WorldWideScience

Sample records for achieve cost-effective energy

  1. Greenhouse, energy efficiency and cost effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, B.; Dickson, A.

    1995-01-01

    MENSA, a detailed model of Australia's energy system suggests that policies for overcoming information barriers to energy efficient investment may contribute to cost effectively reducing greenhouse gases by as much as 6 million tonnes in residential and transport sectors by 2000. The model also indicates that energy efficiency policies in these and other parts of the energy system would be insufficient to achieve a pro-rata of greenhouse gas reductions required to stabilize year 2000 emissions at 1990 levels. One cost effective policy involving the early scrapping of existing less fuel efficient motors is reviewed. 2 tabs., 1 fig., refs

  2. Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, Philip [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, Danny [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous United States. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  3. COST-EFFECTIVE TARGET FABRICATION FOR INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOODIN, D.T; NOBILE, A; SCHROEN, D.G; MAXWELL, J.L; RICKMAN, W.S

    2004-03-01

    A central feature of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. The IFE target fabrication programs are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production, and working closely with target designers to make material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable characteristics. Targets produced for current inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about $2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have found a cost requirement of about $0.25-0.30 each. While four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the paradigm shifts in target fabrication methodologies that will be needed to economically supply targets and presents the results of ''nth-of-a-kind'' plant layouts and concepts for IFE power plant fueling. Our engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for laser-driven and for heavy ion driven IFE

  4. Impacts of optimum cost effective energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancic, A.B.; Peters, J.S.; Arch, M.

    1991-01-01

    Building Codes are increasingly required to be responsive to social and economic policy concerns. In 1990 the State of Connecticut passes An Act Concerning Global Warming, Public Act 90-219, which mandates the revision of the state building code to require that buildings and building elements be designed to provide optimum cost-effective energy efficiency over the useful life of the building. Further, such revision must meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 - 1989. As the largest electric energy supplier in Connecticut, Northeast Utilities (NU) sponsored a pilot study of the cost effectiveness of alternative building code standards for commercial construction. This paper reports on this study which analyzed design and construction means, building elements, incremental construction costs, and energy savings to determine the optimum cost-effective building code standard. Findings are that ASHRAE 90.1 results in 21% energy savings and alternative standards above it result in significant additional savings. Benefit/cost analysis showed that both are cost effective

  5. The cost - effective solar energy applications in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines several cost-effective solar energy application in Canada, and estimates the GHG emission reduction potential for each. The applications include: (1) passive solar building design; (2) solar water heating applications; (3) solar photovoltaics for remote power; and (4) solar assisted space heating and cooling in industrial buildings. Each technology is briefly profiled in terms of functionality, cost characteristics, energy production characteristics and potential emission reduction benefits. Real-life examples of each application are also included. Finally, the paper concludes on the potential role of solar energy in the reduction of Canadian GHG emissions. (author)

  6. Lens refracting cost effective photovoltaic solar energy concentrating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilawjian, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    The overall cost reduction task is studied for photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems. For that purpose, a new, cost effective lens refracting system is developed. The concentrating system consists of Fresnel lenses placed under different facet angles refracting the sun light onto the solar cells placed along a line. The developed photovoltaic concentrating system uses the mathematical model of Fresnel lens concentrating optics for photovoltaic systems used to optimize the system by cost. A computer program FLCPVSys2.1 for the new concentrating system is developed allowing to design a photovoltaic system of the required power with the minimum cost. The program can be used for designing a cost effective photovoltaic solar concentrating system

  7. Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEMP

    2016-07-01

    Fact sheet offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  8. Cost-effectiveness and incidence of renewable energy promotion in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Landis, Florian [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Tovar Reanos, Miguel Angel [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raises concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analysis to investigate the cost-effectiveness and incidence of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of renewable energy promotion could be ameliorated by alternative subsidy financing mechanisms which achieve the same level of electricity generation from renewable energy sources.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency programmes. Evaluating the impacts of a regional programme in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suerkemper, F.; Thomas, S. [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, Doeppersberg 19, 42103 Wuppertal (Germany); Osso, D. [EDF-R and D, Site des Renardieres-Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing cedex (France); Baudry, P. [EDF-R and D, 1, Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France)

    2012-01-15

    This paper presents the evaluation of a regional energy efficiency programme implemented in two 'departements' of France. Electricite de France (EDF), a French energy company, provides refurbishment advice and financial incentives to end-users in the residential sector as well as specific training courses and certification to local installation contractors and building firms. Refurbishment measures analysed in this paper are efficient space heating equipment (condensing boilers, heat pumps and wood stoves or boilers), solar water heating systems and the installation of double-glazed windows. A billing analysis based on a survey of programme participants' energy consumption is used to calculate the energy savings attributed to the programme. In order to receive an economic feedback of this demonstration programme, the evaluation of both saved energy and programme costs is of importance. Detailed knowledge of the programme's cost-effectiveness is essential for EDF to achieve the saving obligations imposed by the French White Certificate scheme at the lowest cost. Results of this evaluation can support the development and implementation of further energy efficiency programmes with similar characteristics in other regions of France. The cost-effectiveness is determined from the perspective of the programme participant and the society as well as the energy company in charge of the programme. All cost and benefit components are calculated in Euro per kilowatt-hour, which allows a direct comparison of levelized costs of conserved energy with the avoidable costs of the energy supply system.

  11. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  12. Methodology for Evaluating Cost-effectiveness of Commercial Energy Code Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This document lays out the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of energy code proposals and editions. The evaluation is applied to provisions or editions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The method follows standard life-cycle cost (LCC) economic analysis procedures. Cost-effectiveness evaluation requires three steps: 1) evaluating the energy and energy cost savings of code changes, 2) evaluating the incremental and replacement costs related to the changes, and 3) determining the cost-effectiveness of energy code changes based on those costs and savings over time.

  13. Impact and cost-effectiveness of snail control to achieve disease control targets for schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nathan C; Gurarie, David; Yoon, Nara; Coulibaly, Jean T; Bendavid, Eran; Andrews, Jason R; King, Charles H

    2018-01-23

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that affects over 240 million people globally. To improve population-level disease control, there is growing interest in adding chemical-based snail control interventions to interrupt the lifecycle of Schistosoma in its snail host to reduce parasite transmission. However, this approach is not widely implemented, and given environmental concerns, the optimal conditions for when snail control is appropriate are unclear. We assessed the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of various snail control strategies. We extended previously published dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness models to simulate mass drug administration (MDA) and focal snail control interventions against Schistosoma haematobium across a range of low-prevalence (5-20%) and high-prevalence (25-50%) rural Kenyan communities. We simulated strategies over a 10-year period of MDA targeting school children or entire communities, snail control, and combined strategies. We measured incremental cost-effectiveness in 2016 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year and defined a strategy as optimally cost-effective when maximizing health gains (averted disability-adjusted life years) with an incremental cost-effectiveness below a Kenya-specific economic threshold. In both low- and high-prevalence settings, community-wide MDA with additional snail control reduced total disability by an additional 40% compared with school-based MDA alone. The optimally cost-effective scenario included the addition of snail control to MDA in over 95% of simulations. These results support inclusion of snail control in global guidelines and national schistosomiasis control strategies for optimal disease control, especially in settings with high prevalence, "hot spots" of transmission, and noncompliance to MDA. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. GIS to support cost-effective decisions on renewable sources applications for low temperature geothermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gemelli, Alberto; Diamantini, Claudia; Longhi, Sauro

    2013-01-01

    Through the results of a developed case study of information system for low temperature geothermal energy, GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources addresses the issue of the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in evaluating cost-effectiveness of renewable resource exploitation regional scale. Focusing on the design of a Decision Support System, a process is presented aimed to transform geographic data into knowledge useful for analysis and decision-making on the economic exploitation of geothermal energy. This detailed description includes a literature review and technical issues related to data collection, data mining, decision analysis for the informative system developed for the case study. A multi-disciplinary approach to GIS design is presented which is also an innovative example of fusion of georeferenced data acquired from multiple sources including remote sensing, networks of sensors and socio-economic censuses. GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources ...

  15. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  16. Determination of Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures in Buildings with the Aid of Multiple Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Zachariadis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy refurbishments of buildings can substantially contribute to economy-wide energy efficiency improvements, leading to decarbonisation and additional sustainability benefits. Prioritising the most economically promising investments is not straightforward because apart from cost-effectiveness calculations, several real-world constraints have to be taken into account. This paper describes an approach to assess the economically viable energy efficiency potential in the building sector of the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, with a combination of detailed engineering modelling, cost-effectiveness calculations and real-world considerations of budgetary, technical, behavioural and market constraints. We examine diverse cost-effectiveness indices and come up with a proposal for prioritising specific energy investments such as the installation of heat pumps, insulation of roofs, and replacement of lighting and electronic equipment—without however ignoring other measures that may be economically less favourable but can realistically be implemented in a limited number of buildings. Finally we address the governance of energy efficiency policies, focusing on weaknesses of the current regulatory environment in Cyprus, which can be generalised for many other countries facing similar dilemmas.

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of 22 Approaches for Raising Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the federal "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) law, there is tremendous pressure on school principals, teachers, school superintendents, district staff, state departments of education and governors to maximize the increase in student achievement that is obtained with every dollar of expenditure. Currently, teachers are…

  18. Developing a cost effective rock bed thermal energy storage system: Design and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubscher, Hendrik Frederik; von Backström, Theodor Willem; Dinter, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Thermal energy storage is an integral part of the drive for low cost of concentrated solar power (CSP). Storage of thermal energy enables CSP plants to provide base load power. Alternative, cheaper concepts for storing thermal energy have been conceptually proposed in previous studies. Using rocks as a storage medium and air as a heat transfer fluid, the proposed concept offers the potential of lower cost storage because of the abundance and affordability of rocks. A packed rock bed thermal energy storage (TES) concept is investigated and a design for an experimental rig is done. This paper describes the design and modelling of an experimental test facility for a cost effective packed rock bed thermal energy storage system. Cost effective, simplified designs for the different subsystems of an experimental setup are developed based on the availability of materials and equipment. Modelling of this design to predict the thermal performance of the TES system is covered in this study. If the concept under consideration proves to be successful, a design that is scalable and commercially viable can be proposed for further development of an industrial thermal energy storage system.

  19. Strategies for achieving a sustainable, clean and cost-effective biomass resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass produced in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner, could realistically be used to supply 50,000 MW (5 Quads) of electric capacity by the year 2010 and probably twice that amount by the year 2030. During the past year, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have each been independently evaluating the potential for biomass to become a major renewable energy resource over the next four decades, able to offset some of the U.S. dependency on imported fossil fuels while also offering important environmental and economic benefits. This paper presents EPRI's conclusions, which are more conservative than those of DOE, and outlines possible strategies by which EPRI can advance acceptance of biomass as a preferred renewable resource

  20. Introduction to cost-effectiveness analysis of risk reduction measures in energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The aim of this report is to introduce readers to methods of cost-effectiveness analysis and their application in risk reduction, especially in connection with the energy-producing industries. The background to the assessment of risk and the problems in estimating it quantitatively are outlined. The methodology of cost-effectiveness analysis is then described, particular attention being given to the way in which results are derived and the overall use that can be made of them. This is followed by a discussion of quantitative applications and an outline of the methods that may be used to derive estimates both of risk and the cost of reducing it. The use of cost-effectiveness analysis is illustrated in an appendix, which gives as a worked example a case study on the reduction of public risk associated with radioactive releases during normal operation of a PWR. After drawing some general conclusions the report recommends that such analyses should normally be used as an aid to risk management whenever several alternative risk reduction measures are under consideration

  1. Cost-effective choices of marine fuels in a carbon-constrained world: results from a global energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljegard, Maria; Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria; Andersson, Karin; Johnson, Hannes

    2014-11-04

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition model has been modified to include a more detailed shipping sector in order to assess what marine fuels and propulsion technologies might be cost-effective by 2050 when achieving an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 400 or 500 ppm by the year 2100. The robustness of the results was examined in a Monte Carlo analysis, varying uncertain parameters and technology options, including the amount of primary energy resources, the availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, and costs of different technologies and fuels. The four main findings are (i) it is cost-effective to start the phase out of fuel oil from the shipping sector in the next decade; (ii) natural gas-based fuels (liquefied natural gas and methanol) are the most probable substitutes during the study period; (iii) availability of CCS, the CO2 target, the liquefied natural gas tank cost and potential oil resources affect marine fuel choices significantly; and (iv) biofuels rarely play a major role in the shipping sector, due to limited supply and competition for bioenergy from other energy sectors.

  2. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Charging Method Designed For Residential Homes with Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, T. T.; Liang, Xiuli; Haque, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Most of the electrical infrastructure in use around the world today is decades old, and may be illsuited to widespread proliferation of personal Electric Vehicles (EVs) whose charging requirements will place increasing strain on grid demand. In order to reduce the pressure on the grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for residential homes equipped with renewable energy resources such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels and battery. The proposed method ensures slower battery degradation and prevents overcharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies utilizing running data of Nissan Altra. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of algae energy production in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, Vujadin; Wesseler, Justus

    2010-01-01

    Today's society relies heavily on fossil fuels as a main energy source. Global energy demand increase, energy security and climate change are the main drivers of the transition towards alternative energy sources. This paper analyses algal biodiesel production for the EU road transportation and compares it to the fossil fuels and 1st generation biofuels. A cost-effectiveness analysis was used to aggregate private and external costs and derive the social cost of each fuel. The following externalities were internalized: emissions (GHG and non-GHG), food prices impact, pesticides/fertilizers use and security of supply. Currently the social cost of producing algal biodiesel at 52.3 EUR GJ -1 is higher than rapeseed biodiesel (36.0 EUR GJ -1 ) and fossil fuels (15.8 EUR GJ -1 ). Biotechnology development, high crude oil prices and high carbon value are the key features of the scenario where algal biodiesel outcompetes all other fuels. A substantial investment into the biotechnology sector and comprehensive environmental research and policy are required to make that scenario a reality. (author)

  5. Treating to target with etanercept in rheumatoid arthritis: cost-effectiveness of dose reductions when remission is achieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, Gisela

    2014-07-01

    Current management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) focuses on inducing remission as early as possible to avoid lasting joint damage, and maintenance of remission has become important. A 12-month clinical trial in 834 patients with moderate RA investigated whether etanercept 50 mg/wk could be reduced to half dose or discontinued in patients who achieved low disease activity after 36 weeks. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the three maintenance strategies. A Markov model integrated the three strategies from the clinical trial and extrapolated to 10 years using data from the Swedish RA registry. Assumed treatment strategies after the trial were similar in all three arms, with patients failing to maintain remission on half-dose etanercept or methotrexate alone switching to the full dose of etanercept and patients maintaining remission on full-dose etanercept allowed switching to half dose. Resource use and utilities were taken from an observational study. Results are presented as cost/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) (both discounted 3%) in the societal perspective. The cost/QALY gained with half-dose etanercept versus methotrexate ranged from €14,000 to €29,000: Longer simulations result in a higher cost/QALY, as the acquisition cost of etanercept increases. Half-dose etanercept technically dominates the full dose (lower costs [€-3000 to 6300] and similar effectiveness [0.007-0.011]). Although ultimately all three strategies explored achieve a similar outcome as all three continuously manage patients to maintain remission, it appears that a dose reduction is the most advantageous strategy in patients with moderate disease activity. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. COST - EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS IN CONTEXT OF THE NEW LEGISLATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Sas Mihaela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents some aspects of a broader analysis on the macroeconomic effects it generates new energy regulations on energy efficiency in the European Union. Are presented for this purpose EU targets for achieving targets 20% reduction in energy consumption by 2020 and improve the prospect of cuts in 2030. In a time when environmental concerns, economic and social becoming increasingly important, being represented by climate change or the endangering energy security, resource depletion or ability to pay energy bills, reduce energy consumption in buildings and industrial sector of strategic importance, both nationally and internationally. In addition to efforts to build new buildings and industrial facilities with low energy requirements, obtained from conventional sources of energy is essential to address the high levels of consumption of existing buildings and facilities. Improving the energy efficiency of the existing buildings and facilities is essential not only for achieving national targets for energy efficiency in the medium term, but also to meet long-term objectives of the strategy on climate change and the transition to a competitive, low carbon dioxide by 2030. The analysis consists in determining and assessing costs, benefits on energy efficiency in the European Union and national level. In Romania the gradual liberalization of the electricity market and gas is unsustainable in the context of the energy sector, which faces a variety of challenges, including high energy losses. In the medium term, the energy market liberalization leads to an appreciable increase in electricity prices, gas and heat, a process that takes place very late and that will put high pressure on the capacity of all energy consumers (industrial and residential to pay energy bills. An obvious solution, but not convenient, is to reduce energy consumption through energy efficiency or by reducing energy losses. The article ends with the

  7. Optimization of energy consumption and cost effectiveness of modular buildings by using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tauš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the temporary structures are generally dealt with by the use of modular buildings. These actually meet the terms of low costs, as appose to the terms of convenience of use, or energy efficiency in operation. Using the latest technologies in the production of the modular buildings has improved the operation sufficiently; it is now possible to use them entirely for purposes associated with the use of the buildings. Office buildings, warehouses, and conference rooms have become common standard. In Slovakia, we can already see it as a normal part of cities and municipalities: social housing, schools, and kindergartens, which were all built using this technology. During the assessment phase of these buildings, energy efficiency is always the priority. This article is aimed at establishing the economic potential of modular buildings in the field of use of renewable energy sources. For the formulation of the problem and the definition of borders of studied parameters, we proposed a four-dimensional competency decision-making space. This determines the examination process that should identify areas in which it is appropriate to consider and assess the use of renewable energy sources.

  8. Demonstrating Cost Effective Thermal Energy Storage in Molten Salts: DLR' TESIS Test Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Odenthal, Christian; Klasing, Freerk; Bauer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Molten salt thermal energy storage is proven technology with large cost reduction potential --> DLR has built two test facilities TESIS:store and TESIS:com, which help understanding storage behavior, salt chemistry and testing components for faster market application Example based on exergy has shown that thermocline storage with filler can achieve --> high exergetic efficiency and --> significant reduction of salt inventory (investment cost)

  9. Comparison of cost effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems: French case studies. Final report of the co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques

    1989-08-01

    This report presents the three French case studies performed in the framework of the coordinated research program on 'Comparison of Cost-effectiveness of Risk Reduction among different Energy Systems': Cost effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility; Cost-effectiveness of protection actions to reduce occupational exposures in underground uranium mines; Cost-effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF 6 by truck and trains

  10. Promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency in Africa: a framework to evaluate employment generation and cost effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantore, Nicola; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Wei, Max; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    The ongoing debate over the cost-effectiveness of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) deployment often hinges on the current cost of incumbent fossil-fuel technologies versus the long-term benefit of clean energy alternatives. This debate is often focused on mature or ‘industrialized’ economies and externalities such as job creation. In many ways, however, the situation in developing economies is at least as or even more interesting due to the generally faster current rate of economic growth and of infrastructure deployment. On the one hand, RE and EE could help decarbonize economies in developing countries, but on the other hand, higher upfront costs of RE and EE could hamper short-term growth. The methodology developed in this paper confirms the existence of this trade-off for some scenarios, yet at the same time provides considerable evidence about the positive impact of EE and RE from a job creation and employment perspective. By extending and adopting a methodology for Africa designed to calculate employment from electricity generation in the U.S., this study finds that energy savings and the conversion of the electricity supply mix to renewable energy generates employment compared to a reference scenario. It also concludes that the costs per additional job created tend to decrease with increasing levels of both EE adoption and RE shares.

  11. Incorporating the productivity benefits into the assessment of cost effective energy savings potential using conservation supply curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitner, John A.; Ruth, Michael; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-07-24

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The paper explores the implications of how this change in perspective might affect the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the U.S. It is found that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research for this important area.

  12. Solar Irradiance Measurements Using Smart Devices: A Cost-Effective Technique for Estimation of Solar Irradiance for Sustainable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Al-Taani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiance measurement is a key component in estimating solar irradiation, which is necessary and essential to design sustainable energy systems such as photovoltaic (PV systems. The measurement is typically done with sophisticated devices designed for this purpose. In this paper we propose a smartphone-aided setup to estimate the solar irradiance in a certain location. The setup is accessible, easy to use and cost-effective. The method we propose does not have the accuracy of an irradiance meter of high precision but has the advantage of being readily accessible on any smartphone. It could serve as a quick tool to estimate irradiance measurements in the preliminary stages of PV systems design. Furthermore, it could act as a cost-effective educational tool in sustainable energy courses where understanding solar radiation variations is an important aspect.

  13. Global energy scenarios meeting stringent CO2 constraints - cost-effective fuel choices in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Christian; Lindgren, Kristian; Andersson, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess fuel choices in the transportation sector under stringent global carbon constraints. Three key questions are asked: (i) when is it cost-effective to carry out the transition away from gasoline/diesel; (ii) to which fuel is it cost-effective to shift; and (iii) in which sector is biomass most cost-effectively used? These questions are analyzed using a global energy systems model (GET 1.0), with a transportation module, where vehicle costs (fuel cell, reformer and storage tank), infrastructure and primary energy availability are treated explicitly. The model is run under the assumption that atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 should be stabilized at 400 ppm. Three main results emerge: (i) despite the stringent CO 2 constraints, oil-based fuels remain dominant in the transportation sector over the next 50 years; and (ii) once a transition towards alternative fuels takes place, the preferred choice of fuel is hydrogen, even if we assume that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are substantially more costly than methanol fuel cell vehicles. There may, under some circumstances, be a transient period of several decades with a significant share of methanol in the transportation sector. (iii) Biomass is most cost-effectively used in the heat and process heat sectors. If carbon sequestration from biomass is allowed, biomass is primarily used for hydrogen generation since small-scale heat applications are not suitable for carbon sequestration. Detailed sensitivity analyses show that these results are robust with respect to several parameters. Some policy conclusions are drawn

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of algae energy production in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacevic, V.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Today’s society relies heavily on fossil fuels as a main energy source. Global energy demand increase, energy security and climate change are the main drivers of the transition towards alternative energy sources. This paper analyses algal biodiesel production for the EU road transportation and

  15. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  16. Comparison of cost effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems: French case studies. Final report for the period 1 May 1982 - 20 February 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1989-08-01

    The report presents the three French case studies performed in the framework of the co-ordinated research programme on ''Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness of Risk Reduction Among Different Energy Systems'': cost-effectiveness of robotics and remote tooling for occupational risk reduction at a nuclear fuel fabrication facility; cost-effectiveness of protection actions to reduce occupational exposure in underground uranium mines; cost effectiveness of safety measures to reduce public risk associated with the transportation of UF 6 by truck and trains. Figs and tabs

  17. A managed approach to achieve a safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound demolition of a plutonium-238 contaminated building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Ralph R.; Geichman, Jack R.; Keener, Douglas E.; Farmer, Billy M.

    1992-01-01

    DOE's Mound Plant has the problem of demolishing a former plutonium-238 processing facility, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building. The building is located within 200 feet of a major public road and golf course. Previous removal efforts on appendages to the building used the technique of tenting small segments and used labor intensive segment-by-segment removal with expendable hand tools. This approach was very slow and costly, but offered good environmental control of radioactive contamination. It was realized that this method, when applied to the entire structure of the building, would not only be very costly, but would also be of high risk to worker safety and worker exposure to contamination. The new approach to overcome these problems is to dismantle the building structure using a rotating grapple to hold sections of the building structure while a portable rotating shear cuts the steel beams into appropriate lengths for loading directly into large waste containers. By the former method, the cut jagged steel would be size reduced with hand tools and loaded into waste containers manually. The additional handling has a high probability of producing minor, yet potentially contaminated, skin lacerations. The shear and grapple method eliminates this hazard. To apply this safer and more cost effective technology, Mound had to assure that the method would be environmentally sound and that neither onsite workers or the general public would be exposed to radioactivity. The Annex was decontaminated to as low as reasonably possible and the contaminated interior painted. However, there were numerous areas where contamination could be trapped. Mound conducted a formal sampling of these areas and had the results modeled for potential release during demolition. The results of this sampling and modeling effort showed that the building could be dismantled using this technology without producing a harmful effect on the environment. Application of this managed approach to the

  18. Year-Round Education in a Reform Environment: The Impact on Student Achievement and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Dena; Munoz, Marco

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of year-round scheduling on student achievement and attendance and to conduct a cost-efficiency analysis associated with year-round education. Participants were students who attended year-round school in the fourth and fifth grades (N=95) and students who attended schools with traditional…

  19. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act : Legislative History of the Act to Assist the Electrical Consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal Columbia River Power System to Achieve Cost-Effective Energy Conservation : P.L. 96-501, 94 Stat. 2697.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act became effective when it was signed into law by President Carter on December 5, 1980. This ended a four-year debate over legislation designed to plan and coordinate the region's energy future. This legislative history is an abbreviated version taken from the larger historical file maintained by the BPA Law Library. It is intended to assist BPA personnel and others who are studying the Northwest Power Act and working on its implementation. The documents included were selected for their value in determining what Congress meant in enacting the statute and to provide the researcher with a starting point for further investigation. These documents include: a history of the Act, a chronology of the legislative action leading to passage of the law; a section-by-section analysis of the Act; the Congressional Records of Senate and House debates on the bill and its amendments, and a list of Congressional committee hearings.

  20. The Navy Needs More Comprehensive Guidance for Evaluating and Supporting CostEffectiveness of LargeScale Renewable Energy Projects (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Effectiveness of Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether the U.S. Navy was... determine whether approved renewable energy projects are cost-effective based on those policies and procedures, and take appropriate action based on that...to determine whether approved renewable energy projects are cost-effective based on new or FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ii │ DODIG

  1. New Department of Energy policy and guidance for cost-effectiveness in nuclear materials control and accountability programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ryn, G.L.; Zack, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives have given Departmental nuclear facilities the opportunity to take more credit for certain existing safeguards and security systems in determining operational program protection requirements. New policies and guidance are coupled with these initiatives to enhance systems performance in a cost effective and efficient manner as well as to reduce operational costs. The application of these methods and technologies support safety, the reduction of personnel radiation exposure, emergency planning, and inspections by international teams. This discussion will review guidance and policies that support advanced systems and programs to decrease lifetime operational costs without increasing risk

  2. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Maxwell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, questions have arisen in Denmark as to how and why public funding should be allocated to wind power producers. This is, among other reasons, due to pressure from industrial electricity consumers who want their overall energy costs lowered. Utilising existing wind power subsidies across energy sectors may be an effective means of dealing with these concerns. The following article takes the case of a community owned renewable energy project as a microcosm for the entire Danish energy system. The local project seeks to integrate energy sectors so as to create physical and financial conditions which could allow wind power producers to reduce their reliance on subsidies. It is found that the strategy may be effective in lowering the overall energy costs of electricity consumers. Further, it is found possible to scale up this strategy and realise benefits on a national scale.

  3. Can paddock scale data integration achieve more cost effective outcomes in the Great Barrier Reef? A case study in the Fitzroy Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Megan; Rolfe, John; East, Miriam; Beutel, Terry; McCosker, Kevin; Ellis, Robin; Darr, Shaun; Coughlin, Tom

    2017-11-01

    The decline in health of the Great Barrier Reef and the pressure on allocating funds efficiently has increased efforts to prioritise where public funds are invested. The Fitzroy basin and coastal catchments is 152,000 square kilometres and geographically diverse. Past work has identified that sediment loads leaving the catchment are posing a high risk to the ongoing health of the Reef and that there is a need to prioritise funds to achieve cost effective outcomes. In this paper we aim to present an alternative approach to effective prioritisation of sediment reductions. The approach integrates spatial information regarding the sediment source and process, levels of adoption, bare ground cover, and cost into a function to rank neighbourhood catchments. The results demonstrate the complexity of the issue and the challenge the Fitzroy Basin Association faces when allocating funds. They also illustrate that there are effective opportunities in particular priority areas within the catchment in which on-ground actions could be undertaken, proving it to be a useful approach in prioritising future investments aimed at achieving cost effective sediment reductions to the Reef. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Practical and Cost Effective Demonstration of Efficient Energy Usage and Quality Management Using the NII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-01

    In order to be competitive in the changing electric power industry, and to promote energy efficiency and conservation, electric power providers need to have access to information on the power system to a level of detail that has not been available in the past. This level of detail extends beyond the usual voltage, current, power, and energy quantities obtained from traditional utility SCADA systems.

  5. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  6. Agricultural Business Strategy: Theory and Methods for Cost-Effectiveness Investment Analysis in Agro-Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Prestamburgo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change is currently considered a high-priority matter, both in the scientific community at large and at the institutional level of national and international governing bodies. Actually, an all-out effort seeks to investigate and advance viable solutions to deal with the global emergencies regarding to anthropic climate change; increasing demands for renewable sources of energy, technological innovation and energy-saving systems, ecological and environmental sustainability of natural resources and land. At the core of this worldwide endeavour an increasingly significant role seems destined to the agricultural sector and to agro-energy production systems for the potential benefits in terms of production costs. In fact, the interest in unconventional and low-impact energy sources mandates thorough investigation not only into the advantages, in terms of availability and affordability, but also into the impact on the environment and the quality of the landscape, as well as the aspects regarding the overall measures that need be adopted so as to enable the supply on the market. Given this scenario, the wide-ranging agro-energy question would be incomplete without extensive economic sustainability analyses, serving as operational decision-support tools to measure cost-effectiveness regarding investments in agro-energy production and its use.

  7. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  8. Selective solar absorbers: A cost effective solution for access to clean energy in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katumba, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available by inadequate grid electricity infrastructure. This state of affairs has culminated in massive deforestation and desertification of some parts of Africa. One technology solution is to harness the energy from the sun through solar absorbers. This has applications...

  9. Reliability, energy, and cost effects of wind-powered generation integrated with a conventional generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Buehring, W.A.; Huber, C.C.; Hub, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the potential impacts of incorporating wind turbines, without the aid of energy-storage devices, into a conventional electrical generating system. This study focuses on the contribution to generating-system reliability of wind turbines, and the methods used to calculate these benefits. In addition, a simple cost model was developed to estimate ranges of breakeven costs for wind turbines based on the sum of fuel cost savings, variable operation and maintenance (0 and M) cost savings, and reliability benefits of the wind turbines.

  10. Achieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Olabode ABDULKADRI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica Abstract: The high cost of energy in Jamaica, one of the highest in the Caribbean region, is usually cited as a hindrance to industrial development and efficiency, especially in the manufacturing sector. High energy cost is also considered to be a national energy security issue and the government is taking steps to ensure adequate supply of energy at affordable prices. In the current National Development Plan, the government has set a target for renewable energy sources to supply 20% of the country's energy need by the year 2030. Using a linear programing model of energy planning, we examine how realistically this target could be achieved. Our findings indicate that the 20% renewable energy target is technically achievable with the optimal plan showing a mixture of wind power, hydropower and bagasse power but no solar power. However, when the timeline for investment in new generating capacities that will ensure the attainment of the target is considered, it becomes highly improbable that the target will be met. This study fills the gap that exists in evidence-based analysis of energy policy in Jamaica.

  11. Implications of Cost Effectiveness Screening Practices in a Low Natural Gas Price Environment: Case Study of a Midwestern Residential Energy Upgrade Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borgeson, Merrian Goggio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zimring, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-12

    With the proliferation of statewide energy savings targets and other policies favorable to energy efficiency, savings from utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs could rise to offset much of annual load growth by 2025 (Barbose et al 2013). For these increased savings to occur, however, nearly all of these programs must pass screening for cost effectiveness. Some program administrators and state regulators are finding that conventional analyses, which only consider a narrow set of energy-savings related efficiency program benefits, are now resulting in some natural gas efficiency programs failing their cost-effectiveness criteria in the new low natural gas price environment. Regulators are considering whether to scale back or terminate gas portfolios in at least four states (WA, OR, ID, NM) because of cost-effectiveness concerns. Stakeholders in several regions of the country have asked LBNL to help assess alternatives to reducing the pursuit of energy savings in their regions. We address these requests by producing two working papers: one exploring cost-effectiveness screening policy implications of low to moderate natural gas prices, and a second assessing some of the values that policymakers may take into account in weighing the pros and cons of ending natural gas efficiency programs. In this policy brief, we lay out the challenges that low gas prices pose for cost effectiveness of an electric-gas efficiency program and portfolio. We then quantify options available to regulators and administrators who want to evaluate the tradeoffs among multiple policy objectives. A multi-measure, residential energy upgrade program in the Midwest is used as a lens to explore the implications of common and emerging cost-effectiveness policies in the context of low prices for natural gas. We illustrate the results across a range of cost-effectiveness screening options, including different discount rates, levels of test application, various benefit-cost tests, and the

  12. The German energy audit program for firms-a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleiter, Tobias; Gruber, Edelgard; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Worrell, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, a program was established in Germany to provide grants for energy audits in small- and medium-sized enterprises. It aims to overcome barriers to energy efficiency, like the lack of information or a lack of capacity, and is intended to increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. We

  13. A critical evaluation of deterministic methods in size optimisation of reliable and cost effective standalone hybrid renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheri, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    cost-effective system cannot be quantified without employing probabilistic methods of analysis. It is also shown that deterministic cost analysis yields inaccurate results for all of the investigated configurations. - Graphical abstract: Deterministic size optimisation methods are unreliable in design of reliable and cost effective wind–PV–battery hybrid renewable systems irrespective of selected worst-case-scenarios and safety factors. - Highlights: • Deterministic design optimisation methods do not predict the cost of standalone HRES accurately. • Deterministic methods do not evaluate power reliability of standalone HRES directly. • Deterministic methods of design of HRES lead to solutions with unpredictable power reliability. • New robust design methods are required to be developed for standalone HRES

  14. U.S. Navy Surface Ship Fleet: Propulsion Energy Evaluation, and Identification of Cost Effective Energy Enhancement Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cusanelli, Dominic S; Karafiath, Gabor

    2006-01-01

    .... Navy surface ship fleet was prepared. This information was used to identify eleven U.S. Navy surface ship classes as candidates for consideration with regard to retrofit of energy enhancement devices...

  15. Achieving affordable housing through energy efficiency strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copiello, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between public and private sector has achieved a remarkable widespread, in the Italian context, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, the increasing difficulty in accessing the capital market and the rising cost of funding sources, both noticeable over the past few years, led to a slowdown of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives. Meanwhile, the community is expressing new needs to be satisfied, such as the conversion of brownfields, the recovery of housing stock dating back to former times, as well as the refurbishment of public offices or schools. Emerging priorities include the supply of affordable dwellings for low to medium income households. This essay aims to examine a case study in which PPP and buildings energy efficiency have been successfully combined, in order to jointly contribute to the achievement of a social housing settlement. Thanks to energy efficiency measures—concerning building envelope insulation, heating system and other installations—the agreed rent results far higher than social rent of protected tenancies, and furthermore above the range of fair rents characterising other regulated tenancies, but mildly lower than market rents. All this allows to achieve an equity yield rate satisfying from the perspective of a venture philanthropy investment. -- Highlights: •Provision of affordable dwellings is an emerging priority within Italian context. •Lack of public funds leads to promote Public–Private Partnership schemes. •Without public grants the adoption of a venture philanthropy approach is needed. •The examined case study allows to explain the role of buildings energy efficiency. •Buildings energy efficiency may boost feasibility of social housing transactions

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon: Challenging Students to Build Energy Efficient, Cost-Effective, and Attractive Solar-Powered Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal, and design excellence with optimal energy production and maximum efficiency. The paper discusses the solutions developed for the event. We believe that the solutions implemented for Solar Decathlon 2011 represent current trends and that by analyzing, critiquing, and exposing the solutions pursued, the industry can become better suited to address challenges of the future. Constructing a solar community using high-efficiency design and unique materials while remaining code compliant, safe, and effective results in solutions that are market relevant, important, and interesting to the industry as a whole.

  17. Key Questions for Achieving EU Emission Reductions without Abandoning Other Energy Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stang, G.

    2014-01-01

    What considerations must be addressed to ensure that efforts to achieve the EU's new 2030 emissions and renewables targets are compatible with the other energy goals of the EU and its member states: energy security, and energy affordability? How should these other energy goals be addressed when pursuing energy efficiency improvements, upgrading electricity systems to handle different renewable energy sources, and developing policies to reduce overall CO2 emissions? Markets have been defined as being central to achieving all of Europe's energy goals - both the creation of an EU internal energy market and the use of the Emissions Trading System (ETS) to allow a market for managing a portion of the continent's greenhouse gas emissions. But once these markets are in place and operational, there will still be great variances among the goals, instruments, and level of market integration available for the different countries and regions of Europe. Choosing the most cost effective mechanisms for pursuing the new goals will require effective use of the flexibility that is available - an improved ETS, tradable national targets for non-ETS emissions, and a rapidly widening array of cost-effective renewable energy options. Sufficient use of this flexibility should facilitate the flow of energy investments toward energy system improvements where there is low-hanging fruit - anywhere in the continent - without requiring that local or continental energy security goals be sacrificed. (author).

  18. Cost-effectiveness of solar energy in energy-efficient buildings; Kosten und Nutzen von Solarenergie in energieeffizienten Bauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, S.; Iten, R.; Vettori, A. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Haller, A.; Ochs, M. [Ernst Schweizer AG, Hedingen (Switzerland); Keller, L. [Bureau d' Etudes Keller-Burnier, Lavigny (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study that examined the potentials and restraints with respect to the use of solar energy in the new construction and refurbishment of residential buildings in Switzerland. The method used is based on a 'learning-curve' technique. The first part of the report deals with the development of prices for solar-collector installations from 1990 until now. The second part deals with today's costs and future developments up to the year 2030. A reference building is used as the basis for the comparison of eight system variants. A further eight variants combine solar technology with traditional heating installations such as oil, gas and wood boilers and heat-pumps. Scenarios for the market situation for solar energy in 2030 are discussed.

  19. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of

  20. Results and assessment of participation of VUPEK in coordinated research project of the IAEA ''Comparison of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadlec, J.; Horacek, P.

    1989-01-01

    The results and conclusions are summarized of the research programme ''Comparison of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems'' co-ordinated in 1983 to 1988 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Institutes in 18 member states were involved which performed 33 case studies in the field of risk reduction in various power systems or their parts. A comparison with cost-effectiveness of risk reduction in other fields was made as well. The health risks (occupational, those of population) and the environmental risks were evaluated. The case studies cover various stages of the decision-making process and various decision makers. The solution resulted in 5 methodological studies and 16 models. 11 case studies and 1 methodological study were conducted by the Research Institute of the Fuel and Energy Complex. The experiences obtained, the questions so far unanswered and recommendations for those who will perform similar studies are given. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  1. First prototypes of hybrid potassium-ion capacitor (KIC): An innovative, cost-effective energy storage technology for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comte, Annaïg; Reynier, Yvan; Vincens, Christophe; Leys, Côme; Azaïs, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid supercapacitors, combining capacitive carbon-based positive electrode with a Li-ion battery-type negative electrode have been developed in the pursuit of increasing the energy density of conventional supercapacitor without impacting the power density. However, lithium-ion capacitors yet hardly meet the specifications of automotive sector. Herein we report for the first time the development of new hybrid potassium-ion capacitor (KIC) technology. Compared to lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) all strategic materials (lithium and copper) have been replaced. Excellent electrochemical performance have been achieved at a pouch cell scale, with cyclability superior to 55 000 cycles at high charge/discharge regime. For the same cell scale, the energy density is doubled compared to conventional supercapacitor up to high power regime (>1.5 kW kg-1). Finally, the technology was successfully scaled up to 18650 format leading to very promising prospects for transportation applications.

  2. Designing Rainwater Harvesting Systems Cost-Effectively in a Urban Water-Energy Saving Scheme by Using a GIS-Simulation Based Design System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yie-Ru Chiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Current centralized urban water supply depends largely on energy consumption, creating critical water-energy challenge especially for many rapid growing Asian cities. In this context, harvesting rooftop rainwater for non-potable use has enormous potential to ease the worsening water-energy issue. For this, we propose a geographic information system (GIS-simulation-based design system (GSBDS to explore how rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs can be systematically and cost-effectively designed as an innovative water-energy conservation scheme on a city scale. This GSBDS integrated a rainfall data base, water balance model, spatial technologies, energy-saving investigation, and economic feasibility analysis based on a case study of eight communities in the Taipei metropolitan area, Taiwan. Addressing both the temporal and spatial variations in rainfall, the GSBDS enhanced the broad application of RWHS evaluations. The results indicate that the scheme is feasible based on the optimal design when both water and energy-savings are evaluated. RWHSs were observed to be cost-effective and facilitated 21.6% domestic water-use savings, and 138.6 (kWh/year-family energy-savings. Furthermore, the cost of per unit-energy-saving is lower than that from solar PV systems in 85% of the RWHS settings. Hence, RWHSs not only enable water-savings, but are also an alternative renewable energy-saving approach that can address the water-energy dilemma caused by rapid urbanization.

  3. Analysis of the performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems funded by the DOE small grants program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Joshua [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-04-01

    This report presents an analysis of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) funded during FY 1979 by the U.S. Department of Energy. Chapter 1 gives an analytic framework with which to evaluate the systems. Chapter 2 consists of a review of each of the nine projects, including project technical overviews, estimates of energy savings, and results of economic analysis. Chapter 3 summarizes technical, economic, and institutional barriers that are likely to inhibit widespread dissemination of SWECS technology.

  4. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  5. Croatian Energy Sector Reform - Results Achieved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nota, R.

    2001-01-01

    During the past ten years, the energy sector has passed through significant changes including fundamental market, economic, legislative and institutional aspects of sector operation. As the main goal of the Republic of Croatia is the integration into the European Union, the energy sector reform ought to be conducted in keeping with the present market development processes of the EU in such a way as to fulfil all safety criteria. In view of the above mentioned, the Croatian Parliament brought a number of laws during its session in July 2001 (''Official Gazette'' 68/01): 1. Energy Law 2. Energy Activities Regulation Law 3. Electricity Market Law 4. Gas Market Law 5. Oil and Oil Derivatives Market Law, which present the commencement of the energy sector reform (www.mingo.hr).(author)

  6. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  7. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy-Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David N. Thompson, Robert W. Emerick, Alfred B. England, James P. Flanders, Frank J. Loge, Katherine A. Wiedeman, Michael P. Wolcott

    2010-04-08

    The forestry, wood and paper industries in the United States provide thousands of productive well-paying jobs; however, in the face of the recent economic downturn it faces significant challenges in remaining economically viable and competitive. To compete successfully on a global market that is increasingly driven by the need for sustainable products and practices, the industry must improve margins and diversify product lines while continuing to produce the staple products. One approach that can help to accomplish this goal sustainably is the forest biorefinery. In the forest biorefinery, traditional waste streams are utilized singly or in combination to manufacture additional products in a profitable and environmentally sustainable manner. In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. Renewable microbial polyesters are not currently used in WFRTCs primarily because their production costs are several times higher than those of conventional petrochemical-derived plastics, limiting their use to small specialty markets. The strategy for this project was to economically produce WFRTCs using microbial polyesters by reducing or eliminating the most costly steps in the bio-plastic production. This would be achieved by producing them in and from waste effluents from the municipal and forest products sectors, and by eliminating the costly purification steps. After production the plasticladen biosolids would be dried and used directly to replace petroleum

  8. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties.......Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...

  9. EPA Recognizes Holcim for Achieving 2015 ENERGY STAR Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    (02/24/16 - ATLANTA ) -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Holcim in Holly Hill, South Carolina, is among 70 manufacturing plants to have achieved Energy Star certification for their superior energy performance in 201

  10. Energy - achieving an optimum through information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitt, W.

    1986-01-01

    What have computer programs in common with everyday human behaviour. Or the birds' passage, or photosynthesis, or the chemical reactions in a cell. They all primarily are information-controlled processes. The book under review deals with 'information' and 'energy', two main concepts in today's technological world. 'Energy' during the last few years has become a significant criterion with regard to technological progress. 'Information' is not only a main term in informatics terminology, but also a central concept for example in biology, linguistics, and communication science. The author shows that every 'information' is the result of an intellectual and purposeful process. The concept of information is taken as the red thread leading the author's journey through manifold strata of modern life, asking questions, finding answers, discussing problems. The wide spectrum of aspects discussed, including for instance a new approach to the Bible, and the remarkable examples presented by the author, make this book a treasure of knowledge, and of faith. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Energy politics: Can we achieve a sustainable energy path?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklas, M.

