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Sample records for acetylsalicylic acid

  1. Electrochemical sensors for detection of acetylsalicylic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Šupálková, Veronika; Petřek, Jiří; Havel, Ladislav; Křížková, Soňa; Petrlová, Jitka; Adam, Vojtěch; Potěšil, David; Babula, Petr; Beklová, Miroslava; Horna, Aleš; Kizek, René

    2006-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid ( AcSA), or aspirin, was introduced in the late 1890s and has been used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. The aim of this work was to suggest electrochemical sensor for acetylsalicylic detection. Primarily, we utilized square wave voltammetry ( SWV) using both carbon paste electrode ( CPE) and of graphite pencil electrode ( GPE) as working ones to indirect determination of AcSA. The principle of indirect determination of AcSA bases in its hydrolysis on salicy...

  2. Acetylsalicylic acid: Incoming 150 years of the first synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin Dušan Ž.; Stanković Milena; Petrović Slobodan D.; Blagojević Milorad

    2002-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is one of the most fascinating and versatile drugs known to medicine, as well as one of the oldest. Acetylsalicylic acid is a drug which is safe, with analgetic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory antiplatelet and antithrombotic action. It may be applied not only in clinical practice, but also as prevention. The first known use of an acetylsalicylic acid-like preparation can be traced to ancient Greece. In 1853 Charles Gerhardt published the first synthesis of acetylsalicyl...

  3. Acetylsalicylic acid: Incoming 150 years of the first synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid is one of the most fascinating and versatile drugs known to medicine, as well as one of the oldest. Acetylsalicylic acid is a drug which is safe, with analgetic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory antiplatelet and antithrombotic action. It may be applied not only in clinical practice, but also as prevention. The first known use of an acetylsalicylic acid-like preparation can be traced to ancient Greece. In 1853 Charles Gerhardt published the first synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid. Felix Hoffmann, a chemist for Friedrich Bayer, a German dye company obtained a patent on acetylsalicylic acid some 40 years later. Bayer coined the name Aspirin for the new product. The 20 in century was the century in which many researchers in many companies tried to improve the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid not only in terms of yield but also purity. This paper describes the history, use, mechanism of action, synthesis and production as well as the purification and stability of acetylsalicylic acid.

  4. Electrochemical Sensors for Detection of Acetylsalicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid (AcSA, or aspirin, was introduced in the late 1890s and hasbeen used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. The aim of this work was to suggestelectrochemical sensor for acetylsalicylic detection. Primarily, we utilized square wavevoltammetry (SWV using both carbon paste electrode (CPE and of graphite pencilelectrode (GPE as working ones to indirect determination of AcSA. The principle ofindirect determination of AcSA bases in its hydrolysis on salicylic acid (SA, which isconsequently detected. Thus, we optimized both determination of SA and conditions forAcSA hydrolysis and found out that the most suitable frequency, amplitude, step potentialand the composition and pH of the supporting electrolyte for the determination of SA was260 Hz, 50 mV, 10 mV and Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 1.81, respectively. The detectionlimit (S/N = 3 of the SA was 1.3 ng/ml. After that, we aimed on indirect determination ofAcSA by SWV CPE. We tested the influence of pH of Britton-Robinson buffer andtemperature on yield of hydrolysis, and found out that 100% hydrolysis of AcSA wasreached after 80 minutes at pH 1.81 and 90°C. The method for indirect determination ofAcSA has been utilized to analyse pharmaceutical drug. The determined amount of AcSA in the pharmaceutical drug was in good agreement with the declared amounts. Moreover, weused GPE for determination of AcSA in a pharmaceutical drug. Base of the results obtainedfrom stationary electrochemical instrument we used flow injection analysis withelectrochemical detection to determine of salicylates (SA, AcSA, thiosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid – SuSA. We found out that we are able todetermine all of detected salicylates directly without any pre-treatment, hydrolysis and so onat units of femtomoles per injection (5 μl.

  5. The kinetics of hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetics of hydrolysis of Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) to salicylic acid was followed by the direct spectrophotometric measurement of the amount of salicylic acid produced with time. Salicylic acid was complexed with ferric ion giving a characteristic purple colour (λlm 523nm). The kinetics of hydrolysis was found to follow ...

  6. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  7. [Acetylsalicylic acid in primary prevention of cardiovascular events; literature study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Thien, Th.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate literature data on the use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as a primary prevention measure for cardiovascular events. DESIGN: Literature search. METHOD: Using Medline, all randomised placebo-controlled trials of ASA published between 1985 and 1 May 2001, and which used

  8. Oral acetylsalicylic acid and prevalence of actinic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Juliano; Miot, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influence of a regular oral use of acetylsalicylic acid in the prevalence of actinic keratosis. A case-control study with dermatologic outpatients above 50 years of age assessed between 2009 and 2011. Cases were defined as those who had been under regular use of oral acetylsalicylic acid for more than six consecutive months. The assessment focused on: age, sex, skin-type, tobacco smoking, use of medication, occurrence of individual or family skin cancer, and sunscreen and sun exposure habits. Actinic keratoses were counted in the medial region of the face and upper limbs. Counts were adjusted by co-variables based on a generalized linear model. A total of 74 cases and 216 controls were assessed. The median time of acetylsalicylic acid use was 36 months. Cases differed from controls as to the highest age, highest prevalence of use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and fewer keratosis on the face and on the upper limbs (pkeratosis and upper-limb erythematous actinic keratosis (pkeratosis, especially facial and erythematous ones.

  9. [Clarification on publications concerning the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, O

    1996-01-01

    Charles Frédéric Gerhardt (1816-1856) mentioned in his Traité de chimie Organique (1854) a publication, in French (realized in 1852 but published in 1853) entitled "Researches on anhydrous organic acids" in which, was reported the reaction of sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride. He thought that the reaction product was an acid anhydride, but obtained really crude acetylsalicylic acid. Later on, but also in 1853, a publication in german, by the same author related the same experiments. Surprisingly only the second publication has been mentioned in most of the historical studies on the subject. Acetyl salicylic acid was identified and synthesised in 1859 by von Gilm by another method and the product obtained by Gerhardt was identified to it in 1869.

  10. Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on spermatogenesis in adult albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameer, M.K.; Tahrir, M.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis in male albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy University of Health Sciences, Lahore from Apr, 2012 to Dec, 2012. Material and Methods: Thirty nine male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 - 5 gm, were used; these were randomly divided into three groups having thirteen mice in each using random numbers table. Group A served as a control and was given distilled water orally via oral gavage 10 ml per kg for 30 days. Group B was given acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/kg dissolved in 10 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Group C was given acetylsalicylic acid 25 mg/kg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose and the testes were removed, fixed in Bouin's fixative for 48 hours. Five microns thick sections of processed tissue were stained with H and E and PAS for calculation of Johnsen score and diameter of seminiferous tubules. Serum testosterone level was measured by testosterone enzyme immunoassay test kits. Results: Microscopic examination demonstrated that ASA treatment lead to statistically significant increase in the mean Johnsen score and mean diameter of seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: It was concluded from the current study that ASA treatment enhances spermatogenesis. (author)

  11. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Thermodynamic and Calorimetric Study of Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin and Ibuprofen

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    Juan Carlos Moreno-Piraján

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enthalpies of solution and dilution of aqueous solutions of sodium acetylsalicylic acid salt and ibuprofen salt were measured with an isoperibolic calorimeter at 293.15 K, 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K and 318.15 K. The concentration of the electrolyte was restricted to the solubility of the salt at various temperatures and did not exceed 0.035–0.057 mol kg-1, depending on the temperature studied. The Virial coefficients were derived from Pitzer's model and the excess thermodynamic functions of both the solution and the components of the solution were calculated. An analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of the solution in terms of concentration and temperature interval was carried out and discussed. Additionally, an analysis was performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC.

  13. [Adaptive desensitization for acetylsalicylic acid hypersensitivity: A success story?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlmeier, G; Hausch, R; Maier, H

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive desensitization still remains the only causative therapy for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) hypersensitivity and is carried out nearly worldwide. To date there are hardly any data available on disease development under current desensitization therapy and longitudinal data in particular are missing. Out of a large collective of patients with proven hypersensitivity to ASA, 194 patients with initiated desensitization treatment were observed for periods up to 5 years (average 32 months). Patients with immediate reactions to systemic challenge tests revealed a response rate of 77% after 12 months of therapy. In this period 12% reached complete remission, 38% showed a clear reduction in symptoms, 32% reached partial remission, 13% remained unchanged and 5% suffered from disease progression. Adaptive desensitization therapy for hypersensitivity to ASA has been shown to be an effective causative therapy and chronic hyperplastic sinusitis as well as bronchial asthma could be improved. For the determination of maintenance dosages and required time periods more data are needed.

  14. Maternal use of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Rebordosa, Cristina; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors-acetaminophen, ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid-have endocrine-disruptive properties in the rainbow trout. In humans, aspirin blocks the androgen response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and, because hCG-stimulated androgen production in utero is crucial...... for normal testicular descent, exposure to COX inhibitors at vulnerable times during gestation may impair testicular descent. We examined whether prenatal exposure to acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid was associated with increased occurrence of cryptorchidism....

  15. Basophil responsiveness and clinical picture of acetylsalicylic acid intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosec, Peter; Mavsar, Nusa; Bajrovic, Nissera; Silar, Mira; Mrhar, Ales; Kosnik, Mitja

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) may exacerbate respiratory or skin diseases or induce anaphylactoid reactions in apparently healthy individuals. We wanted to evaluate specific responsiveness of basophils to ASA in correlation with the clinical picture. We performed a prospective single-blind study of 59 subjects involved in clinical evaluation and/or ASA provocation testing. Whole blood basophils were stained with anti-CD63/CD123/HLA-DR mAbs after stimulation with 0.25 or 1 mg/ml ASA. We found that 40 subjects were ASA tolerant and 19 were ASA intolerant. Both groups had comparable manifestations of asthma and/or rhinitis (13 in the tolerant and 9 in the intolerant group). Intolerant subjects showed significantly higher basophil responsiveness to ASA in comparison to tolerant subjects, which was concentration-dependent in both groups. The ratio between responses at 1 mg/ml of ASA and at baseline (activation index) was analyzed according to the clinical picture. We demonstrate that the activation index was higher only in the intolerant subjects with anaphylactoid reactions, but not in a subgroup of subjects with asthma/rhinitis. The ROC calculations show that the optimal threshold activation index was more than 2.18. The sensitivity was 80% and the specificity was 83% in the subgroup with anaphylactoid reactions. In the asthma/rhinitis subgroup, the sensitivity was 78% and the specificity was 50%. Our study demonstrates that there is a significantly higher in vitro basophil response to ASA in intolerant as compared to tolerant subjects. ROC analyses suggest that this measurement might only have a diagnostic value in subjects without asthma and/or rhinitis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Acetylsalicylic acid and labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Psicobiologia; Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel; Rocha, Vanessa Camara da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-10-15

    Acetylsalicylic acid is the drug most used an anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomenon. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99m Tc). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro or in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid on the labeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc. In vitro assay was performed with samples of whole blood from Wistar rats incubated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.0 mg/ml) for one hour before the 99m Tc-labeling process. For in vivo assay, Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.5 mg/kg) during one hour, and the whole blood was withdrawn for the 99m Tc-labeling process. Saline was used in control groups. Data showed that the fixation of 99m Tc to the blood constituents was not significantly (p>0.05) modified in in vitro and in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid, at least not when the experiments were carried out with the doses normally used in human beings. (author)

  17. Structural diversity of solid dispersions of acetylsalicylic acid as seen by solid-state NMR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Policianová, Olivia; Brus, Jiří; Hrubý, Martin; Urbanová, Martina; Zhigunov, Alexander; Kredatusová, Jana; Kobera, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), s. 516-530 ISSN 1543-8384 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP106/11/P426 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : solid dispersions * acetylsalicylic acid * polymers Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 4.384, year: 2014

  18. Prolongation of bleeding time and inhibition of platelet aggregation by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, G; Boss, A H; Ødum, Niels

    1984-01-01

    the bleeding time averaged 11.2 minutes in contrast to 7.0 minutes in the placebo group, p less than 0.001. This study confirms our previous findings of platelet inhibition by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The prolongation of the bleeding time demonstrates that we......Platelet aggregation and bleeding time was measured in 43 cerebrovascular patients participating in a controlled double-blind study of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. In 19 patients with satisfactory inhibition of the platelet aggregation obtained by 50 to 70 mg acetylsalicylic acid per day...... are dealing not merely with an in vitro phenomenon but with a significant in vivo effect. The study provides the rationale for clinical evaluations of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in stroke prophylaxis....

  19. Pharmacological Correction of the Negative Effect of Acetylsalicylic Acid on the Energy-Generating System

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    Vladimir V. Udut, ScD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper demonstrates the effect of ASA and its combination with SUC on the energy-producing system of rat heart mitochondria as well as an assessment of SUC preventive application effect on ASA pharmacokinetic parameters. Experiments conducted on outbred male albino rats (200-250 g on a model of a xenobiotic load induced by seven days of intragastric injections of acetylsalicylic acid at a dose of 250 mg/kg have shown inhibition of the oxygen consumption rates in the heart mitochondria as well as a limitation of the succinate-dependent substrate oxidation pathways and a decrease in the mitochondria ATP/ADP coefficient. Succinic acid (50 mg/kg for 7 days was injected as a preventive medication to correct the mitochondrial bioenergetics revealed. A comparative research of the pharmacokinetics of acetylsalicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid against the background of succinic acid performed on the model of rabbits has shown total similarity in the parameters analyzed. This fact demonstrates the possibility of prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction using the intermediate Krebs cycle. SUC as preventive medication promotes the elimination of ASA-induced negative metabolic shifts in the rat heart mitochondria by normalizing the succinate- and NAD-dependent respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and therefore, it finds good use in the correction of ASA-induced negative side-effects of an energy-generating system

  20. Burden of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Pratt, Stephen; Elkin, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users.......Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users....

  1. FAST DETECTION OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY(LC-MSMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Abusoglu, Sedat; Unlu, Ali; Sivrikaya, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    ObjectivesAcetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is themost widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drug, andalso used to inhibit cyclooxygenase dependent platelet aggregation.   The aimof this study was to develop a simple, fast and accurate tandem mass method fordetermination and quantification of ASA.  MethodsChromatographic seperation was performedusing an Shimadzu LC-20-AD (Kyoto, Japan) coupledwith a ABSCIEX API 3200 triple quadrupole massspectromete...

  2. UV imaging of Multiple Unit Pellet System (MUPS) tablets: A case study of acetylsalicylic acid stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Rades, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    for estimation of the salicylic acid (SA) concentration as degradation product of ASA in the tablets were compared to the SA concentration measured by high performance liquid chromatography with a partial least squares regression resulting in an RMSEP of 4.86% and an R2 of 0.9812. The estimation of the SA......The applicability of multispectral ultraviolet (UV) imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis was investigated to monitor API degradation within multiple unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets during storage. For this purpose, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) layered pellets were coated...

  3. Study of dosimetric properties of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-Calderon, J.M.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.; Gomez-Vidales, V.

    2009-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to investigate the dosimetric properties of two pharmaceutical preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin R and Cafiaspirin R . The EPR spectra of the irradiated samples were found to have an asymmetric absorption characterized by a major resonance at g = 2.0033. Dose response was investigated between dose ranges of 2 to 95 kGy for 60 Co-gamma rays. Fading characteristics and dependence on temperature irradiation were also studied. We suggest that commercial Aspirin R and Cafiaspirin R tablets can be used as dosimeters in the case of a short accident. (author)

  4. Study of dosimetric properties of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez Calderon, J.M.; Negron Mendoza, A.; Ramos Bernal, S.; Gomez Vidales, V.

