factors engineering review which identify criteria for assessing the implementation of an applicant`s or licensee`s HSI design.

  9. Effects of Cooperative Learning on the Academic Achievement of Students with Learning Disabilities: An Update of Tateyama-Sniezek's Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kristen Nyman; Fuchs, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews 15 research studies published from 1990 to 2000 examining effects of cooperative learning strategies on the academic achievement of students with learning disabilities. Despite design problems, the review finds that cooperative learning strategies that incorporate individual accountability and group rewards are likely to…

  10. Individual, premigration and postsettlement factors, and academic achievement in adolescents from refugee backgrounds: A systematic review and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charissa W S; Schweitzer, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    We have limited understanding of the precursors of academic achievement in resettled adolescents from refugee backgrounds. To date, no clear model has been developed to conceptualise the academic trajectories of adolescents from refugee backgrounds at postsettlement. The current review had two aims. First, to propose an integrated adaptive model to conceptualise the impact of individual, premigration, and postsettlement factors on academic achievement at postsettlement; and second, to critically examine the literature on factors that predict academic achievement in adolescents from refugee backgrounds in relation to the proposed model and highlight issues deserving future exploration. Following the protocol of a systematic literature review, 13 studies were identified for full-text review. Gender, ethnicity, English proficiency, psychological distress, premigration trauma, premigration loss, postsettlement social support, and postsettlement school connectedness, were found to predict academic achievement in adolescents from refugee backgrounds.

  11. ACHIEVING PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR EFFICIENCY, A SPACE-ORIENTED APPROACH TO LEARNING. PERCEPTUAL MOTOR CURRICULUM, VOLUME I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARSCH, RAY H.

    THE FIRST OF A 3-VOLUME PERCEPTUAL MOTOR CURRICULUM, THE BOOK DESCRIBES A PROGRAM BASED ON A THEORY OF MOVEMENT WHICH THE AUTHOR LABELS MOVIGENICS (THE STUDY OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PATTERNS OF MOVEMENT IN MAN AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THESE MOVEMENTS TO HIS LEARNING EFFICIENCY). TEN BASIC CONSTRUCTS OF MOVIGENICS ARE OUTLINED, AND THE…

  12. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 5. Summary - Piping Review Committee conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This document summarizes a comprehensive review of NRC requirements for Nuclear Piping by the US NRC Piping Review Committee. Four topical areas, addressed in greater detail in Volumes 1 through 4 of this report, are included: (1) Stress Corrosion Cracking in Piping of Boiling Water Reactor Plants; (2) Evaluation of Seismic Design; (3) Evaluation of Potential for Pipe Breaks; and (4) Evaluation of Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations. This volume summarizes the major issues, reviews the interfaces, and presents the Committee's conclusions and recommendations for updating NRC requirements on these issues. This report also suggests research or other work that may be required to respond to issues not amenable to resolution at this time

  13. The Impact of Virtual Simulations, Communication and Peer Reviewing on Spatial Intelligence and Mathematical Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zaretsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at enabling special education pupils to use computers in everyday life, and improving spatial intelligence and mathematical achievements through computers. The method of training focuses on enabling pupils to create computer simulations, communicate by electronic mail while evaluating each other’s products and navigate Internet sites. The creation of such simulations is based on manipulations of the virtual environment similar to the real world as much as possible in order to utilize the unique characteristics of the computer such as spatial visualization. The researcher taught the teachers the basics of the use of computer and trained them how to use the method in their classroom. Then the teachers used the method with their special education pupils in accordance with their cognitive and motor abilities. The objects were taken from the pupils’ everyday environment. The teachers trained the pupils in pairs. Such procedures were held among different populations. The teachers improved their mastery of computers. In spite of their lack of experience before the experiment, they built high-level PowerPoint presentations and used them with their pupils in the classroom including even virtual simulations. They sent their products by Electronic mail (E-Mail for the peer reviewing process and navigated relevant Internet sites. The teachers reported pupils’ high motivation and their success in the various virtual activities. As a result, the spatial intelligence and mathematical achievements of the pupils were improved. The teacher-pupil interaction and the social relationships between the pupils were also improved.

  14. The World Bank Legal Review : Law, Equity, and Development, Volume 2

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    The World Bank legal review: law, equity, and development, volume two, is a publication for policy makers and their advisers, attorneys, and other professionals engaged in the field of international development. It offers a combination of legal scholarship, lessons from experience, legal developments, and recent research on the many ways in which the application of law and the improvement ...

  15. Proceedings of the 1995 U.S. DOE hydrogen program review. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 US DOE Hydrogen Program Review was held April 18-21, 1995 in Coral Gables, FL. Volume II of the Proceedings contains 8 papers presented under the subject of hydrogen storage and 17 papers presented on hydrogen production. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. [Glass Development Laser (GDL) Facility upgrade.] LLE Review. Quarterly report, October-December 1984. Volume 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the upgrade of the GDL (Glass Development) system, theoretical advances in the laser fusion effort, improved target fabrication capabilities, x-ray laser research, developments in the picosecond optics research of the LLE advanced technology program, and on the National Laser Users Facility activities for October-December 1984. 56 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Proceedings of the natural gas RD&D contractors review meeting, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, R.D. [ed.

    1995-04-01

    This is volume II of papers which were presented at the natural gas RD&D contractors review meeting. Topics include: natural gas upgrading, storage, well drilling, completion, and stimulation. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  18. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains papers which were presented at the advanced coal-fired power sytems review meeting. This is volume II. Topics include: hot gas filter issues, hazardous air pollutants, sorbent development, and separation technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  19. What accuracy is required and can be achieved in radiation therapy (review of radiobiological and clinical data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.

    2001-01-01

    An attempt is made to formulate the requirements for the accuracy in the delivery of absorbed dose to a patient during radiation therapy. These requirements are mainly based on the relative steepness and separation of the dose-effect curves for local tumour control and normal tissue damage. The curves for normal tissue complications in general may be steeper than those for local tumour control. From these data, a standard requirement of 3.5% is proposed for the combined uncertainty of type A (random) and type B (systematic), given as one relative standard deviation in the absorbed dose delivery. However, it is recognized that, in many cases, larger uncertainties are acceptable (palliative treatments). This value of 3.5% applies to the absorbed dose at the specification point for curative treatments. As far as the dose accuracy requirements at other points in the planning target volume are concerned, a value of 5% (one standard deviation) seems more appropriate. This required accuracy in the delivery of the absorbed dose cannot always be completely achieved in photon therapy even for simple treatment conditions. All the clinical data which were reviewed, including some results from the 'Patterns of Care Study', indicate a close correlation between the outcomes of therapy (control rates, complications) and dose level, inaccuracy or errors in dosimetry and patient-machine positioning. This has been reported for external beam therapy as well as for brachytherapy. Only the clinical results will allow us to select the optimal treatment conditions (e.g. selection and definition of the planning target volumes, dose levels and beam arrangement), but they could be interpreted correctly only to the extent that the treatment execution would be correct. This result strongly endorses the Quality Assurance Programmes, in which the clinicians and physicists should be fully involved. Lastly, the outcome of a treatment can only be interpreted meaningfully if the parameters of the

  20. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  1. [Volume and health outcomes: evidence from systematic reviews and from evaluation of Italian hospital data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Laura; Colais, Paola; Davoli, Marina; Ferroni, Eliana; Fusco, Danilo; Minozzi, Silvia; Moirano, Fulvio; Sciattella, Paolo; Vecchi, Simona; Ventura, Martina; Perucci, Carlo Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Improving quality and effectiveness of health care is one of the priorities of health policies. Hospital or physician volume represents a measurable variable with a relevant impact on effectiveness of health care. A recent Italian law, the "spending review", calls for the definition of "qualitative, structural, technological and quantitative standards of hospital care". There is a need for an accurate evaluation of the available scientific evidence in order to identify these standards, including the volume of care above or below which the public and private hospitals may be accredited (or not) to provide specific health care interventions. Since 2009, the National Outcomes Programme evaluates outcomes of care of the Italian hospitals; nowadays it represents an official tool to assess the National Health System (NHS). In addition to outcome indicators, the last edition of the Programme (2013) includes a set of volume indicators for the conditions with available evidence of an association between volume and outcome. The assessment of factors, such as volume, that may affect the outcomes of care is one of its objectives. To identify clinical conditions or interventions for which an association between volume and outcome has been investigated. To identify clinical conditions or interventions for which an association between volume and outcome has been proved. To analyse the distribution of Italian health providers by volume of activity. To measure the association between volume of care and outcomes of the health providers of the Italian NHS. Systematic review. An overview of systematic reviews and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) reports performed searching electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library), websites of HTA Agencies, National Guideline Clearinghouse up to February 2012. Studies were evaluated for inclusion by two researchers independently; the quality assessment of included reviews was performed using the AMSTAR checklist. For each health

  2. The Impact of Family Functioning on African American Males' Academic Achievement: A Review and Clarification of the Empirical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews and clarifies many inconsistencies and misconceptions in the research literature on the effects of family functioning on African American male academic achievement. It was concluded that when parents use an African American version of authoritative parenting, teach children about their cultural heritage and personal power to…

  3. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on the Effects of Breakfast on Mental Performance and Scholastic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, James P.

    A review of the literature on the effects of breakfast on mental performance and scholastic achievement reveals a dichotomy between the theoretical and the empirical literature. Whereas theoretical considerations maintain that breakfast makes a significant difference in mental performance in the late morning hours, empirical evidence can be…

  4. Homework and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan; Sentürk, Cihad; Cigerci, Fatih Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of homework assignments on students' academic achievement. This meta-analysis sought an answer to the research question: "What kind of effect does homework assignment have on students' academic achievement levels?" In this research, meta-analysis was adopted to determine the…

  5. Preoperative Methods to Reduce Liver Volume in Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wissen, J; Bakker, N; Doodeman, H J; Jansma, E P; Bonjer, H J; Houdijk, A P J

    2016-02-01

    Patients qualified for gastric bypass surgery have an enlarged and fatty liver. An essential step in gastric bypass surgery is elevation of the left liver lobe to expose the gastroesophageal junction. An enlarged and fatty liver complicates the surgical procedure and increases the risk for laceration of the liver. The aim of our study was to evaluate methods to reduce liver volume in patients prior to gastric bypass surgery. A systematic literature search of multiple databases, including PubMed, EMBASE.com, and the Cochrane Library and a hand search of reference lists, was performed. We used the search terms morbid obesity and liver, including their synonyms and controlled terms. Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients with morbid obesity who qualified for bariatric surgery, the use of a preoperative treatment to reduce liver volume, and the use of imaging techniques before and after treatment. In total, 281 patients in 11 different studies were included. Preoperative diets reduced liver size by an average of 14%, alternative methods including nutritional supplements, reduced liver size between 20 and 43%, and an intragastric balloon by 32%. This review showed that nutritional supplements and intragastric balloon are more effective than low calorie diets in reducing liver volume prior to gastric bypass surgery. However, low calorie diet is the preferable method to reduce liver volume, considering the level of evidence and practical applicability. There is a need for well-designed randomized studies with sufficient power in order to confirm the effectiveness of preoperative methods to reduce liver volume.

  6. Evaluation of the relationship between left atrial volume and myocardial ischemia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathophysiology of ischemia involves the cellular effect of myocardial ischemia, reactive oxygen species, and reactive inflammatory enzymes. Left atrial (LA ischemia has been shown to have several mechanisms through which it can lead to abnormalities in left ventricular filling in early diastole and thus reduces LA passive functional reserve. In this review, we evaluated the physiological mechanisms of LA during myocardial ischemia, as previously demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies.Methods: Several databases were searched in order to find related articles. The outcome of interest included LA function measurements (measurement of LA volume during ischemia. By applying a standardized protocol, reviewers independently extracted and assessed the studies.Results: The literature review indicated 50 publications, among which 15 studies were eligible for analysis. Assessment of LA dimension and function is essential for clinical evaluation and prognostic purposes. Conclusion: The present article revealed that LA passive emptying volume and LA emptying volume significantly increased in myocardial ischemia. Further researches could provide a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms behind LA enlargement and help to predict clinical outcomes in many cardiovascular disorders.

  7. Book Review: Academic Profiling: Latinos, Asian Americans, and the Achievement Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Marco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the “achievement gap” in academic performance has become prominent in educational reform efforts.   However, too often, outcomes gathered from accountability measures are used to create hierarchies between students’ performance based on gender and race/ethnicity.  In Academic Profiling: Latinos, Asian American, and the Achievement Gap, Gilda L. Ochoa examines how a focus on the “achievement gap,” which she argues gives the “illusion” that inequality is being addressed by shifting t...

  8. Online doctor reviews: do they track surgeon volume, a proxy for quality of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Jeffrey; Sacopulos, Michael; Sheets, Virgil; Thurston, Irish; Brooks, Kendra; Puccia, Ryan

    2012-04-10

    Increasingly, consumers are accessing the Internet seeking health information. Consumers are also using online doctor review websites to help select their physician. Such websites tally numerical ratings and comments from past patients. To our knowledge, no study has previously analyzed whether doctors with positive online reputations on doctor review websites actually deliver higher quality of care typically associated with better clinical outcomes and better safety records. For a number of procedures, surgeons who perform more procedures have better clinical outcomes and safety records than those who perform fewer procedures. Our objective was to determine if surgeon volume, as a proxy for clinical outcomes and patient safety, correlates with online reputation. We investigated the numerical ratings and comments on 9 online review websites for high- and low-volume surgeons for three procedures: lumbar surgery, total knee replacement, and bariatric surgery. High-volume surgeons were randomly selected from the group within the highest quartile of claims submitted for reimbursement using the procedures' relevant current procedural terminology (CPT) codes. Low-volume surgeons were randomly selected from the lowest quartile of submitted claims for the procedures' relevant CPT codes. Claims were collated within the Normative Health Information Database, covering multiple payers for more than 25 million insured patients. Numerical ratings were found for the majority of physicians in our sample (547/600, 91.2%) and comments were found for 385/600 (64.2%) of the physicians. We found that high-volume (HV) surgeons could be differentiated from low-volume (LV) surgeons independently by analyzing: (1) the total number of numerical ratings per website (HV: mean = 5.85; LV: mean = 4.87, P<.001); (2) the total number of text comments per website (HV: mean = 2.74; LV: mean = 2.30, P=.05); (3) the proportion of glowing praise/total comments about quality of care (HV: mean = 0

  9. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chrology, permuted title, and author, Volume 11(1) through Volume 20(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W B; Passiakos, M

    1980-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review, covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume II, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Volume 20, No. 6 (November-December 1979). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 600 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last ten years are listed in this index.

  10. Critical Combinations of Radiation Dose and Volume Predict Intelligence Quotient and Academic Achievement Scores After Craniospinal Irradiation in Children With Medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Schreiber, Jane E.; Wu, Shengjie; Lukose, Renin; Xiong, Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively follow children treated with craniospinal irradiation to determine critical combinations of radiation dose and volume that would predict for cognitive effects. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2003, 58 patients (median age 8.14 years, range 3.99-20.11 years) with medulloblastoma received risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation followed by dose-intense chemotherapy and were followed longitudinally with multiple cognitive evaluations (through 5 years after treatment) that included intelligence quotient (estimated intelligence quotient, full-scale, verbal, and performance) and academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) tests. Craniospinal irradiation consisted of 23.4 Gy for average-risk patients (nonmetastatic) and 36-39.6 Gy for high-risk patients (metastatic or residual disease >1.5 cm 2 ). The primary site was treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy using a 2-cm clinical target volume margin. The effect of clinical variables and radiation dose to different brain volumes were modeled to estimate cognitive scores after treatment. Results: A decline with time for all test scores was observed for the entire cohort. Sex, race, and cerebrospinal fluid shunt status had a significant impact on baseline scores. Age and mean radiation dose to specific brain volumes, including the temporal lobes and hippocampi, had a significant impact on longitudinal scores. Dichotomized dose distributions at 25 Gy, 35 Gy, 45 Gy, and 55 Gy were modeled to show the impact of the high-dose volume on longitudinal test scores. The 50% risk of a below-normal cognitive test score was calculated according to mean dose and dose intervals between 25 Gy and 55 Gy at 10-Gy increments according to brain volume and age. Conclusions: The ability to predict cognitive outcomes in children with medulloblastoma using dose-effects models for different brain subvolumes will improve treatment planning, guide intervention, and help estimate

  11. Critical Combinations of Radiation Dose and Volume Predict Intelligence Quotient and Academic Achievement Scores After Craniospinal Irradiation in Children With Medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Schreiber, Jane E. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie [Department of Biostatistcs, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistcs, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To prospectively follow children treated with craniospinal irradiation to determine critical combinations of radiation dose and volume that would predict for cognitive effects. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2003, 58 patients (median age 8.14 years, range 3.99-20.11 years) with medulloblastoma received risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation followed by dose-intense chemotherapy and were followed longitudinally with multiple cognitive evaluations (through 5 years after treatment) that included intelligence quotient (estimated intelligence quotient, full-scale, verbal, and performance) and academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) tests. Craniospinal irradiation consisted of 23.4 Gy for average-risk patients (nonmetastatic) and 36-39.6 Gy for high-risk patients (metastatic or residual disease >1.5 cm{sup 2}). The primary site was treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy using a 2-cm clinical target volume margin. The effect of clinical variables and radiation dose to different brain volumes were modeled to estimate cognitive scores after treatment. Results: A decline with time for all test scores was observed for the entire cohort. Sex, race, and cerebrospinal fluid shunt status had a significant impact on baseline scores. Age and mean radiation dose to specific brain volumes, including the temporal lobes and hippocampi, had a significant impact on longitudinal scores. Dichotomized dose distributions at 25 Gy, 35 Gy, 45 Gy, and 55 Gy were modeled to show the impact of the high-dose volume on longitudinal test scores. The 50% risk of a below-normal cognitive test score was calculated according to mean dose and dose intervals between 25 Gy and 55 Gy at 10-Gy increments according to brain volume and age. Conclusions: The ability to predict cognitive outcomes in children with medulloblastoma using dose-effects models for different brain subvolumes will improve treatment planning, guide intervention, and help

  12. The effect of economic downturn on the volume of surgical procedures: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Nasa; Lark, Meghan E; Fujihara, Yuki; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-08-01

    Economic downturn can have a wide range of effects on medicine at both individual and national levels. We aim to describe these effects in relation to surgical volume to guide future planning for physician specialization, patient expectations in the face of economic crises, or estimating healthcare expenditure. We hypothesized that because of high out-of-pocket costs, cosmetic procedure volumes would be most affected by economic decline. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and ABI/INFORMS. The main search terms were "economic recession" and "surgical procedures, operative". Studies were included if surgical volumes were measured and economic indicators were used as predictors of economic conditions. Twelve studies were included, and the most common subject was cosmetic (n = 5), followed by orthopedic (n = 2) and cardiac surgeries (n = 2). The majority of studies found that in periods of economic downturn, surgical volume decreased. Among the eight studies using Pearson's correlation analysis, there were no significant differences between cosmetic procedures and other elective procedures, indicating that cosmetic procedures may display trends similar to those of non-cosmetic elective procedures in periods of economic downturn. Surgical volume generally decreased when economic indicators declined, observed for both elective and non-elective surgery fields. However, a few specific procedure volumes such as vasectomy and caesarean section for male babies increased during the economic downturn. Knowledge of these trends can be useful for future surgical planning and distribution of healthcare resources. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which

  14. Achievements in resonance Raman spectroscopy review of a technique with a distinct analytical chemistry potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efremov, E.V.; Ariese, F.; Gooijer, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an extended introduction, key aspects of resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) such as enhanced sensitivity and selectivity are briefly discussed in comparison with normal RS. The analytical potential is outlined. Then achievements in different fields of research are highlighted in four sections,

  15. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "KIPP Middle Schools: Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes, Final Report"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether attending a Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) middle school improved students' reading, math, social studies, and science achievement for up to 4 years following enrollment. The study reported that students attending KIPP middle schools scored statistically significantly higher than matched students on all of the state…

  16. A Review of Psychometric Data Analysis and Applications in Modelling of Academic Achievement in Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Geraldine; McGuinness, Colm; Owende, Philip; Carthy, Aiden

    2014-01-01

    Increasing college participation rates, and diversity in student population, is posing a challenge to colleges in their attempts to facilitate learners achieve their full academic potential. Learning analytics is an evolving discipline with capability for educational data analysis that could enable better understanding of learning process, and…

  17. A systematic review of prospective studies on attention problems and academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, T.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to provide an overview of prospective studies that have addressed the association between attention problems (AP, i.e. symptoms of hyperactivity and inattentiveness) and academic achievement (AA). Method: We conducted a systematic search in the literature. Normal population

  18. A systematic review of prospective studies on attention problems and academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, T.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:  Our aim was to provide an overview of prospective studies that have addressed the association between attention problems (AP, i.e. symptoms of hyperactivity and inattentiveness) and academic achievement (AA). Method:  We conducted a systematic search in the literature. Normal population

  19. Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation (6th). Executive Summary. Volumes 1 thru 1C, and Volumes 2 thru 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    CIVILIAN EARNINGS PROFILE: ENLISTED SOURCE: SYLLOGISTICS 2-24 6th ORNC Esport -Volum 11 participation and higher than that of civilian counterparts in...7-26 6th QRNC esport - Volume I m Eliminate the existing 80 percent limiltation onmeai/entertairment deductions incurred in connection with the

  20. Prognostic value of epicardial fat volume measurements by computed tomography: a systematic review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearman, James V.; Krazinski, Aleksander W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Renker, Matthias [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Giessen University, Department of Internal Medicine I, Cardiology/Angiology, Giessen (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Herbert, Teri L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Library Science and Informatics, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' Sapienza' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Nietert, Paul J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To perform a systematic review of the growing body of literature evaluating the prognostic value of epicardial fat volume (EFV) quantified by cross-sectional imaging. Two independent reviewers performed systematic searches on both PubMed and Scopus using search terms developed with a medical librarian. Peer-reviewed articles were selected based on the inclusion of outcome data, utilization of epicardial fat volume and sufficient reporting for analysis. A total of 411 studies were evaluated with nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In all, the studies evaluated 10,252 patients. All nine studies were based on CT measurements. Seven studies evaluated the prognostic value of EFV unadjusted for calcium score, and six of these studies found a significant association between EFV and clinical outcomes. Seven studies evaluated the incremental value of EFV beyond calcium scoring, and six of these studies found a significant association. The majority of studies suggest that EFV quantification is significantly associated with clinical outcomes and provides incremental prognostic value over coronary artery calcium scoring. Future research should use a binary cutoff of 125 mL for evaluation of EFV to provide consistency with other research. (orig.)

  1. Prognostic value of epicardial fat volume measurements by computed tomography: a systematic review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spearman, James V.; Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Renker, Matthias; Schoepf, U.J.; Herbert, Teri L.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Nietert, Paul J.; Meinel, Felix G.

    2015-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of the growing body of literature evaluating the prognostic value of epicardial fat volume (EFV) quantified by cross-sectional imaging. Two independent reviewers performed systematic searches on both PubMed and Scopus using search terms developed with a medical librarian. Peer-reviewed articles were selected based on the inclusion of outcome data, utilization of epicardial fat volume and sufficient reporting for analysis. A total of 411 studies were evaluated with nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In all, the studies evaluated 10,252 patients. All nine studies were based on CT measurements. Seven studies evaluated the prognostic value of EFV unadjusted for calcium score, and six of these studies found a significant association between EFV and clinical outcomes. Seven studies evaluated the incremental value of EFV beyond calcium scoring, and six of these studies found a significant association. The majority of studies suggest that EFV quantification is significantly associated with clinical outcomes and provides incremental prognostic value over coronary artery calcium scoring. Future research should use a binary cutoff of 125 mL for evaluation of EFV to provide consistency with other research. (orig.)

  2. Cooper's Taxonomy of Literature Reviews Applied to Meta-Analyses in Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Stallings, William M.

    H. M. Cooper (1988) has developed a taxonomy that classified literature reviews based on six characteristics: (1) focus of attention; (2) goal of the synthesis; (3) perspective on the literature; (4) coverage of the literature; (5) organization of the perspective; and (6) intended audience. One hundred and three meta-analyses identified from the…

  3. Racial-Ethnic Identity, Academic Achievement, and African American Males: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses broadly, the literature on racial-ethnic identity (REI) and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. The review also defines, describes, and interprets styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of REI among African American males in and outside of…

  4. A Review of Large-Scale "How Much Information?" Inventories: Variations, Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pressed by the increasing social importance of digital information, including the current attention given to the "big data paradigm", several research projects have taken up the challenge to quantify the amount of technologically mediated information. Method: This meta-study reviews the eight most important inventories in a…

  5. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems Annual Program Review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Goal of the 8-year program is to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. The conference is held annually for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties industry, academia, and Government. Advanced turbine systems topics discussed during five technical sessions included policy and strategic issues, program element overviews and technical reviews, related activities, university/industry consortium interactions, and supportive projects. Twenty-one papers presented during the technical sessions are contained in this volume; they are processed separately for the data base.

  6. Large-volume liposuction: a review of 631 consecutive cases over 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, G W; Halperin, B; Chang, C C

    2001-11-01

    Since the advent of epinephrine-containing wetting solutions and sophisticated fluid management techniques, increasingly larger and larger volumes of liposuction aspirations have been reported. Unfortunately, with these larger volumes of liposuction being routinely performed, greater rates of complications have also been reported, with the worst of these resulting in deaths. In a response to the increasing concerns over the safety of large-volume liposuction, a critical review of the senior author's own series has been performed to evaluate risks and benefits and to recommend guidelines for safe and effective large-volume liposuction. A retrospective chart review was performed on 631 consecutive patients who underwent liposuction procedures of at least 3000 cc total aspirate. All procedures were performed by the same senior surgeon between January of 1986 and March of 1998. Before September of 1996, traditional liposuction techniques were used. After September of 1996, ultrasound-assisted liposuction was performed. The superwet technique of fluid management was employed for all procedures performed after 1991. The particulars of the surgical and anesthetic techniques used are reviewed in the article. Data collection included preoperative patient demographics, preoperative and postoperative weights and measurements, and preoperative and postoperative photographs. Total aspirate volumes, fluid intakes, and fluid outputs were measured, and all complications were tallied. Average follow-up was 1 year. Results showed the majority of patients to be women, aged 17 to 74 years old. Of the preoperative weights, 98.7 percent were within 50 pounds of ideal chart weight. Total aspirate volumes ranged from 3 to 17 liters, with 94.5 percent of these under 10 liters. Fluid balance measurements showed an average of 120 cc/kg positive fluid balance at the end of the procedure, with none of these patients experiencing any significant fluid balance abnormalities. Cosmetic results

  7. Review article: remission rates achievable by current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Peyrin-Biroulet , Laurent; Lémann , Marc

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aim: To review remission rates with current medical treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods We searched MEDLINE (source PUBMED, 1966 to January, 2011). Results Induction and maintenance of remission was observed in 20% (range, 9-29.5%) and 53% (range, 36.8-59.6%) of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients treated with oral 5-ASA derivatives. Induction of remission was noted in 52% (range, 48-58%) of Crohn?s disease (CD) patients and 54% of UC...

  8. Prospects for a fissile material cut-off: Achieving a successful NPT review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, M.

    1999-01-01

    Finding new and creative ways to overcome the current deadlock in progress in nuclear arms control became the most important question in the past year. For a long time it had been expected that after the conclusion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the next step would be to ban production of fissile materials for weapon purposes. Three strategies are proposed for reaching relevant cut-off agreements. First suggests possible fore for achievement of relevant agreements, second is the proposal to begin with international register of inventories and production capabilities for all relevant nuclear materials, and the third one is ti identify equivalent steps obligatory for all the parties involved

  9. Seismic hazard analysis. Volume 5. Review panel, Ground Motion Panel, and feedback results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D. L.

    1981-08-01

    The Site Specific Spectra Project (SSSP) was a multi-year study funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide estimates of the seismic hazards at a number of nuclear power plant sites in the Eastern US. A key element of our approach was the Peer Review Panel, which we formed in order to ensure that our use of expert opinion was reasonable. We discuss the Peer Review Panel results and provide the complete text of each member's report. In order to improve the ground motion model, an Eastern US Ground Motion Model Panel was formed. In Section 4 we tabulate the responses from the panel members to our feedback questionnaire and discuss the implications of changes introduced by them. We conclude that the net difference in seismic hazard values from those presented in Volume 4 is small and does not warrant a reanalysis. 22 figs.