    1993-01-01

    The political pressures affecting global energy choices are numerous, vary by country, and are significantly changing. In evaluating our energy future, one cannot escape recognition of three dominant areas where reality more than politics will dictate needs and directions. Within the next decade the magnitude and importance of population growth, energy resource availability, and the environmental and societal costs of energy will gradually increase and dominate global energy decisionmaking. This paper will discuss these major forces, how they have influenced past actions, and how they will shape our energy future

  12. Densified biomass can cost-effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and address energy security in thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas O; McNeal, Frederick M; Spatari, Sabrina; G Abler, David; Adler, Paul R

    2012-01-17

    Regional supplies of biomass are currently being evaluated as feedstocks in energy applications to meet renewable portfolio (RPS) and low carbon fuel standards. We investigate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated abatement costs resulting from using densified switchgrass for thermal and electrical energy. In contrast to the large and positive abatement costs for using biomass in electricity generation ($149/Mg CO(2)e) due to the low cost of coal and high feedstock and power plant operation costs, abatement costs for replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications are large and negative (-$52 to -$92/Mg CO(2)e), resulting in cost savings. Replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications results in least cost reductions compared to replacing coal in electricity generation, an alternative that has gained attention due to RPS legislation and the centralized production model most often considered in U.S. policy. Our estimates indicate a more than doubling of liquid fuel displacement when switchgrass is substituted for fuel oil as opposed to gasoline, suggesting that, in certain U.S. locations, such as the northeast, densified biomass would help to significantly decarbonize energy supply with regionally sourced feedstock, while also reducing imported oil. On the basis of supply projections from the recently released Billion Ton Report, there will be enough sustainably harvested biomass available in the northeast by 2022 to offset the entirety of heating oil demand in the same region. This will save NE consumers between $2.3 and $3.9 billion annually. Diverting the same resource to electricity generation would cost the region $7.7 billion per year. While there is great need for finding low carbon substitutes for coal power and liquid transportation fuels in the U.S., we argue that in certain regions it makes cost- (and GHG mitigation-) effective sense to phase out liquid heating fuels with locally produced biomass first.

  13. A micro-grid operation analysis for cost-effective battery energy storage and RES plants integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Bonucci, F.

    2016-01-01

    Penetration of renewable energy is strongly slowed by its characteristic intermittency and fluctuating trend and by the inadequacy of electricity networks. These issues can be addressed through the development of new or improved storage technologies with higher performance, availability, durability, safety and lower costs. In the present work, micro-grids characterized by the presence of different subsections including renewable plants coupled with batteries storage solution are investigated through the development of a suitable code. Several design conditions and features, related to RES plant, storage system and users, were considered in order to realize a sensitivity analysis aimed to examine, on a yearly base and with one minute time step, interactions among the different micro-grid subsections and to identify the best solutions from both economic and energy point of views. - Highlights: • Storage systems coupling to RES plants is investigated for micro-grids. • Interactions between RES plants, storage batteries and users are analyzed. • Self-consumption increases with storage installation. • Investment pay-back analysis is performed varying plant configurations. • Pay-back reduction up to 30–40% for new RES/Storage integrated installations.

  14. Transmission Challenges and Best Practices for Cost-Effective Renewable Energy Delivery across State and Provincial Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Qin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-21

    A strategically planned transmission network is an important source of flexibility for the integration of large-scale renewable energy (RE). Such a network can offer access to a broad geographic diversity of resources, which can reduce flexibility needs and facilitate sharing between neighboring balancing areas. This report builds on two previous NREL technical reports - Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration (Milligan et al. 2015) and 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies (Hurlbut et al. 2015) - which discuss various flexibility options and provide an overview of U.S. market models and grid planning. This report focuses on addressing issues with cross-regional/provincial transmission in China with the aim of integrating renewable resources that are concentrated in remote areas and require inter-regional/provincial power exchange.

  15. Transmission Challenges and Best Practices for Cost-Effective Renewable Energy Delivery across State and Provincial Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Qin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-22

    A strategically planned transmission network is an important source of flexibility for the integration of large-scale renewable energy (RE). Such a network can offer access to a broad geographic diversity of resources, which can reduce flexibility needs and facilitate sharing between neighboring balancing areas. This report builds on two previous NREL technical reports - Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration (Milligan et al. 2015) and 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies (Hurlbut et al. 2015) - which discuss various flexibility options and provide an overview of U.S. market models and grid planning. This report focuses on addressing issues with cross-regional/provincial transmission in China with the aim of integrating renewable resources that are concentrated in remote areas and require inter-regional/provincial power exchange.

  16. Cost Effective Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1996-01-01

    This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

  17. Transport energy consumption achievement based on indicator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian

    2017-06-01

    In order to evaluate the transport sustainability level for regions, the concept of achievement efficiency in transport energy consumption is initially suggested in this paper. The research object is not only for the energy consumption by transport operation but also the whole life of the transport procedure, which is the thought of life cycle assessment. And then, on the quantitative analysis to calculate the transport energy achievement efficiency of the regions, the indicators that can represent the achievement of transport energy consumption are convincingly found out by indicator theory. Next, concentration is focused on the transport related indicators and proper indicators are picked up from the candidate indicators, which were the affecting factors to this issue. After that, using the selected indicators, we introduce the method of data envelopment analysis to do quantitative analysis, which helps to get the achievement efficiency of transport energy among cities all over the world. The analysis result shows the efficient regions and the inefficient regions respectively. Furthermore, the detailed efficiency value of each region is also laid out clearly. For the improvement, the inadequate output or input variables of the inefficient regions were listed compared with the efficient regions so that corresponding transport policy implications can be resulted for the inefficient regions to reach high level sustainability.

  18. Achieving sustainable biomass conversion to energy and bio products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, G. C.

    2009-01-01

    The present effort in to maximize biomass conversion-to-energy and bio products is examined in terms of sustain ability practices. New goals, standards in practice, measurements and certification are needed for the sustainable biomass industry. Sustainable practices produce biomass energy and products in a manner that is secure, renewable, accessible locally, and pollution free. To achieve sustainable conversion, some new goals are proposed. (Author)

  19. Application of Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Based Simulation for Cost-Effective Building Energy Efficiency Design and Thermal Comfort Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolin Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Building design following the energy efficiency standards may not achieve the optimal performance in terms of investment cost, energy consumption and thermal comfort. In this paper, an improved multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II is combined with building simulation to assist building design optimization for five selected cities located in the hot summer and cold winter region in China. The trade-offs between the annual energy consumption (AEC and initial construction cost, as well as between life cycle cost (LCC and number of thermal discomfort hours, were explored. Sensitivity analysis of various design parameters on building energy consumption is performed. The optimizations predicted AEC reduction of 29.08% on average, as compared to a reference building designed following the standard, and 38.6% with 3.18% more cost on the initial investment. New values for a number of building design parameters are recommended for the revision of relevant building energy efficiency standard.

  20. Achieving Energy Efficiency in Accordance with Bioclimatic Architecture Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcinovci, Bujar; Jerliu, Florina

    2016-12-01

    By using our natural resources, and through inefficient use of energy, we produce much waste that can be recycled as a useful resource, which further contributes to climate change. This study aims to address energy effective bioclimatic architecture principles, by which we can achieve a potential energy savings, estimated at thirty-three per cent, mainly through environmentally affordable reconstruction, resulting in low negative impact on the environment. The study presented in this paper investigated the Ulpiana neighbourhood of Prishtina City, focusing on urban design challenges, energy efficiency and air pollution issues. The research methods consist of empirical observations through the urban spatial area using a comparative method, in order to receive clearer data and information research is conducted within Ulpiana's urban blocks, shapes of architectural structures, with the objective focusing on bioclimatic features in terms of the morphology and microclimate of Ulpiana. Energy supply plays a key role in the economic development of any country, hence, bioclimatic design principles for sustainable architecture and energy efficiency, present an evolutive integrated strategy for achieving efficiency and healthier conditions for Kosovar communities. Conceptual findings indicate that with the integrated design strategy: energy efficiency, and passive bioclimatic principles will result in a bond of complex interrelation between nature, architecture, and community. The aim of this study is to promote structured organized actions to be taken in Prishtina, and Kosovo, which will result in improved energy efficiency in all sectors, and particularly in the residential housing sector.

  1. Achieving Energy Efficiency in Accordance with Bioclimatic Architecture Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajcinovci Bujar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By using our natural resources, and through inefficient use of energy, we produce much waste that can be recycled as a useful resource, which further contributes to climate change. This study aims to address energy effective bioclimatic architecture principles, by which we can achieve a potential energy savings, estimated at thirty-three per cent, mainly through environmentally affordable reconstruction, resulting in low negative impact on the environment. The study presented in this paper investigated the Ulpiana neighbourhood of Prishtina City, focusing on urban design challenges, energy efficiency and air pollution issues. The research methods consist of empirical observations through the urban spatial area using a comparative method, in order to receive clearer data and information research is conducted within Ulpiana’s urban blocks, shapes of architectural structures, with the objective focusing on bioclimatic features in terms of the morphology and microclimate of Ulpiana. Energy supply plays a key role in the economic development of any country, hence, bioclimatic design principles for sustainable architecture and energy efficiency, present an evolutive integrated strategy for achieving efficiency and healthier conditions for Kosovar communities. Conceptual findings indicate that with the integrated design strategy: energy efficiency, and passive bioclimatic principles will result in a bond of complex interrelation between nature, architecture, and community. The aim of this study is to promote structured organized actions to be taken in Prishtina, and Kosovo, which will result in improved energy efficiency in all sectors, and particularly in the residential housing sector.

  2. Design method of a power management strategy for variable battery capacities range-extended electric vehicles to improve energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiuyu; Chen, Jingfu; Song, Ziyou; Gao, Mingming; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Energy management strategy and battery capacity are the primary factors for the energy efficiency of range-extended electric buses (REEBs). To improve the energy efficiency of REEBs developed by Tsinghua University, an optimal design method of global optimization-based strategy is investigated. It is real-time and adaptive to variable traction battery capacities of series REEBs. For simulation, the physical model of REEB and key components are established. The optimal strategy is first extracted by the power split ratio (PSR) from REEB simulation result with dynamic program (DP) algorithm. The power distribution map is obtained by series simulations for variable battery capacity options. The control law for developing optimal strategy are achieved by cluster regression for power distribution data. To verify the effect of the proposed energy management strategy, characteristics of powertrain, energy efficiency, operating cost, and computing time are ultimately analyzed. Simulation results show that the energy efficiency of the global optimization-based strategy presented in this paper is similar to that of the DP strategy. Therefore, the overall energy efficiency can be significantly improved compared with that of the CDCS strategy, and operating costs can be substantially reduced. The feasibility of candidate control strategies is thereby assessed via the employment of variable parameters. - Highlights: • Analysis method of powertrain energy efficiency and power distribution is proposed. • The power distribution rules of strategy with variable battery capacities are achieved. • The parametric method of proposed PSR-RB strategy is presented. • The energy efficiency of powertrain is analysis by flow analysis method. • The energy management strategy is global optimization-based and real-time.

  3. Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change: what does it take?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbu, A.-D. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Griffiths, N.; Morton, G. [Ricardo-AEA (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    On October 2012, the European Union adopted the Energy Efficiency Directive in reaction to the fact that EU Member States were not on track to reduce primary energy consumption by 20 % by 2020. The implementation of this directive, and other policies that have been adopted in recent years, will require a change in consumer behaviour and energy consumption practices. Within this context, and related to on-going debates on the same subject, a new European Environment Agency (EEA) report argues that correctly navigating the interface between policymaking and human behaviour is key to achieving sustained reductions in energy consumption. As such, the report provides timely and reliable information and analysis to those involved in designing policy measures to reduce energy consumption which target the end consumer. A growing body of evidence in academic literature demonstrates that there is potential for energy savings due to measures targeting behaviour. There is, however, one issue that has not been covered by previous studies, and which the EEA report directly addresses, namely the distinction between consumer behaviour and consumption practices. Most recent academic literature argues that it is the consumption practices themselves that need careful scrutiny as they tend to lock consumers into patterns that are more and more energy intensive and they involve a wide range of actors. From the energy efficiency policy design perspective, this is relevant because these actors need to be involved from the outset of the policy process. The report also argues that a whole range of changes need to take place in the way energy markets function and are regulated in order to enable the consumer to actively engage with these markets. The report however does not include a discussion on the socio-economic implications of these structural changes. During 2013, the EEA will launch a survey via social media and its own website to follow up on conclusions of the report. The aim will

  4. Achieving CO2 Emissions Reduction Goals with Energy Infrastructure Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlinc, M.; Medved, K.; Simic, J.

    2013-01-01

    The EU has set its short-term goals in the Europe 2020 Strategy (20% of CO 2 emissions reduction, 20% increase in energy efficiency, 20% share of renewables in final energy). The analyses show that the EU Member States in general are on the right track of achieving these goals; they are even ahead (including Slovenia). But setting long-term goals by 2050 is a tougher challenge. Achieving CO 2 emissions reduction goes hand in hand with increasing the share of renewables and strategically planning the projects, which include exploiting the potential of renewable sources of energy (e.g. hydropower). In Slovenia, the expected share of hydropower in electricity production from large HPPs in the share of renewables by 2030 is 1/3. The paper includes a presentation of a hydro power plants project on the middle Sava river in Slovenia and its specifics (influenced by the expansion of the Natura 2000 protected sites and on the other hand by the changes in the Environment Protection Law, which implements the EU Industrial Emissions Directive and the ETS Directive). Studies show the importance of the HPPs in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction. The main conclusion of the paper shows the importance of energy infrastructure projects, which contribute to on the one hand the CO 2 emissions reduction and on the other the increase of renewables.(author)

  5. Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform, Achieve, Trade mechanisms to enhance the energy security for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Agarwala, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade mechanisms in India are designed to target energy generation and saving, respectively, in line with Clean Development Mechanism implemented by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Renewable Energy Certificate System is a voluntary regulation in India for renewable energy generators and is designed for effective implementation of inter-state transactions by introducing the Renewable Purchase Obligation regulation for consumers and a flexible trading platform for transactions across the country. Another initiative, the Perform Achieve Trade scheme, is an enhanced energy efficiency trading mechanism based on consumption targets that require large energy user sectors to improve efficiency by 1–2% per year. The Perform Achieve Trade programme has introduced mechanisms for the identification of industry sector, designated customer, specific energy consumption and target setting. The Perform Achieve Trade design issues are in test phase in the first cycle of the scheme which will run from 2012 to 2015. This paper discusses key design issues about boundary and target setting for Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade energy saving certificate (ESCert) A data sharing and trading mechanism for Perform Achieve Trade is also proposed for review and coordination among regulator, designated consumers and traders in the market. - Highlights: ► Renewable Energy Certificate’ and ‘Perform Achieve Trade’ are energy certification programmes. ► REC and PAT programme implementation and the institutional network work are presented. ► The trading and communication network propose for possible linkage between REC, PAT and CDM. ► Independent associations in parallel with CERC and BEE are redefined for two tier review of scheme

  6. A Long-Term Experimental Case Study of the Ecological Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Invasive Plant Management in Achieving Conservation Goals: Bitou Bush Control in Booderee National Park in Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J.; Catford, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  7. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management

  8. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  9. Evaluation of Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE) Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program is currently evaluating the Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity document that sets a vision and outlines a set of milestones. The milestones are divided into five strategic focus areas that include: 1. Build a Culture of Security; 2. Assess and Monitor Risk; 3. Develop and Implement New Protective Measures to Reduce Risk; 4. Manage Incidents; and 5. Sustain Security Improvements. The most current version of the roadmap was last updated in September of 2016. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been tasked with revisiting the roadmap to update the current state of energy delivery systems cybersecurity protections. SNL is currently working with previous and current partners to provide feedback on which of the roadmap milestones have been met and to identify any preexisting or new gaps that are not addressed by the roadmap. The specific focus areas SNL was asked to evaluate are: 1. Develop and Implement New Protective Measures to Reduce Risk and 2. Sustain Security Improvements. SNL has formed an Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to assist in answering these questions. The IAB consists of previous partners on past CEDS funded efforts as well as new collaborators that have unique insights into the current state of cybersecurity within energy delivery systems. The IAB includes asset owners, utilities and vendors of control systems. SNL will continue to maintain regular communications with the IAB to provide various perspectives on potential future updates to further improve the breadth of cybersecurity coverage of the roadmap.

  10. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN... Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] ...

  11. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL... Buildings. § 435.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved] ...

  12. National Energy with Weather System Simultator (NEWS) Sets Bounds on Cost Effective Wind and Solar PV Deployment in the USA without the Use of Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. In 2009, we began a large-scale investigation into the characteristics of weather-driven renewables. The project utilized the best available weather data assimilation model to compute high spatial and temporal resolution power datasets for the renewable resources of wind and solar PV. The weather model used is the Rapid Update Cycle for the years of 2006-2008. The team also collated a detailed electrical load dataset for the contiguous USA from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for the same three-year period. The coincident time series of electrical load and weather data allows the possibility of temporally correlated computations for optimal design over large geographic areas. The past two years have seen the development of a cost optimization mathematic model that designs electric power systems. The model plans the system and dispatches it on an hourly timescale. The system is designed to be reliable, reduce carbon, reduce variability of renewable resources and move the electricity about the whole domain. The system built would create the infrastructure needed to reduce carbon emissions to 0 by 2050. The advantages of the system is reduced water demain, dual incomes for farmers, jobs for construction of the infrastructure, and price stability for energy. One important simplified test that was run included existing US carbon free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an

  13. Achievements in nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messer, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    At present, nuclear power plants are supplying approx.30% of the electric energy generated in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). There are 19 power reactors in operation with a total installed capacity of approx.17 GW (gross). In 1984 their average capacity factor was 82.6%. For many years, German power reactors have ranked rather high in the world list of nuclear power plant performance. There are many reasons for this, which may be grouped into two fields: 1) design, manufacture, and construction, and 2) operation management. There is an area other than nuclear power plant technology and management where German utilities and nuclear industry have achieved a good performance: the nuclear fuel cycle. Today, the German uranium companies are producing more natural uranium than is needed for our nuclear power plants. Major progress in uranium enrichment technology was achieved by developing the URENCO gas centrifuge with essential German participation. The high availability and good economics of German nuclear power plants are also due to an advanced fuel assembly design. As to the back-end of the fuel cycle, the political situation has not been favorable for a timely realization of the installations needed. However, considerable progress has been made in developing an advanced reprocessing technology

  14. Exploring the comparative cost-effectiveness of economic incentive and command-and-control instruments, and of renewable energy technologies in PM10 emission control: A case study of Lima-Callao, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Timm

    Much economic literature expounds the superior cost-effectiveness of economic incentive (EI) policies over command-and-control (CAC) ones, based on appealing theoretical arguments. However, one of the assumptions underlying much of this literature is that monitoring and enforcement (M&E) of policies are not only feasible, but essentially costless. In reality, M&E are never costless and sometimes infeasible, and, crucially, M&E requirements vary across policy types. Furthermore, in technical economic terms, cost-effectiveness is defined with respect to variable costs only; however, in choosing among policies, the objective generally is to identify that with the lowest total (variable plus fixed) cost per unit abatement, which in its own right may be termed cost-effective. The neglect of M&E and of fixed costs throws up the question of the validity of much of the policy advice that draws on the environmental economics literature for developing countries, where the institutional capacity for effective M&E often is strongly limited, and where creating this capacity will require considerable infrastructure investments. The limited institutional capacity also has led to the suggestion that in developing countries, conventional environmental policies, such as input or output taxes, emission charges, or standards, may be less cost-effective than non-conventional environmental policies, such as direct public provision of electricity from renewable sources, because the M&E capacity required for the implementation of non-conventional policies is often less stringent. I test the hypotheses of superior cost-effectiveness of EI over CAC and of non-conventional over conventional environmental policy instruments. The samples of pollution control policies used to test the hypotheses are drawn from a list of frequently recommended urban air pollution abatement measures for developing countries, plus two renewable energy sources. Both sets of environmental policy types are compared

  15. Microhydro: Cost-effective, modular systems for low heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, K.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, P.B. 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Giddens, E.P. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, 81 Grange Street, Opawa, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2008-06-15

    This paper is an overview of a program that is in the final stages of developing a modular set of cost-effective microhydro schemes for site heads below those currently serviced by Pelton Wheels. The rationale has been that there is a multitude of viable low-head sites in isolated areas where microhydro is a realistic energy option, and where conventional economics are not appropriate, especially in Third World countries. The goals of this project have been to provide low-cost, soundly based turbine design solutions that systematically cover the 0.2-20 kW supply, that are uniquely resistant to debris blockage and are easily built by tradesmen of medium skills in regional workshops. The paper presents the results as a matrix of the most cost-effective penstocks matched to modular turbines using established electronic controls. It discusses practical issues of site selection and options for sites where exact matches are not achieved. It has been an object of the program to establish a benchmark for cost-effectiveness in the microhydro field. (author)

  16. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  17. Paradigms and poverty in global energy policy: research needs for achieving universal energy access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Bazilian, Morgan; Toman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This research letter discusses elements of a long-term interdisciplinary research effort needed to help ensure the maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits of achieving secure universal access to modern energy services. Exclusion of these services affects the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. The research community has an important, but not yet well-defined, role to play.

  18. The cost-effectiveness of NBPTS teacher certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S

    2010-06-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) program suggests that Board certification is less cost-effective than a range of alternative approaches for raising student achievement, including comprehensive school reform, class size reduction, a 10% increase in per pupil expenditure, the use of value-added statistical methods to identify effective teachers, and the implementation of systems where student performance in math and reading is rapidly assessed 2-5 times per week. The most cost-effective approach, rapid assessment, is three magnitudes as cost-effective as Board certification.

  19. Energy conservation achievements by New Shorrock Mills, Ahmedabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, N.L.; Trivedi, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The New Shorrock Mills, Ahmedabad is a textile mill manufacturing cloth. Managerial practices like energy auditing and energy conservation monitoring introduced to conserve energy are described. Various measures implemented to conserve energy in machines power; carding, winding, warping and sizing operations; auto looms and lighting power are described. Cost reduction in terms of rupees is given. (N.B.)

  20. EU energy policies achievement by industries in decentralized areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destro Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy Roadmap outlined by the European Commission sets out several routes for a more sustainable, competitive and secure energy system in 2050. All the outlined scenarios consider energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. In this paper, more attention has been devoted to the energy efficiency issue, by the identification of new micro and small networks opportunity fed by hybrid plants in the North-East of Italy. National energy balance and national transmission system operator data allowed to collect industrial energy consumptions data on the investigated area. Applying industrial statistics to the local energy needs allows to collect a dataset including consumption information by factory and by company structure (size and employees for each industrial sector highlighting the factory density in the area. Preliminary outcomes from the model address to the exploitation of local by-product for energy purposes.

  1. EU energy policies achievement by industries in decentralized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro, Nicola; Stoppato, Anna; Benato, Alberto; Schiro, Fabio

    2017-11-01

    Energy Roadmap outlined by the European Commission sets out several routes for a more sustainable, competitive and secure energy system in 2050. All the outlined scenarios consider energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. In this paper, more attention has been devoted to the energy efficiency issue, by the identification of new micro and small networks opportunity fed by hybrid plants in the North-East of Italy. National energy balance and national transmission system operator data allowed to collect industrial energy consumptions data on the investigated area. Applying industrial statistics to the local energy needs allows to collect a dataset including consumption information by factory and by company structure (size and employees) for each industrial sector highlighting the factory density in the area. Preliminary outcomes from the model address to the exploitation of local by-product for energy purposes.

  2. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  3. Achieving a secure energy future: Environmental and economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, David; Herdendorf, M.; Eisenfeld, S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy, economics, and the environment are interdependent. Land, water, atmospheric, and biological resources are being degraded by current high energy consumption. U.S. energy consumption is the highest in the world and the U.S. Department of Energy reports that the United States has only about 10 years of known and potentially discoverable oil reserves. The U.S. should reduce its energy consumption by one half to help restore the quality of the environment while improving the American standard of living by strengthening the economy and increasing the number of jobs. Because of the interdependence of energy, economics, and the environment, energy efficiency and transition to renewable energy sources are critical. An estimated 40% of current energy consumption could be produced employing solar energy technologies, but would require about 20% of total U.S. land area. Therefore, the development of solar energy technologies to substitute for fossil energy is projected to compete for land required for agriculture and forestry as well as have other environmental impacts

  4. Achieving wood energy potentials: evidence in northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Bradley; David C. Lothner

    1987-01-01

    A study of wood energy potential in northeastern Minnesota concludes that (1) the forests of the region could support a much larger wood energy harvest without significant cost increases for other forest products; (2) existing stands are predominantly overmature and cutting more now will enhance future wood supplies for all users; (3) converting to wood energy could...

  5. Industrial energy efficiency: Achieving success in a difficult environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellow, Carl

    2010-09-15

    Energy use and the resulting environmental impacts are major points of concern for the world in the 21st century. Opinions that define the challenges of sustainable energy options are as diverse as the proposed solutions. The industrial sector is a key area both from the standpoint of the amount of energy consumed and the magnitude of the energy options that exist there. However, history has shown that success in the industrial energy sector requires careful planning and consideration of the unique challenges of the manufacturing environment.

  6. 12 New England Organizations Honored for Outstanding Achievements in Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring 12 New England businesses and organizations for their commitment to saving energy, saving money, and protecting the environment through superior energy efficiency achievements.

  7. Perspectives on achieving sustainable energy production and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traditional definition of sustainability calls for polices and strategies that meet society's present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Achieving operational sustainability requires three critical elements: advances in scien...

  8. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  9. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  10. Achievements and Challenges of the Croatian Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the past period of about the 10 years from the point of view of strategic considerations, documents drawn up and everything that has been accomplished. This was the period of intensive reforms of the energy sector in the Eu, but also in all other European countries, in particular in the candidate states. The mentioned period is marked by political and economic reforms and intensive economic growth of highly populated countries especially in Asia and dramatic changes in the established geo-balance of energy production and consumption. Among the developments that loom large on energy sector it is important to mention growing terrorism, war in Iraq and Middle East. The analyses carried out in this paper show that the set goals should not be changed because they became universal for all countries which organize their energy sectors based on the open market concept and responsible energy management. Problems are evident in implementation of strategic choices and therefore the emphasis is put on further implementation efforts. The analysis of other factors influencing the energy sector indicate the enhancing international cooperation, ranging from scientific researches to joint energy projects, and for Croatia it translates as a need for stronger integration in all processes and projects on the continent. (author)

  11. SIMULTANEOUS INTEGRATION OF WATER AND ENERGY: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Process Integration (PI is a tool that for over forty years has demonstrated its strength to provide optimal solutions to complex problems. The interaction of exchange systems of energy and water networks is a typical case of such problems. The gradual increase in the consumption of water and energy has determined the development of methodologies that take into account the simultaneous integration of these resources. This paper aims to present a literature review related to the simultaneous integration of water and energy. First, general items related to this research field are presented, emphasizing the approaches to simultaneous integration (Pinch Analysis and Mathematical Programming. Some recent cases of studies, demonstrating the strength of these tools mainly focus to sugar industry, are also presented. Finally some of the challenges to be faced by the simultaneous integration of water and energy for the diversification of the Cuban sugar industry are presented.

  12. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  13. China's energy: achievements, problems, prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smil, V.

    1976-01-01

    The author discusses China's energy in eight chapters: Study of China's Energetics; Fossil Fuels; Hydroenergy; Traditional and Unconventional Sources; Energy Trade; Energy in the Chinese Society; International Comparisons; and Forecasting the Future. He notes in Chap. 1 ''a proper general system analysis of energy developments is extremely difficult due to the dubious quality or . . . virtually total absence of credible information about many economic and societal factors that are closely interrelated with the country's energetics: lack of regular and reliable industrial, agricultural, and population statistics is certainly the greatest obstacle.'' The situation with fossil fuels, the huge potential for hydroenergy, their traditional plant fuels, their biogas production systems, and their necessary animal and human energy are discussed. The author cites the huge energy flows associated with solar radiation, geothermal gradients, or tidal movements, but concludes that their exploitation is not imminent. Each chapter is concluded with extensive notes and bibliographical citations. (MCW)

  14. Development of Pathways to Achieve the SE4ALL Energy Efficiency Objective: Global and Regional Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Balyk, Olexandr; Pérez, Cristian Hernán Cabrera

    . Double the share of renewable energy in global final energy from 18% to 36% by 2030. The integrated assessment model, ETSAP-TIAM, was used in this study to compare, from an economic optimization point of view, different scenarios for the development of the energy system between 2010 and 2030....... This analysis is conducted on a global and regional scale. The scenarios were constructed to analyze the effect of achieving the SE4ALL energy efficiency objective, the SE4ALL renewable energy objective, both together, and all three SE4ALL objectives. Synergies exist between renewable energy and energy...... efficiency. When the SE4ALL renewable energy objective is achieved, the economically optimal solution produced by ETSAP-TIAM also includes a reduction in energy intensity: globally, the compound annual reduction in energy intensity of GDP is 1.8% when the renewable energy objective is achieved. Likewise...

  15. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program.3 The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%. The new 15,000-square foot (ft2) LBGO office building has two stories and houses private offices, open-plan cubicle offices, and a conference room and call center on the second floor. The building’s modular nature allowed LBGO to realize the cost benefits of fasttracked construction while saving substantial energy and reducing operational costs. The project was funded by the utility’s ratepayer revenue, which imposed a tight budget limit. The design process was a collaborative effort involving LBGO and its design-build team, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and subcontractors Stantec (formerly Burt Hill) and LHB Inc. The team proposed efficiency measures based on computer modeling of the building in full compliance with ASHRAE 90.1-2007; in the modeled building, the lighting and cooling systems were the largest energy users, so increasing the efficiency of these systems was a top priority. Promising measures were modeled to estimate their energy performance, and each measure was evaluated for its feasibility within the budget.

  16. Difficulties in achieving public acceptance of nuclear energy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, S.

    1993-01-01

    Both the surveys and other social phenomena (establishment of a Polish Nucleonic Society, change in the tone by the mass media, access to other nations' experience) provide some grounds for a moderately optimistic (for nuclear energy prospect in Poland) conclusion of this paper. Unfortunately, one also has to be aware of hazards to that vision. The continuing economic crisis and the resulting fall in energy demand exerts no pressure on investing in energy. Environmental movements still have a considerable authority among the society. The unstable political situation in this part of Europe aggravated by the lack of sufficient guarantees against uncontrolled use of nuclear weapons also a negative impact on the awareness and attitudes of people. All these matters- signs of hope and difficulties- are great challenges to us. We will seek to meet them

  17. Energy efficiency in India: Achievements, challenges and legality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Sarat Kumar; Varma, Payal; Lall, Krishna Prabhakar; Talwar, Chanpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the main legal Center enforced Commissions and Acts that are aimed at improving the current energy deficit in the country, with a specific emphasis on the need for research and a shift in the power market towards more sustainable technology. The paper first examines the main aims of the governmental 5 year plans in the past ten years, and then evaluates the merits and short comings of the existing technical framework that governs the Electrical Grid and Generation systems in the country. The paper also proposes inherent improvements, with ground scale methods in developing a sound and competitive system for power distribution through consumer and employee involvement as well as changes in the investment arena that can substantially alter the market compatibility of renewably generated energy. The paper indicates several key steps that the Center and State Governments have taken in order to revolutionise the feasibility of the electrical systems in the country. Finally, the paper appraises and assesses the main amendments in the Electrical Industry Legal literature and enforcement mechanisms that can effectuate rapid and systemic changes across the Indian context. - Highlights: • Discuss Opportunities and Challenges of Energy Efficiency in India's power sector. • Explores the legal Center enforced Commissions and Acts on the power market. • Governmental 5 years plan for the Electrical Grid and Generation systems. • Center and State Governments steps taken to revolutionize the electrical systems. • Appraises and assesses the main amendments in the Electrical Industry.

  18. Achieving energy security through integrated Canadian-American markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, A.; Rastin, T.; O'Keefe, G.

    2006-01-01

    The oil and gas sector in the United States and Canada has become increasingly integrated over the last 2 decades, and competitive market forces have displaced attempts at government intervention in both countries. Regulatory measures in both countries are often geared to optimize free-market exchanges. As a result, trade in oil, gas, and electricity is flourishing between Canada and the United States. This paper argued that the relationship between the United States and Canada is under increasing pressure to change. In Canada, energy nationalism and the rising importance of Alberta's oil sands deposits may cause other regions to look at political methods to redistribute wealth or redirect trade flows. The extraction methods used by the oil sands industry as well as Arctic, offshore oil and coalbed methane (CBM) industries are more detrimental to the environment than traditional methods of energy source development, and may attract critics who will call for freezes on production and excessive government intervention. Data on energy production, consumption and trade in North America was provided as well as a history of the evolution of market and regulatory conditions. Challenges and opportunities in the oil and gas sector were outlined. It was recommended that governments in both countries emphasize their commitment to market-based solutions and attempt to remove uncertainties arising from environmental restrictions and First Nations claims. 104 refs

  19. Evaluation of energy-distribution of a hybrid microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) for cost-effective wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Bi, Fanghua; Ngo, Huu-Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Jia, Hui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xinbo

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost hybrid system integrating a membrane-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was studied for fouling mitigation. The appended electric field in the MBR was supplied by the MFC with continuous flow. Supernatant from an anaerobic reactor with low dissolved oxygen was used as feed to the MFC in order to enhance its performance compared with that fed with synthetic wastewater. The voltage output of MFC maintained at 0.52±0.02V with 1000Ω resister. The electric field intensity could reach to 0.114Vcm(-1). Compared with the conventional MBR (CMBR), the contents rather than the components of foulants on the cake layer of fouled MFC-MBR system was significantly reduced. Although only 0.5% of the feed COD was translated into electricity and applied to MBR, the hybrid system showed great feasibility without additional consumption but extracting energy from waste water and significantly enhancing the membrane filterability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring energy security. Can the United States achieve oil independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic simulation of the direct economic costs of oil dependence in an uncertain future is proposed as a useful metric of oil dependence. The market failure from which these costs arise is imperfect competition in the world oil market, chiefly as a consequence of the use of market power by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel. Oil dependence costs can be substantial. It is estimated that oil dependence costs to the US economy in 2008 will exceed $500 billion. Other costs, such as military expenditures or foreign policy constraints are deemed to be largely derivative of the actual or potential economic costs of oil dependence. The use of quantifiable economic costs as a security metric leads to a measurable definition of oil independence, or oil security, which can be used to test the ability of specific policies to achieve oil independence in an uncertain future. (author)

  1. Achieving energy efficiency in restructured markets, implications for IRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo, J.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The shift of the focus of the vertically integrated model to the new unbundled models of organization to attain a ''new competitive'' Electricity Supply Industry brings new subjects into IRP (Integrated Resource Planning) study. The decision centralization on new capacity additions is being substituted by market mechanisms, changing the implementation of the IRP regarding both the construction of new capacity and the DSM. The implication for DSM is that, without a central planning process, it will not be possible to carry out IRP. In some countries they are implementing policies tending to create a more favourable attitude towards energy efficiency, in products and services. The conventional programmes of Demand-Side Management are being redesigned as added-value services to conserve or create market quota through Market Transformation mechanisms, such as Technology Procurement. (author)

  2. Cost?effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cost?effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost?effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost?effectiveness thresholds allow cost?effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization?s Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost?effectiveness thresholds based...

  3. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  4. On cost-effective communication network designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2010-02-01

    How to efficiently design a communication network is a paramount task for network designing and engineering. It is, however, not a single objective optimization process as perceived by most previous researches, i.e., to maximize its transmission capacity, but a multi-objective optimization process, with lowering its cost to be another important objective. These two objectives are often contradictive in that optimizing one objective may deteriorate the other. After a deep investigation of the impact that network topology, node capability scheme and routing algorithm as well as their interplays have on the two objectives, this letter presents a systematic approach to achieve a cost-effective design by carefully choosing the three designing aspects. Only when routing algorithm and node capability scheme are elegantly chosen can BA-like scale-free networks have the potential of achieving good tradeoff between the two objectives. Random networks, on the other hand, have the built-in character for a cost-effective design, especially when other aspects cannot be determined beforehand.

  5. The portfolio of renewable energy sources for achieving the three E policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yung-Chi; Chou, Chiyang James; Lin, Grace T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy is considered by many policy-makers to contribute to achieving at least three major policy goals: the energy goal, the environmental goal, and the economic goal (3E goals). As an innovation-oriented island country with scarce natural resources, Taiwan announced the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles in 2008 that stated that Taiwan's renewable energy policy should accomplish the 3E goals. Several studies point out that specific renewable energy policy goals lead to specific renewable energy sources and technologies because each type of renewable energy has different features. In order to achieve the renewable energy policy goals, this research aims to examine how different policy goals lead to corresponding renewable energy sources. The relative importance of each goal is evaluated by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight of each policy goal is adjusted separately to construct policy scenarios by the sensitivity analysis. According to the results, non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy are three sources that could meet the three policy goals at the same time. -- Highlights: →This study aims to propose a portfolio of renewable energy sources to achieve energy, environmental, and economic policy goals for Taiwan. →Non-pumped storage hydropower performs best to achieve energy and environmental goals. →Wind energy performs well to accomplish environmental goal. →Solar energy is the most preferred alternative to achieve economic goal. →The portfolio of non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can accomplish the three E policy goals at the same time.

  6. Tradeable CO2 emission permits for cost-effective control of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.F.; South, D.W.; Daly, T.A.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    Many current global warming mitigation policy proposals call for large, near-term reductions in CO 2 emissions, thereby entailing high initial carbon emission tax rates or permit prices. This paper claims that these high initial tax rates or permit prices are not cost-effective in achieving the desired degree of climate change control. A cost-effective permit system is proposed and described that, under certain assumptions, would allow markets to optimally lead permit prices along a gradually increasing trajectory over tie. This price path presents the Hotelling result and would ease the abrupt, inefficient, and costly adjustments imposed on the fossil fuel and other industries in current proposals. This finding is demonstrated using the Argonne Model, a linear programming energy- environmental-economic model that allows for intertemporal optimization of consumer energy well-being. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Deregulation and Nuclear Training: Cost Effective Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Coe; Patricia A. Lake

    2000-01-01

    Training is crucial to the success of any organization. It is also expensive, with some estimates exceeding $50 billion annually spent on training by U.S. corporations. Nuclear training, like that of many other highly technical organizations, is both crucial and costly. It is unlikely that the amount of training can be significantly reduced. If anything, current trends indicate that training needs will probably increase as the industry and workforce ages and changes. With the advent of energy deregulation in the United States, greater pressures will surface to make the costs of energy more cost-competitive. This in turn will drive businesses to more closely examine existing costs and find ways to do things in a more cost-effective way. The commercial nuclear industry will be no exception, and nuclear training will be equally affected. It is time for nuclear training and indeed the entire nuclear industry to begin using more aggressive techniques to reduce costs. This includes the need for nuclear training to find alternatives to traditional methods for the delivery of cost-effective high-quality training that meets regulatory requirements and produces well-qualified personnel capable of working in an efficient and safe manner. Computer-based and/or Web-based training are leading emerging technologies

  8. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion......, which has been in use for some years. The cost-effectiveness of varenicline depends on the cost of the therapy and the cost-savings achieved through reduced morbidity and mortality; several investigations, based on the situation in different countries, indicate that varenicline either finances itself...

  9. AY 2007-2008 Achieving U.S. Energy Security: Energy Industry Sector Report Seminar 8

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...; the ability to generate and exploit inexpensive energy underpins that strength. Therefore, the United States has a vital interest in ensuring the viability and stability of the global energy system and securing its energy security...

  10. Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of Columbia used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  11. Cost-effective personal workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, In K.

    1990-07-01

    A cost-effective personal workstation has been designed and developed using PC based commercial products, to assist physicians and scientists who are interested in creating teaching programs based on CT and MR images, collecting interesting cases, carrying out research projects requiring original digital image information, or generating reports. The development hardware is based on an IBM PS/2 Model 80 with a 85 14 graphics adaptor, an optical disk, a trackball, a digitizing pad, a 9 track tape drive, a mouse, a T800 transputer card, an Ethernet card, a voice recognition card, and a fax machine. The software development has been done using Microsoft C under Windows/286, such that software can be used with any 80286/80386 PCs capably of supporting Windows/286.

  12. Minimum Performance Requirements for Microbial Fuel Cells to Achieve Energy-Neutral Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A. Stoll

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs have recently achieved energy-positive wastewater treatment at pilot scale. Despite these achievements, there is still a limited understanding as to whether all wastewaters contain sufficient amounts of energy and, if so, whether MFCs can capture a sufficient amount of energy to offset electrical energy requirements in the wastewater treatment process. Currently, there are no tools or methods available that can determine whether an MFC can be energy-neutral a priori. To address this, we derived a simple relationship by setting the electrical energy requirements of a wastewater treatment facility equal to the net energy output of the MFC, such that the resulting expression describes the minimum chemical oxygen demand (COD removal needed to achieve energy-neutral treatment. The resulting equation is simply a function of electrical energy requirements, Coulombic Efficiency, and cell voltage. This work provides the first ever quantitative method for determining if the MFCs are feasible to achieve energy-neutral treatment for a given wastewater and what level of performance is needed.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sandhill crane habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Andrew C.; Merchant, James W.; Shultz, Steven D.; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often threaten native wildlife populations and strain the budgets of agencies charged with wildlife management. We demonstrate the potential of cost-effectiveness analysis to improve the efficiency and value of efforts to enhance sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) roosting habitat. We focus on the central Platte River in Nebraska (USA), a region of international ecological importance for migrating avian species including sandhill cranes. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a valuation process designed to compare alternative actions based on the cost of achieving a pre-determined objective. We estimated costs for removal of invasive vegetation using geographic information system simulations and calculated benefits as the increase in area of sandhill crane roosting habitat. We generated cost effectiveness values for removing invasive vegetation on 7 land parcels and for the entire central Platte River to compare the cost-effectiveness of management at specific sites and for the central Platte River landscape. Median cost effectiveness values for the 7 land parcels evaluated suggest that costs for creating 1 additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat totaled US $1,595. By contrast, we found that creating an additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat could cost as much as US $12,010 for some areas in the central Platte River, indicating substantial cost savings can be achieved by using a cost effectiveness analysis to target specific land parcels for management. Cost-effectiveness analysis, used in conjunction with geographic information systems, can provide decision-makers with a new tool for identifying the most economically efficient allocation of resources to achieve habitat management goals.

  14. Cost-effective conservation of an endangered frog under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lucy E; Heard, Geoffrey W; Chee, Yung En; Wintle, Brendan A

    2016-04-01

    How should managers choose among conservation options when resources are scarce and there is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of actions? Well-developed tools exist for prioritizing areas for one-time and binary actions (e.g., protect vs. not protect), but methods for prioritizing incremental or ongoing actions (such as habitat creation and maintenance) remain uncommon. We devised an approach that combines metapopulation viability and cost-effectiveness analyses to select among alternative conservation actions while accounting for uncertainty. In our study, cost-effectiveness is the ratio between the benefit of an action and its economic cost, where benefit is the change in metapopulation viability. We applied the approach to the case of the endangered growling grass frog (Litoria raniformis), which is threatened by urban development. We extended a Bayesian model to predict metapopulation viability under 9 urbanization and management scenarios and incorporated the full probability distribution of possible outcomes for each scenario into the cost-effectiveness analysis. This allowed us to discern between cost-effective alternatives that were robust to uncertainty and those with a relatively high risk of failure. We found a relatively high risk of extinction following urbanization if the only action was reservation of core habitat; habitat creation actions performed better than enhancement actions; and cost-effectiveness ranking changed depending on the consideration of uncertainty. Our results suggest that creation and maintenance of wetlands dedicated to L. raniformis is the only cost-effective action likely to result in a sufficiently low risk of extinction. To our knowledge we are the first study to use Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis to explicitly incorporate parametric and demographic uncertainty into a cost-effective evaluation of conservation actions. The approach offers guidance to decision makers aiming to achieve cost-effective

  15. Achieving Actionable Results from Available Inputs: Metamodels Take Building Energy Simulations One Step Further

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsey, Henry; Fleming, Katherine; Ball, Brian; Long, Nicholas

    2016-08-26

    Modeling commercial building energy usage can be a difficult and time-consuming task. The increasing prevalence of optimization algorithms provides one path for reducing the time and difficulty. Many use cases remain, however, where information regarding whole-building energy usage is valuable, but the time and expertise required to run and post-process a large number of building energy simulations is intractable. A relatively underutilized option to accurately estimate building energy consumption in real time is to pre-compute large datasets of potential building energy models, and use the set of results to quickly and efficiently provide highly accurate data. This process is called metamodeling. In this paper, two case studies are presented demonstrating the successful applications of metamodeling using the open-source OpenStudio Analysis Framework. The first case study involves the U.S. Department of Energy's Asset Score Tool, specifically the Preview Asset Score Tool, which is designed to give nontechnical users a near-instantaneous estimated range of expected results based on building system-level inputs. The second case study involves estimating the potential demand response capabilities of retail buildings in Colorado. The metamodel developed in this second application not only allows for estimation of a single building's expected performance, but also can be combined with public data to estimate the aggregate DR potential across various geographic (county and state) scales. In both case studies, the unique advantages of pre-computation allow building energy models to take the place of topdown actuarial evaluations. This paper ends by exploring the benefits of using metamodels and then examines the cost-effectiveness of this approach.