    2008-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to investigate the dosimetric properties of two pharmaceutical preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (trademark) and Cafiaspirin (trademark). The EPR spectra of the irradiated samples were found to have an asymmetric absorption characterized by a major resonance at g = 2.0033. Dose response was investigated between dose ranges of 2 to 40 kGy for 60 Co-gamma rays. Fading characteristics and dependence on temperature irradiation were also studied. We suggest that commercial Aspirin (trademark) and Cafiaspirin (trademark) tablets can be used as dosimeters for industrial processes. (author)

  5. [Acetylsalicylic acid desensitization in the new era of percutaneous coronary intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes Ferre, Georgina; Ferrer Gracia, Maria Cruz; Calvo Cebollero, Isabel

    2015-09-21

    Dual antiplatelet therapy is essential in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. Hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) limits treatment options. Desensitization to ASA has classically been studied in patients with respiratory tract disease. Over the last years, many protocols have been described about ASA desensitization in patients with ischemic heart disease, including acute coronary syndrome and the need for coronary stent implantation. It is important to know the efficacy and safety of ASA desensitization in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypoxia and the anticoagulants dalteparin and acetylsalicylic acid affect human placental amino acid transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Jens Kleppa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anticoagulants, e.g. low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA are prescribed to women at risk for pregnancy complications that are associated with impaired placentation and placental hypoxia. Beyond their role as anticoagulants these compounds exhibit direct effects on trophoblast but their impact on placental function is unknown. The amino acid transport systems A and L, which preferably transfer essential amino acids, are well-described models to study placental nutrient transport. We aimed to examine the effect of hypoxia, LMWHs and ASA on the activity of the placental amino acid transport systems A and L and associated signalling mechanisms. METHODS: The uptake of C14-MeAIB (system A or H3-leucin (system L was investigated after incubation of primary villous fragments isolated from term placentas. Villous tissue was incubated at 2% O2 (hypoxia, 8% O2 and standard culture conditions (21% O2 or at 2% O2 and 21% O2 with dalteparin or ASA. Activation of the JAK/STAT or mTOR signalling pathways was determined by Western analysis of total and phosphorylated STAT3 or Raptor. RESULTS: Hypoxia decreased system A mediated MeAIB uptake and increased system L mediated leucine uptake compared to standard culture conditions (21% O2. This was accompanied by an impairment of STAT3 and a stimulation of Raptor signalling. System L activity increased at 8% O2. Dalteparin treatment reduced system A and system L activity under normoxic conditions and ASA (1 mM decreased system A and L transporter activity under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data underline the dependency of placental function on oxygen supply. LMWHs and ASA are not able to reverse the effects of hypoxia on placental amino acid transport. These findings and the uncovering of the signalling mechanisms in more detail will help to understand the impact of LMWHs and ASA on placental function and fetal growth.

  7. [Study of acetylsalicylic acid role in the potentiation of antiamnesic and neuroprotective properties of piracetam in rats with alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A E; Mamchur, V I

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that prolonged alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats potentiates amnesic properties of scopolamine hydrobromide. It was characterized by shortening of the latent period by 44% (ppiracetam with acetylsalicylic acid was accompanied by an expressed antiamnetic potential - the reduction of early markers of proteins degradation (aldehydephenylhydrazones, APH) by 21,7% (ppiracetam according to the effect upon KPH. NO2-/NO3- level was also decreased by 30,3% (ppiracetam may be assumed to be directly related to the ability of acetylsalicylic acid to improve microcirculation in the ischemic areas of the brain in diabetes and probably to its neuroprotective potential.

  8. Investigation of excipients’ nature influence on the quality indices of effervescent tablets of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Tryhubchak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The priority objective of pharmaceutical science remains the creation and rational use of medicines. In recent years among these medicines particular attention is paid to the form of sparkling (fast-dissolving, gaseous or effervescent solid dosage forms – tablets, granules, powders, microspheres, capsules, suppositories and others. In the development of effervescent tablets, which are absent in the domestic market, a combination of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid was selected for experimental studies. The purpose of the work is to study the influence of excipients on the pharmaco-technological properties of effervescent tablets of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid. Materials and methods. In the course of the experiment, nine excipients from groups of fillers, leavens and binders were investigated. By studying qualitative factors, one of the plans of dispersion analysis was used, namely a three-factorial experiment based on the Hyper-Greek-Latin square. In experiments we used modern equipment for determining the bulk density of powders (ERWEKA GT, Germany, bulk density (ERWEKA SVM 202, Germany, tablet press (Korsh XL-100, Germany, uniformity of the weight of tablets (Mettler Toledo AB54-S, Switzerland, crushing resistance (ERWEKA TBH-525 WTO, Germany, abradability (ERWEKA TAR 200, Germany, disintegration time (ERWEKA ZT 33, Germany. Results. As a result of the statistical processing of experimental results, the influence of excipients on the pharmaco-technological parameters of mass for tableting (bulk density, density after compression, Carr's index, flow ability, slope angle, tableting process, tablet appearance, mass uniformity, abradability, resistance to crushing, disintegration and transparency of the solution were investigated. Conclusions. The influence of nine excipients on the pharmaco-technological characteristics of effervescent tablets of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid was

  9. Chemometrical exploration of an isotopic ratio data set of acetylsalicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanimirova, I.; Daszykowski, M.; Van Gyseghem, E.; Bensaid, F.F.; Lees, M.; Smeyers-Verbeke, J.; Massart, D.L.; Vander Heyden, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A data set consisting of fourteen isotopic ratios or quantities derived from such ratios for samples of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), commercialized by various pharmaceutical companies from different countries, was analyzed. The goal of the data analysis was to explore whether results can be linked to geographical origin or other features such as different manufacturing processes, of the samples. The methods of data analysis used were principal component analysis (PCA), robust principal component analysis (RPCA), projection pursuit (PP) and multiple factor analysis (MFA). The results do not seem to depend on geographic origin, except for some samples from India. They do depend on the pharmaceutical companies. Moreover, it seems that the samples from certain pharmaceutical companies form clusters of similar samples, suggesting that there is some common feature between those pharmaceutical companies. Variable selection performed by means of MFA showed that the number of variables can be reduced to five without loss of information

  10. Chemometrical exploration of an isotopic ratio data set of acetylsalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanimirova, I. [ChemoAC, FABI, Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Daszykowski, M. [ChemoAC, FABI, Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Van Gyseghem, E. [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, Rue Pierre Adolphe Bobierre, 44323 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Bensaid, F.F. [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, Rue Pierre Adolphe Bobierre, 44323 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Lees, M. [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, Rue Pierre Adolphe Bobierre, 44323 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Smeyers-Verbeke, J. [ChemoAC, FABI, Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Massart, D.L. [ChemoAC, FABI, Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Vander Heyden, Y. [ChemoAC, FABI, Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: yvanvdh@vub.ac.be

    2005-11-03

    A data set consisting of fourteen isotopic ratios or quantities derived from such ratios for samples of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), commercialized by various pharmaceutical companies from different countries, was analyzed. The goal of the data analysis was to explore whether results can be linked to geographical origin or other features such as different manufacturing processes, of the samples. The methods of data analysis used were principal component analysis (PCA), robust principal component analysis (RPCA), projection pursuit (PP) and multiple factor analysis (MFA). The results do not seem to depend on geographic origin, except for some samples from India. They do depend on the pharmaceutical companies. Moreover, it seems that the samples from certain pharmaceutical companies form clusters of similar samples, suggesting that there is some common feature between those pharmaceutical companies. Variable selection performed by means of MFA showed that the number of variables can be reduced to five without loss of information.

  11. Intermolecular interactions of decamethoxinum and acetylsalicylic acid in systems of various complexity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Vashchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular interactions between decamethoxinum (DEC and acetylsalicylic acid (ASА have been studied in the phospholipid-containing systems of escalating complexity levels. The host media for these substances were solvents, L-α-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC membranes, and samples of human erythrocytes. Peculiar effects caused by DEC-ASА interaction have been observed in each system using appropriate techniques: (a DEC-ASА non-covalent complexes formation in DPPC-containing systems were revealed by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization; (b joint DEC-ASА action on DPPC model membranes led to increasing of membrane melting temperature Tm, whereas individual drugs caused pronounced Tm decreasing, which was demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry; (c deceleration of DEC-induced haemolysis of erythrocytes under joint DEC-ASА application was observed by optical microscopy.

  12. The effect of acetylsalicylic acid and meloxicamon hematological parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćupić Vitomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work there was investigated the effect of two nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, acetylsalicylic acid or aspirin (nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor - COX1 i COX2 and meloxicam (selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor - COX2 on certain hematological parameters in rats. The objective of the work was to determine whether (and to which extent, these drugs, after multiple peroral application, influence erythrocyte number, concentration of hemoglobin, hematological indices (mean corpuscular value - MCV; mean concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes - MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration - MCHC, hematocrit, number of platelets, leukocytes, neutrophilic leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes. The experiment was conducted in in vivo conditions on 70 clinically healthy Wistar strain male rats, 10 to 12 weeks of age and body weight 250 to 300 g. The rats were divided into seven groups and they were daily perorally (by probe given aspirin (ASCOPIR at doses of 30, 40 and 80 mg/kg b.m. (I, II and III groups, or meloxicam (METACAM at doses of 100, 125 and 250 μg/kg b.m. (IV, V and VI groups, for seven days. The seventh group was a control one and they were given only saline. The obtained results showed that: acetylsalicylic acid in maximum dose tested (80 mg/kg b.m. statistically significantly reduced the number of platelets (p<0,05, the number of leukocytes (p<0,05, the number of lymphocytes (p<0,05 and the number of monocytes (p<0,05, while on the other side, meloxicam in maximum dose tested (250 μg/kg, statistically significantly reduced the mean corpuscular value (MCV, and increased the number of platelets (p<0,05, relative to the control value.

  13. On the origin of surface imposed anisotropic growth of salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids crystals during droplet evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Cysewski, Piotr; Pawelec, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław

    2018-01-01

    In this paper droplet evaporative crystallization of salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) crystals on different surfaces, such as glass, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and paraffin was studied. The obtained crystals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. In order to better understand the effect of the surface on evaporative crystallization, crystals deposited on glass were scraped off. Moreover, evaporative crystallization of a large volume of solution was perf...

  14. Thermodynamics of inclusion complexes of natural and modified cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen in aqueous solution at 298 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castronuovo, Giuseppina, E-mail: giuseppina.castronuovo@unina.it [Department of Chemistry, University Federico II of Naples, Complesso Universitario a Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Niccoli, Marcella [Department of Chemistry, University Federico II of Naples, Complesso Universitario a Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2013-04-10

    Graphical abstract: Complexation forces acting in the association between natural and modified α- and β-cyclodextrins and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) or ibuprofen are examined through the analysis of the thermodynamic parameters obtained by isothermal calorimetry. Highlights: ► A calorimetric method is reported to study the association of natural and substituted cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen. ► The study aims to propose a hypothesis about the forces involved in the interaction. That can be useful for designing new cyclodextrins having suitable characteristics to include specific drugs. ► Enthalpic and entropic contributions on the association are discussed. The differences in the cavity dimensions of the cyclodextrins determine the values of the thermodynamic properties to be very different. - Abstract: Thermodynamic parameters for the association of natural and substituted α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid and ibuprofen have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Analysis of the data shows that complexes form, all having 1:1 stoichiometry. The shape-matching between the host and guest is the factor determining the values of the thermodynamic quantities. In the case of the smallest cyclodextrin interacting with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid, the parameters indicate that hydrophobic interactions play the major role. Association occurs through the shallow inclusion of the benzene ring into the cavity. In the case of substituted β-cyclodextrins, instead, inclusion of the benzene ring is deeper and the tight fitting of the guest molecule to the cavity makes the enthalpy and entropy to be both negative. Ibuprofen interacts through its isobutyl group: the values of the association constants are very high for β-cyclodextrins as determined by the large and positive entropies due to the relaxation of water molecules from the cavity and the hydration spheres of the interacting

  15. Thermodynamics of inclusion complexes of natural and modified cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen in aqueous solution at 298 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronuovo, Giuseppina; Niccoli, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Complexation forces acting in the association between natural and modified α- and β-cyclodextrins and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) or ibuprofen are examined through the analysis of the thermodynamic parameters obtained by isothermal calorimetry. Highlights: ► A calorimetric method is reported to study the association of natural and substituted cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen. ► The study aims to propose a hypothesis about the forces involved in the interaction. That can be useful for designing new cyclodextrins having suitable characteristics to include specific drugs. ► Enthalpic and entropic contributions on the association are discussed. The differences in the cavity dimensions of the cyclodextrins determine the values of the thermodynamic properties to be very different. - Abstract: Thermodynamic parameters for the association of natural and substituted α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid and ibuprofen have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Analysis of the data shows that complexes form, all having 1:1 stoichiometry. The shape-matching between the host and guest is the factor determining the values of the thermodynamic quantities. In the case of the smallest cyclodextrin interacting with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid, the parameters indicate that hydrophobic interactions play the major role. Association occurs through the shallow inclusion of the benzene ring into the cavity. In the case of substituted β-cyclodextrins, instead, inclusion of the benzene ring is deeper and the tight fitting of the guest molecule to the cavity makes the enthalpy and entropy to be both negative. Ibuprofen interacts through its isobutyl group: the values of the association constants are very high for β-cyclodextrins as determined by the large and positive entropies due to the relaxation of water molecules from the cavity and the hydration spheres of the interacting

  16. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations.

  17. Acetylsalicylic acid-triggered 15-HETE generation by peripheral leukocytes for identifying ASA sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosec, Peter; Tisler, Ursa; Bajrovic, Nissera; Silar, Mira; Mrhar, Ales; Kosnik, Mitja

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) may exacerbate respiratory or skin diseases or induce anaphylactoid reactions in apparently healthy individuals. We wanted to evaluate the clinical and diagnostic utility of measuring ASA-induced 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) generation. We performed a prospective single-blind study with 26 subjects undergoing clinical evaluation and/or ASA provocation testing. We also included 12 control subjects. Peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with 500 μM ASA and 15-HETE release was measured by competitive ELISA. We found that 18 subjects were ASA-tolerant and 8 were ASA-intolerant. The mean increase in 15-HETE in intolerant subjects was 34% and this was comparable to the mean increase of 30% observed in ASA-tolerant subjects. A similar mean increase was also observed in control subjects. The ROC calculation showed that the optimal diagnostic threshold would be an increase of greater than 33%. However, the sensitivity of this increase was only 63% and the specificity was 50%. Our data suggest that further studies are needed before the ASA-induced 15-HETE test can be used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Ascolong: a new buccal dosage form of acetylsalicylic acid to be used and antiaggregant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokurina, E V; Suslina, Z A; Khromov, G L; Davydo, A B; Metelitsa, V I; Ionova, V G; Tanashian, M M; Demina, E G; Bochkareva, E V; Belolipetskaia, V G; Deev, A D; Kucheriaeva, N G; Zidra, S I; Gorin, N N; Rumiantsev, D O

    1998-01-01

    Study of the tolerance and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of ascolong, a new buccal dosage form of aspirin containing a very low dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA): 12.5 mg. The study was carried out in 43 healthy men (assessment of the drug tolerance) and 19 male patients with coronary disease or cerebrovascular disorders. In 10 patients the antiaggregant efficacy of ascolong administered once or regularly (for 2 weeks) in a dose of 12.5 mg was compared with placebo, in 9 patients a random cross study of 2-week courses of ascolong and Russian aspirin tablets in a dose of 100 mg was carried out. Platelet aggregation was assessed on days 1 and 14 of each course before and 2, 4, and 24 h after the drug intake. Ascolong containing a very low dose of ASA exerts a reliable antiaggregant effect after a single and regular intake, although this effect is less manifest than after aspirin tablets. Profiles of ASA concentrations in the blood were studied. Transbuccal entry of ASA in systemic circulation decelerated its metabolism into a less active metabolite, salicylic acid, due to which fact the ASA microdose had an expressed antiaggregant effect. The drug was sufficiently well tolerated. The new buccal film form of aspirin containing a very low dose of ASA possesses a good antiaggregant effect and is promising in subjects with contraindications to oral intake of aspirin.