  10. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.

  11. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index

  12. The efficacy of cognitive interventions for improving cognitive performance and academic achievement in children after cancer treatment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Susan M; Hutchinson, Amanda D

    2018-01-01

    Academic decline has been reported in children after cancer treatment, believed to be as a result of cognitive impairment. Cognitive interventions may improve both the present and future outcomes for children after cancer treatment by improving cognitive and/or academic performance. This review aimed to examine the efficacy of cognitive interventions in children who had received cancer treatment. A systematic search of the PsycInfo and PubMed databases was conducted in May 2015 to identify studies in which cognitive interventions were conducted with children who had undergone cancer treatment and were under the age of 21. Cognitive or academic outcomes needed to be reported pre- and post-intervention to meet the inclusion criteria. Eleven studies were included in this review. Computerized and home-based cognitive interventions were found to be most successful at improving cognitive skills. However, few cognitive interventions assessed academic achievement specifically. Future cognitive intervention research studies should include measures of academic achievement outcomes, because academic achievement and cognitive outcomes may differ. Future research regarding the effectiveness of early, home-based and computerized intervention is warranted.

  13. Volume transmission of beta-endorphin via the cerebrospinal fluid; a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veening Jan G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence that non-synaptic communication by volume transmission in the flowing CSF plays an important role in neural mechanisms, especially for extending the duration of behavioral effects. In the present review, we explore the mechanisms involved in the behavioral and physiological effects of β-endorphin (β-END, especially those involving the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, as a message transport system to reach distant brain areas. The major source of β-END are the pro-opio-melano-cortin (POMC neurons, located in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARH, bordering the 3rd ventricle. In addition, numerous varicose β-END-immunoreactive fibers are situated close to the ventricular surfaces. In the present paper we surveyed the evidence that volume transmission via the CSF can be considered as an option for messages to reach remote brain areas. Some of the points discussed in the present review are: release mechanisms of β-END, independence of peripheral versus central levels, central β-END migration over considerable distances, behavioral effects of β-END depend on location of ventricular administration, and abundance of mu and delta opioid receptors in the periventricular regions of the brain.

  14. The impact of environmental conditions on human performance: A critical review of the literature. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, D.; Barnes, V.; Bittner, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers (HARC) conducted a comprehensive review of the technical literature regarding the impact of environmental conditions on human performance applicable to nuclear power plant workers. The environmental conditions considered were vibration, noise, heat, cold, and light. Research staff identified potential human performance deficits along a continuum of increasing occupational exposure, ranging from deficits that occur at low exposures to deficits that occur at high exposures. Specific deficits were included in the review if scientists demonstrated the exposure caused an effect, using sound methodology. The levels associated with each deficit were then compared to the protection afforded by existing occupational exposure standards. Volume 2 presents several conclusions regarding the applicability of the research literature to environmental conditions in nuclear power plants. The findings presented suggest that occupational standards for vibration, noise, and heat, which were developed to protect health, are inadequate for preventing deficits in cognitive or motor performance in tasks likely to be performed in nuclear power plants. Also, there is little information in the literature on simultaneous conditions; for example, the effects of simultaneous exposure to heat and noise on cognition require more research. As many exposures in nuclear power plants will be simultaneous, this limitation should be kept in mind when using Volume 1

  15. Ultra-low-volume space sprays in mosquito control: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, J A S

    2012-06-01

    The availability of tools to control mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors that transmit disease is often limited by a variety of economic, environmental and social issues. In emergency conditions (epidemics, hurricanes, floods etc.), the application of pesticides as space sprays (either by ground or air) is the common method of choice in order to rapidly limit adult local mosquito production in the affected area. Space spray application now employs ultra-low-volume technology for the control of adult mosquitoes. However, the use of space sprays often raises social and environmental concerns by the general public that is served. This review will define and illustrate modern ultra-low-volume technology for the purpose of application as a space spray, as well as describing the engineering controls that have been developed to minimize the environmental impact. The primary social concern is validity and efficacy of application. To address this point, the review will attempt to synthesize the global literature to address the effectiveness of space sprays to significantly impact mosquito vectors in relation to human disease. © 2012 The Author. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. A systematic review of prospective studies on attention problems and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; Boomsma, D I; Bartels, M; Verhulst, F C; Huizink, A C

    2010-10-01

    Our aim was to provide an overview of prospective studies that have addressed the association between attention problems (AP, i.e. symptoms of hyperactivity and inattentiveness) and academic achievement (AA). We conducted a systematic search in the literature. Normal population studies and clinical studies were included. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated by objective criteria. A best evidence synthesis was used to determine the strengths of the association. Sixteen studies were included. We found convincing evidence for a negative association between AP and AA. After controlling for intelligence, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status (SES), the association between the hyperactive symptoms of AP and AA was non-significant in two studies. Children with AP are at risk for lower AA and subsequent adverse outcomes later in life. Interventions in affected children should focus on their behavioural and educational development.

  17. Achieving polio eradication: a review of health communication evidence and lessons learned in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, Rafael; Chitnis, Ketan; Morry, Chris; Feek, Warren; Bates, Jeffrey; Galway, Michael; Ogden, Ellyn

    2009-08-01

    Since 1988, the world has come very close to eradicating polio through the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, in which communication interventions have played a consistently central role. Mass media and information dissemination approaches used in immunization efforts worldwide have contributed to this success. However, reaching the hardest-to-reach, the poorest, the most marginalized and those without access to health services has been challenging. In the last push to eradicate polio, Polio Eradication Initiative communication strategies have become increasingly research-driven and innovative, particularly through the introduction of sustained interpersonal communication and social mobilization approaches to reach unreached populations. This review examines polio communication efforts in India and Pakistan between the years 2000 and 2007. It shows how epidemiological, social and behavioural data guide communication strategies that have contributed to increased levels of polio immunity, particularly among underserved and hard-to-reach populations. It illustrates how evidence-based and planned communication strategies - such as sustained media campaigns, intensive community and social mobilization, interpersonal communication and political and national advocacy combined - have contributed to reducing polio incidence in these countries. Findings show that communication strategies have contributed on several levels by: mobilizing social networks and leaders; creating political will; increasing knowledge; ensuring individual and community-level demand; overcoming gender barriers and resistance to vaccination; and reaching out to the poorest and marginalized populations. The review concludes with observations about the added value of communication strategies in polio eradication efforts and implications for global and local public health communication interventions.

  18. GPU v. B and W lawsuit review and its effect on TMI-1 (Docket 50-289). Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Volume II of the GPU v. B and W lawsuit review contains four appendices supporting the review of the GPU v. B and W lawsuit discussed in Volume I of this report. As outlined in the Background section of Volume I under (3) Review Method Utilized by the Staff, the GPU v. B and W lawsuit review was partitioned into 10 categories. The 154 certification items and the 19 long-term actions (hearing items or restart issues) resulting from Commission Orders and the hearing process were each placed in one or more of the 10 categories. These appendices contain the hearing items by category; lawsuit record by category; category location matrix for lawsuit record; and uncategorized lawsuit record

  19. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon "footprinting" and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  20. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals: A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  1. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  2. Criteria for Public Open Space Enhancement to Achieve Social Interaction: a Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, S. A.; Ismail, S.

    2017-12-01

    A This paper presents a various literatures, studies, transcripts and papers aiming to provide an overview of some theories and existing research on the significance of natural environments and green open spaces to achieve social interaction and outdoor recreation. The main objective of the paper is to identify the factors that affecting social interaction in green open spaces, through proving that an appropriate open spaces is important to enhance social interaction and community. This study employs (qualitative) summarizing content analysis method which mainly focused on collect and summarizing of documentation such as transcripts, articles, papers, and books from more than 25 source, regarding the importance of public open spaces for the community. The summarizing content analysis of this paper is the fundament for a qualitative oriented procedure of text interpretation used to analyse the information gathered. Results of this study confirms that sound social interaction need an appropriate physical space including criteria of: design, activities, access and linkage, administration and maintenance, place attachment and users’ characteristics, also previous studies in this area have a health perspective with measures of physical activity of open spaces in general.

  3. Low-protein diets in CKD: how can we achieve them? A narrative, pragmatic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Leone, Filomena; Capizzi, Irene; Daidola, Germana; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Avagnina, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Low-protein diets (LPDs) have encountered various fortunes, and several questions remain open. No single study, including the famous Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, was conclusive and even if systematic reviews are in favour of protein restriction, at least in non-diabetic adults, implementation is lagging. LPDs are considered difficult, malnutrition is a threat and compliance is poor. LPDs have been reappraised in this era of reconsideration of dialysis indications and timing. The definition of a normal-adequate protein diet has shifted in the overall population from 1 to 1.2 to 0.8 g/kg/day. Vegan–vegetarian diets are increasingly widespread, thus setting the groundwork for easier integration of moderate protein restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease. There are four main moderately restricted LPDs (0.6 g/kg/day). Two of them require careful planning of quantity and quality of food: a ‘traditional’ one, with mixed proteins that works on the quantity and quality of food and a vegan one, which integrates grains and legumes. Two further options may be seen as a way to simplify LPDs while being on the safe side for malnutrition: adding supplements of essential amino and keto acids (various doses) allows an easier shift from omnivorous to vegan diets, while protein-free food intake allows for an increase in calories. Very-low-protein diets (vLPDs: 0.3 g/kg/day) combine both approaches and usually require higher doses of supplements. Moderately restricted LPDs may be adapted to virtually any cuisine and should be tailored to the patients' preferences, while vLPDs usually require trained, compliant patients; a broader offer of diet options may lead to more widespread use of LPDs, without competition among the various schemas. PMID:25713712

  4. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.

    1996-01-01

    The first volume of this series was published in 1991, and reviewed in Blumea 38, p. 216. The treatments of volumes 2 and 3 are each based on a doctor’s thesis by the first author, elaborated under supervision of Dr. Panigrahi. Volume 2 contains regional revisions of six genera: Prunus, Prinsepia,

  5. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38

  6. Autologous fat transplantation: volumetric tools for estimation of volume survival. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christian; Ueberreiter, Klaus; Busche, Marc N; Vogt, Peter M

    2013-04-01

    Autologous fat transplantation has gained great recognition in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Two main aspects are of predominant importance for progress control after autologous fat transplantation to the breast: quantitative information about the rate of fat survival in terms of effective volume persistence and qualitative information about the breast tissue to exclude potential complications of autologous fat transplantation. There are several tools available for use in evaluating the rate of volume survival. They are extensively compared in this review. The anthropometric method, thermoplastic casts, and Archimedes' principle of water displacement are not up to date anymore because of major drawbacks, first and foremost being reduced reproducibility and exactness. They have been replaced by more exact and reproducible tools such as MRI volumetry or 3D body surface scans. For qualitative and quantitative progress control, MRI volumetry offers all the necessary information: evaluation of fat survival and diagnostically valuable imaging to exclude possible complications of autologous fat transplantation. For frequent follow-up, e.g., monthly volume analysis, repeated MRI exams would not be good for the patient and are not cost effective. In these cases, 3D surface imaging is a good tool and especially helpful in a private practice setting where fast data acquisition is needed. This tool also offers the possibility of simulating the results of autologous fat transplantation. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  7. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dave

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite conclusion.

  8. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, Sumit; Bägli, Darius J.

    2008-01-01

    The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA) injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite concl...

  9. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Sumit; Bägli, Darius J.

    2008-01-01

    The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA) injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite conclusion. PMID:18827895

  10. Proceedings of the 1998 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This document contains technical progress reports on 42 research projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program in Fiscal Year 1998, in support of its mission to make hydrogen a cost-effective energy carrier for utility, building, and transportation applications. Each year, the Program conducts a rigorous review of its portfolio of projects, utilizing teams of experts to provide vital feedback on the progress of research. These proceedings serve as an important technology reference for the DOE Hydrogen Program. The papers in Volume 2 are arranged under the following topical sections: Storage and separation systems; Thermal systems; and Transportation systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Proceedings of the symposium to review Volume III of the Annual Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, F.; Norland, D.

    1979-01-01

    This report is a transcript of the proceedings of a two-day Symposium, held in the Fall of 1979 at the University of Maryland in order to independently review the 1978 Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Report to Congress (ARC), Volume III. Participants included energy forecasting experts from the academic community and the private sector; other Federal, State, and local government energy experts; and Office of Applied Analysis, EIA, staff members. The Symposium and its transcript are a critique of the underlying 1978 ARC assumptions, methodologies, and energy system projections. Discussions cover the short-, mid-, and long-term periods, national and international forecasts, source and consuming sectors and projected economic impacts. 27 figures, 22 tables.

  12. Report on the Survey of the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 3: Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven; Monninger, John; Nevalainen, Janne; Lorin, Aurelie; ); Webster, Philip; Joyer, Philippe; Kawamura, Tomonori; Lankin, Mikhail; Kubanyi, Jozef; Haluska, Ladislav; Persic, Andreja; Reierson, Craig; Kang, Kyungmin; Kim, Walter

    2016-01-01

    At the tenth meeting of the CNRA Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the Working Group agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the Licensing Process Survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This document, which is the third report on the results of the Design Phase Survey, focuses on the Reactor. The Reactor category includes the following technical topics: fuel system design, reactor internals and core support, nuclear design and core nuclear performance, thermal and hydraulic design, reactor materials, and functional design of reactivity control system. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided by the member countries in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Although the description of the information provided by the applicant differs in scope and level of detail among the member countries that provided responses, there are similarities in the information that is required. - All of the technical topics covered in the survey are reviewed in some manner by all of the regulatory authorities that provided responses. - Design review strategies most commonly used to confirm that the regulatory requirements have been met include document review and independent verification of calculations, computer codes, or models used to describe the design and performance of the core and the fuel. - It is common to consider operating experience and

  13. The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research. Sage Annual Reviews of Communication Research Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumler, Jay G., Ed.; Katz, Elihu, Ed.

    The essays in this volume examine the use of the mass media and explore the findings of the gratifications approach to mass communication research. Part one summaries the achievements in this area of mass media research and proposes an agenda for discussion of the future direction of this research in terms of a set of theoretical, methodological,…

  14. Compilation of reports of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, 1957-1984. Volume 1. Project Reviews A-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This six-volume compilation contains over 1000 reports prepared by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards from September 1957 through December 1984. The reports are divided into two groups: Part 1: ACRS Reports on Project Reviews, and Part 2: ACRS Reports on Generic Subjects. Part 1 contains ACRS reports alphabetized by project name and within project name by chronological order. Part 2 categorizes the reports by the most appropriate generic subject area and within subject area by chronological order. This volume contains project reviews arranged alphabetically from A to F

  15. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  16. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  17. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 1. Final technical report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  18. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 2 -- Appendices. Final report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  19. A review of literature to understand the complexity of equity, ethics and management for achieving public health goals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pankaj; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-02-01

    In the context of inadequate public spending on health care in India (0.9% of the GDP); government liberalized its policies in the form of subsidized lands and tax incentives, resulting in the mushrooming of private hospitals and clinics in India. Paradoxically, a robust framework was not developed for the regulation of these health care providers, resulting in disorganized health sector, inadequate financing models, and lack of prioritization of services, as well as a sub-optimal achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). We systematically reviewed the evidence base regarding regulation of private hospitals, applicability of private-public mix, state of health insurance and effective policy development for India, while seeking lessons on regulation of private health systems, from South African (a developing country) and Australian (a developed country) health care systems.

  20. Review of Department of Defense Education Activity (DODEA) Schools. Volume II: Quantitative Analysis of Educational Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Lowell

    2000-01-01

    This volume compiles, and presents in integrated form, IDA's quantitative analysis of educational quality provided by DoD's dependent schools, It covers the quantitative aspects of volume I in greater...

  1. Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Fanzo, Jessica; Mondal, Pinki; Remans, Roseline; Wood, Stephen A.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifying entities. Following the principles of Cochrane Reviews used in health sciences, we assess evidence to evaluate whether voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities (bananas, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, and tea) has achieved environmental benefits and improved economic and social outcomes for small-scale producers at the level of the farm household. We reviewed over 2600 papers in the peer-review literature and identified 24 cases of unique combinations of study area, certification program, and commodity in 16 papers that rigorously analyzed differences between treatment (certified households) and control groups (uncertified households) for a wide range of response variables. Based on analysis of 347 response variables reported in these papers, we conclude that certification is associated on average with positive outcomes for 34% of response variables, no significant difference for 58% of variables, and negative outcomes for 8% of variables. No significant differences were observed for different categories of responses (environmental, economic and social) or for different commodities (banana, coffee and tea), except negative outcomes were significantly less for environmental than other outcome categories (p = 0.01). Most cases (20 out of 24) investigated coffee certification and response variables were inconsistent across cases, indicating the paucity of studies to conduct a conclusive meta-analysis. The somewhat positive results indicate that voluntary certification programs can sometimes play a role in meeting sustainable development goals and do not support the view that such programs are merely greenwashing. However, results also indicate that

  2. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Flora of Australia started in 1981 and since then 8 volumes came out, including some 70 families. Before all we have to congratulate the editors with this achievement and we express our hope that it will be possible to go on like this. Eight volumes provide the possibility for a more general

  3. Compilation of reports of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, 1957-1984. Volume 3. Project Reviews Q-Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This six-volume compilation contains over 1000 reports prepared by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards from September 1957 through December 1984. The reports are divided into two groups: Part 1: ACRS Resports on Project Reviews, and Part 2: ACRS Reports on Generic Subjects. Part 1 contains ACRS reports alphabetized by project name and within project name by chronological order. Part 2 categorizes the reports by the most appropriate generic subject area and within subject area by chronological order. This volume includes reports arranged alpbabetically from Q to Z

  4. Inactivation of bacterial pathogenic load in compost against vermicompost of organic solid waste aiming to achieve sanitation goals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Waste management strategies for organic residues, such as composting and vermicomposting, have been implemented in some developed and developing countries to solve the problem of organic solid waste (OSW). Yet, these biological treatment technologies do not always result in good quality compost or vermicompost with regards to sanitation capacity owing to the presence of bacterial pathogenic substances in objectionable concentrations. The presence of pathogens in soil conditioners poses a potential health hazard and their occurrence is of particular significance in composts and/or vermicomposts produced from organic materials. Past and present researches demonstrated a high-degree of agreement that various pathogens survive after the composting of certain OSW but whether similar changes in bacterial pathogenic loads arise during vermitechnology has not been thoroughly elucidated. This review garners information regarding the status of various pathogenic bacteria which survived or diffused after the composting process compared to the status of these pathogens after the vermicomposting of OSW with the aim of achieving sanitation goals. This work is also indispensable for the specification of compost quality guidelines concerning pathogen loads which would be specific to treatment technology. It was hypothesized that vermicomposting process for OSW can be efficacious in sustaining the existence of pathogenic organisms most specifically; human pathogens under safety levels. In summary, earthworms can be regarded as a way of obliterating pathogenic bacteria from OSW in a manner equivalent to earthworm gut transit mechanism which classifies vermicomposting as a promising sanitation technique in comparison to composting processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The two published parts of the Desmid Flora of Austria are well-illustrated review volumes on a group of precious freshwater microalgae. Volume 1 contains a pretty, visual key to the genera, completed by figures of one or more characteristic species. In all keys of the separate genera many visual

  6. Systematic review of dose-volume parameters in the prediction of esophagitis in thoracic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Jim; Rodrigues, George; Yaremko, Brian; Lock, Michael; D'Souza, David

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: With dose escalation and increasing use of concurrent chemoradiotherapy, radiation esophagitis (RE) remains a common treatment-limiting acute side effect in the treatment of thoracic malignancies. The advent of 3DCT planning has enabled investigators to study esophageal dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters as predictors of RE. The purpose of this study was to assess published dosimetric parameters and toxicity data systematically in order to define reproducible predictors of RE, both for potential clinical use, and to provide recommendations for future research in the field. Materials and methods: We performed a systematic literature review of published studies addressing RE in the treatment of lung cancer and thymoma. Our search strategy included a variety of electronic medical databases, textbooks and bibliographies. Both prospective and retrospective clinical studies were included. Information relating to the relationship among measured dosimetric parameters, patient demographics, tumor characteristics, chemotherapy and RE was extracted and analyzed. Results: Eighteen published studies were suitable for analysis. Eleven of these assessed acute RE, while the remainder assessed both acute and chronic RE together. Heterogeneity of esophageal contouring practices, individual differences in information reporting and variability of RE outcome definitions were assessed. Well-described clinical and logistic modeling directly related V 35Gy , V 60Gy and SA 55Gy to clinically significant RE. Conclusions: Several reproducible dosimetric parameters exist in the literature, and these may be potentially relevant in the prediction of RE in the radiotherapy of thoracic malignancies. Further clarification of the predictive relationship between such standardized dosimetric parameters and observed RE outcomes is essential to develop efficient radiation treatment planning in locally advanced NSCLC in the modern concurrent chemotherapy and image-guided IMRT era.

  7. Test Review: Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2014), "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Third Edition." Bloomington, MN: NCS Pearson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Laura B.; Vidrine, Stephanie M.; Hinojosa, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Third Edition (KTEA-3) is a revised and updated comprehensive academic achievement test (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2014). Authored by Drs. Alan and Nadeen Kaufman and published by Pearson, the KTEA-3 remains an individual achievement test normed for individuals of ages 4 through 25 years, or for those in…

  8. TPX: Contractor preliminary design review. Volume 1, Presentation and design description. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, D.; Naumovich; Walstrom, P.; Clarkson, I.; Schultheiss, J.; Burger, A.

    1995-01-01

    This first volume of the five volume set begins with a CPDR overview and then details the PF magnet system, manufacturing R ampersand D, Westinghouse R ampersand D, the central solenoid, the PF 5 ring coil, the PF 6/7 ring coil, quality assurance, and the system design description

  9. Compilation of reports of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, 1957-1984. Volume 2. Project Reviews G-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This six-volume compilation contains over 1000 reports prepared by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards from September 1957 through December 1984. The reports are divided into two groups: Part 1: ACRS Reports on Project Reviews, and Part 2: ACRS Reports on Generic Subjects. Part 1 contains ACRS reports alphabetized by project name and within project name by chronological order. Part 2 categorizes the reports by the most appropriate generic subject area and within subject area by chronological order

  10. The DTIC Review: Volume 2. Number 2, Future Directions - Preparing for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    corporations may make sharing undesirable from both the US Government and from the corporation points of view. It may be possible, however, to buy standard...energetic materials.39 Both explosives and rocket fuels should be in- cluded. It may be possible to develop fuels which have higher specific impulse ... buy . They are duplicated on the list. 51. Information Technology Volume 52. & 53. Human Systems/Biotechnology Volume 51 Technologies to be developed

  11. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J.

    1996-04-01

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed

  12. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed.

  13. Raising the Achievement Level of Children in Primary Education. Report of a Project Review Meeting (Bangkok, Thailand, February 10-19, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    A meeting was held in Bangkok in February, 1986, to review the status of a project begun in 1984 to raise the achievement level of primary school students first in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, and later, in India, Nepal, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. After an introductory chapter providing background to the Joint…

  14. Does surgical volume affect outcome after primary and revision knee arthroplasty? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, R J; Baker, P N; Deehan, D J

    2012-10-01

    In 2009 there were 72,980 primary and 4565 revision knee arthroplasties performed in England and Wales [1]. Given the large number of procedures done annually any factors that may influence outcome and benefit the patient must be considered seriously. To find out whether a relationship exists between hospital and surgical volume and patient outcomes for primary and revision knee arthroplasty. A systematic review of the literature was performed to evaluate the current evidence using the PRISMA criteria [2]. A computerised literature search was performed on the electronic databases PubMed, Medline, Embase and CINAHL between 1973 and 2011. All abstracts, in the English language, pertaining to either surgical or hospital volume and outcome after primary and revision knee arthroplasty between 1973 and 2011 were considered. Outcomes of interest included morbidity, mortality, clinical and economic outcomes. Both the orthopaedic and surgical specialties literature demonstrates a clear and consistent relationship between both surgeon and hospital volume with outcome, higher volume being associated with improved patient outcomes. In view of the literature consideration should be given to whether all orthopaedic operations should be carried out by all surgeons in all hospitals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding the Effect of KIPP as It Scales: Volume I, Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes. Final Report of KIPP's Investing in Innovation Grant Evaluation. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gleason, Philip; Knechtel, Virginia; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Booker, Kevin; Chojnacki, Gregory; Coen, Thomas; Goble, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) is a national network of public charter schools whose stated mission is to help underserved students enroll in and graduate from college. Prior studies (see Tuttle et al. 2013) have consistently found that attending a KIPP middle school positively affects student achievement, but few have addressed longer-term…

  16. The impact of epilepsy on academic achievement in children with normal intelligence and without major comorbidities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, S W; Ong, L C; Low, W Y; Lai, P S M

    2017-10-01

    To systematically examine published literature which assessed the prevalence of academic difficulties in children with epilepsy (CWE) of normal intelligence, and its associating factors. A search was conducted on five databases for articles published in English from 1980 till March 2015. Included were studies who recruited children (aged 5-18 years), with a diagnosis or newly/recurrent epilepsy, an intelligent quotient (IQ) of ≥70 or attending regular school, with or without a control group, which measured academic achievement using a standardised objective measure, and published in English. Excluded were children with learning difficulties, intellectual disabilities (IQachievement" whist only two studies used the IQ-achievement discrepancy definition of "underachievement". Fourteen studies (70%) reported that CWE had significantly lower academic achievement scores compared to healthy controls, children with asthma or reported norms. The remaining six studies (30%) did not report any differences. CWE had stable academic achievement scores over time (2-4 years), even among those whose seizure frequency improved. Higher parental education and children with higher IQ, and had better attention or had a positive attitude towards epilepsy, were associated with higher academic achievement score. Older children were found to have lower academic achievement score. In CWE of normal intelligence, the majority of published literature found that academic achievement was lower than controls or reported norms. The high percentages of low achievement in CWE, especially in the older age group, and the stability of scores even as seizure frequency improved, highlights the need for early screening of learning problems, and continued surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1980-06-01

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na 2 O 2 .l -1 . After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO 2 -neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 100 0 C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  18. Autologous Fat Grafting in Cosmetic Breast Augmentation: A Systematic Review on Radiological Safety, Complications, Volume Retention, and Patient/Surgeon Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Jan-Willem; Negenborn, Vera L; Twisk, Jos W R; Ket, Johannes C F; Mullender, Margriet G; Smit, Jan Maerten

    2016-10-01

    Autologous fat grafting (AFG) is increasingly used in cosmetic surgery. However, its efficacy and safety are still ambiguous. Both a comprehensive overview and recapitulation of the relevant literature provide current evidence on the efficacy and outcomes of AFG in cosmetic breast surgery. This review provides an up-to-date overview of the literature on AFG in cosmetic breast augmentation. A systematic review of the literature on AFG used for cosmetic breast augmentation was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. This study included selected studies that were published between January 1996 and February 2016 and reported on 10 patients or more who had a minimal mean follow-up period of 1 year. In this study, 22 articles that reported on 3565 patients with follow-up periods ranging from 12 to 136 months were included. A complication rate of 17.2% (95% CI 15.9-18.5) was seen. Indurations were the most frequent complication (33.3%, 95% CI 20.4-46.3), followed by persistent pain (25%, 95% CI 0.5-49.5), and hematoma (16.4%, 95% CI 14.5-18.4). Mammograms revealed micro-calcifications (9.0%, 95% CI 6.4-11.5) and macro-calcifications (7.0%, 95% CI 3.8-10.2). The mean volume retention was 62.4% (range, 44.7-82.6%), with a satisfaction rate of 92% in patients and 89% in surgeons. AFG is a promising method in achieving autologous cosmetic breast augmentation with satisfactory volume retention and satisfaction rates in eight and six studies, respectively. Complications and radiological findings are comparable to those after implant augmentation. Future studies should focus on cancer occurrence and detection to further substantiate AFG safety. In addition, grafting methods and the use of auxiliary procedures to identify factors leading to better outcomes in terms of volume retention should be investigated. Finally, objective questionnaires are needed to represent patient satisfaction. 3 Therapeutic.