  16. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachauri, S.; van Ruijven, B.J.; Nagai, Y.; Riahi, K.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Brew-Hammond, A.; Nakicenovic, N.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these

  17. Energy difference space random walk to achieve fast free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Donghong; Yang, Wei

    2008-05-21

    A method is proposed to efficiently obtain free energy differences. In the present algorithm, free energy calculations proceed by the realization of an energy difference space random walk. Thereby, this algorithm can greatly improve the sampling of the regions in phase space where target states overlap.

  18. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...

  19. Factors cost effectively improved using computer simulations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors cost effectively improved using computer simulations of maize yields in semi-arid Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Abstract. Achieving food security is a challenge for the developed and developing world. ... Most African farmers do not have the computer resources or expertise to implement these types of technology.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion...

  1. Outsourcing CIS to achieve a cost-effective competitive edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, A.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to survive in a competitive electricity market is a function of the ability of a service provider to deliver superior levels of customer service and develop new and innovative products and services. More and more, the foundation of these new services and products is the customer information system which has the capability to provide vast amounts of usage data and billing information; access to this data enables service providers to introduce new and innovative services and implement targeted marketing initiatives. Recent trend by progressive electricity providers appears to be to outsource specific information technology functions such as customer information systems (CIS) as a way to minimize capital investment, take advantage of leading edge technologies and leverage the expertise of niche service providers. Advantages of outsourcing, and factors important in the selection of an outsourcing partner are discussed

  2. Dengue dynamics and vaccine cost-effectiveness in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, David P; Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Medlock, Jan; Luz, Paula M; Meyers, Lauren A; Paltiel, A David; Galvani, Alison P

    2013-08-20

    Recent Phase 2b dengue vaccine trials have demonstrated the safety of the vaccine and estimated the vaccine efficacy with further trials underway. In anticipation of vaccine roll-out, cost-effectiveness analysis of potential vaccination policies that quantify the dynamics of disease transmission are fundamental to the optimal allocation of available doses. We developed a dengue transmission and vaccination model and calculated, for a range of vaccination costs and willingness-to-pay thresholds, the level of vaccination coverage necessary to sustain herd-immunity, the price at which vaccination is cost-effective and is cost-saving, and the sensitivity of our results to parameter uncertainty. We compared two vaccine efficacy scenarios, one a more optimistic scenario and another based on the recent lower-than-expected efficacy from the latest clinical trials. We found that herd-immunity may be achieved by vaccinating 82% (95% CI 58-100%) of the population at a vaccine efficacy of 70%. At this efficacy, vaccination may be cost-effective for vaccination costs up to US$ 534 (95% CI $369-1008) per vaccinated individual and cost-saving up to $204 (95% CI $39-678). At the latest clinical trial estimates of an average of 30% vaccine efficacy, vaccination may be cost-effective and cost-saving at costs of up to $237 (95% CI $159-512) and $93 (95% CI $15-368), respectively. Our model provides an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination in Brazil and incorporates the effect of herd immunity into dengue vaccination cost-effectiveness. Our results demonstrate that at the relatively low vaccine efficacy from the recent Phase 2b dengue vaccine trials, age-targeted vaccination may still be cost-effective provided the total vaccination cost is sufficiently low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  4. Privacy Enforcement in a Cost-Effective Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren Aagaard

    In this technical report we present the current state of the research conducted during the first part of the PhD period. The PhD thesis “Privacy Enforcement in a Cost-Effective Smart Grid” focuses on ensuring privacy when generating market for energy service providers that develop web services...... and privacy challenges that emerge when designing a system architecture and infrastructure. The resulting architecture is a consumer-centric and agent-based design and uses open Internet-based communication protocols for enabling interoperability while being cost-effective. Finally, the PhD report present...

  5. Distributed renewable energies for off-grid communities strategies and technologies toward achieving sustainability in energy generation and supply

    CERN Document Server

    El Bassam, Nasir; Schlichting, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Energy is directly related to the most critical economic and social issues which affect sustainable development such as mobility, food production, environmental quality, regional and global security issues. Two-thirds of the new demand will come from developing nations, with China accounting for 30%. Without adequate attention to the critical importance of energy to all these aspects, the global, social, economic and environmental goals of sustainability cannot be achieved. Indeed the magnitude of change needed is immense, fundamental and directly related to the energy produced and consumed na

  6. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolshus, Hans H; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Aunan, Kristin

    2001-06-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  7. Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolshus, Hans H; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Aunan, Kristin

    2001-06-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed countries in meeting their Kyoto targets. The aim of this paper is to explore the background of the CDM and discuss to what extent its current design allows it to achieve its dual objective. The first part of the paper is a literature review that includes descriptions of the flexibility mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol; the CDM's market potential, and the issues of cost-effectiveness and sustainable development. In the second part of the paper, we discuss to what extent there is a conflict between cost-effectiveness and sustain ability, and whether the two objectives of the CDM can be achieved simultaneously. We develop a set of indicators to evaluate non-carbon benefits of CDM projects on the environment, development, and. equity, and show how these indicators can be used in practice by looking at case studies of CDM project candidates in the energy sector from Brazil and China. We demonstrate that for some CDM projects there is a trade-off between cost-effectiveness, in terms of a low quota price, and a high score on sustain ability indicators. We have reason to believe that the size of the CDM market in some studies is over-estimated since transaction costs and the challenge of promoting sustainable development are not fully accounted for. Also, we find that the proposed set of indicators can be a necessary tool to assure that sustain ability impacts of CDM projects are taken into consideration. (author)

  8. Pursuing Photovoltaic Cost-Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2017-01-01

    Countries with considerable PhotoVoltaic (PV) installations are facing a challenge of overloading their power grid during peak-power production hours if the power infrastructure remains the same. To address this, regulations have been imposed on PV systems, where more active power control should...... be flexibly performed. As an advanced control strategy, the Absolute Active Power Control (AAPC) can effectively solve the overloading issues by limiting the maximum possible PV power to a certain level (i.e., the power limitation), and also benefit the inverter reliability due to the reduction in the thermal...... loading of the power devices. However, its feasibility is challenged by the associated energy losses. An increase of the inverter lifetime and a reduction of the energy yield can alter the cost of energy, demanding an optimization of the power limitation. Therefore, aiming at minimizing the Levelized Cost...

  9. Guideline for Achieving a Target Share of Renewable Energy in Final Energy Consumption in Slovenia Until 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecevic, Dj.

    2009-01-01

    European parliament's and Council for energy usage from renewable sources promotion's directive proposal determines acceptation of National action plan for every member state. General national goal for renewable energy share in final consumption in year 2020, defined in proposal, is 25 % energy from renewable sources in final energy consumption. Paper presents plan for renewable energy sources usage in electricity production and activities, which will be necessary to be held by organizations, which are carriers of energy activities, for building new capacities or rebuilding existing ones for electricity production from renewable energy sources. Purpose of plan is additional 3.000 GWh electricity production in year 2020 in comparison with today's electricity production from renewable energy sources. Accepted goal will be obligatory for organizations as carriers of energy activities for their social responsibility for obligations fulfillment and determined goals achievement. Report represents necessary steps that state has to make to reach bigger interest of investors for renewable energy investments and special attention is stressed on completion of regulation with goal to create suitable platform for future investors.(author).

  10. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy's nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy

  11. National Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian; Halverson, Mark A.; Myer, Michael; Loper, Susan A.; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2013-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed this project for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE’s BECP supports upgrading building energy codes and standards, and the states’ adoption, implementation, and enforcement of upgraded codes and standards. Building energy codes and standards set minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction for new and renovated buildings, and impact energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for the life of buildings. Continuous improvement of building energy efficiency is achieved by periodically upgrading energy codes and standards. Ensuring that changes in the code that may alter costs (for building components, initial purchase and installation, replacement, maintenance and energy) are cost-effective encourages their acceptance and implementation. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 is the energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 Compared to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Halverson, Mark A.; Myer, Michael; Cho, Hee Jin; Loper, Susan A.; Richman, Eric E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2013-06-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed this project for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP). DOE’s BECP supports upgrading building energy codes and standards, and the states’ adoption, implementation, and enforcement of upgraded codes and standards. Building energy codes and standards set minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction for new and renovated buildings, and impact energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for the life of buildings. Continuous improvement of building energy efficiency is achieved by periodically upgrading energy codes and standards. Ensuring that changes in the code that may alter costs (for building components, initial purchase and installation, replacement, maintenance and energy) are cost-effective encourages their acceptance and implementation. ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 is the energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors.

  13. Cost-effectiveness thresholds: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Lauer, Jeremy A; De Joncheere, Kees; Edejer, Tessa; Hutubessy, Raymond; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Hill, Suzanne R

    2016-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to compare the costs and outcomes of alternative policy options. Each resulting cost-effectiveness ratio represents the magnitude of additional health gained per additional unit of resources spent. Cost-effectiveness thresholds allow cost-effectiveness ratios that represent good or very good value for money to be identified. In 2001, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics in Health suggested cost-effectiveness thresholds based on multiples of a country's per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). In some contexts, in choosing which health interventions to fund and which not to fund, these thresholds have been used as decision rules. However, experience with the use of such GDP-based thresholds in decision-making processes at country level shows them to lack country specificity and this - in addition to uncertainty in the modelled cost-effectiveness ratios - can lead to the wrong decision on how to spend health-care resources. Cost-effectiveness information should be used alongside other considerations - e.g. budget impact and feasibility considerations - in a transparent decision-making process, rather than in isolation based on a single threshold value. Although cost-effectiveness ratios are undoubtedly informative in assessing value for money, countries should be encouraged to develop a context-specific process for decision-making that is supported by legislation, has stakeholder buy-in, for example the involvement of civil society organizations and patient groups, and is transparent, consistent and fair.

  14. Achieving low latency and energy consumption by 5G TDD mode optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähetkangas, Eeva; Pajukoski, Kari; Vihriälä, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    The target for a new 5G radio access technology is to support multi-Gbps and ms latency connectivity simultaneously at noticeably lower energy consumption and cost compared to the existing 4G technologies, such as LTE-Advanced. Extremely short air interface latency is required to achieve...... these requirements in a TDD-based local area network. In this paper, we discuss how the required short TDD latency can be achieved and further utilized in 5G physical air interface. First, we investigate the enablers and limits of TDD latency by analyzing the performance of OFDM in different channel environments...... and discussing on the consequent frame length limits. We then provide a description on how the achieved short TDD latency can further be utilized to enable remarkably low energy consumption. A numerical analysis comparing the battery life time of the suggested 5G TDD air interface and LTE is provided, showing...

  15. Energy Harvesting by Subcutaneous Solar Cells: A Long-Term Study on Achievable Energy Output

    OpenAIRE

    Bereuter, L.; Williner, S.; Pianezzi, F.; Bissig, B.; Buecheler, S.; Burger, J.; Vogel, R.; Zurbuchen, A.; Haeberlin, A.

    2017-01-01

    Active electronic implants are powered by primary batteries, which induces the necessity of implant replacement after battery depletion. This causes repeated interventions in a patients’ life, which bears the risk of complications and is costly. By using energy harvesting devices to power the implant, device replacements may be avoided and the device size may be reduced dramatically. Recently, several groups presented prototypes of implants powered by subcutaneous sola...

  16. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  17. Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    the stochastic behavior of wind energy to the demand, to provide the system with guaranteed power. This Wind–Hydro Plants in combination with the most adequate RES forming an Renewable Energy Supply System (RESS), increase further the economical penetration of RES into autonomous grids up to 90% or even 100......Numerous efforts have been done for achieving the maximum penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the autonomous grids of Greek islands, which never exceeded 10%, despite the exceptional wind and solar potential. Large fluctuations on demand during summer, winter, and 24-h period...... in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind farms (WFs), to use WF as the basic energy source and diesel generators as stand-by system changed in fact...

  18. Energy Harvesting by Subcutaneous Solar Cells: A Long-Term Study on Achievable Energy Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereuter, L; Williner, S; Pianezzi, F; Bissig, B; Buecheler, S; Burger, J; Vogel, R; Zurbuchen, A; Haeberlin, A

    2017-05-01

    Active electronic implants are powered by primary batteries, which induces the necessity of implant replacement after battery depletion. This causes repeated interventions in a patients' life, which bears the risk of complications and is costly. By using energy harvesting devices to power the implant, device replacements may be avoided and the device size may be reduced dramatically. Recently, several groups presented prototypes of implants powered by subcutaneous solar cells. However, data about the expected real-life power output of subcutaneously implanted solar cells was lacking so far. In this study, we report the first real-life validation data of energy harvesting by subcutaneous solar cells. Portable light measurement devices that feature solar cells (cell area = 3.6 cm 2 ) and continuously measure a subcutaneous solar cell's output power were built. The measurement devices were worn by volunteers in their daily routine in summer, autumn and winter. In addition to the measured output power, influences such as season, weather and human activity were analyzed. The obtained mean power over the whole study period was 67 µW (=19 µW cm -2 ), which is sufficient to power e.g. a cardiac pacemaker.

  19. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Solar Photovoltaic Energy Penetration in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and we quantify the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. We find that the storage needed depends strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints. This system requires extensive use of flexible generation, transmission, demand response, and electrifying one quarter of the vehicle fleet in California with largely optimized charging. A less flexible system, or more expensive PV would require significantly greater amounts of storage. The amount of storage needed to support very large amounts of PV might fit within a least-cost framework driven by declining storage costs and reduced storage-duration needs due to high PV penetration.

  20. The EU CONCERTO project Class 1 - Demonstrating cost-effective low-energy buildings - Recent results with special focus on comparison of calculated and measured energy performance of Danish buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Ove; Thomsen, K.E.; Rose, J.

    2012-01-01

    some of the new dwellings with renovation projects for public buildings. Simultaneously the originally planned district heating network supplied from a relatively small bio-gasification plant has been substantially enlarged to cover a large part of the existing Stenloese town as well and a large wood...... and experiences gained from the Danish housing projects. This paper describes the comparisons between measured and calculated energy consumption in a social housing settlement and in a detached single-family house. Results show relatively large discrepancies between measured and calculated results...

  1. The role of communications in achieving sound energy policy and excellence in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper highlights the renewed emphasis on excellence throughout the U.S. nuclear power industry. The author discusses the role of the industry's national communications programs in helping achieve excellence, and in helping maintain the viability of nuclear power as a major source of energy in America. The author discusses an industry report which emphasized that quality operational performance of all U.S. nuclear utilities is absolutely essential for public and regulatory trust. To achieve that trust, the public must know about operational excellence. According to the author, delivering that message is one of the industry's major assignments

  2. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Optimal Malaria Control Strategies in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Otieno

    2016-03-01

    which produces health improvements in the most cost effective way for different epidemiological zones. This offers the good value for money for the public health programs and can guide in the allocation of malaria control resources for the post-2015 malaria eradication strategies and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  3. Fundamental research on sintering technology with super deep bed achieving energy saving and reduction of emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongliang Han; Shengli Wu; Gensheng Feng; Luowen Ma; Weizhong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In the general frame of energy saving, environment protection and the concept of circular economy, the fundamental research on the sintering technology with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and emission reduction, was carried out. At first, the characteristics of the process and exhaust emission in the sintering with super deep bed was mastered through the study of the influence of different bed depths on the sintering process. Then, considering the bed permeability and the fuel combustion, their influence on the sinter yield and quality, their potential for energy saving and emission reduction was studied. The results show that the improvement of the bed permeability and of the fuel combustibility respectively and simultaneously, leads to an improvement of the sintering technical indices, to energy saving and emission reduction in the condition of super deep bed. At 1000 mm bed depth, and taking the appropriate countermeasure, it is possible to decrease the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 10.08%, 11.20%, 22.62% and 25.86% respectively; and at 700 mm bed depth, it is possible to reduce the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 20.71%, 22.01%, 58.86% and 13.13% respectively. This research provides the theoretical and technical basis for the new technology of sintering with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and reduction of emission. (authors)

  4. Energy for tomorrow's world: the realities, the real options and the agenda for achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, Ian

    1994-01-01

    The key energy issues to 2020 have been identified and partial solutions have been offered for them. Like many projects it may have its weak points - it may possibly have underestimated developing countries requirements: the assumption that oil and gas reserves will come under pressure early next century inducing price rises, may or may not materialize; and the lack of more specific messages as an agenda achievement may be seen by some as deficiencies. The main priorities have been identified and required action for global energy development is given. (author)

  5. Green Infrastructure Siting and Cost Effectiveness Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Parcel scale green infrastructure siting and cost effectiveness analysis. You can find more details at the project's website.

  6. Energy thrift and improved performance achieved through novel railway brake discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirovic, Marko

    2009-01-01

    A disc with radial vanes and circumferential pillars proves to be successful in operation and achieves energy efficiency improvements compared with those of traditional design. Cooling characteristics of this novel design are practically identical to the disc with tangential vanes but the equivalent aerodynamic (air pumping) losses are approximately 50% less. It is shown that these reductions in pumping losses can lead to substantial energy savings in train operations. When developing new designs and/or comparing different railway disc designs, the proposed disc cooling to aerodynamic efficiency ratio (η v ) was found to be a very useful parameter to assess. This 'efficiency ratio' - a ratio of convective power dissipation to aerodynamic power losses can help in achieving adequate balance of cooling efficiency and aerodynamic losses to suit particular application. The use of CFD is of enormous benefit in generating discs that fulfil these demanding requirements, with the spin rig being exceptionally useful for experimental work

  7. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes: National Laboratory White Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, researchers from four of the national laboratories involved in residential research (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) were asked to prepare papers focusing on the key longer term research challenges, market barriers, and technology gaps that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes. This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified in the national laboratory white papers.

  8. Priority Setting, Cost-Effectiveness, and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Govind

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) may be the most important health law statute in American history, yet much of the most prominent legal scholarship examining it has focused on the merits of the court challenges it has faced rather than delving into the details of its priority-setting provisions. In addition to providing an overview of the ACA's provisions concerning priority setting and their developing interpretations, this Article attempts to defend three substantive propositions. First, I argue that the ACA is neither uniformly hostile nor uniformly friendly to efforts to set priorities in ways that promote cost and quality. Second, I argue that the ACA does not take a single, unified approach to priority setting; rather, its guidance varies depending on the aspect of the healthcare system at issue (Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Medicare, essential health benefits) and the factors being excluded from priority setting (age, disability, life expectancy). Third, I argue that cost-effectiveness can be achieved within the ACA's constraints, but that doing so will require adopting new approaches to cost-effectiveness and priority setting. By limiting the use of standard cost-effectiveness analysis, the ACA makes the need for workable rivals to cost-effectiveness analysis a pressing practical concern rather than a mere theoretical worry.

  9. Future-Proofed Energy Design Approaches for Achieving Low-Energy Homes: Enhancing the Code for Sustainable Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Georgiadou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the label “future-proofing”, this paper examines the temporal component of sustainable construction as an unexplored, yet fundamental ingredient in the delivery of low-energy domestic buildings. The overarching aim is to explore the integration of future-proofed design approaches into current mainstream construction practice in the UK, focusing on the example of the Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH tool. Regulation has been the most significant driver for achieving the 2016 zero-carbon target; however, there is a gap between the appeal for future-proofing and the lack of effective implementation by building professionals. Even though the CSH was introduced as the leading tool to drive the “step-change” required for achieving zero-carbon new homes by 2016 and the single national standard to encourage energy performance beyond current statutory minima, it lacks assessment criteria that explicitly promote a futures perspective. Based on an established conceptual model of future-proofing, 14 interviews with building practitioners in the UK were conducted to identify the “feasible” and “reasonably feasible” future-proofed design approaches with the potential to enhance the “Energy and CO2 Emissions” category of the CSH. The findings are categorised under three key aspects; namely: coverage of sustainability issues; adopting lifecycle thinking; and accommodating risks and uncertainties and seek to inform industry practice and policy-making in relation to building energy performance.

  10. A novel bio-electrochemical system with sand/activated carbon separator, Al anode and bio-anode integrated micro-electrolysis/electro-flocculation cost effectively treated high load wastewater with energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changfei; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin

    2018-02-01

    A novel bio-electrochemical system (BES) was developed by integrating micro-electrolysis/electro-flocculation from attaching a sacrificing Al anode to the bio-anode, it effectively treated high load wastewater with energy recovery (maximum power density of 365.1 mW/m 3 and a maximum cell voltage of 0.97 V), and achieving high removals of COD (>99.4%), NH 4 + -N (>98.7%) and TP (>98.6%). The anode chamber contains microbes, activated carbon (AC)/graphite granules and Al anode. It was separated from the cathode chamber containing bifunctional catalytic and filtration membrane cathode (loaded with Fe/Mn/C/F/O catalyst) by a multi-medium chamber (MMC) filled with manganese sand and activated carbon granules, which replaced expensive PEM and reduced cost. An air contact oxidation bed for aeration was still adopted before liquid entering the cathode chamber. micro-electrolysis/electro-flocculation helps in achieving high removal efficiencies and contributes to membrane fouling migration. The increase of activated carbon in the separator MMC increased power generation and reduced system electric resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Achieving increased bandwidth for 4 degree of freedom self-tuning energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, L. G. H.; Smith, A. D.; Köhler, E.; Lundgren, P.; Folkow, P. D.; Enoksson, P.

    2018-04-01

    The frequency response of a self-tuning energy harvester composed of two piezoelectric cantilevers connected by a middle beam with a sliding mass is investigated. Measurements show that incorporation of a free-sliding mass increases the bandwidth. Using an analytical model, the system is explained through close investigation of the resonance modes. Resonance mode behavior further suggests that, by breaking the symmetry of the system, even broader bandwidths are achievable.

  12. Strategies for achieving healthy energy balance among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Groesbeck P; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2007-10-01

    Low-income African Americans who live in rural areas of the Deep South are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with unhealthy energy imbalance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has suggested various physical activity strategies to achieve healthy energy balance. Our objective was to conduct formal, open-ended discussions with low-income African Americans in the Mississippi Delta to determine 1) their dietary habits and physical activity levels, 2) their attitudes toward CDC's suggested physical activity strategies, and 3) their suggestions on how to achieve CDC's strategies within their own environment. A qualitative method (focus groups) was used to conduct the study during 2005. Prestudy meetings were held with African American lay health workers to formulate a focus group topic guide, establish inclusion criteria for focus group participants, select meeting sites and times, and determine group segmentation guidelines. Focus groups were divided into two phases. All discussions and focus group meetings were held in community centers within African American neighborhoods in the Mississippi Delta and were led by trained African American moderators. Phase I focus groups identified the following themes: overeating, low self-esteem, low income, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy methods of food preparation, a poor working definition of healthy energy balance, and superficial knowledge of strategies for achieving healthy energy balance. Phase 2 focus groups identified a preference for social support-based strategies for increasing physical activity levels. Energy balance strategies targeting low-income, rural African Americans in the Deep South may be more effective if they emphasize social interaction at the community and family levels and incorporate the concept of community volunteerism.

  13. Energy market reform in Europe. European energy and climate policies: achievements and challenges to 2020 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio and the negotiation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the European Union has consistently been at the forefront of global action to combat climate change, leading the world to a low-carbon economy. The EU has set itself greenhouse gas emission targets designed to produce an almost carbon-free economy by 2050 in order to make a major contribution to limiting the global temperature increase by the end of the century to 2 deg. C, compared to the pre-industrial average. As an interim step on the way to 2050, EU leaders in March 2007 set a number of ambitious climate and energy targets known as the '20-20-20 targets by 2020' or the 3 x 20 policy. In this, the EU committed to: - A 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels; - Raising the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20%; and - A 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. This 3 x 20 package is a part of a wider European energy strategy that aims at enhancing: - Sustainability; - Competitiveness and affordability; and - Security of supply. The EU energy and climate package has attracted criticism in the last few years, as each day brought more evidence that the policy measures had numerous unexpected, or unintended impacts on the energy markets and industry: an excess of intermittent sources of electricity causing disruption for grid operators, surplus electricity resulting in a price collapse of the wholesale electricity market, electricity price increase at retail level, exit of gas from the fuels for power generation and the advent of coal as an electricity price-setter... At the same time, it has also become evident that EU policy has failed to solve the existing EU energy imbalances in general. Ironically, after years of huge investments aimed at achieving the ambitious policy targets, a number of the objectives still seem to be a long way away. Indeed some may not even

  14. Innovative approach for achieving of sustainable urban water supply system by using of solar photovoltaic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Margeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes and analyses new and innovative concept for possible integration of solar photovoltaic (PV energy in urban water supply system (UWSS. Proposed system consists of PV generator and invertor, pump station and water reservoir. System is sized in such a manner that every his part is sized separately and after this integrated into a whole. This integration is desirable for several reasons, where the most important is the achievement of the objectives of sustainable living in urban areas i.e. achieving of sustainable urban water supply system. The biggest technological challenge associated with the use of solar, wind and other intermittent renewable energy sources RES is the realization of economically and environmentally friendly electric energy storage (EES. The paper elaborates the use of water reservoires in UWSS as EES. The proposed solution is still more expensive than the traditional and is economically acceptable today in the cases of isolated urban water system and special situations. Wider application will depend on the future trends of energy prices, construction costs of PV generators and needs for CO2 reduction by urban water infrastructure.

  15. BIOSTIRLING-4SKA : A cost effective and efficient approach for a new generation of solar dish-Stirling plants based on storage and hybridization; An Energy demo project for Large Scale Infrastructures",

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Domingos; Andre, Paulo; Paixao, Tiago; Marques, Carlos; van Ardenne, Arnold; Kant, Dion; Ebbendorf, Nico; Gonzalez, Luis Saturnino; Rubio, Diego; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Garcia, Emilio; Calama, Irene; Caballero, Francisco; Eskilson, Per; Gustavsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The BIOSTIRLING - 4SKA (B4S) is a EU demonstration project dealing with the implementation of a cost-effective and efficient new generation of solar dish-Stirling plants based on hybridization and efficient storage at the industrial scale. The main goal of the B4S demonstration project is the generation of electric power using simultaneously solar power and gas to supply an isolated system and act as a scalable example of potential power supply for many infrastructures, including future susta...

  16. Analog self-powered harvester achieving switching pause control to increase harvested energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Asahina, Kei

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog controller circuit to increase the efficiency of electrical energy harvesting from vibrational energy using piezoelectric materials. Although the existing synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) method is designed to produce efficient harvesting, its switching operation generates a vibration-suppression effect that reduces the harvested levels of electrical energy. To solve this problem, the authors proposed—in a previous paper—a switching method that takes this vibration-suppression effect into account. This method temporarily pauses the switching operation, allowing the recovery of the mechanical displacement and, therefore, of the piezoelectric voltage. In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog circuit to implement this switching control method. Self-powered vibration harvesting is achieved in this study by attaching a newly designed circuit to an existing analog controller for SSHI. This circuit aims to effectively implement the aforementioned new switching control strategy, where switching is paused in some vibration peaks, in order to allow motion recovery and a consequent increase in the harvested energy. Harvesting experiments performed using the proposed circuit reveal that the proposed method can increase the energy stored in the storage capacitor by a factor of 8.5 relative to the conventional SSHI circuit. This proposed technique is useful to increase the harvested energy especially for piezoelectric systems having large coupling factor.

  17. World energy outlook: how to share the efforts to be achieved by 2030?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This conference was organized a month after the publication by the International Energy Agency (IEA) of the 2007 World Energy Outlook (WEO) study. The energy situation at that time was marked by the repercussions on the environment and on the security of supplies in relation with the accelerated development of China and India. This document gathers the transparencies of the two presentations given at this conference. The first presentation by Fatih Birol, Chief Economist at the IEA, is entitled 'World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insights'. It presents the Cooperation with China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) and Energy Research Institute (ERI), and with India's Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) for the establishment of energy scenarios. Then the different scenarios are reviewed: Reference Scenario, Alternative Policy Scenario and 450 Stabilisation Case, High Growth Scenario (China/India). Finally, a full global update of projections (all scenarios) is presented and the impact of China and India on global economy, energy markets and environment is analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: - Global energy system is on an increasingly unsustainable path; - China and India are transforming the global energy system by their sheer size; - Challenge for all countries is to achieve transition to a more secure, lower carbon energy system; - New policies now under consideration would make a major contribution; - Next 10 years are critical (The pace of capacity additions will be most rapid, Technology will be 'locked-in' for decades, Growing tightness in oil and gas markets); - Challenge is global so solutions must be global. The second presentation by Jean-Charles Hourcade (CIRED) is entitled 'The WEO 2007 A few comments about the Emerging Giants... and us'. The presentation focusses on 4 points: - What implications of higher growth in the Asian Giants on the world economy through higher pressure on energy resources; - Economic questions

  18. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Van Ruijven, Bas J; Van Vuuren, Detlef P; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku

    2013-01-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US$ 2005 65–86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially. (letter)

  19. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Shonali; van Ruijven, Bas J.; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2013-06-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US200565-86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially.

  20. Economic Evaluation of the Information Security Levels Achieved by Electric Energy Providers in North Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, O. P.; Kaznin, A. A.; Babkin, A. V.; Bogdanov, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study we are conducting involves the analysis of information security levels achieved by energy providers operating in the North Arctic Region. We look into whether the energy providers’ current information security levels meet reliability standards and determine what further actions may be needed for upgrading information security in the context of the digital transformation that the world community is undergoing. When developing the information security systems for electric energy providers or selecting the protection means for them, we are governed by the fact that the assets to be protected are process technologies. While information security risk can be assessed using different methods, the evaluation of the economic damage from these risks appears to be a difficult task. The most probable and harmful risks we have identified when evaluating the electric energy providers’ information security will be used by us as variables. To provide the evaluation, it is necessary to calculate the costs relating to elimination of the risks identified. The final stage of the study will involve the development of an operation algorithm for the North Arctic Region’s energy provider’s business information protection security system - a set of information security services, and security software and hardware.

  1. Main Street Zero Energy Buildings: The Zero Energy Method in Concept and Practice: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Lobato, C.; Hootman, T.

    2010-07-01

    Ongoing work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicates that net-zero energy building (NZEB) status is both achievable and repeatable today. This paper presents a definition framework for classifying NZEBs and a real-life example that demonstrates how a large-scale office building can cost-effectively achieve net-zero energy.

  2. Achieving better energy-efficient air conditioning – A review of technologies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K.J.; Chou, S.K.; Yang, W.M.; Yan, J.

    2013-01-01

    Air conditioning is essential for maintaining thermal comfort in indoor environments, particularly for hot and humid climates. Today, air conditioning, comprising cooling and dehumidification, has become a necessity in commercial and residential buildings and industrial processes. It accounts for a major share of the energy consumption of a building or facility. In tropical climates, the energy consumed by heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) can exceed 50% of the total energy consumption of a building. This significant figure is primarily due to the heavy duty placed on cooling technologies to remove both sensible and latent heat loads. Therefore, there is tremendous potential to improve the overall efficiency of the air-conditioning systems in buildings. Based on today’s practical technology for cooling, the major components of a chiller plant are (1) compressors, (2) cooling towers, (3) pumps (chilled and cooling water) and (4) fans in air handling units. They all consume mainly electricity to operate. When specifying the kW/R ton of a plant, there are two levels of monitoring cooling efficiency: (1) at the efficiency of the chiller machines or the compressors which consume a major amount of electricity; and (2) at the overall efficiency of cooling plants which include the cooling towers, pumps for moving coolant (chilled and cooling water) to all air-handling units. Pragmatically, a holistic approach is necessary towards achieving a low energy input per cooling achieved such as 0.6 kW/R ton cooling or lower by considering all aspects of the cooling plant. In this paper, we present a review of recent innovative cooling technology and strategies that could potentially lower the kW/R ton of cooling systems – from the existing mean of 0.9 kW/R ton towards 0.6 kW/R ton or lower. The paper, broadly divided into three key sections (see Fig. 2), begins with a review of the recent novel devices that enhances the energy efficiency of cooling systems at

  3. Energy efficiency enhancements for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software achieved in cool silicon cluster project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Frank; Mikolajick, Thomas; Fettweis, Gerhard; Hentschel, Dieter; Kolodinski, Sabine; Warnecke, Helmut; Reppe, Thomas; Tzschoppe, Christoph; Dohl, Jan; Carta, Corrado; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Wiatr, Maciej; Detlef Kronholz, Stefan; Mikalo, Ricardo Pablo; Heinrich, Harald; Paulo, Robert; Wolf, Robert; Hübner, Johannes; Waltsgott, Johannes; Meißner, Klaus; Richter, Robert; Michler, Oliver; Bausinger, Markus; Mehlich, Heiko; Hahmann, Martin; Möller, Henning; Wiemer, Maik; Holland, Hans-Jürgen; Gärtner, Roberto; Schubert, Stefan; Richter, Alexander; Strobel, Axel; Fehske, Albrecht; Cech, Sebastian; Aßmann, Uwe; Pawlak, Andreas; Schröter, Michael; Finger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Walter, Dennis; Eisenreich, Holger; Schüffny, René

    2013-07-01

    An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at cars Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  4. Axiomatic foundations for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, David

    2013-12-01

    We show that individual utilities can be measured in units of healthy life years. Social preferences over these life metric utilities are assumed to satisfy the Pareto principle, anonymity, and invariance to a change in origin. These axioms generate a utilitarian social welfare function implying the use of cost-effectiveness analysis in ordering health projects, based on maximizing the healthy years equivalents gained from a fixed health budget. For projects outside the health sector, our cost-effectiveness axioms imply a form of cost-benefit analysis where both costs and benefits are measured in equivalent healthy life years. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  6. Carrboro, North Carolina: Achieving Building Efficiencies for Low-Income Households (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Carrboro, North Carolina: Achieving Building Efficiencies for Low-Income Households" explains how the Town of Carrboro used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  7. Cost Effective Polymer Solar Cells Research and Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Sam-Shajing [Norfolk State Univ, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The technical or research objective of this project is to investigate and develop new polymers and polymer based optoelectronic devices for potentially cost effective (or cost competitive), durable, lightweight, flexible, and high efficiency solar energy conversion applications. The educational objective of this project includes training of future generation scientists, particularly young, under-represented minority scientists, working in the areas related to the emerging organic/polymer based solar energy technologies and related optoelectronic devices. Graduate and undergraduate students will be directly involved in scientific research addressing issues related to the development of polymer based solar cell technology.

  8. Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan Torres Edejer, Tessa

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI PART ONE: METHODS COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR GENERALIZED ANALYSIS 1. 2. What is Generalized Cost-Effectiveness Analysis? . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Undertaking...

  9. Cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on cost-effectiveness in reproductive medicine. Firstly, we evaluated the methodologic quality of studies in reproductive medicine. Insight into the quality of economical analysis in reproductive medicine is important for valuing the performed studies and to assess whether these

  10. Gedanken Experiments in Educational Cost Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudner, Harvey J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of cost determining techniques in education. The areas discussed are: education and management; cost-effectiveness models; figures of merit determination; and the implications as they relate to the areas of audio-visual and computer educational technology. (Author/GA)

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Online Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Insung

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to compare the cost-effectiveness of an online teacher training method with a face-to-face training method in teaching "ICT integration in the school curriculum". In addition, the study explores the possibilities of a school-based voluntary training method in supporting other approaches to ICT teacher training. The analyses of…

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Philipson, Tomas J

    2008-09-01

    While cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis has provided a guide to allocating often scarce resources spent on medical technologies, less emphasis has been placed on the effect of such criteria on the behavior of innovators who make health care technologies available in the first place. A better understanding of the link between innovation and cost-effectiveness analysis is particularly important given the large role of technological change in the growth in health care spending and the growing interest of explicit use of CE thresholds in leading technology adoption in several Westernized countries. We analyze CE analysis in a standard market context, and stress that a technology's cost-effectiveness is closely related to the consumer surplus it generates. Improved CE therefore often clashes with interventions to stimulate producer surplus, such as patents. We derive the inconsistency between technology adoption based on CE analysis and economic efficiency. Indeed, static efficiency, dynamic efficiency, and improved patient health may all be induced by the cost-effectiveness of the technology being at its worst level. As producer appropriation of the social surplus of an innovation is central to the dynamic efficiency that should guide CE adoption criteria, we exemplify how appropriation can be inferred from existing CE estimates. For an illustrative sample of technologies considered, we find that the median technology has an appropriation of about 15%. To the extent that such incentives are deemed either too low or too high compared to dynamically efficient levels, CE thresholds may be appropriately raised or lowered to improve dynamic efficiency.

  13. Cost-effective conservation planning: lessons from economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Joshua M; Dundas, Steven J; Messer, Kent D

    2013-08-15

    Economists advocate that the billions of public dollars spent on conservation be allocated to achieve the largest possible social benefit. This is "cost-effective conservation"-a process that incorporates both monetized benefits and costs. Though controversial, cost-effective conservation is poorly understood and rarely implemented by planners. Drawing from the largest publicly financed conservation programs in the United States, this paper seeks to improve the communication from economists to planners and to overcome resistance to cost-effective conservation. Fifteen practical lessons are distilled, including the negative implications of limiting selection with political constraints, using nonmonetized benefit measures or benefit indices, ignoring development risk, using incomplete cost measures, employing cost measures sequentially, and using benefit indices to capture costs. The paper highlights interrelationships between benefits and complications such as capitalization and intertemporal planning. The paper concludes by identifying the challenges at the research frontier, including incentive problems associated with adverse selection, additionality, and slippage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator in anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid H

    2014-07-01

    achieve cost savings without compromising anemia management.Keywords: CERA, erythropoietin, anemia, cost, cost-effectiveness

  15. Acid rain abatement in Belgium: lessons in cost-effectiveness studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuijpers, C.; Proost, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a cost-effectiveness analysis is presented for combating emissions of acid precursors. The focus of concern is to reach the environmental quality goal at least cost. Two cost-effective approaches are elaborated. Firstly, the maximum allowable emission of each acid precursor seperately is allocated in a cost-effective way across the economic sectors. Secondly, the maximum allowable emissions of acid precursors are allocated in a cost-effective way across the three considered acid precursors as well as across the economic sectors. It is argued that not only the energy consumption but also the agricultural sector could play an important role in a cost-effective strategy by curtailing its ammonia emissions. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Cost effective fabrication method for large sapphire sensor windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Mark; Gould, Alan; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    Sapphire poses very difficult challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. These challenges can result in long lead times and high prices. Large optical sensor windows demand much higher precision surfaces compared to transparent armor (windshields) to achieve acceptable image quality. Optimax is developing a high speed, cost effective process to produce such windows. The Optimax high speed process is a two-step process that combines precision fixed abrasive grinding and high speed polishing. In-house studies have demonstrated cycle time reduction of up to 6X as compared to conventional processing.

  17. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 1 in support of the objective to achieve universal access to modern energy services by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birol, Fatih [International Energy Agency, Paris (France); Brew-Hammond, Abeeku (University of Science and Technology (Ghana

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force One which is dedicated to the objective of achieving universal access to modern energy services by 2030. The report shows that universal energy access can be realized by 2030 with strong, focused actions set within a coordinated framework.

  18. Furnace veneering systems of special design help achieve energy reduction goals at Armco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspersen, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    A steel company conserves energy by veneering reheat furnaces with a ceramic fiber modular system. The furnace lining system incorporates several grades of veneering materials (modules, cements, coatings) whose application is matched to the exact conditions in the furnace. Zoned linings utilize a combination of grades of alumina-silica modules to achieve thermally efficient yet durable performance. High temperature cements exhibit good tackiness, easy module penetration and high strength retention after firing. A protective coating is sprayed in a thin layer over the modules and can be easily reapplied at a later date should it be necessary. Benefits include greater thermal control (temperature responsiveness and heating uniformity), less over-firing, less fuel use, and less heat loss. Fuel efficiency is increased by 20 to 50%.

  19. Future costs in cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H

    2008-07-01

    This paper resolves several controversies in CEA. Generalizing [Garber, A.M., Phelps, C.E., 1997. Economic foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of Health Economics 16 (1), 1-31], the paper shows accounting for unrelated future costs distorts decision making. After replicating [Meltzer, D., 1997. Accounting for future costs in medical cost-effectiveness analysis. Journal of Health Economics 16 (1), 33-64] quite different conclusion that unrelated future costs should be included in CEA, the paper shows that Meltzer's findings result from modeling the budget constraint as an annuity, which is problematic. The paper also shows that related costs should be included in CEA. This holds for a variety of models, including a health maximization model. CEA should treat costs in the manner recommended by Garber and Phelps.

  20. Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan Torres Edejer, Tessa

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 6. Uncertainty in cost-effectiveness analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 7. 8. Policy uses of Generalized CEA...

  1. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of System Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    determine the most desirable smog control device for automobiles. Similarly, the agency might also want to evaluate the comparative merits of expending funds...best allocation of available resoruces among the alternative opportunities. Conducting a cost-effectiveness evaluation to determine the best smog ...evaluation. Admittedly, not all complex problems can be solved by simple techni- ques , but disallusion to the mathematical sophistica- tion of the analytical

  2. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  3. Cost-effectiveness in the mitigation of green house gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Francisco Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness in the mitigation of green house gases from solar, eolic and nuclear energy sources, concluding that nuclear is, not doubt, the mos efficient. On the other hand, nuclear is the unique source that can be installed without limit in magnitude and in the proximity of the demand, and is for all these reasons that several environmental referents in the world have changed their perception on this source and defend it as the unique actual alternative to fight against the emission of green house gases. (author) [es

  4. [Incremental cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, N; Dick, H B; Krummenauer, F

    2007-02-01

    Supplementation of cataract patients with multifocal intraocular lenses involves an additional financial investment when compared to the corresponding monofocal supplementation, which usually is not funded by German health care insurers. In the context of recent resource allocation discussions, however, the cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery could become an important rationale. Therefore an evidence-based estimation of its cost effectiveness was carried out. Three independent meta-analyses were implemented to estimate the gain in uncorrected near visual acuity and best corrected visual acuity (vision lines) as well as the predictability (fraction of patients without need for reading aids) of multifocal supplementation. Study reports published between 1995 and 2004 (English or German language) were screened for appropriate key words. Meta effects in visual gain and predictability were estimated by means and standard deviations of the reported effect measures. Cost data were estimated by German DRG rates and individual lens costs; the cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery was then computed in terms of its marginal cost effectiveness ratio (MCER) for each clinical benefit endpoint; the incremental costs of multifocal versus monofocal cataract surgery were further estimated by means of their respective incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). An independent meta-analysis estimated the complication profiles to be expected after monofocal and multifocal cataract surgery in order to evaluate expectable complication-associated additional costs of both procedures; the marginal and incremental cost effectiveness estimates were adjusted accordingly. A sensitivity analysis comprised cost variations of +/- 10 % and utility variations alongside the meta effect estimate's 95 % confidence intervals. Total direct costs from the health care insurer's perspective were estimated 3363 euro, associated with a visual meta benefit in best corrected visual

  5. Training effectiveness vs. cost effectiveness: The next millennium challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of the new millennium and energy deregulation, organizations will be challenged to be cost competitive and profitable. Deregulation in the US energy industry will force utilities and, more specifically, commercial nuclear power production to unprecedented cost control measures. It will also renew the fires of debate about costs vs. safety. With personnel costs being the single largest expenditure for most organizations management will be faced with constant dilemmas of competition for scarce resources. Salaries, benefits and training costs will be under greater scrutiny. Training resources and programs will face increased pressure to be job related, based on conservative requirements and more cost effective than in the past. For nearly two decades the US National Academy for Nuclear Training (NANT) has developed and used industry-wide accreditation and evaluation standards based on the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT). This process assures that existing and emerging technical training is constantly reviewed and evaluated against standardized criteria to assure job relatedness and enhanced job performance. The process also requires management to approve, actively participate in and support the training of NPP personnel. Instructors must be highly skilled and well trained in the SAT process and various instructional strategies. The SAT process is grounded in five interlocking keystone steps; Analysis - Design - Development - Implementation - Evaluation (ADDIE). Evaluation of training is often said to be the most crucial and most difficult step. Here is where an organization determines if the training is effective and meeting the legitimate needs of all of the stakeholders. This QA/QC aspect of training must be an ongoing process involving management, instructors and the students. It is only through the discipline of an SAT based evaluation process that an organization can truly determine if the training is efficient, effective, cost effective and

  6. Diversity in OECD energy consumption: Achievements and long-term goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heal, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Energy consumption in the industrialized world has resumed a rising trend but has been moderated by increased energy efficiency. The demand for energy is also being spread more evenly over a variety of fuels. This paper provides a measure for diversity and examines the implications for energy prices, while reiterating the long-term goal of lower energy consumption

  7. Cost effective material control and accountability training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaux, J.J.; Shull, L.M.; Salizzoni, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    DOE Order 5630.15, ''Safeguards and Security Training Program'' is being implemented at the Savannah River Site within the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's material control and accountability program. This paper reviews the development of a material control and accountability task analysis, the development of specific material control and accountability courses, and the cost effective and innovative strategies employed to implement the training program. The paper also discusses how the site material control and accountability policies and procedures are incorporated into the Westinghouse Savannah River Company training program to ensure that personnel receive the most current information

  8. Cost benefit analysis cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The comparison of various protection options in order to determine which is the best compromise between cost of protection and residual risk is the purpose of the ALARA procedure. The use of decision-aiding techniques is valuable as an aid to selection procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce two rather simple and well known decision aiding techniques: the cost-effectiveness analysis and the cost-benefit analysis. These two techniques are relevant for the great part of ALARA decisions which need the use of a quantitative technique. The study is based on an hypothetical case of 10 protection options. Four methods are applied to the data

  9. The Cost-Effective Evaluation of Syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Syncope is a common clinical problem that carries a high socioeconomic burden. A structured approach in the evaluation of syncope with special emphasis on a detailed history, comprehensive physical examination that includes orthostatic vital signs, and an electrocardiogram, proves to be the most cost-effective approach. The need for additional testing and hospital admission should be based on the results of the initial evaluation and use of risk-stratification tools that help identify those syncope patients at highest risk for poor outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A cost-effective fulfilment of Denmark's reduction commitments. Documentation of projection and analyses of the energy sector; En omkostningseffektiv opfyldelse af Danmarks reduktionsforpligtelse - dokumentation af fremskrivning og analyser pae energiomraedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This documentation report describes the projections and analyses that formed the basis of an interdepartmental report 'En omkostningseffektiv klimastrategi' prepared by the Danish Ministry of Finance, the Danish Ministry of the Environment, the Danish Ministry of Economics and Business Affairs and the Danish Ministry of Taxation. The report contains: Projections of fuel prices, emissions and estimations of additional environmental impacts; Documentation for projections of future greenhouse gas emissions in the energy field; Documentation of the analyses of undertakings in the energy field. (ba)

  11. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-06-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively.