  19. Acetylsalicylic acid inhibits IL-18-induced cardiac fibroblast migration through the induction of RECK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddesha, Jalahalli M; Valente, Anthony J; Sakamuri, Siva S V P; Gardner, Jason D; Delafontaine, Patrice; Noda, Makoto; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2014-07-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis and adverse remodeling is thought to involve the ROS-dependent induction of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the activation and migration of cardiac fibroblasts (CF). Here we investigated the role of RECK (reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs), a unique membrane-anchored MMP regulator, on IL-18-induced CF migration, and the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on this response. In a Matrigel invasion assay, IL-18-induced migration of primary mouse CF was dependent on both IKK/NF-κB- and JNK/AP-1-mediated MMP9 induction and Sp1-mediated RECK suppression, mechanisms that required Nox4-dependent H(2)O(2) generation. Notably, forced expression of RECK attenuated IL-18-induced MMP9 activation and CF migration. Further, therapeutic concentrations of ASA inhibited IL-18-induced H(2)O(2) generation, MMP9 activation, RECK suppression, and CF migration. The salicylic acid moiety of ASA similarly attenuated IL-18-induced CF migration. Thus, ASA may exert potential beneficial effect in cardiac fibrosis through multiple protective mechanisms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid. selective approach to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cardiological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, N V; Gruzdev, A K

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent class of medicines which is wide concerning chemical structure and mechanism of action. In the light of contradictory data on efficacy and safety of NSAID in cardiovascular patients selection of most appropriate NSAID (basing on profile of efficacy and safety) in patients receiving continuous therapy with low dose aspirin appears to be a problem. In this paper we discuss peculiarities of drug interaction between cyclooxygenase inhibitors and acetylsalicylic acid, and principles of selection of adequate NSAI.

  1. Effects of single oral doses of lysine clonixinate and acetylsalicylic acid on platelet functions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallapies, D; Muhs, A; Bertram, L; Rohleder, G; Nagyiványi, P; Peskar, B A

    1996-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate is an analgesic drug with a so far unknown mechanism of action. We have determined its effect on platelet cyclooxygenase in man. Biosynthesis of thromboxane (TX)B2 and prostaglandin (PG)F2 alpha in clotting whole blood ex vivo as well as collagen-induced platelet aggregation measured before and at various time points after oral administration of 125 mg lysine clonixinate were compared to results obtained with 500 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). While biosynthesis of both TXB2 and PGF2 alpha measured radioimmunologically was inhibited significantly 2.5 h, but not 6 h, after administration of lysine clonixinate, inhibition by ASA was much greater and still highly significant after 48 h. Similarly, collagen-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma was inhibited for a longer period and to a greater extent after administration of ASA than after lysine clonixinate. Our results indicate that lysine clonixinate is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor of moderate potency. It remains to be investigated whether mechanisms other than inhibition of cyclooxygenase contribute to the analgesic activity of lysine clonixinate.

  2. Biowaiver monograph for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressman, Jennifer B; Nair, Anita; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Barends, Dirk M; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Zimmer, Markus

    2012-08-01

    A biowaiver monograph for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is presented. Literature and experimental data indicate that ASA is a highly soluble and highly permeable drug, leading to assignment of this active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to Class I of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Limited bioequivalence (BE) studies reported in the literature indicate that products that have been tested are bioequivalent. Most of the excipients used in products with a marketing authorization in Europe are not considered to have an impact on gastrointestinal motility or permeability. Furthermore, ASA has a wide therapeutic index. Thus, the risks to the patient that might occur if a nonbioequivalent product were to be incorrectly deemed bioequivalent according to the biowaiver procedure appear to be minimal. As a result, the BCS-based biowaiver procedure can be recommended for approval of new formulations of solid oral dosage forms containing ASA as the only API, including both multisource and reformulated products, under the following conditions: (1) excipients are chosen from those used in ASA products already registered in International Conference on Harmonization and associated countries and (2) the dissolution profiles of the test and the comparator products comply with the BE guidance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Impact of acetylsalicylic Acid on the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendur, Mehmet A N; Aksoy, Sercan; Ozdemir, Nuriye Y; Zengin, Nurullah; Altundag, Kadri

    2014-04-01

    The impact of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on the clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer has not yet been elucidated in detail; we therefore aimed to investigate the effects of ASA on the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with breast cancer. Patients diagnosed with breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Breast cancer patients who were taking ASA at the time of breast cancer diagnosis were enrolled as ASA users (n = 84); matching patients with the same age who were not taking ASA were included as control group (n = 890). The median age was 56 (range 34-82) years in both groups. ASA users had a significantly lower incidence of grade II-III tumors compared to non-users (P = 0.02). The other clinicopathological characteristics and treatment histories were similar in both groups. In patients using ASA, the disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 97.3%, 89.4%, and 79.9% and in non-users it was 94.1%, 81.8%, and 70.9% in the 1rst, 3rd, and 5th year, respectively (P = 0.01). In aspirin users, the overall survival rate was 95.0%, 90.6%, and 87.6% and in non-users it was 98.1%, 91.2%, and 85.5% in the 1rst, 3rd, and 5th year, respectively (P = 0.50). Using ASA at the time of breast cancer diagnosis was associated with significantly improved DFS in breast cancer patients.

  4. The effect of O-acetylsalicylic acid on lipid synthesis by guinea pig gastric mucosa in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spohn, M.; McColl, I.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the involvement of lipids as possible components of the gastric mucosal barrier by studying the synthesis and secretion of lipids by the epithelial cell lining of gastric mucosa and the effect of salicylate on these processes. O-Acetylsalicylic acid reversibly reduced in vitro incorporation of (U- 14 C) and of DL-(2- 14 C) mevalonic acid into lipids by isolated epithelial cells and by intact mucosa of guinea pig stomach, indicating reversible inhibition of lipid synthesis by the tissue in the presence of the drug. Inhibition of incorporation of both precursors into total lipids, into their fatty acid components, and into cholesterol is demonstrated

  5. Structural diversity of solid dispersions of acetylsalicylic acid as seen by solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policianova, Olivia; Brus, Jiri; Hruby, Martin; Urbanova, Martina; Zhigunov, Alexander; Kredatusova, Jana; Kobera, Libor

    2014-02-03

    Solid dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients are of increasing interest due to their versatile use. In the present study polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-metacrylamide] (pHPMA), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOx), and polyethylene glycol (PEG), each in three Mw, were used to demonstrate structural diversity of solid dispersions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used as a model drug. Four distinct types of the solid dispersions of ASA were created using a freeze-drying method: (i) crystalline solid dispersions containing nanocrystalline ASA in a crystalline PEG matrix; (ii) amorphous glass suspensions with large ASA crystallites embedded in amorphous pHPMA; (iii) solid solutions with molecularly dispersed ASA in rigid amorphous PVP; and (iv) nanoheterogeneous solid solutions/suspensions containing nanosized ASA clusters dispersed in a semiflexible matrix of PEOx. The obtained structural data confirmed that the type of solid dispersion can be primarily controlled by the chemical constitutions of the applied polymers, while the molecular weight of the polymers had no detectable impact. The molecular structure of the prepared dispersions was characterized using solid-state NMR, wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By applying various (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(1)H correlation experiments combined with T1((1)H) and T1ρ((1)H) relaxation data, the extent of the molecular mixing was determined over a wide range of distances, from intimate intermolecular contacts (0.1-0.5 nm) up to the phase-separated nanodomains reaching ca. 500 nm. Hydrogen-bond interactions between ASA and polymers were probed by the analysis of (13)C and (15)N CP/MAS NMR spectra combined with the measurements of (1)H-(15)N dipolar profiles. Overall potentialities and limitations of individual experimental techniques were thoroughly evaluated.

  6. Topical acetylsalicylic, salicylic acid and indomethacin suppress pain from experimental tissue acidosis in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, K H; Reeh, P W; Kreysel, H W

    1995-09-01

    Topically applied acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), salicylic acid (SA) and indomethacin were tested in an experimental pain model that provides direct nociceptor excitation through cutaneous tissue acidosis. In 30 volunteers, sustained burning pain was produced in the palmar forearm through a continuous intradermal pressure infusion of a phosphate-buffered isotonic solution (pH 5.2). In 5 different, double-blind, randomized cross-over studies with 6 volunteers each, the flow rate of the syringe pump was individually adjusted to result in constant pain ratings of around 20% (50% in study 4) on a visual analog scale (VAS). The painful skin area was then covered with either placebo or the drugs which had been dissolved in diethylether. In the first study on 6 volunteers, ASA (60 mg/ml) or lactose (placebo) in diethylether (10 ml) was applied, using both arms at 3-day intervals. Both treatments resulted in sudden and profound pain relief due to the cooling effect of the evaporating ether. With lactose, however, the mean pain rating was restored close to the baseline within 6-8 min while, with ASA, it remained significantly depressed for the rest of the observation period (another 20 min). This deep analgesia was not accompanied by a loss of tactile sensation. The further studies served to show that indomethacin (4.5 mg/ml) and SA (60 mg/ml) were equally effective as ASA (each 92-96% pain reduction) and that the antinociceptive effects were due to local but not systemic actions, since ASA and SA dis not reach measurable plasma levels up to 3 h after topical applications. With a higher flow rate of acid buffer producing more intense pain (VAS 50%). ASA and SA were still able to significantly reduce the ratings by 90% or 84%, respectively. On the other hand, by increasing the flow rate by a factor of 2 on average, during the period of fully developed drug effect it was possible to overcome the pain suppression, which suggests a competitive mechanism of (acetyl-) salicylic

  7. Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Yu-Huang Lin,3 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Chun-Der Tai,3 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Yen Chu,4 Chao-Jan Wang,5 Ming-Yi Hsu,5 Hung Chang,6 Gwo-Jyh Chang,7 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Ming-Jer Hsieh,1 Fen-Chiung Lin,1 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Ming-Shien Wen,1 Yenlin Huang81Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, 4Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, 6Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicinal Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 8Department of Anatomical Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, TaiwanAbstract: Incomplete endothelialization, blood cell adhesion to vascular stents, and inflammation of arteries can result in acute stent thromboses. The systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid decreases endothelial dysfunction, potentially reducing thrombus, enhancing vasodilatation, and inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis; but, this is weakened by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study proposes a hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers, for the local, sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid to injured artery walls. Biodegradable nanofibers are prepared by first dissolving poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and acetylsalicylic acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The solution is then electrospun into nanofibrous tubes, which are then mounted onto commercially available bare-metal stents. In vitro release rates of pharmaceuticals from nanofibers are characterized using an elution method, and a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The experimental results suggest that biodegradable nanofibers

  8. Novel {beta}-cyclodextrin modified CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence nanosensor for acetylsalicylic acid and metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarra, M. [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Campos, B.B.; Aguiar, F.R.; Rodriguez-Borges, J.E. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 169-007 Porto (Portugal); Esteves da Silva, J.C.G., E-mail: jcsilva@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-05-01

    {beta}-Cyclodextrin was modified with 11-[(ethoxycarbonyl)thio]undecanoic acid and used as a capping agent, together with mercaptosuccinic acid, to prepare water-stable CdTe quantum dots. The water soluble quantum dot obtained displays fluorescence with a maximum emission at 425 nm (under excitation at 300 nm) with lifetimes of 0.53, 4.8, 181, and 44.1 ns, respectively. The S-{beta}CD-MSA-CdTe can act as a nanoprobe that is due to the affinity of the cyclodextrin moiety for selected substances such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolites as foreign species. The fluorescence of the S-{beta}CD-MSA-CdTe is enhanced on addition of ASA. Linear calibration plots are observed with ASA in concentrations between 0 and 1 mg/l, with a limit of detection at 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol/l (1.5 ng/ml) and a precision as relative standard deviation of 1% (0.05 mg/l). The interference effect of certain compounds as ascorbic acid and its main metabolites such as salicylic, gentisic and salicyluric acid upon the obtained procedure was studied. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanosensors constituted by CdTe quantum dots capped with modified cyclodextrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This nanomaterial shows fluorescence properties compatible with a semiconductor quantum dot. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanosensor shows fluorescence enhancement when inclusion complexes are formed with acetylsalicylic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This nanomaterial has nanosensor potential taking into consideration the formation stability of the inclusion complex.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Acetylsalicylic Acid, Hydrochlorothiazide, Enalapril, and Atorvastatin in a Polypill-Based Quaternary Mixture by TLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślanka, Anna; Stolarczyk, Mariusz; Apola, Anna; Kwiecień, Anna; Hubicka, Urszula; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2018-05-01

    A new chromatographic-densitometric method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the active ingredients in a simulated mixture corresponding to the PolyIran polypill, composed of acetylsalicylic acid, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), enalapril (ENA), and atorvastatin (ATR), whose efficacy in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease has been documented in clinical trials. Chromatographic separation was performed using TLC silica gel 60 plates with fluorescent indicator F254 as the stationary phase and a mixture of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (8.4 + 8 + 3 + 0.4 + 0.2, v/v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Densitometric measurements were carried out at λ = 210 nm when determining ENA and at λ = 265 nm in the case of the other drugs. Peaks of examined substances were well separated in the recorded chromatograms, enabling the evaluation of the results in terms of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The method was specific for the analyzed components and was characterized by high sensitivity. The LOD was between 0.043 and 0.331 μg/spot, and LOQ was between 0.100 and 0.942 μg/spot. Recovery was in the range of 97.02-101.34%. The linearity range was broad and ranged from 0.600 to 6.000 μg/spot for acetylsalicylic acid, from 0.058 to 1.102 μg/spot for HCT, from 0.505 to 6.560 μg/spot for ENA, and from 0.100 to 1.000 μg/spot for ATR. The method was characterized by good precision, with RSD values that ranged from 0.10 to 2.26%.

  10. Novel metal complexes of mixed piperaquine-acetaminophen and piperaquine-acetylsalicylic acid: Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Oloruntoyin Ayipo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of coordination compounds of Zinc(II, Copper(II, Nickel(II, Cobalt(II and Iron(II with mixed piperaquine-acetaminophen and piperaquine-acetylsalicylic acid has been studied. The complexes were characterized via: solubility test, melting point determination, conductivity measurement, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, UV-Visible Spectroscopy, FTIR Spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. The complexes were proposed to have a stoichiometry ratio of 1:1:1 between each metal salt and the ligands with tetrahedral and octahedral geometry following the reaction pattern of MX.yH2O + L1L2/3 to give ML1L2/3X.yH2O. Biological activities of the synthesized complexes have been evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. Protective role of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) against gamma irradiation-induced ophthalmic and histological changes in rat's eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N. I.; Abd El Maguid, A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation generates a variety of free radicals during the exposure of biological tissues through radiolysis of water. These free radicals are highly reactive and cause oxidative damage to biological molecules. This study examined the protective ability of aspirin against radiation-induced ophthalmic and histological disorders in the eye of rats exposed to 6.5 Gy single dose of gamma irradiation, Acetylsalicylic acid was given daily to rats in drinking water (2.5 g/ L) 1 week pre-irradiation, during irradiation and 9 weeks post-irradiation. Experimental investigations showed that irradiation caused cataract formation. Irradiation also caused histopathological changes in the retina of the eyes described as focal degeneration and necrosis of the inner and outer nuclear layers, vacuolation of ganglionic cell layer as well as necrosis of retinal inner and outer segments of the rods and cones. The cornea revealed vacuolation of stratified epithelial layer, edema in substantia propria with dispersion of the connective tissue as well as presence of extravasated red blood cells as a result of exposure to radiation. The lens became homogenous and oesinophilic due to radiation exposure. The eye tissues of rats .that received acetylsalicylic acid supplement showed slight improvement of radiation-induced histological damage in the eyes and it also delayed the onset of cataract formation. According to the results obtained it could be concluded that oral administration of aspirin gave only a slight, nonsignificant reduction of eye radiation injury after exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy). The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the visual system make the eye uniquely vulnerable to damage from injurious agents, physical and chemical. Although many studies were conducted on a broad range of agents, the majority of all efforts are directed at deleterious effect of radiation on the eye tissues, and

  12. Comparative gastroprotective effects of natural honey, nigella sativa and cimetidine against acetylsalicylic acid Induced gastric ulcer in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, M.H.; Khalil, J.; Zahid, M.; Ansari, N.