  19. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, S.; Ghossein-Doha, C.; Kuijk, S.M. van; Drongelen, J. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of

  20. The relationship between traffic volume and road safety on the secondary road network : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, K.

    2010-01-01

    On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher

  1. The impact of heat waves on transport volumes in an urban emergency medical services system: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kue, Ricky C; Dyer, K Sophia

    2013-12-01

    Heat waves pose a serious public health risk to particular patient populations, especially in urban areas. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in many urban areas constitute the first line of regional preparation and response to major heat wave events; however, little is known on heat wave operational impact to the EMS system, such as call volume or demand. To examine the effect of heat wave periods on overall urban EMS system call volume and transport volume as well as the nature of the call types. Retrospective review of all emergency medical calls to an urban, two-tiered EMS system performed over a 5-year period from 2006-2010. Heat wave days (HWD) defined as two or more consecutive days of hot weather >32.2°C (90°F) were compared with similar non-heat wave days (nHWD) of the previous year to also include two calendar days prior to and after the heat wave. National Weather Service (NWS) temperature data, daily EMS call volume data, and call type codes were collected and underwent descriptive analysis. Thirty-one HWD were identified and compared with 93 nHWD. The mean maximum temperature for HWD was 34°C (93.2°F) compared with 25.3°C (77.6°F) for nHWD (P transported per day (247.5 vs 198.3, P transports between weekdays or weekend days. No significant differences on various call types were observed between HWD and nHWD except for "heat" related calls (7.7 vs 0.5, P < .001). Emergency Medical Services call volumes were significantly increased during heat waves, however there was minimal change in the types of calls received.

  2. Lower vs. higher fluid volumes in sepsis-protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, T S; Møller, M H; Hjortrup, P B

    2017-01-01

    sequential analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing different strategies to obtain separation in fluid volumes or balances during resuscitation of adult patients with sepsis. We will systematically search the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS and Epistemonikos...... for relevant literature. We will follow the recommendations by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The risk of systematic errors (bias) and random errors will be assessed, and the overall quality of evidence will be evaluated...

  3. Reducing Illiteracy: Review of Effective Practices in Adult Literacy Programs. Volume I. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Ronald W.

    This review describes the types of adult literacy practices in current use and identifies those found to be particularly effective. The report is organized around the program areas of: (1) methods and materials; (2) testing and evaluation; (3) outreach and recruitment; (4) learner retention; and (5) program management. The review demonstrates the…

  4. The effect of manual handling training on achieving training transfer, employee's behaviour change and subsequent reduction of work-related musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dervla A M; Greiner, Birgit A; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of manual handling training on achieving training transfer, leading to a positive change in employee's manual handling behaviour and a reduction of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) following training. Six electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials or cohort studies with a control and/or comparison group that investigated the effectiveness of manual handling training. Thirteen articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Following quality assessment, nine of the included articles were found to be of high quality. This systematic review suggests that there has been very little research focusing on the effectiveness of manual handling training on training transfer to employees and the associated behavioural change. This review indicates that whilst employees report understanding and awareness following training, this does not always lead to the expected behavioural change. This review also suggests it cannot be demonstrated that training transfer will lead to a reduction of WRMSDs.

  5. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems Annual Program Review meeting. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Goal of the 8-year program are to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. The conference is held annually for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties in industry, academia, and Government. This volume contains 28 poster presentations and appendices; the poster papers are processed separately for the data base.

  6. Review of DOE Waste Package Program. Semiannual report, October 1984-March 1985. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.S.

    1985-12-01

    A large number of technical reports on waste package component performance were reviewed over the last year in support of the NRC's review of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Assessment reports. The intent was to assess in some detail the quantity and quality of the DOE data and their relevance to the high-level waste repository site selection process. A representative selection of the reviews is presented for the salt, basalt, and tuff repository projects. Areas for future research have been outlined. 141 refs

  7. Review of DOE Waste Package Program. Semiannual report, October 1984-March 1985. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. (ed.)

    1985-12-01

    A large number of technical reports on waste package component performance were reviewed over the last year in support of the NRC`s review of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Assessment reports. The intent was to assess in some detail the quantity and quality of the DOE data and their relevance to the high-level waste repository site selection process. A representative selection of the reviews is presented for the salt, basalt, and tuff repository projects. Areas for future research have been outlined. 141 refs.

  8. Relationships among School Climate, School Safety, and Student Achievement and Well-Being: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Klinger, Don A.; Hussain, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    School climate, safety and well-being of students are important antecedents of academic achievement. However, school members do not necessarily experience school climate in the same way; rather, their subjective perceptions of the environment and personal characteristics influence individual outcomes and behaviours. Therefore, a closer look at the…

  9. A Meta-Analytic Review of Studies of the Effectiveness of Small-Group Learning Methods on Statistics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analytic study focused on the quantitative integration and synthesis of the accumulated pedagogical research in undergraduate statistics education literature. These accumulated research studies compared the academic achievement of students who had been instructed using one of the various forms of small-group learning methods to those who…

  10. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Gathering Feedback for Teachers: Combining High-Quality Observations with Student Surveys and Achievement Gains"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This study examined five instruments used to assess the effectiveness of teacher practices based on classroom observations. The study first examined whether observers could reliably assess teachers with each instrument, and then examined how well each instrument, along with other information, predicted student achievement. The study reported that,…

  11. Review of the Oconee-3 probabilistic risk assessment: external events, core damage frequency. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.A.; Ilberg, D.; Xue, D.

    1986-03-01

    A review of the Oconee-3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (OPRA) was conducted with the broad objective of evaluating qualitatively and quantitatively (as much as possible) the OPRA assessment of the important sequences that are ''externally'' generated and lead to core damage. The review included a technical assessment of the assumptions and methods used in the OPRA within its stated objective and with the limited information available. Within this scope, BNL performed a detailed reevaluation of the accident sequences generated by internal floods and earthquakes and a less detailed review (in some cases a scoping review) for the accident sequences generated by fires, tornadoes, external floods, and aircraft impact. 12 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs

  12. State of the art review of degradation processes in LMFBR materials. Volume II. Corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Degradation of materials exposed to Na in LMFBR service is reviewed. The degradation processes are discussed in sections on corrosion and mass transfer, erosion, wear and self welding, sodium--water reactions, and external corrosion. (JRD)

  13. DTIC Review: Energy Supply Alternatives. Volume 7, Number 4 (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ...; we must look elsewhere for our energy. This issue of the DTIC Review examines the options and technologies for increasing energy supply and describes current research alternatives to petroleum products. The DTIC(Registered...

  14. Medical review practices for driver licensing volume 3: guidelines and processes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This is the third of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how : they fulfill the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically or : functionally at-risk drivers. ...

  15. EFFECTS OF FOOD ASSISTANCE AND NUTRITION PROGRAMS ON NUTRITION AND HEALTH: VOLUME 3, LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous; Hamilton, William L.; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive review and synthesis of published research on the impact of USDA's domestic food and nutrition assistance programs on participants' nutrition and health outcomes. The outcome measures reviewed include food expenditures, household nutrient availability, dietary intake, other measures of nutrition status, food security, birth outcomes, breastfeeding behaviors, immunization rates, use and cost of health care services, and selected nonhealth outcomes, such as ...

  16. Review of current status of high flux heat transfer techniques. Volume I. Text + Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.H.; Gordon, H.S.; Lackner, H.; Mettling, J.R.; Miller, J.E.

    1980-09-01

    The scope of this work comprised two tasks. The first was to review high heat flux technology with consideration given to heat transfer panel configuration, diagnostics techniques and coolant supply. The second task was to prepare a report describing the findings of the review, to recommend the technology offering the least uncertainty for scale-up for the MFTF-B requirement and to recommend any new or perceived requirements for R and D effort.

  17. Review of current status of high flux heat transfer techniques. Volume I. Text + Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.H.; Gordon, H.S.; Lackner, H.; Mettling, J.R.; Miller, J.E.

    1980-09-01

    The scope of this work comprised two tasks. The first was to review high heat flux technology with consideration given to heat transfer panel configuration, diagnostics techniques and coolant supply. The second task was to prepare a report describing the findings of the review, to recommend the technology offering the least uncertainty for scale-up for the MFTF-B requirement and to recommend any new or perceived requirements for R and D effort

  18. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-07-30

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD -3.15 days (95% CI -5.25/-1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management.

  19. Comparative outcomes of combined corticosteroid with low volume compared to high volume of local anesthetic in subacromial injection for impingement syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanont, Sermsak; Boonard, Manusak; Peradhammanon, Ekachot; Arirachakaran, Alisara; Suwankomonkul, Pattanapong; Oungbumrungpan, Worawit; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon

    2018-04-01

    Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is one of the most frequent pathologies of the shoulder, which may cause serious restriction of daily activities and lifestyle changes. Corticosteroid injection (CI) into the subacromial space is a palliative treatment option. Currently, there have been no studies that compare between the different volumes of CI injection. We have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to answer our specific study questions: Are high volume (shoulder and elbow surgeons (ASES) function score, pain visual analog score (VAS), and postoperative complications of either group. Fifteen studies were included for the analysis of high volume (more than or equal 5 ml), and 5 studies were included for analysis of low volume (less than 5 ml). Overall, there were 1101 patients (732 in the high-volume group and 369 in the low-volume group). A pooling of mean VAS and ASES function score was (N = 557) 2.02 (95% CI 1.52, 2.53), (N = 190) 82.59 (95% CI 76.92, 88.27) in high-volume group and (N = 179) 2.60 (95% CI 1.94, 3.26), (N = 95) 84.65 (95% CI 81.64, 86.82) in low-volume group, respectively. The unstandardized mean difference of ASES and VAS of high volume was - 0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI): - 1.38, 0.22) and - 2.06 (95% CI - 8.35, 4.23) scores lower than low-volume CI in SIS patients, but without statistical significance. A total of 11 studies in the high-volume group and 4 studies in the low-volume group reported adverse effects. The total complication rate per patient was 6.2% (2.3, 10.1%) in the high-volume group and 11.7% (0.3, 12%) in the low-volume group (p = 0.091). No significant differences were noted for complications. In subacromial impingement syndrome, the corticosteroid injection had acceptable pain and functional outcomes. Higher volume had a lower ASES, VAS, and risk of having complication when compared to lower volume. However, there are no statistically significant differences between groups. Larger

  20. Challenges in striving to simultaneously achieve multiple resource allocation goals: the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Heather; Charles, Cathy; Elit, Laurie; Gafni, Amiram

    2016-01-01

    The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) makes recommendations to Canada's provinces and territories (except Quebec) to guide their cancer drug funding decisions. The objective of this paper is to explore, using an economic perspective and the pCODR as an example, the challenges associated with striving to simultaneously achieve the goals of maximizing health benefits with available resources and improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. The first challenge concerns how to interpret the goals in order to determine how resources should be allocated to achieve each goal. The second challenge relates to whether, if pursued simultaneously, both goals can be achieved to the same extent that each goal could have been achieved alone with the same available resources. Regarding the first challenge, we illustrate that, due to a lack of definitional clarity, it is difficult to determine exactly how resources should be allocated in order to achieve the goal of improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. Regarding the second challenge, we illustrate that choosing to strive for both of the pCODR goals simultaneously will likely be associated with tradeoffs in the extent to which one or both goals can be achieved (relative to what could have been achieved for each goal alone with the same available resources). We suggest that, if the pCODR and the provincial drug plan decision-makers it supports want to strive for both goals simultaneously, they must prioritize the goals and explicitly identify the tradeoffs associated with the prioritization. This will ensure that the consequences of striving to simultaneously achieve both goals are explicit, transparent, and predictable for provincial drug plan decision-makers, physicians, patients, caregivers, and society as a whole.

  1. Impact of partial-volume correction in oncological PET studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cysouw, Matthijs C.F.; Kramer, Gerbrand M.; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schoonmade, Linda J. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Library, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Vet, Henrica C.W. de [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    Positron-emission tomography can be useful in oncology for diagnosis, (re)staging, determining prognosis, and response assessment. However, partial-volume effects hamper accurate quantification of lesions <2-3 x the PET system's spatial resolution, and the clinical impact of this is not evident. This systematic review provides an up-to-date overview of studies investigating the impact of partial-volume correction (PVC) in oncological PET studies. We searched in PubMed and Embase databases according to the PRISMA statement, including studies from inception till May 9, 2016. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and eligible full-text articles and performed quality assessment according to QUADAS-2 and QUIPS criteria. For a set of similar diagnostic studies, we statistically pooled the results using bivariate meta-regression. Thirty-one studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall, study quality was good. For diagnosis and nodal staging, PVC yielded a strong trend of increased sensitivity at expense of specificity. Meta-analysis of six studies investigating diagnosis of pulmonary nodules (679 lesions) showed no significant change in diagnostic accuracy after PVC (p = 0.222). Prognostication was not improved for non-small cell lung cancer and esophageal cancer, whereas it did improve for head and neck cancer. Response assessment was not improved by PVC for (locally advanced) breast cancer or rectal cancer, and it worsened in metastatic colorectal cancer. The accumulated evidence to date does not support routine application of PVC in standard clinical PET practice. Consensus on the preferred PVC methodology in oncological PET should be reached. Partial-volume-corrected data should be used as adjuncts to, but not yet replacement for, uncorrected data. (orig.)

  2. Nigeria - A Review of the Costs and Financing of Public Education : Volume 1. Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Since the reintroduction of multiparty democracy in 1999, the federal and state governments in Nigeria have embarked on a series of major educational reforms. These are intended to achieve universal basic education and improve the quality and relevance of post basic education. Faced with large rural-urban, gender, and regional disparities in enrollment and generally poor learning outcomes,...

  3. Nigeria - A Review of the Costs and Financing of Public Education : Volume 2. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Since the reintroduction of multiparty democracy in 1999, the federal and state governments in Nigeria have embarked on a series of major educational reforms. These are intended to achieve universal basic education and improve the quality and relevance of post basic education. Faced with large rural-urban, gender, and regional disparities in enrollment and generally poor learning outcomes,...

  4. Chemosynthetic ecosystems study: Literature review and data synthesis. Volume 2. Technical report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, I.R.

    1992-11-01

    The three-volume report was prepared by Texas A and M University and others in partial fulfillment of a research contract with MMS and brings together knowledge of chemosynthetic communities in the Gulf of Mexico from the time of their discovery until 1992. It contains sections on historical perspectives, seep associations and types, regional geological settings and origins of petroleum, paleoecology, associated fauna and microflora, general biology, community distribution and description, and conceptual models. The report is a Technical Report, which presents the detailed findings

  5. Chemosynthetic ecosystems study: Literature review and data synthesis. Volume 3. Appendix. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, I.R.

    1992-11-01

    The three-volume report was prepared by Texas A and M University and others in partial fulfillment of a research contract with MMS and brings together knowledge of chemosynthetic communities in the Gulf of Mexico from the time of their discovery until 1992. It contains sections on historical perspectives, seep associations and types, regional geological settings and origins of petroleum, paleoecology, associated fauna and microflora, general biology, community distribution and description, and conceptual models. The report is an Appendix, which includes 19 papers considered to be core literature on the subject

  6. Chemosynthetic ecosystems study: Literature review and data synthesis. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, I.R.

    1992-11-01

    The three-volume report was prepared by Texas A and M University and others in partial fulfillment of a research contract with MMS and brings together knowledge of chemosynthetic communities in the Gulf of Mexico from the time of their discovery until 1992. It contains sections on historical perspectives, seep associations and types, regional geological settings and origins of petroleum, paleoecology, associated fauna and microflora, general biology, community distribution and description, and conceptual models. The report is the Executive Summary, which presents a brief overview of the findings

  7. Proceedings of the 1996 U.S. DOE hydrogen program review. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The 29 papers contained in Volume 1 are related to systems analysis and hydrogen production. Papers in the systems analysis section discuss utility markets, comparison of hydrogen with other alternative fuels, hydrogen vehicles, renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection, and hydrogen storage systems development. Hydrogen production methods include the use of algae, photosynthesis, glucose dehydrogenase, syngas, photoelectrochemical reactions, photovoltaics, water electrolysis, solar photochemical reactions, pyrolysis, catalytic steam reforming, municipal solid wastes, thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas, and plasma reformers. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Levels of Achievement: A Review of the Assessment of Practice. Researching Professional Education. Research Reports Series Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Kate; McManus, Mike; Ashworth, Peter

    Assessment of practice at diploma, degree, and postgraduate levels in nursing and midwifery education in Britain was the focus of a research study. Key issues from a critical review of literature on the assessment of theory and practice at different academic levels were as follows: lack of clarity in defining "levels"; inconsistencies in…

  9. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. Volume 2, April 1989 Supplement. Perspectives on Pathogenic Neisseriae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    interaction of these microorganisms human spermatozoa (25). with the human host. The physiology and metabolism of the All strains of N. gonorrhoeae...promote attachment of gonococci to human spermatozoa under matory disease: a review with emphasis on antimicrobial ther- physiological conditions...microtuble- or microfilament -dependent Outer membrane blebs are also internalized by epithelial movement was disrupted by cytochalasin B or demecolcine

  10. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeny, S. M., Ed.

    An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…

  11. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This document contains papers presented at The advanced Coal-Fired Power Systems 1995 Review Meeting. Research was described in the areas of: integrated gasification combined cycle technology; pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; externally fired combined cycles; a summary stauts of clean coal technologies; advanced turbine systems and hot gas cleanup. Individual projects were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  12. The DTIC Review: Bioterrorism: A grim Reality. Volume 4, Number 3, January 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cupp, Christian

    1999-01-01

    .... A terrorist attack using biological agents is known as bioterrorism. There are a huge variety of adapted bacteria and viruses that could be used as biological weapons, but one of the most common types today is Anthrax, the original biological warfare agent This issue of The DTIC Review "Bioterrorism: A Grim Reality" offers readers at all levels information on the impending threat of bioterrorism.

  13. Proceedings of the natural gas RD&D contractors review meeting, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, R.D.

    1995-04-01

    This report contains papers which were presented at the natural gas contractors review meeting held on April 4-6, 1995. Topics were concerned with resource and reserves, low permeability reservoir characterization, natural fracture detection, drilling, completion, and stimulation, and natural gas upgrading. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  14. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, S; Ghossein-Doha, C; van Kuijk, S M J; van Drongelen, J; Spaanderman, M E A

    2017-02-01

    To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. We performed a meta-analysis of the current literature on plasma volume adjustments during physiological and complicated pregnancies. Literature was retrieved from PubMed (NCBI) and EMBASE (Ovid) databases. Included studies reported both reference plasma volume measurements (non-pregnant, prepregnancy or postpartum) and measurements obtained during predetermined gestational ages. Mean differences bet ween the reference and pregnancy plasma volume measurements were calculated for predefined intervals of gestational age using a random-effects model described by DerSimonian and Laird. Thirty studies were included in the meta-analysis with publication dates ranging from 1934 to 2007. Plasma volume increased in the first weeks of pregnancy, with the steepest increase occurring during the second trimester. Plasma volume continued to increase in the third trimester with a pooled maximum increase of 1.13 L (95% CI, 1.07-1.19 L), an increase of 45.6% (95% CI, 43.0-48.1%) in physiological pregnancies compared with the reference value. The plasma volume expansion in gestational hypertensive and growth-restricted pregnancies was 0.80 L (95% CI, 0.59-1.02 L), an increase of 32.3% (95% CI, 23.6-41.1%) in the third trimester, a smaller increase than in physiological pregnancies (P embarazo: una revisi\\xF3n sistemática y metaanálisis RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Describir el patrón fisiológico de los cambios en el volumen del plasma gestacional en embarazos normales con feto único y compararlo con el patrón en los embarazos complicados por hipertensión gestacional, preeclampsia o restricción del crecimiento fetal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un metaanálisis de la literatura actual sobre los cambios en el volumen de plasma durante

  15. Research and development of methods and tools for achieving and maintaining consensus processes in the face of change within and among government oversight agencies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This progress report summarizes our research activities under our consensus grant. In year four of the grant, we continued to capitalize on and benefit from historical events which drove our early emphasis on group process studies. Following our work on various procedures for bringing together groups such as the State and Tribal Government Working Group and the Stakeholders' Forum (both of which provide input to the Five-Year Waste Plan), we continue to observe these groups and collect data. We also began a configuration study involving the complex modeling of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Related to group process studies is the issue of the information requirements for individuals making decisions in consensus groups. Our information studies examined the requirements for decision-related information, frameworks for such information, and the effectiveness of information portrayed for decision making. However, we were able not only to continue studying consensus groups in action and related information issues, but also to focus considerable attention on the fundamental side of our research. The fundamental or basic research conducted in year four included: (1) expanding our literature database; (2) beginning the writing of the literature review summary document and the consensus guide; (3) developing frameworks and models such as the Environmental Trilogy model and a structural equations model of the consensus process; and (4) conducting laboratory studies concerning the effects of the presence of an expert, met expectations, opportunity to express views, incentive structure and conflict type (competitive versus collaborative) on consensus outcomes

  16. Report on the Survey of the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 4: Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven; Monninger, John; Nevalainen, Janne; Joyer, Philippe; Koley, Jaharlal; Kawamura, Tomonori; Chung, Yeon-Ki; Haluska, Ladislav; Persic, Andreja; Reierson, Craig; Monninger, John; Choi, Young-Joon; )

    2017-01-01

    At the tenth meeting of the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the Working Group agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the licensing process survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This report provides a discussion of the survey responses related to the Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems category. The Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems category includes the following technical topics: overpressure protection, reactor coolant pressure boundary, reactor vessel, and design of the reactor coolant system. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided by the member countries in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Although the description of the information provided by the applicant differs in scope and level of detail among the member countries that provided responses, there are similarities in the information that is required. - All of the technical topics covered in the survey are reviewed in some manner by all of the regulatory authorities that provided responses. - It is common to consider operating experience and lessons learnt from the current fleet during the review process. - The most commonly and consistently identified technical expertise needed to perform design reviews related to this category are mechanical engineering and materials engineering. The complete survey

  17. Book Review: Sustainable Luxury and Social Entrepreneurship. Volume II: More Stories from the Pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2017-01-01

    volume Sustainable Luxury and Social Entrepreneurship: Stories of the Pioneers, published in 2014. The book series, as well as the awards, seeks to investigate and promote the motives, context, and practical endeavours of sustainable entrepreneurs within the premium and luxury sector.......This book is based on the result of the 2016 IE Awards for Sustainability in the Premium and Luxury Sectors, hosted by IE University and IE Business School in Madrid. It is co-edited by Executive Director of the awards Eugenia Girón and President and Director of the award, Miguel Angel Gardetti......, who is also Director of the IE University Center for Studies for Sustainable Luxury. As such, it represents an overview of the content, ideas and visions of this particular event, which has been held annually since 2011 in Buenos Aires and Madrid, respectively. It succeeds the two editors’ first...

  18. Research and development of methods and tools for achieving and maintaining consensus processes in the face of change within and among government oversight agencies: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This progress report summarizes our research activities under our consensus grant. In year four of the grant, we continued to capitalize on and benefit from historical events which drove our early emphasis on group process studies. Following our work on various procedures for bringing together groups such as the State and Tribal Government Working Group and the Stakeholders' Forum (both of which provide input to the Five-Year Waste Plan), we continue to observe these groups and collect data. We also began a configuration study involving the complex modeling of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Related to group process studies is the issue of the information requirements for individuals making decisions in consensus groups. Our information studies examined the requirements for decision-related information, frameworks for such information, and the effectiveness of information portrayed for decision making. However, we were able not only to continue studying consensus groups in action and related information issues, but also to focus considerable attention on the fundamental side of our research. The fundamental or basic research conducted in year four included: (1) expanding our literature database; (2) beginning the writing of the literature review summary document and the consensus guide; (3) developing frameworks and models such as the Environmental Trilogy model and a structural equations model of the consensus process; and (4) conducting laboratory studies concerning the effects of the presence of an expert, met expectations, opportunity to express views, incentive structure and conflict type (competitive versus collaborative) on consensus outcomes.

  19. Report of the Survey on the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 1 - Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven

    2014-06-01

    At the tenth meeting of the CNRA Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the members agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the Licensing Process Survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This report, which is the first volume, provides a discussion of the survey responses related to Instrumentation and Control (I and C). The Instrumentation and Control category includes the twelve following technical topics: Reactor trip system, actuation systems for Engineered Safety Features (ESF), safe shutdown system, safety-related display instrumentation, information and interlock systems important to safety, controls systems, main control room, supplementary control room, diverse I and C systems, data communication systems, software reliability and cyber-security. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the Level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Among the regulatory organisations that responded to the survey, there are similarities in the design information provided by an applicant. In most countries, the design information provided by an applicant includes, but is not limited to, a description of the I and C system design and functions, a description of the verification and validation programmes, and provisions for analysis, testing, and inspection of various I and C systems. - In addition to the regulations, it is a common practice for countries

  20. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 7: Literature review. Part 1: Literature search and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A review of the literature used in conducting the manned space flight nuclear system safety study is presented. The objectives of the presentation are to identify and evaluate for potential application to study the existing related literature and to provide the information required to include the related literature in the NASA Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute. More than 15,000 documents were evaluated and identification forms were prepared for 850 reports.

  1. Review of the proposed Strategic National Plan for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Development: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    On August 9, 1985, the Secretary of Energy requested that the Chairman of the Energy Research Advisory Board establish an ad-hoc Panel to review a draft ''Strategic National Plan for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Development.'' The resulting report, approved by the Board, contains suggestions for improving the draft plan and also contains major recommendations for alleviating the several institutional barriers that appear to preclude the construction of any new nuclear power plants in this country

  2. Review of Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Integrated Hazard Development Process. Appendices; Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiles, Michael D.; Blythe, Michael P.; Bejmuk, Bohdan; Currie, Nancy J.; Doremus, Robert C.; Franzo, Jennifer C.; Gordon, Mark W.; Johnson, Tracy D.; Kowaleski, Mark M.; Laube, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chief Engineer of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Office requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent assessment of the ESD's integrated hazard development process. The focus of the assessment was to review the integrated hazard analysis (IHA) process and identify any gaps/improvements in the process (e.g. missed causes, cause tree completeness, missed hazards). This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  3. Review of Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Integrated Hazard Development Process. Volume 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiles, Michael D.; Blythe, Michael P.; Bejmuk, Bohdan; Currie, Nancy J.; Doremus, Robert C.; Franzo, Jennifer C.; Gordon, Mark W.; Johnson, Tracy D.; Kowaleski, Mark M.; Laube, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chief Engineer of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Office requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent assessment of the ESD's integrated hazard development process. The focus of the assessment was to review the integrated hazard analysis (IHA) process and identify any gaps/improvements in the process (e.g., missed causes, cause tree completeness, missed hazards). This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  4. Report of the Defense Review Committee for the Code of Conduct. Volume 2. Supplement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    audiovisual presentations), reports, scholarly papers, and other publications or manuscripts. These materials will be available for use, review, and research by...Marshall (retired Army historian, publicist , and consultant to the 1955 Committee) to Stead AFB, Nevada to examine the USAF program. (10) Brigadier General...8217 publications, audiovisual aids, etc.) or training coverage (little or no training in Army, Navy or Air Force for personnel other than pilots

  5. Abstract Reference List: Reviews of Pertinent Literature in Shock. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-18

    46 1. Action of Histamine of the Mesenteric Microvasculature. J. Fox, F. Galev, and H. Wayland. Microvasc. Res...depending upon the stimulus used. 67. The prostanoids in Iemostasis and Thrombosis . JB Smith. Am. J. Path. 99: 743-804, 1980. The recent discovery and...endothelial cells make prostacyclin, implicate these novel prostanoid> in both hemostasis and thrombosis , The purpose of this review is tu bring

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review: Volume 24, Nos. 3 and 4, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram, multipurpose laboratory that conducts research in the physical, chemical, and life sciences; in fusion, fission, and fossil energy; and in energy conservation and other energy-related technologies. This review contains articles on chemical extraction techniques, electron transport in gases and liquids, diamond films, the contribution of fossil fuels to the greenhouse effect, various sensors for safety applications, and temperature measurement with fluorescing paints. (GHH)

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review: Volume 24, Nos. 3 and 4, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram, multipurpose laboratory that conducts research in the physical, chemical, and life sciences; in fusion, fission, and fossil energy; and in energy conservation and other energy-related technologies. This review contains articles on chemical extraction techniques, electron transport in gases and liquids, diamond films, the contribution of fossil fuels to the greenhouse effect, various sensors for safety applications, and temperature measurement with fluorescing paints. (GHH)

  8. Radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels: An international review (second volume)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book has sixteen (16) peer-reviewed papers divided into four (4) sections that reflect changes in the nuclear power industry occurring since 1981, including escalating capital requirements and a growing worldwide dependence on nuclear power for electricity production. The four (4) sections of this book are: Overview of National Programs; Surveillance and Other Radiation Embrittlement Studies; Pressure Vessel Integrity and Regulatory Considerations; and Mechanisms of Irradiation Embrittlement

  9. Interventions to maximize facial cleanliness and achieve environmental improvement for trachoma elimination: A review of the grey literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann G Delea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts are underway to scale-up the facial cleanliness and environmental improvement (F&E components of the World Health Organization's SAFE strategy for elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Improving understanding of the F&E intervention landscape could inform advancements prior to scale-up, and lead to more effective and sustained behavior change.We systematically searched for relevant grey literature published from January 1965 through August 2016. Publications were eligible for review if they described interventions addressing F&E in the context of trachoma elimination programs. Subsequent to screening, we mapped attributes of F&E interventions. We then employed three behavior change frameworks to synthesize mapped data and identify potential intervention gaps. We identified 27 documents meeting inclusion criteria. With the exception of some recent programming, F&E interventions have largely focused on intermediate and distal antecedents of behavior change. Evidence from our analyses suggests many interventions are not designed to address documented determinants of improved F&E practices. No reviewed documents endorsed inclusion of intervention components related to behavioral maintenance or resilience-factors critical for sustaining improved behaviors.If left unaddressed, identified gaps in intervention content may continue to challenge uptake and sustainability of improved F&E behaviors. Stakeholders designing and implementing trachoma elimination programs should review their F&E intervention content and delivery approaches with an eye toward improvement, including better alignment with established behavior change theories and empirical evidence. Implementation should move beyond information dissemination, and appropriately employ a variety of behavior change techniques to address more proximal influencers of change.