  12. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400–800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  13. Clinical evaluation based on cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko

    1998-01-01

    We carried out two Phase III clinical trials using high dose rate (HDR) remote afterloading brachytherapy unit. We evaluated the clinical results based not only on the medical but also the economical standpoint. The first trial is the Phase III trial for cervical cancer treated with HDR or medium dose rate (MDR) intracavitary radiotherapy. The second one is the Phase III trial for tongue cancer treated with HDR or low dose rate (LDR) interstitial radiation. For cervical cancer, the survival rate of patients treated with HDR brachytherapy is the some as for LDR brachytherapy. The average total cost of treatment for the HDR group was 1.47 million yen, while that for the MDR group was 1.58 million yen. The average total admission days was 63. For tongue cancer, the local control rate of the HDR group is almost the same as that of the LDR groups. The average total cost for the HDR group was 780 thousand yen, and that for the LDR group was 830 thousand yen. The average total admission days was 34. According to the cost-effectiveness, HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer has the same result as MDR, and HDR brachytherapy for tongue cancer has the same result as LDR. However, HDR can be treated without admission for patients who live near the hospital. HDR can be applied for these patients with less expense. We must be aware of not only the medical results but also the cost-effectiveness. (author)

  14. Cost-effective method for laparoscopic choledochotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griniatsos, John; Karvounis, Evangelos; Arbuckle, James; Isla, Alberto-Martinez

    2005-01-01

    Recent reports have noted that postoperative complications following open or laparoscopic choledochotomy for common bile duct (CBD) exploration are mainly related to the T-tube presence, and that there has been no trend of decrease in the laparoscopic era. Laparoscopic endobiliary stent placement with primary closure of the CBD has been proposed as a safe and effective alternative to T-tube placement. Between January 1999 and January 2003, 53 consecutive patients suffering from proven choledocholithiasis underwent laparoscopic common bile exploration (LCBDE) via choledochotomy. In the early period, a T-tube was placed at the end of the procedure (group A, n = 32) while, from June 2001 onwards, laparoscopic biliary stent placement and primary CBD closure were chosen as the drainage method (group B, n = 21). Six patients developed T-tube-related complications postoperatively. Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant lower morbidity rate and shorter postoperative hospital stay for the stent group. Although not statistically significant, a median saving of 780 UK pounds per patient was observed in the stent group. Biliary endoprosthesis placement following laparoscopic choledochotomy avoids the well-known complications of a T-tube, leading to a shorter postoperative hospital stay. The method is safe and effective and it should also be considered as cost-effective compared to T-tube placement. Further studies are required in order to document cost-effectiveness of the method.

  15. Water and energy link in the cities of the future - achieving net zero carbon and pollution emissions footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, V

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the link between water conservation, reclamation, reuse and energy use as related to the goal of achieving the net zero carbon emission footprint in future sustainable cities. It defines sustainable ecocities and outlines quantitatively steps towards the reduction of energy use due to water and used water flows, management and limits in linear and closed loop water/stormwater/wastewater management systems. The three phase water energy nexus diagram may have a minimum inflection point beyond which reduction of water demand may not result in a reduction of energy and carbon emissions. Hence, water conservation is the best alternative solution to water shortages and minimizing the carbon footprint. A marginal water/energy chart is developed and proposed to assist planners in developing future ecocities and retrofitting older communities to achieve sustainability.

  16. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  17. Development of a Cost Effective Power Generation System: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Prakash Bihari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on development of cost effective power generation system and motivates for development of a model for hybrid system with wind to investigate the combined operation of wind with different sources to cater to wind’s stochastic nature for imbalance minimization and optimal operation. Development of model for trading power in competitive electricity market and development of strategies for trading in electricity markets (wind energy and reserves markets to investigate the effects of real time pricing tariffs on electricity market operation has been illustrated in this paper. Dynamic modelling related studies to investigate the wind generator’s kinetic energy for primary frequency support using simulink and simulation studies on doubly fed induction generator to study its capability during small disturbances / fluctuations on power system have been described.

  18. Cost effective robust rule calibration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeff P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main calibration services of African NMIs (National Metrology Institutes is the measurement of tapes and rules. This is mainly regulated by legal metrology and OIML (International Organisation of Legal Metrology specifications are therefore referenced. Specifically, OIML R-35 is the standard to which rules or line scales must conform. The accuracy of most African NMIs systems however, cannot prove conformance to this specification. This article will detail the development of a new, cost effective, line scale calibration system, which will have accuracy better than the specification prescribed. The system was locally developed and its design is based on off-the-shelf components and open source software. It is also ready-for-upgrade to an absolute system. The system and details of the line detection algorithm will be presented.

  19. Design And Implementation Of Cost Effective Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaz Morshedul Haque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design and construct of a 100 Watt 220 Volt and 50 Hz Inverter. The system is designed without any microcontroller and it has a cost-effective design architecture. The elementary purpose of this device is to transmute 12 V DC to 220 V AC. Snubber technology is used to diminish the reverse potential transients and excessive heat of transformer winding and transistor switches. Switching pulse generated by NE 555 timer circuit and comparator circuit was used to take signal strength input from its rear as well as from both sides for triggering the MOSFET switches. Another switch is used to invert pulse between two switching circuitries. A 5 volts regulator IC 7805 was used to supply fixed 5V for biasing the switching and amplifying circuitry.

  20. Cost effectiveness of transportation fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, D.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Troelstra, W.P.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject was to investigate whether stimulation of the production and use of biofuels for transportation is worthwhile compared to the production of electricity from biomass. Several options are compared to each other and with reference technologies on the basis of the consumption or the avoided input of fossil fuels, emissions of greenhouse gases, specific costs and cost effectiveness. For each phase in the biomass conversion process (cultivation, pretreatment, transportation, conversion, distribution and final consumption) indicators were collected from the literature. Next to costs of the bioconversion routes attention is paid to other relevant aspects that are important for the introduction of the technological options in the Netherlands. 41 refs

  1. A cost effective CO2 strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    are evaluated according to CO2 reduction potential and according to the ‘shadow price’ on a reduction of one ton CO2. The shadow price reflects the costs (and benefits) of the different measures. Comparing the measures it is possible to identify cost effective measures, but these measures are not necessarily......) between measures are also addressed. It has not been possible to analyse combinations and packages of measures consistently in a model like the on outlined above. However, the obvious connections are addressed and clearly show the limitations with respect to fulfilling the target set by the Kyoto protocol...... national strategies for climate and transport and associated implementation deficits will be discussed, reflecting the presently changing institutional conditions for policy formulation and implementation. The main differences compared to earlier CO2 strategies are the EU ETS and targets set for non...

  2. Fast weathering of olivine in high-energy shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture as a cheap alternative for CCS, and effective mitigation of ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, P. L.; Schuiling, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Spreading of olivine in high-energy shelf seas can counteract human CO2 emissions and ocean acidification against a price well below that of CCS and other methods. In the reaction: Mg(Fe)2SiO4 (olivine) + 4 H2O --> 2 Mg(Fe)2+ + 4 OH- + H4SiO4 followed by 4 OH- + 4 CO2 --> 4 HCO3-, CO2 is consumed, while Mg2+, Fe2+, H4SiO4 and HCO3- are produced. Contrary to the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature is a slow process, flume experiments mimicking high-energy shallow marine environments show a fast reaction, consuming CO2, and raising the pH at short notice. This must be because under immobile conditions a silica coating develops and retards or stops the reaction. In high-energy shallow marine environments such silica coatings are abraded so that the chemical reaction can continue. When kept in motion also large olivine grains and gravels rubbing and bumping against each other and against other sediment grains weather quickly. The experiments also show that fine micron- to silt-sized olivine particles are produced, and that the chemical reaction is fast. The chemical weathering of 7 km3 olivine would be needed on a yearly basis in order to compensate the human CO2 emissions. This seems very much. It is, however, of the same order of magnitude as the volume of fossil fuels (in oil equivalents ~10 km3) that are burnt annually. Olivine is readily available at the Earth' surface on all continents, and past mining efforts show that such volume of 7 km3 is exceeded by existing mines; e.g. the Bingham Canyon open pit mine in Utah has an excavated volume of 25 km3. Hydrocarbons, on the other hand, are commonly retrieved with great efforts, from great depths, and often at remote locations. The annual spreading of large amounts of olivine (and/or serpentinite) in high-energy shelf seas where coarse sand and gravel can be transported, will counteract human CO2 production by fossil fuel burning and ocean acidification against a price well below that of other methods. For

  3. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Incineration or Recycling of Dutch Household Plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond); R. van Koppen (Rick); E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); P. Nillesen (Paul)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe cost-effectiveness of plastic recycling is compared to energy recovery from plastic incineration in a waste-to-energy plant using data for the Netherlands. Both options have specific benefits and costs. The benefits of recycling are the avoidance of both CO2 that otherwise would be

  4. Final Technical Report: Achieving Regional Energy Efficiency Potential in the Southeast”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, Ashley [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Mahoney, Mandy [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance

    2018-03-07

    The overall objective of this award was to facilitate sharing of DOE resources and best practices as well as provide technical assistance to key stakeholders to support greater compliance with energy efficiency standards and increased energy savings. The outcomes of this award include greater awareness among key stakeholders on energy efficiency topics, increased deployment and utilization of DOE resources, and effective policies and programs to support energy efficiency in the Southeast.

  5. Cost effectiveness of risk-based closures at UST sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, K.M.; Baker, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    Risk-based closures have been achieved at Underground Storage Tank (UST) sites throughout the country for a major transportation company. The risk-based closures were cost-effective because a streamlined risk-based approach was used instead of the generic baseline risk assessment approach. USEPA has recently provided guidance encouraging the use of risk-based methodology for achieving closure at UST sites. The risk-based approach used in achieving the site closures involved an identification of potential human and ecological receptors and exposure pathways, and a comparison of maximum onsite chemical concentrations to applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). The ARARs used in the evaluation included Federal and/or State Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for groundwater and risk-based screening levels for soils. If the maximum concentrations were above the screening levels, a baseline risk assessment was recommended. In several instances, however, the risk-based approach resulted in a regulatory agency acceptance of a ''no further action'' alternative at UST sites which did not pose a significant threat to human health and the environment. The cost of the streamlined risk-based approach is approximately $3,500, while a baseline risk assessment for the same UST site could cost up to $10,000 or more. The use of the streamlined risk-based approach has proven to be successful for achieving a ''no further action'' outcome for the client at a reasonable cost

  6. How to Achieve CO2 Emission Reduction Goals by 2050. Abstracts of the 22nd Forum: Energy Day in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This years' annual Forum is held twenty-two years in a row. Analysing the energy development to 2050 takes into consideration the nature and complexity of the energy development, a long period of preparing plants and facilities, a long service life of plants, dimensions of technological development and continuous growth of energy demand. New reasons for a long-term observation of the energy development, at least by 2050, are climate change and radical reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases according to the EU Energy Policy to 2050. The impact of permitted level of carbon dioxide emissions on the energy production and consumption is drastic and fundamentally changes the structure of energy production and consumption. The new legal and economical approach as well as the new technological development and and political determination are required for the implementation of energy policy which should lead to radical reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. The time is also an important factor because postponement of defining the new approach of energy policy decreases the possibility of its realisation. An additional argument for a new technological development is the mobilization of the science and industry for achieving that new step in technological development. This development is required in order to develop the energy industry without or with minimal greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, it is very important for renewable energy, at the carbon dioxide capture and storage, at the energy efficiency in the whole range of activities, from the production, transmission and distribution to the consumption of devices and equipment used by consumers, at smart grids, at the energy storage and vehicles. Reducing the energy consumption in buildings is energy, economical, architectual and organizational project which has to include every commercial and residential building. It is important to eliminate all disadvantages that incurred in the period when

  7. Promotion Models and Achievements of New-energy Automobiles in Shenzhen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Xiong, Siqin; Bai, Bo; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    As one of the pilot cities in China for demonstration and promotion of new-energy automobiles, Shenzhen, driven by the “two engines” of the government and the market, has made swift progress in promotion of its new-energy automobiles. This paper analyses Shenzhen’s governmental promotion policy concerning new-energy automobiles, summarizes Shenzhen’s commercial models for promoting new-energy automobiles, and is expected to provide reference for other provinces and cities to promote new-energy automobiles.

  8. A Mixed Transmission Strategy to Achieve Energy Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tong; Gu, Tao; Jin, Ning

    2017-01-01

    lifetime, and hence, it has many practical implications for sensor network design and deployment. The traditional hop-by-hop transmission model allows a sensor node to propagate its packets in a hop-by-hop manner toward the sink, resulting in poor energy balancing for the entire network. To address......In this paper, we investigate the problem of energy balanced data collection in wireless sensor networks, aiming to balance energy consumption among all sensor nodes during the data propagation process. Energy balanced data collection can potentially save energy consumption and prolong network...... the problem, we apply a slice-based energy model, and divide the problem into inter-slice and intra-slice energy balancing problems. We then propose a probability-based strategy named inter-slice mixed transmission protocol and an intra-slice forwarding technique to address each of the problems. We propose...

  9. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p energy drinks consumed during the last occasion (p Energy drinks consumed during the last occasion of consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork.

  10. Assessing value in breast reconstruction: A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheckter, Clifford C; Matros, Evan; Momeni, Arash

    2018-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons and is achieved through various choices in both technology and method. Cost-effectiveness analyses are increasingly important in assessing differences in value between treatment options, which is relevant in a world of confined resources. A thorough evaluation of the cost-effectiveness literature can assist surgeons and health systems evaluate high-value care models. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry was conducted. Two reviewers independently evaluated all publications up until August 17, 2017. After removal of duplicates, 1996 records were screened, from which 53 studies underwent full text review. All the 13 studies included for final analysis mention an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Five studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of technologies including acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in staged prosthetic reconstruction, ADM in direct-to-implant (DTI) reconstruction, preoperative computed tomography angiography in autologous reconstruction, indocyanine green dye angiography in evaluating anastomotic patency, and abdominal mesh reinforcement in abdominal tissue transfer. The remaining eight studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different reconstruction methods. Cost-effective strategies included free vs. pedicled abdominal tissue transfer, DTI vs. staged prosthetic reconstruction, and fascia-sparing variants of free abdominal tissue transfer. Current evidence demonstrates multiple cost-effective technologies and methods in accomplishing successful breast reconstruction. Plastic surgeons should be well informed of such economic models when engaging payers and policymakers in discussions regarding high-value breast reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reductions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Hermansen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: → GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. → Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. → Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. → A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. → Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO 2 reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  12. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon "footprinting" and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  13. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals: A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  14. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  15. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin; Johnson, Brian; Zhang, Yingchen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Denholm, Paul; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hannegan, Bryan

    2017-03-01

    What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.

  16. A Family of Cost-Effective Magnetically-Coupled Impedance Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kerui; Yang, Yongheng; Qin, Zian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a family of cost-effective magnetically-coupled impedance source inverters for renewable energy systems. The inverters are derived from magnetically-coupled impedance source networks, featuring low cost and no ground leakage current when used in PV system. The numbers of requi......This paper presents a family of cost-effective magnetically-coupled impedance source inverters for renewable energy systems. The inverters are derived from magnetically-coupled impedance source networks, featuring low cost and no ground leakage current when used in PV system. The numbers...

  17. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  18. Sustained Energy Savings Achieved through Successful Industrial Customer Interaction with Ratepayer Programs: Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Amelie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hedman, Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Taylor, Robert P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Russell, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Many states have implemented ratepayer-funded programs to acquire energy efficiency as a predictable and reliable resource for meeting existing and future energy demand. These programs have become a fixture in many U.S. electricity and natural gas markets as they help postpone or eliminate the need for expensive generation and transmission investments. Industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is an energy efficiency resource that is not only a low cost option for many of these efficiency programs, but offers productivity and competitive benefits to manufacturers as it reduces their energy costs. However, some industrial customers are less enthusiastic about participating in these programs. IEE ratepayer programs suffer low participation by industries across many states today despite a continual increase in energy efficiency program spending across all types of customers, and significant energy efficiency funds can often go unused for industrial customers. This paper provides four detailed case studies of companies that benefited from participation in their utility’s energy efficiency program offerings and highlights the business value brought to them by participation in these programs. The paper is designed both for rate-payer efficiency program administrators interested in improving the attractiveness and effectiveness of industrial efficiency programs for their industrial customers and for industrial customers interested in maximizing the value of participating in efficiency programs.

  19. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit: Lessons from the University of Hawaii at Manoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  20. Cost-effective unilateral climate policy design: Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Fischer, Carolyn; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-07-01

    Given the bleak prospects for a global agreement on mitigating climate change, pressure for unilateral abatement is increasing. A major challenge is emissions leakage. Border carbon adjustments and output-based allocation of emissions allowances can increase effectiveness of unilateral action but introduce distortions of their own. We assess antileakage measures as a function of abatement coalition size. We first develop a partial equilibrium analytical framework to see how these instruments affect emissions within and outside the coalition. We then employ a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use to assess the strategies as the coalition grows. We find that full border adjustments rank first in global cost-effectiveness, followed by import tariffs and output-based rebates. The differences across measures and their overall appeal decline as the abatement coalition grows. In terms of cost, the coalition countries prefer border carbon adjustments; countries outside the coalition prefer output-based rebates.(Author)

  1. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  2. [ARCSTERILE: A COST-EFFECTIVE LUXURY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, Maria Andreu

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety, economic profitability, and cost-effectiveness of the controlled ambient surgical cabin ArcSterile. Retrospective observational study comparing the profitability of surgical procedures using the ArcSterile* with those using the operating room throughout a 12-month period by analysing the following variables: total number of treated patients, delay in surgical assistance delay and the cost per procedure. Throughout a 12-month period, a total number of 2011 surgical procedures were performed with the ArcSterile, and 1736 surgical procedures were performed in the conventional operating room. Minor ocular surgeries including chalazia, pterigium, intravitreal injections and others were considered, whereas cataract and vitrectomy surgeries were disregarded. The use of the ArcSterile* was associated with an increase of 14% in the number of surgeries. The cost per hour of the use of the ArcSterile* was 30.75 euro, whereas it was 142.78 euro for the coriventional operating room. The ArcSterile* may allow to treat more patients and to treat them earlier compared with the conventional operating room, optimizing the use of the latest for patients who need a more complex surgery. We estimated an economic impact of 134 121.39 euro savings during the 12-month period of analysis. The use of the ArcSterile* surgical cabin for outpatient ocularsurgery may represent an effective and efficient alternative to the operating room with many clinical and economic benefits.

  3. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonjes, David J.; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets

  4. Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

    2013-11-01

    Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Technology Roadmaps: Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the 'new' renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal. Best technology and policy practice must be identified and exchanged with emerging economy partners, to enable the most cost-effective and beneficial development.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas tax and CO2 tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, A.C.; Moll, H.C.; Drissen, E.; Wilting, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    Current economic instruments aimed at mitigating climate change focus on CO2 emissions, but the Kyoto Protocol refers to six greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6). Inclusion of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in economic instruments can increase the cost-effectiveness of achieving the Kyoto

  7. Cost-effectiveness of increasing bisphosphonates adherence for osteoporosis in community pharmacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Boven, J.F.M.; Oosterhof, P.; Hiddink, E.G.; Stuurman-Bieze, A.G.G.; Postma, M.J.; Vegter, S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increasing real-life adherence to bisphosphonates therapy is important to achieve the clinical benefits of reducing fractures reported in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). The aim of this pharmacoeconomic analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness of a pharmaceutical care

  8. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that

  9. Achieving climate stabilization in an insecure world: does renewable energy hold the key? Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katofsky, Ryan; Stanberry, Matt; Frantzis, Lisa

    2010-07-12

    This renewable energy in global scenarios project has the objective to define an RETD Scenario with a high uptake of renewable energies. Computer models of the global energy system were, for the most part, developed under assumptions of smooth demand growth met primarily with large, centralised infrastructure, and perform well under these conditions. However, these assumptions are being undermined by several changes that require a re-evaluation of modelling algorithms. In an effort to address these changes and better understand their impact, RETD has defined its own scenario and developed it in collaboration with the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) Implementing Agreement, making use of a techno-economic bottom-up methodology. The scenario was modelled using the ETSAP-TIAM model.

  10. Chemistry of cost effective water treatment programme in HWP (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Laxmana Prasad, K.

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a water treatment programme following points must be kept in mind: Effectiveness to achieve desired water quality objectives; Compliance with regulatory requirements; Cost minimization; Safety; Easy operation and protection to equipments. Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru) laboratory has developed treatment programs to treat raw water and cooling water which satisfy the above requirements and has been in use for last several years successfully without any problem. These treatment programs have been given to other plants in Heavy Water Board for implementation. This paper describes the chemistry of the treatment program and cost minimization achieved. Further these treatments have helped the plant in achieving ΦZero Discharge and indirectly reduced the production cost. The chemistry parameters are monitored regularly to ascertain the effectiveness of these treatments. The areas where significant benefits derived are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and development of in-house cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments helped the plant in achieving Zero discharge and indirectly reduced production cost of heavy water. The dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15 - 20 Lakhs in a year besides other advantages. The changeover of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs. 1.4 Crore a year along with other advantages. The change over of proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted a saving about Rs. 11 Lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored (author)

  11. Wind and Solar Energy Role in the Achievement of EU Climate Policy After 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper grades the possible role of solar and wind energy in the generation of electricity after 2020. The development of those energy sources will be defined by the climate policy implemented based on the last year's Paris Climate Agreement, but also by the existing initiatives of the European Commission (2030 climate and energy framework and 2050 low-carbon economy). Additionally, electricity generation from RES is observed through the decrease of dependency on the import of fossil fuels outside of the EU. According to the report of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the biggest share of RES power plants, after hydro power plants, in EU are wind and solar power plants. Both wind and sun are constantly available resources, but with variable specific power, which makes the maximal generation dependent on the time of day and/or weather (wind, clouds). Future increase of wind and solar energy has to be observed from various perspectives as to properly grade it for the next period, until 2020. Therefore, this paper considers the following, intertwined aspects: Maturity of wind and solar technologies and future trends, Price of electricity generation from wind and solar power plants, with an analysis of price decreasing trends; Possibilities of power energy system and measures for the acceptance of wind and solar power plants; Integrative approach to all forms and transformations of electricity; Market integration of RES - aspirations towards free trade(author).

  12. Teaching medical students about cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscoe, Mark; Lord, Robert; Schulz, John; Lee, David; Cayea, Danelle; Pahwa, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Rising and burdensome health care costs have driven interest in the practice of high-value care (HVC) and have inspired calls for increased HVC training across all levels of medical education, including among undergraduate medical students. Classroom-based HVC curricula targeted to medical students have not been previously described in the medical literature. We developed and evaluated a workshop comprising a lecture, a small-group exercise and a group discussion to instruct medical students on interpreting cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA), applying CEA to patient care and discussing the cost of care with patients. From January 2014 to September 2015 the workshop was administered to five cohorts, 120 students in total, in the internal medicine clerkships at two US medical schools. Pre- and post-intervention confidence in various domains was assessed with a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 to 4. The overall response rate was 87.9 per cent. The proportion of students reporting high confidence scores (3 or 4) rose significantly (p rated the overall quality of the course as 3.82 out of 5. Rising and burdensome health care costs have driven interest in the practice of high-value care IMPLICATIONS: Our experience of developing, evaluating and refining an HVC course targeted at medical students taught us that such a course is needed, can be educational and can be well-received. Future research is needed to assess the effects of curricula on clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  13. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  14. A Cost Effective System Design Approach for Critical Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Larry Wayne; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai

    2000-01-01

    NASA-JSC required an avionics platform capable of serving a wide range of applications in a cost-effective manner. In part, making the avionics platform cost effective means adhering to open standards and supporting the integration of COTS products with custom products. Inherently, operation in space requires low power, mass, and volume while retaining high performance, reconfigurability, scalability, and upgradability. The Universal Mini-Controller project is based on a modified PC/104-Plus architecture while maintaining full compatibility with standard COTS PC/104 products. The architecture consists of a library of building block modules, which can be mixed and matched to meet a specific application. A set of NASA developed core building blocks, processor card, analog input/output card, and a Mil-Std-1553 card, have been constructed to meet critical functions and unique interfaces. The design for the processor card is based on the PowerPC architecture. This architecture provides an excellent balance between power consumption and performance, and has an upgrade path to the forthcoming radiation hardened PowerPC processor. The processor card, which makes extensive use of surface mount technology, has a 166 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 32 Mbytes of error detected and corrected RAM, 8 Mbytes of Flash, and I Mbytes of EPROM, on a single PC/104-Plus card. Similar densities have been achieved with the quad channel Mil-Std-1553 card and the analog input/output cards. The power management built into the processor and its peripheral chip allows the power and performance of the system to be adjusted to meet the requirements of the application, allowing another dimension to the flexibility of the Universal Mini-Controller. Unique mechanical packaging allows the Universal Mini-Controller to accommodate standard COTS and custom oversized PC/104-Plus cards. This mechanical packaging also provides thermal management via conductive cooling of COTS boards, which are typically

  15. Achievable rate maximization for decode-and-forward MIMO-OFDM networks with an energy harvesting relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guanyao; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the system achievable rate for the multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system with an energy harvesting (EH) relay. Firstly we propose two protocols, time switching-based decode-and-forward relaying (TSDFR) and a flexible power splitting-based DF relaying (PSDFR) protocol by considering two practical receiver architectures, to enable the simultaneous information processing and energy harvesting at the relay. In PSDFR protocol, we introduce a temporal parameter to describe the time division pattern between the two phases which makes the protocol more flexible and general. In order to explore the system performance limit, we discuss the system achievable rate theoretically and formulate two optimization problems for the proposed protocols to maximize the system achievable rate. Since the problems are non-convex and difficult to solve, we first analyze them theoretically and get some explicit results, then design an augmented Lagrangian penalty function (ALPF) based algorithm for them. Numerical results are provided to validate the accuracy of our analytical results and the effectiveness of the proposed ALPF algorithm. It is shown that, PSDFR outperforms TSDFR to achieve higher achievable rate in such a MIMO-OFDM relaying system. Besides, we also investigate the impacts of the relay location, the number of antennas and the number of subcarriers on the system performance. Specifically, it is shown that, the relay position greatly affects the system performance of both protocols, and relatively worse achievable rate is achieved when the relay is placed in the middle of the source and the destination. This is different from the MIMO-OFDM DF relaying system without EH. Moreover, the optimal factor which indicates the time division pattern between the two phases in the PSDFR protocol is always above 0.8, which means that, the common division of the total transmission time into two equal phases in

  16. High energy density and efficiency achieved in nanocomposite film capacitors via structure modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Shen, Zhong-Hui; Shen, Yang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2018-03-01

    Flexible dielectric polymer films with high energy storage density and high charge-discharge efficiency have been considered as promising materials for electrical power applications. Here, we design hierarchical structured nanocomposite films using nonlinear polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-HFP) [P(VDF-HFP)] with inorganic h-boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets by electrospinning and hot-pressing methods. Our results show that the addition of h-BN nanosheets and the design of the hierarchical multilayer structure in the nanocomposites can remarkably enhance the charge-discharge efficiency and energy density. A high charge-discharge efficiency of 78% and an energy density of 21 J/cm3 can be realized in the 12-layered PVDF/h-BN nanocomposite films. Phase-field simulation results reveal that the spatial distribution of the electric field in these hierarchical structured films affects the charge-discharge efficiency and energy density. This work provides a feasible route, i.e., structure modulation, to improve the energy storage performances for nanocomposite films.

  17. Reaching the lowest energy threshold of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes with MAGIC-stereo: A goal achieved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doro, Michele; MAGIC Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The MAGIC telescopes have been designed primarily to reach the lowest possible energy threshold with the ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov technique, in order to fill the gap between MeV-GeV gamma-ray satellite experiments and TeV ground-based installations. With the construction of a second MAGIC telescope and the subsequent use of the stereoscopic operation mode, this goal has already been largely achieved. Astrophysical spectra of some active galactic nuclei and pulsar wind nebulae, for example, are now completely sampled in the high energy peak from MeV to TeV. Frequently, this was achieved in multi-wavelength campaigns covering many orders of magnitude in energy and permitting a deeper insight into the target physics. In addition, the sensitivity at low energies allows us to perform studies of pulsars, gamma-ray burst and other fundamental physics topics. In this review, the improvement due to the stereoscopic upgrade will be briefly presented and discussed. The importance of low energy studies in astrophysics and fundamental physics searches will be exposed together with a selection of the most recent and sometimes conspicuous results obtained with the MAGIC-stereo experiment.

  18. Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized, online homework was used to supplement textbook homework, quizzes, and exams for one section of a course in material and energy balances. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that students using personalized, online homework earned better grades in the course. The online homework system asks the same questions of…

  19. How to achieve optimal and sustainable use of the subsurface for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemendal, Martin; Olsthoorn, Theo; Boons, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A heat pump combined with Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) has high potential in efficiently and sustainably providing thermal energy for space heating and cooling. This makes the subsurface, including its groundwater, of crucial importance for primary energy savings. The regulation of ATES systems is similar in many countries around the world. This paper seeks solutions for the institutional hindrances to the diffusion of ATES. The use of aquifers by individual ATES systems can be optimized to maximize their efficiency on the one hand, and to optimize the performance of the regional subsurface for energy storage on the other. The application of ATES in an aquifer has similar properties as other common resource pool problems. Only with detailed information and feedback about the actual subsurface status, a network of ATES systems can work towards an optimum for both the subsurface and buildings, instead of striving for a local optimum for individual buildings. Future governance of the subsurface may include the self-organization or self-governance. For that the ATES systems need a complementary framework; interpretation of interaction, feedback and adaptable and dynamic control interpretations are the key elements for the optimal and sustainable use of the subsurface. - Highlights: • We show that ATES systems are not using the subsurface optimally and sustainably. • We elaborate how current legislation will not be able to overcome this problem. • We present self-organization as a perspective for governance of ATES systems

  20. Free Muons and Muonium - Some Achievements and Possibilities in Low Energy Muon Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, K.P.

    2002-01-01

    Published in: Nucl. Phys. News 12 (2002) no. 3, pp.23 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: Some recent precision experiments in low energy muon physics are discussed. Spectroscopy on the muonium atom, the bound state of a positve muon and an electron, has provided precise tests

  1. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade…

  2. Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african sharptooth catfish ( Clarias gariepinus , Burchell 1822) fingerlings fed locally formulated and commercial pelleted diets in tarpaulin tanks.

  3. Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control Systems: Achieving National Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    This project was part of a regional initiative in the five counties of Central New York (CNY) that received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and four other federal agencies through the 2012 Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (AMJIAC). The CNY initiative was focused on cultivating the emergent regional cluster in “Advanced Manufacturing for Thermal and Environmental Control (AM-TEC).” As one component of the CNY AM-TEC initiative, the DOE-funded project supported five research & development seed projects that strategically targeted: 1) needs and opportunities of CNY AM-TEC companies, and 2) the goal of DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) to reduce energy consumption by 50% across product life-cycles over 10 years. The project also sought to fulfill the AMO mission of developing and demonstrating new, energy-efficient processing and materials technologies at a scale adequate to prove their value to manufacturers and spur investment. The five seed projects demonstrated technologies and processes that can reduce energy intensity and improve production as well as use less energy throughout their lifecycles. The project was conducted over three years in two 18-month budget periods. During the first budget period, two projects proposed in the original AMJAIC application were successfully completed: Seed Project 1 focused on saving energy in heat transfer processes via development of nano structured surfaces to significantly increase heat flux; Seed Project 2 addressed saving energy in data centers via subzero cooling of the computing processors. Also during the first budget period, a process was developed and executed to select a second round of seed projects via a competitive request for proposals from regional companies and university collaborators. Applicants were encouraged to form industry-academic partnerships to leverage experience and resources of public and private sectors in the CNY region. Proposals were

  4. A spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofit opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, T.K.

    1992-01-01

    Lighting accounts for 20-25% of electricity use in the United States. With estimates of 50-70% potential reductions being made by energy engineers, lighting is a promising area for cost-effective energy conservation projects in commercial buildings. With an extensive array of alternatives available to replace or modify existing lighting systems, simple but effective calculation tools are needed to help energy auditors evaluate lighting retrofits. This paper describes a spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining the cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofits. Developed to support walk-through energy audits conducted by the Industrial Energy Advisory Service (IdEAS), the spreadsheet provides essential comparative data for evaluating the payback of alternatives. The impact of alternatives on environmental emissions is calculated to help communicate external costs and sell the project, if appropriate. The methodology and calculations are fully documented to allow the user to duplicate the spreadsheet and modify it as needed

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of fecal microbiota transplantation for inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Xiang, Jie; Cui, Bota; He, Zhi; Li, Pan; Chen, Hai; Xu, Lijuan; Ji, Guozhong; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Huang, Guangming; Bai, Jianling; Zhang, Faming

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of health economics evidence on the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness before (with conventional therapy) and after introducing FMT for treating IBD. 104 patients with IBD received FMT were recruited. Health status was evaluated by European dimension health table (ED-5Q). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and net monetary benefit (NB) were calculated by different age groups, genders, smoking status, and disease subtypes. The willingness-to-pay threshold was set to the value equal to three times China’s per capita GDP (141240 CNY/QALY, 2014). From the health-care perspective, FMT strategy was 73% likely to be cost-effective compared with the conventional therapy before FMT with an ICER of -185712 CNY/QALY and a positive NB of CNY 45150. From the societal perspective, FMT strategy was 75% likely to be cost-effective with an ICER of -207417 CNY/QALY and a positive NB of CNY 48395. Moreover, younger patients (≤ 24), females, non-smokers and Crohn’s disease (CD) achieved more benefits. This study for the first time demonstrated that FMT showed its cost-effectiveness, especially on improving the life quality and decreasing the medical and societal cost, for the moderate to severe IBD in a Chinese cohort. PMID:29179485

  6. Comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analyses frequently agree on value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Henry A; McElligott, Sean; Pauly, Mark V; Willke, Richard J; Bergquist, Henry; Doshi, Jalpa; Fleisher, Lee A; Kinosian, Bruce; Perfetto, Eleanor; Polsky, Daniel E; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2015-05-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, known as PCORI, was established by Congress as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to promote evidence-based treatment. Provisions of the ACA prohibit the use of a cost-effectiveness analysis threshold and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) in PCORI comparative effectiveness studies, which has been understood as a prohibition on support for PCORI's conducting conventional cost-effectiveness analyses. This constraint complicates evidence-based choices where incremental improvements in outcomes are achieved at increased costs of care. How frequently this limitation inhibits efficient cost containment, also a goal of the ACA, depends on how often more effective treatment is not cost-effective relative to less effective treatment. We examined the largest database of studies of comparisons of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness to see how often there is disagreement between the more effective treatment and the cost-effective treatment, for various thresholds that may define good value. We found that under the benchmark assumption, disagreement between the two types of analyses occurs in 19 percent of cases. Disagreement is more likely to occur if a treatment intervention is musculoskeletal and less likely to occur if it is surgical or involves secondary prevention, or if the study was funded by a pharmaceutical company. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Potential energy efficiency improvements in Swedish energy intensive industries using an Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2014-01-01

    Energy Efficiency Obligation Schemes (EEOS) as suggested in the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) could help remove barriers to energy efficiency. However, despite the fact that such schemes have been successfully implemented and proven cost-effective in several Member States, not all countries are convinced of their potential benefits. In this paper, we investigate the policy instruments that Sweden has introduced or is planning to introduce for achieving increased industrial efficiency unde...

  8. Determination of the wind power systems load to achieve operation in the maximum energy area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Spunei, E.; Gillich, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses the operation of the wind turbine, WT, in the maximum power point, MPP, by linking the load of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator, PMSG, with the wind speed value. The load control methods at wind power systems aiming an optimum performance in terms of energy are based on the fact that the energy captured by the wind turbine significantly depends on the mechanical angular speed of the wind turbine. The presented control method consists in determining the optimal mechanical angular speed, ωOPTIM, using an auxiliary low power wind turbine, WTAUX, operating without load, at maximum angular velocity, ωMAX. The method relies on the fact that the ratio ωOPTIM/ωMAX has a constant value for a given wind turbine and does not depend on the time variation of the wind speed values.

  9. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-02-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade students classified in three ability level tracks. Data were gathered through pre/posttest content knowledge assessments, daily classroom observations, and daily reflective meetings with the teacher. Findings indicated a significant increase in the energy content knowledge for all the students. Effect sizes were large for all three ability level tracks, with the middle and low track classes having larger effect sizes than the upper track class. Learners in all three tracks were highly engaged with the curriculum. Curriculum effectiveness and practical issues involved with using geospatial technologies to support science learning are discussed.

  10. The achievements and the development of the nuclear energy in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Amrollahi

    1997-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is working in a number of different fields of nuclear science and technology. The main effort is dedicated to the project of completion of the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant. The first unit of this plant will have a Pressurized Water Reactor of 1000 Mwe. The recovery of uranium deposit in central Iran and the implementation of the necessary installations is pursued to lay down the bases for development of Yellow Cake Technology. Several type of research reactors from zero power to 5 MW are used for production of radioisotopes and research. One electron accelerator and one redeuteron accelerator are in operation for production of radiophannaceuticals and industrial application. AEOI is also working in the field of different kind of lasers, irradiation of food, radiation protection dosimentry and many other subjects. The development of AEOI foresees further effort in the field of nuclear energy production, and R and D programs

  11. Cost effectiveness of regorafenib as second-line therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Neehar D; Singal, Amit G; Hutton, David W

    2017-10-01

    Regorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has demonstrated prolonged survival by 2.8 months as a second-line agent in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who progress on sorafenib therapy. The objective of the current study was to examine the cost effectiveness of regorafenib for the treatment of HCC. The authors constructed a Markov simulation model of patients with unresectable HCC and Child-Pugh A cirrhosis who received treatment with regorafenib versus best supportive care. Model inputs for regorafenib effectiveness and rates of adverse events in patients with HCC were based on published clinical trial data and literature review. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated along with the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of regorafenib therapy. One-way sensitivity analyses also were conducted simultaneously on all model parameters and on various Monte-Carlo simulation parameters, and the regorafenib cost threshold at which cost effectiveness would be achieved was determined. Regorafenib provided an increase of 0.18 QALYs at a cost of $47,112. The ICER for regorafenib, compared with best supportive care, was $224,362. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, there were no scenarios in which regorafenib was cost effective. In cost threshold analysis, regorafenib would have to be priced at or below $67 per pill to be cost effective at an ICER of $100,000. Regorafenib is not cost effective as a second-line agent in the treatment of HCC, with a marginal increase in QALYs at a high cost. Lowering the cost of regorafenib or improving the selection of patients who can achieve maximal survival benefit would improve its value as a second-line treatment option for patients with HCC. Cancer 2017;123:3725-3731. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Achieving Smart Energy Planning Objectives. The Approach of the Transform Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Delponte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cities play a dual role in the field of energy and integrated planning. They function as institutional planning and decision making bodies and interfere as actors, e.g. as project developers or launching customers. In the first case their attempts at integrated plans are often unsuccessful in integrating vision, goals and instruments of all stakeholders so that waste, water, energy cycles, urban planning and budgets proceed with no connection to each other.  TRANSFORM Project “Transformation Agenda for Low Carbon Cities” (FP7 tries to improve the integrated energy policy and decision making process of cities, both at a strategic and operational level, by providing the cities with a framework based on overall planning experiences and on-the-field projects and qualitative and quantitative analysis support models. The project intends also to make a step further in the quality of research, by providing a replicable and tested framework for the production of a strategic Transformation Agenda for the city as a whole, combined with district Implementation Plans.

  13. Using Renewable Energy As a tool To Achieve Tourism sustainability in Mediterranean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanthie Michalena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of transforming Mediterranean islands into sustainable tourism areas, through the direct (or indirect use of renewable energy projects and technologies. Through demonstration and a discussion of cases studies from studied islands, which takes into account island-specific characteristics and particularities, we assess the compatibility of renewable energy technologies (RETs with sustainable tourism development. Conclusions emerge from this analysis which highlight prerequisites for RET-tourism compatibility; this has potential transferability to other insular territories. Developing an appreciation of the factors that can lead to sustainable tourism in islands through the use of renewable energy is a priority issue for two main reasons. Firstly, because until now scientific literature has only discussed the question of photovoltaics’ integration into tourism buildings, and secondly, because of the relatively high vulnerability to climate change impacts of islands compared to many mainland areas, according to predictions made by the United Nations and the European Union. Whilst international politics deal with the mass reduction of gaseous emissions into the atmosphere, reducing the adverse effects of climate change in the islands has become a significant component of national priorities.

  14. Virtual Machine Replication on Achieving Energy-Efficiency in a Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrota K. Mondal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in cloud service demand has led to the establishment of large-scale virtualized data centers in which virtual machines (VMs are used to handle user requests for service. A user’s request cannot be completed if the VM fails. Replication mechanisms can be used to mitigate the impact of failures. Further, data centers consume a large amount of energy resulting in high operating costs and contributing to significant greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In this paper, we focus on Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS cloud where user job requests are processed by VMs and analyze the effectiveness of VM replications in terms of job completion time performance as well as energy consumption. Three different schemes: cold, warm, and hot replications are considered. The trade-offs between job completion time and energy consumption in different replication schemes are characterized through comprehensive analytical models which capture VM state transitions and associated power consumption patterns. The effectiveness of replication schemes are demonstrated through experimental results. To verify the validity of the proposed analytical models, we extend the widely used cloud simulator CloudSim and compare the simulation results with analytical solutions.

  15. Lead-ion collisions: the LHC achieves a new energy record

    CERN Multimedia

    John Jowett

    2015-01-01

    After the Bevatron (Berkeley, 1954) – which broke the energy barrier of billions of electronvolts – and the Tevatron (Fermilab, 1987) – which reached a trillion electronvolts – the LHC is now reaching the peta- (quadrillion) electronvolt level with its heavy-ion collisions (see here). However, one should remember that the average energy per colliding nucleon pair, within the 1 PeV “fireball”, is 5 TeV (compared to 13 TeV in the recent proton-proton collisions).   Heavy-ion collision events from the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments. Two of the great particle accelerators of the past were named after the symbolic energy barrier that they broke. The Bevatron (for "billions of electronvolts synchrotron"), at Berkeley in 1954, was the first to break the barrier of a billion electronvolts or BeV (now known as a gigaelectronvolt or GeV) in the centre-of-mass, by a large enough margin to create the laboratory’s ...