    2011-01-01

    Natural honey (NH) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds have been in use as a natural remedy for over thousands of years in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of NS (Nigella sativa) and NH (natural honey) on acetylsalicylic acid induced gastric ulcer in an experimental model with comparison to Cimetidine (CD). The study was conducted on 100 male albino rats, divided into 5 groups, with 20 animals in each group. Group A was used as a control and treated with Gum Tragacanth (GT). Eighty animals of the other groups were given acetylsalicylic acid (0.2 gm/kg body weight for 3 days) to produce ulcers by gavage. Two animals from each group were sacrificed for the detection of gastric ulcers. The remaining 72 animals were equally divided in four groups (B, C, D and E). The rats in group B, C and D were given NS, NH, and CD respectively while those in E were kept as such. No gastric lesions were seen in control group A while all the animals in group E revealed gastric ulcers. The animals of group B, C and D showed healing effects in 15/18 (83%), 14/18 (78%) and 17/18 (94%) animals grossly; 13/18 (72%), 14/18 (78%) and 16/18 (89%) rats showed recovery on microscopic examination respectively. The healing effects were almost the same in all three groups therefore, the statistical difference was not significant among them (p =0.40 and 0.65) while significant from group E (p=0.0000075, 0.0000016 and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH are equally effective in healing of gastric ulcer similar to cimetidine. Further broad spectrum studies as well as clinical trials should be conducted before the use of these products as routine medicines. (author)

  13. [A pharmaceutical of the century will be 100. A historical vignette on the introduction of acetylsalicylic acid to the market in 1899].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, F

    1999-10-15

    This article describes the historic roots of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) from the first experiments at 1800 until the introduction into the pharmaceutical market in 1899. In 1869, Hermann Kolbe enlightened the chemical structure of salicylic acid, which was used at that time as an analgetic and antipyretic drug. Because of the side effects, for example the irritation of the stomach, analytical chemists and pharmacologists searched for chemical modifications. In August 1897 Felix Hoffmann (1868-1946) was successful in acetylizing the salicylic acid to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Between 1897 and 1899 Kurt Witthauer (1865-1911) collected clinical data and experiences on the efficiency of ASA as an analgetic and antipyretic drug. In 1899 ASA was introduced into the pharmaceutical market as Aspirin and became soon one of the most successful drugs of its time. The indication exceeds analgesia in the mean time and to prophylaxis of myocardial ischaemia or cerebral stroke, among others.

  14. Preharvest treatments with malic, oxalic, and acetylsalicylic acids affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill and parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Nowicka, Paulina; Martínez-Tomé, Juan; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-07-01

    The effects of a preharvest treatment with malic (MA), oxalic (OA), or acetylsalicylic (ASA) acid at three concentrations (1, 2 and 3mM) on the bioactivity and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill, and parsley were investigated. The antioxidant capacity of the herbs extracts was assayed by spectrophotometric methods by using three different analytical methods: ORAC, FRAP, and ABTS; the effects of treatments were very positive in coriander, produced intermediate results in dill, and no effects were found in parsley plants. Polyphenol compounds were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. Thirty phenolic compounds were identified in these three herbs. The major compounds were (i) coriander: dimethoxycinnamoyl hexoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, (ii) dill: neochlorogenic acid and quercetin glucuronide, and (iii) parsley: apigenin-7-apiosylglucoside (apiin) and isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside. The application of these three organic acids favored the accumulation of phenolic compounds in coriander plants, but had no significant positive effects on dill and parsley. The treatments leading to the best results in all three plants were the application of MA or OA at 1mM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of molecular complexes of salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate in a mixture of supercritical carbon dioxide with a polar cosolvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, V. E.; Antipova, M. L.; Gurina, D. L.; Odintsova, E. G.

    2015-08-01

    The solvate structures formed by salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate in supercritical (SC) carbon dioxide with a polar cosolvent (methanol, 0.03 mole fractions) at a density of 0.7 g/cm3 and a temperature of 318 K were studied by the molecular dynamics method. Salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids were found to form highly stable hydrogen-bonded complexes with methanol via the hydrogen atom of the carboxyl group. For methyl salicylate in which the carboxyl hydrogen is substituted by a methyl radical, the formation of stable hydrogen bonds with methanol was not revealed. The contribution of other functional groups of the solute to the interactions with the cosolvent was much smaller. An analysis of correlations between the obtained data and the literature data on the cosolvent effect on the solubility of the compounds in SC CO2 showed that the dissolving ability of SC CO2 with respect to a polar organic substance in the presence of a cosolvent increased only when stable hydrogen-bonded complexes are formed between this substance and the cosolvent.

  16. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF APIXABAN AS COMPARED WITH WARFARIN AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. For prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF the following types of antithrombotic therapy are used: anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin, antiplatelet therapy (such as acetylsalicylic acid and novel oral anticoagulants such as apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran. Administration of vitamin K antagonists (VKA is complicated by the need for individual dose adjustment and frequent monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR. Both warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid are widely used for thrombosis prevention in patients with NVAF in the Russian Federation.Aim. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of apixaban compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid in patients with NVAF from the Russian Federation national health care system perspective.Material and methods. This analysis used a Markov model that allowed estimation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for apixaban as compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid over lifetime horizon in VKA suitable and VKA unsuitable patients with NVAF respectively. The model enclosed cardiovascular event rates based on the results of the randomized clinical trials comparing clinical effectiveness and safety of apixaban with warfarin (ARISTOTLE and acetylsalicylic acid (AVERROES. The following cardiovascular events were taken into consideration: ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic embolism, intracranial hemorrhage, other major bleeds, clinically relevant non-major bleeds and myocardial infarction. Direct medical costs were determined based on the rates of the compulsory national medical insurance system. The price of the antithrombotic drugs was taken as a weighted average tender price for the year 2013. In the model both costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life years and life-years were discounted at 3.5%. Cost-effectiveness threshold was set at 1.4 million rubles per quality

  17. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF APIXABAN AS COMPARED WITH WARFARIN AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. For prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF the following types of antithrombotic therapy are used: anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin, antiplatelet therapy (such as acetylsalicylic acid and novel oral anticoagulants such as apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran. Administration of vitamin K antagonists (VKA is complicated by the need for individual dose adjustment and frequent monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR. Both warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid are widely used for thrombosis prevention in patients with NVAF in the Russian Federation.Aim. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of apixaban compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid in patients with NVAF from the Russian Federation national health care system perspective.Material and methods. This analysis used a Markov model that allowed estimation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for apixaban as compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid over lifetime horizon in VKA suitable and VKA unsuitable patients with NVAF respectively. The model enclosed cardiovascular event rates based on the results of the randomized clinical trials comparing clinical effectiveness and safety of apixaban with warfarin (ARISTOTLE and acetylsalicylic acid (AVERROES. The following cardiovascular events were taken into consideration: ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic embolism, intracranial hemorrhage, other major bleeds, clinically relevant non-major bleeds and myocardial infarction. Direct medical costs were determined based on the rates of the compulsory national medical insurance system. The price of the antithrombotic drugs was taken as a weighted average tender price for the year 2013. In the model both costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life years and life-years were discounted at 3.5%. Cost-effectiveness threshold was set at 1.4 million rubles per quality

  18. Self-diffusion and molecular association of acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate in methanol- d4 in the temperature range 278-318 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, V. A.; Kumeev, R. S.; Gurina, D. L.; Nikiforov, M. Yu.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of concentration on the self-diffusion coefficients of acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate in methanol- d4 is investigated in the temperature range of 278-318 K using NMR. It is found that the self-diffusion coefficients increase along with temperature and fall as concentration rises. Within the limit of an infinitely dilute solution, the effective radii of solute molecules, calculated using the Stokes-Einstein equation shrink as the temperature grows. It is shown that the observed reduction of effective radii is associated with an increase in the fraction of solute monomers as the temperature rises. The physicochemical parameters of heteroassociation of acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate with methanol are determined.

  19. A Prevention of Pre-eclampsia with the Use of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Low-molecular Weight Heparin - Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota; Kolarz, Bogdan; Korzeniewski, Michal; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Patro-Malysza, Jolanta; Mierzynski, Radzisław; Przegalinska-Kałamucka, Monika; Oleszczuk, Jan

    Pre-eclampsia appears to be the main cause for the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia are more likely to be threatened with conditions which potentially may be lethal, such as: disseminated intravascular coagulation, cerebral hemorrhage, liver and renal failure. Pregnancy complicated with pre-eclampsia is also associated with a greater risk for iatrogenic prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, premature abruption of placenta, and even intrauterine fetal death. In the majority of cases the reasons for arterial hypertension among pregnant women remain obscure. For the past decades, there were many abortive attempts in the use of some microelements, vitamins or specific diets, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, for the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia. Recently, it has been shown that a prevention of pre-eclampsia with the use of a lowmolecular- weight heparins (LMWHs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) could considerably reduce the frequency of preeclampsia. In this review, we present the studies concerning the applications of LMWHs and aspirin in the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia and some important data about the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions of LMWHs and ASA.

  20. Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of Acetylsalicylic Acid, Paracetamol, and Their Degradation and Toxic Impurity Products by HPLC in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    OpenAIRE

    AKAY, Cemal

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Determinations of drug impurity and drug degradation products are very important from both pharmacological and toxicological perspectives. Establishment of monitoring methods for impurities and degradation products during pharmaceutical development is necessary because of their potential toxicity. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and simultaneous determination method for paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid (ACA) and their degradation and toxic impurity products by high perf...

  1. Continuous Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment Does Not Influence Bleeding Pattern or Outcome of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Matched-Pair Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Markus; Won, Sae-Yeon; Wagner, Marlies; Brawanski, Nina; Dinc, Nazife; Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Seifert, Volker; Konczalla, Juergen

    2018-05-01

    Demographic changes are leading to an aging society with a growing number of patients with cardiovascular diseases, relying on antiplatelet drugs like acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Although antiplatelet agents are suspected to be protective not only in the cardiologic but in the neurovascular field, the alteration of the coagulating process could have a major impact on the course and outcome after rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Between June 1999 and December 2014, 1422 patients were treated for aneurysmal SAH in our institution, 144 (10.1%) with continuous ASA at the time of aneurysm rupture. A matched-pair analysis was performed. The rate of patients with continuous ASA treatment while rupture of the aneurysm is rising significantly (P bleeding pattern. Outcome was not different in the matched-pair analysis. There was no statistical difference in treatment related-complication rates of microsurgical and endovascular procedures. Therefore, ASA use should not influence treatment decision of the ruptured aneurysm. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Management of Patients with Chronic Subdural Hematoma Treated with Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid: An International Survey of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleman, Jehuda; Kamenova, Maria; Guzman, Raphael; Mariani, Luigi

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this international survey was to investigate the current management of patients undergoing surgery for chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). We administered a survey via e-mail to neurosurgeons with questions relating to the surgical treatment of cSDH, emphasizing their practices with patients treated with low-dose ASA. We received 157 responses, with a response rate of 22.4%. Almost 80% of the responders discontinue ASA treatment at least 5 days before surgery and 80.7% resume treatment after 5 days or more, and 27.6% discontinue treatment for at least 30 days. The main factor influencing ASA resumption time is the indication for ASA (54.5%), and postoperative imaging is concluded in 71.7%, Postoperative thrombosis prophylaxis is administered by 60% of the responders, and 50% apply it 24 hours after surgery. Almost 95% of the responders believe that better evidence is needed for the management of patients with cSDH treated with ASA. Guidelines for these patients exist in only 24.3% of the institutes. Most neurosurgeons discontinue ASA treatment for at least 7 days in the perioperative period of surgical evacuation of cSDH, even though recent studies show that early ASA resumption might be safe. Thrombosis prophylaxis is administered by only 60%, even though patients with cSDH are at high risk of developing thromboembolic complications. Better evidence and guidelines are warranted because the incidence of patients with cSDH under the treatment of ASA is increasing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective Serotonergic (SSRI) Versus Noradrenergic (SNRI) Reuptake Inhibitors with and without Acetylsalicylic Acid in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Reynaert, Christine; Jacques, Denis; Lepiece, Brice; Dubois, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Antidepressant medication efficacy remains a major research challenge. Here, we explored four questions: whether noradrenergic antidepressants are more effective than serotonergic antidepressants; whether the addition of 100 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) changes antidepressant efficacy; whether the long-term efficacy differs depending on the antidepressant and the addition of ASA; and whether serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are clinically informative. In a two-year study, forty people with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to groups that received an SSRI (escitalopram) or an SNRI (duloxetine), each group received concomitant ASA (100 mg) or a placebo. Sociodemographic data were recorded and patients under went regular assessments with the Hamilton depression scale (HDS) and clinical global impression (CGI) scale. Serum levels of BDNF were measured four times per year. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the two antidepressants or between antidepressant treatment with and without ASA. However, subgroup comparisons revealed that the duloxetine + ASA (DASA) subgroup showed a more rapid improvement in HDS score as early as 2 months (t=-3.114, p=0.01), in CGI score at 5 months (t=-2.119, p=0.05), and a better remission rate (χ 2 =6.296, p 0.012) than the escitalopram + placebo (EP) subgroup. Serum BDNF before treatment was also higher in the DASA subgroup than in the EP subgroup (t=3.713; p=0.002). This suggest two hypotheses: either a noradrenergic agent combined with ASA is more effective in treating depression than a serotonergic agent alone, or the level of serum BDNF before treatment is a precursor marker of the response to antidepressants. Further research is needed to test these hypotheses.

  4. [Quantitative determination of the main metabolites of acetylsalicylic acid/2nd communication: the concentrations of salicylic acid and its metabolites in patients with renal insufficiency (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneels, R; Loew, D; Pütter, J

    1975-07-01

    Quantitative Determination of the Main Metabolites of Acetylsalicylic Acid / 2nd Communication: The concentrations of salicylic acid and its metabolies in patients with renal insufficiency 9 patients suffering from renal insufficiencies of varing degrees and treated regularly by hemodialysis were given 1.5 g Colfarit (microcapsulated acetyl salicylic acid) as a single dose. The concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), salicyluric acid (SU), further salicylic acid conjugates (SAC) and salicyluric acid conjugates (SUC) were determined in the blood plasma. Likewise urea and creatinine were determined. SA concentration decreased continually and, at the end of the trial (72 h after application), had vanished almost completely from the plasma of most patients. SU increased at first and decreased afterwards. With the exception of the dailysis time SAC and SUC increased during the trial. After 3 days the SUC level was more than 50% of total salicylate (SSS) in most patients. SSS (the sum of SA + SU + SAC + SUC) did not change very much before dialysis, but showed a rather high decrease during the first hours of dialysis. tafter dialysis the SSS levels rose again, apparently as a consequence of a redistribution and of the synthesis of conjugates with decreased tissue affinity. It could be shown that SSS in the blood plasma does not parallel SSS in the whole body. The interindividual variation of SA metabolism as well as the variation of the biological blank values was rather high. The results are discussed with regard to salicylate pharmacokinetics in renal insufficiency and to normal salicylate metabolism.