  10. Interventions to maximize facial cleanliness and achieve environmental improvement for trachoma elimination: A review of the grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delea, Maryann G; Solomon, Hiwote; Solomon, Anthony W; Freeman, Matthew C

    2018-01-01

    Efforts are underway to scale-up the facial cleanliness and environmental improvement (F&E) components of the World Health Organization's SAFE strategy for elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Improving understanding of the F&E intervention landscape could inform advancements prior to scale-up, and lead to more effective and sustained behavior change. We systematically searched for relevant grey literature published from January 1965 through August 2016. Publications were eligible for review if they described interventions addressing F&E in the context of trachoma elimination programs. Subsequent to screening, we mapped attributes of F&E interventions. We then employed three behavior change frameworks to synthesize mapped data and identify potential intervention gaps. We identified 27 documents meeting inclusion criteria. With the exception of some recent programming, F&E interventions have largely focused on intermediate and distal antecedents of behavior change. Evidence from our analyses suggests many interventions are not designed to address documented determinants of improved F&E practices. No reviewed documents endorsed inclusion of intervention components related to behavioral maintenance or resilience-factors critical for sustaining improved behaviors. If left unaddressed, identified gaps in intervention content may continue to challenge uptake and sustainability of improved F&E behaviors. Stakeholders designing and implementing trachoma elimination programs should review their F&E intervention content and delivery approaches with an eye toward improvement, including better alignment with established behavior change theories and empirical evidence. Implementation should move beyond information dissemination, and appropriately employ a variety of behavior change techniques to address more proximal influencers of change.

  11. Rapid realist review of the evidence: achieving lasting change when mental health rehabilitation staff undertake recovery-oriented training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Cook, Sarah; Killaspy, Helen

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors contributing to lasting change in practice following a recovery-based training intervention for inpatient mental health rehabilitation staff. Staff training may help nurses and other staff groups in inpatient mental health rehabilitative settings to increase their recovery-oriented practice. There are no published reviews on the effectiveness of such training and few long-term evaluations. This review informed a realist evaluation of a specific intervention (GetREAL). Rapid realist review methodology was used to generate and prioritize programme theories. ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and grey literature searches were performed in September 2014-March 2015 with no date restrictions. Stakeholders suggested further documents. GetREAL project documentation was consulted. Programme theory development took place iteratively with literature identification. Stakeholders validated and prioritized emerging programme theories and the prioritized theories were refined using literature case studies. Fifty-one relevant documents fed into 49 programme theories articulating seven mechanisms for lasting change. Prioritized mechanisms were: staff receptiveness to change; and staff feeling encouraged, motivated and supported by colleagues and management to change. Seven programme theories were prioritized and refined using data from four case studies. Lasting change can be facilitated by collaborative action planning, regular collaborative meetings, appointing a change agent, explicit management endorsement and prioritization and modifying organizational structures. Conversely, a challenging organizational climate, or a prevalence of 'change fatigue', may block change. Pre-intervention exploration may help identify any potential barriers to embedding recovery in the organizational culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop, Volume 91, RBRC Scientific Review Committee Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios,N.P.

    2008-11-17

    The ninth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on Nov. 17-18, 2008, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Dr. Wit Busza (Chair), Dr. Miklos Gyulassy, Dr. Akira Masaike, Dr. Richard Milner, Dr. Alfred Mueller, and Dr. Akira Ukawa. We are pleased that Dr. Yasushige Yano, the Director of the Nishina Institute of RIKEN, Japan participated in this meeting both in informing the committee of the activities of the Nishina Institute and the role of RBRC and as an observer of this review. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on his/her research efforts. This encompassed three major areas of investigation, theoretical, experimental and computational physics. In addition the committee met privately with the fellows and postdocs to ascertain their opinions and concerns. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

  13. A Review of the As-Built SLM Ti-6Al-4V Mechanical Properties towards Achieving Fatigue Resistant Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Agius

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V has been widely used in both the biomedical and aerospace industry, due to its high strength, corrosion resistance, high fracture toughness and light weight. Additive manufacturing (AM is an attractive method of Ti-6Al-4V parts’ fabrication, as it provides a low waste alternative for complex geometries. With continued progress being made in SLM technology, the influence of build layers, grain boundaries and defects can be combined to improve further the design process and allow the fabrication of components with improved static and fatigue strength in critical loading directions. To initiate this possibility, the mechanical properties, including monotonic, low and high cycle fatigue and fracture mechanical behaviour, of machined as-built SLM Ti-6Al-4V, have been critically reviewed in order to inform the research community. The corresponding crystallographic phases, defects and layer orientations have been analysed to determine the influence of these features on the mechanical behaviour. This review paper intends to enhance our understanding of how these features can be manipulated and utilised to improve the fatigue resistance of components fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V using the SLM technology.

  14. Air-deployable oil spill sampling devices review phase 2 testing. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, L.; Dumouchel, A.; Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    SAIC Canada tested air deployable oil sampling devices for the Emergencies Science and Technology Division of Environment Canada in order to determine the applicability and status of these devices. The 3 devices tested were: Canada's SABER (sampling autonomous buoy for evidence recovery), the United States' POPEIE (probe for oil pollution evidence in the environment); and, Sweden's SAR Floatation 2000. They were tested for buoyancy properties, drift behaviour and sampler sorbent pickup ratios. The SAR and SABER both had lesser draft and greater freeboard, while the POPEIE had much greater draft than freeboard. All 3 devices could be used for oil sample collection in that their drift characteristics would allow for the SABER and SAR devices to be placed upwind of the slick while the POPEIE device could be placed downwind of an oil spill. The sorbent testing revealed that Sefar sorbent and Spectra sorbent used in the 3 devices had negative pickup ratios for diesel but performance improved as oil viscosity increased. Both sorbents are inert and capable of collecting oil in sufficient volumes for consistent fingerprinting analysis. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Health information needs, sources, and barriers of primary care patients to achieve patient-centered care: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Martina A; Moore, Joi L; Steege, Linsey M; Koopman, Richelle J; Belden, Jeffery L; Canfield, Shannon M; Meadows, Susan E; Elliott, Susan G; Kim, Min Soon

    2016-12-01

    To synthesize findings from previous studies assessing information needs of primary care patients on the Internet and other information sources in a primary care setting. A systematic review of studies was conducted with a comprehensive search in multiple databases including OVID MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Scopus. The most common information needs among patients were information about an illness or medical condition and treatment methods, while the most common information sources were the Internet and patients' physicians. Overall, patients tend to prefer the Internet for the ease of access to information, while they trust their physicians more for their clinical expertise and experience. Barriers to information access via the Internet include the following: socio-demographic variables such as age, ethnicity, income, education, and occupation; information search skills; and reliability of health information. Further research is warranted to assess how to create accurate and reliable health information sources for both Internet and non-Internet users. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Radioactive waste management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    The Soviet Union does not currently have an overall radioactive waste management program or national laws that define objectives, procedures, and standards, although such a law is being developed, according to the Soviets. Occupational health and safety does not appear to receive major attention as it does in Western nations. In addition, construction practices that would be considered marginal in Western facilities show up in Soviet nuclear power and waste management operations. The issues involved with radioactive waste management and environmental restoration are being investigated at several large Soviet institutes; however, there is little apparent interdisciplinary integration between them, or interaction with the USSR Academy of Sciences. It is expected that a consensus on technical solutions will be achieved, but it may be slow in coming, especially for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and environmental restoration of contaminated areas. Meanwhile, many treatment, solidification, and disposal options for radioactive waste management are being investigated by the Soviets.

  17. A review on weaknesses and strengths of delivering Mehr housing project in terms of achieving economical goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karshenasan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Housing is one of the most important sections of development in a country and its economic importance has put it in the center of attention. It can cause rise and depression of habitation by its extended economic aspects. Mehr Housing plan is a state run housing project in most cities started 2007 in Iran to protect and provide cheap housing for poor people and young couples. Mehr housing project by its large scale and wide dimensions can affect the society’s economy. Therefore, to investigate weaknesses and strengths of this project in terms of economic and applying necessary reformation can increase the success probability of this project. For this purpose, this study assess the weaknesses and strengths of Mehr housing of province of Khorram Abad in Iran for achieving economic goals and also presents solutions to better access to these goals. Time scope of the present study is 6 months of 2011 and the second 3 months of 2012. The methodology is applicable in terms of goal and is descriptive survey in terms of nature. In this study, a combined method of interviewing to experts and distributing a questionnaire among the applicants of Mehr housing has been used for data collecting. Among strengths of Khorram Abad in economic section, employment and urban landfill pattern reformation can be implied. In addition, among weaknesses of this project are lack of proper first design and technical justification of the project and use of only 2 shabby fabrics.

  18. Achieving Research Impact Through Co-creation in Community-Based Health Services: Literature Review and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Jackson, Claire; Shaw, Sara; Janamian, Tina

    2016-06-01

    Co-creation-collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders-is an increasingly popular approach to aligning research and service development. It has potential for "moving beyond the ivory towers" to deliver significant societal impact via dynamic, locally adaptive community-academic partnerships. Principles of successful co-creation include a systems perspective, a creative approach to research focused on improving human experience, and careful attention to governance and process. If these principles are not followed, co-creation efforts may fail. Co-creation-collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders-reflects a "Mode 2" relationship (knowledge production rather than knowledge translation) between universities and society. Co-creation is widely believed to increase research impact. We undertook a narrative review of different models of co-creation relevant to community-based health services. We contrasted their diverse disciplinary roots and highlighted their common philosophical assumptions, principles of success, and explanations for failures. We applied these to an empirical case study of a community-based research-service partnership led by the Centre of Research Excellence in Quality and Safety in Integrated Primary-Secondary Care at the University of Queensland, Australia. Co-creation emerged independently in several fields, including business studies ("value co-creation"), design science ("experience-based co-design"), computer science ("technology co-design"), and community development ("participatory research"). These diverse models share some common features, which were also evident in the case study. Key success principles included (1) a systems perspective (assuming emergence, local adaptation, and nonlinearity); (2) the framing of research as a creative enterprise with human experience at its core; and (3) an emphasis on process (the framing of the program, the nature of

  19. Achieving Research Impact Through Co‐creation in Community‐Based Health Services: Literature Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    JACKSON, CLAIRE; SHAW, SARA; JANAMIAN, TINA

    2016-01-01

    Policy Points: Co‐creation—collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders—is an increasingly popular approach to aligning research and service development.It has potential for “moving beyond the ivory towers” to deliver significant societal impact via dynamic, locally adaptive community‐academic partnerships.Principles of successful co‐creation include a systems perspective, a creative approach to research focused on improving human experience, and careful attention to governance and process.If these principles are not followed, co‐creation efforts may fail. Context Co‐creation—collaborative knowledge generation by academics working alongside other stakeholders—reflects a “Mode 2” relationship (knowledge production rather than knowledge translation) between universities and society. Co‐creation is widely believed to increase research impact. Methods We undertook a narrative review of different models of co‐creation relevant to community‐based health services. We contrasted their diverse disciplinary roots and highlighted their common philosophical assumptions, principles of success, and explanations for failures. We applied these to an empirical case study of a community‐based research‐service partnership led by the Centre of Research Excellence in Quality and Safety in Integrated Primary‐Secondary Care at the University of Queensland, Australia. Findings Co‐creation emerged independently in several fields, including business studies (“value co‐creation”), design science (“experience‐based co‐design”), computer science (“technology co‐design”), and community development (“participatory research”). These diverse models share some common features, which were also evident in the case study. Key success principles included (1) a systems perspective (assuming emergence, local adaptation, and nonlinearity); (2) the framing of research as a creative enterprise with human

  20. The role of meat in strategies to achieve a sustainable diet lower in greenhouse gas emissions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, John J; Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; McCarthy, Sinéad N

    2017-10-01

    Food consumption is responsible for a considerable proportion of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Hence, individual food choices have the potential to substantially influence both public health and the environment. Meat and animal products are relatively high in GHGE and therefore targeted in efforts to reduce dietary emissions. This review first highlights the complexities regarding sustainability in terms of meat consumption and thereafter discusses possible strategies that could be implemented to mitigate its climatic impact. It outlines how sustainable diets are possible without the elimination of meat. For instance, overconsumption of food in general, beyond our nutritional requirements, was found to be a significant contributor of emissions. Non-voluntary and voluntary mitigation strategies offer potential to reduce dietary GHGE. All mitigation strategies require careful consideration but on-farm sustainable intensification perhaps offers the most promise. However, a balance between supply and demand approaches is encouraged. Health should remain the overarching principle for policies and strategies concerned with shifting consumer behaviour towards sustainable diets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Achieving Adequate Margins in Ameloblastoma Resection: The Role for Intra-Operative Specimen Imaging. Clinical Report and Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Anand; Mirkazemi, Mansoor; Baillieu, Charles; Ptasznik, Ronnie; Leong, James

    2012-01-01

    Background Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm. With local recurrence rates reaching 90%, only completeness of excision can facilitate cure. Surgical clearance has widely been based on pre-operative imaging to guide operative excision margins, however use of intra-operative specimen x-ray or frozen-section has been sought to improve clearance rates, and advanced imaging technologies in this role have been proposed. This manuscript aims to quantify the evidence for evaluating intra-operative resection margins and present the current standard in this role. Method The current study comprises the first reported comparison of imaging modalities for assessing ameloblastoma margins. A case is presented in which margins are assessed with each of clinical assessment based on preoperative imaging, intra-operative specimen x-ray, intra-operative specimen computed tomography (CT) and definitive histology. Each modality is compared quantitatively. These results are compared to the literature through means of systematic review of current evidence. Results A comparative study highlights the role for CT imaging over plain radiography. With no other comparative studies and a paucity of high level evidence establishing a role for intra-operative margin assessment in ameloblastoma in the literature, only level 4 evidence supporting the use of frozen section and specimen x-ray, and only one level 4 study assesses intra-operative CT. Conclusion The current study suggests that intra-operative specimen CT offers an improvement over existing techniques in this role. While establishing a gold-standard will require higher level comparative studies, the use of intra-operative CT can facilitate accurate single-stage resection. PMID:23094099

  4. Achieving adequate margins in ameloblastoma resection: the role for intra-operative specimen imaging. Clinical report and systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoka De Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm. With local recurrence rates reaching 90%, only completeness of excision can facilitate cure. Surgical clearance has widely been based on pre-operative imaging to guide operative excision margins, however use of intra-operative specimen x-ray or frozen-section has been sought to improve clearance rates, and advanced imaging technologies in this role have been proposed. This manuscript aims to quantify the evidence for evaluating intra-operative resection margins and present the current standard in this role. METHOD: The current study comprises the first reported comparison of imaging modalities for assessing ameloblastoma margins. A case is presented in which margins are assessed with each of clinical assessment based on preoperative imaging, intra-operative specimen x-ray, intra-operative specimen computed tomography (CT and definitive histology. Each modality is compared quantitatively. These results are compared to the literature through means of systematic review of current evidence. RESULTS: A comparative study highlights the role for CT imaging over plain radiography. With no other comparative studies and a paucity of high level evidence establishing a role for intra-operative margin assessment in ameloblastoma in the literature, only level 4 evidence supporting the use of frozen section and specimen x-ray, and only one level 4 study assesses intra-operative CT. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that intra-operative specimen CT offers an improvement over existing techniques in this role. While establishing a gold-standard will require higher level comparative studies, the use of intra-operative CT can facilitate accurate single-stage resection.

  5. The impact of Game-based learning on the achievement of learning goals and motivation for learning mathematics - literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Divjak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SH X-NONE X-NONE Information technologies are an integral part of a contemporary society which bases its progress on knowledge being one goal of education. Beside acquiring knowledge, skills and routines, the goal of education is to create a complete individual who can rationally and timely make decisions, purposefully react in new situations and be trained for life-long learning. In order to accomplish all this, it is necessary to make educational process more creative, contemporary and adjusted to new generations of computer literate pupils who demand quicker and more frequent interactions, a lot of information at the same time, generations who quickly acquire rules of computer games. Computer games meeting pedagogical criteria should become an integral part of learning. Teaching with mathematical computer games, which fulfil pedagogical criteria, influences pupils’ motivation, learning, retention and forgetting. This paper provides a review of literature in this field and determines whether the use of mathematical computer games contributes to more efficient realisation of educational goals at all level of education. Furthermore, considering prior research we have attempted to establish whether the use of mathematical games for teaching has an impact on the formation of a positive attitude of pupils of different ages toward the subject of mathematics, their motivation and knowledge acquisition when compared to learning without computer games. Finally, we have analysed different research methods concerning this issue and assessed the impact of pedagogically designed mathematical computer games on the realisation of educational goals and quality improvement of teaching and learning.

  6. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP: VOLUME 69 RBRC SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE MEETING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAMIOS, N.P.

    2005-01-01

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RSRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is funded by the 'Rikagaku Kenkyusho' (RIKEN, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) of Japan. The Center is dedicated to the study of strong interactions, including spin physics, lattice QCD, and RHIC physics through the nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. The RBRC has both a theory and experimental component. At present the theoretical group has 4 Fellows and 3 Research Associates as well as 11 RHIC Physics/University Fellows (academic year 2003-2004). To date there are approximately 30 graduates from the program of which 13 have attained tenure positions at major institutions worldwide. The experimental group is smaller and has 2 Fellows and 3 RHIC Physics/University Fellows and 3 Research Associates, and historically 6 individuals have attained permanent positions. Beginning in 2001 a new RIKEN Spin Program (RSP) category was implemented at RBRC. These appointments are joint positions of RBRC and RIKEN and include the following positions in theory and experiment: RSP Researchers, RSP Research Associates, and Young Researchers, who are mentored by senior RBRC Scientists, A number of RIKEN Jr. Research Associates and Visiting Scientists also contribute to the physics program at the Center. RBRC has an active workshop program on strong interaction physics with each workshop focused on a specific physics problem. Each workshop speaker is encouraged to select a few of the most important transparencies from his or her presentation, accompanied by a page of explanation. This material is collected at the end of the workshop by the organizer to form proceedings, which can therefore be available within a short time. To date there are sixty nine proceedings volumes available. The construction of a 0.6 teraflops parallel processor, dedicated to lattice QCD, begun at the Center on February 19, 1998, was completed on August 28, 1998 and is still

  7. NRL SSD Research Achievements: 20002010. Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    density) crosses the comet but when the high magnetic field from the flux rope crosses. • SECCHI demonstrated that super- elastic collisions between two...propagating slow magneto -acoustic waves. 5 - EIS has the capability of detecting first ionization potential (FIP) element abundance variations

  8. NRL SSD Research Achievements: 19801990. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    than the relative variability in the Sun’s total solar irradiance ( TSI ) integrated over all wavelengths. The UV light measured by SUSIM originates in...Morrill et al., 2011]. This model is currently being used to estimate the UV irradiance and TSI for the past century. A solar minimum spectrum...which will combine the SUSIM and SBUV data to generate a high quality long term SSI dataset, comparable to the TSI data time series, for use by the

  9. NRL SSD Research Achievements: 19902000. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    frames instead of one. The experiment commanding was 40 also reduced via the use of pre-programmed operational sequences to preform synoptic ...based sensors and presented a regional picture . The tomographic imagery shows how the ionospheric plasma is distributed both vertically and as a...mechanisms on polar stratospheric cloud formation at local and synoptic scales during the 1999-2000 Arctic winter, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 739-753. Tuck

  10. NRL SSD Research Achievements: 19601970. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    observations. This picture of the Earth being enveloped in a huge hydrogen cloud was confirmed by OGO-3, OGO-4, OSO-4 (Orbiting Solar Observatory-4...had demonstrated that FUV emissions are present in the auroral zone, the OGO-4 mission provided the first comprehensive synoptic measurements. Talbot...sounding rockets in the 1960s launched by Friedman and collaborators. The contemporary picture of this complex source is that the Crab Nebula and the

  11. NRL SSD Research Achievements: 19701980. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    brightening curves showed that the classical thin transition region model based on constant conductive flux was oversimplified and did not agree with...relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects. The high-resolution spectroscopic data were used to test and validate atomic physics computer codes

  12. Reports on research achievements in developing high-performance industrial furnaces in fiscal 1998 (Research and development of high-performance industrial furnaces). Volume 1; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    From the reports on research achievements in developing high-performance industrial furnaces in fiscal 1998, the report volume 1 was prepared as a research achievement report of each working group, detailing fundamental researches, heating furnaces, and heat treatment furnaces. The fundamental researches have researched combustion evaluating technology, characteristics of the area in the vicinity of a combustor, characteristics of combustion of high-temperature air, heating characteristics of a furnace to investigate effect of local heat absorption, and combustion evaluation. For the heating furnaces, the following subjects were studied: development of an in-furnace combustion model, summary of an experiment for evaluating high-temperature air combustion, furnace height relative to combustion heat transfer characteristics, heat loss minimizing technology, combustion heat transfer characteristics of liquid fuels, optimal operation of the high-temperature air combustion, basic control in heating control, and steel piece heating control. Studies were performed for the heat treatment furnaces on the case of a direct firing furnace in evaluating the heat transfer characteristics, the case of a radiant tube furnace, application of thermal fluid simulation technology, furnace averaging technology, soot reducing technology, control technology, and trial design on a high-performance heat treatment furnace. (NEDO)

  13. Time to achieve target mean arterial pressure during resuscitation from experimental anaphylactic shock in an animal model. A comparison of adrenaline alone or in combination with different volume expanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, K; Zheng, F; Collange, O; Barthel, G; Thornton, S N; Longrois, D; Levy, B; Audibert, G; Malinovsky, J M; Mertes, P M

    2013-11-01

    Anaphylactic shock is a rare, but potentially lethal complication, combining life-threatening circulatory failure and massive fluid shifts. Treatment guidelines rely on adrenaline and volume expansion by intravenous fluids, but there is no solid evidence for the choice of one specific type of fluid over another. Our purpose was to compare the time to achieve target mean arterial pressure upon resuscitation using adrenaline alone versus adrenaline with different resuscitation fluids in an animal model and to compare the tissue oxygen pressures (PtiO2) with the various strategies. Twenty-five ovalbumin-sensitised Brown Norway rats were allocated to five groups after anaphylactic shock induction: vehicle (CON), adrenaline alone (AD), or adrenaline with isotonic saline (AD+IS), hydroxyethyl starch (AD+HES) or hypertonic saline (AD+HS). Time to reach a target mean arterial pressure value of 75 mmHg, cardiac output, skeletal muscle PtiO2, lactate/pyruvate ratio and cumulative doses of adrenaline were recorded. Non-treated rats died within 15 minutes. The target mean arterial pressure value was reached faster with AD+HES (median: 10 minutes, range: 7.5 to 12.5 minutes) and AD+IS (median: 17.5 minutes, range: 5 to 25 minutes) versus adrenaline alone (median: 25 minutes, range: 20-30 minutes). There were also reduced adrenaline requirements in these groups. The skeletal muscle PtiO2 was restored only in the AD+HES group. Although direct extrapolation to humans should be made with caution, our results support the combined use of adrenaline and volume expansion for resuscitation from anaphylactic shock. When used with adrenaline the most effective fluid was hydroxyethyl starch, whereas hypertonic saline was the least effective.

  14. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  15. How close we are to achieving commercially viable large-scale photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria: a review of the biological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-03-18

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production.

  16. Utilization and incorporation of tumor volume data in staging and prognostication of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with definitive radiotherapy: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Ahlawat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC are a group of heterogeneous tumors, evident by their diverse behavior and natural history. The largest diameter of tumor measured for T classification may not necessarily reflect the true tumor dimension. There is a need to take into account certain other feature(s of these tumors other than the maximum single dimension which can reflect the true tumor burden more accurately. Tumor volume has been shown to be a useful and accurate tool burden because it is a measurement of tumor burden in all three dimensions. This review article has compiled and reviewed the literature published in past on impact of tumor volumes (TVs on the prognosis of head and neck cancers. A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed for terms "clonogens," "TV" or "primary TV (PTV" or "nodal volume" or "total TV (TTV" or "volumetric analysis of TV in head and neck" or "predicting response in head and neck cancer" "prognostic factors head and neck cancers" and "outcome in head and neck cancer." We identified 33 studies which have commented on the impact of TV in HNSCC on treatment outcome, 9 of these had analyzed PTV, 11 studies had analyzed total nodal volume, and 14 studies have analyzed TTV. Besides these, we have dealt with laryngeal cancers separately with 9 studies. This review article is also aimed to enhance our knowledge further regarding how best a physician can incorporate TV data in staging and predicting response to radiotherapy.

  17. The effects of contrast media volume on acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Podboy, Alexander J; Gillaspie, Erin A; Greason, Kevin L; Kashani, Kianoush B

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this systematic review was to assess the effects of contrast media volume on transcatheter aortic valve replacement-related acute kidney injury. A literature search was performed using Medline, EMbase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and clinicaltrials.gov from the inception of these databases through December 2015. Studies that reported relative risk, odds ratio, or hazard ratio comparing the risks of acute kidney injury following transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients who received high contrast media volume were included. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Four cohort studies composed of 891 patients were included in the analyses to assess the risk of acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients who received high contrast media volume. The pooled RR of acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients who received a large volume of contrast media was 1.41 (95% CI, 0.87 to 2.28) compared with low contrast media volume. The meta-analysis was limited to studies using standard acute kidney injury definitions, and the pooled RR of acute kidney injury in patients who received high contrast media volume is 1.12 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.62). Our meta-analysis shows no significant association between contrast media volume and risk of acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application

  19. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A. [Morgan, Lewis and Bockius, Washington, DC (United States); Baird, R.D. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application.