  16. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  17. Complete characterization of voltage sags: an alternative to achieve energy quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga Medina, Edgar Andres; Vasco Garcia, Carlos Andres

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the meaning of the power quality and its negative influence in the automation processes are presented. Voltage sags, the problems they cause and a methodology to characterize the phenomenon are also presented. Once the problems associated with the different sensible loads connected to a power system are identified, the cause of the bad quality of the electrical energy provided those loads is then established; voltage sags are one of the most common phenomenon that requires characterization in order to diminish their negative impact on the industrial processes

  18. The cost-effectiveness of comprehensive school reform and rapid assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart S. Yeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of 29 Comprehensive School Reform (CSR models suggests that all 29 models are less cost-effective than an alternative approach for raising student achievement, involving rapid assessment systems that test students 2 to 5 times per week in math and reading and provide rapid feedback of the results to students and teachers. Results suggest that reading and math achievement could increase approximately one order of magnitude greater for every dollar invested in rapid assessment rather than CSR. The results also suggest that reading and math achievement could increase two orders of magnitude for every dollar invested in rapid assessment rather than class size reduction and three orders of magnitude for every dollar invested in rapid assessment rather than high quality preschool.

  19. The policy implications of the different interpretations of the cost-effectiveness of renewable electricity support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del; Cerdá, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of support for renewable electricity is a main criterion to assess the success of policy instruments, together with effectiveness. The costs of support are also a source of significant concern for governments all over the world. However, significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. While some authors define the concept of cost-effectiveness as that which complies with the equimarginality principle, many others, including documents from relevant organisations (European Commission, International Energy Agency, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) define it as “the lowest costs of support”, generally equating it with the minimisation of consumer costs. The aim of this paper is to clarify the differences between both approaches and their policy implications regarding the choice of instruments and design elements. It is shown that they partly overlap and that their policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions. While the former favours technology neutral instruments and design elements, the “minimisation of consumer costs” approach favours instruments and design elements which adjust support levels to the costs of the technologies. - Highlights: • Significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. • Clarify the differences between two main approaches to cost-effectiveness. • Policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions

  20. Acceptance and rejection: cost-effectiveness and the working nephrologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Philip A; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2004-11-01

    While many nephrologists have developed a sophisticated approach to appraising clinical trials, an equal comfort in critiquing cost-effectiveness literature is often lagging. Readers can wonder how new results compare to those from other cost-effectiveness trials, and whether they should accept a new intervention as cost-effective or reject it as too costly for the benefit it produces. Critical readers should first judge whether the authors have made the correct trade-off between complexity and generalizability when selecting a study perspective, and should examine the method of linkage between costs and effectiveness. The most popular method is the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which has limitations that have led some authors to prefer the net monetary benefit (NMB), where confidence intervals are more easily determined and which can more readily be used in regression analyses. Interpretation of the ICER and NMB require the choice of a cost-effectiveness ceiling, representing the maximum that society would be willing to pay for an incremental health benefit, and the development of a decision rule based on this maximum. Comparing cost-effectiveness studies from different disciplines requires the use of "universal" effectiveness measures, such as the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). An understanding of study perspective, the relative strengths of different cost-effectiveness measures, the methods for measuring uncertainty in these estimates, and how to select and use cost-effectiveness ceiling ratios will help the critical reader to determine if a new intervention should be accepted or rejected.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of online positive psychology: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Majo, Cristina; Smit, Filip; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Haverman, Merel; Walburg, J.A.; Riper, Heleen; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As yet, no evidence is available about the cost-effectiveness of positive psychological interventions. When offered via the Internet, these interventions may be particularly cost-effective, because they are highly scalable and do not rely on scant resources such as therapists’ time. Alongside a

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This

  3. Cost-effective analysis of PET application in NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Aichun; Liu Jianjun; Sun Xiaoguang; Shi Yiping; Huang Gang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PET and CT application for diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. Methods: Using decision analysis method the diagnostic efficiency of PET and CT for diagnosis of NSCLC in china was analysed. And also the value of cost for accurate diagnosis (CAD), cost for accurate staging (CAS) and cost for effective therapy (CAT) was calculated. Results: (1) For the accurate diagnosis, CT was much more cost-effective than PET. (2) For the accurate staging, CT was still more cost-effective than PET. (3) For the all over diagnostic and therapeutic cost, PET was more cost-effective than CT. (4) The priority of PET to CT was for the diagnosis of stage I NSCLC. Conclusion: For the management of NSCLC patient in China, CT is more cost-effective for screening, whereas PET for clinical staging and monitoring therapeutic effect. (authors)

  4. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps in specific buildings in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greyvenstein, G.P.; Meyer, J.P. (Potchefstroom Univ. for CHE (South Africa). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    Water heating heat pumps are extremely energy efficient and large savings can be realized when they are compared to direct electrical resistance heaters. In spite of the energy efficiency of heat pumps, a large number of residential buildings in South Africa still use electrical heaters to heat water. The reason for this is that heat pumps are considerably more expensive than electrical heaters. Building owners tend to choose the system with the smallest initial cost and do not compare the two systems on the basis of life-cycle cost. It is also difficult to calculate the life-cycle cost of a heat pump because it depends on many factors like climatological conditions and water temperature. In this paper a methodology is developed to calculate the life-cycle cost of a heat pump hot water installation. The model is used to investigate the effect of daily runtime, electricity tariff, hot water consumption and geographical location on the cost-effectiveness of heat pumps. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps increases with daily run time, water consumption and electricity tariff. Heat pumps are more cost-effective near the coast than in the interior. If sized correctly, heat pumps are more cost-effective than electrical heaters for all major cities in South Africa. The cost-effectiveness of heat pumps for two specific buildings, one a university student hostel in Potchefstroom and the other a hotel in Durban, is also investigated. For both cases it was found that heat pumps are more cost-effective than direct electrical resistance heaters. (author)

  5. Achieving energy efficiency in LTE with joint D2D communications and green networking techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the joint operation of cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. Furthermore, an energy-efficient technique for putting BSs in sleep mode in an LTE cellular network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s BSs. The studied methods are investigated in the framework of OFDMA-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking into account intercell interference and resource allocation. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. SU-F-T-85: Energy Modulated Electron Postmastectomy Unreconstructed (PU) Chest Wall (CW) Irradiation Technique to Achieve Heart Sparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, L; Ballangrud, A; Mechalakos, J [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); McCormick, B [Memerial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: For left-sided PU patients requiring CW and nodal irradiation, sometimes partial wide tangents (PWT) are not feasible due to abnormal chest wall contour or heart position close to the anterior chest wall or unusual wide excision scar. We developed an energy modulated electron chest wall irradiation technique that will achieve heart sparing. Methods: Ten left-sided PU patients were selected for this dosimetry study. If PWT were used, the amount of the ipsilateral lung would be ranged 3.4 to 4.4 cm, and the amount of heart would be ranged 1.3 to 3.8 cm. We used electron paired fields that matched on the skin to achieve dose conformity to the chest wall. The enface electron fields were designed at extended SSD from a single isocenter and gantry angle with different energy beams using different cutout. Lower energy was used in the central chest wall part and higher energy was used in the periphery of the chest wall. Bolus was used for the electron fields to ensure adequate skin dose coverage. The electron fields were matched to the photon supra-clavicle field in the superior region. Daily field junctions were used to feather the match lines between all the fields. Target volumes and normal tissues were drawn according to institutional protocols. Prescription dose was 2Gy per fraction for a total 50Gy. Dose calculations were done with Eclipse EMC-11031 for Electron and AAA-11031 for photons. Results: Six patients were planned using 6/9MeV, three using 9/12MeV and one 6/12MeV. Target volumes achieved adequate coverage. For heart, V30Gy, V20Gy and Mean Dose were 0.6%±0.6%, 2.7%±1.7%, and 3.0Gy±0.8Gy respectively. For ipsilateral lung, V50Gy, V20Gy, V10Gy and V5Gy were 0.9%±1.1%, 34.3%±5.1%, 51.6%±6.3% and 64.1%±7.5% respectively. Conclusion: For left-sided PU patients with unusual anatomy, energy modulated electron CW irradiation technique can achieve heart sparing with acceptable lung dose.

  7. Attenuation of 10 MeV electron beam energy to achieve low doses does not affect Salmonella spp. inactivation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieke, Anne-Sophie Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV electron beam on Salmonella inactivation kinetics was investigated. No statistically significant differences were observed between the D 10 values of either Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- or a Salmonella cocktail (S. 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella) when irradiated with either a non-attenuated 10 MeV eBeam or an attenuated 10 MeV eBeam (~2.9±0.22 MeV). The results show that attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV eBeam to achieve low doses does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. when compared to direct 10 MeV eBeam irradiation. - Highlights: • 10 MeV eBeam energy was attenuated to 2.9±0.22 MeV using HDPE sheets. • Attenuation of eBeam energy does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella. • Microbial inactivation is independent of eBeam energy in the range of 3–10 MeV

  8. Achievements and suggestions of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in northern heating regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ding; Zhe Tian; Yong Wu; Neng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote energy efficiency and emission reduction, the importance of improving building energy efficiency received sufficient attention from Chinese Government. The heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings of 0.15 billion m 2 in northern heating regions of China was initiated in 2007 and completed successfully at the end of 2010. This article introduced the background and outline of the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan. Numerous achievements that received by retrofit such as environmental protection effect, improvement of indoor environment, improvement of heating system, investment guidance effect, promotion of relevant industries and increasing chances of employment were concluded. Valuable experience that acquired from the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan was also summarized in this article. By analyzing the main problems emerged in the past, pertinent suggestions were put forward to promote a larger scale and more efficient retrofit project in the period of 12th five-year plan. - Highlights: →Successful implementation of a retrofit project in China is introduced. → Significance of the project contributing to emission reduction is analyzed. →Achievements are summarized and future suggestions are put forward.

  9. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-07-16

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  10. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  11. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Schmidt, Julie Berg

    2016-01-01

    , the majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P fat-free mass (FFM) and 58·4 % fat mass. The weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood......A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd...... in TAG (P fat mass continued to decrease from week 7 to 11 (all P

  12. Cost-effective practices in the blood service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaliaki, Korina

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study is to recommend alternative policies, which are tested on a computer simulation model, towards a more cost-effective management of the blood supply chain in the UK. With the use of primary and secondary data from the National Blood Service (NBS) and the supplied hospitals, statistical analysis is conducted and a detailed discrete event simulation model of a vertical part of the UK supply chain of blood products is developed to test and identify good ordering, inventory and distribution practices. Fewer outdates, group substitutions, shortages and deliveries could be achieved by blood banks: holding stock of rare blood groups of red blood cells (RBC), having a second routine delivery per weekday, exercising a more insensitive ordering point for RBC, reducing the total crossmatch release period to less than 1.5 days, increasing the transfusion-to-crossmatch ratio to 70%, adhering to an age-based issuing of orders, holding RBC stock of a weighted average of approximately 4 days. The blood supply simulation model can offer useful pieces of advice to the stakeholders of the examined system which leads to cost reductions and increased safety. Moreover, it provides a great range of experimental capabilities in a risk-free environment.

  13. A cost-effective, comprehensive method for ash characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csullog, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The strategy of the Waste Disposal Project at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) is to develop a cost-effective technology to dispose of wastes with acceptable risks to current and future generations. To optimize the cost/risk ratio, wastes are to be characterized, segregated and disposed of in facilities that are suitably engineered to isolate and contain them. To implement this strategy, wastes must be adequately characterized to assess their hazardous lifetimes. The CRNL characterization program has focused on wastes handled at the site's Waste Treatment Centre (WTC). This paper describes the achievements made in the noninvasive gamma-ray monitoring of low-level radioactive waste feeds to the WTC incinerator, the noninvasive gamma-ray monitoring of incinerator ash and the development of radiochemical methods to assay the nongamma-emitting radionuclides in the ash. In addition, this paper describes the integration of the assay techniques to provide a high-throughput characterization system supported by automated data-logging and comprehensive data base management on the site's central computer

  14. A cost-effective simulation curriculum for preclinical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Roberta; Glickman, Gerald N

    2004-02-01

    A challenge in contemporary dental education is to achieve a smooth transition from preclinical teaching environments to patient-care clinics in a cost-effective manner. The preclinical endodontic courses at The University of Texas, Dental Branch at Houston provide a unique learning environment that enables the student to perform endodontic treatment on extracted teeth in a typodont, and be involved in diagnosis and treatment-planning discussions. The specially designed stone typodont used has built-in radiographic capability, and is mounted at each chair in the clinic. During each preclinical session, students are assigned clinical cubicles and proper aseptic protocol is followed. Students are required to wear gloves, masks and eyewear, and place a rubber dam during treatment. Written self-assessment evaluations based upon prescribed criteria are utilised; feedback is given by faculty composed of both full-time endodontists and graduate students who periodically rotate and are calibrated on a regular basis. In the lecture phase, clinical case scenarios are presented to reinforce concepts of diagnosis and emergency care and to help integrate endodontics with other disciplines; a Socratic-like teaching style is established by the faculty facilitator to create an environment for developing critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. The overall feedback from graduating students has been very positive. Advantages of this format are an easier transition to patient management, a more keen interest in specialsation and a perceived increase in levels of confidence.

  15. Cost-Effective Hyperspectral Transmissometers for Oceanographic Applications: Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ramírez-Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of inexpensive, compact hyperspectral transmissometers broadens the research capabilities of oceanographic applications. These developments have been achieved by incorporating technologies such as micro-spectrometers as detectors as well as light emitting diodes (LEDs as light sources. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the new commercial LED-based hyperspectral transmissometer VIPER (TriOS GmbH, Rastede, Germany, which combines different LEDs to emulate the visible light spectrum, aiming at the determination of attenuation coefficients in coastal environments. For this purpose, experimental uncertainties related to the instrument stability, the effect of ambient light and derived temperature, and salinity correction factors are analyzed. Our results identify some issues related to the thermal management of the LEDs and the contamination of ambient light. Furthermore, the performance of VIPER is validated against other transmissometers through simultaneous field measurements. It is demonstrated that VIPER provides a compact and cost-effective alternative for beam attenuation measurements in coastal waters, but it requires the consideration of several optimizations.

  16. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Campaigns Delivered via Various Combinations of Television and Online Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allom, Vanessa; Jongenelis, Michelle; Slevin, Terry; Keightley, Stacey; Phillips, Fiona; Beasley, Sarah; Pettigrew, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting the increasing prevalence of online media, many mass media health campaigns are now delivered using both television (TV) and online media formats. The aim of this study was to evaluate a smoking cessation mass media campaign according to the cost-effectiveness of the various combinations of TV and online media formats to inform future media buying decisions. A quasi-experimental interrupted time series approach was employed. The campaign was delivered in seven 1-week bursts using TV, online video (OV), or online display (OD) (e.g., banner ads) formats in isolation and in various combinations over a 13-week period. Campaign bursts were separated by "off-weeks" in which no campaign materials were delivered. Assessed outcomes were the number of campaign response "events" recorded (campaign web page views, calls to a smoking cessation telephone service, and registrations for smoking cessation services). The cost-effectiveness of each individual and combined media format condition in terms of these outcome variables was calculated using attributed production and broadcasting costs. Overall, OD alone was found to be the most cost-effective means of achieving the nominated campaign outcomes, followed by a combination of OV and OD and a combination of TV and OV. The use of TV in isolation was the least cost-effective. The results of this evaluation indicate that online media constitute a promising means of enhancing the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation campaigns. Future research assessing a broader range of outcomes, especially smoking cessation, is needed to provide a more comprehensive account of the cost-effectiveness of various campaign media.

  17. Critical Research for Cost-Effective Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liwei [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Deng, Xunming [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Abken, Anka [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Cao, Xinmin [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Du, Wenhui [Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC, Toledo, OH (United States); Vijh, Aarohi [Xunlight Corporation, Toledo, OH (United States); Ingler, William [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Chen, Changyong [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Fan, Qihua [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Collins, Robert [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Compaan, Alvin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Yan, Yanfa [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Giolando, Dean [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-10-29

    The objective of this project is to develop critical technologies required for cost-effective production of hydrogen from sunlight and water using a-Si triple junction solar cell based photo-electrodes. In this project, Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE) and its collaborating organizations utilize triple junction a-Si thin film solar cells as the core element to fabricate photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. Triple junction a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe solar cell is an ideal material for making cost-effective PEC system which uses sun light to split water and generate hydrogen. It has the following key features: 1) It has an open circuit voltage (Voc ) of ~ 2.3V and has an operating voltage around 1.6V. This is ideal for water splitting. There is no need to add a bias voltage or to inter-connect more than one solar cell. 2) It is made by depositing a-Si/a-SiGe/aSi-Ge thin films on a conducting stainless steel substrate which can serve as an electrode. When we immerse the triple junction solar cells in an electrolyte and illuminate it under sunlight, the voltage is large enough to split the water, generating oxygen at the Si solar cell side (for SS/n-i-p/sunlight structure) and hydrogen at the back, which is stainless steel side. There is no need to use a counter electrode or to make any wire connection. 3) It is being produced in large rolls of 3ft wide and up to 5000 ft long stainless steel web in a 25MW roll-to-roll production machine. Therefore it can be produced at a very low cost. After several years of research with many different kinds of material, we have developed promising transparent, conducting and corrosion resistant (TCCR) coating material; we carried out extensive research on oxygen and hydrogen generation catalysts, developed methods to make PEC electrode from production-grade a-Si solar cells; we have designed and tested various PEC module cases and carried out extensive outdoor testing; we were able to obtain a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH

  18. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Olesen, Jørgen E; Petersen, Søren O

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG...... emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990–2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50–70% reduction...... of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy...

  19. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions.

  20. Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, J. J.; Clark, D. P.; Chilla, J. L. A.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.; Marconi, M. C.

    1996-11-01

    There is significant interest in the demonstration of compact soft x-ray amplifiers capable of generating pulses of substantial energy for applications. This motivates the demonstration of gain media generated by compact devices, that can be successfully scaled in length to reach gain saturation. To date, gain saturation had only been achieved in a few soft x-ray laser lines in plasmas generated by some of the world's largest laser facilities.(B. J. MacGowan et al.), Phys. Fluids B 4, 2326 (1992); A. Carillon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 68, 2917 (1992);B. Rus et al., in AIP Conf. Proc. 332, X-ray lasers 1994, p. 152; S. Wang et al., ibid., p. 293. Previosly we reported large amplification at 46.9 nm in Ne-like argon in a plasma column generated by a fast capillary discharge.(J. J. Rocca et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192 (1994). Herein we report the generation of laser pulse energies up to 30 μJ at 46.9 nm in such discharge and the first clear evidence of gain saturation of a table-top soft x-ray amplifier. Single pass amplification experiments yielded laser pulse energies up to 6 μJ and double pass amplification using an iridium mirror yielded 30 μJ. The observed saturation of the gain and laser pulse energy are in good agreement with the results of radiation transport calculations. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  1. Cost effectiveness analysis of indoor radon control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1989-01-01

    The problem of radon 222 in buildings as a contributor to radiation exposure is described. Five different control methods and the dose reductions that would result from each are analysed. The annualized cost for each control measure was evaluated and the cost effectiveness of each control measure was calculated on the basis of dollars per person-sievert dose reduction. The use of unipolar ion generators for particle removal appears to be the most cost effective and the use of ceiling fans to increase air circulation the least cost effective. 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Climate targets and cost-effective climate stabilization pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Held H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate economics has developed two main tools to derive an economically adequate response to the climate problem. Cost benefit analysis weighs in any available information on mitigation costs and benefits and thereby derives an “optimal” global mean temperature. Quite the contrary, cost effectiveness analysis allows deriving costs of potential policy targets and the corresponding cost- minimizing investment paths. The article highlights pros and cons of both approaches and then focusses on the implications of a policy that strives at limiting global warming to 2 °C compared to pre-industrial values. The related mitigation costs and changes in the energy sector are summarized according to the IPCC report of 2014. The article then points to conceptual difficulties when internalizing uncertainty in these types of analyses and suggests pragmatic solutions. Key statements on mitigation economics remain valid under uncertainty when being given the adequate interpretation. Furthermore, the expected economic value of perfect climate information is found to be on the order of hundreds of billions of Euro per year if a 2°-policy were requested. Finally, the prospects of climate policy are sketched.

  3. Cost effectiveness of in situ bioremediation at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaty, R.P.; Showalter, W.E.; Booth, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In situ bioremediation (ISBR) is an innovative new remediation technology for the removal of chlorinated solvents from contaminated soils and groundwater. The principal contaminant at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration is tricloroethylene (TCE) a volatile organic compound (VOC). A 384-day test run at Savannah River, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (EM-50), furnished information about the performance and applications of ISBR. In situ bioremediation, as tested, is based on two distinct processes occurring simultaneously; the physical process of in situ air stripping and the biological process of bioremediation. Both processes have the potential to remediate some amount of contamination. A quantity of VOCs, directly measured from the extracted airstream, was removed from the test area by the physical process of air stripping. The biological process is difficult to examine. However, the results of several tests performed at the SRID and independent numerical modeling determined that the biological process remediated an additional 40% above the physical process. Given these data, the cost effectiveness of this new technology can be evaluated

  4. Climate targets and cost-effective climate stabilization pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, H.

    2015-08-01

    Climate economics has developed two main tools to derive an economically adequate response to the climate problem. Cost benefit analysis weighs in any available information on mitigation costs and benefits and thereby derives an "optimal" global mean temperature. Quite the contrary, cost effectiveness analysis allows deriving costs of potential policy targets and the corresponding cost- minimizing investment paths. The article highlights pros and cons of both approaches and then focusses on the implications of a policy that strives at limiting global warming to 2 °C compared to pre-industrial values. The related mitigation costs and changes in the energy sector are summarized according to the IPCC report of 2014. The article then points to conceptual difficulties when internalizing uncertainty in these types of analyses and suggests pragmatic solutions. Key statements on mitigation economics remain valid under uncertainty when being given the adequate interpretation. Furthermore, the expected economic value of perfect climate information is found to be on the order of hundreds of billions of Euro per year if a 2°-policy were requested. Finally, the prospects of climate policy are sketched.

  5. Mobile liquid VR system: a cost effective alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R.; Harkins, R.; HPD, Inc., Naperville, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The need for cost effective alternatives to treat large volumes of liquid radwaste has never been more evident. As part of a continuing effort to introduce such alternatives, HPD, Inc., and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., have integrated two proven state-of-the-art technologies to offer a mobile liquid volume reduction system that satisfies nuclear industry requirements, with respect to liquid radwaste handling. This system optimizes proven technology by employing a crystallizer unit to concentrate the waste liquids to 50 weight percent solids, thereby reducing the volume to be solidified by factors of 40, while using only 20 percent of the energy required by conventional evaporative systems. In addition, the system employs a field proven cement solidification process which has been accepted in a Topical Report by the US NRC and which offers the highest waste to container volume ratios for stable waste forms in the industry. This volume reduction-solidification system is able to reduce over 7000 gallons of liquid waste per day to less than 30 cubic feet of 10CFR61 certified stable solidified waste for ultimate disposal or on-site storage. This document describes the GEODE System; its applicability; economics; volume reduction; scope of responsibility and experience. Major benefits include higher VR factors; assurance of continual regulatory compliance; and no capital investment

  6. Cost effects of hospital mergers in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Helda; Mateus, Céu

    2014-12-01

    The Portuguese hospital sector has been restructured by wide-ranging hospital mergers, following a conviction among policy makers that bigger hospitals lead to lower average costs. Since the effects of mergers have not been systematically evaluated, the purpose of this article is to contribute to this area of knowledge by assessing potential economies of scale to explore and compare these results with realized cost savings after mergers. Considering the period 2003-2009, we estimate the translog cost function to examine economies of scale in the years preceding restructuring. Additionally, we use the difference-in-differences approach to evaluate hospital centres (HC) that occurred between 2004 and 2007, comparing the years after and before mergers. Our findings suggest that economies of scale are present in the pre-merger configuration with an optimum hospital size of around 230 beds. However, the mergers between two or more hospitals led to statistically significant post-merger cost increases, of about 8 %. This result indicates that some HC become too large to explore economies of scale and suggests the difficulty of achieving efficiencies through combining operations and service specialization.

  7. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR−/−) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Kenneth A.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; DiStefano, Peter S.; Geddes, Brad J.; Kopchick, John

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR −/− mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (Mb) changes and physical activity in 17 month-old female GHR −/− mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR −/− mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit Mb, had greater EE per unit Mb and had an increase in 24-h EE/Mb that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR −/− mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, Mb and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for Mb and LMA, the GHR −/− mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR −/− mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR −/− mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final three hours of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR −/− mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable Mb. Relative to wild type mice, the GHR −/− mice consumed more calories per unit Mb, which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR −/− mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. PMID:19747867

  8. Daily energy balance in growth hormone receptor/binding protein (GHR -/-) gene-disrupted mice is achieved through an increase in dark-phase energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Kenneth A; Berryman, Darlene E; Kelder, Bruce; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Distefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J; Kopchick, John J

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine factors that contribute to energy balance in female GHR -/- mice. We measured energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), fuel utilization, body mass (M(b)) changes and physical activity in 17month-old female GHR -/- mice and their age-matched wild type littermates. The GHR -/- mice were smaller, consumed more food per unit M(b), had greater EE per unit M(b) and had an increase in 24-h EE/M(b) that was similar to the increase in their surface-area-to-volume ratio. Locomotor activity (LMA) was reduced in the GHR -/- mice, but the energetic cost associated with their LMA was greater than in wild type controls. Furthermore, M(b) and LMA were independent explanatory covariates of most of the variance in EE, and when adjusted for M(b) and LMA, the GHR -/- mice had higher EE during both the light and dark phases of the daily cycle. Respiratory quotient was lower in GHR -/- mice during the light phase, which indicated a greater utilization of lipid relative to carbohydrate in these mice. Additionally, GHR -/- mice had higher ratios of caloric intake to EE at several intervals during the dark phase, and this effect was greater and more sustained in the final 3h of the dark phase. Therefore, we conclude that GHR -/- mice are able to overcome the substantial energetic challenges of dwarfism through several mechanisms that promote stable M(b). Relative to wild type mice, the GHR -/- mice consumed more calories per unit M(b), which offset the disproportionate increase in their daily energy expenditure. While GHR -/- mice oxidized a greater proportion of lipid during the light phase in order to meet their energy requirements, they achieved greater energy efficiency and storage during the dark phase through a combination of higher energy consumption and lower LMA. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy storage systems program report for FY1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1997-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

  10. Cost-effectiveness and radiation risk of breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombach, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Base cost effectiveness risk associated with radiological screening for tuberculosis and lung tumor the Government of Netherlands advised against mass screening. However, mass screening remains an important method in the case of breast cancer

  11. Orienting Nursing Students to Cost Effective Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessner, Muriel W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes five principles for cost-effective clinical practice: efficient use of self, efficient use of equipment and supplies, delegation of work, critical path method, and organization of the environment. (SK)

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant feeding strategies to prevent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in South Africa. Mandy Maredza, Melanie Y Bertram, Haroon Saloojee, Matthew F Chersich, Stephen M Tollman, Karen J Hofman ...

  13. An Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness of Micro Computerized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness of Micro Computerized Documentation System/Integrated Set of Information System (CDS/ISIS) Software of Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC), Abuja.

  14. Test Report: Cost Effective Foundation Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; T. E. Rahl; G. A. Twitchell; R. G. Kobbe

    2003-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to demonstrate and quantify the thermal effectiveness of rigid insulation board when installed on the exterior of a buried concrete foundation wall. A heated, insulated box was constructed along one wall of an existing, unheated building to simulate the living space of a home. The crawl space beneath the living space was divided into two sections. One featured external foundation insulation, while the other side had none. 36 temperature and heat flux sensors were installed at predetermined locations to measure the temperature profile and heat flow out of the living space. The temperature profile through the foundation was then used to calculate the total heat flow out of the foundation for both cases. This experiment showed that a significant energy savings is available with exterior foundation insulation. Over the course of 3 months, the heat-loss differential between the insulated and non-insulated foundations was 4.95 kilowatt-hours per lineal foot of foundation wall, for a ratio of 3:1. For a 2200 sq. ft home with a foundation perimeter 200 ft. long, this would amount to a savings of 990 kW-hrs in just 3 months, or 330 kW-hrs per month. Extrapolating to an 8-month heating year, we would expect to save over 2640 kW-hrs per year for such a home. The savings for a basement foundation, rather than a crawlspace, would be approach twice that amount, nearing 5280 kW-hr per year. Because these data were not collected during the coldest months of the year, they are conservative, and greater savings may be expected during colder periods.

  15. COST EFFECTIVE AND HIGH RESOLUTION SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION USING HYDRAULIC TOMOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    see that Approaches 1 and 2 are comparable in terms of costs if the equipment costs for hydraulic tomography are not accounted for. Equipment costs ...FINAL REPORT Cost -Effective and High-Resolution Subsurface Characterization Using Hydraulic Tomography ESTCP Project ER-201212 AUGUST...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W912HQ-12-C-0024 COST -EFFECTIVE AND HIGH-RESOLUTION SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION USING HYDRAULIC TOMOGRAPHY

  16. Achieving global environmental benefits through local development of clean energy? The case of small hilly hydel in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V. Ratna; Uitto, Juha I.; Frans, Dirk R.; Matin, Nilufar

    2006-01-01

    Energy and development are closely intertwined. Yet, increasing fossil fuel-based energy consumption contributes significantly to environmental problems both locally and globally. This article explores the interlinkages between local livelihood and environmental benefits from the provision of energy to remote rural households through small hydropower development. The analysis is based on research carried out around a large development project designed to assist the Government of India in the optimum utilization of small hydropower resources in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions. There are about 100,000 villages in India that are not connected to electricity supply, many of them in the hilly regions with ample hydropower potential. The project aimed to demonstrate the utility of and options for providing electricity to such villages through clean mini-hydro. The article addresses the nature of the impacts of the demonstration small hydel schemes on the local communities, to what extent they translate into environmental benefits both locally and globally, and the perceptions and participation of the local communities in these small hydro schemes. The study explores the impacts of the schemes on financial capital, natural capital, social capital, physical capital, human capital, and gender equity in the local communities. It further provides a discussion on the links between local and global environmental benefits. Overall, it is found that the schemes' impacts both on the local communities and the environment are mostly marginally positive or neutral, although achieving clearly demonstrable benefits would require major upscaling of the effort involving broader changes than possible under this project. Furthermore, it is argued that some of the assumptions behind the project design were faulty. Involvement of the local communities and direct livelihood benefits to them are essential for the long-term sustainability of the small hydro schemes. The discussion and

  17. A cost-effective climastrategy; En omkostningseffektiv klimastrategi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    As a consequence of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the subsequent 1998 EU Burden Sharing Agreement, Denmark is committed to reducing its average annual greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008-2012 by 21% in relation to the basis year, 1990. Excess emissions in relation to the reduction commitments are expected to be 25 million tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents per year, corresponding to approximately 30% of expected emissions in the period 2008-2012, if calculations are based on Denmark's legal commitment under the EU Burden Sharing Agreement, which is significantly more than previously estimated. The legal commitment is based on figures not corrected for the especially large import of electricity in the basis year, 1990. At the Council meeting in connection with ratification of the Kyoto Protocol on 4 March 2002, Denmark did however achieve agreement on a political declaration. According to the declaration, Denmark's claim for adjusted electricity imports for the basis year, 1990, will be considered when individual Member State reductions in tonnes are finally determined in 2006. If the claimed correction is fully taken account of, Danish excess emissions will be reduced by 5 million tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents per year. Flexible mechanisms, i.e. trading in the so-called credits from CO{sub 2} reduction projects in developing countries and in Central and Eastern Europe as well as trading in CO{sub 2} quotas, may contribute to fulfilling Denmark's reduction commitments. This reflects the fact that greenhouse gas emissions are a global problem that must be solved by ensuring the most cost-effective reduction at global level. Furthermore, flexible mechanisms can contribute to developing the countries in question through the transfer of know-how and capital. (ba)

  18. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gopal, Anand R.; Harris, Andrew; Jacobson, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ˜10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of 4.4 M (or 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.

  19. Manufactured Homes Simulated Thermal Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylon, David

    1990-05-17

    In 1988 and 1989, 150 manufactured homes were built to comply with Super Good Cents (SGC) specifications adapted from the existing specifications for site-built homes under the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP). Engineering calculations and computer simulations were used to estimate the effects of the SGC specifications on the thermal performance of the homes. These results were compared with consumer costs to establish the cost-effectiveness of individual measures. Heat loss U-factors for windows, walls, floors and ceilings were established using the standard ASHRAE parallel heat flow method. Adjustments resulted in higher U-factors for ceilings and floors than assumed at the time the homes were approved as meeting the SGC specifications. Except for those homes which included heat pumps, most of the homes did not meet the SGC compliance standards. Nonetheless these homes achieved substantial reductions in overall heat loss rate (UA) compared to UAs estimated for the same homes using the standard insulation packages provided by the manufacturers in the absence of the RCDP program. Homes with conventional electric furnaces showed a 35% reduction in total UA while homes with heat pumps had a 25% reduction. A regression analysis showed no significant relationship between climate zone, manufacturer and UA. A modified version of SUNDAY building simulation program which simulates duct and heat pump performance was used to model the thermal performance of each RCDP home as built and the same home as it would have been built without SGC specifications (base case). Standard assumptions were used for thermostat setpoint, thermal mass, internal gains and infiltration rates. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. The determinants of cost-effectiveness potential: an historical perspective on lipid-lowering therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refoios Camejo, Rodrigo; McGrath, Clare; Miraldo, Marisa; Rutten, Frans

    2013-05-01

    The concept of cost effectiveness emerged in an attempt to link the prices of new healthcare technologies to the immediate value they provide, with payers defining the acceptable cost per unit of incremental effect over the alternatives available. It has been suggested that such measures allow developers to assess potential market profitability in an early stage of development, but may result in discouraging investment in efficient research if not used appropriately. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of the factors determining cost effectiveness and assess the evolution of cost-effectiveness potential for drugs in development using lipid-lowering therapy as a case study. The study is based on observational clinical and market data covering a 20-year period (from 1990 to 2010) in the UK. Real-life clinical data including total cholesterol laboratory test results were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and are used to illustrate how the clinical effectiveness of existing standard care changed over time in patients managed in clinical practice. Prescription Cost Analysis (PCA) data were extracted and the average price of the drug mix used was computed throughout the study period. Using this information, the maximum clinical benefit and cost savings to be had were estimated for each year of the analysis using a cost-effectiveness model. Subsequently, the highest price a new technology providing the maximum clinical effectiveness possible (i.e. eliminating cardiovascular risk from high cholesterol levels) could achieve under current cost-effectiveness rules was calculated and used as a measure of the potential cost effectiveness of drugs in development. The results in this study show that the total cholesterol values of patients managed in clinical practice moved steadily towards recommended clinical targets. Overall, the absolute potential for incremental health-related quality of life decreased by approximately 78

  1. Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2006-09-29

    This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

  2. Optimal allocation of land and water resources to achieve Water, Energy and Food Security in the upper Blue Nile basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, M.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth, hunger problems, increasing energy demands, persistent conflicts between the Nile basin riparian countries and the potential impacts of climate change highlight the urgent need for the conscious stewardship of the upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin resources. This study develops a framework for the optimal allocation of land and water resources to agriculture and hydropower production in the UBN basin. The framework consists of three optimization models that aim to: (a) provide accurate estimates of the basin water budget, (b) allocate land and water resources optimally to agriculture, and (c) allocate water to agriculture and hydropower production, and investigate trade-offs between them. First, a data assimilation procedure for data-scarce basins is proposed to deal with data limitations and produce estimates of the hydrologic components that are consistent with the principles of mass and energy conservation. Second, the most representative topography and soil properties datasets are objectively identified and used to delineate the agricultural potential in the basin. The agricultural potential is incorporated into a land-water allocation model that maximizes the net economic benefits from rain-fed agriculture while allowing for enhancing the soils from one suitability class to another to increase agricultural productivity in return for an investment in soil inputs. The optimal agricultural expansion is expected to reduce the basin flow by 7.6 cubic kilometres, impacting downstream countries. The optimization framework is expanded to include hydropower production. This study finds that allocating water to grow rain-fed teff in the basin is more profitable than allocating water for hydropower production. Optimal operation rules for the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance dam (GERD) are identified to maximize annual hydropower generation while achieving a relatively uniform monthly production rate. Trade-offs between agricultural expansion and hydropower

  3. Technical and economic analysis use of flare gas into alternative energy as a breakthrough in achieving zero routine flaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Y.; Juliza, H.; Humala, N.

    2018-03-01

    The activity of exploring natural oil and gas will produce gas flare 0.584 MMSCFD. A gas flare is the combustion of gas remaining to avoid poisonous gas like H2S and CO which is very dangerous for human and environmental health. The combustion can bring about environmental pollution and losses because it still contains valuable energy. It needs the policy to encourage the use of flare gas with Zero Routine Flaring and green productivity to reduce waste and pollution. The objective of the research was to determine the use of gas flare so that it will have economic value and can achieve Zero Routine Flaring. It was started by analysing based on volume or rate and composition gas flare was used to determine technical feasibility, and the estimation of the gas reserves as the determination of the economy of a gas well. The results showed that the use of flare gas as fuel for power generation feasible to be implemented technically and economically with Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 19.32% and the Payback Period (PP) 5 year. Thus, it can increase gas flare value economically and can achieve a breakthrough in Zero Routine Flaring.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer screening: a simulation study based on ERSPC data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Carvalho, T M; Auvinen, A; Zappa, M; Nelen, V; Kwiatkowski, M; Villers, A; Páez, A; Moss, S M; Tammela, T L J; Recker, F; Denis, L; Carlsson, S V; Wever, E M; Bangma, C H; Schröder, F H; Roobol, M J; Hugosson, J; de Koning, H J

    2015-01-01

    The results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial showed a statistically significant 29% prostate cancer mortality reduction for the men screened in the intervention arm and a 23% negative impact on the life-years gained because of quality of life. However, alternative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening strategies for the population may exist, optimizing the effects on mortality reduction, quality of life, overdiagnosis, and costs. Based on data of the ERSPC trial, we predicted the numbers of prostate cancers diagnosed, prostate cancer deaths averted, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained, and cost-effectiveness of 68 screening strategies starting at age 55 years, with a PSA threshold of 3, using microsimulation modeling. The screening strategies varied by age to stop screening and screening interval (one to 14 years or once in a lifetime screens), and therefore number of tests. Screening at short intervals of three years or less was more cost-effective than using longer intervals. Screening at ages 55 to 59 years with two-year intervals had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $73000 per QALY gained and was considered optimal. With this strategy, lifetime prostate cancer mortality reduction was predicted as 13%, and 33% of the screen-detected cancers were overdiagnosed. When better quality of life for the post-treatment period could be achieved, an older age of 65 to 72 years for ending screening was obtained. Prostate cancer screening can be cost-effective when it is limited to two or three screens between ages 55 to 59 years. Screening above age 63 years is less cost-effective because of loss of QALYs because of overdiagnosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, D.L.; Moore, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  6. Cost-effectiveness of alternative conservation strategies with application to the Pacific leatherback turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjertsen, Heidi; Squires, Dale; Dutton, Peter H; Eguchi, Tomoharu

    2014-02-01

    Although holistic conservation addressing all sources of mortality for endangered species or stocks is the preferred conservation strategy, limited budgets require a criterion to prioritize conservation investments. We compared the cost-effectiveness of nesting site and at-sea conservation strategies for Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). We sought to determine which conservation strategy or mix of strategies would produce the largest increase in population growth rate per dollar. Alternative strategies included protection of nesters and their eggs at nesting beaches in Indonesia, gear changes, effort restrictions, and caps on turtle takes in the Hawaiian (U.S.A.) longline swordfish fishery, and temporal and area closures in the California (U.S.A.) drift gill net fishery. We used a population model with a biological metric to measure the effects of conservation alternatives. We normalized all effects by cost to prioritize those strategies with the greatest biological effect relative to its economic cost. We used Monte Carlo simulation to address uncertainty in the main variables and to calculate probability distributions for cost-effectiveness measures. Nesting beach protection was the most cost-effective means of achieving increases in leatherback populations. This result creates the possibility of noncompensatory bycatch mitigation, where high-bycatch fisheries invest in protecting nesting beaches. An example of this practice is U.S. processors of longline tuna and California drift gill net fishers that tax themselves to finance low-cost nesting site protection. Under certain conditions, fisheries interventions, such as technologies that reduce leatherback bycatch without substantially decreasing target species catch, can be cost-effective. Reducing bycatch in coastal areas where bycatch is high, particularly adjacent to nesting beaches, may be cost-effective, particularly, if fisheries in the area are small and of little commercial value.

  7. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies of prevention and treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Hay, Phillipa; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine

    2018-04-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental disorders and are associated with substantial economic and social burden. The aim of this study is to undertake a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness studies of both preventive and treatment interventions for eating disorder. Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, CINAHL complete, Health Business Elite, Econlit, Health Policy Reference Center and ERIC) were searched for published cost-effectiveness studies of eating disorder prevention and treatment including papers published up to January 2017. The quality of studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. In all, 13 studies met the review inclusion criteria as full cost-effectiveness studies and 8 were published since 2011. The studies included three modelled and one trial-based study focused on prevention, two trial-based and one modelled study for anorexia nervosa treatment and three trial-based studies for bulimia nervosa treatment. The remaining studies targeted binge-eating disorder or non-specific eating disorder treatment. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 71% (standard deviation 21%). Eating disorder interventions were mainly cost-saving or more effective and more costly compared to comparators; however, some results did not reach statistical significance. In the two studies that achieved 100% CHEERS checklist, one study reported that a cognitive dissonance intervention might be cost-effective for prevention of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with a 90% participation rate and the second study supported lisdexamfetamine to be cost-effective in the treatment of binge-eating disorder. Insufficient evidence for long-term cost-effectiveness (e.g. over 2 years) was found. Cost-effectiveness studies in eating disorder appear to be increasing in number over the last 6 years. Findings

  8. Improving cost-effectiveness and facilitating participation of developing countries in international emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness is a crucial requirement for meaningful agreements on international climate change policy. This is also borne out in the wording of the Framework Convention of Climate Change and, in particular, the Kyoto Protocol (KP), see UNFCCC (1992) and UN (1997). However, the KP - as it stands after COP7 in Marrakech - is not fully cost-effective, although it may eventually turn out to be the only politically feasible, 'most cost-effective', first step in international climate change policy. The successor to the COP7 version of the KP may be a renegotiated protocol, if the COP7 version fails to be ratified by enough countries to enter into force, or it may be the treaty to be designed for a second commitment period. Four dimensions in which cost-effectiveness may be improved in a treaty that succeeds the KP are discussed here. They all relate to international emissions trading (IET) which is likely to be the most significant instrument for attaining cost-effective reductions in aggregate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is important for a climate treaty to be able to attract as many developing countries to IET as possible and achieve this as soon as possible. This would have to occur at essentially no cost to them. Only with developing countries onboard can the world community get full access to their low-cost options for emission reductions. A first aspect to be discussed here is related to identifying a cost-effective approach to attain that goal (Section 1). Another aspect concerns the role of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in this context (Section 2). A third issue is to evaluate the consequences for cost-effectiveness of introducing a Commitment Period Reserve to limit 'overselling' (Section 3). A final one deals with the increase in flexibility that would follow from allowing not only banking but also borrowing of Assigned Amount Units (AAUs) (Section 4). While the first two issues refer directly to developing countries, the last two will be

  9. Are major economies on track to achieve their pledges for 2020? An assessment of domestic climate and energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelfsema, Mark; Elzen, Michel den; Höhne, Niklas; Hof, Andries F.; Braun, Nadine; Fekete, Hanna; Böttcher, Hannes; Brandsma, Ruut; Larkin, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Many of the major greenhouse gas emitting countries have planned and/or implemented domestic mitigation policies, such as carbon taxes, feed-in tariffs, or standards. This study analyses whether the most effective national climate and energy policies are sufficient to stay on track for meeting the emission reduction proposals (pledges) that countries made for 2020. The analysis shows that domestic policies of India, China and Russia are projected to lead to lower emission levels than the pledged levels. Australia's and the EU's nationally legally binding policy framework is likely to deliver their unconditional pledges, but not the conditional ones. The situation is rather unclear for Japan, South Korea, Brazil and Indonesia. We project that policies of Canada and the USA will reduce 2020 emission levels, but additional policies are probably needed to deliver their pledges in full. The analysis also shows that countries are implementing policies or targets in various areas to a varying degree: all major countries have set renewable energy targets; many have recently implemented efficiency standards for cars, and new emission trading systems are emerging. - Highlights: • Many countries have pledged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. • There are upward revisions of greenhouse gas emission projections in many developing countries. • Higher emissions expected from pledged mitigation action plans of developing countries. • Achieving the 2 °C climate goal becomes more difficult. • The expected emission levels resulting from the pledges are surrounded with large uncertainties

  10. School Size, Achievement, and Achievement Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. McMillen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the relationship between school size and achievement, a study was conducted using longitudinal achievement data from North Carolina for three separate cohorts of public school students (one elementary, one middle and one high school. Results revealed several interactions between size and student characteristics, all of which indicated that the achievement gaps typically existing between certain subgroups (i.e., more versus less-advantaged, lower versus higher-achieving were larger in larger schools. Results varied across the grade level cohorts and across subjects, but in general effects were more common in mathematics than in reading, and were more pronounced at the high school level. Study results are discussed in the context of educational equity and cost-effectiveness.