  5. Dose-Related Effects of Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on Gamma Radiation-Induced Teratogenicity in Pregnant Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Reviews of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a widely used nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug, has consistently suggested a possible association between prenatal ASA ingestion and adverse effects in the pregnant mothers and their developing fetuses. The objective of the current study was to comprehensively define the effect of relatively low and high doses of ASA (25 mg/kg body wt. and 200 mg/kg body wt. respectively) on gestating rats and their possible impact on the irradiated ones. Therefore 36 pregnant rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Three rat groups were daily orally gavaged from the 7th to the 18th gestational days with: distilled water (Group 1), 25 mg/kg body wt. ASA (Group 2) and 200 mg/kg body wt. ASA (Group 3). The other three groups similarly received the same previous treatments besides 2 Gy whole body gamma irradiation of each, to serve as: Group 4 (distilled water + irradiation), Group 5 (25 mg/kg body wt. ASA + irradiation) and Group 6 (200 mg/kg body wt. ASA + irradiation). All rat groups were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy and the uterine contents were examined. The lower ASA dose (25 mg/kg body wt.) treated group (Group 2) displayed healthy mothers and fetuses whereas that of the higher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) (Group 3) despite not showing significant maternal or fetal mortalities, yet the intrauterine contents presented fetal developmental disorders including stunted growth and resorption together with some head and limb anomalies including plagiocephaly, marked acampsia and acrocontracture. Meanwhile, results have unexpectedly shown a radioprotective role of the lower ASA dose (25 mg/kg. body wt.) (Group 5) to pregnant rats and their fetuses as inspected by its efficacy in retrieving the radiation induced maternal weight loss together with its noticeable ameliorating effects on the intrauterine lethality of the affected fetuses and their externally detected abnormalities in addition toits effectiveness in retaining some

  6. Modulation of phenytoin teratogenicity and embryonic covalent binding by acetylsalicylic acid, caffeic acid, and alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone: implications for bioactivation by prostaglandin synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.G.; Zubovits, J.T.; Wong, S.T.; Molinari, L.M.; Ali, S.

    1989-01-01

    Teratogenicity of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin is thought to involve its bioactivation by cytochromes P-450 to a reactive arene oxide intermediate. We hypothesized that phenytoin also may be bioactivated to a teratogenic free radical intermediate by another enzymatic system, prostaglandin synthetase. To evaluate the teratogenic contribution of this latter pathway, an irreversible inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip), was administered to pregnant CD-1 mice at 9:00 AM on Gestational Days 12 and 13, 2 hr before phenytoin, 65 mg/kg ip. Other groups were pretreated 2 hr prior to phenytoin administration with either the antioxidant caffeic acid or the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). Caffeic acid and PBN were given ip in doses that respectively were up to 1.0 to 0.05 molar equivalents to the dose of phenytoin. Dams were killed on Day 19 and the fetuses were assessed for teratologic anomalies. A similar study evaluated the effect of ASA on the in vivo covalent binding of radiolabeled phenytoin administered on Day 12, in which case dams were killed 24 hr later on Day 13. ASA pretreatment produced a 50% reduction in the incidence of fetal cleft palates induced by phenytoin (p less than 0.05), without significantly altering the incidence of resorptions or mean fetal body weight. Pretreatment with either caffeic acid or PBN resulted in dose-related decreases in the incidence of fetal cleft palates produced by phenytoin, with maximal respective reductions of 71 and 82% at the highest doses of caffeic acid and PBN (p less than 0.05)

  7. Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improves protein utilization efficiency while vitamin E supplementation reduces markers of the inflammatory response in weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Cheol Kim; Bruce P.Mullan; John L.Black; Robert J.E.Hewitt; Robert J.van Barneveld; John R.Pluske

    2017-01-01

    Background:This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA),a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor,will additively reduce the production of the immunosuppressive molecule prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hence reduce inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli.Methods:The experiment was conducted in a research facility with 192 individually-housed male weaner pigs (Landrace × Large White) weighing 6.6 ± 0.04 kg (mean ± SEM).The pigs were experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli and were allocated to a 2 × 3 factorial design with the respective factors being without and with 125 ppm ASA and three levels ofVit E supplementation (50,100 or 200 IU/kg diet,dl-α-tocopheryl acetate).Results:Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improved average daily gain (P < 0.05) and tended to improve feed:gain ratio (P < 0.10) during the first 14 d after weaning.Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation also improved (P < 0.001) amino acid utilization efficiency (as assessed by plasma urea level) and tended to decrease (P < 0.10) PGE2 production in the liver without affecting small intestinal histology and tight junction protein mRNA expression in the jejunal epithelium.Vitamin E supplementation greater than 100 IU/kg diet sustained both the plasma Vit E concentration (P < 0.001) and plasma haptoglobin content (P < 0.001) after weaning.However,there was no additive effects of the combined supplementation of ASA and Vit E on performance,intestinal barrier function and inflammatory responses of weaned pigs.Conclusions:Although ASA and vitamin E improved amino acid utilization efficiency and reduced acute inflammatory responses,ASA and vitamin E did not additively reduce production of PGE2 and inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E.coli.

  8. Effects of paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetylsalicylic acid, and opioids on bone mineral density and risk of fracture: results of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Hermann, P; Jensen, J-E B

    2012-01-01

    Pain medication has been associated with fractures. We found higher weight in paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) users and lower vitamin D levels in opioid and acetylsalicylic acid users. None of the pain medications influenced bone mineral density or loss. NSAID were...

  9. The study of the influence of surfactant charge on alkaline hydrolysis reactions of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and triflusal (TFL) using spectrophotometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrit, Mónica; del Valle, Carmen; Martínez, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    In this research, the effects of micellar systems on alkaline hydrolysis reactions of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and triflusal (TFL) were found to be dependant upon the surfactant charge within the micelle. In cationic micelles, there is a catalytic effect at low concentrations of surfactant. However, this reaction is inhibited at higher surfactant concentrations. In anionic micelles, a catalytic effect occurs, while in zwitterionic and non-ionic micelles there is an inhibitory effect. Such reactions are attributable to changes in reactants on the micellar surface, or to the fact that both reactants are found in different microenvironments. The pseudophase (PS) and ion-exchange (PPIE) models were found to be consistent with the experimental result. Furthermore, the association constants for both drugs could be determined together with micellar rate constants in heterogeneous media.

  10. In vitro cytoprotective effects of acetylsalicylic acid, carprofen, meloxicam, or robenacoxib against apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside in canine cruciate ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldherr, Katrin; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Spreng, David E; Forterre, Simone

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether incubation of cruciate ligament cells with acetylsalicylic acid, carprofen, meloxicam, or robenacoxib provides protection against apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Explants of cranial (CCL) and caudal (CaCL) cruciate ligaments from eight 1-day-old Beagles. Primary cultures of CCL and CaCL cells were created via enzymatic dissociation of cruciate explants. Purified cell cultures were incubated for 2 hours without (controls) or with 1 of 3 concentrations of 1 of 4 NSAIDs (10, 100, or 200 μg of acetylsalicylic acid/mL; 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of carprofen/mL; 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of meloxicam/mL; or 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of robenacoxib/mL) and subsequently incubated for 18 hours with 1 of 3 concentrations of SNP in an attempt to induce mild, moderate, or severe cytotoxic effects. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed via a cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Prostaglandin E(2) concentrations were measured via an ELISA. Cytoprotective effects of NSAIDs were dependent on the extent of SNP-induced apoptosis and were greatest in CCL and CaCL cell cultures with moderate SNP-induced cytotoxic effects. Preincubation with an NSAID improved cell viability by 15% to 45% when CCL and CaCL cells were subsequently incubated with SNP. Carprofen (10 μg/mL) had the greatest cytoprotective effects for CCL and CaCL cells. Incubation with NSAIDs resulted in a nonsignificant decrease in PGE(2) production from SNP-damaged cells. Results indicated that carprofen, meloxicam, and robenacoxib may reduce apoptosis in cells originating from canine cruciate ligaments.

  11. Resistencia al ácido acetil salicílico en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria Acetylsalicylic acid resistance in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris E. Vesga

    2006-08-01

    agregación plaquetaria en pacientes de alto riesgo y el asociar otro fármaco anti-agregante (terapia dual que garantice una mejor protección anti-trombótica en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria.Introduction: platelet anti-aggregation is the "corner stone" in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Acetylsalicylic acid is the therapy of choice in the prevention and treatment of coronary disease, in doses of 81 - 325 mg. Objective: to assess platelet aggregation in subjects with stable coronary disease receiving acetylsalicylic acid, in order to determine its prevalence resistance. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study in 71 subjects of 40 or more years of age with diagnosis of stable angina, who were admitted for coronary angiography performance. A peripheral venous blood sample was obtained in order to determine the platelet aggregation through arachidonic acid, epinephrine, collagen and ADP in a HELENA PACKS-4 aggregometer. Resistance to the acetylsalicylic acid was defined when having aggregations greater than 20% with arachidonic acid. The statistical analysis was developed with the exact Fisher t test of Student and Mann-Whitney according to variable distribution. Results: 71 subjects were included; 51 were male (71.8%; mean age 63.5 ± 9.4 years. Risk factors: 52 (73.2% had dyslipidemia, 48 (67.6% arterial hypertension, 15 (21.1% diabetes mellitus and 9 (12.7% were cigarette smokers; in 31 (15.9% arteriography showed one-vessel coronary disease, and multi-vessel disease in 58 (81.7%. The platelet aggregometric values obtained were: ADP: 64 ± 19.1%, collagen 72 ± 18.9%, epinephrine 43.8± 23.9% and arachidonic acid 26.1 ± 33.7%, being this one the best marker in the acetylsalicylic acid's effect. The prevalence of aspirin resistance was 28.2% (IC 95%: 18.1 -40.1. Conclusion: in our population, acetylsalicylic acid resistance is highly prevalent; for this reason, routine measurement of platelet aggregation in high risk patients must be considered, as well

  12. Simultaneous determination of salicylic, 3-methyl salicylic, 4-methyl salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in fruit, vegetables and derived beverages by SPME-LC-UV/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo

    2016-03-20

    Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2 mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Prolonged Acetylsalicylic Acid Supplementation-Induced Gastritis on the Neurochemistry of the Sympathetic Neurons Supplying Prepyloric Region of the Porcine Stomach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Palus

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to establish the localization and neurochemical phenotyping of sympathetic neurons supplying prepyloric area of the porcine stomach in a physiological state and during acetylsalicylic acid (ASA induced gastritis. In order to localize the sympathetic perikarya the stomachs of both control and acetylsalicylic acid treated (ASA group animals were injected with neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB. Seven days post FB injection, animals were divided into a control and ASA supplementation group. The ASA group was given 100 mg/kg of b.w. ASA orally for 21 days. On the 28th day all pigs were euthanized with gradual overdose of anesthetic. Then fourteen-micrometer-thick cryostat sections were processed for routine double-labeling immunofluorescence, using primary antisera directed towards tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, galanin (GAL, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, leu 5-enkephalin (LENK, cocaine- and amphetamine- regulated transcript peptide (CART, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP. The data obtained in this study indicate that postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers supplying prepyloric area of the porcine stomach originate from the coeliac-cranial mesenteric ganglion complex (CCMG. In control animals, the FB-labelled neurons expressed TH (94.85 ± 1.01%, DβH (97.10 ± 0.97%, NPY (46.88 ± 2.53% and GAL (8.40 ± 0.53%. In ASA group, TH- and DβH- positive nerve cells were reduced (85.78 ± 2.65% and 88.82 ± 1.63% respectively. Moreover, ASA- induced gastritis resulted in increased expression of NPY (76.59 ± 3.02% and GAL (26.45 ± 2.75% as well as the novo-synthesis of nNOS (6.13 ± 1.11% and LENK (4.77 ± 0.42% in traced CCMG neurons. Additionally, a network of CART-, CGRP-, SP-, VIP-, LENK-, nNOS- immunoreactive (IR nerve fibers encircling the FB-positive perikarya were observed in both intact and ASA

  14. The Ability of PAS, Acetylsalicylic Acid and Calcium Disodium EDTA to Protect Against the Toxic Effects of Manganese on Mitochondrial Respiration in Gill of Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sherine; Davis, Kiyya; Saddler, Claudette; Joseph, Jevaun; Catapane, Edward J; Carroll, Margaret A

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that at excessive levels in brain causes Manganism, a condition similar to Parkinson's disease. Previously we showed that Mn had a neurotoxic effect on the dopaminergic, but not serotonergic, innervation of the lateral ciliated cells in the gill of the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. While the mechanism of action of Mn toxicity is not completely understood, studies suggest that Mn toxicity may involve mitochondrial damage and resulting neural dysfunction in the brain's dopaminergic system. In this study we utilized micro-batch chambers and oxygen probes to measure oyster gill mitochondrial respiration in the presence of Mn and potential Mn blockers. The addition of Mn to respiring mitochondria caused a dose dependent decrease in mitochondrial O(2) consumption. Pretreating mitochondria with calcium disodium EDTA (caEDTA), p aminosalicylic acid (PAS) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) before Mn additions, provided full protection against the toxic effects of Mn. While mitochondrial pretreatment with any of the 3 drugs effectively blocked Mn toxicity, none of the drugs tested was able to reverse the decrease in mitochondrial O(2) consumption seen in Mn treated mitochondria. The study found that high levels of Mn had a toxic effect on gill mitochondrial O(2) consumption and that this effect could be blocked by the drugs caEDTA, PAS and ASA. C. virginica continues to be a good model with which to investigate the mechanism that underlies manganese neurotoxcity and in the pharmacological study of drugs to treat or prevent Manganism.

  15. The effects of aspirin, flurbiprofen, and NO-donating acetylsalicylic acid (NCX 4016) on mice models of endotoxic and septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Nadir; Iskit, Alper Bektaş; Sökmensüer, Cenk; Güç, Mustafa Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide-donating nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) are a promising new class of antiinflammatory agents, which are obtained by adding NO-donating moieties to the existing conventional NSAID molecules. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aspirin, flurbiprofen, and NO-donating acetylsalicylic acid (NCX 4016) on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and endotoxin-induced septic shock (LPS) models in mice. Overall survival and spleen and liver weights were monitored in LPS and CLP models. Histopathological examinations of liver and spleen were performed at the end of the experimental protocols. NCX 4016 was able to reverse the increased spleen weight in CLP-operated animals, whereas aspirin or flurbiprofen did not. Similar to the results of the CLP model, none of the drugs modified the survival rates in the LPS model. Flurbiprofen in particular produced significant histopathological damage in spleens and livers, which was less significant with aspirin. NCX 4016 did not cause any liver damage. NCX 4016 has the potential to be used in septic states, while special attention has to be paid to the effects of aspirin and flurbiprofen on the liver and spleen.

  16. Histopathological, Ultrastructural, and Immunohistochemical Assessment of Hippocampus Structures of Rats Exposed to TCDD and High Doses of Tocopherol and Acetylsalicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosińczuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD on central nervous system consists of changing expression of estrogen receptors, whereas the result of chronic inflammatory reaction caused by dioxin is occurrence of destructive changes in various organs connected with disturbed metabolism of connective tissue and damage of cells. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dioxins on function, ultrastructure, and cytological and histological structure of hippocampus, particularly on expression of estrogen receptors in central nervous system as well as to define protective influence of tocopherol (TCP and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA on the decrease in activity of proinflammatory effects in central nervous system. It was shown that TCDD contributes to destructive and inflammatory changes along with demyelization of myelin sheaths and atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus. Dioxin contributes to atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus, in which also destructive and inflammatory changes were found along with demyelination of myelin sheaths. Histopathological and ultrastructural image of hippocampus areas in rats, in which both TCP and ASA were used, is characterized by poorly expressed degenerative changes and smaller inflammatory reactivity. Using both TCP and ASA has a protective effect on functions of central nervous system.

  17. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J.; Peny, M.O.; Gossum, A. van

    1998-01-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.)

  18. Bleeding peptic ulcer. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/acetylsalicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergard, A.; Bredahl, K.; Muckadell, O.B. de

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) are risk factors for bleeding peptic ulcer. HP eradication reduces the risk of rebleeding. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and presence of blood...

  19. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, University of Brussels (Belgium); Peny, M.O. [Department of Pathology, University of Brussels (Belgium); Gossum, A. van [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.) With 6 figs., 20 refs.