  20. Multivariate volume rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  1. The effects of the glass surface area/solution volume ratio on glass corrosion: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-03-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SA/V) ratio on the corrosion behavior of borosilicate waste glasses. The SA/V ratio affects the rate of glass corrosion through the extent of dilution of corrosion products released from the glass into the leachate solution: glass corrosion products are diluted more in tests conducted at low SA/V ratios than they are in tests conducted at high SA/V ratios. Differences in the solution chemistries generated in tests conducted at different SA/V ratios then affect the observed glass corrosion behavior. Therefore, any testing parameter that affects the solution chemistry will also affect the glass corrosion rate. The results of static leach tests conducted to assess the effects of the SA/V are discussed with regard to the effects of SA/V on the solution chemistry. Test results show several remaining issues with regard to the long-term glass corrosion behavior: can the SA/V ratio be used as an accelerating parameter to characterize the advanced stages of glass corrosion relevant to long disposal times; is the alteration of the glass surface the same in tests conducted at different SA/V, and in tests conducted with monolithic and crushed glass samples; what are the effects of the SA/V and the extent of glass corrosion on the disposition of released radionuclides? These issues will bear on the prediction of the long-term performance of waste glasses during storage. The results of an experimental program conducted at ANL to address these and other remaining issues regarding the effects of SA/V on glass corrosion are described. 288 refs., 59 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Achievements and Challenges in the Science of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Balogh, André; Gombosi, Tamas; Veronig, Astrid; von Steiger, Rudolf

    2017-11-01

    In June 2016 a group of 40 space weather scientists attended the workshop on Scientific Foundations of Space Weather at the International Space Science Institute in Bern. In this lead article to the volume based on the talks and discussions during the workshop we review some of main past achievements in the field and outline some of the challenges that the science of space weather is facing today and in the future.

  3. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  4. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  5. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 4: peer review comments on technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume IV includes copies of all the external peer review comments on the report distributed for review in July 1997.

  6. Office of Technology Development's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation Mid-Year Program Review. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document, Volume 2, presents brief summaries of programs being investigated at USDOE sites for waste processing, remedial action, underground storage tank remediation, and robotic applications in waste management

  7. Office of Technology Development`s Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation Mid-Year Program Review. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document, Volume 2, presents brief summaries of programs being investigated at USDOE sites for waste processing, remedial action, underground storage tank remediation, and robotic applications in waste management.

  8. Tidal volume and mortality in mechanically ventilated children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Pauline; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; van Heerde, Marc; Albers, Marcel J I J; Markhorst, Dick G; Kneyber, Martin C J

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether tidal volume is associated with mortality in critically ill, mechanically ventilated children. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases from inception until July 2013 and bibliographies of included studies without language restrictions. Randomized clinical trials and observational studies reporting mortality in mechanically ventilated PICU patients. Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data on study methodology, quality, and patient outcomes. Meta-analyses were performed using the Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model. Heterogeneity was quantified using I. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Score for cohort studies. Out of 142 citations, seven studies met the inclusion criteria, and additional two articles were identified from references of the found articles. One was excluded. These eight studies included 1,756 patients. Mortality rates ranged from 13% to 42%. There was no association between tidal volume and mortality when tidal volume was dichotomized at 7, 8, 10, or 12 mL/kg. Comparing patients ventilated with tidal volume less than 7 mL/kg and greater than 10 mL/kg or greater than 12 mL/kg and tidal volume less than 8 mL/kg and greater than 10 mL/kg or greater than 12 mL/kg also showed no association between tidal volume and mortality. Limiting the analysis to patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome did not change these results. Heterogeneity was observed in all pooled analyses. A relationship between tidal volume and mortality in mechanically ventilated children could not be identified, irrespective of the severity of disease. The significant heterogeneity observed in the pooled analyses necessitates future studies in well-defined patient populations to understand the effects of tidal volume on patient outcome.

  9. Increased single-balloon Foley catheter volume for induction of labor and time to delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Corina N; Saccone, Gabriele; Backley, Sami; Sandberg, Evelien M; Gu, Ning; Delaney, Shani; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2018-04-01

    Induction of labor is a common intervention. The objective was to investigate whether larger Foley catheter volumes for labor induction decrease the total time from induction to delivery. Randomized controlled trials comparing larger single-balloon volumes (60-80 mL) during Foley catheter cervical ripening with usual volume (30 mL) in women undergoing labor induction were identified by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, ClinicalTrials. gov, PROSPERO, EMBASE, Scielo and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from inception through 2017. The primary outcome was mean time from induction to delivery in hours. Secondary outcomes included time from induction to vaginal delivery, delivery within 24 hours, time to Foley expulsion, cesarean section, chorioamnionitis, epidural use, hemorrhage, meconium staining, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model of DerSimonian and Laird. (PROSPERO CRD42017058885). Seven randomized controlled trials including 1,432 singleton gestations were included in the systematic review. Women randomized to larger volumes of balloon had a significantly shorter time from induction to delivery (mean difference 1.97 hours, 95% CI; -3.88 to -0.06). There was no difference in cesarean section between groups (16% vs. 18%, relative risk 0.84, CI; 0.6 to 1.17). A larger balloon volume was associated with a non-significant decrease in time from induction to delivery in multiparous (mean difference 2.67 hours, CI; -6.1 to 0.76) and nulliparous women (mean difference 1.82 hours, CI; -4.16 to 0.53). Balloon volumes larger than 30 mL during Foley catheter induction reduce total time to delivery by approximately two hours. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Partnerships for Urban Forestry and Green Infrastructure Delivering Services to People and the Environment: A Review on What They Are and Aim to Achieve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hansmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Partnerships are a key mechanism in the planning, delivery and management of urban forestry (UF and green infrastructure (GI. They can facilitate locally rooted co-management and polycentric governance. They can also achieve synergies by combining the resources, commitment and expertise of diverse stakeholder groups in order to generate valuable outcomes and build social capital. Unfortunately, the term “partnerships” is not used consistently in literature and requires clarification. The characteristics which distinguish a partnership approach from other modes of co-operation are identified and described. The diversity of existing UF and GI oriented partnerships is outlined, with reference to their stakeholders, drivers, activities and goals, together with potential advantages of the partnership approach. Considerations to be made in their evaluation are derived from this background analysis and possible success factors are discussed. Materials and Methods: The diversity, aims and defining characteristics of a partnership approach are based on an extensive literature review. Results: Partnerships focus on diverse aspects and delivery phases of UF, ranging from the planning, design and creation of urban forests and GI to their management and use. Benefits delivered by such partnerships include environmental and economic services as well as social and cultural services such as environmental education, health, leisure and tourism. Generating valuable services whilst at the same time nurturing relationships between stakeholders helps to develop social capital and build capacity. In addition to environmental, economic and social benefits, the evaluation of partnerships may also address internal process variables such as social learning, the relationship between partners, and motivational outcomes that can influence future co-operation. Conclusions: Co-operative partnerships offer a promising approach for delivery in UF

  11. Dose-volume analysis of lung complications in the radiation treatment of malignant thymoma: a retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Craig, Tim; Bezjak, Andrea; Dyk, Jake van

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis are limiting factors in radiation treatment (RT) of thoracic tumors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the influence of irradiated lung volume and dose on lung response, and to evaluate the influence of other prognostic factors. Material and methods: Treatment histories of 55 thymoma patients were evaluated retrospectively for radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Complications were scored as pneumonitis if observed within 6 months of completion of RT, and as fibrosis if observed after 6 months. Complications were classified as 'all pneumonitis' and 'all fibrosis' if a patient either showed symptoms (such as chronic cough and dyspnea) or radiographic changes in lung. The second group scored as 'symptomatic pneumonitis' and 'symptomatic fibrosis' consisted of patients that exhibited clinical symptoms. Dose-volume data were estimated using representative anatomies combined with available individual dose data. The Lyman NTCP model was used to assess the dependence of lung complication incidence on dose and volume. Results: The derived values of the parameters governing dose-volume dependence for symptomatic complications agreed with currently accepted and recently published values within the margins of error. Dose-response curves for complications that included radiographic changes were less steep than for symptomatic complications. The volume dependence for symptomatic fibrosis was more pronounced compared to all fibrosis. A strong correlation was observed between developing pneumonitis and developing fibrosis. Conclusions: The long survival allowed the assessment of lung complication data in thymoma patients for both acute and late response. Mean dose in lung strongly correlated with lung complications that manifest clinically. The determination of the dose-volume dependence is affected by the choice of endpoints (i.e. whether complications are scored based on clinical symptoms or radiographic

  12. Normal and refractory concretes for LMFBR applications. Volume 1. Review of literature on high-temperature behavior of portland cement and refractory concretes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chern, J.C.; Abrams, M.S.; Gillen, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive literature on the properties and behavior at elevated temperature of portland cement concrete and various refractory concretes was reviewed to collect in concise form the physical and chemical properties of castable refractory concretes and of conventional portland cement concretes at elevated temperature. This survey, together with an extensive bibliography of source documents, is presented in Volume 1. A comparison was made of these properties, the relative advantages of the various concretes was evaluated for possible liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications, and a selection was made of several materials of interest for such applications. Volume 2 concludes with a summary of additional knowledge needed to support such uses of these materials together with recommendations on research to provide that knowledge

  13. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. volume 7: Review of laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This volume contains a review of the laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments. In addition, it discusses the data selected for the radiological assessment, on the basis of both field and laboratory studies

  14. An automated electronic system for managing radiation treatment plan peer review reduces missed reviews at a large, high-volume academic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Peter E; Woodhouse, Kristina D; Lin, Alexander; Finlay, Jarod C; Young, Richard B; Volz, Edna; Hahn, Stephen M; Metz, James M; Maity, Amit

    Assuring quality in cancer care through peer review has become increasingly important in radiation oncology. In 2012, our department implemented an automated electronic system for managing radiation treatment plan peer review. The purpose of this study was to compare the overall impact of this electronic system to our previous manual, paper-based system. In an effort to improve management, an automated electronic system for case finding and documentation of review was developed and implemented. The rates of missed initial reviews, late reviews, and missed re-reviews were compared for the pre- versus postelectronic system cohorts using Pearson χ 2 test and relative risk. Major and minor changes or recommendations were documented and shared with the assigned clinical provider. The overall rate of missed reviews was 7.6% (38/500) before system implementation versus 0.4% (28/6985) under the electronic system (P review before the automated system. Missed re-reviews occurred in 23.1% (3/13) of courses in the preelectronic system cohort and 6.6% (10/152) of courses in the postelectronic system cohort (P = .034). Late reviews were more frequent during high travel or major holiday periods. Major changes were recommended in 2.2% and 2.8% in the pre- versus postelectronic systems, respectively. Minor changes were recommended in 5.3% of all postelectronic cases. The implementation of an automated electronic system for managing peer review in a large, complex department was effective in significantly reducing the number of missed reviews and missed re-reviews when compared to our previous manual system. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Training volume and soft tissue injury in professional and non-professional rugby union players: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between training volume and soft tissue injury incidence, and characterise soft tissue injury in rugby union players. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. The search strategy combined terms covering: training volume and injury, and rugby union, and players of all levels. Medline, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed. Studies were included if they reported: male rugby union players, a clear definition of a rugby union injury, the amount of training volume undertaken by participants, and epidemiological data for soft-tissue injuries including the number or incidence. 15 studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall match and training injury incidence ranged from 3.3 to 218.0 injuries/1000 player match hours and 0.1-6.1 injuries/1000 player training hours, respectively. Muscle and tendon as well as joint (non-bone) and ligament injuries were the most frequently occurring injuries. The lower limb was the most prevalent injury location. Injury incidence was higher in professional rugby union players than non-professional players. Contact events were responsible for the greatest injury incidence. For non-contact mechanisms, running was responsible for the highest injury incidence. Inconsistent injury definitions hindered reliable comparison of injury data. The lack of reporting training volumes in hours per player per week limited the ability to investigate associations between training volume and injury incidence. A higher level of play may result in higher match injury incidence. Muscle and tendon injuries were the most common type of soft tissue injury, while the lower limb was the most common location of injury in rugby union players, and running was responsible for the highest injury incidence during non-contact events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. A critical review and database of biomass and volume allometric equation for trees and shrubs of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, H.; Siddique, M. R. H.; Akhter, M.

    2016-08-01

    Estimations of biomass, volume and carbon stock are important in the decision making process for the sustainable management of a forest. These estimations can be conducted by using available allometric equations of biomass and volume. Present study aims to: i. develop a compilation with verified allometric equations of biomass, volume, and carbon for trees and shrubs of Bangladesh, ii. find out the gaps and scope for further development of allometric equations for different trees and shrubs of Bangladesh. Key stakeholders (government departments, research organizations, academic institutions, and potential individual researchers) were identified considering their involvement in use and development of allometric equations. A list of documents containing allometric equations was prepared from secondary sources. The documents were collected, examined, and sorted to avoid repetition, yielding 50 documents. These equations were tested through a quality control scheme involving operational verification, conceptual verification, applicability, and statistical credibility. A total of 517 allometric equations for 80 species of trees, shrubs, palm, and bamboo were recorded. In addition, 222 allometric equations for 39 species were validated through the quality control scheme. Among the verified equations, 20%, 12% and 62% of equations were for green-biomass, oven-dried biomass, and volume respectively and 4 tree species contributed 37% of the total verified equations. Five gaps have been pinpointed for the existing allometric equations of Bangladesh: a. little work on allometric equation of common tree and shrub species, b. most of the works were concentrated on certain species, c. very little proportion of allometric equations for biomass estimation, d. no allometric equation for belowground biomass and carbon estimation, and d. lower proportion of valid allometric equations. It is recommended that site and species specific allometric equations should be developed and

  17. Assessment of balance indicators for key fleet segments and review of national reports on Member States efforts to achieve balance between fleet capacity and fishing opportunities (STECF-13-28)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abella, Alvaro J.; Accadia, Paolo; Berkenhagen, Jörg

    The Expert Working Group meeting of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries EWG-13-16 on Review of national reports on Member States efforts to achieve balance between fleet capacity and fishing opportunities was from September 29 – October 4, 2013 in Edinburgh. The report...

  18. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  19. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiteman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three years after publication of volume 2, which was entirely devoted to Bulbophyllum (by J.J. Vermeulen), volume 1 of what should become a complete iconography of the Orchids of Borneo has appeared. Each volume is projected to contain a hundred species, which means that eventually fifteen volumes

  20. Optical Memory Technology Review Held in Gaithersburg, Maryland on June 11 - 12, 1986. Volume 1. Presentation Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    session, in addition to the list of OMTR participants. Review Organizer Local Coordinator Roman Fedorak Jean Freedman Code 5023 Room A61, Bldg. 225 Naval...the US Department of Defense and Federal government. Thank you for your participation. Review Organizer Local Coordinator Roman Fedorak Jean Freedman...Coordinator Roman Fedorak Ms. Jean Freedman Code 5023 Room A61, Bldg. 225 Naval Air Development Center National Bureau of Standards Warminster, PA 18974-5000

  1. EFFECTS OF FOOD ASSISTANCE AND NUTRITION PROGRAMS ON NUTRITION AND HEALTH: VOLUME 4, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Mary Kay; Hamilton, William L.; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a summary of a comprehensive review and synthesis of published research on the impact of USDA's domestic food and nutrition assistance programs on participants' nutrition and health outcomes. The outcome measures reviewed include food expenditures, household nutrient availability, dietary intake, other measures of nutrition status, food security, birth outcomes, breastfeeding behaviors, immunization rates, use and cost of health care services, and selected nonhealth outco...

  2. How does academic achievement relate to cardiorespiratory fitness, self-reported physical activity and objectively reported physical activity: a systematic review in children and adolescents aged 6-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; Santos, Diana A; Hillman, Charles H; Sardinha, Luís B

    2017-10-14

    This report aimed to systematically review the evidence for a differential association between objective and self-reported physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on academic achievement. Systematic review. Studies were identified from searches in Embase, Education Resources Information Center, PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTdiscus and Web of Science databases from January 2000 to December 2016. Eligibility criteria included cross-sectional, longitudinal and interventional study designs. Outcomes included students' school grade or a standardised test or measure of academic achievement. Explanatory variables were cardiorespiratory fitness and objective and self-reported physical activity. Inclusion criteria included school-aged children and adolescents aged-18 years (or students from primary to secondary school when student's participants age was not described) and articles published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. A total of 51 articles met inclusion criteria: 41 cross-sectional, 2 intervention and 8 longitudinal studies. Results from 11 studies were inconsistent regarding the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement. Ten of the 16 articles reported positive associations between self-reported physical activity and academic achievement. From the 22 studies that analysed the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and academic achievement, it was verified that they all generally support the beneficial effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on students' academic achievement. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness may be important to enhance children and adolescents' health and, additionally, academic achievement. Due to a lack of consensus across studies, methodological issues associated with the assessment of physical activity should be considered when investigating physical activity and academic achievement. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  3. Lung Volume Reduction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD AND#8211; An Updated Review of Surgical and Endoscopic Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The conventional medical management of emphysema using bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory agents has a limited benefit in patients having advanced hyperinflation of lungs due to destruction of elastic tissue. The natural course of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD has been shown to be altered by only smoking cessation and oxygen therapy so far. The lung volume reduction surgery is viewed as another modality to change the natural history of emphysema in recent years. For patients with more generalized emphysema, resection of lung parenchyma improves elastic recoil and chest wall mechanics. An extensive literature search has demonstrated that carefully selected patients of emphysema (i.e. upper lobe predominant disease, low exercise capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1 and DLco and #8804; 20% of predicted receive benefits in terms of symptomatic improvement and physiologic response following Lung Volume Reduction Surgery (LVRS. The resurgent interest in LVRS and National Emphysema Treatment Trial findings for emphysema have stimulated a range of innovative methods, to improve the outcome and reduce complications associated with current LVRS techniques. These novel approaches include surgical resection with compression/banding devices, endobronchial blockers, sealants, obstructing devices and valves and endobronchial bronchial bypass approaches. Experimental data and preliminary results are becoming available for some of these approaches. Most of the published studies so far have been uncontrolled and unblinded. Overall, extensive research in the near future will help to determine the potential clinical applicability of these new approaches to the treatment of emphysema symptoms. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 249-257

  4. Re-irradiation after gross total resection of recurrent glioblastoma. Spatial pattern of recurrence and a review of the literature as a basis for target volume definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, Christoph; Elpula, Greeshma [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Gerhardt, Julia; Meyer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Bette, Stefanie; Zimmer, Claus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Schmidt-Graf, Friederike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Currently, patients with gross total resection (GTR) of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) undergo adjuvant chemotherapy or are followed up until progression. Re-irradiation, as one of the most effective treatments in macroscopic rGBM, is withheld in this situation, as uncertainties about the pattern of re-recurrence, the target volume, and also the efficacy of early re-irradiation after GTR exist. Imaging and clinical data from 26 consecutive patients with GTR of rGBM were analyzed. The spatial pattern of recurrences was analyzed according to the RANO-HGG criteria (''response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria for high-grade gliomas''). Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Furthermore, a systematic review was performed in PubMed. All but 4 patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy after GTR. Progression was diagnosed in 20 of 26 patients and 70% of recurrent tumors occurred adjacent to the resection cavity. The median extension beyond the edge of the resection cavity was 20 mm. Median PFS was 6 months; OS was 12.8 months. We propose a target volume containing the resection cavity and every contrast enhancing lesion as the gross tumor volume (GTV), a spherical margin of 5-10 mm to generate the clinical target volume (CTV), and a margin of 1-3 mm to generate the planning target volume (PTV). Re-irradiation of this volume is deemed to be safe and likely to prolong PFS. Re-irradiation is worth considering also after GTR, as the volumes that need to be treated are limited and re-irradiation has already proven to be a safe treatment option in general. The strategy of early re-irradiation is currently being tested within the GlioCave/NOA 17/Aro 2016/03 trial. (orig.) [German] Patienten mit einem rezidivierten Glioblastom (rGBM) werden, wenn eine komplette Resektion (GTR) des makroskopischen Rezidivs durchgefuehrt wurde, aktuell meist systemisch adjuvant behandelt oder einer engmaschigen Nachsorge

  5. Review article: acidity and volume of the refluxate in the genesis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sifrim, D.; Mittal, R.; Fass, R.; Smout, A.; Castell, D.; Tack, J.; Gregersen, H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of mechanisms, other than acid reflux, may be responsible for the symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. AIM: To assess the importance of non-acid reflux mechanisms. METHODS: This review is based on presentations and discussion at a workshop, where specialists in the

  6. Radiological health review of the final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Department of Energy has provided in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) a comprehensive review of the potential radiological impact of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, referred to in the FEIS as, the authorized alternative. The EEG has reviewed this document to determine (a) the changes made in comparison with the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS); (b) the adequacy of the DOE's evaluation of the potential radiological impact; (c) the thoroughness of the DOE's response to the comments of the EEG on the DEIS; and (d) other issues which should be addressed by DOE more fully prior to beginning construction of the WIPP. Based on our review of the FEIS, the Department of Energy has incorporated and addressed the majority of the concerns, questions and recommendations that the EEG provided to them in our August 1979 review of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement on WIPP and the FEIS provides a generally satisfactory evaluation of the potential radiological impact. There are, however, a number of areas that have yet to be adequately treated by DOE and should be acted upon and resolved prior to beginning construction of the WIPP. The more important issues are included and are discussed in more detail in our December 8, 1980 and January 15, 1981 comments on the FEIS

  7. Review of Part 67 of the Federal Air Regulations and the Medical Certification of Civilian Airmen. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    spasm 6. Radiation esophagitis 7. Reflux esophagitis not controlled by medical treatment o Nondisqualifying conditions are: 1. Peptic esophagitis...committees, whose charge was to review the diagnoses and treatments of diseases and disorders that may affect flight safety, also discussed risk factors for...schizoaffective disorder and atypical psycho3, infantile autism, childhood onset pervasive developmental disorder, and atypical pervasive devvlopmental

  8. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    This book is sequel to Volume 14A, Tropical Forest Ecosystems, structure and function. Whereas the first volume deals with system ecological aspects such as community organization and processes, the present volume concentrates on biogeographical aspects such as species composition, diversity, and

  9. Hermann Emil Fischer: Life and Achievements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 7. Hermann Emil Fischer: Life and Achievements. G Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 16 Issue 7 July 2011 pp 606-618. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/07/0606-0618 ...

  10. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal field magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 46, CPDR review package. Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.M. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1995-08-18

    This preliminary design reviews the overall design package for the magnet system. It is mostly presented in viewgraphs. The lengthy presentation took up two full days. Sections are given on TF SDD, TF magnet specifications, TF interface definition, drawing tree and design control, winding pack design, manufacturing, coil setup for VPI, TPX TF magnet assembly, TF materials and processes, quality assurance and test requirements, coil verification testing, TPX acceptance tools, and planning tools.

  11. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 3: Space power and thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings from the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft integrated technology plan on thermal power and thermal management are presented. Topics covered include: space energy conversion research and technology; space photovoltaic energy conversion; chemical energy conversion and storage; thermal energy conversion; power management; thermal management; space nuclear power; high capacity power; surface power and thermal management; space platforms power and thermal management; and project SELENE

  12. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 3: Space power and thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings from the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft integrated technology plan on thermal power and thermal management are presented. Topics covered include: space energy conversion research and technology; space photovoltaic energy conversion; chemical energy conversion and storage; thermal energy conversion; power management; thermal management; space nuclear power; high capacity power; surface power and thermal management; space platforms power and thermal management; and project SELENE.

  13. Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation (5th). Volume 1B. Supporting Appendixes to Uniformed Services Retirement System (H-N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    d - [ln TVAR* - ln EVA ,. (t-1). =SLt - E) Using 1976 data developed in studies of Air Force manhour avail- ability factors, two forms of estimates of...data, and we draw upon these findings to support our own procedure. Hiller (1982) reviews the results of Brunner (1971) and -*." Chow and Polich (1980... Hiller points out, however, Brunner’s results cannot be applied directly to a more general retention analysis that examines with a more diverse DOD-wide

  14. Human-reliability data bank for nuclear power plant operations. Volume 1. A review of existing human-reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topmiller, D.A.; Eckel, J.S.; Kozinsky, E.J.

    1982-12-01

    To assess adequately the impact of human performance on nuclear power plant reliability using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission determined that a human reliability data bank should be developed. Sandia National Laboratories contracted with General Physics Corporation to (1) determine the applicability of existing human reliability data banks to nuclear power plant PRAs, and (2) develop a concept for a human reliability data bank and a program for its implementation. The results of the first task are given in Volume 1 of NUREG/CR-2744, while Volume 2 of the same NUREG contains the results of the data bank concept development task. This report describes a survey and comparative analysis of previous and current attempts to quantify and predict human operator and maintainer performance as a function of design, training, procedural, or situational factors. An assessment was made of these methods and techniques as to their potential applicability to PRA and as a supplement to the data and procedures in NUREG/CR-1278. Five previously established human reliability data banks were reviewed along with five current systems, all of which inlcude estimates of human error related events. The data banks were evaluated against a set of criteria intended to serve as guidelines for an idealized human reliability data reporting, storage, and retrieval system. It was concluded that insufficient data currently exist in these systems to adequately support nuclear PRA activities, and it was therefore recommended that a human reliability data bank specific to nuclear power plant PRA applications be developed. The appendices to Volume 1 reproduce the previously established data banks in their entirety and selected tables from currently existing data banks

  15. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail..

  16. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 77, RBRC SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE MEETING, OCTOBER 10-12, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAMIOS, N.P.

    2005-01-01

    The eighth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on October 10-12, 2005, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Jean-Paul Blaizot, Professor Makoto Kobayashi, Dr. Akira Masaike, Professor Charles Young Prescott (Chair), Professor Stephen Sharpe (absent), and Professor Jack Sandweiss. We are grateful to Professor Akira Ukawa who was appointed to the SRC to cover Professor Sharpe's area of expertise. In addition to reviewing this year's program, the committee, augmented by Professor Kozi Nakai, evaluated the RBRC proposal for a five-year extension of the RIKEN BNL Collaboration MOU beyond 2007. Dr. Koji Kaya, Director of the Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Japan, presided over the session on the extension proposal. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on higher research efforts. In addition, a special session was held in connection with the RBRC QCDSP and QCDOC supercomputers. Professor Norman H. Christ, a collaborator from Columbia University, gave a presentation on the progress and status of the project, and Professor Frithjof Karsch of BNL presented the first physics results from QCDOC. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment

  17. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 77, RBRC SCIENTIFIC REVIEW COMMITTEE MEETING, OCTOBER 10-12, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMIOS, N.P.

    2005-10-10

    The eighth evaluation of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) took place on October 10-12, 2005, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The members of the Scientific Review Committee (SRC) were Dr. Jean-Paul Blaizot, Professor Makoto Kobayashi, Dr. Akira Masaike, Professor Charles Young Prescott (Chair), Professor Stephen Sharpe (absent), and Professor Jack Sandweiss. We are grateful to Professor Akira Ukawa who was appointed to the SRC to cover Professor Sharpe's area of expertise. In addition to reviewing this year's program, the committee, augmented by Professor Kozi Nakai, evaluated the RBRC proposal for a five-year extension of the RIKEN BNL Collaboration MOU beyond 2007. Dr. Koji Kaya, Director of the Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Japan, presided over the session on the extension proposal. In order to illustrate the breadth and scope of the RBRC program, each member of the Center made a presentation on higher research efforts. In addition, a special session was held in connection with the RBRC QCDSP and QCDOC supercomputers. Professor Norman H. Christ, a collaborator from Columbia University, gave a presentation on the progress and status of the project, and Professor Frithjof Karsch of BNL presented the first physics results from QCDOC. Although the main purpose of this review is a report to RIKEN Management (Dr. Ryoji Noyori, RIKEN President) on the health, scientific value, management and future prospects of the Center, the RBRC management felt that a compendium of the scientific presentations are of sufficient quality and interest that they warrant a wider distribution. Therefore we have made this compilation and present it to the community for its information and enlightenment.