  11. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the welfare of mankind. Accordingly, policy makers have repeatedly stated the goal of slowing climate change and limiting the increase of global mean temperature to less than 2 C above pre-industrial times (the so-called ''two degree target''). Stabilizing the temperature requires drastic reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to nearly zero. As the global system of energy supply currently relies on fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions can only be achieved through a full-scale transformation of the energy system. This thesis investigates the economic requirements and implications of different scenarios that achieve stringent climate mitigation targets. It starts with the analysis of characteristic decarbonization patterns and identifies two particularly relevant aspects of mitigation scenarios: deployment of variable renewable energies (VRE) and decarbonization of the transport sector. After investigating these fields in detail, we turned towards one of the most relevant questions for policy makers and analyzed the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and its economic requirements and implications. All analyses are based on the improvement, application, comparison, and discussion of large-scale IAMs. The novel ''mitigation share'' metric allowed us to identify the relevance of specific technology groups for mitigation and to improve our understanding of the decarbonization patterns of different energy subsectors. It turned out that the power sector is decarbonized first and reaches lowest emissions, while the transport sector is slowest to decarbonize. For the power sector, non-biomass renewable energies contribute most to emission reductions, while the transport sector strongly relies on liquid fuels and therefore requires biomass in combination with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) to reduce emissions. An in-depth investigation of the solar power

  12. The Social Value Of Vaccination Programs: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Jeroen; Beutels, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In the current global environment of increased strain on health care budgets, all medical interventions have to compete for funding. Cost-effectiveness analysis has become a standard method to use in estimating how much value an intervention offers relative to its costs, and it has become an influential element in decision making. However, the application of cost-effectiveness analysis to vaccination programs fails to capture the full contribution such a program offers to the community. Recent literature has highlighted how cost-effectiveness analysis can neglect the broader economic impact of vaccines. In this article we also argue that socioethical contributions such as effects on health equity, sustaining the public good of herd immunity, and social integration of minority groups are neglected in cost-effectiveness analysis. Evaluations of vaccination programs require broad and multidimensional perspectives that can account for their social, ethical, and economic impact as well as their cost-effectiveness. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. [Cost-effectiveness of oral cancer screening in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokó, Zoltán; Túri, Gergő; Zsólyom, Adriána

    2016-07-01

    The burden of oral cancer is high in Hungary. To study the cost-effectiveness of potential oral cancer screening in Hungary. Three strategies were compared: no introduction of screening, organized yearly screening for 40-year-old males in general medical practise, and opportunistic screening of high risk 40-year-old males in primary care. Local estimates of health utilities and costs of each health state and of the screening programmes were identified. The main outcomes were total costs, quality adjusted life years, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Depending on the efficacy of the treatments of precancerous lesions and the participation rate, screening strategies are cost-effective over a 15-20 year time course. The opportunistic screening of high risk people is more cost-effective than the other strategies. Opportunistic screening of high risk people would be cost-effective in Hungary. The uncertainty about the efficacy of the treatments of precancerous lesions requires more research to support evidence based health policy making. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(29), 1161-1170.

  14. The role of cognition in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prenger Rilana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral interventions typically focus on objective behavioral endpoints like weight loss and smoking cessation. In reality, though, achieving full behavior change is a complex process in which several steps towards success are taken. Any progress in this process may also be considered as a beneficial outcome of the intervention, assuming that this increases the likelihood to achieve successful behavior change eventually. Until recently, there has been little consideration about whether partial behavior change at follow-up should be incorporated in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs. The aim of this explorative review is to identify CEAs of behavioral interventions in which cognitive outcome measures of behavior change are analyzed. Methods Data sources were searched for publications before May 2011. Results Twelve studies were found eligible for inclusion. Two different approaches were found: three studies calculated separate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for cognitive outcome measures, and one study modeled partial behavior change into the final outcome. Both approaches rely on the assumption, be it implicitly or explicitly, that changes in cognitive outcome measures are predictive of future behavior change and may affect CEA outcomes. Conclusion Potential value of cognitive states in CEA, as a way to account for partial behavior change, is to some extent recognized but not (yet integrated in the field. In conclusion, CEAs should consider, and where appropriate incorporate measures of partial behavior change when reporting effectiveness and hence cost-effectiveness.

  15. Managing Your Energy: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Identifying Energy Savings in Manufacturing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Angelini, Tana; Masanet, Eric

    2010-07-27

    In the United States, industry spends over $100 billion annually to power its manufacturing plants. Companies also spend on maintenance, capital outlay, and energy services. Improving energy efficiency is vital to reduce these costs and increase earnings. Many cost-effective opportunities to reduce energy consumption are available, and this Energy Guide discusses energy-efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be applied over a broad spectrum of companies. Strategies in the guide address hot water and steam, compressed air, pumps, motors, fans, lighting, refrigeration, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. This guide includes descriptions of expected energy and cost savings, based on real-world applications, typical payback periods, and references to more detailed information. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers achieve cost-effective energy reductions while maintaining product quality. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  16. Cost effectiveness and reliability improvement capabilities of CHECWORKS and SWIPS based inspection and maintenance plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. [United Dynamics, Malvern, PA (United States); Borodotsky, A. [Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., NY (United States)

    1996-11-01

    CHECWORKS and SWIPS are computer programs that undertaken degradation analysis and generate prioritized lists for scheduling inspections. A simplified analysis presented in this paper demonstrates that application of such computer aided degeneration analysis and prioritized list based I and M plans can achieve full system reliability along with high cost effectiveness. For purposes of developing insight and a basic understanding, relative cost-effectiveness and system reliability improvement analysis is conducted on a small service water system for five types of inspection and maintenance plans. The following plans are considered: a full inspection plan, a random sampling plan, an experienced based sampling plan, a computer aided degeneration analysis based plan, and a superman based plan. The results obtained show that a computer aided inspection plan is the most effective of the feasible plans. For a realistic system, the plan can pay for the analysis cost and generate additional cost savings while maintaining full system reliability.

  17. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of greenhouse gas emission abatement. The case of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1999-11-01

    In Finland greenhouse gas emissions are expected to increase during the next decades due to economic growth, particularly in the energy intensive industrial sectors. The role of these industries is very central in the national economy. The emission control according to the Kyoto Protocol will therefore be quite difficult and costly. The study analyses the cost-effectiveness of different technical options for reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in Finland. The analysis is performed with the help of a comprehensive energy system model for Finland, which has been extended to cover all major sources of methane and nitrous oxide emissions in the energy sector, industry, waste management and agriculture. The focus being on technical options, no consideration is given to possible policy measures, emission trading or joint implementation in the study. Under the boundary conditions given for the development of the Finnish energy economy, cost-effective technical measures in the energy system include increases in the use of wood biomass, natural gas and wind energy, increases in the contribution of CHP to the power supply, and intensified energy conservation in all end-use sectors. Additional cost-effective measures are landfill gas recovery, utilisation of the combustible fraction of waste and catalytic conversion of N{sub 2}O in nitric acid production. With baseline assumptions, the direct annual costs of emission abatement are calculated to be about 2000 MFIM (330 M{epsilon}) in 2010. The marginal costs are estimated to be about 230 FIM (40 {epsilon}) per tonne of CO{sub 2}-equivalent in 2010. The cost curie derived from the analysis could be used in further analyses concerning emissions trading. (orig.) 109 refs. SIHTI Research Programme

  18. Solar Energy Gain and Space-Heating Energy Supply Analyses for Solid-Wall Dwelling Retrofitted with the Experimentally Achievable U-value of Novel Triple Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Memon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A considerable effort is devoted to devising retrofit solutions for reducing space-heating energy in the domestic sector. Existing UK solid-wall dwellings, which have both heritage values and historic fabric, are being improved but they tend to have meagre thermal performance, partly, due to the heat-loss through glazings. This paper takes comparative analyses approach to envisage space-heating supply required in order to maintain thermal comfort temperatures and attainable solar energy gains to households with the retrofit of an experimentally achievable thermal performance of the fabricated sample of triple vacuum glazing to a UK solid-wall dwelling. 3D dynamic thermal models (timely regimes of heating, occupancy, ventilation and internal heat gains of an externally-insulated solid-wall detached dwelling with a range of existing glazing types along with triple vacuum glazings are modelled. A dramatic decrease of space-heating load and moderate increase of solar gains are resulted with the dwelling of newly achievable triple vacuum glazings (having centre-of-pane U-value of 0.33 Wm-2K-1 compared to conventional glazing types. The space-heating annual cost of single glazed dwellings was minimised to 15.31% (≈USD 90.7 with the retrofit of triple-vacuum glazings. An influence of total heat-loss through the fabric of solid-wall dwelling was analysed with steady-state calculations which indicates a fall of 10.23 % with triple vacuum glazings compared to single glazings.

  19. A Layered Decision Model for Cost-Effective System Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Huaqiang; Alves-Foss, James; Soule, Terry; Pforsich, Hugh; Zhang, Du; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2008-10-01

    System security involves decisions in at least three areas: identification of well-defined security policies, selection of cost-effective defence strategies, and implementation of real-time defence tactics. Although choices made in each of these areas affect the others, existing decision models typically handle these three decision areas in isolation. There is no comprehensive tool that can integrate them to provide a single efficient model for safeguarding a network. In addition, there is no clear way to determine which particular combinations of defence decisions result in cost-effective solutions. To address these problems, this paper introduces a Layered Decision Model (LDM) for use in deciding how to address defence decisions based on their cost-effectiveness. To validate the LDM and illustrate how it is used, we used simulation to test model rationality and applied the LDM to the design of system security for an e-commercial business case.

  20. Bayesian cost-effectiveness analysis with the R package BCEA

    CERN Document Server

    Baio, Gianluca; Heath, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a description of the process of health economic evaluation and modelling for cost-effectiveness analysis, particularly from the perspective of a Bayesian statistical approach. Some relevant theory and introductory concepts are presented using practical examples and two running case studies. The book also describes in detail how to perform health economic evaluations using the R package BCEA (Bayesian Cost-Effectiveness Analysis). BCEA can be used to post-process the results of a Bayesian cost-effectiveness model and perform advanced analyses producing standardised and highly customisable outputs. It presents all the features of the package, including its many functions and their practical application, as well as its user-friendly web interface. The book is a valuable resource for statisticians and practitioners working in the field of health economics wanting to simplify and standardise their workflow, for example in the preparation of dossiers in support of marketing authorisation, or acade...

  1. Attributes of system testing which promote cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    A brief overview of conventional EMP testing activity examines attributes of overall systems tests which promote cost-effectiveness. The general framework represents an EMP-oriented systems test as a portion of a planned program to design, produce, and field system elements. As such, all so-called system tests should play appropriate cost-effective roles in this program, and the objective here is to disclose such roles. The intrinsic worth of such tests depends not only upon placing proper values on the outcomes, but also upon the possible eventual consequences of not doing tests. A relative worth measure is required. Attributes of EMP system testing over the range of potential activity which encompasses research and development, production, field handling, verification, evaluation, and others are reviewed and examined. Thus, the relative worth, in a cost-effective sense, is provided by relating such attributes to the overall program objectives so that values can be placed on the outcomes for tradeoff purposes

  2. Cost-effectiveness of measures to prevent classical swine fever introduction into The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, C J; Saatkamp, H W; Huirne, R B M

    2005-09-12

    Recent history has demonstrated that classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics can incur high economic losses, especially for exporting countries that have densely populated pig areas and apply a strategy of non-vaccination, such as The Netherlands. Introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) remains a continuing threat to the pig production sector in The Netherlands. Reducing the annual probability of CSFV introduction (P(CSFV)) by preventive measures is therefore of utmost importance. The choice of preventive measures depends not only on the achieved reduction of the annual P(CSFV), but also on the expenditures required for implementing these measures. The objective of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of tactical measures aimed at the prevention of CSFV introduction into The Netherlands. For this purpose for each measure (i) model calculations were performed with a scenario tree model for CSFV introduction and (ii) its annual cost was estimated. The cost-effectiveness was then determined as the reduction of the annual P(CSFV) achieved by each preventive measure (DeltaP) divided by the annual cost of implementing that measure (DeltaC). The measures analysed reduce the P(CSFV) caused by import or export of pigs. Results showed that separation of national and international transport of pigs is the most cost-effective measure, especially when risk aversion is assumed. Although testing piglets and breeding pigs by a quick and reliable PCR also had a high cost-effectiveness ratio, this measure is not attractive due to the high cost per pig imported. Besides, implementing such a measure is not allowed under current EU law, as it is trade restrictive.

  3. Cost effectiveness evaluation of hepatitis C therapy in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Yoanna Juliet; Tahir, Amna; Riaz, Munaza

    2017-11-01

    Approximately 10 million Pakistan's of population is a victim of Hepatitis C virus. A comparative study of two treatments for Hepatitis C being provided in private clinics and government hospitals was conducted to evaluate the cost effectiveness of these treatments. The quality adjusted life years (QALYs) for each treatment plan was determined with the help of health utilities, using EQ-5D scores. A comprehensive data collection form aided in scrutinizing the cause and effect of each treatment on the patient's quality of life. The total sample size for this study is 200 total from the public and private sectors. For both the treatment strategies, values for quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost effective ratio (ICER) and cost effective analysis (CEA) were calculated. The Hepatitis C virus 3a and 3b genotypic patients who were treated with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin combination (strategy 2) showed an increased quality adjusted life years (QALYs) of two years, as compared to those who received interferon α-2a and ribavirin regimen (strategy 1). An incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of Rs 144673.5 per quality adjusted life year (QALYs) was gained by patients treated with strategy 2. The therapy followed by the government sector (strategy 1) is relatively inexpensive accounting for Rs 654.5/quality adjusted life years (QALY) and therapy provided at the clinic sector (strategy 2) is relatively expensive Rs 5620.6/ quality adjusted life years (QALY). However, the cost effectiveness analysis for the pegylated interferon therapy is quite comparable with the other standard treatments; hence it can be called cost effective according to the quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and efficacy of the said therapy.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Dengue Vaccination Programs in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha

    2017-01-01

    The first approved dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV, a chimeric, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus vaccine, was recently licensed in 13 countries, including Brazil. In light of recent vaccine approval, we modeled the cost-effectiveness of potential vaccination policies mathematically based on data from recent vaccine efficacy trials that indicated that vaccine efficacy was lower in seronegative individuals than in seropositive individuals. In our analysis, we investigated several vaccination programs, including routine vaccination, with various vaccine coverage levels and those with and without large catch-up campaigns. As it is unclear whether the vaccine protects against infection or just against disease, our model incorporated both direct and indirect effects of vaccination. We found that in the presence of vaccine-induced indirect protection, the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination decreased with increasing vaccine coverage levels because the marginal returns of herd immunity decreases with vaccine coverage. All routine dengue vaccination programs that we considered were cost-effective, reducing dengue incidence significantly. Specifically, a routine dengue vaccination of 9-year-olds would be cost-effective when the cost of vaccination per individual is less than $262. Furthermore, the combination of routine vaccination and large catch-up campaigns resulted in a greater reduction of dengue burden (by up to 93%) than routine vaccination alone, making it a cost-effective intervention as long as the cost per course of vaccination is $255 or less. Our results show that dengue vaccination would be cost-effective in Brazil even with a relatively low vaccine efficacy in seronegative individuals. PMID:28500811

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Dengue Vaccination Programs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha

    2017-05-01

    AbstractThe first approved dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV, a chimeric, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus vaccine, was recently licensed in 13 countries, including Brazil. In light of recent vaccine approval, we modeled the cost-effectiveness of potential vaccination policies mathematically based on data from recent vaccine efficacy trials that indicated that vaccine efficacy was lower in seronegative individuals than in seropositive individuals. In our analysis, we investigated several vaccination programs, including routine vaccination, with various vaccine coverage levels and those with and without large catch-up campaigns. As it is unclear whether the vaccine protects against infection or just against disease, our model incorporated both direct and indirect effects of vaccination. We found that in the presence of vaccine-induced indirect protection, the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination decreased with increasing vaccine coverage levels because the marginal returns of herd immunity decreases with vaccine coverage. All routine dengue vaccination programs that we considered were cost-effective, reducing dengue incidence significantly. Specifically, a routine dengue vaccination of 9-year-olds would be cost-effective when the cost of vaccination per individual is less than $262. Furthermore, the combination of routine vaccination and large catch-up campaigns resulted in a greater reduction of dengue burden (by up to 93%) than routine vaccination alone, making it a cost-effective intervention as long as the cost per course of vaccination is $255 or less. Our results show that dengue vaccination would be cost-effective in Brazil even with a relatively low vaccine efficacy in seronegative individuals.

  6. Investing in cow-welfare - a cost-effective initiative?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Kirchner, Marlene; Denwood, Matt

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the project was to identify the most cost-effective investments in improving welfare for Danish dairy herds by identifying the most serious welfare problems and their causes, suggesting solutions and calculating the economic consequences of investing in the solutions.......The aim of the project was to identify the most cost-effective investments in improving welfare for Danish dairy herds by identifying the most serious welfare problems and their causes, suggesting solutions and calculating the economic consequences of investing in the solutions....

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of computer-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Loewenberger

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for more cost-effective and pedagogically acceptable combinations of teaching and learning methods to sustain increasing student numbers means that the use of innovative methods, using technology, is accelerating. There is an expectation that economies of scale might provide greater cost-effectiveness whilst also enhancing student learning. The difficulties and complexities of these expectations are considered in this paper, which explores the challenges faced by those wishing to evaluate the costeffectiveness of computer-based assessment (CBA. The paper outlines the outcomes of a survey which attempted to gather information about the costs and benefits of CBA.

  8. Cost-Effective Surgical Management of Liver Disease Amidst a Financial Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Gemenetzis, Georgios; Danias, Nikolaos; Kokoropoulos, Panagiotis; Koukopoulou, Ioanna; Bartsokas, Christos; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Smyrniotis, Vassilios

    2016-07-01

    Intraoperative use of specialized equipment and disposables contributes to the increasing cost of modern liver surgery. As a response to the recent severe financial crisis in our country we have employed a highly standardized protocol of liver resection that minimizes intraoperative and postoperative costs. Our goal is to evaluate cost-effectiveness of this protocol. We evaluated retrospectively all patients who underwent open hepatic resections for 4 years. All resections were performed by the same surgical team under selective hepatic vascular exclusion, i.e., occlusion of the hepatoduodenal ligament and the major hepatic veins, occasionally combined with extrahepatic ligation of the ipsilateral portal vein. Sharp parenchymal transection was performed with a scalpel and hemostasis was achieved with sutures without the use of energy devices. In each case we performed a detailed analysis of costs and surgical outcomes. Our cohort included 146 patients (median age 63 years). 113 patients were operated for primary or metastatic malignancies and 33 for benign lesions. Operating time was 121 ± 21 min (mean ± SD), estimated blood loss was 310 ± 159 ml (mean ± SD), and hospital stay was 7 ± 5 days (mean ± SD). Six patients required admission in the ICU postoperatively. 90-day mortality was 2.74 %, and 8.9 % of patients developed grade III/IV postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo classification). Total in-hospital cost excluding physician fees was 6987.63 ± 3838.51 USD (mean ± SD). Our analysis suggests that, under pressing economic conditions, the proposed surgical protocol can significantly lessen the financial burden of liver surgery without compromising patient outcomes.

  9. A cost-effective method of achieving meaningful citizen participation in public roadway pipeline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Many proponents of gas pipeline studies using the public roadway for their facilities have trouble encouraging public participation. Problems resulting from a lack of public involvement are documented. A public participation process designed to gather meaningful public input is presented through a case study of a public roadway pipeline study in southern Ontario. Techniques are outlined to effectively stimulate public interest and document the public involvement process. Recommendations are made as to the transferability of this process to other jurisdictions.

  10. [Emissions trading potential : achieving emission reductions in a cost-effective manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, K.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of emissions trading as a viable tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by developed countries was discussed. The essence of this author's argument was that emissions trading alone will not solve the climate change problem and that the details of the program are hazy at best. In order to have any hope of meeting the emission reductions, it is essential to begin working out the details now, and to coordinate them with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) plan since all three of these flexibility mechanisms will be working in and among themselves, therefore they need to be consistent. Work on a general set of draft principles by the International Climate Change Partnership (ICCP), a coalition headquartered in Washington, DC, was summarized. Essentially, ICCP favors voluntary programs, incentives for participation, no quantitative limits on trading, no limits on sources and sinks. ICCP believes that trading should be allowed at the company level, and liability should not devolve on the buyer alone, rather, it should be negotiated between buyers and sellers. Credits for early action should also be tradable and most of all, the trading program should be simple to allow active participation by industry, and be free of bureaucratic impediments

  11. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. A standard methodology for cost-effectiveness analysis of new environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, S.R.; Trocki, L.K.; Bowling, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology that is being applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of new environmental technologies under development by EM-50, DOE. Performance, total system effects, and life-cycle costs are all considered in the methodology to compare new technologies with existing or base-line technologies. An example of performance characterization is given in the paper. Sources of data for cost estimates and technology characterizations also appear in the paper. The Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a massive clean up effort of waste sites that contain hazardous, radioactive, or mixed materials. DOE has recognized that improvements in environmental restoration and waste management methods can potentially save the taxpayers billions of dollars as older, less-effective technologies are displaced. Consequently, DOE has targeted significant funding to search for new technologies and to test and demonstrate them in rapid and cost-effective manner with the goal of applying them quickly to address environmental problems

  13. Cost effectiveness of the Dutch incentive for the environmental quality of power generation (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melgerd, R.

    2005-01-01

    This article relates to research on the cost effectiveness of the MEP scheme ('Milieukwaliteit Elektriciteitsproductie' or Environmental Quality of Electricity Generation), carried out as a graduation project at the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands. MEP subsidies are intended to promote investment in sustainable energy sources in the Netherlands by offering investors more certainty and a simpler structure than previous energy subsidies. The MEP also helps prevent Dutch taxpayers' money 'leaking' abroad to purchase sustainable electricity produced cheaper elsewhere. This makes the MEP measurably more effective than its predecessors. The scheme is moreover a step towards the effective deployment of state funds for the reduction of CO2 emission [nl

  14. Improving cost-effectiveness of hypertension management at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the pattern of prescribing for hypertension at a community health centre (CHC) and to evaluate the impact of introducing treatment guidelines and restricting availability of less cost-effective antihypertensive drugs on prescribing patterns, costs of drug treatment and blood pressure (BP) control. Design ...

  15. Systemic cost-effectiveness analysis of food hazard reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    An integrated microbiological-economic framework for policy support is developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative intervention methods and strategies to reduce the risk of Campylobacter in broilers. Four interventions at the farm level and four interventions at the processing st...

  16. Total cost-effectiveness of mammography screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittmann, Nicole; Stout, Natasha K; Lee, Pablo; Tosteson, Anna N A; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Yaffe, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer screening technology and treatment have improved over the past decade. This analysis evaluates the total cost-effectiveness of various breast cancer screening strategies in Canada. Using the Wisconsin Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Monitoring Network (CISNET) breast cancer simulation model adapted to the Canadian context, costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were evaluated for 11 mammography screening strategies that varied by start/stop age and screening frequency for the general population. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are presented, and sensitivity analyses are used to assess the robustness of model conclusions. Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis showed that triennial screening at ages 50 to 69 was the most cost-effective at $94,762 per QALY. Biennial ($97,006 per QALY) and annual ($226,278 per QALY) strategies had higher incremental ratios. The benefits and costs of screening rise with the number of screens per woman. Decisions about screening strategies may be influenced by willingness to pay and the rate of recall for further examination after positive screens.

  17. Cost effective and shape controlled approach to synthesize ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cost effective and shape controlled approach to synthesize hierarchically assembled NiO nanoflakes for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. K Yogesh Kumar H B Muralidhara Y Arthoba Nayaka H Hanumanthappa M S Veena S R Kiran Kumar. Volume 38 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 271-282 ...

  18. The Cost Effectiveness of Hepatitis Immunization for US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R. Jake; Saab, Sammy; Meyerhoff, Allen S.

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B immunization is recommended for all American children, and hepatitis A immunization is recommended for children who live in areas with elevated disease rates. Because hepatitis A and B occur most commonly in young adults, the authors examined the cost effectiveness of college-based vaccination. They developed epidemiologic models to…

  19. Pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial: cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Cynthia; Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients admitted to hospital. Cost effectiveness analysis carried out alongside the pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial; a multicentre UK based pragmatic randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six UK NHS trusts. Intention to treat population comprising 1971 participants. Kaplan Meier estimates of restricted mean time to development of pressure ulcers and total costs for treatment in hospital. Alternating pressure mattresses were associated with lower overall costs (283.6 pounds sterling per patient on average, 95% confidence interval--377.59 pounds sterling to 976.79 pounds sterling) mainly due to reduced length of stay in hospital, and greater benefits (a delay in time to ulceration of 10.64 days on average,--24.40 to 3.09). The differences in health benefits and total costs for hospital stay between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays were not statistically significant; however, a cost effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that on average alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays were associated with an 80% probability of being cost saving. Alternating pressure mattresses for the prevention of pressure ulcers are more likely to be cost effective and are more acceptable to patients than alternating pressure overlays.

  20. Flipping the Calculus Classroom: A Cost-Effective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a cost-effective approach to flipping the calculus classroom. In particular, the emphasis is on low-cost choices, both monetarily and with regards to faculty time, that make the daunting task of flipping a course manageable for a single instructor. Student feedback and overall impressions are also presented.

  1. Cost effective lateral force resisting concrete frame designs for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effective lateral force resisting concrete frame designs for low, mid and high rise buildings. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... With high demand for concrete material in the building market, the goal of Portland Cement Association has be-en to increase the market share of concrete usage by promoting ...

  2. An alternative safer and cost effective surface sterilization method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regardless of its serious health effect, mercury chloride is frequently utilized for surface sterilization to mitigate microbial contamination in sugarcane tissue culture. The current study aimed at finding an alternative safer and cost effective sterilization method to substitute mercury chloride. In the study, sugarcane shoot tip ...

  3. Protocol for cost effective detection of cassava mosaic virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early detection of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is an extremely important step in containing the spread of the disease in Africa. Many nucleic acid based detection tools have been developed for CMD diagnosis but although these methods are specific and sensitive for their target DNA, they are not fast, cost effective, can't ...

  4. How does cognitive dissonance influence the sunk cost effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung SH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shao-Hsi Chung,1 Kuo-Chih Cheng2 1Department of Business Administration, Meiho University, Pingtung, Taiwan; 2Department of Accounting, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua City, Taiwan Background: The sunk cost effect is the scenario when individuals are willing to continue to invest capital in a failing project. The purpose of this study was to explain such irrational behavior by exploring how sunk costs affect individuals’ willingness to continue investing in an unfavorable project and to understand the role of cognitive dissonance on the sunk cost effect. Methods: This study used an experimental questionnaire survey on managers of firms listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange and Over-The-Counter. Results: The empirical results show that cognitive dissonance does not mediate the relationship between sunk costs and willingness to continue an unfavorable investment project. However, cognitive dissonance has a moderating effect, and only when the level of cognitive dissonance is high does the sunk cost have significantly positive impacts on willingness to continue on with an unfavorable investment. Conclusion: This study offers psychological mechanisms to explain the sunk cost effect based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, and it also provides some recommendations for corporate management. Keywords: sunk costs, sunk cost effect, cognitive dissonance, behavior, unfavorable investment

  5. Cost Effectiveness of Premium Versus Regular Gasoline in MCPS Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baacke, Clifford M.; Frankel, Steven M.

    The primary question posed in this study is whether premium or regular gasoline is more cost effective for the Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) bus fleet, as a whole, when miles-per-gallon, cost-per-gallon, and repair costs associated with mileage are considered. On average, both miles-per-gallon, and repair costs-per-mile favor premium…

  6. Systems Analysis for Program Planning and Cost Effectiveness. (An Application).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gigch, John P.; Hill, Richard E.

    This paper describes an effort to implement a cost-effectiveness program using systems analysis in an elementary school district, the Rio Linda Union School District in California. The systems design cycle employed has three phases, policy-making evaluation, and action-implementation. During the first phase, the general philosophy or mission of…

  7. The clinical utility and cost effectiveness of routine thyroid screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The use of thyroid tests to assess psychiatric patients remains debatable. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the utility and cost effectiveness of the current protocol used in thyroid testing in adult psychiatric patients presenting at Stikland Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Method: This was a ...

  8. Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Uganda, the main stay for provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) has been at health facilities. Home based VCT on the other hand, was initiated in the country to improve service coverage. Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of facility- and ...

  9. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis a vaccination in indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwantika, A.A.; Beutels, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia, including an explicit comparison between one-dose and twodose vaccines. Methods: An age-structured cohort model based on a decision tree was developed for the 2012 Indonesia birth cohort. Using the

  10. Cost-effectiveness of PET and PET/Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Hermansson, Ronnie; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    measure by means of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios when considering the replacement of the standard regimen by a new diagnostic procedure. This article discusses economic assessments of PET and PET/computed tomography reported until mid-July 2014. Forty-seven studies on cancer and noncancer...

  11. Construction of cost effective homebuilt spin coater for coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the construction of a cost effective and low power consumption spin coater from a direct current (DC) brushless motor. The DC mechanical component is widdely available in the central processing unit (CPU) cooler. This set up permits simple operation where the DC voltage can be controlled manually in order to ...

  12. skeletal traction and intramedullary nailing cost-effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To our knowledge no similar study has been done in Africa. Objective:To determine the cost-effectiveness of skeletal traction compared to intramedullary nailing. Design: Prospective conventional sampling analytical study. Setting: Hospital based study in a referral and teaching institution - Kenyatta National Hospital,.

  13. Factors cost effectively improved using computer simulations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LPhidza

    indigenous knowledge and extension assistance cannot optimally address. This study aims to identify and evaluate which crop management factors could potentially benefit from model predictions and which are more cost effectively left to experience in semi-arid conditions pertinent to much of sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. Chain Risk Model for quantifying cost effectiveness of phytosanitary measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, J.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.; Schans, van de J.

    2010-01-01

    A Chain Risk Model (CRM) was developed for a cost effective assessment of phytosanitary measures. The CRM model can be applied to phytosanitary assessments of all agricultural product chains. In CRM, stages are connected by product volume flows with which pest infections can be spread from one stage

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Regorafenib for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Ahmad, Bilal B; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-11-10

    Regorafenib is a standard-care option for treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer that increases median overall survival by 6 weeks compared with placebo. Given this small incremental clinical benefit, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of regorafenib in the third-line setting for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the US payer perspective. We developed a Markov model to compare the cost and effectiveness of regorafenib with those of placebo in the third-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Drug costs were based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2014. Model robustness was addressed in univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provided an additional 0.04 QALYs (0.13 life-years) at a cost of $40,000, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $900,000 per QALY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for regorafenib was > $550,000 per QALY in all of our univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in the third-line management of metastatic colorectal cancer. The cost-effectiveness of regorafenib could be improved by the use of value-based pricing. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Cost effectiveness of Tuberculosis Treatment from the Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: At the end of the study, the control group incurred personal cost in transport fare 14 times higher, and lost income 6.5 times more, than the study group. Conclusion: It is concluded that home-based lay worker supervised Directly Observed Treatment Short course is more cost effective from the patients' point of view.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Unsafe Abortion and Alternative First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore the policy implications of increasing access to safe abortion in Nigeria and Ghana, we developed a computer-based decision analytic model which simulates induced abortion and its potential complications in a cohort of women, and comparatively assessed the cost-effectiveness of unsafe abortion and three ...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of controlling Salmonella in the pork chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.A.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Backus, G.B.C.; Beek, van P.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Pork is one of the sources of food-borne salmonellosis in humans. In this paper, the cost-effectiveness of different control scenarios against Salmonella in the stages finishing, transport, lairage and slaughtering is explored. A stochastic simulation model was used for the epidemiological analysis

  19. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  20. A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cost-effective Geographic Information Systems for Transportation (GIS-T) application for traffic congestion analyses in the Developing World. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like ...

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination among Libyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in that country. Methods: We used a published decision tree model that has been adapted to the Libyan situation to analyze a birth cohort of 160,000 children. The evaluation of diarrhea events in three public hospitals helped to estimate ...

  2. Skeletal traction and intramedullary nailing cost-effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the operative group 24 patients had union with one delayed union while in the traction group 12 patients had union, 9 with mal union and 4 delayed union. Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is more cost-effective than skeletal traction. It met the dominant strategy, because it was significantly less costly than skeletal ...

  3. Cost Effectiveness and Demand for Medical Services among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Cost Effectiveness and Demand for Medical. Services among Rural Dwellers in Ekiti State,. Nigeria (Pp. 306-321). Omotoso, Oluwatuyi - Department of Geography and Planning Science,. Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. E-mail: oluomotoso06@yahoo.com. Phone No: 08035749120. Abstract.

  4. Cost-effective diagnostic nasal endoscopy with a modified otoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Mishra, S C

    2001-08-01

    We present 'Mishra's rhinoscope', a novel, cost-effective technique of zero-degree rigid nasoendoscopy with a modified otoscope, the results of which are comparable with the fibreoptic sinoscope. This is particularly suited for the developing world where financial constraints restrict the diagnosis of an occult nasal pathology.

  5. Design of cost effective antennas for instrumentation radars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cost of antennas for instrumentation radars are determined by the development cost. By re-use of the reflector system cost effective antennas can be designed. The factors governing the design of such antennas are described here....

  6. Health care input constraints and cost effectiveness analysis decision rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter); Morton, A. (Alec); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractResults of cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) studies are most useful for decision makers if they face only one constraint: the health care budget. However, in practice, decision makers wishing to use the results of CEA studies may face multiple resource constraints relating to, for

  7. Cost-effectiveness of private umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Anjali J; Smith, Catherine C; Laros, Russell K; Caughey, Aaron B; Cheng, Yvonne W

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the cost-effectiveness of private umbilical cord blood banking. A decision-analytic model was designed comparing private umbilical cord blood banking with no umbilical cord blood banking. Baseline assumptions included a cost of $3,620 for umbilical cord blood banking and storage for 20 years, a 0.04% chance of requiring an autologous stem cell transplant, a 0.07% chance of a sibling requiring an allogenic stem cell transplant, and a 50% reduction in risk of graft-versus-host disease if a sibling uses banked umbilical cord blood. Private cord blood banking is not cost-effective because it cost an additional $1,374,246 per life-year gained. In sensitivity analysis, if the cost of umbilical cord blood banking is less than $262 or the likelihood of a child needing a stem cell transplant is greater than 1 in 110, private umbilical cord blood banking becomes cost-effective. Currently, private umbilical cord blood banking is cost-effective only for children with a very high likelihood of needing a stem cell transplant. Patients considering private blood banking should be informed of the remote likelihood that a unit will be used for a child or another family member. III.

  8. Cost-effective utilisation of basic biochemical laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effective use of laboratory investigations is vital in primary care. Tahir Pillay, MB ChB, PhD, FRCPath (Lond), FCPath (SA) ... epidemics (lifestyle diseases, tuberculosis,. HIV and AIDS, and trauma) in resource- constrained and ... first investigation in most clinical situations where laboratory assessment and diagnosis.

  9. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Health Care Interventions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Decisions concerning the implementation of health programs are usually made on the basis of descriptive assessment. There are only few attempts to review whether returns from investment on these programs worth the effort. Objectives: To analyze and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health care ...

  10. Cost effectiveness of using surgery versus skeletal traction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effectiveness of using surgery versus skeletal traction in management of femoral shaft fractures at Thika level 5 hospital, Kenya. ... Person's chi square and odds ratios were used to measure associations and risk analysis respectively. Results: A higher proportion of patients (88.4%) in group A were hospitalized for less ...

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Mectizan treatment Programmes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study analyzed the operational costs of two Mectizan treatment strategies in relation to their effectiveness. Methods: The study was conducted in 24 communities located in Irewole and Egbeda districts of Osun and Oyo State, Nigeria respectively. Cost-effectiveness analysis included retrospective analysis of ...

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Family Planning Services Offered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effectiveness studies of family planning (FP) services are very valuable in providing evidence-based data for decision makers in Egypt. Cost data came from record reviews for all 15 mobile clinics and a matched set of 15 static clinics and interviews with staff members of the selected clinics at Assiut Governorate.

  13. An alternative safer and cost effective surface sterilization method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... Regardless of its serious health effect, mercury chloride is frequently utilized for surface sterilization to mitigate microbial contamination in sugarcane tissue culture. The current study aimed at finding an alternative safer and cost effective sterilization method to substitute mercury chloride. In the study,.

  14. Modeling and Cost-Effectiveness in HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Margo M; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2016-02-01

    With HIV funding plateauing and the number of people living with HIV increasing due to the rollout of life-saving antiretroviral therapy, policy makers are faced with increasingly tighter budgets to manage the ongoing HIV epidemic. Cost-effectiveness and modeling analyses can help determine which HIV interventions may be of best value. Incidence remains remarkably high in certain populations and countries, making prevention key to controlling the spread of HIV. This paper briefly reviews concepts in modeling and cost-effectiveness methodology and then examines results of recently published cost-effectiveness analyses on the following HIV prevention strategies: condoms and circumcision, behavioral- or community-based interventions, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, HIV testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. We find that the majority of published studies demonstrate cost-effectiveness; however, not all interventions are affordable. We urge continued research on combination strategies and methodologies that take into account willingness to pay and budgetary impact.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwantika, Auliya A.; Beutels, Philippe; Postma, Maarten J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A immunization in Indonesia, including an explicit comparison between one-dose and two-dose vaccines. Methods: An age-structured cohort model based on a decision tree was developed for the 2012 Indonesia birth cohort. Using the

  16. Exploring cost-effective maize integrated weed management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several production constraints have led to low yields (< 2.5 t ha-1) in maize (Zea mays L.) inUganda, among which are weeds. This study investigated the most cost-effective integrated weedmanagement (IWM) approach in maize in eastern Uganda. An experiment was conducted atIkulwe station, Mayuge in 2011 and 2012 ...

  17. Global cost-effectiveness of GDM screening and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Louise K K; Kahn, James G; Marseille, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    and intervention approaches, and outcomes (e.g., inclusion or exclusion of long-term type 2 diabetes risk and associated costs). We concluded that incorporation of long-term benefits of GDM screening and treatment has huge impact on cost-effectiveness estimates. Based on the large methodological heterogeneity...

  18. Is population screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm cost-effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lotte

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is responsible for 1–2% of all male deaths over the age of 65 years. Early detection of AAA and elective surgery can reduce the mortality risk associated with AAA. However, many patients will not be diagnosed with AAA and have therefore an increased death risk due to the untreated AAA. It has been suggested that population screening for AAA in elderly males is effective and cost-effective. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of published cost-effectiveness analyses of screening elderly men for AAA. Methods We performed a systematic search for economic evaluations in NHSEED, EconLit, Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Cinahl and two Scandinavian HTA data bases (DACEHTA and SBU. All identified studies were read in full and each study was systematically assessed according to international guidelines for critical assessment of economic evaluations in health care. Results The search identified 16 cost-effectiveness studies. Most studies considered only short term cost consequences. The studies seemed to employ a number of "optimistic" assumptions in favour of AAA screening, and included only few sensitivity analyses that assessed less optimistic assumptions. Conclusion Further analyses of cost-effectiveness of AAA screening are recommended.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulin Koksal

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: At a cost per vaccine course of US$31.5 for monovalent and US$38 for pentavalent vaccine, routine RV vaccination could be potentially cost effective and also cost saving in Turkey. National RV vaccinations will play a significant role in preventing RV infections.

  20. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Of Streptomycin And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthcare organizations, governments and individuals have been forced by prevailing circumstances of economic crisis to be increasingly oriented towards cost containment due to escalating nature of health expenditure. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the comparative cost effectiveness of various ...

  1. Cost-effective treatment of existing guardrail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    A cost-effective means for upgrading existing guardrail systems with deviations from current practice (i.e., low-rail heights, antiquated end : treatments, and improper installation) does not exist. As a result these systems remain on U.S. highways. ...

  2. Improving cost- effectiveness of hypertension management at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the pattem of prescribing for hypertension at a community health centre (CHC) and to evaluate the impact of introducing treatment guidelines and restricting availability of less cost-effective antihypertensive drugs on prescribing patterns, costs of drug treatment and blood pressure (BP) control. Design ...