  20. In vitro dissolution study of acetylsalicylic acid solid dispersions. Tunable drug release allowed by the choice of polymer matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Policianová, Olivia; Brus, Jiří; Hrubý, Martin; Urbanová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 8 (2015), s. 935-940 ISSN 1083-7450 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03636S; GA ČR GPP106/11/P426 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200501201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : acetylsallicylic acid * controlled drug release * polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2015

  1. Semi-physiologic model validation and bioequivalence trials simulation to select the best analyte for acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Gragera, Ana; Navarro-Fontestad, Carmen; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; García-Arieta, Alfredo; Trocóniz, Iñaki F; Casabó, Vicente G; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this paper is to apply a previously developed semi-physiologic pharmacokinetic model implemented in NONMEM to simulate bioequivalence trials (BE) of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) in order to validate the model performance against ASA human experimental data. ASA is a drug with first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism following Michaelis-Menten kinetics that leads to the formation of two main metabolites in two generations (first and second generation metabolites). The first aim was to adapt the semi-physiological model for ASA in NOMMEN using ASA pharmacokinetic parameters from literature, showing its sequential metabolism. The second aim was to validate this model by comparing the results obtained in NONMEM simulations with published experimental data at a dose of 1000 mg. The validated model was used to simulate bioequivalence trials at 3 dose schemes (100, 1000 and 3000 mg) and with 6 test formulations with decreasing in vivo dissolution rate constants versus the reference formulation (kD 8-0.25 h (-1)). Finally, the third aim was to determine which analyte (parent drug, first generation or second generation metabolite) was more sensitive to changes in formulation performance. The validation results showed that the concentration-time curves obtained with the simulations reproduced closely the published experimental data, confirming model performance. The parent drug (ASA) was the analyte that showed to be more sensitive to the decrease in pharmaceutical quality, with the highest decrease in Cmax and AUC ratio between test and reference formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Antineoplastic Effect of Nitric Oxide-Donating Acetylsalicylic Acid (NO-ASA) in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Cells is Highly Dependent on its Positional Isomerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Iris; Razavi, Regina; Poll-Wolbeck, Simon Jonas; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hallek, Michael; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton

    2011-10-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is not curable in patients that are not eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Therefore, new treatment options are highly desirable. Chemically modified nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as nitric-oxide-donating acetylsalicylic acid (NO-ASA), have been described to possess antineoplastic capacity. Recently, we could demonstrate a potent apoptosis induction in primary CLL cells in vitro and tumor growth inhibition by para-NO-ASA in a xenograft mouse model. However, little is known about the impact of positional isomerism of NO-ASA on its antineoplastic capacity in CLL. Primary CLL cells were treated with the meta-or para-isomer of NO-ASA at varying concentrations and durations. Viability was assessed flow cytometrically by annexin V-FITC/PI staining and by CellTiter-Glo luminescence cell viability assay. Caspase and PARP cleavage as well as involvement of β-catenin/Lef-1 signaling was determined by immunoblotting. For caspase inhibition, BD™ ApoBlock was used. Nude mice were xenografted with JVM3 cells and treated with meta-NO-ASA, para-NO-ASA or vehicle control. The meta-isomer was entirely ineffective in inducing CLL cell apoptosis in concentrations up to 100 μM, while para-NO-ASA acted in the low micromolar range. meta-NO-ASA, in contrast to para-NO-ASA, did not alter caspase activity. While para-NO-ASA action involved inhibition of β-catenin/Lef-1 signaling, meta-NO-ASA did not show any impact on this signaling pathway. Further, meta-NO-ASA did not significantly reduce tumor growth in a CLL xenograft mouse model, while para-NO-ASA was highly potent. We conclude that positional isomerism is crucial for the antineoplastic effect of NO-ASA in CLL. It can be suggested that the para-isomer, but not the meta-isomer, generates a chemical structure which is essential for the neoplastic effect of NO-ASA.

  3. Stopping versus continuing acetylsalicylic acid before coronary artery bypass surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials with 4499 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros Oliveira; Soares, Artur Freire; Miranda, Rodrigo Gusmão Albuquerque; Araújo, Mayara Lopes; Menezes, Alexandre Motta; Silva, Frederico Pires Vasconcelos; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuing versus stopping aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] preoperatively in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), ClinicalTrials.gov, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for randomized controlled trials that reported efficacy outcomes of myocardial infarction and mortality, and safety outcomes of blood loss, packed red blood cell transfusion and surgical re-exploration were compared between groups. Fourteen studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included a total of 4499 patients (2329 for 'continuing ASA' and 2170 for 'stopping ASA'). In the pooled analysis, continuing aspirin therapy did not reduce the risk of myocardial infarction [risk ratio 0.834, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.688-1.010; P = 0.063] or operative mortality (risk ratio 1.384, 95% CI 0.727-2.636; P = 0.323). Preoperative ASA increased postoperative chest tube drainage (mean difference 143 ml, 95% CI 39-248 ml; P = 0.007) and packed red blood cell transfusion (mean difference 142 ml, 95% CI 55-228; P = 0.001) but did not increase the risk of surgical re-exploration (risk ratio 1.316, 95% CI 0.910-1.905; P = 0.145). This meta-analysis found no statistically significant difference regarding the risk of operative mortality and myocardial infarction between the 'continuing ASA' and 'stopping ASA' strategies. On the other hand, the mean volume of blood loss and packed red blood cell transfusion was higher in the 'continuing ASA' group, but this finding did not translate into higher risk of reoperation for bleeding. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. CHARACTERISTIC OF MECHANISMS OF ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF AGENTS OF VANILLOID RECEPTORS (TRPV1 ON THE MODEL OF GASTROPATHY INDUCED BY ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Hladkykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of the use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is its withdrawal or initial “non-prescription” resulted from the prior developed or potential side effects in the gastrointestinal tract. In this case, the reasons for the abolition of ASA are not only serious complications in the form of gastrointestinal bleeding or perforations, butalso dyspeptic phenomena that are accompanied by the ongoing development of aspirin-induced gastroenteropathy. The aim of the study. To characterize the mechanisms of antiulcerogenic action of agonist TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 vanillin (100 mg/kg on the model of subchronic ASA-induced gastropathy in rats. Materials and methods. The study was performed on 35 mature male rats. Gastropathy induced by ASA was simulated by a fiveday intragastric (i.g. introduction via the orogastric probe of an ASA suspension of 150 mg/kg/ day during 5 days. Omeprazole (50 mg/kg, i.g. and vanillin (100 mg/kg, i.g. were administered in the form of suspensions 60 minutes prior to the use of ASA. The concentration of malonic dialdehyde, and the activity of catalase were determined in the homogenates of gastric mucosa. The prooxidant/antioxidant ratio (ProAntidex was calculated dased on the ratio of catalase activity (mcat/kg and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA concentration (umol/kg. The content of NO metabolites in the stomach tissues was determined by the method of Miranda K.M. et al. Results and discussion. Preventive prophylactic use of vanillin (100 mg/kg leads to the decrease in the intensity of processes of lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa caused by the action of ASA (150 mg/kg. This was indicated by a statistically significant (p≤0.05 decrease of 26.4% in MDA content and an increase in catalase activity by 29.0% relatively to those animalswith ASA-induced gastropathy without correction. Also, the use of vanillin resulted in a statistically significant (p≤0.05 increase in

  5. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions in VX2 carcinoma cells: In vitro analysis Efeito da solução de ácido acetilsalicílico e de ácido acético sobre o carcinoma vx-2: Análise in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad-Hossne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze, in vitro, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin and acetic acid solutions on VX2 carcinoma cells in suspension and to examine the correlation between these effects and neoplastic cell death. METHODS: The VX2 tumor cells (10(7 cells/ml were incubated in solutions containing differing concentrations (2.5% and 5% of either acetylsalicylic acid or acetic acid, or in saline solution (controls. Every five minutes, cell viability was tested (using the trypan blue test and analyzed under light microscopy. RESULTS: Tumor cell viability (in % decreased progressively and, by 30 minutes, neoplastic cell death had occurred in all solutions. CONCLUSION: Based on this experimental model and the methodology employed, we conclude that these solutions cause neoplastic cell death in vitro.OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de ácido acetil salicílico (aspirina e de ácido acético, in vitro, sobre células em suspensão do carcinoma VX-2, verificando-se as mesmas causam a morte das células neoplásicas. MÉTODOS: Procedeu-se a incubação das células tumorais VX-2 (10(7 células/ml com diferentes concentrações do ácido acetil salicílico (2,5% e 5% e de ácido acético (2,5% e 5%, sendo estudada a viabilidade celular pelo teste do azul tripian a cada 5 minutos; procedeu-se à análise à microscopia ótica. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o percentual de viabilidade das células tumorais foi progressivamente diminuindo, sendo que ao final de 30 minutos todas as células neoplásicas estavam inviáveis em todas as soluções e concentrações utilizadas. CONCLUSÃO: Com base neste modelo experimental e com a metodologia empregada, concluiu-se que in vitro, estas soluções causam a morte (inviabilidade das células neoplásicas.

  6. Treatment of radiation-induced gastrointestinal distress with acetylsalicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennie, A T; Dalley, V M [Royal Marsden Hospital, London (UK); Dinneen, L C; Collier, H O.J.

    1975-11-15

    Highly buffered acetylsalicylate was used to treat diarrhoea and other gastro-intestinal side-effects of radiotherapy in 28 women who were receiving treatment for uterine cancer. In a double-blind, balanced, and randomised trial, acetylsalicylate significantly reduced the number of bowel motions and relieved abdominal pain and flatulence.

  7. Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    updated 3/10/08 Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products © National Reye's Syndrome Foundation Inc. 2008 Epidemiologic research has shown an association between the development of Reye's ...

  8. Synthesis, spectral properties and thermal behaviour of zinc(II) acetylsalicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambi, John N.; Nsehyuka, Alfred T.; Egbewatt, Nkongho; Cafferata, Lazaro F.R.; Arvia, Alejandro J

    2003-03-05

    The thermal behaviour of zinc(II) acetylsalicylate [Zn(acsa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] with respect to phase transitions, pyrolysis both in air and inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere, and product identification has been investigated. The complex was synthesised by metathesis in hot ethanol solution using aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) as precursor and characterised via electronic and IR spectral analyses. Optical observations showed that the white salt does not undergo a direct transition from the solid to the liquid phase but rather goes slowly through an intermediate mesophase around 80 deg. C before melting rapidly to the brick-brown isotropic liquid around 134-136 deg. C. No liquid crystalline phases are however formed. This result was complemented by that from thermogravimetric (TG) studies in the ca. 25-600 deg. C range, which showed three main weight-loss phases of 8.0, 50.0 and 14.0% (around 200, 250 and 400 deg. C) corresponding, respectively, to the elimination of CO{sub 2}, xanthone and acetic acid. The pyrolysis products, as identified using a combination of instrumental (GC-MS) and wet chemical techniques are: CO{sub 2}; non-stoichiometric zinc oxide, most likely in the form: Zn{sub 1+x}O (where 0.0000{<=}x{<=}0.0003); and a mixture of organic products resulting from further decomposition, charring and other attendant thermal effects at the relatively high temperatures (ca. 600 deg. C) involved. Six of the principal organic products were identified and included salsalate and benorylate which are pro-drugs of salicylic acid, a well-known pharmaceutical.

  9. [The use of acetylsalicylic acid in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy cared for in Spanish emergency services (results of the EVICURE Study). Evaluacion del Manejo de la cardiopatia isquemica en los Servicios de Urgencias Hospitalarios of the Sociedad Espanola de Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias (SEMES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde, F; Garca-Castrillo Riesgo, L; Loma-Osorio, A; Verdier, J; Recuerda Martnez, E

    2000-10-14

    Acetyl salicylic acid is a drug with demonstrated effectiveness in ischemic cardiomyopathy. The objective of our study was to know the use of this drug in the emergency services of Spain. The EVICURE study analyzes the use of acetyl salicylic acid in 35 emergency services of Spanish hospitals. 2,168 patients were studied. Of the 473 patients with stable angina, 9.2% received acetyl salicylic acid before going to the hospital and 90,7% at the arrival to the hospital, of 1,067 with unstable angina 13% received acetyl salicylic acid before the arrival to the hospital and 56% at the arrival to the hospital. Of 600 patients affected of myocardial infarction only 17% received acetyl salicylic acid before the arrival to the hospital and 59.8% received this drug in the emergency room. The use of acetyl salicylic acid in patients affected of ischemic cardiopathy assisted in the emergency services of Spain is improperly low.

  10. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen'eva, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, γ-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp 2 , VOCOR or CpV (OCOR) 2 type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented

  11. Risk of haemorrhage from transurethral prostatectomy in acetylsalicylic acid and NSAID-treated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierød, F S; Frandsen, N J; Jacobsen, J D

    1998-01-01

    the unselected clinical records of all patients undergoing TUR-P in the Department of Urology at Hvidovre Hospital (during 1992-1994) with special focus on the use of ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In total, 457 records were examined: 99 patients on ASA/NSAID received 42 units of blood......, while 358 patients free from such medication received 68 units of blood, a significantly smaller amount (p = 0.0390). We conclude that ASA and NSAIDs increase the risk of bleeding during and after TUR-P, and we recommend the withdrawal of these drugs for one week before TUR-P....

  12. Evaluation of peritoneal endometriosis treatment using intralesional acetylsalicylic acid injection in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Hossne, Rogério; Barretto, Adriana Beatriz; Siqueira, Juliana Menezes; Denadai, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of intralesional 20% aspirin injection for treatment of experimental peritoneal endometriosis. Peritoneal endometriosis was experimentally induced in forty adult nulligravid female rabbits. On day 30 post-endometriosis induction, rabbits were randomly divided to assess early (10 days) and late (20 days) effects of intralesional injection of physiological saline solution (control groups) in comparison to intralesional injection of 20% bicarbonate aspirin solution (experimental groups) as follows: control group 1 (10 days, n=10); control group 2 (20 days, n=10); experimental group 3 (10 days, n=10); experimental group 4 (20 days, n=10). Resected tissues, including endometriosis foci, were qualitatively (general morphology and signs of inflammatory cells infiltrate, necrosis and apoptosis) and quantitatively (remaining endometriosis area) assessed by histopathological analysis. Extensive necrosis, hemorrhage, apoptosis, and fibrosis were observed in the experimental groups 3 and 4. Groups 1 and 2 presented typical endometrial tissue cysts, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 showed sparse endometrial tissue foci and no endometrial tissue, respectively. Quantitative analysis revealed that aspirin-treated groups 3 and 4 had significantly (pendometriosis area, compared to control groups 1 and 2. Intralesional 20% aspirin injection caused total destruction of peritoneal endometriosis foci in rabbits.

  13. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Lesné, L.; Fol, V. Le

    2012-01-01

    on gestational day 14.5 rat testes, we herein show that testosterone production was inhibited by paracetamol, at doses of 0.1??m to 100??m. Similar results were obtained for aspirin (1?100??m) and indomethacin (10??m). The production of the other Leydig cell hormone, Insl3, was not disrupted by exposure...... inhibit testosterone production in rat foetal testes in vitro and that these compounds had no effect on gonocyte survival. Parallel determinations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production indicated that the effects of paracetamol and aspirin on PGD2 and testosterone were not connected, whereas the effects...