  18. Treatment of severe cholera: a review of strategies to reduce stool output and volumes of rehydration fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Severe cholera is a life-threatening illness of hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis due to rapid and profuse diarrheal fluid loss. Emergency life-saving therapy is i.v. saline, optionally supplemented with potassium and alkali to correct the fluid deficit, potassium losses and acidosis. After this initial rehydration, for the next 2 days ongoing stool losses are replaced with oral rehydration solution (ORS), which contains sodium chloride, potassium and alkali together with glucose or rice powder as a source of glucose to serve as a carrier for sodium. In actual field trials, antibiotics are given to reduce fluid requirements, but large volumes averaging about 7 liters of i.v. fluid followed by about 14 liters of ORS have been given to adult patients. Disturbing trends during therapy have included overhydration, hyponatremia and polyuria. It is suggested that stool output and fluid requirements could be reduced, if borne out in future research, by avoiding overhydration by restricting ORS intake to match stool output and promoting intestinal reabsorption of luminal fluid by early introduction of glucose without salts into the intestine, more gradual correction of dehydration, giving mineralocorticoid and vasopressin, and infusing glucose or short-chain fatty acids into the proximal colon. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Technical review of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant non-radiological effluent and environmental monitoring program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    Based on information reviewed in July 1985, Y-12 has some very strong areas such as chain-of-custody forms and compliance work on the new NPDES permit. The recommendations are divided into eighteen categories. Each recommendation is also divided into major or minor categories as an indication of the resources estimated to complete this recommendation. The areas needing the most improvement are air monitoring, QA/QC, field procedures, documentation, groundwater sampling, spill prevention control and countermeasures plan and biological monitoring. Recommendations are tabulated by category and by priority.

  20. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 3. Evaluation of potential for pipe breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-01

    The Executive Director for Operations (EDO) in establishing the Piping Review Committee concurred in its overall scope that included an evaluation of the potential for pipe breaks. The Pipe Break Task Group has responded to this directive. This report summarizes a review of regulatory documents and contains the Task Group's recommendations for application of the leak-before-break (LBB) approach to the NRC licensing process. The LBB approach means the application of fracture mechanics technology to demonstrate that high energy fluid piping is very unlikely to experience double-ended ruptures or their equivalent as longitudinal or diagonal splits. The Task Group's reommendations and discussion are founded on current and ongoing NRC staff actions as presented in Section 3.0 of this report. Additional more detailed comments and discussion are presented in Section 5.0 and in Appendices A and B. The obvious issues are the reexamination of the large pipe break criteria and the implications of any changes in the criteria as they influence items such as jet loads and pipe whip. The issues have been considered and the Task Group makes the following recommendations.

  1. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 3. Evaluation of potential for pipe breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    The Executive Director for Operations (EDO) in establishing the Piping Review Committee concurred in its overall scope that included an evaluation of the potential for pipe breaks. The Pipe Break Task Group has responded to this directive. This report summarizes a review of regulatory documents and contains the Task Group's recommendations for application of the leak-before-break (LBB) approach to the NRC licensing process. The LBB approach means the application of fracture mechanics technology to demonstrate that high energy fluid piping is very unlikely to experience double-ended ruptures or their equivalent as longitudinal or diagonal splits. The Task Group's reommendations and discussion are founded on current and ongoing NRC staff actions as presented in Section 3.0 of this report. Additional more detailed comments and discussion are presented in Section 5.0 and in Appendices A and B. The obvious issues are the reexamination of the large pipe break criteria and the implications of any changes in the criteria as they influence items such as jet loads and pipe whip. The issues have been considered and the Task Group makes the following recommendations

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Gravitation: Following the Prague Inspiration A Volume in Celebration of the 60th Birthday of Jiri Bicák

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerák, O.; Podolsky, J.; Zofka, M.

    2003-10-01

    To a relativist, a time period equivalent to that of 60 orbits of the Earth around the Sun, or 5.676438379482·1019 cm of proper time, may not sound particularly significant. Yet, in our human society, it gives us the opportunity of honouring those we love and respect. Such was the occasion for the publication of this volume in honour of Professor Jiri Bicák of the Institute of Theoretical Physics at Charles University in Prague - a city in which Tycho Brahe and Kepler worked together, and where Einstein struggled to construct his general theory of relativity. An appropriate, but unusual, celebratory event which was organized on the relevant January evening involved an intersection of interesting time-shifted worldlines. A record of this is available at http://astro.troja.mff.cuni.cz/bicak/, which may help in comprehending the preface. Our purpose here, however, is to comment on the more permanent item that was produced for the occasion. It must immediately be stated that this is not a typical festschrift in which leading authorities around the world contribute articles dedicated to an academic colleague. It was a surprise present from past research students to their teacher. It maintains the character of a personal tribute but, basically, the contributions are research papers of the highest quality. The result is a very valuable academic reference. As Bicák would have wanted, this is a substantial contribution to objective science, not a piece of post-modern sentimentalism. Reflecting Bicák's own wide interests, the different contributions to this volume cover specific topics in general relativity, astrophysics, theoretical physics and cosmology. They include original articles and thorough up-to-date reviews. In all cases, detailed mathematical or computational analysis is guided by requirements of physical significance. The first paper is by Dolezel on observations from within slowly rotating voids in cosmological models and their compatibility with Mach

  3. Salvage Treatment for Recurrent Intracranial Germinoma After Reduced-Volume Radiotherapy: A Single-Institution Experience and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Pin-I; Wong, Tai-Tong; Ho, Donald Ming-Tak; Chang, Kai-Ping; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chang, Feng-Chi; Shiau, Cheng-Yin; Liang, Muh-Lii; Lee, Yi-Yen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Intracranial germinomas (IGs) are highly curable with radiotherapy (RT). However, recurrence still occurs, especially when limited-field RT is applied, and the optimal salvage therapy remains controversial. Methods and Materials: Between January 1989 and December 2010, 14 patients with clinically or pathologically diagnosed recurrent IGs after RT were reviewed at our institution. Of these, 11 received focal-field RT, and the other 3 received whole-brain irradiation, whole-ventricle irradiation, and Gamma Knife radiosurgery as the respective first course of RT. In addition, we identified from the literature 88 patients with recurrent IGs after reduced-volume RT, in whom the details of salvage therapy were recorded. Results: The median time to recurrence was 30.3 months (range, 3.8–134.9 months). One patient did not receive further treatment and was lost during follow-up. Of the patients, 7 underwent salvage with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) plus chemotherapy (CT), 4 with CSI alone, 1 with whole-brain irradiation plus CT, and 1 with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The median follow-up time was 105.1 months (range, 24.2–180.9 months). Three patients died without evidence of disease progression: two from second malignancies and one from unknown cause. The others remained disease free. The 3-year survival rate after recurrence was 83.3%. A total of 102 patients from our study and the literature review were analyzed to determine the factors affecting prognosis and outcomes. After recurrence, the 5-year survival rates were 71% and 92.9% for all patients and for those receiving salvage CSI, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that initial RT volume, initial RT dose, initial CT, and salvage RT type were significant prognostic predictors of survival. On multivariable analysis, salvage CSI was the most significant factor (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Protracted follow-up is recommended because late recurrence is not uncommon. CSI with or without CT is an effective

  4. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

  5. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Summary of past work. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings from a review of published documents dealing with research on the environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables used in nuclear power plants. Simulations of accelerated aging and accident conditions are important considerations in qualifying the cables. Significant research in these two areas has been performed in the US and abroad. The results from studies in France, Germany, and Japan are described in this report. In recent years, the development of methods to monitor the condition of cables has received special attention. Tests involving chemical and physical examination of cable's insulation and jacket materials, and electrical measurements of the insulation properties of cables are discussed. Although there have been significant advances in many areas, there is no single method which can provide the necessary information about the condition of a cable currently in service. However, it is possible that further research may identify a combination of several methods that can adequately characterize the cable's condition

  6. Measurement of volume change in cementitious materials at early ages - Review of testing protocols and interpretation of results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Gaurav; Lura, Pietro; Weiss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks, pavements, and superstructure elements has served as the impetus for substantial research on early-age shrinkage in cementitious materials. Much of this research has indicated how mixture proportions, constituent materials, and construction operations...... can be altered to reduce the risk of cracking. Unfortunately, many unrestrained shrinkage-testing protocols do not provide a comprehensive picture of the early-age shrinkage exhibited by cementitious materials, especially those used in higher-strength concrete. In this paper, the authors review...... correlated with one another. This can provide the end user with reliable test procedures to compare different paste compositions and different admixtures and can provide inputs for models that quantify cracking potential....

  7. Defense economics: Achievements and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Hartley

    2007-01-01

    Defense economics is now an established part of economics. This article reviews its achievements as represented by papers published in the research journal Defense and Peace Economics. The range of topics in the journal is reviewed, especially since 2000, and major gaps in coverage are identified. A changing research agenda reflects new developments such as terrorism and international peacekeeping. Gaps remain such as the need for good quality case studies of conflict (e.g., Iraq) and of majo...

  8. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Summary of past work. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings from a review of published documents dealing with research on the environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables used in nuclear power plants. Simulations of accelerated aging and accident conditions are important considerations in qualifying the cables. Significant research in these two areas has been performed in the US and abroad. The results from studies in France, Germany, and Japan are described in this report. In recent years, the development of methods to monitor the condition of cables has received special attention. Tests involving chemical and physical examination of cable`s insulation and jacket materials, and electrical measurements of the insulation properties of cables are discussed. Although there have been significant advances in many areas, there is no single method which can provide the necessary information about the condition of a cable currently in service. However, it is possible that further research may identify a combination of several methods that can adequately characterize the cable`s condition.

  9. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    We review studies on regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and regulatory volume increase (RVI) of major ion and water transporting vertebrate epithelia. The rate of RVD and RVI is faster in cells of high osmotic permeability like amphibian gallbladder and mammalian proximal tubule as compared...... function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  10. Local and Global Illumination in the Volume Rendering Integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Chen, M

    2005-10-21

    This article is intended as an update of the major survey by Max [1] on optical models for direct volume rendering. It provides a brief overview of the subject scope covered by [1], and brings recent developments, such as new shadow algorithms and refraction rendering, into the perspective. In particular, we examine three fundamentals aspects of direct volume rendering, namely the volume rendering integral, local illumination models and global illumination models, in a wavelength-independent manner. We review the developments on spectral volume rendering, in which visible light are considered as a form of electromagnetic radiation, optical models are implemented in conjunction with representations of spectral power distribution. This survey can provide a basis for, and encourage, new efforts for developing and using complex illumination models to achieve better realism and perception through optical correctness.

  11. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The three volumes of this publication contain the results of almost five years of fieldwork over a period of almost 15 years in the Simbu Valley in the Central Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Volume I, ‘The People and their plant-lore’, contains an introduction to the Simbu people, as well as a

  12. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1995-01-01

    CHAN, C.L., A. LAMB, P.S. SHIM & J.J. WOOD. 1994. Orchids of Borneo, Volume 1. xvii + 402 pp., illus. The Sabah Society, Kota Kinabalu, in association with the Bentham-Moxon Trust, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 967-99947-3-2. £ 30.00. Three years after publication of volume 2, which was entirely

  13. A Review of the Cleft Lip/Palate Literature Reveals That Differential Diagnosis of the Facial Skeleton and Musculature is Essential to Achieve All Treatment Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    After 40 years of monitoring cleft palate treatment results with extensive objective records of cephaloradiographs, dental casts, and photographs, it became apparent that patients with the same cleft type who received the same treatment at approximately the same age were obtaining different results. An extensive review of cleft palate surgical, orthodontic, facial, and palatal longitudinal growth studies was undertaken to determine the critical physical difference between these patients that determined why some treatments succeeded while others failed. Treatment should be based on performing staged palatal surgery between 18 and 24 months when the palatal surface area to cleft space size is approximately 15% to 20%. Presurgical orthopedics with a gingivoperiosteoplasty causes midfacial deformities. Even though patients have the same cleft type and have received the same surgical treatment, usually between 18 and 24 months, the ratio of cleft and palatal size of 15% to 20% is critical to obtain good palatal development.

  14. Metrics help rural hospitals achieve world-class performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodspeed, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the emerging trend of using metrics in rural hospitals to achieve world-class performance. This trend is a response to the fact that rural hospitals have small patient volumes yet must maintain a profit margin in order to fulfill their mission to the community. The conceptual idea for this article is based largely on Robert Kaplan and David Norton's Balanced Scorecard articles in the Harvard Business Review. The ideas also come from the experiences of the 60-plus rural hospitals that are using the Balanced Scorecard and their implementation of metrics to influence performance and behavior. It is indeed possible for rural hospitals to meet and exceed the unique needs of patients and physicians (customers), to achieve healthy profit margins, and to be the rural hospital of choice that employees are proud to work for.

  15. Effectiveness of physical activity interventions in achieving behaviour change maintenance in young and middle aged adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jennifer M; Brennan, Sarah F; French, David P; Patterson, Christopher C; Kee, Frank; Hunter, Ruth F

    2017-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions are generally effective in supporting short-term behaviour change, but increases are not always maintained. This review examined the effectiveness of PA interventions for behaviour change maintenance in young and middle-aged adults, and investigated which Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) and other intervention features were associated with maintenance. Six databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Web of Science) were systematically searched. Eligibility criteria were controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of PA interventions with adult (mean age 18-64 years) non-clinical populations using validated measures of PA behaviour at baseline and ≥six months' post-baseline. Results were pooled in meta-analyses using standardised mean differences (SMD) at five time intervals (6-9, 9-15, 15-21, 21-24, >24 months). Moderator analyses investigated the influence of sample and intervention characteristics on PA maintenance at 6-9 months. Sixty-two studies were included. PA interventions had a significant effect on behaviour maintenance 6-15 months post-baseline relative to controls. Interventions had a larger effect on maintenance at 6-9 months (SMD = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.35; I 2  = 73%) compared to 9-15 months (SMD = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.26; I 2  = 70%). Beyond 15 months, PA measurements were infrequent with little evidence supporting maintenance. Moderator analyses showed some BCTs and intervention settings moderated PA outcomes at 6-9 months. A multivariable meta-regression model showed interventions using the BCTs 'Prompt self-monitoring of behavioural outcome' (b = 1.46, p behaviour to 15 months. Greater consideration must be given to how future interventions encourage and measure maintenance of changes, and investigate broader psychological, social and environmental influences of PA behaviour. PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015025462. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Safety assessment of food and feed from biotechnology-derived crops employing RNA-mediated gene regulation to achieve desired traits: a scientific review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Jay S; Brower-Toland, Brent; Jackson, Aimee L; Kier, Larry D

    2013-07-01

    Gene expression can be modulated in plants to produce desired traits through agricultural biotechnology. Currently, biotechnology-derived crops are compared to their conventional counterparts, with safety assessments conducted on the genetic modification and the intended and unintended differences. This review proposes that this comparative safety assessment paradigm is appropriate for plants modified to express mediators of RNA-mediated gene regulation, including RNA interference (RNAi), a gene suppression mechanism that naturally occurs in plants and animals. The molecular mediators of RNAi, including long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA), small interfering RNAs (siRNA), and microRNAs (miRNA), occur naturally in foods; therefore, there is an extensive history of safe consumption. Systemic exposure following consumption of plants containing dsRNAs that mediate RNAi is limited in higher organisms by extensive degradation of ingested nucleic acids and by biological barriers to uptake and efficacy of exogenous nucleic acids. A number of mammalian RNAi studies support the concept that a large margin of safety will exist for any small fraction of RNAs that might be absorbed following consumption of foods from biotechnology-derived plants that employ RNA-mediated gene regulation. Food and feed derived from these crops utilizing RNA-based mechanisms is therefore expected to be as safe as food and feed derived through conventional plant breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    development in the early decade, as defined by the scenario, will produce growth primarily in Battlement Mesa, Rifle, and Grand Junction. By 1985, the population of Battlement Mesa is projected to be 8500, the population of Rifle to increase to 8000, and the population of Grand Junction to increase by 2000 persons. Rangely's population is expected to double in this period, and Meeker will increase to 5200. By 1986, population pressures in the south will accelerate the growth rate of Meeker and Rifle and the entire region will experience a growth surge in 1988 induced by the second phase of construction at the oil shale sites. The regional population influx is estimated to increase to 40 600 by 1988 and drop to 38 300 by 1990. This drop reflects the decrease in construction activity at the close of the decade, as specified by the scenario. Difficulties associated with the appraisal of public service needs are discussed in Sec. V. Conceptual problems in adopting adequacy standards are outlined and methodologies employed by other assessments are reviewed. Sources of disagreement over the cost of public facilities are also described. Using standards developed in 1979 by the Colorado Department of Local Affairs, we estimated that the public capital expenditures implied by the scenario-induced population growth would exceed $190 million over the decade. However, if the costs of public facilities in Battlement Mesa are internalized by the company, the total estimated capital costs would be $135 million. Use of a fiscal capacity model, developed by the State of Colorado, projected municipal revenue shortfalls in the early years of the scenario. These estimated shortfalls would be greatest in Meeker and in Rifle. These findings reaffirmed the conclusions of previous studies, which found that after the critical initial years of capital shortages, revenues would be sufficient to finance operating expenses of local government. Comprehensive fiscal planning, however, is handicapped

  18. Retrograde Wiring of Collateral Channels of the Heart in Chronic Total Occlusions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Safety, Feasibility, and Incremental Value in Achieving Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khand, Aleem; Patel, Bilal; Palmer, Nicholas; Jones, Julia; Andron, Mohammed; Perry, Raph; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Mitsudo, Kazuaki

    2015-11-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on retrograde wiring in chronic total occlusions (CTOs) with focus on its safety and feasibility. We searched publications from 1990 to December 2013 in PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database inserting a number of terms relating to the collateral circulation of the heart in CTOs. A total of 18 case series (n range17-462) with a total of 2280 CTO revascularization attempts fulfilled criteria for a study of retrograde wiring of collateral channels in CTOs. There were no randomized studies comparing a primary antegrade with a primary retrograde approach. Procedural CTO revascularization rates ranged from 67% to 90.6% with a large proportion having previously failed an "antegrade" approach. The septal perforator collaterals and epicardial channels were used in 73.2% (n = 1670) and 21.7% (n = 495) of cases. Although collateral/coronary perforation was not infrequent (n = 90, 5%), serious acute complications were uncommon; in the combined population 18 cases of cardiac tamponade (0.8%) and 3 deaths (0.1%). Septal perforating wiring (79.3%) was significantly more likely to be successful compared to epicardial coronary artery wiring (72.5%) when chosen by the operator as a route of retrograde access to the CTO body (relative risk 1.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.20; P = .013]). Successful retrograde wiring of collateral channels in selected patients undertaken by "CTO dedicated" operators can significantly enhance the chances of revascularization of complex CTOs with a low risk of acute serious complications. Septal perforator channels are significantly more likely to be successfully retrogradely wired compared to epicardial vessels when either is selected, by reference to their anatomical suitability by the operator, as a route of access. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. School Size, Achievement, and Achievement Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. McMillen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the relationship between school size and achievement, a study was conducted using longitudinal achievement data from North Carolina for three separate cohorts of public school students (one elementary, one middle and one high school. Results revealed several interactions between size and student characteristics, all of which indicated that the achievement gaps typically existing between certain subgroups (i.e., more versus less-advantaged, lower versus higher-achieving were larger in larger schools. Results varied across the grade level cohorts and across subjects, but in general effects were more common in mathematics than in reading, and were more pronounced at the high school level. Study results are discussed in the context of educational equity and cost-effectiveness.

  20. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For the 2014 study, "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition," researchers investigated the impact of attending a moderated panel on incoming freshmen's adjustment to college. The panel featured…

  1. Research and development of methods and tools for achieving and maintaining consensus processes in the face of change within and among government oversight agencies: Volume 1. Progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This progress report summarizes our research activities under our consensus grant. In year four of the grant, we continued to capitalize on and benefit from historical events which drove our early emphasis on group process studies. Following our work on various procedures for bringing together groups such as the State and Tribal Government Working Group and the Stakeholders` Forum (both of which provide input to the Five-Year Waste Plan), we continue to observe these groups and collect data. We also began a configuration study involving the complex modeling of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Related to group process studies is the issue of the information requirements for individuals making decisions in consensus groups. Our information studies examined the requirements for decision-related information, frameworks for such information, and the effectiveness of information portrayed for decision making. However, we were able not only to continue studying consensus groups in action and related information issues, but also to focus considerable attention on the fundamental side of our research. The fundamental or basic research conducted in year four included: (1) expanding our literature database; (2) beginning the writing of the literature review summary document and the consensus guide; (3) developing frameworks and models such as the Environmental Trilogy model and a structural equations model of the consensus process; and (4) conducting laboratory studies concerning the effects of the presence of an expert, met expectations, opportunity to express views, incentive structure and conflict type (competitive versus collaborative) on consensus outcomes.

  2. Is computer-assisted instruction more effective than other educational methods in achieving ECG competence among medical students and residents? Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Charle André; Scott Millar, Rob; Engel, Mark E; Shelton, Mary; Burch, Vanessa

    2017-12-26

    Although ECG interpretation is an essential skill in clinical medicine, medical students and residents often lack ECG competence. Novel teaching methods are increasingly being implemented and investigated to improve ECG training. Computer-assisted instruction is one such method under investigation; however, its efficacy in achieving better ECG competence among medical students and residents remains uncertain. This article describes the protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis that will compare the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction with other teaching methods used for the ECG training of medical students and residents. Only studies with a comparative research design will be considered. Articles will be searched for in electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center, Africa-Wide Information and Teacher Reference Center). In addition, we will review citation indexes and conduct a grey literature search. Data extraction will be done on articles that met the predefined eligibility criteria. A descriptive analysis of the different teaching modalities will be provided and their educational impact will be assessed in terms of effect size and the modified version of Kirkpatrick framework for the evaluation of educational interventions. This systematic review aims to provide evidence as to whether computer-assisted instruction is an effective teaching modality for ECG training. It is hoped that the information garnered from this systematic review will assist in future curricular development and improve ECG training. As this research is a systematic review of published literature, ethical approval is not required. The results will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement and will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The protocol and systematic review will be included in a PhD dissertation. CRD

  3. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review....

  4. Naval Law Review. Volume 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    v. Curry, 46 M.J. 733, 736 (N.M. Ct. Crim . App. 1997). 53 See Amy E. Wells, Criminal Procedure: The Fourth Amendment Collides with the Problem of...such as identity theft, fraud, cyber -stalking, and transmitting and receiving child pornography.78 Computers can also be storage repositories for...interests in preventing and punishing criminal behavior that harms innocent members of society, such as hacking, cyber -stalking, drug trafficking

  5. Naval Law Review. Volume 49

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    eight years before beginning to reach out to Vietnamese children of American servicemen; it was 12 years before the Amerasian Homecoming Act passed...wait 12 years before bringing the Amerasian children and their mothers to the United States. The last two chapters in Part One focus on findings...noncombatants: (a) attacking, molesting and killing them (this category includes women, old men, children under 15 years of age, diplomats

  6. Naval Law Review. Volume 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    coverage costs that inevitably follow every spill. They also wish to avoid political and economic pressure placed upon the buyers and sellers of...an unlikely event because any State initiating a cyber attack is not likely to cooperate with an investigation without legal compulsion . For

  7. Naval Law Review. Volume 62

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    USN Commander Warren Record, JAGC, USN Lieutenant Commander Sara J. de Groot, JAGC, USN Lieutenant Commander Nathaniel Gross, JAGC, USN Lieutenant...right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury . . . .”). 34 Blakely v. Washington, 542 U.S. 296, 306 (2004) (citing, inter alia, Letter...Lieutenant Commander Sara de Groot, USN; Lieutenant Commander Hayes Larsen, USN; Lieutenant Peter Ostrom, USN and Lieutenant Laura Bateman, USN 1

  8. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    In this volume the author concentrates on the comparative study of tropical flowers. He gives a practical approach (see Introduction, page 3) to recognize tropical flowers at three levels: a) Organization (‘Bauplan’), with emphasis on history and macroevolution (see Chapter 2); b) Construction

  9. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1970-01-01

    According to Hutchinson this is intended as a Companion or Supplement to the first volume of the 2nd ed. of his ‘Families of Flowering Plants’ (1959), which lacked room for notes on phylogeny or genera with outstanding characters. ‘These are now provided with illustrations of many plants of special

  10. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, van der Raymond

    2001-01-01

    After several volumes of the Plant Systematics and Evolution Supplementum Series dealing with pollen and pollination (Suppl. 5: Morphology, development and systematic relevance of pollen and spores; Suppl. 6: Secondary pollen presentation; Suppl. 7: The tapetum), this special edition of Plant

  11. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1970-01-01

    This volume covers entries from the letters Ph—Re of this Cyclopaedia, which next to entries on plants (457 in all) contains also entries on minerals and animal products. Plants are arranged alphabetically under generic names. The impression is that plants are more lavishly treated in detail than

  12. A Policy Review on The Distribution of Health Operational Aid Funds in Achieving Maternal and Child Health Program (MDGs 4, 5 in Three Districts/Cities of East Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health Policy Regulation Number 494/Menkes/SK/IV/2010 on the distribution of BOK funds to local government is one of the government’s responsibility for the development of public health in improving health promotion and prevention efforts in order to accelerate the achievement of MDGs in Health. The purpose of the study is to provide policy recommendations regarding to BOK in achieving the goals of maternal and child health programs. Methods: Secondary data review of the district health profile in 2009-2011 and analysis on the primary data collected from focus group discussion (FGD with invited technical implementor from district health office and health centers as well as some of the staffs of the local government that handle BOK. Results: The decline in maternal and infant mortality rates are still slow and cases of malnutrition increased from the three profile data review Sampang, Gresik and Sidoarjo. Local governments pay little commitment in developing priority strategies of maternal and child health programs in the form of a local action and innovation plan. BOK preventive promotive activities are lacking of monitoring and accountability controls, especially in health centers located far from the district center. Financial accountability is less precise to the programs and targetes, having seen the data of maternal and child health outcomes KN1-KN4 coverage which rose in 2010, but then fell back in 2011. Conclusion: Evaluation and monitoring are needed on the utilization of BOK funds, supervising the activities by the district/city health office, as well as by local community leaders. Prioritise monitoring the health centers in the area with high MMR and IMR. Suggestion: Needed routine and periodic mentoring and coaching in the form of technical assistance related to the utilization of BOK.

  13. Achievement report in fiscal 1999 on commissioned research project. 'Model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes in Thailand' Project for 1999 Volume 3; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to reuse industrial wastes and effectively utilize them as a petroleum replacing energy resource, and attempt to reduce consumption of fossil fuel in Thailand where increase in discharge of industrial wastes is estimated, a model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes has been carried out. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 1999. Specifically, the project calls for incineration in fluidized bed incinerators of industrial wastes discharged from factories in industrial complexes possessed by the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT), recovery of waste heat from waste heat recovering boilers to generate process steam, which is supplied to the factories in the complexes. The current fiscal year, which is the first current year of the project, has put into order the operations shared by Japan and Thailand, compiled the various procedures and schedules into the form of appendices to the agreement, and executed signing of the agreement. Thereafter, the Japanese side has carried out decision on the specifications of the facilities, the basic designs, the detailed designs of facilities to be arranged by Japan, and the fabrication of some of the devices according to the descriptions of the agreement appendices. The volume 3 summarizes the inspection reports other than those included in the Volume 2. (NEDO)

  14. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Review. J. Astrophys. Astr., Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2015, pp. 433–445. Line Shape Variability in a Sample of AGN with Broad Lines. D. Ilic1,∗, L. ˇC. Popovic1,2 ... ing from. We give here a comparative review of the line shape variability ..... using the mean continuum flux at 5100 Å and the online calculator for luminosity.

  15. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (99) Complete A-Z Physics Handbook Science Magic in the Kitchen The Science of Cooking Science Experiments You Can Eat WEB WATCH (101) These journal themes are pasta joke Microwave oven Web links CD REVIEW (104) Electricity and Magnetism, KS3 Big Science Comics

  16. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Revista alicantina de estudios ingleses

    1996-01-01

    Contiene: Jan Pilditch, ed. The Critical Response to Katherine Mansfield. Critical Responses in Arts and Letters. 21. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996 / reviewed by Ana Belén López Pérez; Edith Wharton. Cartas a Morton Fullerton (1907-1931), (Barcelona, Grijalbo Mondadori, 1995). Ed. Marina Premoli. Translation: Esther Gómez / reviewed by Teresa Gómez Reus; Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth. The English Novel in History: 1840-1895. London and New York: Routledge, 1997 / reviewed by Ángel Pé...