  3. Curing energy pains: the energy efficiency best practice programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C

    2000-11-01

    Energy efficiency provides hospitals with opportunities to save costs, help the environment and improve the internal environment for staff and patients. The Government has set the health sector an energy saving target of 20%, equivalent to cuts of 60 m Pounds by 2001 and 1.2 Mt carbon dioxide. These savings can be achieved and exceeded, cost-effectively, if good practise is adopted throughout the sector. Assistance in meeting the Government's energy target and meeting good practice benchmarks is available from the Energy Efficiency Best Practise programme through BRECSU.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Information on cost-effectiveness of interventions to treat schizophrenia can assist health policy decision making, particularly given the lack of health resources in developing countries like Thailand. This study aims to determine the optimal treatment package, including drug and non-drug interventions, for schizophrenia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of typical antipsychotics, generic risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine and family interventions. Health outcomes were measured in disability adjusted life years. We evaluated intervention benefit by estimating a change in disease severity, taking into account potential side effects. Intervention costs included outpatient treatment costs, hospitalization costs as well as time and travel costs of patients and families. Uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. A sensitivity analysis of the expected range cost of generic risperidone was undertaken. Results Generic risperidone is more cost-effective than typicals if it can be produced for less than 10 baht per 2 mg tablet. Risperidone was the cheapest treatment with higher drug costs offset by lower hospital costs in comparison to typicals. The most cost-effective combination of treatments was a combination of risperidone (dominant intervention). Adding family intervention has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1,900 baht/DALY with a 100% probability of a result less than a threshold for very cost-effective interventions of one times GDP or 110,000 baht per DALY. Treating the most severe one third of patients with clozapine instead of risperidone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 320,000 baht/DALY with just over 50% probability of a result below three times GDP per capita. Conclusions There are good economic arguments to recommend generic risperidone as first line treatment in combination with family intervention. As the uncertainty interval indicates the addition of clozapine

  5. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos Theo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of interventions to treat schizophrenia can assist health policy decision making, particularly given the lack of health resources in developing countries like Thailand. This study aims to determine the optimal treatment package, including drug and non-drug interventions, for schizophrenia in Thailand. Methods A Markov model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of typical antipsychotics, generic risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine and family interventions. Health outcomes were measured in disability adjusted life years. We evaluated intervention benefit by estimating a change in disease severity, taking into account potential side effects. Intervention costs included outpatient treatment costs, hospitalization costs as well as time and travel costs of patients and families. Uncertainty was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. A sensitivity analysis of the expected range cost of generic risperidone was undertaken. Results Generic risperidone is more cost-effective than typicals if it can be produced for less than 10 baht per 2 mg tablet. Risperidone was the cheapest treatment with higher drug costs offset by lower hospital costs in comparison to typicals. The most cost-effective combination of treatments was a combination of risperidone (dominant intervention. Adding family intervention has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 1,900 baht/DALY with a 100% probability of a result less than a threshold for very cost-effective interventions of one times GDP or 110,000 baht per DALY. Treating the most severe one third of patients with clozapine instead of risperidone had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 320,000 baht/DALY with just over 50% probability of a result below three times GDP per capita. Conclusions There are good economic arguments to recommend generic risperidone as first line treatment in combination with family intervention. As the uncertainty interval indicates

  6. Cost Effectiveness of Gene Expression Profile Testing in Community Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Young; Schechter, Clyde B; Jayasekera, Jinani; Near, Aimee; O'Neill, Suzanne C; Isaacs, Claudine; Phelps, Charles E; Ray, G Thomas; Lieu, Tracy A; Ramsey, Scott; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2018-02-20

    Purpose Gene expression profile (GEP) testing can support chemotherapy decision making for patients with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor 2-negative breast cancers. This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of one GEP test, Onco type DX (Genomic Health, Redwood City, CA), in community practice with test-eligible patients age 40 to 79 years. Methods A simulation model compared 25-year societal incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of community Onco type DX use from 2005 to 2012 versus usual care in the pretesting era (2000 to 2004). Inputs included Onco type DX and chemotherapy data from an integrated health care system and national and published data on Onco type DX accuracy, chemotherapy effectiveness, utilities, survival and recurrence, and Medicare and patient costs. Sensitivity analyses varied individual parameters; results were also estimated for ideal conditions (ie, 100% testing and adherence to test-suggested treatment, perfect test accuracy, considering test effects on reassurance or worry, and lowest costs). Results Twenty-four percent of test-eligible patients had Onco type DX testing. Testing was higher in younger patients and patients with stage I disease ( v stage IIA), and 75.3% and 10.2% of patients with high and low recurrence risk scores received chemotherapy, respectively. The cost-effectiveness ratio for testing ( v usual care) was $188,125 per QALY. Considering test effects on worry versus reassurance decreased the cost-effectiveness ratio to $58,431 per QALY. With perfect test accuracy, the cost-effectiveness ratio was $28,947 per QALY, and under ideal conditions, it was $39,496 per QALY. Conclusion GEP testing is likely to have a high cost-effectiveness ratio on the basis of community practice patterns. However, realistic variations in assumptions about key variables could result in GEP testing having cost-effectiveness ratios in the range of other accepted interventions. The

  7. Interagency cooperation in the development of a cost-effective transportation and disposal solution for vitrified radium bearing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.; Nixon, D.A.; Stone, T.J.; Tope, W.G.; Vogel, R.A.; Allen, R.B.; Schofield, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3 waste, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, shielding requirements, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the safest, most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-resonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach. Through cooperative work between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the vitrified K-65 and Silo 3 radioactive material will be classified consistent with the regulations promulgated by DOT in the September 28, 1995 Federal Register. These new regulations adopt International Atomic Energy Agency language to promote a consistent approach for the transportation and management of radioactive material between the international community and the DOT. Use of the new regulations allows classification of the vitrified radioactive material from the Fernald silos under the designation of low specific activity-II and allows the development of a container that is optimized to maximize payload while minimizing internal void space, external surface radiation levels, and external volume. This approach minimizes the required number of containers and shipments, and the related transportation and disposal costs

  8. Interagency cooperation in the development of a cost-effective transportation and disposal solution for vitrified radium bearing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.L.; Nixon, D.A.; Stone, T.J.; Tope, W.G.; Vogel, R.A. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Allen, R.B. [USDOE, Fernald Area Office, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Schofield, W.D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3 waste, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, shielding requirements, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the safest, most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-resonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach. Through cooperative work between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the vitrified K-65 and Silo 3 radioactive material will be classified consistent with the regulations promulgated by DOT in the September 28, 1995 Federal Register. These new regulations adopt International Atomic Energy Agency language to promote a consistent approach for the transportation and management of radioactive material between the international community and the DOT. Use of the new regulations allows classification of the vitrified radioactive material from the Fernald silos under the designation of low specific activity-II and allows the development of a container that is optimized to maximize payload while minimizing internal void space, external surface radiation levels, and external volume. This approach minimizes the required number of containers and shipments, and the related transportation and disposal costs.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of emergency contraception options over 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Brandon K; Tak, Casey R; Sanders, Jessica N; Turok, David K; Schwarz, Eleanor B

    2018-02-01

    The copper intrauterine device is the most effective form of emergency contraception and can also provide long-term contraception. The levonorgestrel intrauterine device has also been studied in combination with oral levonorgestrel for women seeking emergency contraception. However, intrauterine devices have higher up-front costs than oral methods, such as ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel. Health care payers and decision makers (eg, health care insurers, government programs) with financial constraints must determine if the increased effectiveness of intrauterine device emergency contraception methods are worth the additional costs. We sought to compare the cost-effectiveness of 4 emergency contraception strategies-ulipristal acetate, oral levonorgestrel, copper intrauterine device, and oral levonorgestrel plus same-day levonorgestrel intrauterine device-over 1 year from a US payer perspective. Costs (2017 US dollars) and pregnancies were estimated over 1 year using a Markov model of 1000 women seeking emergency contraception. Every 28-day cycle, the model estimated the predicted number of pregnancy outcomes (ie, live birth, ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, or induced abortion) resulting from emergency contraception failure and subsequent contraception use. Model inputs were derived from published literature and national sources. An emergency contraception strategy was considered cost-effective if the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ie, the cost to prevent 1 additional pregnancy) was less than the weighted average cost of pregnancy outcomes in the United States ($5167). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and probability of being the most cost-effective emergency contraception strategy were calculated from 1000 probabilistic model iterations. One-way sensitivity analyses were used to examine uncertainty in the cost of emergency contraception, subsequent contraception, and pregnancy outcomes as well as the model probabilities. In 1000 women

  10. Cost-effectiveness simulation model of biologic strategies for treating to target rheumatoid arthritis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresniak, Ariel; Baerwald, Christoph; Zeidler, Henning; Krüger, Klaus; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Dupont, Danielle; Merkesdal, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) usually requires different therapeutic options used sequentially in case of an insufficient response (IR) to previous agents. Since there is a lack of clinical trials comparing biologic treatment sequences, simulation models might add to the understanding of optimal treatment sequences and their cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of different biologic treatment strategies in patients with an IR to anti-TNF agents, based on levels of disease activity from the German public payer's perspective. A cost-effectiveness sequential model was developed in accordance with local RA treatment strategies, using DAS28 scores as dichotomous effectiveness endpoints: achieving remission/no remission (RS/no RS) or a state of low disease activity (LDAS/no LDAS). Costs were estimated using resource utilisation data obtained from a large observational German cohort. Advanced simulations were conducted to assess the cost-effectiveness over 2 years of four sequential biologic strategies composed of up to 3 biologic agents, namely anti-TNF agents, abatacept or rituximab, in patients with moderate-to-severe active RA and an IR to at least one anti-TNF agent. Over two years, the biological sequence including abatacept after an IR to one anti-TNF agent appeared the most effective and cost-effective versus (vs.) use after two anti-TNF agents (€633 vs. €1,067/day in LDAS and €1,222 vs. €3,592/day in remission), and vs a similar sequence using rituximab (€633 vs. €728/day in LDAS and €1,222 vs. €1,812/day in remission). The sequence using a 3rd anti-TNF agent was less effective and cost-effective than the same sequence using abatacept (€2,000 vs. €1,067/day in LDAS and €6,623 vs. €3,592/day in remission). All differences were statistically significant (pcost-effective than similar sequences including rituximab or only cycled anti-TNF agents.

  11. Establishing Cost-Effective Allocation of Proton Therapy for Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailhot Vega, Raymond B.; Ishaq, Omar [Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Raldow, Ann [Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Perez, Carmen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Jimenez, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle [Cardiovascular Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bussiere, Marc; Taghian, Alphonse [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sher, David J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M., E-mail: smacdonald@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Cardiac toxicity due to conventional breast radiation therapy (RT) has been extensively reported, and it affects both the life expectancy and quality of life of affected women. Given the favorable oncologic outcomes in most women irradiated for breast cancer, it is increasingly paramount to minimize treatment side effects and improve survivorship for these patients. Proton RT offers promise in limiting heart dose, but the modality is costly and access is limited. Using cost-effectiveness analysis, we provide a decision-making tool to help determine which breast cancer patients may benefit from proton RT referral. Methods and Materials: A Markov cohort model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of proton versus photon RT for breast cancer management. The model was analyzed for different strata of women based on age (40 years, 50 years, and 60 years) and the presence or lack of cardiac risk factors (CRFs). Model entrants could have 1 of 3 health states: healthy, alive with coronary heart disease (CHD), or dead. Base-case analysis assumed CHD was managed medically. No difference in tumor control was assumed between arms. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to test model robustness and the influence of including catheterization as a downstream possibility within the health state of CHD. Results: Proton RT was not cost-effective in women without CRFs or a mean heart dose (MHD) <5 Gy. Base-case analysis noted cost-effectiveness for proton RT in women with ≥1 CRF at an approximate minimum MHD of 6 Gy with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year. For women with ≥1 CRF, probabilistic sensitivity analysis noted the preference of proton RT for an MHD ≥5 Gy with a similar willingness-to-pay threshold. Conclusions: Despite the cost of treatment, scenarios do exist whereby proton therapy is cost-effective. Referral for proton therapy may be cost-effective for patients with ≥1 CRF in cases for which

  12. Cost effectiveness of a telephone intervention to promote dilated fundus examination in adults with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde B Schechter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Clyde B Schechter1, Charles E Basch2, Arlene Caban3, Elizabeth A Walker41Departments of Family and Social Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA; 2Department of Health Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 4Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USAAbstract: In a clinical trial, we have previously shown that a telephone intervention can significantly increase participation in dilated fundus examination (DFE screening among low-income adults with diabetes. Here the costs and cost-effectiveness ratio of this intervention are calculated. Intervention effectiveness was estimated as the difference in DFE utilization between the telephone intervention and print groups from the clinical trial multiplied by the size of the telephone intervention group. A micro-costing approach was used. Personnel time was aggregated from logs kept during the clinical trial of the intervention. Wage rates were taken from a commercial compensation database. Telephone charges were estimated based on prevailing fees. The cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as the ratio of total costs of the intervention to the number of DFEs gained by the intervention. A sensitivity analysis estimated the cost-effectiveness of a more limited telephone intervention. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis using bootstrap samples from the clinical trial results quantified the uncertainties in resource utilization and intervention effectiveness. Net intervention costs were US$18,676.06, with an associated gain of 43.7 DFEs and 16.4 new diagnoses of diabetic retinopathy. The cost-effectiveness ratio is US$427.37 per DFE gained. A restricted intervention limiting the number of calls to 5, as opposed to 7, would achieve the same results

  13. Cost-effectiveness of varicella vaccination program in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooka Esmaeeli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Varicella zoster virus is the etiologic agent of primary varicella (chickenpox during childhood, and varicella vaccination has not been introduced in Iran. The aim of this study is to estimate cost-effectiveness of one- and two-dose Varicella Vaccination Program in Iran. Methods: A decision-tree model was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Varicella Vaccination Program in a cohort of 12 months children in Iran. Epidemiologic parameters of varicella were extracted from local and international sources, and cost of disease was estimated based on societal prospective in 2015 US$. Incremental cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALY averted calculated as final outcome. Sensitivity analysis was also performed for lower and upper estimate of incidence, DALY, and vaccine efficacy. Results: Considering the vaccine efficacy of 95%, for the two-dose and 85% for the one-dose vaccination, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER per DALYs averted were US$41,531 and US$17,280, respectively. ICER has changed between (US$ 6,177–US$167,047 in lower and upper base estimate of epidemiological burden parameters in sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: Varicella vaccination is not cost-effective in Iran in one-dose and two-dose scenario under the assumptions of this study in base case scenario according to the threshold of incremental cost per DALY averted less than three time of GDP per capita in Iran = US$ 14,292. One-dose vaccination program might be cost-effective in upper scenario of epidemiological burden of varicella in sensitivity analysis.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of a national public access defibrillation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Patrick S; Teljeur, Conor; Masterson, Siobhán; O'Neill, Michelle; Harrington, Patricia; Ryan, Máirín

    2015-06-01

    Proposed Irish legislation aimed at increasing survival from out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest (OHCA) mandates the provision of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in a comprehensive range of publicly accessible premises in urban and rural areas. This study estimated the clinical and cost effectiveness of the legislation, compared with alternative programme configurations involving more targeted AED placement. We used a cost-utility analysis to estimate the costs and consequences of public access defibrillation (PAD) programmes from a societal perspective, based on AED deployment by building type. Comparator programmes ranged from those that only included building types with the highest incidence of OHCA, to the comprehensive programme outline in the proposed legislation. Data on OHCA incidence and outcomes were obtained from the Irish Out-of-Hospital-Cardiac-Arrest Register (OHCAR). Costs were obtained from the Irish health service, device suppliers and training providers. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the most comprehensive PAD scheme was €928,450/QALY. The ICER for the most scaled-back programme involving AED placement in transport stations, medical practices, entertainment venues, schools (excluding primary) and fitness facilities was €95,640/QALY. A 40% increase in AED utilisation when OHCAs occur in a public area could potentially render this programme cost effective. National PAD programmes involving widespread deployment of static AEDs are unlikely to be cost-effective. To improve cost-effectiveness any prospective programmes should target locations with the highest incidence of OHCA and be supported by efforts to increase AED utilisation, such as improving public awareness, increasing CPR and AED training, and establishing an EMS-linked AED register. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy and Sustainability: the European challenge of achieving the 2020 targets; Energia y sostenibilidad. El reto Europeo del logro de los objectivos del 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachiller Araque, J.

    2010-07-01

    The European Union and the energy sector should particularly face up to the triple challenge of increasing the security of supply, de carbonizing its production system and improving the competitiveness of its business network. Achieving the above objectives will involve relevant changes in the way to satisfy the primary energy demand and the electricity generation mix, the development and incorporation of new technologies, as well as the full completion of the internal energy market. Moreover, achieving the 20 targets in 2020 and perhaps a greater requirement on one of them will require increased energy efficiency in the whole chain, from production to consumption, as well as policies and initiatives on energy saving which are consistent with the maintenance of the current levels of welfare. (Author) 27 refs.

  16. Obesity and Surgical Treatment – A Cost-Effectiveness Assessment for Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixten Borg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The rising trend in the prevalence of obesity has during the past decades become a major public health concern in many countries, as obesity may lead to comorbidities and death. A frequent used marker for obesity is the Body Mass Index (BMI. The cost of treatment for obesity related diseases has become a heavy burden on national health care budget in many countries. While diet and exercise are the cornerstones of weight management, pharmaco­therapy is often needed to achieve and maintain desired weight loss.  In some cases of extreme obesity, bariatric surgery may be recommended. It is expected to increase by 50% in Sweden.Objective: The overall objective was to develop a cost-effectiveness model using the best available evidence to assess the cost-effectiveness of gastric bypass (GBP surgical treatments for obesity in adult patients, in comparison with conventional treatment (CT, in Sweden from a healthcare perspective. With the model we also seeked to identify the lower cut-off point using BMI criteria, for the surgical intervention to be cost-effective. Methods:A micro-simulation model with an underlying Markov methodology was developed, that simulates individual patients. It simulates the outcomes of the patients in terms of treatment costs, life years, and quality adjusted life years (QALY over his/her remaining lifetime. The costs are presented in SEK in the year 2006 price level (1 SEK ≈ 0.11 EUR ≈ 0.14 USD.Results: We estimated that the incremental cost per QALY gained will not exceed SEK 33,000 per QALY in patients with BMI < 35. In patients with BMI > 35 kg/m2, gastric bypass surgery has lower costs compared to conventional treatment. Conclusion: Gastric bypass surgery is a cost-effective intervention compared to conventional treatment consisting of watchful waiting, diet and exercise.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudis, Maria I; Touchette, Daniel R; Swadron, Stuart P; Chiu, Amy P; Orlinsky, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin are all commonly used for loading phenytoin in the emergency department (ED). The cost-effectiveness of each was compared for patients presenting with seizures and subtherapeutic phenytoin concentrations. A simple decision tree was developed to determine the treatment costs associated with each of 3 loading techniques. We determined effectiveness by comparing adverse event rates and by calculating the time to safe ED discharge. Time to safe ED discharge was defined as the time at which therapeutic concentrations of phenytoin (>or=10 mg/L) were achieved with an absence of any adverse events that precluded discharge. The comparative cost-effectiveness of alternatives to oral phenytoin was determined by combining net costs and number of adverse events, expressed as cost per adverse events avoided. Cost-effectiveness was also determined by comparing the net costs of each loading technique required to achieve the time to safe ED discharge, expressed as cost per hour of ED time saved. The outcomes and costs were primarily derived from a prospective, randomized controlled trial, augmented by time-motion studies and alternate-cost sources. Costs included the cost of drugs, supplies, and personnel. Analyses were also performed in scenarios incorporating labor costs and savings from using a lower-urgency area of the ED. The mean number of adverse events per patient for oral phenytoin, intravenous phenytoin, and intravenous fosphenytoin was 1.06, 1.93, and 2.13, respectively. Mean time to safe ED discharge in the 3 groups was 6.4 hours, 1.7 hours, and 1.3 hours. Cost per patient was 2.83 dollars, 21.16 dollars, and 175.19 dollars, respectively, and did not differ substantially in the Labor and Triage (lower-urgency area of ED) scenarios. When the measure of effectiveness was adverse events, oral phenytoin dominated intravenous phenytoin and intravenous fosphenytoin, with a lower cost and number of adverse

  18. Cost-effectiveness of lurasidone vs quetiapine extended-release (XR) in patients with bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Krithika; Meyer, Kellie; O'Day, Ken; Denno, Melissa; Loebel, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder imposes a high economic burden on patients and society. Lurasidone and quetiapine extended-release (XR) are atypical antipsychotic agents indicated for monotherapy treatment of bipolar depression. Lurasidone is also indicated as adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate for depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of lurasidone and quetiapine XR in patients with bipolar depression. A cost-effectiveness model was developed to compare lurasidone to quetiapine XR. The model was based on a US third-party payer perspective over a 3-month time horizon. The effectiveness measure in the model was the percentage of patients achieving remission (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] total score ≤12 by weeks 6-8). The comparison of remission rates was made through an adjusted indirect treatment comparison of lurasidone and quetiapine XR pivotal trials using placebo as the common comparator. Resource utilization for remission vs no remission was estimated from published expert panel data, and resource costs were obtained from a retrospective database study of bipolar I depression patients. Drug costs were estimated using the mean dose from clinical trials and wholesale acquisition costs. Over the 3-month model time period, lurasidone and quetiapine XR patients, respectively, had similar mean numbers of emergency department visits (0.48 vs 0.50), inpatient days (2.1 vs 2.2), and office visits (9.3 vs 9.6). More lurasidone than quetiapine XR patients achieved remission (52.0% vs 43.2%) with slightly higher total costs ($4982 vs $4676), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3474 per remission. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed lurasidone had an 86% probability of being cost-effective compared to quetiapine XR at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $10,000 per remission. Lurasidone may be a cost-effective option when compared to

  19. A model-based economic analysis of pre-pandemic influenza vaccination cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Nilimesh; Kelso, Joel K; Milne, George J

    2014-05-16

    A vaccine matched to a newly emerged pandemic influenza virus would require a production time of at least 6 months with current proven techniques, and so could only be used reactively after the peak of the pandemic. A pre-pandemic vaccine, although probably having lower efficacy, could be produced and used pre-emptively. While several previous studies have investigated the cost effectiveness of pre-emptive vaccination strategies, they have not been directly compared to realistic reactive vaccination strategies. An individual-based simulation model of ~30,000 people was used to examine a pre-emptive vaccination strategy, assuming vaccination conducted prior to a pandemic using a low-efficacy vaccine. A reactive vaccination strategy, assuming a 6-month delay between pandemic emergence and availability of a high-efficacy vaccine, was also modelled. Social distancing and antiviral interventions were examined in combination with these alternative vaccination strategies. Moderate and severe pandemics were examined, based on estimates of transmissibility and clinical severity of the 1957 and 1918 pandemics respectively, and the cost effectiveness of each strategy was evaluated. Provided that a pre-pandemic vaccine achieved at least 30% efficacy, pre-emptive vaccination strategies were found to be more cost effective when compared to reactive vaccination strategies. Reactive vaccination coupled with sustained social distancing and antiviral interventions was found to be as effective at saving lives as pre-emptive vaccination coupled with limited duration social distancing and antiviral use, with both strategies saving approximately 420 life-years per 10,000 population for a moderate pandemic with a basic reproduction number of 1.9 and case fatality rate of 0.25%. Reactive vaccination was however more costly due to larger productivity losses incurred by sustained social distancing, costing $8 million per 10,000 population ($19,074/LYS) versus $6.8 million per 10

  20. A model-based economic analysis of pre-pandemic influenza vaccination cost-effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A vaccine matched to a newly emerged pandemic influenza virus would require a production time of at least 6 months with current proven techniques, and so could only be used reactively after the peak of the pandemic. A pre-pandemic vaccine, although probably having lower efficacy, could be produced and used pre-emptively. While several previous studies have investigated the cost effectiveness of pre-emptive vaccination strategies, they have not been directly compared to realistic reactive vaccination strategies. Methods An individual-based simulation model of ~30,000 people was used to examine a pre-emptive vaccination strategy, assuming vaccination conducted prior to a pandemic using a low-efficacy vaccine. A reactive vaccination strategy, assuming a 6-month delay between pandemic emergence and availability of a high-efficacy vaccine, was also modelled. Social distancing and antiviral interventions were examined in combination with these alternative vaccination strategies. Moderate and severe pandemics were examined, based on estimates of transmissibility and clinical severity of the 1957 and 1918 pandemics respectively, and the cost effectiveness of each strategy was evaluated. Results Provided that a pre-pandemic vaccine achieved at least 30% efficacy, pre-emptive vaccination strategies were found to be more cost effective when compared to reactive vaccination strategies. Reactive vaccination coupled with sustained social distancing and antiviral interventions was found to be as effective at saving lives as pre-emptive vaccination coupled with limited duration social distancing and antiviral use, with both strategies saving approximately 420 life-years per 10,000 population for a moderate pandemic with a basic reproduction number of 1.9 and case fatality rate of 0.25%. Reactive vaccination was however more costly due to larger productivity losses incurred by sustained social distancing, costing $8 million per 10,000 population ($19,074/LYS) versus $6

  1. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 32: ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: STATE AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the state and prospect of development in the modern world of alternative energy, including wind energy, sun energy, geothermal energy, biogas energy, flood-tide water energy, hydrogen energy and small water energy. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in area of the present state of world energy and ways of its further development. Results. A brief scientific and technical review is resulted about the state and prospects of world development of basic types of alternative energy. It is shown that, in spite of comparatively small stake (to 10 % of this untraditional energy in general world balance of making of electric power, world association taking into account the necessary changing in the nearest 50 years of present oil-gas «foundation» of energy on other with large raw material, potential and ecological possibilities are forced to invest large financial means in development of the indicated directions of alternative energy. Originality. First on the basis of materials of separate magazine publications, scientific monographs and internet-reports on power problem the brief analytical review of the state and prospects of world development of basic types of alternative energy is executed. Practical value. Deepening and spread of the scientific and technical learnings in area of functioning and ways of development of modern energy. Scientific popularization of arising up before society claimed tasks from global and important for all of humanity of power problem.

  2. A promising tool to achieve chemical accuracy for density functional theory calculations on Y-NO homolysis bond dissociation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong Zhi; Hu, Li Hong; Tao, Wei; Gao, Ting; Li, Hui; Lu, Ying Hua; Su, Zhong Min

    2012-01-01

    A DFT-SOFM-RBFNN method is proposed to improve the accuracy of DFT calculations on Y-NO (Y = C, N, O, S) homolysis bond dissociation energies (BDE) by combining density functional theory (DFT) and artificial intelligence/machine learning methods, which consist of self-organizing feature mapping neural networks (SOFMNN) and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN). A descriptor refinement step including SOFMNN clustering analysis and correlation analysis is implemented. The SOFMNN clustering analysis is applied to classify descriptors, and the representative descriptors in the groups are selected as neural network inputs according to their closeness to the experimental values through correlation analysis. Redundant descriptors and intuitively biased choices of descriptors can be avoided by this newly introduced step. Using RBFNN calculation with the selected descriptors, chemical accuracy (≤1 kcal·mol(-1)) is achieved for all 92 calculated organic Y-NO homolysis BDE calculated by DFT-B3LYP, and the mean absolute deviations (MADs) of the B3LYP/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/STO-3G methods are reduced from 4.45 and 10.53 kcal·mol(-1) to 0.15 and 0.18 kcal·mol(-1), respectively. The improved results for the minimal basis set STO-3G reach the same accuracy as those of 6-31G(d), and thus B3LYP calculation with the minimal basis set is recommended to be used for minimizing the computational cost and to expand the applications to large molecular systems. Further extrapolation tests are performed with six molecules (two containing Si-NO bonds and two containing fluorine), and the accuracy of the tests was within 1 kcal·mol(-1). This study shows that DFT-SOFM-RBFNN is an efficient and highly accurate method for Y-NO homolysis BDE. The method may be used as a tool to design new NO carrier molecules.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Matthew J; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Nudel, Jacob D; Corey, Kathleen E; Kaplan, Lee M; Hur, Chin

    2017-02-01

    Severe obesity affects 4% to 6% of US youth and is increasing in prevalence. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity is becoming more common, but data on cost-effectiveness are limited. To assess the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for adolescents with obesity using recently published results from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. A state-transition model was constructed to compare 2 strategies: no surgery and bariatric surgery. In the no surgery strategy, patients remained at their initial body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) over time. In the bariatric surgery strategy, patients were subjected to risks of perioperative mortality and complications as well as initial morbidity but also experienced longer-term quality-of-life improvements associated with weight loss. Cohort demographic information-of the 228 patients included, the mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years, the mean (range) body mass index was 53 (34-88), and 171 (75.0%) were female-surgery-related outcomes, and base case time horizon (3 years) were based on data from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), total costs (in US dollars adjusted to 2015-year values using the Consumer Price Index), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). A willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY was used to assess cost-effectiveness. After 3 years, surgery led to a gain of 0.199 QALYs compared with no surgery at an incremental cost of $30 747, yielding an unfavorable ICER of $154 684 per QALY. When the clinical study results were extrapolated to 4 years, the ICER decreased to $114 078 per QALY and became cost-effective by 5 years with an ICER of $91 032 per QALY. Outcomes were robust in most 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Bariatric surgery incurs

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Military Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Seth L; Smith, Kenneth J; Palmer, Catherine

    2018-02-07

    Occupational noise threatens U.S. worker health and safety and commands a significant financial burden on state and federal government worker compensation programs. Previous studies suggest that hearing conservation programs have contributed to reduced occupational hearing loss for noise-exposed workers. Many military personnel are overexposed to noise and are provided hearing conservation services. Select military branches require all active duty personnel to follow hearing conservation program guidelines, regardless of individual noise exposure. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a military hearing conservation program, relative to no intervention, in relation to cases of hearing loss prevented. We employed cost-effectiveness analytic methods to compare the costs and effectiveness, in terms of hearing loss cases prevented, of a military hearing conservation program relative to no program. We used costs and probability estimates available in the literature and publicly available sources. The effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed based on whether hearing loss occurred over a 20-yr time frame. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention was $10,657 per case of hearing loss prevented. Workers were 28% less likely to sustain hearing loss in our model when they received the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention, which reflected the greater effectiveness of the hearing conservation program. Cost-effectiveness results were sensitive to estimated values for the probability of acquiring hearing loss from both interventions and the cost of hearing protection. We performed a Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis where we simultaneously varied all the model parameters to their extreme plausible bounds. When we ran 10,000 Monte Carlo iterations, we observed that the hearing conservation program was more cost-effective in 99% of cases when decision makers were willing to

  5. Cost-effectiveness of norovirus vaccination in children in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Andrew J; Ballard, Sarah Blythe; Saito, Mayuko; Kosek, Margaret N; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-06-17

    With candidate norovirus (NV) vaccines in a rapid phase of development, assessment of the potential economic value of vaccine implementation will be necessary to aid health officials in vaccine implementation decisions. To date, no evaluations have been performed to evaluate the benefit of adopting NV vaccines for use in the childhood immunization programs of low- and middle-income countries. We used a Markov decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding a two-dose NV vaccine to Peru's routine childhood immunization schedule using two recent estimates of NV incidence, one for a peri-urban region and one for a jungle region of the country. Using the peri-urban NV incidence estimate, the annual cost of vaccination would be $13.0 million, offset by $2.6 million in treatment savings. Overall, this would result in 473 total DALYs averted; 526,245 diarrhea cases averted;153,735 outpatient visits averted; and 414 hospitalizations averted between birth and the fifth year of life. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio would be $21,415 per DALY averted; $19.86 per diarrhea case; $68.23 per outpatient visit; and $26,298 per hospitalization. Using the higher jungle NV incidence rates provided a lower cost per DALY of $10,135. The incremental cost per DALY with per-urban NV incidence is greater than three times the 2012 GDP per capita of Peru but the estimate drops below this threshold using the incidence from the jungle setting. In addition to the impact of incidence, sensitivity analysis showed that vaccine price and efficacy play a strong role in determining the level of cost-effectiveness. The introduction of a NV vaccine would prevent many healthcare outcomes in the Peru and potentially be cost-effective in scenarios with high NV incidence. The vaccine cost-effectiveness model could also be applied to the evaluation of NV vaccine cost-effectiveness in other countries. In resource-poor settings, where NV incidence rates are expected to be higher. Published

  6. Deep Energy Retrofit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhivov, Alexander; Lohse, Rüdiger; Rose, Jørgen

    Deep Energy Retrofit – A Guide to Achieving Significant Energy User Reduction with Major Renovation Projects contains recommendations for characteristics of some of core technologies and measures that are based on studies conducted by national teams associated with the International Energy Agency...... Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (IEA-EBC) Annex 61 (Lohse et al. 2016, Case, et al. 2016, Rose et al. 2016, Yao, et al. 2016, Dake 2014, Stankevica et al. 2016, Kiatreungwattana 2014). Results of these studies provided a base for setting minimum requirements to the building...... envelope-related technologies to make Deep Energy Retrofit feasible and, in many situations, cost effective. Use of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in addition to core technologies bundle and high-efficiency appliances will foster further energy use reduction. This Guide also provides best practice...

  7. Modeling the cost-effectiveness of ilaprazole versus omeprazole for the treatment of newly diagnosed duodenal ulcer patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, J W; Song, R L; Xu, G X; Lu, W Q; Lu, Y J; Liu, Z

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10 mg ilaprazole once-daily vs 20 mg omeprazole once-daily to treat newly-diagnosed duodenal ulcer patients in China. A decision tree model was constructed and the treatment impact was projected up to 1 year. The CYP2C19 polymorphism distribution in the Chinese population, the respective cure rates in the CYP2C19 genotype sub-groups, the impact of Duodenal Ulcer (DU) on utility value and drug-related side-effect data were obtained from the literature. The total costs of medications were calculated to estimate the treatment costs based on current drug retail prices in China. Expert surveys were conducted when published data were not available. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to gauge the robustness of the results. Ilaprazole, when compared with omeprazole, achieved a better overall clinical efficacy. For the overall population, ilaprazole achieved an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ¥132 056 per QALY gained. This is less than the WHO recommended threshold of 3-times the average GDP per capita in China (2014). Furthermore, sub-group analysis showed that ilaprazole is cost-effective in every province in CYP2C19 hetEM patients and in the most developed provinces in CYP2C19 homEM patients. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggests that the results are robust with 97% probability that ilaprozole is considered cost-effective when a threshold of 3-times China's average GDP per capita is considered. This study didn't have the data of ilaprazole combined with Hp eradication therapy. Caution should be taken when extrapolating these findings to DU patients with an Hp eradication therapy. The cost-effectiveness analysis results demonstrated that ilaprazole would be considered a cost-effective therapy, compared with omeprazole, in Chinese DU patients based on the efficacy projections in various CYP2C19 polymorphism types.

  8. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is cost-effective compared to a wait-list control for persistent pain in women treated for primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, M.; Sørensen, J.; O'Connor, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) compared to a wait-list control group for pain in women treated for breast cancer. Methods: A total of 129 women were randomly allocated to MBCT or a wait-list control group. The primary outcome...... assumed. Conclusions: Our results suggest that MBCT is a cost-effective pain intervention for women treated for breast cancer. Future studies could include utility measures, indirect costs, and active control groups to increase the generalizability and pragmatic value of the results....... group (N:14/48; 29.2%) achieved an MCID in pain intensity (OR=2.71, P =.03). The MBCT was cost-effective with a probability of 85% with a value of an additional women achieving MCID set to zero remained cost-effective with a probability of 70% to 82% when smaller effect and higher MBCT costs were...

  9. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

    2008-01-14

    The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of telemonitoring of diabetic foot ulcer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasterholdt, Iben; Gerstrøm, Marie; Rasmussen, Benjamin Schnack Brandt

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the cost-effectiveness of telemonitoring with standard monitoring for patients with diabetic foot ulcers. The economic evaluation was nested within a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. A total of 374 patients were randomised to either telemonitoring or standard monitoring....... Telemonitoring consisted of two tele-consultations in the patient's own home and one consultation at the outpatient clinic; standard monitoring consisted of three outpatient clinic consultations. Total healthcare costs were estimated over a 6-month period at individual patient level, from a healthcare sector...... perspective. The bootstrap method was used to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, and one-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Telemonitoring costs were found to be €2039 less per patient compared to standard monitoring; however, this difference was not statistically significant...

  11. Cost-effectiveness of Different Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquel, Francisco J; Hendrick, Andrew M; Ryan, Martha; Cason, Emily; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2015-12-29

    Current screening strategies aimed at detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) historically have poor compliance, but advancements in technology can enable improved access to care. Nearly 80% of all persons with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), highlighting the importance of a cost effective screening program. Establishing mechanisms to reach populations with geographic and financial barriers to access is essential to prevent visual disability. Teleretinal programs leverage technology to improve access and reduce cost. The quality of currently employed screening modalities depends on many variables including the instrument used, use of pupillary mydriasis, number of photographic fields, and the qualifications of the photographer and image interpreter. Recent telemedicine and newer technological approaches have been introduced, but data for these technologies is yet limited. We present results of a systematic review of studies evaluating cost-effectiveness of DR screening, and discuss potential relevance for LMICs. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. [Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening policies in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2009-01-01

    Generate cost-effectiveness information to allow policy makers optimize breast cancer (BC) policy in Mexico. We constructed a Markov model that incorporates four interrelated processes of the disease: the natural history; detection using mammography; treatment; and other competing-causes mortality, according to which 13 different strategies were modeled. Strategies (starting age, % of coverage, frequency in years)= (48, 25, 2), (40, 50, 2) and (40, 50, 1) constituted the optimal method for expanding the BC program, yielding 75.3, 116.4 and 171.1 thousand pesos per life-year saved, respectively. The strategies included in the optimal method for expanding the program produce a cost per life-year saved of less than two times the GNP per capita and hence are cost-effective according to WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    . Interventions: Treatment of hypertension to a systolic blood pressure goal of 120 mm Hg (intensive management) or 140 mm Hg (standard management). Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), discounted at 3% annually. Results: Standard management yielded 9.6 QALYs......Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events....... Objective: To evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management compared with standard management. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cost-effectiveness analysis conducted from September 2015 to August 2016 used a Markov cohort model to estimate cost...

  14. Above Bonneville Passage and Propagation Cost Effectiveness Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region.

  15. Above Bonneville passage and propagation cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, C.M.; Hyman, J.B.; Wernstedt, K.

    1993-05-01

    We have developed several models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies to mitigate hydrosystem impacts on salmon and steelhead, and applied these models to areas of the Columbia River Basin. Our latest application evaluates the cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies that target mainstem survival (e.g., predator control, increases in water velocity) and subbasin propagation (e.g., habitat improvements, screening, hatchery production increases) for chinook salmon and steelhead stocks, in the portion of the Columbia Basin bounded by Bonneville, Chief Joseph, Dworshak, and Hells Canyon darns. At its core the analysis primarily considers financial cost and biological effectiveness, but we have included other attributes which may be of concern to the region

  16. BGO as a hybrid scintillator / Cherenkov radiator for cost-effective time-of-flight PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, S. E.; Schaart, D. R.

    2017-06-01

    Due to detector developments in the last decade, the time-of-flight (TOF) method is now commonly used to improve the quality of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Clinical TOF-PET systems based on L(Y)SO:Ce crystals and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) with coincidence resolving times (CRT) between 325 ps and 400 ps FWHM have recently been developed. Before the introduction of L(Y)SO:Ce, BGO was used in many PET systems. In addition to a lower price, BGO offers a superior attenuation coefficient and a higher photoelectric fraction than L(Y)SO:Ce. However, BGO is generally considered an inferior TOF-PET scintillator. In recent years, TOF-PET detectors based on the Cherenkov effect have been proposed. However, the low Cherenkov photon yield in the order of  ˜10 photons per event complicates energy discrimination-a severe disadvantage in clinical PET. The optical characteristics of BGO, in particular its high transparency down to 310 nm and its high refractive index of  ˜2.15, are expected to make it a good Cherenkov radiator. Here, we study the feasibility of combining event timing based on Cherenkov emission with energy discrimination based on scintillation in BGO, as a potential approach towards a cost-effective TOF-PET detector. Rise time measurements were performed using a time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup implemented on a digital photon counter (DPC) array, revealing a prompt luminescent component likely to be due to Cherenkov emission. Coincidence timing measurements were performed using BGO crystals with a cross-section of 3 mm  ×  3 mm and five different lengths between 3 mm and 20 mm, coupled to DPC arrays. Non-Gaussian coincidence spectra with a FWHM of 200 ps were obtained with the 27 mm3 BGO cubes, while FWHM values as good as 330 ps were achieved with the 20 mm long crystals. The FWHM value was found to improve with decreasing temperature, while the FWTM value showed the opposite trend.

  17. The cost-effectiveness of physical activity interventions: A systematic review of reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Abu-Omar

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Available evidence for the cost-effectiveness of physical activity interventions is scattered, but points towards the cost-effectiveness of certain interventions. Until this moment, cost-effectiveness has more often been studied for individual-level interventions. This is potentially due to some methodological challenges in assessing the cost-effectiveness of population-based interventions.

  18. Cost Effectiveness of Pembrolizumab for Advanced Melanoma Treatment in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Luis Silva; Lopes, Francisca Vargas; Pinheiro, Bernardete; Wang, Jingshu; Xu, Ruifeng; Pellissier, James; Laires, Pedro Almeida

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of pembrolizumab in treating patients with ipilimumab-naïve advanced melanoma in Portugal. A cost-effectiveness model was developed to analyze the costs and consequences of treatment with pembrolizumab compared to treatment with ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma not previously treated with ipilimumab. The model was parameterized by using data from a head-to-head phase III randomized clinical trial, KEYNOTE-006. Extrapolation of long-term outcomes was based on approaches previously applied, combining ipilimumab data and melanoma patients' registry data. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Portuguese National Health Service, and a lifetime horizon (40 years) was used. Portugal-specific disease management costs were estimated by convening a panel of six clinical experts to derive health state resource use and multiplying the results by national unit costs. To test for the robustness of the conclusions, we conducted deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Pembrolizumab increases life expectancy in 1.57 undiscounted life-years (LYs) and is associated with an increase in costs versus that of ipilimumab. The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is €47,221 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and €42,956 per LY. Deterministic sensitivity analysis showed that the results were robust to the change of most input values or assumptions and were sensitive to time on treatment scenarios. According to the probabilistic sensitivity analysis performed, pembrolizumab is associated with a cost per QALY gained inferior to €50,000 in 75% of the cases. Considering the usually accepted thresholds in oncology, pembrolizumab is a cost-effective alternative for treating patients with advanced melanoma in Portugal. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Early vs Late Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C Carrie; Rudmik, Luke

    2016-10-01

    The timing of tracheostomy in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation is controversial. An important consideration that is currently missing in the literature is an evaluation of the economic impact of an early tracheostomy strategy vs a late tracheostomy strategy. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the early tracheostomy strategy vs the late tracheostomy strategy. This economic analysis was performed using a decision tree model with a 90-day time horizon. The economic perspective was that of the US health care third-party payer. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per tracheostomy avoided. Probabilities were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. Costs were obtained from the published literature and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database. A multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to account for uncertainty surrounding mean values used in the reference case. The reference case demonstrated that the cost of the late tracheostomy strategy was $45 943.81 for 0.36 of effectiveness. The cost of the early tracheostomy strategy was $31 979.12 for 0.19 of effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the late tracheostomy strategy compared with the early tracheostomy strategy was $82 145.24 per tracheostomy avoided. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000, the early tracheostomy strategy is cost-effective with 56% certainty. The adaptation of an early vs a late tracheostomy strategy depends on the priorities of the decision-maker. Up to a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80 000 per tracheostomy avoided, the early tracheostomy strategy has a higher probability of being the more cost-effective intervention.

  20. The cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Jarrahi, Yasaman; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Sadigh, Nader; Esmaeelpoor Langeroudy, Keyhan; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Besharat, Mehdi; Mosavi Jarrahi, Alireza

    2016-03-03

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea leading to hospitalization or disease-specific death among young children. Effective vaccines have recently been approved and successful vaccination program implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of mass rotavirus vaccination program in Iran. We developed a Markov model that reflects key features of rotavirus natural history. Parameters of the model were assessed by field study or developed through literature search and published data. We applied the model to the 2009 Iranian birth cohort and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of including the rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) into Iranian expanded immunization program (EPI). With an estimated hospitalization rate of 0.05 and outpatient rate of 0.23 cases per person-year, vaccinating cohort of 1231735 infants in Iran with 2 doses of (Rotarix®), would prevent 32092 hospitalizations, 158750 outpatient visits, and 1591 deaths during 5 y of follow-up. Under base-case assumption of $10 cost per course of vaccine, the vaccination would incur an extra cost of $1,019,192 from health care perspective and would avert 54680 DALYs. From societal perspective, there would be $15,192,568 saving for the society with the same averted DALYs. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio showed a cost of $19 US dollars per averted DALY from health care perspective and a saving of $278 US dollars for each averted DALY from societal perspective. Introducing rotavirus vaccine into EPI program would be highly cost-effective public health intervention in Iran.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of a Clinical Childhood Obesity Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Mona; Franz, Calvin; Horan, Christine M; Giles, Catherine M; Long, Michael W; Ward, Zachary J; Resch, Stephen C; Marshall, Richard; Gortmaker, Steven L; Taveras, Elsie M

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness and population impact of the national implementation of the Study of Technology to Accelerate Research (STAR) intervention for childhood obesity. In the STAR cluster-randomized trial, 6- to 12-year-old children with obesity seen at pediatric practices with electronic health record (EHR)-based decision support for primary care providers and self-guided behavior-change support for parents had significantly smaller increases in BMI than children who received usual care. We used a microsimulation model of a national implementation of STAR from 2015 to 2025 among all pediatric primary care providers in the United States with fully functional EHRs to estimate cost, impact on obesity prevalence, and cost-effectiveness. The expected population reach of a 10-year national implementation is ∼2 million children, with intervention costs of $119 per child and $237 per BMI unit reduced. At 10 years, assuming maintenance of effect, the intervention is expected to avert 43 000 cases and 226 000 life-years with obesity at a net cost of $4085 per case and $774 per life-year with obesity averted. Limiting implementation to large practices and using higher estimates of EHR adoption improved both cost-effectiveness and reach, whereas decreasing the maintenance of the intervention's effect worsened the former. A childhood obesity intervention with electronic decision support for clinicians and self-guided behavior-change support for parents may be more cost-effective than previous clinical interventions. Effective and efficient interventions that target children with obesity are necessary and could work in synergy with population-level prevention strategies to accelerate progress in reducing obesity prevalence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Shyness programme: longer term benefits, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin; Johnston, Luke; Schwencke, Genevieve; Choi, Isabella

    2009-01-01

    In two randomized controlled trials Titov et al. demonstrated significant benefit from an Internet- and email-based treatment programme for social phobia: the Shyness programme. Data are presented about the longer term outcomes (6 months after treatment), cost-effectiveness relative to face-to-face treatment, and the acceptability of the programme to participants. Participants completed outcome and acceptability questionnaires at 6 months after treatment. Repeated measures analyses of variance were calculated using an intention-to-treat design. Cost-effectiveness in years lived with disability averted were calculated based on between-group effect sizes. A total of 59% of treatment group participants completed the 6 month follow-up questionnaires. Between post-treatment and 6 month follow up participants continued to make improvements in symptoms of social phobia, while maintaining improvements in mood, psychological distress, and disability. At 6 month follow up the mean within-group effect size (Cohen's d) for the two social phobia measures increased from 1.2 to 1.4. Cost-effectiveness in years lived with disability (YLD) averted was calculated as one-quarter that of face-to-face group treatment, or $AUD1495 for one YLD gained, compared to $AUD5686/YLD gained. Participants rated the Internet treatment to be as effective and helpful as face-to-face treatment. The present results confirm the reliability of the short-term findings reported in the first two Shyness programmes. The procedure appears to be very cost-effective, and acceptable to participants. These data provide further support for the development of Internet-based virtual clinics for common mental disorders.