  14. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid inhibits the secretion of interleukin-6 from white adipose tissue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogston, N. C.; Karastergiou, K.; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, M. J.; Bhome, R.; Madani, R.; Stables, M.; Gilroy, D.; Flachs, Pavel; Hensler, Michal; Kopecký, Jan; Mohamed-Ali, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 12 (2008), s. 1807-1815 ISSN 0307-0565 Grant - others:Wellcome trust(XE) 070821/Z/03/Z; EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : interleukin-6 * adipose tissue * aspirin Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.640, year: 2008

  15. Lysine acetylsalicylate increases the safety of a paraquat formulation to freshwater primary producers: A case study with the microalga Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltazar, Maria Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Martins, Alexandra; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Duarte, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The formulation has a reduced toxicity to C. vulgaris when compared to Gramoxone ® . •The highest protection was achieved at the proportion of 1:8 (PQ/LAS). •LAS conferred a protection of approximately 1.8 fold (% of inhibition of growth). •Salicylic acid is biotransformed by C. vulgaris after 48 h, and not detectable at 96 h. -- Abstract: Large amounts of herbicides are presently used in the industrialized nations worldwide, with an inexorable burden to the environment, especially to aquatic ecosystems. Primary producers such as microalgae are of especial concern because they are vital for the input of energy into the ecosystem and for the maintenance of oxygen in water on which most of other marine life forms depend on. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) is known to cause inhibition of photosynthesis and irreversible damage to photosynthetic organisms through generation of reactive oxygen species in a light-dependent manner. Previous studies have led to the development of a new formulation of PQ containing lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) as an antidote, which was shown to prevent the mammalian toxicity of PQ, while maintaining the herbicidal effect. However, the safety of this formulation to primary producers in relation to commercially available PQ formulations has hitherto not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the PQ + LAS formulation in comparison with the PQ, using Chlorella vulgaris as a test organism. Effect criterion was the inhibition of microalgal population growth. Following a 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of PQ, C. vulgaris growth was almost completely inhibited, an effect that was significantly prevented by LAS at the proportion used in the formulation (PQ + LAS) 1:2 (mol/mol), while the highest protection was achieved at the proportion of 1:8. In conclusion, the present work demonstrated that the new formulation with PQ + LAS has a reduced toxicity to C. vulgaris when compared

  16. Lysine acetylsalicylate increases the safety of a paraquat formulation to freshwater primary producers: A case study with the microalga Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltazar, Maria Teresa, E-mail: mteresabaltazar@gmail.com [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); IINFACTS-Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Department of Sciences, Advanced Institute of Health Sciences-North, CESPU, CRL, Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, 4585-116 Gandra (Portugal); Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); IINFACTS-Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Department of Sciences, Advanced Institute of Health Sciences-North, CESPU, CRL, Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, 4585-116 Gandra (Portugal); Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); CENCIFOR-Forensic Sciences Center, Largo da Sé Nova, 3000-213, Coimbra (Portugal); Martins, Alexandra [CIIMAR Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology and Ecology, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Institute of Biomedical Sciences of Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Department of Populations Studies, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Bastos, Maria de Lourdes [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Duarte, José Alberto [CIAFEL, Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa, 91-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •The formulation has a reduced toxicity to C. vulgaris when compared to Gramoxone{sup ®}. •The highest protection was achieved at the proportion of 1:8 (PQ/LAS). •LAS conferred a protection of approximately 1.8 fold (% of inhibition of growth). •Salicylic acid is biotransformed by C. vulgaris after 48 h, and not detectable at 96 h. -- Abstract: Large amounts of herbicides are presently used in the industrialized nations worldwide, with an inexorable burden to the environment, especially to aquatic ecosystems. Primary producers such as microalgae are of especial concern because they are vital for the input of energy into the ecosystem and for the maintenance of oxygen in water on which most of other marine life forms depend on. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) is known to cause inhibition of photosynthesis and irreversible damage to photosynthetic organisms through generation of reactive oxygen species in a light-dependent manner. Previous studies have led to the development of a new formulation of PQ containing lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) as an antidote, which was shown to prevent the mammalian toxicity of PQ, while maintaining the herbicidal effect. However, the safety of this formulation to primary producers in relation to commercially available PQ formulations has hitherto not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the PQ + LAS formulation in comparison with the PQ, using Chlorella vulgaris as a test organism. Effect criterion was the inhibition of microalgal population growth. Following a 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of PQ, C. vulgaris growth was almost completely inhibited, an effect that was significantly prevented by LAS at the proportion used in the formulation (PQ + LAS) 1:2 (mol/mol), while the highest protection was achieved at the proportion of 1:8. In conclusion, the present work demonstrated that the new formulation with PQ + LAS has a reduced toxicity to C. vulgaris when

  17. Lack of impact of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid on kidney function in type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H P; Gaede, P H; Jensen, B R

    2000-01-01

    to be elucidated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a randomized double-blind crossover trial in 17 type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria (urinary AER 30-300 mg/24 h). Patients were given ASA (150 mg/daily) for 4 weeks followed by placebo for 4 weeks with at least a 2-week washout period in random...... order. At the end of each treatment period, AER (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA), blood pressure (BP) (Hawksley), and HbA1c (by high-performance liquid chromatography) were measured. Patients were advised to follow a normal diabetes...... diet without sodium restriction and received their usual antihypertensive treatment during the investigation. RESULTS: During the study (ASA vs. placebo), urinary AER (geometric mean 64 [95% CI 39-105] vs. 59 [40-87] mg/24 h), GFR (mean 106 [93-118] vs. 104 [90-117] ml x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2)), systolic...

  18. Low-dose and high-dose acetylsalicylic acid, with and without dipyridamole: a review of clinical trial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Publication of the results of the second European Stroke Prevention Study (ESPS-2) provided the incentive for an update of the meta-analyses of aspirin and dipyridamole in the secondary prevention of stroke. After review of published randomized trials of prolonged treatment with aspirin,

  19. Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand Cu(II) complexes of salicylic acid derivatives with 2-aminobenzotiyazol derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    İlkimen, Halil; Yenikaya, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    In thisstudy, mixed ligand transitionmetal complexes of Cu(II)have been prepared between salicylic acid derivatives [salicylic acid (H2sal) or acetylsalicylic acid (Hasal)] and 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives[2-aminobenzothiazole (abt) or 2-amino-6-chlorobenzothiazole (Clabt) or2-amino-6-methylbenzothiazole (Meabt)]. The structures of amorphous metalcomplexes have been proposed by evaluating the data obtained from elementalanalysis, ICP-OES, FT-IR, UV-Vis, thermal analysis, magnetic suscepti...

  20. Prophylactic Properties Of Licorice Roots (GLYCYRRHIZA Gabbler) And / Or Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) Against GAMMA Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress And Metabolic Disorders In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAHIM, TH.M.; ABDEL FATTAH, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress with subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been postulated as one of the mechanism of cardiac and renal toxicity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible protective effects of licorice and/or aspirin on gamma irradiation-induced cardiac and renal damage in rats. Licorice and/or aspirin was supplemented daily to rats (100 mg licorice/kg body wt and 50 mg aspirin/kg body wt) orally, 15 days before and after whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy (applied as a shot dose). Gamma irradiation caused significant drop in haemoglobin, erythrocytes, haematocrit values, platelets count, prothrombin time (PT) and leukocytes with their differential counts with elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT).The results obtained showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats induced biochemical alteration in the levels of serum lipid profile (total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol), creatinine and urea. Furthermore, some markers of cardiac injury enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities showed significant increase associated with decrease in the glutathione content (GSH) of cardiac and renal tissues. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation end products malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cardiac and renal tissues was observed.Licorice and/or aspirin treatment prior and post gamma irradiation of rats has attenuated the renal and cardiac toxic effects of radiation manifested by reduction in the levels of MDA and NO, rescued the depletion of endogenous GSH, haematologial parameters and diminished the increase of cardiac and renal injury markers .

  1. Extraction and spectrophotometric determination of vanadium(V) with N-hydroxy-N-m-tolyl-N'-(2-methyl-5-chloro)-phenyl-p-toluamidine hydrochloride in presence of salicylic, anthranilic and phthalic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K S; Deb, K K; Mishra, R [Ravishankar Univ., Raipur (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1981-02-01

    The present work deals with the solvent extraction and simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of microgram quantities of vanadium(V) as mixed ligand complex with N-hydroxy-N-m-tolyl-N'-(2-methyl-5-chloro)-phenyl-p-toluamidine hydrochloride (HTMCPTH) and six carboxylic acids viz. salicylic, acetylsalicylic (aspirin), sulfosalicylic, anthranilic, N-phenyl-anthranilic and phthalic. The method presented here is simple, rapid, sensitive and reasonably selective.

  2. Extraction and spectrophotometric determination of vanadium(V) with N-hydroxy-N-m-tolyl-N'-(2-methyl-5-chloro)-phenyl-p-toluamidine hydrochloride in presence of salicylic, anthranilic and phthalic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.S.; Deb, K.K.; Mishra, R.

    1981-01-01

    The present work deals with the solvent extraction and simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of microgram quantities of vanadium(V) as mixed ligand complex with N-hydroxy-N-m-tolyl-N'-(2-methyl-5-chloro)-phenyl-p-toluamidine hydrochloride (HTMCPTH) and six carboxylic acids viz. salicylic, acetylsalicylic (aspirin), sulfosalicylic, anthranilic, N-phenyl-anthranilic and phthalic. The method presented here is simple, rapid, sensitive and reasonably selective. (author)

  3. Synthesis of a nano-crystalline solid acid catalyst from fly ash and its catalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitralekha Khatri; Ashu Rani [Government P.G. College, Kota (India). Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    The synthesis of nano-crystalline activated fly ash catalyst (AFAC) with crystallite size of 12 nm was carried out by chemical and thermal treatment of fly ash, a waste material generated from coal-burning power plants. Fly ash was chemically activated using sulfuric acid followed by thermal activation at 600{sup o}C. The variation of surface and physico-chemical properties of the fly ash by activation methods resulted in improved acidity and therefore, catalytic activity for acid catalyzed reactions. The AFAC was characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N{sub 2}-adsorption-desorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and sulfur content by CHNS/O elemental analysis. It showed amorphous nature due to high silica content (81%) and possessed high BET surface area (120 m{sup 2}/g). The catalyst was found to be highly active solid acid catalyst for liquid phase esterification of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride and methanol giving acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate respectively. A maximum yield of 97% with high purity of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and a very high conversion 87% of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) was obtained with AFAC. The surface acidity and therefore, catalytic activity in AFAC was originated by increased silica content, hydroxyl content and higher surface area as compared to fly ash. The study shows that coal generated fly ash can be converted into potential solid acid catalyst for acid catalyzed reactions. Furthermore, this catalyst may replace conventional environmentally hazardous homogeneous liquid acids making an ecofriendly; solvent free, atom efficient, solid acid based catalytic process. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I. Salicylic, acetylosalicylic, benzoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelgyessy, J; Dillinger, P [Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta; Harangozo, M; Jombik, J [Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Farmaceuticka Fakulta

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l/sup -1/ NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing /sup 85/Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated /sup 85/Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct.

  5. Comparative studies about the influence of salicylic and acetylsalicilic acid on content of assimilatory pigments in the primary leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia PURCAREA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA and some of its derivates are phenolic compounds recently recognized as plant growth regulators involved in many physiological processes including photosynthesis. One of the important derivates of Salicylic Acid is the Acetylsalicylic Acid. In the present investigation we studied the influence of exogenous Acetylsalicylic and Salicylic acid with different concentrations on the assimilatory pigments contents of the primary leaves of wheat seedlings in comparison with the same parameters of the control lots which were treated with water. The wheat seedlings were soaked for 6 hours in 0.01mM; 0.1mM; 0.5mM and 1 mM SA or ASA solutions and in water for the control lot, germinated for 7 days on filter paper moistened with water. After that, we planted the plantlets in sand and sprayed their coleoptiles and primary leaves, each day for an additional 7 days, with water. In the 14th days of germination we determined the content of assimilatory pigments extracted with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. The results showed that exogenous 0.01 mM, 0.1mM, 0.5 mM or 1.0 mM SA solution treatments cause more significant increases in the assimilatory pigments contents in leaves of wheat plantlets than treatments with ASA solutions of the same concentrations do.

  6. Utilization of oriented crystal growth for screening of aromatic carboxylic acids cocrystallization with urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław; Mroczyńska, Karina; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of molecular complex formation in the solid state of urea with benzoic acid analogues was measured directly on the crystallite films deposited on the glass surface using powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). Obtained solid mixtures were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simple droplet evaporation method was found to be efficient, robust, fast and cost-preserving approach for first stage cocrystal screening. Additionally, the application of orientation effect to cocrystal screening simplifies the analysis due to damping of majority of diffraction signals coming from coformers. During validation phase the proposed approach successfully reproduced both positive cases of cocrystallization (urea:salicylic acid and urea:4-hydroxy benzoic acid) as well as pairs of co-formers immiscible in the solid state (urea:benzoic acid and urea:acetylsalicylic acids). Based on validated approach new cocrystals of urea were identified in complexes with 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. In all cases formation of multicomponent crystal phase was confirmed by the appearance of new reflexes on the diffraction patterns and FTIR absorption band shifts of O-H and N-H groups.

  7. Protective effect of ketotifen and disodium cromoglycate against bronchoconstriction induced by aspirin, benzoic acid or tartrazine in intolerant asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B

    1979-01-01

    Oral challenge tests with acetylsalicylic acid, tartrazine or benzoic acid were performed in 7 intolerant asthmatic patients after a 3-day treatment with either orally taken ketotifen (1 mg twice daily) or inhaled disodium cromoglycate (20 mg four times daily) at random. Protection was noted with ketotifen in 5, with DSCG in 3 patients. On the evaluation of the mean percentage of the maximum decline in the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) only ketotifen afforded significant protection statistically (p less than 0.05). All the intolerant asthmatics studies showed, as an immunological abnormity, a slight, but significant decrease of the C1-inhibitor levels. Moreover, in three out of these the alpha 1-antitrypsin serum values were under the lower normal range.

  8. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  9. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 μM SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: ► Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions ► Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia ► Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia ► Salicylic acid does not influence any of the investigated parameters under hypoxia

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Anthraquinone-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Hong, Sungyoul; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Shi Hyung; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinone compounds are one of the abundant polyphenols found in fruits, vegetables, and herbs. However, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms of anthraquinones have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the activity of anthraquinones using acute inflammatory and nociceptive experimental conditions. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, AQCA), one of the major anthraquinones identified from Brazilian taheebo, ameliorated various inflammatory and algesic symptoms in EtOH/HCl- and acetylsalicylic acid- (ASA-) induced gastritis, arachidonic acid-induced edema, and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing without displaying toxic profiles in body and organ weight, gastric irritation, or serum parameters. In addition, AQCA suppressed the expression of inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 in stomach tissues and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. According to reporter gene assay and immunoblotting analyses, AQCA inhibited activation of the nuclear factor- (NF-) κB and activator protein- (AP-) 1 pathways by suppression of upstream signaling involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK1), p38, Src, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Our data strongly suggest that anthraquinones such as AQCA act as potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive components in vivo, thus contributing to the immune regulatory role of fruits and herbs.

  11. Pharmaceutical salts and cocrystals involving amino acids: a brief structural overview of the state-of-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilborg, Anaëlle; Norberg, Bernadette; Wouters, Johan

    2014-03-03

    Salification of new drug substances in order to improve physico-chemical or solid-state properties (e.g. dissolution rate or solubility, appropriate workup process, storage for further industrial and marketing development) is a well-accepted procedure. Amino acids, like aspartic acid, lysine or arginine take a great part in this process and are implicated in several different formulations of therapeutic agent families, including antibiotics (amoxicillin from beta lactam class or cephalexin from cephalosporin class), NSAIDs (ketoprofen, ibuprofen and naproxen from profen family, acetylsalicylic acid) or antiarrhythmic agents (e.g. ajmaline). Even if more than a half of known pharmaceutical molecules possess a salifiable moiety, what can be done for new potential drug entity that cannot be improved by transformation into a salt? In this context, after a brief review of pharmaceutical salts on the market and the implication of amino acids in these formulations, we focus on the advantage of using amino acids even when the target compound is not salifiable by exploiting their zwitterionic potentialities for cocrystal edification. We summarize here a series of new examples coming from literature to support the advantages of broadening the application of amino acids in formulation for new drug substances improvement research for non-salifiable molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitric oxide production from macrophages is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Y; Kolb, H; Burkart, V

    1993-11-30

    In activated macrophages the inducible form of the enzyme nitric oxide (NO) synthase generates high amounts of the toxic mediator NO. After 20 h of treatment with LPS rat peritoneal macrophages release 12-16 nmol NO2-/10(5) cells which is detectable in the culture supernatant by the Griess reaction as a measure of NO formation. The addition of aminoguanidine (1 mM), a preferential inhibitor of the inducible NO-synthase, completely abolished NO2-accumulation. Incubation with indomethacin or acetyl-salicylic acid, preferential inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid metabolism, did not influence NO2- levels. Nordihydro-guaiaretic acid (50 microM), a preferential inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway, caused strong reduction of NO2- accumulation to 1.9 +/- 0.3 nmol/200 microliter. Simultaneous inhibition of cyclo- and lipoxygenase by BW755c resulted in an intermediate effect (7.3 +/- 1.1 nmol/200 microliter NO2-). These results show that the induction of NO production in activated macrophages is regulated by products of the lipoxygenase-pathway of the arachidonic acid metabolism.