  17. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 9A. Subcontract information. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; water supply and civil engineering subcontracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    Volume 9A considers subcontract work done at the site involving hydrogeological studies with respect to water supply and geotechnical work with respect to the building foundations necessary based on boreholes drilled and the lithology of the area. (LTN)

  18. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-18

    jbiosci. J. Biosci. 42(2), June 2017, 345–353 * Indian Academy of Sciences. 345. DOI: 10.1007/s12038-017-9681-x. Keywords. Angiogenesis; FRG1; FSHD; neuromuscular disorder; RNA biogenesis. Review. Published online: ...

  19. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, George; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three software packages: 1) a package containing 68 programs covering general topics in chemistry; 2) a package dealing with acid-base titration curves and allows for variables to be changed; 3) a chemistry tutorial and drill package. (MVL)

  20. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  1. Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , complications are relatively common and this needs to be considered in patient counseling and clinical decision making. Review: Fertility generally returns after renal transplantation. Approximately 74% of pregnancies in kidney transplant ...

  2. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Revista alicantina de estudios ingleses

    2000-01-01

    Contiene: Villalba, Estefanía. Claves para interpretar la literatura inglesa. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1999,211 p. / reviewed by Eva M. Pérez Rodríguez; Dieter Stein & Rosanna Sornicola (ed.) The Virtues of Language. History in Language, Linguistics and Texts. Number 87. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Pub. Co., 1998 / reviewed by José Manuel Belda Medina; Antonia Sánchez-Macarro and R. Carter (eds.) (1998): Linguistic Choice across Genres: Variation in Spoken and Written English. Amsterd...

  3. Prostate volume change after radioactive seed implantation: Possible benefit of improved dose volume histogram with perioperative steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speight, Joycelyn L.; Shinohara, Katsuto; Pickett, Barby; Weinberg, Vivian K.; Hsu, I. Chow Joe; Roach, Mack

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the changes in prostate volume associated with radioactive seed implantation and identify factors that influence prostate swelling. Methods and Materials: Between June 1997 and August 1999, 161 patients implanted for prostate carcinoma at the University of California, San Francisco, had prostate volume measurements taken at 4 time points (preplan, preimplant, postimplant, postimplant dosimetry). Patient records were reviewed for treatment with perioperative steroids, hormone therapy (nHT), and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). One and 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods were used to test differences in mean effects among patient subsets. Results: A mean 20% volume increase was noted immediately postimplant overall (p < 0.0001), and even with EBRT and/or HT. Steroids were associated with a mean volume decrease of 19.9%, by 3-4 weeks post-procedure (p < 0.0001). Without steroids, only a 3.8% mean change was seen (p = ns). Steroid use resulted in a significant increase in mean dose-volume histogram (DVH) (p = 0.001); however, this benefit was only observed among patients who did not receive steroid. A consistently high DVH occurred with steroid use. Conclusion: A significant decrease in prostate volume and improved DVH are associated with steroid use. The diminished benefit of steroid use and higher mean DVH achieved in later years suggests the existence of a significant 'learning curve' for brachytherapy procedures.

  4. Achieving Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  5. Editorial Volume 6, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martie Gillen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The editorial introduces Dr. Martie Gillen as the associate editor of book reviews and professional profiles for the Journal of Financial Therapy. The editorial overviews the empirical research and theoretical oriented manuscripts along with the professional profiles and book reviews featured in volume 6, issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy.

  6. Ion Channels Involved in Cell Volume Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume...

  7. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  8. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: A systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie A; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-06-01

    To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures. A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, advertising literacy programmes and parental communication styles. Relevant media included TV, internet, radio, magazines and newspaper advertising. No studies were excluded based on language or publication date. Forty-seven publications were included: 19 provided evidence for the results of statutory regulation, 25 for self-regulation, and six for educational approaches. Outcome measures varied in approach, quality and results. Findings suggested statutory regulation could reduce the volume of and children's exposure to advertising for foods HFSS, and had potential to impact more widely. Self-regulatory approaches showed varied results in reducing children's exposure. There was some limited support for educational measures. Consistency in measures from evaluations over time would assist the development and interpretation of the evidence base on successful actions and measures to reduce the volume, exposure and impact of advertising for foods HFSS to children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Achieving excellence in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, A.M.; Solymossy, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Operating a nuclear power plant is a uniquely challenging activity, requiring a high degree of competence from all who are involved. Achieving and maintaining this competence requires excellence in training. But what does excellence mean, and how do we achieve it. Based on the experience gained by INPO in plant training evaluations and accreditation activities, this paper describes some of the actions that can be taken to achieve the quality appropriate for nuclear power plant training. These actions are discussed in relation to the four phases of a performance-based training system: (1) needs analysis, (2) program design and development, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation and improvement

  10. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Adoptees' Educational Achievements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke Fuglsang

    This study analyses educational achievement at age 20 for 3,180 non-kin adoptees and at age 25 for 1,559 non-kin adoptees in Denmark by comparing them to non-adoptees. The study also analyses whether there are within-group differences in the educational achievement of non-kin adoptees according...... to country of origin. The results suggest that the relatively small gap between non-kin adoptees’ and non-adoptees’ educational achievements widens between ages 20 and 25. Moreover, the results show some differences in educational outcomes among non-kin adoptees with different countries of origin....

  12. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  13. Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-19

    Dave Richards and Brian Finch. March 19, 2016, Penguin Random House South Africa, ISBN 978-1775842514, pp. 64, full colour. Price US$10.00/GB£6.70. In this review, I shall attempt to convince readers that ... head and slams her book down as the memory arrives. “Oh no. That bird still sends shivers through me!

  14. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of

  15. A systematic review: effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in patients with a myocardial infarction and in patients with left ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Barlera, Simona; Latini, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: To summarize and quantify results of echocardiographic studies examining the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on left ventricular remodelling in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction...... (LVSD). METHODS: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of eligible studies providing data on end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were performed. RESULTS: Data from 16 eligible studies were meta-analysed. The results of studies including...... patients with MI and preserved LVEF (>45%) showed no significant benefit of ACE inhibition. Results of studies/subgroups with mean LVEF diastolic and systolic volumes of 3.0 (0.1, 6.0) ml and 2.25 (0.04, 4.4) ml in short-term (4-14 weeks) follow...

  16. Safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities. Results of a co-ordinated research project (ISAM). Volume 1: Review and enhancement of safety assessment approaches and tools. Volume 2: Test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    the Safety Guide on 'Safety Assessment for Near Surface Disposal of Radioactive Waste' (Safety Standards Series No. WS-G- 1.1). The report of this CRP is presented in two volumes; Volume 1 contains a summary and a complete description of the ISAM project methodology and Volume 2 presents the application of the methodology to three hypothetical test cases

  17. Highlights of SK Mitra's Life-long Achievements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 7. Highlights of S K Mitra's Life-long Achievements. M K Das Gupta. Article-in-a-Box Volume 5 Issue 7 July 2000 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/07/0005-0005 ...

  18. Oral Insulin – Fact or Fiction? - Possibilities of Achieving Oral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 5. Oral Insulin – Fact or Fiction? - Possibilities of Achieving Oral Delivery of Insulin. K Gowthamarajan Giriraj T Kulkarni. General Article Volume 8 Issue 5 May 2003 pp 38-46 ...

  19. Achievement report in fiscal 1999 on commissioned research project. 'Model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes in Thailand' Project for 1999 Volume 2; 1999 nendo seika hokokusho. Tai ni okeru kogyo danchi sangyo haikibutsu yuko riyo setsubi moderu jigyo - 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to reuse industrial wastes and effectively utilize them as a petroleum replacing energy resource, and attempt to reduce consumption of fossil fuel in Thailand where increase in discharge of industrial wastes is estimated, a model project for facilities to effectively utilize wastes from industrial complexes has been carried out. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 1999. Specifically, the project calls for incineration in fluidized bed incinerators of industrial wastes discharged from factories in industrial complexes possessed by the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT), recovery of waste heat from waste heat recovering boilers to generate process steam, which is supplied to the factories in the complexes. The current fiscal year, which is the first current year of the project, has put into order the operations shared by Japan and Thailand, compiled the various procedures and schedules into the form of appendices to the agreement, and executed signing of the agreement. Thereafter, the Japanese side has carried out decision on the specifications of the facilities, the basic designs, the detailed designs of facilities to be arranged by Japan, and the fabrication of some of the devices according to the descriptions of the agreement appendices. The volume 2 summarizes the inspection reports in the referential materials. (NEDO)

  20. Blog: Review of: Uwe Fleckner and Peter Mack, The Afterlife of the Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg: Volume 12 (Vortrage Aus Dem Warburg-Haus, Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Woodfield

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This volume celebrates the eightieth anniversary of the Warburg Library’s transportation from its home in Hamburg to London covering the years from its move to the late fifties when Ernst Gombrich published Art and Illusion. There are useful and entertaining personal memoires, essays based on the archives and three papers based specifically on Gombrich. The review raises questions that emerge from the collection and argues for more work to be done on the subject as an important episode in intellectual history.

  1. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...... of the secretory pathway and the endosome, while one of them is directly imported from the cytoplasm. The proteases are synthesized as precursors which undergo many post-translational modifications before the final active form is generated. Proteolytic activation by developments in the analysis of the functions...

  2. An ongoing struggle: a mixed-method systematic review of interventions, barriers and facilitators to achieving optimal self-care by children and young people with type 1 diabetes in educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Deborah; Noyes, Jane; Lowes, Lesley; Haf Spencer, Llinos; Gregory, John W

    2014-09-12

    Type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently in younger children who are often pre-school age and enter the education system with diabetes-related support needs that evolve over time. It is important that children are supported to optimally manage their diet, exercise, blood glucose monitoring and insulin regime at school. Young people self-manage at college/university. Theory-informed mixed-method systematic review to determine intervention effectiveness and synthesise child/parent/professional views of barriers and facilitators to achieving optimal diabetes self-care and management for children and young people age 3-25 years in educational settings. Eleven intervention and 55 views studies were included. Meta-analysis was not possible. Study foci broadly matched school diabetes guidance. Intervention studies were limited to specific contexts with mostly high risk of bias. Views studies were mostly moderate quality with common transferrable findings.Health plans, and school nurse support (various types) were effective. Telemedicine in school was effective for individual case management. Most educational interventions to increase knowledge and confidence of children or school staff had significant short-term effects but longer follow-up is required. Children, parents and staff said they struggled with many common structural, organisational, educational and attitudinal school barriers. Aspects of school guidance had not been generally implemented (e.g. individual health plans). Children recognized and appreciated school staff who were trained and confident in supporting diabetes management.Research with college/university students was lacking. Campus-based college/university student support significantly improved knowledge, attitudes and diabetes self-care. Self-management was easier for students who juggled diabetes-management with student lifestyle, such as adopting strategies to manage alcohol consumption. This novel mixed-method systematic review is the first to

  3. Essays on Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  4. Correlates of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Marilyn

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates given a self-concept scale, a sentence completion exercise, and story cues related to academic achievement generally expressed positive attitudes toward success; but students of both sexes with high self-esteem tended to associate success with a male, and those with lower self-esteem attributed success to a female. (Author)

  5. Advancing Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  6. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  7. Utilization and incorporation of tumor volume data in staging and prognostication of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with definitive radiotherapy: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Parveen Ahlawat; Sheh Rawat; Anjali Kakria; Manoj Pal; Deepika Chauhan; Ruparna Khurana; Sarthak Tandon

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC) are a group of heterogeneous tumors, evident by their diverse behavior and natural history. The largest diameter of tumor measured for T classification may not necessarily reflect the true tumor dimension. There is a need to take into account certain other feature(s) of these tumors other than the maximum single dimension which can reflect the true tumor burden more accurately. Tumor volume has been shown to be a useful and accurate tool burden beca...

  8. Investigations on the Sociological Issue of Terrorism. Book review at the volume Sociologia terorismului. Author Maria-Cristina Aboboaie. Iasi, Romania: Lumen Publishing House, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio SANDU

    2015-01-01

    Maria Cristina Aboboaie’s volume called Sociologia terorismului and published in 2014 at Lumen Publishing House aims to pave the way to such approach with sociological specificity, of the terrorism phenomenon itself, and also of the profound speech generated by the phenomenon of counter-terrorism. The sociological perspective on terrorism comes to complete the one of national security, that will outline a vision on the dynamic of the phenomenon, both in its extension and intension. Du...

  9. Achieving timely reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Lee, Chris; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    In the context of child welfare, family reunification refers to the services that are provided for purposes of returning children who have been placed in out-of-home care to their families of origin. Family reunification is the primary permanency goal for the majority of children who have been placed temporarily outside of their homes. This literature review focuses on the federal Child and Family Services Review composite outcome indicator that seeks to measure agency performance related to family reunification. It describes factors at the level of the agency/system, the family, and the child that are associated with failure to reunify. Practices that have been linked with successful family reunification are described, with particular attention to the period between removal from the home and reunification. The review concludes with questions intended to promote discussion about the use of evidence to support the reunification process within child welfare agencies.

  10. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND When Physics Became King This book delves into the history of science since the 18th century. The History of the Laser An interesting read that will teach you far more than its title suggests. History of Physics Selected Reprints A fascinating collection of physics papers spanning four decades. Datalogging set-ups Five great products from Leybold Didactic’s CASSY range. Videocom Measure motion and convert it to graphs with this great device. Basic Raybox This simple piece of equipment offers great performance. WORTH A LOOK Virtual Physics Lab John Nunn’s software demystifies science using clear illustrations. HANDLE WITH CARE Microchem Electricity Kit This box of equipment for introducing electricity lacks quality. Raymond the Raybox A disappointing raybox. The basic version reviewed on p389 is better. WEB WATCH A rough guide to e-learning.

  11. Effect of Neutral-pH, Low-Glucose Degradation Product Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions on Residual Renal Function, Urine Volume, and Ultrafiltration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohanna, Seychelle; Alkatheeri, Ali M A; Brimble, Scott K; McCormick, Brendan; Iansavitchous, Arthur; Blake, Peter G; Jain, Arsh K

    2015-08-07

    Neutral-pH, low-glucose degradation products solutions were developed in an attempt to lessen the adverse effects of conventional peritoneal dialysis solutions. A systematic review was performed evaluating the effect of these solutions on residual renal function, urine volume, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and peritoneal small-solute transport (dialysate to plasma creatinine ratio) over time. Multiple electronic databases were searched from January of 1995 to January of 2013. Randomized trials reporting on any of four prespecified outcomes were selected by consensus among multiple reviewers. Eleven trials of 643 patients were included. Trials were generally of poor quality. The meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model. The use of neutral-pH, low-glucose degradation products solutions resulted in better preserved residual renal function at various study durations, including >1 year (combined analysis: 11 studies; 643 patients; standardized mean difference =0.17 ml/min; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.32), and greater urine volumes (eight studies; 598 patients; mean difference =128 ml/d; 95% confidence interval, 58 to 198). There was no significant difference in peritoneal ultrafiltration (seven studies; 571 patients; mean difference =-110; 95% confidence interval, -312 to 91) or dialysate to plasma creatinine ratio (six studies; 432 patients; mean difference =0.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.00 to 0.06). The use of neutral-pH, low-glucose degradation products solutions results in better preservation of residual renal function and greater urine volumes. The effect on residual renal function occurred early and persisted beyond 12 months. Additional studies are required to evaluate the use of neutral-pH, low-glucose degradation products solutions on hard clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 8: Review of processes near a buried waste canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, F.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and infomation exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report investigates the phenomena arriving in the proximity of the waste package immersed in the sea sediments

  13. Reference Values for Real Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography-Derived Left Ventricular Volumes and Ejection Fraction: Review and Meta-Analysis of Currently Available Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Sergio; Costanzo, Luca; Tamburino, Corrado; Monte, Ines

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) as the reference technique to assess left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF). We performed a meta-analysis to identify normative reference values by real time 3DE in healthy subjects. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library databases using the key search terms three-dimensional echocardiography, volumes, and healthy. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis, and source of variation was investigated using meta-regression. After selection, 13 articles were included (2806 subjects). Four studies were conducted in children and young adolescents; one study provided data in an independent pediatric subgroup. In adults, pooled mean value for LV EDV was 98.4 mL (95%CI, 87-110 mL), while LV ESV mean value was 37.0 mL (95%CI, 32-42 mL). LV EF mean value was 62.9% (95%CI 61.7-64.2%). Male subjects showed a significant increase in both LV EDV index (mean difference 5.3 mL/m(2) ; P < 0.001) and LV ESV index (mean difference 3.3 mL/m(2) ; P < 0.001). LV EF was significantly higher in female subjects (P = 0.003). In pediatric studies, LV EDV pooled mean value was 53.1 mL (95%CI, 38.1-68 mL), while for LV ESV, it was 19.8 mL (95%CI, 14.8-24.8 mL); LV EF mean value was 63.3% (95%CI, 61.6-65%). Significant heterogeneity and inconsistency were noted among studies. Age, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate were identified as a source of between-studies variation for LV volumes. Body surface area was a predictor of nonindexed LV volumes. Data from available studies of normative values for 3DE were summarized. Our findings may increase the generalizability of LV normative data by 3DE. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Achieving timely adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Moore, Megan; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    While family reunification is the primary permanency objective for children who must be placed temporarily outside of their homes, reunification is not possible for all children. For those children who do not return to their parents and cannot find permanent homes with other family members, adoption is the favored outcome. This review examines the composite measure in the federal Child and Family Services Review that measures agency performance related to the timeliness of adoptions of foster children. It summarizes the multiple factors that research has found to be associated with increased risk for adoption delay and disruption. These include child characteristics, family of origin and adoptive family characteristics, and features of child welfare services and systems. Practices that have been broadly linked to adoption timeliness or address risk factors associated with delays in adoption are described, including social worker activities and agency or system-wide practice.

  15. Conference Proceedings: 14th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, March 16-20, 1998. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Review, vol. 129, no. 4, 1963, pp. 1550-1560. 178 Rayleigh Analysis of Novel Dense Medium Exhibiting Narrow-Band Transparency Window Sissy A. Kyriazidou0...consistent with the work of Enders and de Cogan [3] on two-dimensional random- walk models where it is noted that the propagation space comprises two

  16. The One Hundred and First Annual Volume of the Slavonic Review. Looking Back on the History of the Journal from its Founding to the Present Time

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2015), s. 23-37 ISSN 0037-6922 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Slavonic Review journal * Slavs * Pan-Slavism * history of Central, East, and Southheast Europe * history of Slavic Studies Subject RIV: AB - History

  17. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Chagas Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Independent Journal of Management & production (IJM&P features a selection of articles submitted and revised until February 2015. Observed that works are the fruit of research and publications of undergraduate, postgraduate and entrepreneurs. It is important to mention that all the works are showed without any kind of payment. All of them are published free from payments or taxes. The publication also counts on the work of researchers from various parts of the world, which have undergone a process of peer review. As chief editor of IJM&P, I am indebted to all members of the editorial board and reviewers, which contributed to achieving a very decent job during the evaluation and revision. And that has contributed to the Journal in recognition of the international scientific community. And with all the authors, who trusted the results of their research and publications to the scrutiny of editors and reviewers who are part of our Journal.

  18. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Chagas Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Independent Journal of Management & production (IJM&P features a selection of articles submitted and revised until February 2015. Observed that works are the fruit of research and publications of undergraduate, postgraduate and entrepreneurs. It is important to mention that all the works are showed without any kind of payment. All of them are published free from payments or taxes. The publication also counts on the work of researchers from various parts of the world, which have undergone a process of peer review. As chief editor of IJM&P, I am indebted to all members of the editorial board and reviewers, which contributed to achieving a very decent job during the evaluation and revision. And that has contributed to the Journal in recognition of the international scientific community. And with all the authors, who trusted the results of their research and publications to the scrutiny of editors and reviewers who are part of our Journal.

  19. Achievement in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Naomi Moran, a student at the Arnewood School, New Milton, Hampshire was the first recipient of the `Achievement in Physics' prize awarded by the South Central Branch of The Institute of Physics. Naomi received an award certificate and cheque for £100 from Dr Ruth Fenn, Chairman of the Branch, at the annual Christmas lecture held at the University of Surrey in December. She is pictured with Dr Fenn and Steve Beith, physics teacher at the Arnewood School.  Photo Figure 1. Naomi Moran receiving her award (photograph courtesy of Peter Milford). The award is intended to celebrate personal achievement in physics at any level at age 16-17 and is not restricted to those who gain the highest academic results. Schools across the county were invited to nominate suitable candidates; Naomi's nomination by the school's deputy head of science impressed the judges because of her ability to grasp the most difficult parts of the subject quickly, in addition to the fact that she took her AS-level science in year 11 when she was only 16. She is currently studying A-level physics, chemistry and mathematics and hopes to continue her studies at university later this year.

  20. Welcome to pneumonia Volume 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Cripps

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commentary Welcome to pneumonia Volume 2 Cripps, A.W.  Starting a new journal is always challenging as new IT systems are put in place. Thank you to all our readers, our reviewers, those who submitted manuscripts and those whose manuscripts were published, for their patience and generosity in thought.

  1. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  2. Assets and Educational Achievement: Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Economics of Education Review explores the role of savings and asset holding in post-secondary educational achievement. Most college success research has focused on income rather than assets as a predictor, and most college financing policy has focused on tuition support and educational debt, rather than asset accumulation.…

  3. FORUM Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of diets advocating extreme macronutrient manipulation has been reviewed extensively. Studies involving participation for 12 months or longer revealed that diet adherence, length of intervention and level of calorie. ISSUES IN MEDICINE. Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity. Maria Elizabeth Catsicas.

  4. A review of the taxonomy and osteology of the Rhombophryne serratopalpebrosa species group (Anura: Microhylidae) from Madagascar, with comments on the value of volume rendering of micro-CT data to taxonomists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, Mark D; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Andreone, Franco; Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Vences, Miguel; Glaw, Frank

    2017-06-06

    Over the last three years, three new species of saw-browed diamond frogs (Rhombophryne serratopalpebrosa species group)-a clade of cophyline microhylid frogs native to northern and eastern Madagascar-have been described. We here review the taxonomy of these frogs based on a new multi-gene phylogeny of the group, which confirms its monophyly but is insufficiently resolved to clarify most intra-group relationships. We confirm Rhombophryne guentherpetersi (Guibé, 1974) to be a member of this group, and we re-describe it based on its type series and newly collected material; the species is characterised by small superciliary spines (overlooked in its original description), as well as large tibial glands and an unusually laterally compressed pectoral girdle. We go on to describe two new species of this group from northern Madagascar: both R. diadema sp. nov. from the Sorata Massif and R. regalis sp. nov. from several sites in the northeast of the island possess three superciliary spines, but they are characterised by several subtle morphological and osteological differences. The new species are separated from all known congeners by an uncorrected pairwise distance of at least 5.1% in a ca. 550 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. In order to highlight the significance of the skeleton in the taxonomy of this group, we provide a detailed description of its generalized osteology based on volume-rendered micro-CT scans of all described members, revisiting already-described skeletons of some species, and describing the skeletons of R. guentherpetersi, R. coronata, and the new taxa for the first time. Use of volume rendering, instead of surface rendering of micro-CT data, resulted in some discrepancies due to the properties of each method. We discuss these inconsistencies and their bearing on the relative value of surface and volume rendering in the taxonomist's toolkit. We argue that, while surface models are more practical for the reader, volumes are generally a more

  5. NATIC achievement report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements of the MAnufacturing Technology supported by advanced and integrated Information system through international Cooperation (MATIC) ended in March 1999. The MATIC project is intended to develop international information systems to support manufacturing process from design to production through an international network in order to upgrade the manufacturing and supporting industries in Asian countries. The project has been completed by support provided by a large number of Japanese corporations and research institutes, and the counterparts in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. The developed prototype systems cover the three areas of automobile, electronics, textile and apparel industries. Demonstration tests have verified the functions thereof. In the automobile industry field, development was made on a system to link Japanese research and development corporations with Indonesian parts making corporations, and a system to exchange technological data between Indonesia and Thailand. In the electronics industry field, development was performed on an electronic catalog system to link Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. (NEDO)

  6. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  7. Achieving Kaiser Permanente quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Matthew D; Aiken, Linda H; Eckenhoff, Myra E; Burns, Lawton R

    2016-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente model of integrated health delivery is highly regarded for high-quality and efficient health care. Efforts to reproduce Kaiser's success have mostly failed. One factor that has received little attention and that could explain Kaiser's advantage is its commitment to and investment in nursing as a key component of organizational culture and patient-centered care. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Kaiser's nursing organization in promoting quality of care. This was a cross-sectional analysis of linked secondary data from multiple sources, including a detailed survey of nurses, for 564 adult, general acute care hospitals from California, Florida, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey in 2006-2007. We used logistic regression models to examine whether patient (mortality and failure-to-rescue) and nurse (burnout, job satisfaction, and intent-to-leave) outcomes in Kaiser hospitals were better than in non-Kaiser hospitals. We then assessed whether differences in nursing explained outcomes differences between Kaiser and other hospitals. Finally, we examined whether Kaiser hospitals compared favorably with hospitals known for having excellent nurse work environments-Magnet hospitals. Patient and nurse outcomes in Kaiser hospitals were significantly better compared with non-Magnet hospitals. Kaiser hospitals had significantly better nurse work environments, staffing levels, and more nurses with bachelor's degrees. Differences in nursing explained a significant proportion of the Kaiser outcomes advantage. Kaiser hospital outcomes were comparable with Magnet hospitals, where better outcomes have been largely explained by differences in nursing. An important element in Kaiser's success is its investment in professional nursing, which may not be evident to systems seeking to achieve Kaiser's advantage. Our results suggest that a possible strategy for achieving outcomes like Kaiser may be for hospitals to consider Magnet designation, a proven and

  8. Achieving closure at Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  9. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 8: Aerothermodynamics Automation and Robotics (A/R) systems sensors, high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings presented at the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on aerothermodynamics, automation and robotics systems, sensors, and high-temperature superconductivity are included. Topics covered include: aerothermodynamics; aerobraking; aeroassist flight experiment; entry technology for probes and penetrators; automation and robotics; artificial intelligence; NASA telerobotics program; planetary rover program; science sensor technology; direct detector; submillimeter sensors; laser sensors; passive microwave sensing; active microwave sensing; sensor electronics; sensor optics; coolers and cryogenics; and high temperature superconductivity

  10. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 8: Aerothermodynamics Automation and Robotics (A/R) systems sensors, high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings presented at the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on aerothermodynamics, automation and robotics systems, sensors, and high-temperature superconductivity are included. Topics covered include: aerothermodynamics; aerobraking; aeroassist flight experiment; entry technology for probes and penetrators; automation and robotics; artificial intelligence; NASA telerobotics program; planetary rover program; science sensor technology; direct detector; submillimeter sensors; laser sensors; passive microwave sensing; active microwave sensing; sensor electronics; sensor optics; coolers and cryogenics; and high temperature superconductivity.

  11. Rectal cancer surgery: volume-outcome analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline

    2010-12-01

    There is strong evidence supporting the importance of the volume-outcome relationship with respect to lung and pancreatic cancers. This relationship for rectal cancer surgery however remains unclear. We review the currently available literature to assess the evidence base for volume outcome in relation to rectal cancer surgery.

  12. 3-Dimensional Right Ventricular Volume Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jainandunsing, Jayant S.; Matyal, Robina; Shahul, Sajid S.; Wang, Angela; Woltersom, Bozena; Mahmood, Feroze

    Purpose: The purpose of this review was to evaluate new computer software available for 3-dimensional right ventricular (RV) volume estimation. Description: Based on 2-dimensional echocardiography, various algorithms have been used for RV volume estimation. These are complex, time-consuming

  13. NASA Thesaurus. Volume 1: Hierarchical listing. Volume 2: Access vocabulary. Volume 3: Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    There are over 17,500 postable terms and some 4,000 nonpostable terms approved for use in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database in the Hierarchical Listing of the NASA Thesaurus. The generic structure is presented for many terms. The broader term and narrower term relationships are shown in an indented fashion that illustrates the generic structure better than the more widely used BT and NT listings. Related terms are generously applied, thus enhancing the usefulness of the Hierarchical Listing. Greater access to the Hierarchical Listing may be achieved with the collateral use of Volume 2 - Access Vocabulary and Volume 3 - Definitions.