  3. Assessing cost-effectiveness in the management of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri J Phillips

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceri J Phillips, Ioan HumphreysInstitute for Health Research, School of Health Science, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, UKAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young and middle-aged adults, with current prevalence rates estimated to be 30 per 100,000 populations. Women are approximately twice as susceptible as males, but males are more likely to have progressive disease. The onset of the disease normally occurs between 20 and 40 years of age, with a peak incidence during the late twenties and early thirties, resulting in many years of disability for a large proportion of patients, many of whom require wheelchairs and some nursing home or hospital care. The aim of this study is to update a previous review which considered the cost-effectiveness of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs, such as interferons and glatiramer acetate, with more up to date therapies, such as mitaxantrone hydrochloride and natalizumab in the treatment of MS. The development and availability of new agents has been accompanied byan increased optimism that treatment regimens for MS would be more effective; that the number, severity and duration of relapses would diminish; that disease progression would be delayed; and that disability accumulation would be reduced. However, doubts have been expressed about the effectiveness of these treatments, which has only served to compound the problems associated with endeavors to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of such interventions.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, disease management, immunomodulatory drugs, cost-effectiveness, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis

  4. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigei, Charles; Odaga, John; Mvundura, Mercy; Madrid, Yvette; Clark, Andrew David

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to prevent a substantial amount of life-threatening gastroenteritis in young African children. This paper presents the results of prospective cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccine introduction for Kenya and Uganda. In each country, a national consultant worked with a national technical working group to identify appropriate data and validate study results. Secondary data on demographics, disease burden, health utilization, and costs were used to populate the TRIVAC cost-effectiveness model. The baseline analysis assumed an initial vaccine price of $0.20 per dose, corresponding to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance stipulated copay for low-income countries. The incremental cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose rotavirus vaccination schedule was evaluated for 20 successive birth cohorts from the government perspective in both countries, and from the societal perspective in Uganda. Between 2014 and 2033, rotavirus vaccination can avert approximately 60,935 and 216,454 undiscounted deaths and hospital admissions respectively in children under 5 years in Kenya. In Uganda, the respective number of undiscounted deaths and hospital admission averted is 70,236 and 329,779 between 2016 and 2035. Over the 20-year period, the discounted vaccine program costs are around US$ 80 million in Kenya and US$ 60 million in Uganda. Discounted government health service costs avoided are US$ 30 million in Kenya and US$ 10 million in Uganda (or US$ 18 million including household costs). The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted from a government perspective is US$ 38 in Kenya and US$ 34 in Uganda (US$ 29 from a societal perspective). Rotavirus vaccine introduction is highly cost-effective in both countries in a range of plausible 'what-if' scenarios. The involvement of national experts improves the quality of data used, is likely to increase acceptability of the results in decision-making, and can contribute to strengthened national

  6. Invisible Cost Effective Mechanics for Anterior Space Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumle, Aatish Vinod; Bagrecha, Saurabh; Gharat, Ninad; Misal, Abhijit; Toshniwal, N G

    2015-01-01

    The shifting paradigm towards invisible orthodontic treatment and also awareness in patients has allured their focus towards the most esthetic treatment approach. Also the lingual treatment is proved successful and is very well accepted by the patients. The problem that persist is its high expenses, which is not affordable by all patients. This article is a effort to treat a simple Class I malocclusion with anterior spacing using a simple, esthetic, Cost effective approach with acceptable results when esthetics plays a priority role.

  7. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    measurement of satisfaction with treatment . AM J Man Care. 1997;3:579-594. 38. Borras JM, Sancez-Hernandez A, Navarro M, et al. Compliance...of Prostate Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ravishankar Jayadevappa, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0257 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ravishankar

  8. Cost effectiveness methodology for evaluating Korean international communication system alternatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Tae Kyun.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Cost and Effectiveness models are developed by using of cost-effectiveness technique for fiber optic cable and satellite communication media. The models are applied to the Korean international communication problem. Alternative selection is required since the two medias different in cost and effectiveness. The major difficulties encountered were data gathering and measuring the effectiveness of the Korean international ...

  9. Impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Clint; Parashar, Umesh; Tate, Jacqueline E; Khan, Jahangir A M; Groman, Devin; Chacko, Stephen; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Clark, Andrew; Atherly, Deborah

    2017-07-13

    Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of child mortality globally, and rotavirus is responsible for more than a third of those deaths. Despite substantial decreases, the number of rotavirus deaths in children under five was 215,000 per year in 2013. Of these deaths, approximately 41% occurred in Asia and 3% of those in Bangladesh. While Bangladesh has yet to introduce rotavirus vaccination, the country applied for Gavi support and plans to introduce it in 2018. This analysis evaluates the impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh and provides estimates of the costs of the vaccination program to help inform decision-makers and international partners. This analysis used Pan American Health Organization's TRIVAC model (version 2.0) to examine nationwide introduction of two-dose rotavirus vaccination in 2017, compared to no vaccination. Three mortality scenarios (low, high, and midpoint) were assessed. Benefits and costs were examined from the societal perspective over ten successive birth cohorts with a 3% discount rate. Model inputs were locally acquired and complemented by internationally validated estimates. Over ten years, rotavirus vaccination would prevent 4000 deaths, nearly 500,000 hospitalizations and 3 million outpatient visits in the base scenario. With a Gavi subsidy, cost/disability adjusted life year (DALY) ratios ranged from $58/DALY to $142/DALY averted. Without a Gavi subsidy and a vaccine price of $2.19 per dose, cost/DALY ratios ranged from $615/DALY to $1514/DALY averted. The discounted cost per DALY averted was less than the GDP per capita for nearly all scenarios considered, indicating that a routine rotavirus vaccination program is highly likely to be cost-effective. Even in a low mortality setting with no Gavi subsidy, rotavirus vaccination would be cost-effective. These estimates exclude the herd immunity benefits of vaccination, so represent a conservative estimate of the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination

  10. Battery powered cost effective TDS logger intended for water testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Ivan, Ioan; Stihi, Valentin; Ivan, Michaela; Stihi, C.; Rakotondrabe, Micky; Jelea, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The paper presents a cost-effective device designed for measuring and monitoring the TDS (total dissolved solids) level of drinkable, surface (lakes, rivers) and/or industrial waters. Providing a first reading of potential water pollutions, the device is dedicated to the sectors of environment and consumer protection. The device was implemented and a series of continuous measurements is depicted, discovering some abnormalities in the quality of Targoviste city water ut...

  11. The energy intensity target in China's 11th Five-Year Plan period-Local implementation and achievements in Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Daisheng; Aunan, Kristin; Martin Seip, Hans; Vennemo, Haakon

    2011-01-01

    Facing the mounting pressure on energy security and increasing environmental concerns about air pollution and climate change, the Chinese government set a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity in its 11th Five-Year Plan period (FYP, 2006-2010). In this paper we use Shanxi province to illustrate how policies and measures are implemented in practice at a provincial level as a response to the National FYP issued by the central government. Local policies are described and their effects are analyzed. We compare reported energy saving achievements with our own estimates and conclude that the achievements in Shanxi probably have been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP period. The most important measures taken by provincial and local governments seem to be in the secondary sector, such as Top-200/Top-1000 program and phasing out outdated technologies. However, Shanxi has still a long way to go to achieve satisfactory energy use. Further improvement of energy intensity will require continuing efforts. Although many measures are necessary, improving the energy efficiency in heavy industries and reducing the dependence on these industries should be particularly effective. - Highlights: → We use Shanxi province to illustrate how local policies respond to the National FYP. → Energy saving in Shanxi has been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP. → Assumptions about baseline energy use strongly affects energy saving estimates. → The most important measures taken by local governments are in the secondary sector. → Further improvement of energy intensity will require efforts especially in heavy industries.

  12. Health promotion in nursing and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadelhack, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Close examination of the different healthcare systems and the present economic crisis worldwide suggests that all health organizations should re-evaluate the concept of health promotion and its relationship to cost-effectiveness. When choosing the most efficient and cost-effective system, each nation's healthcare system must seriously start to implement strategies for the change. Health professions, including nursing, must change their vision of education both in academic and practice settings, to focus on health promotion and illness prevention. The key principle underlying this paper is to illustrate the importance of health promotion and cost-effectiveness being adopted by all health organizations worldwide, as well as to observe the experiences of selected counties in developing a health policy related to education in primary healthcare. The paper will include a plan adopted by the General Nursing Directorate (GND) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA), which contains a health promotion policy for the nursing administrations in all governmental primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lorraine; Desai, Sharad

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers compared to those performed by consultant radiologists. METHOD: Prospective study of 200 barium enemas carried out by a senior radiographer and a consultant radiologist. The sample was a consecutive sample of adult out-patients over a 3-month period, with no exclusion. The length of time of the enema and the numbers and grades of staff involved in the procedure were recorded. This was translated into staffing costs using the appropriate pay scales. RESULTS: The barium enemas performed by the superintendent radiographer were more cost-effective than those performed by the consultant radiologist (1406 pounds for 100 radiographer-performed barium enemas compared to 1787 pounds for 100 carried out by the consultant radiologist). CONCLUSION: In terms of staffing costs, radiographers performing barium enemas not only liberates radiologist time, it is also a cost-effective method of providing an out-patient barium enema service. Brown, L. and Desai, S. (2002)

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Secondary Screening Modalities for Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Claire; Koval, Alisa M.; Nakamura, Miyabi; Newman, Jonathan D.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Stone, Patricia W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinic-based blood pressure (CBP) has been the default approach for diagnosing hypertension, but patients may be misclassified due to masked hypertension (false negative) or “white coat” hypertension (false positive). The incorporation of other diagnostic modalities, such as home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), holds promise to improve diagnostic accuracy and subsequent treatment decisions. Method We reviewed the literature on the costs and cost-effectiveness of adding HBPM and ABPM into routine blood pressure screening in adults. We excluded letters, editorials, and studies of pregnant and/or pre-eclamptic patients, children, and patients with specific conditions (e.g. diabetes). Results We identified 14 original, English language studies that included cost outcomes and compared two or more modalities. ABPM was found to be cost-saving for diagnostic confirmation following an elevated CBP in 6 studies. Three of 4 studies found that adding HBPM to an elevated CBP was also cost-effective. Conclusion Existing evidence supports the cost-effectiveness of incorporating HBPM or ABPM following an initial CBP-based diagnosis of hypertension. Future research should focus on their implementation in clinical practice, long-term economic values, and potential roles in identifying masked hypertension. PMID:23263535

  15. Cost effectiveness of detritiating water with resin columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1997-10-01

    There are technologies in use for cleaning up concentrated tritiated process water. These are not cost effective for tritiated water with low concentrations of tritium. There are currently no cost-effective technologies for cleaning up low-tritium-concentration tritiated water, such as most tritiated groundwater, spent fuel storage basin water, or underground storage tank water. Resin removal of tritium from tritiated water at low concentrations (near the order of magnitude of drinking water standard maximums) is being tested on TA-SO (Los Alamos National Laboratory's Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) waste streams. There are good theoretical and test indications that this may be a technologically effective means of removing tritium from tritiated water. Because of likely engineering design similarity, it is reasonable to anticipate that a resin column system's costs will be similar to some common commercial water treatment systems. Thus, the potential cost effectiveness of a resin treatment system offers hope for treating tritiated water at affordable costs. The TA-50 resin treatment cost projection of $18 per 1,000 gallons is within the same order of magnitude as cost data for typical commercial groundwater cleanup projects. The prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resin treatment system at $18 per 1,000 gallons appears to have a likely cost advantage of at least an order of magnitude over the competing, developmental, water detritiation technologies

  16. Supported employment: cost-effectiveness across six European sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Martin; Patel, Anita; Curran, Claire; Latimer, Eric; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Drake, Robert E; Fioritti, Angelo; Kilian, Reinhold; Lauber, Christoph; Rössler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; van Busschbach, Jooske; Comas-Herrera, Adelina; White, Sarah; Wiersma, Durk; Burns, Tom

    2013-02-01

    A high proportion of people with severe mental health problems are unemployed but would like to work. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) offers a promising approach to establishing people in paid employment. In a randomized controlled trial across six European countries, we investigated the economic case for IPS for people with severe mental health problems compared to standard vocational rehabilitation. Individuals (n=312) were randomized to receive either IPS or standard vocational services and followed for 18 months. Service use and outcome data were collected. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted with two primary outcomes: additional days worked in competitive settings and additional percentage of individuals who worked at least 1 day. Analyses distinguished country effects. A partial cost-benefit analysis was also conducted. IPS produced better outcomes than alternative vocational services at lower cost overall to the health and social care systems. This pattern also held in disaggregated analyses for five of the six European sites. The inclusion of imputed values for missing cost data supported these findings. IPS would be viewed as more cost-effective than standard vocational services. Further analysis demonstrated cost-benefit arguments for IPS. Compared to standard vocational rehabilitation services, IPS is, therefore, probably cost-saving and almost certainly more cost-effective as a way to help people with severe mental health problems into competitive employment. Copyright © 2013 World Psychiatric Association.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Nitrogen Mitigation by Alternative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household wastewater, especially from conventional septic systems, is a major contributor to nitrogen pollution. Alternative household wastewater management technologies provide similar sewerage management services but their life cycle costs and nitrogen flow implications remain uncertain. We seek to address two key questions: (1) what are the total costs, nitrogen mitigation potential, and cost-effectiveness of a range of conventional and alternative municipal wastewater treatment technologies, and (2) what uncertainties influence these outcomes, and how can we improve our understanding of these technologies? We estimate a household nitrogen mass balance for various household wastewater treatment systems and combine this mass balance with life cycle cost assessment to calculate the cost-effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation, which we define as nitrogen removed from the local watershed. We apply our methods to Falmouth, MA, where failing septic systems have caused heightened eutrophication in local receiving water bodies. We find that flushing and dry (composting) urine-diversion toilets paired with conventional septic systems for greywater management demonstrate the lowest life cycle cost and highest cost-effectiveness (dollars per kilogram of nitrogen removed from the watershed). Composting toilets and neighborhood-scale blackwater digesters are also attractive options in some cases, particularly best-case nitrogen mitigation; innovative/advanced septic system

  18. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.K.; Iwankow, C.

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada's perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs

  19. How does cognitive dissonance influence the sunk cost effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shao-Hsi; Cheng, Kuo-Chih

    2018-01-01

    The sunk cost effect is the scenario when individuals are willing to continue to invest capital in a failing project. The purpose of this study was to explain such irrational behavior by exploring how sunk costs affect individuals' willingness to continue investing in an unfavorable project and to understand the role of cognitive dissonance on the sunk cost effect. This study used an experimental questionnaire survey on managers of firms listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange and Over-The-Counter. The empirical results show that cognitive dissonance does not mediate the relationship between sunk costs and willingness to continue an unfavorable investment project. However, cognitive dissonance has a moderating effect, and only when the level of cognitive dissonance is high does the sunk cost have significantly positive impacts on willingness to continue on with an unfavorable investment. This study offers psychological mechanisms to explain the sunk cost effect based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, and it also provides some recommendations for corporate management.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Health Coaching: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rachel; Giese, Jeannie

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate published literature to distinguish how health coaching influences the cost of chronic disease management in insured adults with chronic conditions. An integrated literature review was conducted. MEDLINE, Business Source Complete, and OneSearch were searched for the years 2001-2016 utilizing the following key words: health coaching, health coaching AND insurance companies, health coaching AND cost, health coaching AND health insurance, and health coaching AND insurance cost. A total of 67 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed for applicability. Of those, 27 articles were found to be relevant to the research question. The practice settings of these articles are mostly primary care and wellness programs. Throughout the literature, health coaching has been found effective in chronic disease management such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of health coaching are limited. The current literature does not clearly demonstrate that health coaching lowers expenditures and patient copayments in the short term but projects future savings. Health coaching has the potential to improve chronic disease management and lower health care expenditures. Further long-term research is needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health coaching. It has been projected that the cost-effectiveness of health coaching will be long-term or over 12 months after initiating the health coaching program.

  1. How does cognitive dissonance influence the sunk cost effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shao-Hsi; Cheng, Kuo-Chih

    2018-01-01

    Background The sunk cost effect is the scenario when individuals are willing to continue to invest capital in a failing project. The purpose of this study was to explain such irrational behavior by exploring how sunk costs affect individuals’ willingness to continue investing in an unfavorable project and to understand the role of cognitive dissonance on the sunk cost effect. Methods This study used an experimental questionnaire survey on managers of firms listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange and Over-The-Counter. Results The empirical results show that cognitive dissonance does not mediate the relationship between sunk costs and willingness to continue an unfavorable investment project. However, cognitive dissonance has a moderating effect, and only when the level of cognitive dissonance is high does the sunk cost have significantly positive impacts on willingness to continue on with an unfavorable investment. Conclusion This study offers psychological mechanisms to explain the sunk cost effect based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, and it also provides some recommendations for corporate management. PMID:29535561

  2. A cost-effectiveness analysis of shipboard telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoloff, P H; Garcia, F E; Thomason, J E; Shia, D S

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Navy is considering the installation of telemedicine equipment on more than 300 ships. Besides improving the quality of care, benefits would arise from avoiding medical evacuations (MEDEVACs) and returning patients to work more quickly. Because telemedicine has not yet been fully implemented by the Navy, we relied on projections of anticipated savings and costs, rather than actual expenditures, to determine cost-effectiveness. To determine the demand for telemedicine and the cost-effectiveness of various technologies (telephone and fax, e-mail and Internet, video teleconferencing (VTC), teleradiology, and diagnostic instruments), as well as their bandwidth requirements. A panel of Navy medical experts with telemedicine experience reviewed a representative sample of patient visits collected over a 1-year period and estimated the man-day savings and quality-of-care enhancements that might have occurred had telemedicine technologies been available. The savings from potentially avoiding MEDEVACs was estimated from a survey of ships' medical staff. These sample estimates were then projected to the medical workload of the entire fleet. Off-the-shelf telemedicine equipment prices were combined with installation, maintenance, training, and communication costs to obtain the lifecycle costs of the technology. If telemedicine were available to the fleet, ship medical staffs would initiate nearly 19, 000 consults in a year-7% of all patient visits. Telemedicine would enhance quality of care in two-thirds of these consults. Seventeen percent of the MEDEVACs would be preventable with telemedicine (representing 155,000 travel miles), with a savings of $4400 per MEDEVAC. If the ship's communication capabilities were available, e-mail and Internet and telephone and fax would be cost-effective on all ships (including small ships and submarines). Video teleconferencing would be cost-effective on large ships (aircraft carriers and amphibious) only. Teleradiology would be cost-effective

  3. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwantika, Auliya A; Beutels, Philippe; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A immunization in Indonesia, including an explicit comparison between one-dose and two-dose vaccines. Methods An age-structured cohort model based on a decision tree was developed for the 2012 Indonesia birth cohort. Using the model, we made a comparison on the use of two-dose and one-dose vaccines. The model involved a 70-year time horizon with 1-month cycles for children less than 2 years old and annually thereafter. Monte Carlo simulations were used to examine the economic acceptability and affordability of the hepatitis A vaccination. Results Vaccination would save US$ 3 795 148 and US$ 2 892 920 from the societal perspective, for the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules, respectively, in the context of hepatitis A treatment. It also would save 8917 and 6614 discounted quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), respectively. With the vaccine price of US$ 3.21 per dose, the implementation of single dose vaccine would yield an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$ 4933 per QALY gained versus no vaccination, whereas the two-dose versus one-dose schedule would cost US$ 14 568 per QALY gained. Considering the 2012 gross-domestic-product (GDP) per capita in Indonesia of US$ 3557, the results indicate that hepatitis A vaccination would be a cost-effective intervention, both for the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules in isolation, but two-dose vaccination would no longer be cost-effective if one-dose vaccination is a feasible option. Vaccination would be 100% affordable at budgets of US$ 71 408 000 and US$ 37 690 000 for the implementation of the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules, respectively. Conclusions The implementation of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia would be a cost-effective health intervention under the market vaccine price. Given the budget limitations, the use of a one-dose-vaccine schedule would be more realistic to be applied than a two

  4. Cost-effectiveness optimization of a solar hot water heater with integrated storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Syahri, M.; Shahrir, A.; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2006-01-01

    Solar processes are generally characterized by high first cost and low operating costs. Therefore, the basic economic problem is one of comparing an initial known investment with estimated future operating cost. This paper present the cost-benefit ratio of solar collector with integrated storage system. Evaluation of the annual cost (AC) and the annual energy gain (AEG) of the collector are performed and the ratio of AC/AEG or the cost benefit ratio is presented for difference combination of mass flow rate, solar collector length and channel depth. Using these cost-effectiveness curves, the user can select optimum design features, which correspond to minimum AC/AEG

  5. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for chronic disease, but a growing number of people are not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity necessary for good health. Australians are no exception; despite Australia's image as a sporting nation, with success at the elite level, the majority of Australians do not get enough physical activity. There are many options for intervention, from individually tailored advice, such as counselling from a general practitioner, to population-wide approaches, such as mass media campaigns, but the most cost-effective mix of interventions is unknown. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From evidence of intervention efficacy in the physical activity literature and evaluation of the health sector costs of intervention and disease treatment, we model the cost impacts and health outcomes of six physical activity interventions, over the lifetime of the Australian population. We then determine cost-effectiveness of each intervention against current practice for physical activity intervention in Australia and derive the optimal pathway for implementation. Based on current evidence of intervention effectiveness, the intervention programs that encourage use of pedometers (Dominant and mass media-based community campaigns (Dominant are the most cost-effective strategies to implement and are very likely to be cost-saving. The internet-based intervention program (AUS$3,000/DALY, the GP physical activity prescription program (AUS$12,000/DALY, and the program to encourage more active transport (AUS$20,000/DALY, although less likely to be cost-saving, have a high probability of being under a AUS$50,000 per DALY threshold. GP referral to an exercise physiologist (AUS$79,000/DALY is the least cost-effective option if high time and travel costs for patients in screening and consulting an exercise physiologist are considered

  6. The Indian wave energy programme- an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, M.; Jayashankar, V.; Jalihal, P.; Pathak, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Indian wave energy plant at Vizhinjam, Kerala has demonstrated that energy from a random source such as waves can be harnessed as electrical energy and exported via the local grid. This plant is based on the oscillating water column (OWC) principle. The research on wave energy in India has achieved a commendable status within a decade. A caisson was constructed in December 1990 at Vizhinjam and two generations of power modules have been tested as of today. The physical processes in the energy conversion are understood to a much greater extent, leading to a threefold increase in absolute power from the plant. Efforts are on to make the technology cost-effective

  7. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO{sub 2} reductions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, T., E-mail: tommy.dalgaard@agrsci.dk [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Gyldenkaerne, S. [Aarhus University, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hermansen, J.E. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: > GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. > Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. > Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. > A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. > Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO{sub 2} reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  8. Understanding and development of cost-effective industrial aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian

    For the long-term strategy of gradual decarbonization of the world's energy supply, high penetration of PV electricity is critical in the future world energy landscape. In order to achieve this, solar electricity with competitive cost to fossil fuel energy is necessary. To be able to obtain high efficiency solar cells, many advanced cell architectures have been developed commercially by PV industry. However, the fabrication of these cells necessitates complex processing steps and high requirements on semiconductor materials, which make it not as cost-effective as the state-of-the-art conventional Al-BSF structure. In order to keep the cost of PV cell low and improve on the efficiency with fewer processing steps, this thesis work focuses on the understanding of the conventional Al-BSF solar cell structure. The research work therefore, focuses on the (i) design, and modeling of front metal electrodes including the use of multi-bus-bar capable of decreasing the gridline resistance, (ii) fine-line printing and (iii) metal contact co-firing using high belt speed that is not common to the solar industry to achieve ~20% efficient industrial Al-BSF silicon solar cells. In order to achieve the objectives of this thesis work, firstly, the appropriate Al paste was investigated for lowest back surface recombination velocity (BSRV), which gives high open circuit voltage (Voc). Secondly, the impact of emitter sheet resistance on solar cell performance was modeled to determine the optimal sheet resistance, and the uniformity of emitter was also investigated. Thirdly, modeling on the front metal electrodes was carried out to investigate the optimal number of busbars, and determine the optimum number of gridlines and gridline geometries that would result in low series resistance (Rs), high fill factor (FF) and hence high efficiency. Fourthly, the modeled results were experimentally validated through fine-line printing and optimized contact co-firing. By combining each layer to make

  9. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable ...

  10. Wind Power Today: 1998 Wind Energy Program Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromly, K.

    1999-06-17

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy manages the Federal Wind Energy Program. The mission of the program is to help the US wind industry to complete the research, testing, and field verification needed to fully develop advanced wind technologies that will lead the world in cost-effectiveness and reliability. This publication, printed annually, provides a summary of significant achievements in wind energy made during the previous calendar year. Articles include wind energy in the Midwest, an Alaskan wind energy project, the US certification program, structural testing, and the federal program in review.

  11. Republic of the Marshall Islands. Energy Project Development Options and Technical Assessment (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Misty Dawn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The advancement of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies continues to be fluid. There are many technical opportunities and strategies that can be utilized to guide communities to deploy cost-effective commercial alternative energy options; however, to achieve aggressive economic, environmental, and security goals, it requires a comprehensive, integrated approach. This document reports on the initial findings of an energy assessment that was conducted for the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

  12. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit - In a humid, temperate climate: Lessons from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.1 Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft2). The retrofit design, which uses local prevailing winds to aid ventilation and cooling and incorporates envelope and lighting elements that reduce the need for cooling, was initially on track to use about 50% less energy than the current building, exceeding the CBP’s 30% savings goal. With the addition of building-mounted solar electric panels, the retrofitted building is projected to achieve net-zero annual energy use. Achieving net-zero energy addressed an emerging challenge to the university – how to lower energy usage and reduce dependence on imported fossil fuel in the face of already-high energy prices that are forecast to double by 2040. Not only will the retrofit dramatically reduce Kuykendall Hall’s annual energy costs, but the project lays the groundwork for new campus policies and processes and low-energy design approaches and is building a campus knowledge base on low-energy practices. This project is a model of integrated design and building delivery that will be replicated in future projects on the campus.

  13. Strategies for achieving energy neutrality in biological nutrient removal systems - a case study of the Slupsk WWTP (northern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, Ewa; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Makinia, Jacek

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents a model-based evaluation of technological upgrades on the energy and cost balance in a large biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Slupsk (northern Poland). The proposed upgrades include chemically enhanced primary sludge removal and reduction of the nitrogen load in the deammonification process employed for reject water treatment. Simulations enabled to estimate the increased biogas generation and decreased energy consumption for aeration. The proposed upgrades may lead the studied WWTP from the energy deficit to energy neutrality and positive cost balance, while still maintaining the required effluent standards for nitrogen. The operating cost balance depends on the type of applied coagulants/flocculants and specific costs of electric energy. The choice of the coagulant/flocculent was found as the main factor determining a positive cost balance.

  14. A cost-effective evaluation of biomass district heating in rural communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, Aaron M.; Wagner, John E.; Volk, Timothy A.; Newman, David H.; Brown, Tristan R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop a cost-effective model using secondary data examining delivering heat through Biomass District Heating (BDH). • Eight of ten rural villages studied could cost-effectively deliver heat through BDH below the 2013 price of heating oil. • 80% of the annual cost of BDH was attributable to capital expenses. • Erratic fuel oil prices substantially impact future feasibility. • Village level feasibility is highly-influenced by the presence of large heat demanders. - Abstract: The economic feasibility of Biomass District Heating (BDH) networks in rural villages is largely unknown. A cost-effective evaluation tool is developed to examine the feasibility of BDH in rural communities using secondary data sources. The approach is unique in that it accounts for all the major capital expenses: energy center, distribution network, and energy transfer stations, as well as biomass procurement. BDH would deliver heat below #2 fuel oil in eight of the ten rural study villages examined, saving nearly $500,000 per year in heating expenses while demanding less than 5% of the forest residues sustainably available regionally. Capital costs comprised over 80% of total costs, illuminating the importance of reaching a sufficient heat density. Reducing capital costs by 1% lowers total cost by $93,000 per year. Extending capital payment period length five years or lowering interest rates has the next highest influence decreasing delivered heat price 0.49% and 0.35% for each 1% change, respectively. This highlights that specific building heat is a strong determinant of feasibility given the relative influence of high-demanding users on the overall village heat-density. Finally, we use a stochastic analysis projecting future #2 fuel oil prices, incorporating historical variability, to determine the probability of future BDH feasibility. Although future oil prices drop below the BDH feasibility threshold, the villages retain a 22–53% probability of feasibility after

  15. [Education of people with type 2 diabetes through peers with diabetes: is it cost effective?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lorena; Elgart, Jorge Federico; Gagliardino, Juan José

    2015-12-29

    Inadequate quality of care provided to people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, generates a significant socioeconomic burden and a serious public health problem. Diabetes education through peers with diabetes is an alternative to that provided by professional educators (traditional education) which achieves non-inferior results. However, there is little evidence of cost-effectiveness of education trough peers over traditional education. To evaluate cost-effectiveness of education of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, during a year, by a team of professional educators (traditional education) versus education and support delivered by trained peers with diabetes. Cost-effectiveness analysis based on a randomized prospective clinical study conducted in the city of La Plata, including 199 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, divided in two groups:, one receiving traditional education and another receiving the same education but delivered by peer educators with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was considered as a primary indicator of effectiveness and secondary indicators were others, such as body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The direct cost of each strategy was estimated based on resources used in the trial, evaluating three cost scenarios for peer education. The strength of the results was assessed by univariate sensitivity analysis. Cost per unit decrease (%) in HbA1c: traditional education: $2 621; peer education: $1 508, $1 779 y $2 071 for each of the three scenarios considered (scenario 1, scenario 2, scenario 3), respectively. For each $100 invested a decrease of 0.04% in the HbA1c with traditional education was achieved; and 0.07% in scenario 1; 0.06% in scenario 2 and 0.05% in scenario 3, with education delivered by peer educators. Sensitivity analysis showed the strength of the results. Education of type 2 diabetes mellitus

  16. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves.

  17. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves

  18. Male circumcision at different ages in Rwanda: a cost-effectiveness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    2010-01-01

    -saving (the cost-effectiveness ratio is negative, even though savings from infant circumcision will be realized later in time. The cost per infection averted is US$3,932 for adolescent MC and US$4,949 for adult MC. Results for infant MC appear robust. Infant MC remains highly cost-effective across a reasonable range of variation in the base case scenario. Adolescent MC is highly cost-effective for the base case scenario but this high cost-effectiveness is not robust to small changes in the input variables. Adult MC is neither cost-saving nor highly cost-effective when considering only the direct benefit for the circumcised man. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that Rwanda should be simultaneously scaling up circumcision across a broad range of age groups, with high priority to the very young. Infant MC can be integrated into existing health services (i.e., neonatal visits and vaccination sessions and over time has better potential than adolescent and adult circumcision to achieve the very high coverage of the population required for maximal reduction of HIV incidence. In the presence of infant MC, adolescent and adult MC would evolve into a "catch-up" campaign that would be needed at the start of the program but would eventually become superfluous. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy to reduce obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lennert Veerman

    Full Text Available AIMS: Obesity causes a high disease burden in Australia and across the world. We aimed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of weight reduction with pharmacotherapy in Australia, and to assess its potential to reduce the disease burden due to excess body weight. METHODS: We constructed a multi-state life-table based Markov model in Excel in which body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, post-menopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer. We use data on effectiveness identified from PubMed searches, on mortality from Australian Bureau of Statistics, on disease costs from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and on drug costs from the Department of Health and Ageing. We evaluate 1-year pharmacological interventions with sibutramine and orlistat targeting obese Australian adults free of obesity-related disease. We use a lifetime horizon for costs and health outcomes and a health sector perspective for costs. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs below A$50 000 per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY averted are considered good value for money. RESULTS: The ICERs are A$130 000/DALY (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 93 000-180 000 for sibutramine and A$230 000/DALY (170 000-340 000 for orlistat. The interventions reduce the body weight-related disease burden at the population level by 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Modest weight loss during the interventions, rapid post-intervention weight regain and low adherence limit the health benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sibutramine or orlistat is not cost-effective from an Australian health sector perspective and has a negligible impact on the total body weight-related disease burden.

  20. On the censored cost-effectiveness analysis using copula information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fontaine

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information and theory beyond copula concepts are essential to understand the dependence relationship between several marginal covariates distributions. In a therapeutic trial data scheme, most of the time, censoring occurs. That could lead to a biased interpretation of the dependence relationship between marginal distributions. Furthermore, it could result in a biased inference of the joint probability distribution function. A particular case is the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA, which has shown its utility in many medico-economic studies and where censoring often occurs. Methods This paper discusses a copula-based modeling of the joint density and an estimation method of the costs, and quality adjusted life years (QALY in a cost-effectiveness analysis in case of censoring. This method is not based on any linearity assumption on the inferred variables, but on a punctual estimation obtained from the marginal distributions together with their dependence link. Results Our results show that the proposed methodology keeps only the bias resulting statistical inference and don’t have anymore a bias based on a unverified linearity assumption. An acupuncture study for chronic headache in primary care was used to show the applicability of the method and the obtained ICER keeps in the confidence interval of the standard regression methodology. Conclusion For the cost-effectiveness literature, such a technique without any linearity assumption is a progress since it does not need the specification of a global linear regression model. Hence, the estimation of the a marginal distributions for each therapeutic arm, the concordance measures between these populations and the right copulas families is now sufficient to process to the whole CEA.

  1. The cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Yuzbashyan, Ruzanna; Sahakyan, Gayane; Avagyan, Tigran; Mosina, Liudmila

    2011-11-08

    The cost-effectiveness of introducing infant rotavirus vaccination in Armenia in 2012 using Rotarix(R) was evaluated using a multiple birth cohort model. The model considered the cost and health implications of hospitalisations, primary health care consultations and episodes not leading to medical care in children under five years old. Rotavirus vaccination is expected to cost the Ministry of Health $220,000 in 2012, rising to $830,000 in 2016 following termination of GAVI co-financing, then declining to $260,000 in 2025 due to vaccine price maturity. It may reduce health care costs by $34,000 in the first year, rising to $180,000 by 2019. By 2025, vaccination may be close to cost saving to the Ministry of Health if the vaccine purchase price declines as expected. Once coverage has reached high levels, vaccination may prevent 25,000 cases, 3000 primary care consultations, 1000 hospitalisations and 8 deaths per birth cohort vaccinated. The cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved is estimated to be about $650 from the perspective of the Ministry of Health, $850 including costs accrued to both the Ministry and to GAVI, $820 from a societal perspective excluding indirect costs and $44 from a societal perspective including indirect costs. Since the gross domestic product per capita of Armenia in 2008 was $3800, rotavirus vaccination is likely to be regarded as "very cost-effective" from a WHO standpoint. Vaccination may still be "very cost-effective" if less favourable assumptions are used regarding vaccine price and disease incidence, as long as DALYs are not age-weighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cost-effective analysis of unilateral vestibular weakness investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Michele M; Reilly, Erin K; Galatioto, Jessica; Judson, Randy B; Kim, Ana H

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obtaining a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with abnormal electronystagmography (ENG) or videonystagmography (VNG) results. Retrospective chart review. Academic specialty center. Patients presenting with vertigo between January 1, 2010, and August 30, 2013. Patients who fit the following abnormal criteria were included in the study: unilateral caloric weakness (≥20%), abnormal ocular motor testing, and nystagmus on positional testing. Patients with abnormal findings who then underwent MRI with gadolinium were evaluated. Of the 1,996 charts reviewed, there were 1,358 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The average age of these patients was 62 years (12-94 yr). The male:female ratio was approximately 1:2. Of the 1,358 patients, 253 received an MRI with the following pathologies: four vestibular schwannomas, three subcortical/periventricular white matter changes suspicious for demyelinating disease, four acute cerebellar/posterior circulation infarct, two vertebral artery narrowing, one pseudomeningocele of internal auditory canal, and two white matter changes indicative of migraines. The positive detection rate on MRI was 5.5% based on MRI findings of treatable pathologies causing vertigo. Average cost of an MRI is $1,200, thereby making the average cost of identifying a patient with a positive MRI finding $15,180. In our study, those patients with a positive MRI had a constellation of symptoms and findings (asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, and abnormal ENG/VNG). Cost-effectiveness can be improved by ordering an MRI only when clinical examination and VNG point toward a central pathology. Clinical examination and appropriate testing should be factored when considering the cost-effectiveness of obtaining an MRI in patients with abnormal ENG/VNG findings.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Pediatric Cochlear Implantation in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianxin; Yu, Chongxian; Ariyaratne, Thathya V; Foteff, Chris; Ke, Zhangmin; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Li; Qin, Feifei; Sanderson, Georgina

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the cost utility of cochlear implantation (CI) for severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) among children from rural settings in P.R. China (China). A cost-utility analysis (CUA) was undertaken using data generated from a single-center substudy of the Cochlear Pediatric Implanted Recipient Observational Study (Cochlear P-IROS). The data were projected over a 20-year time horizon using a decision tree model. The Chinese healthcare payer and patient perspectives were adopted. Unilateral CI of children with a severe-to-profound SNHL compared with their preimplantation state of no treatment or amplification with hearing aids ("no CI" status). Incremental costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. The mean total discounted cost of unilateral CI was CNY 252,506 (37,876 USD), compared with CNY 29,005 (4,351 USD) for the no CI status from the healthcare payer plus patient perspective. A total discounted benefit of 8.9 QALYs was estimated for CI recipients compared with 6.7 QALYs for the no CI status. From the healthcare payer plus patient perspective, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for unilateral CI compared with no CI was CNY 100,561 (15,084 USD) per QALY. The healthcare payer perspective yielded an ICER of CNY 40,929 (6,139 USD) per QALY. Both ICERs fell within one to three times China's gross domestic product per capita (GDP, 2011-2015), considered "cost-effective" by World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Treatment with unilateral CI is a cost-effective hearing solution for children with severe to profound SNHL in rural China. Increased access to mainstream education and greater opportunities for employment, are potential downstream benefits of CI that may yield further societal and economic benefits. CI may be considered favorably for broader inclusion in medical insurance schemes across China.

  4. Health care input constraints and cost effectiveness analysis decision rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter; Morton, Alec; Severens, Johan L

    2018-03-01

    Results of cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) studies are most useful for decision makers if they face only one constraint: the health care budget. However, in practice, decision makers wishing to use the results of CEA studies may face multiple resource constraints relating to, for instance, constraints in health care inputs such as a shortage of skilled labour. The presence of multiple resource constraints influences the decision rules of CEA and limits the usefulness of traditional CEA studies for decision makers. The goal of this paper is to illustrate how results of CEA can be interpreted and used in case a decision maker faces a health care input constraint. We set up a theoretical model describing the optimal allocation of the health care budget in the presence of a health care input constraint. Insights derived from that model were used to analyse a stylized example based on a decision about a surgical robot as well as a published cost effectiveness study on eye care services in Zambia. Our theoretical model shows that applying default decision rules in the presence of a health care input constraint leads to suboptimal decisions but that there are ways of preserving the traditional decision rules of CEA by reweighing different cost categories. The examples illustrate how such adjustments can be made, and makes clear that optimal decisions depend crucially on such adjustments. We conclude that it is possible to use the results of cost effectiveness studies in the presence of health care input constraints if results are properly adjusted. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost effective tools for soil organic carbon monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Keith; Aynekulu, Ermias

    2013-04-01

    There is increasing demand for data on soil properties at fine spatial resolution to support management and planning decisions. Measurement of soil organic carbon has attracted much interest because (i) soil organic carbon is widely cited as a useful indicator of soil condition and (ii) of the importance of soil carbon in the global carbon cycle and climate mitigation strategies. However in considering soil measurement designs there has been insufficient attention given to careful analysis of the specific decisions that the measurements are meant to support and on what measurements have high information value for decision-making. As a result, much measurement effort may be wasted or focused on the wrong variables. A cost-effective measurement is one that reduces risk in decisions and does not cost more than the societal returns to additional evidence. A key uncertainty in measuring soil carbon as a soil condition indicator is what constitutes a good or bad level of carbon on a given soil. A measure of soil organic carbon concentration may have limited value for informing management decisions without the additional information required to interpret it, and so expending further efforts on improving measurements to increase precision may then have no value to improving the decision. Measuring soil carbon stock changes for carbon trading purposes requires high levels of measurement precision but there is still large uncertainty on whether the costs of measurement exceed the benefits. Since the largest cost component in soil monitoring is often travel to the field and physically sampling soils, it is generally cost-effective to meet multiple objectives by analysing a number of properties on a soil sample. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy is playing a key role in allowing multiple soil properties to be determined rapidly and at low cost. The method provides estimation of multiple soil properties (e.g. soil carbon, texture and mineralogy) in one measurement

  6. Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas is cost-effective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Mack, E.; Rowe, B.; Perlman, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas is cost-effective because it reduces anesthesia and surgery times. The technique is sensitive in single and double adenomas (90%), and some surgeons have modified their operative technique because of its introduction. The practical experience of one surgeon is presented, with similar patient subsets (n = 22) compared before and after use of a localization scan was instituted. The average operative time fell by 94%, from 2 hours 35 minutes to 1 hour 19 minutes. The reduction in operative time was possible because the surgeon did not seek to identify the remaining normal parathyroids when the scanned lesion was excised and proved to be the adenoma

  7. Cost-effectiveness studies as part of an ALARA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of cost effectiveness of engineering modifications for dose reduction at nuclear power plants conducted at BNL will be considered in this report. Since each of these items has the potential for a 50% to 60% reduction in collective dose, it appears there is large potential for dose reduction from engineering type modifications. The question that must be answered for each plant is ''which modifications or improvements are required for optimization (ALARA). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that quantified optimization need not be costly and can often be highly beneficial

  8. Cost-effective wound management: a survey of 1717 nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Heather

    2017-06-22

    Delivering high-quality wound care requires a mix of knowledge and skills, which nurses aim to update by attending educational events such as conferences and study days. This article describes the data obtained from 30 educational study days, which took place across England, Scotland and Wales. It will explore nurses' knowledge in relation to the cost-effectiveness and clinical efficacy of current wound care practices, based on the answers of 1717 delegates that attended the events. It will also outline the results in relation to reducing expenditure on wound dressings and the importance of performing an accurate wound assessment.

  9. Cost effective method of manual afterloading 192Ir brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.; Ravishankar, B.; Muralkrishna, B.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In radiotherapy, brachytherapy mode of treatment has equal importance like the external beam radiotherapy. In our hospital we have manual afterloading 137 Cs kit supplied by BRIT for intracavitary treatment of carcinoma cervix and vaginal cases. In July 1999, we also started afterloading 192 Ir brachytherapy. For a hospital like ours, where funds are minimal, it is impossible to procure remote afterloading brachytherapy unit, which is very costly. So we have developed the cost-effective 192 Ir manual brachytherapy and so far we have done 60 cases which include intraluminal and interstitial cases

  10. Is aggressive treatment of traumatic brain injury cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Robert G; Thawani, Jayesh P; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M; Sanborn, Matthew R; Stein, Sherman C

    2012-05-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether aggressive treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), including invasive intracranial monitoring and decompressive craniectomy, is cost-effective. A decision-analytical model was created to compare costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of 3 strategies for treating a patient with severe TBI. The aggressive-care approach is compared with "routine care," in which Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines are not followed. A "comfort care" category, in which a single day in the ICU is followed by routine floor care, is included for comparison only. Probabilities of each treatment resulting in various Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores were obtained from the literature. The GOS scores were converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), based on expected longevity and calculated quality of life associated with each GOS category. Estimated direct (acute and long-term medical care) and indirect (loss of productivity) costs were calculated from the perspective of society. Sensitivity analyses employed a 2D Monte Carlo simulation of 1000 trials, each with 1000 patients. The model was also used to estimate these values for patients 40, 60, and 80 years of age. For the average 20-year-old, aggressive care yields 11.7 (± 1.6 [SD]) QALYs, compared with routine care (10.0 ± 1.5 QALYs). This difference is highly significant (p care remains significantly better at all ages. When all costs are considered, aggressive care is also significantly less costly than routine care ($1,264,000 ± $118,000 vs $1,361,000 ± $107,000) for the average 20-year-old. Aggressive care remains significantly less costly until age 80, at which age it costs more than routine care. However, even in the 80-year-old, aggressive care is likely the more cost-effective approach. Comfort care is associated with poorer outcomes at all ages and with higher costs for all groups except 80-year-olds. When all the costs of severe TBI are considered, aggressive

  11. Operating dedicated data centers – is it cost-effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, M; Hogue, R; Hollowell, C; Strecker-Kellog, W; Wong, A; Zaytsev, A

    2014-01-01

    The advent of cloud computing centres such as Amazon's EC2 and Google's Computing Engine has elicited comparisons with dedicated computing clusters. Discussions on appropriate usage of cloud resources (both academic and commercial) and costs have ensued. This presentation discusses a detailed analysis of the costs of operating and maintaining the RACF (RHIC and ATLAS Computing Facility) compute cluster at Brookhaven National Lab and compares them with the cost of cloud computing resources under various usage scenarios. An extrapolation of likely future cost effectiveness of dedicated computing resources is also presented.

  12. White paper for a competitive energy offer at the service of an achieved energy transition and of a guaranteed security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    Published by a professional body (AFIEG, Independent French Association of Electricity and Gas)), this white paper first gives an overview and some critics on the French energy policy, and then aims at outlining and discussing three main objectives of an energy policy: security of supply, energy competitiveness, and a realistic and successful energy transition. It proposes measures to reach these objectives while taking regulatory stability, and equal treatment of operators in terms of regulation into account. Recommendations are stated regarding these objectives and requirements

  13. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Connecticut. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  14. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Florida. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  15. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Indiana. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  16. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of California. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  17. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Arizona. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  18. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Colorado. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  19. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Illinois. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  20. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Hawaii. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.