  14. Community psychiatry's achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T

    2014-12-01

    Mental health care in the second half of the 20th century in much of the developed world has been dominated by the move out from large asylums. Both in response to this move and to make it possible, a pattern of care has evolved which is most commonly referred to as 'Community Psychiatry'. This narrative review describes this process, from local experimentation into the current era of evidence-based mental health care. It focuses on three main areas of this development: (i) the reprovision of care for those discharged during deinstitutionalisation; (ii) the evolution and evaluation of its characteristic feature the Community Mental Health Team; and (iii) the increasing sophistication of psychosocial interventions developed to support patients. It finishes with an overview of some current challenges.

  15. Radiation dose-volume effects in the lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marks, Lawrence B; Bentzen, Soren M; Deasy, Joseph O

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional dose, volume, and outcome data for lung are reviewed in detail. The rate of symptomatic pneumonitis is related to many dosimetric parameters, and there are no evident threshold "tolerance dose-volume" levels. There are strong volume and fractionation effects.......The three-dimensional dose, volume, and outcome data for lung are reviewed in detail. The rate of symptomatic pneumonitis is related to many dosimetric parameters, and there are no evident threshold "tolerance dose-volume" levels. There are strong volume and fractionation effects....

  16. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 11B. Process development studies. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; alternative engineering studies; also Kentucky vs Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    During the course of the Tri-State/Fluor Management Meeting held in Irvine on October 1, 1981, Fluor was requested to prepare additional process alternate studies. Discussions held on October 2 resulted in the definition of the eight cases described in this report. The scope for these eight cases were reviewed and approved during a meeting held in Houston on October 12. During the October 12 meeting Tri-State requested the preparation of an additional four cases reflecting the use of a typical Powder River basin coal. Cases 9 thru 12 issued with Revision 1 of this report reflect results of this work.

  17. Recent achievements of SIRGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, C.; Sánchez, L.

    2008-05-01

    SIRGAS is the geocentric reference system for the Americas. Its definition corresponds to the IERS International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) and it is realized by a regional densification of the IERS International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The SIRGAS activities are coordinated by three working groups: SIRGAS-WGI (Reference System) is committed to establish and maintain a continental-wide geocentric reference frame within the ITRF. This objective was initially accomplished through two continental GPS campaigns in 1995 and 2000, including 58 and 184 stations, respectively. Today, it is realized by around 130 continuously operating GNSS sites, which are processed weekly by the IGS Regional Network Associate Analysis Centre for SIRGAS (IGS- RNAAC-SIR). SIRGAS-WGII (Geocentric Datum) is primarily in charged of defining the SIRGAS geodetic datum in the individual countries, which is given by the origin, orientation and scale of the SIRGAS system, and the parameters of the GRS80 ellipsoid. It is concentrating on promoting and supporting the adoption of SIRGAS in the Latin American and Caribbean countries through national densifications of the continental network. SIRGAS- WGIII (Vertical Datum) is dedicated to the definition and realization of a unified vertical reference system within a global frame. Its central purpose is to refer the geopotential numbers (or physical heights) in all countries to one and the same equipotential surface (W0), which must be globally defined. This includes also the transformation of the existing height datums into the new system. This study shows the SIRGAS achievements of the last two years.

  18. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  19. Vietnam: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Tien Duc

    1999-01-01

    The Vietnamese Government's successful development of the National Population and Family Planning Program has contributed in raising people's awareness on population issues and changing their attitudes and behavior regarding fostering small families. It has also been found to be very effective in substantially decreasing fertility level. In addition, economic levels of many households have been greatly improved since the adoption of a renovation policy. The advancement of welfare accompanied by the provision of better basic social services, including health services, has boost people's health. Several factors behind the achievements of the National Population and Family Planning Program include: 1) Strengthening of the political commitment of national and local leaders; 2) Nationwide mobilization of mass organizations and NGOs; 3) A strong advocacy and information, education and communication program; 4) Provision of various kinds of contraceptives; 5) Effective management of the program by priority; and 6) Support of the international community. Despite such successes, Vietnam is facing a number of new issues such as enlargement of the work force, shifting migration patterns and accelerating urbanization, aging of population, and change of household structure. Nevertheless, the Government of Vietnam is preparing a New Population Strategy aimed to address these issues.

  20. Study strategies and beliefs about learning as a function of academic achievement and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jason; Toftness, Alexander R; Armstrong, Patrick I; Carpenter, Shana K; Manz, Carly L; Coffman, Clark R; Lamm, Monica H

    2018-05-01

    Prior research by Hartwig and Dunlosky [(2012). Study strategies of college students: Are self-testing and scheduling related to achievement? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(1), 126-134] has demonstrated that beliefs about learning and study strategies endorsed by students are related to academic achievement: higher performing students tend to choose more effective study strategies and are more aware of the benefits of self-testing. We examined whether students' achievement goals, independent of academic achievement, predicted beliefs about learning and endorsement of study strategies. We administered Hartwig and Dunlosky's survey, along with the Achievement Goals Questionnaire [Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 501-519] to a large undergraduate biology course. Similar to results by Hartwig and Dunlosky, we found that high-performing students (relative to low-performing students) were more likely to endorse self-testing, less likely to cram, and more likely to plan a study schedule ahead of time. Independent of achievement, however, achievement goals were stronger predictors of certain study behaviours. In particular, avoidance goals (e.g., fear of failure) coincided with increased use of cramming and the tendency to be driven by impending deadlines. Results suggest that individual differences in student achievement, as well as the underlying reasons for achievement, are important predictors of students' approaches to studying.

  1. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 2: PSA LOCA data base. Review of methods for LOCA evaluation since the WASH-1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S.; Tomic, B.; Lydell, B.

    1996-09-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has undertaken a project to establish a comprehensive passive components database, validate failure rate parameter estimates and model framework for enhancement of integrating passive components failures in existing PSAs. Phase 1 of the project produced a relational database on worldwide piping system failure. Approx. 2300 failure events allowed for data exploration in Phase 2 to develop a sound basis for PSA treatment of piping system failure. In addition, a comprehensive review of the current consideration of LOCA in PSA and of all available literature in this area was undertaken. This report is devoted to identification of treatment of LOCA in PSAs. The report contains a detailed review of many programs and dozens of specific PSA studies for different reactor types. This collection and analysis of information together with information for the relational database was used to develop a matrix approach on contribution to LOCA events from different components which are part of the reactor coolant system pressure boundary. The overall conclusion of the work is that although there are some further developments in this area, there is still no significant enhancement of ways how LOCA are considered in PSAs as compared to the mid 70s, only selected studies attempted to address LOCAs in a more comprehensive way. Later phases of this project are expected to contribute to enhancement of treatment of LOCA events in PSA studies. 54 refs, 25 tabs

  2. Achievements in scalp reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Nicole M; Futran, Neal D

    2014-04-01

    Reconstruction of scalp defects remains a challenge. This article reviews the reconstructive options and provides recommendations for scalp restoration based on current literature. It is difficult to apply the standard reconstructive ladder to scalp defects due to the scalp's unique properties and paucity of adjacent tissue. Because of the frequency of large resections and the limited local tissue options microvascular free tissue transfer is a mainstay in scalp reconstruction and has been shown to be well tolerated and reliable with acceptable cosmetic and functional results. With advances in both surgery and anesthesia, increasing numbers of patients are candidates for free tissue transfer. The latissimus dorsi flap is a fundamental flap in scalp reconstruction. Recently, use of the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has risen. The radial forearm (RFF) free flap is also an extremely reliable, thin flap with great pedicle length well suited for the restoration of scalp contouring. Microvascular free tissue transfer provides well tolerated, reliable, functional and cosmetically pleasing scalp restoration in a single surgery. The latissimus dorsi flap, ALT flap and RFF are the three most utilized free tissue options.

  3. Effect of high and low ultrafiltration volume during hemodialysis on relative blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, JJ; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM; Franssen, CFM

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an optimal posthemodialysis hydration status may be difficult because objective criteria for dry weight are lacking. Both relative blood volume changes (Delta RBV) at the end of hemodialysis and Delta RBV normalized for ultrafiltration volume (Delta RBV/UF ratio) have been reported to

  4. SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) a microcomputer-based analysis system for shipping cask design review: User's manual to Version 3a. Volume 1, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, G.C.; Thomas, G.R.; Gerhard, M.A.; Trummer, D.J.; Johnson, G.L.

    1998-03-01

    SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) is a microcomputer-based system of computer programs and databases developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for evaluating safety analysis reports on spent fuel shipping casks. SCANS is an easy-to-use system that calculates the global response to impact loads, pressure loads and thermal conditions, providing reviewers with an independent check on analyses submitted by licensees. SCANS is based on microcomputers compatible with the IBM-PC family of computers. The system is composed of a series of menus, input programs, cask analysis programs, and output display programs. All data is entered through fill-in-the-blank input screens that contain descriptive data requests. Analysis options are based on regulatory cases described in the Code of Federal Regulations 10 CFR 71 and Regulatory Guides published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1977 and 1978

  5. Military Review, December 1991. Volume 71, Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Escobar’s brother, Roberto, and the Colombian Constituent Assembly was a leg- Gustavo Flores , another Medellfn Cartel mem- islative one, and the executive...Herad, 10 February 1987. Session, Executive Report No. 97-34.20 November (Legislative day, 2 Novem- 13. ae 83.ber) 1981..14 . eCc Pirzon Rueda . El

  6. Military Review, April 1992. Volume 72, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    to erating expenses. The government comptroller, take several years to establish an effective police Ruben Caries, who bore longstanding, vindic...Sagan has made this task his lifework. symbiosis between razvedka and strategy, through ex- Moving Targets includes chapters on US nuclear tensive

  7. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This study measured the impact of a difference-education intervention on the academic achievement of first generation college students. The difference-education intervention teaches students how their social class backgrounds can affect what they experience in college. Participants attended a moderated panel discussion featuring demographically…

  8. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  9. Online High School Achievement versus Traditional High School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohm, Katherine E.

    2017-01-01

    The following study examined the question of student achievement in online charter schools and how the achievement scores of students at online charter schools compare to achievement scores of students at traditional schools. Arizona has seen explosive growth in charter schools and online charter schools. A study comparing how these two types of…

  10. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hill, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1995-11-01

    Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is a form of utility regulation that strengthens the financial incentives to lower rates, lower costs, or improve nonprice performance relative traditional regulation, which the authors call cost-of-service, rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. Although the electric utility industry has considerable experience with incentive mechanisms that target specific areas of performance, implementation of mechanisms that cover a comprehensive set of utility costs or services is relatively rare. In recent years, interest in PBR has increased as a result of growing dissatisfaction with COS/ROR and as a result of economic and technological trends that are leading to more competition in certain segments of the electricity industry. In addition, incentive regulation has been used with some success in other public utility industries, most notably telecommunications in the US and telecommunications, energy, and water in the United Kingdom. In this report, the authors analyze comprehensive PBR mechanisms for electric utilities in four ways: (1) they describe different types of PBR mechanisms, (2) they review a sample of actual PBR plans, (3) they consider the interaction of PBR and utility-funded energy efficiency programs, and (4) they examine how PBR interacts with electric utility resource planning and industry restructuring. The report should be of interest to technical staff of utilities and regulatory commissions that are actively considering or designing PBR mechanisms. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Turning the volume down on heavy metals using tuned diatomite. A review of diatomite and modified diatomite for the extraction of heavy metals from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danil de Namor, Angela F., E-mail: A.Danil-De-Namor@surrey.ac.uk [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial, Parque Tecnologico Industrial Miguelete, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); El Gamouz, Abdelaziz [Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Frangie, Sofia; Martinez, Vanina; Valiente, Liliana [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial, Parque Tecnologico Industrial Miguelete, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Webb, Oliver A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of published work on raw and modified diatomites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Counter-ion effect on the extraction of heavy metal speciation by diatomite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selection of the counter-ion by the use of existing thermodynamic data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enrichment of diatomites by attaching heavy metal selective functionalities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Supramolecular chemistry for conferring selectivity to diatomites. - Abstract: Contamination of water by heavy metals is a global problem, to which an inexpensive and simple solution is required. Within this context the unique properties of diatomite and its abundance in many regions of the world have led to the current widespread interest in this material for water purification purposes. Defined sections on articles published on the use of raw and modified diatomite for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from water are critically reviewed. The capability of the materials as extracting agents for individual species and mixtures of heavy metals are considered in terms of the kinetics, the thermodynamics and the recyclability for both, the pollutant and the extracting material. The concept of 'selectivity' for the enrichment of naturally occurring materials such as diatomite through the introduction of suitable functionalities in their structure to target a given pollutant is emphasised. Suggestions for further research in this area are given.

  12. Note-taking Strategies and Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Haghverdi, Hamid; Biria, Reza; Karimi, Lotfollah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is two fold. That is, revealing the significance, underlying theory and findings concerning note-taking in the literature related and exploring, through a survey study, the Iranian professors‘ and students‘ attitudes towards the effect of teaching note-taking strategies on the students‘ academic achievement. To this end, many previous studies were reviewed and we knew that many scholars, conducting empirical studies, surveys and interviews, have highlighted ...

  13. Quantum gravity phenomenology. Achievements and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberati, S. [International School for Advanced Study (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Motivated by scenarios of quantum gravity, Planck-suppressed deviations from Lorentz invariance are expected at observable energies. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays, the most energetic particles ever observed in nature, yielded in the last two years strong constraints on deviations suppressed by O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) and also, for the first time, on space-time foam, stringy inspired models of quantum gravity. We review the most important achievements and discuss future outlooks. (orig.)

  14. A systematic review of the effect of dietary exposure that could be achieved through normal dietary intake on learning and performance of school-aged children of relevance to UK schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Louisa J; Hillier, Frances C; Shucksmith, Janet; Crawley, Helen; Harbige, Laurence; Shield, Julian; Wiggins, Andy; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present review was to perform a systematic in-depth review of the best evidence from controlled trial studies that have investigated the effects of nutrition, diet and dietary change on learning, education and performance in school-aged children (4-18 years) from the UK and other developed countries. The twenty-nine studies identified for the review examined the effects of breakfast consumption, sugar intake, fish oil and vitamin supplementation and 'good diets'. In summary, the studies included in the present review suggest there is insufficient evidence to identify any effect of nutrition, diet and dietary change on learning, education or performance of school-aged children from the developed world. However, there is emerging evidence for the effects of certain fatty acids which appear to be a function of dose and time. Further research is required in settings of relevance to the UK and must be of high quality, representative of all populations, undertaken for longer durations and use universal validated measures of educational attainment. However, challenges in terms of interpreting the results of such studies within the context of factors such as family and community context, poverty, disease and the rate of individual maturation and neurodevelopment will remain. Whilst the importance of diet in educational attainment remains under investigation, the evidence for promotion of lower-fat, -salt and -sugar diets, high in fruits, vegetables and complex carbohydrates, as well as promotion of physical activity remains unequivocal in terms of health outcomes for all schoolchildren.

  15. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  16. Achieving monospermy or preventing polyspermy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brian Dale Centre for Assisted Fertilization, Naples, Italy Abstract: Images of sea urchin oocytes with hundreds of spermatozoa attached to their surface have fascinated scientists for over a century and led to the idea that oocytes have evolved mechanisms to allow the penetration of one spermatozoon while repelling supernumerary spermatozoa. Popular texts have extrapolated this concept, to the mammals and amphibians, and in many cases to include all the Phyla. Here, it is argued that laboratory experiments, using sea urchin oocytes deprived of their extracellular coats and inseminated at high densities, are artifactual and that the experiments leading to the idea of a fast block to polyspermy are flawed. Under natural conditions, the number of spermatozoa at the site of fertilization is extremely low, compared with the numbers generated. The sperm:oocyte ratio is regulated first by dilution in externally fertilizing species and the female reproductive tract in those with internal fertilization, followed by a bottleneck created by the oocytes extracellular coats. In order to progress to the oocyte plasma membrane, the fertilizing spermatozoon must encounter and respond to a correct sequence of signals from the oocytes extracellular coats. Those that do not, are halted in their progression by defective signaling and fall to the wayside. Final success and entry is finely tuned by the spermatozoon anchoring to an actin-rich predetermined site on the plasma membrane. In this review, the variation in the form, function, and number of gametes produced across the animal kingdom and the many ways in which sperm–oocyte interactions are regulated to reduce numbers are discussed. Since in nature, final sperm:oocyte ratios approach unity it would appear that selective pressures have favored the achievement of monospermy, rather than the evolution of polyspermy preventing mechanisms. Keywords: monospermy, natural conditions, polyspermy, laboratory

  17. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  18. Efficiency of quantum volume hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, D. V.; Sokolov, I. V.

    2012-11-01

    We discuss storage and retrieval efficiency of parallel spatially multimode quantum memory for light - quantum volume hologram. The introduced in [D.V. Vasyliev, I.V. Sokolov, E.S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. A 81, 020302(R) (2010)] scheme is based on the counter-propagating (non-collinear in general case) quantum signal wave and strong classical reference wave in presence of the Raman-type off-resonant interaction with atomic spins rotating in the magnetic field. By the forward-propagating retrieval the quantum volume hologram is less sensitive to diffraction [D.V. Vasyliev, I.V. Sokolov, E.S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. A 81, 020302(R) (2010)] and therefore is capable of achieving high density of storage of spatial modes. We propose to use for the forward-propagating retrieval the signal temporal eigenmodes of the whole write-in and readout memory cycle. As compared to the approach when there are used the eigenmodes optimal only for the write-in stage of the memory, our proposal allows for better efficiencies for given physical parameters of the scheme, and, hence, for higher quantum capacity of parallel quantum memory. We also demonstrate that for the backward-propagating retrieval of quantum volume hologram the collective spin wave momentum inversion is needed, which is achieved by means of the π-pulse of stimulated Raman scattering of counter-propagating classical waves.

  19. Factors that affect South African Reading Literacy Achievement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education, Volume 34, Number 3, August 2014. 1. Art. # 838 ... strategies is identified as a significant predictor of reading literacy achievement, instruction of which should form an integral ... implies that readers bring with them and apply a repertoire of knowledge, skills, cognitive and metacognitive.

  20. Promoting Achievement for African American Males through Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Deryl F.; Bradbury-Bailey, Mary E.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe how the effective use of groups can promote academic achievement for adolescent African American males. Literature regarding adolescents' and African Americans' experience with groups is reviewed. The authors provide information on academic disidentification and achievement gaps, both critical to understanding the problem of…

  1. The Interdependence of Principal School Leadership and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehner, David; Ryan, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This review illuminated principal school leadership as a variable that impacted achievement. The principal as school leader and manager was explored because these roles were thought to impact student achievement both directly and indirectly. Specific principal leadership behaviors and principal effectiveness were explored as variables potentially…

  2. Ethiopian New Public Universities: Achievements, Challenges and Illustrative Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deuren, Rita; Kahsu, Tsegazeab; Mohammed, Seid; Woldie, Wondimu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyze and illustrate achievements and challenges of Ethiopian higher education, both at the system level and at the level of new public universities. Design/methodology/approach: Achievements and challenges at the system level are based on literature review and secondary data. Illustrative case studies are based on…

  3. Achievements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    A historic decision was taken by the Preparatory Commission of the International Seabed Authority (PRE-PCOM) on 17 th August 1987 It was decided to allocate to India exclusive rights for the exploration of polymetallic nodules in an area of about...

  4. Review: Tarek Badawia (2002. "Der dritte Stuhl" – Eine Grounded-Theory-Studie zum kreativen Umgang bildungserfolgreicher Immigrantenjugendlicher mit kultureller Differenz [How Immigrant Young People with a High Educational Achievement Develop a Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Koch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarek BADAWIA describes in his thesis how immigrant young people with a high level of educational achievement develop a new strategy of handling two different cultures. By using focused interviews BADAWIA generates the theory of the "third chair". The author paints a picture showing how the young immigrants interviewed create a new cross-cultural identity out of both of their cultures. By doing this they are no longer "sitting between two chairs." With this theory BADAWIA follows recent developments within intercultural educational research. What is new in this study is that BADAWIA asks the young immigrant people themselves and that he focuses in particular on their way of creating and handling their life. Unfortunately, BADAWIA uses a very complicated and artificial language. Nevertheless, the study is worth reading because it opens an authentic view of the environment of juvenile immigrants. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401115

  5. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  6. Best-practices guidelines for L2PSA development and applications. Volume 1 - General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimond, E.; Pichereau, F.; Durin, T.; Rahni, N.; Loeffler, H.; Roesch, O.; Lajtha, G.; Santamaria, C.S.; Dienstbier, J.; Rydl, A.; Holmberg, J.E.; Lindholm, I.; Maennistoe, I.; Pauli, E.M.; Dirksen, G.; Grindon, L.; Peers, K.; Bassi, C.; Hulqvist, G.; Parozzi, F.; Polidoro, F.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Brinkman, H.; Seidel, A.; Schubert, B.; Wohlstein, R.; Guentay, S.; Oury, L.; Ngatchou, C.; Siltanen, S.; Niemela, I.; Routamo, T.; Vincon, L.; Helstroem, P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this coordinated action was to develop best practice guidelines for the performance and application of Level 2 PSA with a view to achieve harmonisation at EU level and to allow a meaningful and practical uncertainty evaluation in a Level 2 PSA. Specific relationships with communities in charge of nuclear reactor safety (utilities, safety authorities, vendors, and research or services companies) have been established in order to define the current needs in terms of guidelines for Level 2 PSA development and application. An international workshop was organised in Hamburg, with the support of VATTENFALL, in November 2008. The Level 2 PSA experts from ASAMPSA2 project partners have proposed some guidelines for the development and application of L2PSA based on their experience, open literature, and on information available from international cooperation (EC Severe Accident network of Excellence - SARNET, IAEA standards, OECD-NEA publications and workshop). There are a large number of technical issues addressed in the guideline which are not all covered with the same level of detail in the first version of the guideline. This version was submitted for external review in November 2010 by severe accident and PSA experts (especially from SARNET and OECD-NEA members). The feedback of the external review will be dis cussed during an international open works hop planned for March 2011 and all outcomes will be taken into consideration in the final version of this guideline (June 2011). The guideline includes 3 volumes: - Volume 1 - General considerations on L2PSA. - Volume 2 - Technical recommendations for Gen II and III reactors. - Volume 3 - Specific considerations for future reactors (Gen IV). The recommendations formulated in the guideline should not be considered as 'mandatory' but should help Level 2 PSA developers to achieve high quality studies with limited time and resources. It may also help Level 2 PSA reviewers by positioning one specific

  7. Voxels: volume-enclosing microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagler, Rob; Bugacov, Alejandro; Koel, Bruce E; Will, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results on the development and fabrication of hollow 3D, programmable-volume, micro-scale, artificial, non-biological volume cells or voxels. The standardized silicon wafer processing method PolyMUMPs® was used to construct a variety of polysilicon devices capable of being folded from two-dimensional shapes into three-dimensional regular solids with dimensions in the order of 40–80 µm per side. Folding of the devices was performed by a combination of magnetic and surface tension forces in water. Complete closure of pyramidal structures with dimensions down to 40 µm per side was achieved, as well as folding of five-sided boxes and half-dodecahedrons (lotuses) with dimensions down to 40 µm per side

  8. Voxels: volume-enclosing microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagler, Rob; Bugacov, Alejandro; Koel, Bruce E.; Will, Peter M.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents results on the development and fabrication of hollow 3D, programmable-volume, micro-scale, artificial, non-biological volume cells or voxels. The standardized silicon wafer processing method PolyMUMPs® was used to construct a variety of polysilicon devices capable of being folded from two-dimensional shapes into three-dimensional regular solids with dimensions in the order of 40-80 µm per side. Folding of the devices was performed by a combination of magnetic and surface tension forces in water. Complete closure of pyramidal structures with dimensions down to 40 µm per side was achieved, as well as folding of five-sided boxes and half-dodecahedrons (lotuses) with dimensions down to 40 µm per side.

  9. Achievements and Challenges in Molecular Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Fukuyama

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular solids are generally highly insulating. The creation of conducting molecular solids proved to be a major scientific challenge. As in the case of Si technology, the challenge started as impurity doping in band insulators and then developed into highly doped polymers, which are not crystalline. More conducting materials in crystalline forms have been realized in charge transfer (CT complexes with two different kinds of molecules, where electrons are transferred between them in solids. In such CT complexes, not only conducting, but also even superconducting systems were achieved in 1980 and today more than 100 different superconductors are known. The most remarkable achievement in this direction was the realization of a truly metallic state in molecular solids based on a single kind of molecule. These are called single component molecular metals (SCMM and consist of a rich variety of electronic properties. In these conducting molecular solids, CT and SCMM, many interesting electronic properties resulting from mutual Coulomb interactions and electron-phonon interactions have been explored so far, and these will be reviewed briefly in this article from a theoretical viewpoint. Challenges to come, based on these achievements, are also discussed at the end of this review.

  10. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 2001 Annual Update (Volumes I and II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, B.

    2001-04-30

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity scheduled milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information.

  11. Lung-Protective Ventilation With Low Tidal Volumes and the Occurrence of Pulmonary Complications in Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Ary Serpa; Simonis, Fabienne D; Barbas, Carmen S V; Biehl, Michelle; Determann, Rogier M; Elmer, Jonathan; Friedman, Gilberto; Gajic, Ognjen; Goldstein, Joshua N; Linko, Rita; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Roselaine; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Wolthuis, Esther K; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-10-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes is standard of care for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this individual patient data analysis was to determine the association between tidal volume and the occurrence of pulmonary complications in ICU patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome and the association between occurrence of pulmonary complications and outcome in these patients. Individual patient data analysis. ICU patients not fulfilling the consensus criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome at the onset of ventilation. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume. The primary endpoint was development of a composite of acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia during hospital stay. Based on the tertiles of tidal volume size in the first 2 days of ventilation, patients were assigned to a "low tidal volume group" (tidal volumes ≤ 7 mL/kg predicted body weight), an "intermediate tidal volume group" (> 7 and tidal volume group" (≥ 10 mL/kg predicted body weight). Seven investigations (2,184 patients) were included. Acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia occurred in 23% of patients in the low tidal volume group, in 28% of patients in the intermediate tidal volume group, and in 31% of the patients in the high tidal volume group (adjusted odds ratio [low vs high tidal volume group], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98; p = 0.042). Occurrence of pulmonary complications was associated with a lower number of ICU-free and hospital-free days and alive at day 28 (10.0 ± 10.9 vs 13.8 ± 11.6 d; p tidal volumes is associated with a lower risk of development of pulmonary complications in patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  12. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  13. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  14. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  15. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  16. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Glycolaldehyde also has been used in combination with NFPLP to prepare polymers of human haemoglobin that have a reproducible distribution of molecular...natively, polymeric or conjugated haemoglobin structures can be prepared to produce molecules larger than the tetramer. The products from these more...DERIVATIVES OF CLOFIBRATE Several synthetic agents that are derived from clofibrate and that are similar to bezafibrate have been prepared which react

  17. Naval Law Review. Volume 61, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    63 Taiwan, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines, and Malaysia are each involved in contests with China over offshore... homelessness . 66 On the federal side, when the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) declared on 11 September 2001 that New York City was a disaster...the past both by piracy, collisions, and oil spills.120 The three border states—Indonesia, Malaysia , and Singapore—have attempted to act jointly in

  18. Naval Law Review, Volume 54, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    of us – the teenagers of the 1950’s. Very few talked. Those that did sometimes lied. They were the still young veterans of World War II. They...assault are not gender specific crimes. Throughout this article, however, for the interests of brevity, the author will use feminine and masculine

  19. Annual Review of Anthropology. Volume 8, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 23 essays which provide an overview of the state of the art in the discipline of anthropology, including applied anthropology, archaeology, ethnology, social anthropology, and linguistics. Most of the authors are professors and researchers from departments of anthropology in United States colleges and universities. Topics of the…

  20. Naval Research Reviews, Volume 32, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    N’IINFLAMMAORY DRUGS Figure 3. A ruchludonc aid-proilaugandtin diagrai,. vasodepressor properties in the plasma of dogs in en- substances POE,, PGD . and PG12...problem of the marked compounds affords protectiong. Although not tested, species variation in response to endotoxin. For PGE: and PGD are also likely to...animals offers hope for decreasing the high Ethics and the Role of the Clinico!A Monitor mortality rate of humans in septic shock. Permission to