  13. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  14. Modulation of mitomycin C-induced genotoxicity by acetyl- and thio- analogues of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amol Ashok; Vikram, Ajit; Tripathi, Durga Nand; Padmanabhan, Shweta; Ramarao, Poduri; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports regarding acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolites suggest suppressive effects against mitomycin C (MMC)-induced genotoxicity in a mice chromosomal aberration assay. Keeping this in mind, the potential anti-genotoxic effect of the thio-analogue of salicylic acid namely thio-salicylic acid (TSA) was speculated upon. The present study investigated and compared the anti-genotoxic potential of ASA and TSA. The study was performed in male swiss mice (20+/-2 g) using single-cell gel electrophoresis and a peripheral blood micronucleus assay. ASA and TSA (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) were administered 15 minutes after MMC (1 mg/kg) once daily for 3 or 7 days. Both ASA and TSA significantly decreased the DNA damage induced by MMC as indicated by a decrease in the comet parameters in bone marrow cells and decreased frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes in peripheral blood. The results clearly demonstrate the anti-genotoxic potential of ASA and TSA.

  15. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  16. Strong and long-lasting antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory conjugate of naturally occurring oleanolic acid and aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bednarczyk-Cwynar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The conjugate 8 was obtained as a result of condensation of 3-hydroxyiminooleanolic acid morfolide (7 and aspirin in dioxane. Analgesic effect of OAO-ASA (8 for the range of doses 0.3 – 300.0 mg/kg (p.o. was performed in mice using a hot plate test. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats for the same range of doses. The conjugate OAO-ASA (8 did not significantly change locomotor activity of mice, therefore sedative properties of the compound should be excluded. The compound 8 proved a simple, proportional, dose-dependent analgesic action and expressed strong anti-inflammatory activity showing a reversed U-shaped, dose-dependent relation with its maximum at 30.0 mg/kg. After its combined administration with morphine (MF, 5.0 mg/kg, s.c. the lowering of antinociceptive activity was found; however, the interaction with naloxone (NL, 3.0 mg/kg, s.c. did not affect the antinociceptive effect of OAO-ASA (8, therefore its opioid mechanism of action should be rather excluded. After combined administration with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 300.0 mg/kg, p.o. in hot-plate test, the examined compound 8 enhanced the antinociceptive activity in significant way. It also shows that rather the whole molecule is responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the tested compound 8, however it cannot be excluded that the summarizing effect is produced by ASA released from the compound 8 and the rest of triterpene derivative. The occurrence of tolerance for triterpenic derivative 8 was not observed, since the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects after chronic administration of the conjugate OAO-ASA (8 was on the same level as after its single treatment. It seemed that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of OAO-ASA (8 is not simple, even its chronic administration lowered both blood concentration of IL-6 and mRNA IL-6 expression. However, the effects of the conjugate OAO-ASA (8 on TNF-α level

  17. Acid-sensing ion channels expression, identity and role in the excitability of the cochlear afferent neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia eGonzález-Garrido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are activated by an increase in the extracellular proton concentration. There are four genes (ASIC1-4 that encode six subunits, and they are involved in diverse neuronal functions, such as mechanosensation, learning and memory, nociception, and modulation of retinal function. In this study, we characterize the ASIC currents of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs. These ASIC currents are primarily carried by Na+, exhibit fast activation and desensitization, display a pH50 of 6.2 and are blocked by amiloride, indicating that these are ASIC currents. The ASIC currents were further characterized using several pharmacological tools. Gadolinium and acetylsalicylic acid reduced these currents, and FMRFamide, zinc (at high concentrations and N,N,N’,N’–tetrakis-(2-piridilmetil-etilendiamina (TPEN increased them, indicating that functional ASICs are composed of the subunits ASIC1, ASIC2 and ASIC3. Neomycin and streptomycin reduced the desensitization rate of the ASIC current in SGNs, indicating that ASICs may contribute to the ototoxic action of aminoglycosides. RT-PCR of the spiral ganglion revealed significant expression of all ASIC subunits. By immunohistochemistry the expression of the ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b and ASIC3 subunits was detected in SGNs. Although only a few SGNs exhibited action potential firing in response to an acidic stimulus, protons in the extracellular solution modulated SGN activity during sinusoidal stimulation. Our results show that protons modulate the excitability of SGNs via ASICs.

  18. Oleic Acid, deglycosylated vitamin D-binding protein, nitric oxide: a molecular triad made lethal to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Marco; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo J V; Noakes, David; Morucci, Gabriele; Taubmann, Margit; Thyer, Lynda; Pacini, Stefania

    2014-07-01

    Oleic Acid (OA) has been shown to have anticancer properties mediated by interaction with proteins such as α-lactalbumin and lactoferrins. Therefore, we synthesized complexes of OA and Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) that inhibits per se cancer cell proliferation and metastatic potential. We hypothesised that OA-GcMAF complexes could exploit the anticancer properties of both OA and GcMAF in a synergistic manner. We postulated that the stimulating effects of GcMAF on macrophages might lead to release of nitric oxide (NO). Patients with advanced cancer were treated at the Immuno Biotech Treatment Centre with OA-GcMAF-based integrative immunotherapy in combination with a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet, fermented milk products containing naturally-produced GcMAF, Vitamin D3, omega-3 fatty acids and low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Measuring the tumour by ultrasonographic techniques, we observed a decrease of tumour volume of about 25%. These observations demonstrate that OA, GcMAF and NO can be properly combined and specifically delivered to advanced cancer patients with significant effects on immune system stimulation and tumour volume reduction avoiding harmful side-effects. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels Expression, Identity and Role in the Excitability of the Cochlear Afferent Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Garrido, Antonia; Vega, Rosario; Mercado, Francisco; López, Iván A.; Soto, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are activated by an increase in the extracellular proton concentration. There are four genes (ASIC1-4) that encode six subunits, and they are involved in diverse neuronal functions, such as mechanosensation, learning and memory, nociception, and modulation of retinal function. In this study, we characterize the ASIC currents of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). These ASIC currents are primarily carried by Na+, exhibit fast activation and desensitization, display a pH50 of 6.2 and are blocked by amiloride, indicating that these are ASIC currents. The ASIC currents were further characterized using several pharmacological tools. Gadolinium and acetylsalicylic acid reduced these currents, and FMRFamide, zinc (at high concentrations) and N,N,N’,N’–tetrakis-(2-piridilmetil)-ethylenediamine increased them, indicating that functional ASICs are composed of the subunits ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3. Neomycin and streptomycin reduced the desensitization rate of the ASIC current in SGNs, indicating that ASICs may contribute to the ototoxic action of aminoglycosides. RT-PCR of the spiral ganglion revealed significant expression of all ASIC subunits. By immunohistochemistry the expression of the ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, and ASIC3 subunits was detected in SGNs. Although only a few SGNs exhibited action potential firing in response to an acidic stimulus, protons in the extracellular solution modulated SGN activity during sinusoidal stimulation. Our results show that protons modulate the excitability of SGNs via ASICs. PMID:26733809

  20. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  1. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  2. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  3. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  4. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  5. Well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, E H

    1980-01-23

    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  6. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  7. Formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1921-12-03

    The production of formic acid by the oxidation of methane with a metallic oxide or by the interaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor in the presence of a catalyst, preferably a metallic oxide, is described along with the destructive distillation of carbonaceous material in the preesnce of formic acid vapor for the purpose of increasing the yield of condensible hydrocarbons.

  8. Direct and indirect inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase by salicylic acid and anthocyanidins reactivates intercellular ROS signaling and allows for synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Salicylic acid and anthocyanidins are known as plant-derived antioxidants, but also can provoke paradoxically seeming prooxidant effects in vitro. These prooxidant effects are connected to the potential of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins to induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells in vitro and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. Several epidemiological studies have shown that salicylic acid and its prodrug acetylsalicylic acid are tumor-preventive for humans. The mechanism of salicylic acid- and anthocyanidin-dependent antitumor effects has remained enigmatic so far. Extracellular apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl signaling pathway specifically induces apoptosis in transformed cells. Tumor cells have acquired resistance against intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Here, we show that salicylic acid and anthocyanidins inactivate tumor cell protective catalase and thus reactive apoptosis-inducing intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling of tumor cells and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis Salicylic acid inhibits catalase directly through its potential to transform compound I of catalase into the inactive compound II. In contrast, anthocyanidins provoke a complex mechanism for catalase inactivation that is initiated by anthocyanidin-mediated inhibition of NO dioxygenase. This allows the formation of extracellular singlet oxygen through the reaction between H(2)O(2) and peroxynitrite, amplification through a caspase8-dependent step and subsequent singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of catalase. The combination of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins allows for a remarkable synergistic effect in apoptosis induction. This effect may be potentially useful to elaborate novel therapeutic approaches and crucial for the interpretation of epidemiological results related to the antitumor effects of secondary plant compounds. © The

  9. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence quenching of Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+} (bpy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine) in the presence of acetaminophen, salicylic acid and their metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslag, Catherine S. [Department of Chemistry, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65897 (United States); Richter, Mark M., E-mail: MarkRichter@missouristate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65897 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Quenching of Ru(bpy) {sub 3}{sup 2+} (bpy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine) coreactant electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) has been observed in the presence of acetaminophen, salicylic acid and related complexes. However, no quenching is observed with the acetylsalicylic acid. In most instances, quenching is observed with 100-fold excess of quencher (compared to ECL luminophore) with complete quenching observed between 10,000 and 100,000 fold excess. Fluorescence and UV-vis experiments coupled with bulk electrolysis support the formation of benzoquinone products upon electrochemical oxidation. The mechanism of quenching may involve the interaction of the electrochemically generated benzoquinone species with (i) the {sup Low-Asterisk }Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} excited state or (ii) highly energetic coreactant radicals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Efficient quenching of the electrogenerated chemiluminescence is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Acetaminophen, salicylic acid and related compounds can be detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle The mechanism of quenching involves benzoquinones formed upon electrolysis.

  10. [Safety and effectiveness of nicotinic acid in the management of patients with chronic renal disease and hyperlipidemia associated to hyperphosphatemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo Valencia, C A; Cruz, J

    2008-01-01

    To establish if the nicotinic acid in patients with chronic renal disease reduce significantly and with security the levels of lipids and serum phosphate in refractory patients to the classical management. Observational study Place: Renal Unity RTS Ltda Caldas Santa Sofìa Hospital. All the patients with chronic renal disease in dialysis therapy to whom the classical treatment for their hyperlipidaemia and hyperphosphatemia didn't manage a satisfactory reduce of their serum levels. It was identified that those patients who in the 3 previous months to the intervention hadn't presented changes in the lipids profile even though they received low fats diet and a lipid lowering therapies (statin o fibric acid derivates). It was determined in them whether they presented levels of serum phosphorus greater than 5.5 mg/dl even though having received nutritional recommendations and treatment with oral phosphate binding agents (Aluminum hydroxide, Calcium salts or Sevelamer). In them it was proceeded to administrate nicotinic acid via oral at night until a doses of 1,000 milligrams was reached (preceded of 100 mgs of acetylsalicylic acid 1 hour before) during a period of 8 months, observing its therapeutical effectivity and security profile to improve the lipids profile and reduce the serum phosphorus. 9 patients complied with the requirements, average time in dialysis 34 months, 3 in hemodialysis and 6 in peritoneal dialysis. All patients started with 500 mgs and 3 months later correctly tolerated the dose of 1,000 mgs. Between the evaluated variables, the most important changes were: the phosphorus reduced reaching a significant value at eight months: initial 6.46+/-0.53, four months 4.37+/-0.63 (p>0.05) and eight months 3.94+/-0.76 (padherence to the medicament 100%. The nicotinic acid is efficient, very well tolerated and economical in comparison with others drugs, which makes it ideal for the treatment of patients with hyperlipidaemia and refractory hyperphosphatemia to

  11. Acetyl salicyclic acid (aspirin) improves synthesis of maspin and lowers incidence of metastasis in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.; Girish, G.V.; Ghosh, R.; Chakraborty, S.; Sinha, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Maspin, a 42 kDa protein produced in normal breast cells, has been shown to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer in an animal model. Ingestion of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) by breast cancer patients has been reported to restore the systemic synthesis of maspin through the stimulation of systemic nitric oxide production. Studies were carried out to determine the effect of aspirin on the incidence of breast cancer metastasis, which is reported to occur in 50% of patients who have previously received chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery. Thirty-five female patients (aged 41-65 years) with breast cancer who had previously received these therapies took one 75 mg/70 kg body weight enteric-coated aspirin tablet every 24 h, after an adequate meal, for 3 years. Their plasma nitric oxide and maspin levels were measured. The occurrence of metastasis was ascertained monthly by a qualified oncologist, and confirmed, if necessary, by biopsy. Daily ingestion of aspirin by participants resulted in an increase in maspin levels from 0.95±0.04 to 4.63±0.05 nM after 24 h. These levels were maintained for 3 years. These studies suggest that daily ingestion of aspirin might significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer metastasis in patients who have previously received anticancer therapies. (author)

  12. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  13. Prostacyclin production in rabbit arteries in situ: inhibition by arachidonic acid-induced endothelial cell damage or by low-dose aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerman-Wojenski, C; Silver, M J; Smith, J B; Nissenbaum, M; Sedar, A W

    1981-04-01

    The central artery of the rabbit ear was perfused in situ and effluent fractions from the artery were assayed for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-K-PGF1 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2), the stable metabolites of prostacyclin (PGI2) and TxA2, using specific radioimmunoassays. These metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) were not detected in the effluent during infusion of Tyrode's solution but both metabolites were detected when small amounts of AA were infused into the artery. Examination of the arteries by scanning electron microscopy revealed that high concentrations of AA which caused a short burst of 6-K-PGF1 alpha and TxB2 production damaged the endothelial cells while lower concentrations which stimulated continuous production did not cause damage. When a non-damaging concentration of AA was infused into an artery that had previously received a damaging concentration, PG production was greatly reduced. Pretreatment of the rabbits with 4 mg/kg acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited 6-K-PGF1 alpha production by the rabbit ear artery in response to AA and 70% inhibition was still evident 18 hours after ASA.

  14. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  15. Acid rain. Les pluies acides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, T

    1979-11-28

    This report was produced for the use of Members of Parliament and House of Commons committees. The document describes the formation of acid rain, emissions of acidifying pollutants in North America, the growth of the problem and its environmental effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, human health and man-made structures. Areas of Canada which are most susceptible are identified. Actions taken by Parliament are given, including the formation of a sub-committee on acid rain and the passing of Bill C-51 in 1980 to amend the Clean Air Act, bringing it closer to a similar law in the U.S. A chronology of government responses to acid rain at the international, national and provincial level, is given. The most recent government actions included the passing of the US Clean Air Act by the Senate, the amending of the act into law, and commencement of negotiations to develop a Canada-US Air Quality Accord. 10 refs.

  16. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  17. Aspirin in pregnancy : clinical and biochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Bremer (Henk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, is the most frequently consumed drug in pregnancy,47 mostly taken without a prescription because of headache or a minor ailment. 226,277 Numerous preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid are freely available over the counter under a variety of

  18. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  19. Effect of acetyl salicylic acid on increased production of thromboxane after aortic graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, J; Swedenborg, J; Egberg, N; Vesterqvist, O; Green, K

    1989-06-01

    Contact between blood and foreign surfaces, e.g. vascular grafts, causes activation and release of platelets. One consequence of platelet activation is production of thromboxane A2 (TxA2). The physiological effects of TxA2, i.e. platelet aggregation and vaso-constriction are counteracted by another prostanoid, prostacyclin (PGI2). Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) causes a longlasting inhibition of platelet TxA2 production and a more shortlasting inhibition of PGI2 production. The present study examines TxA2 and PGI2 synthesis in patients receiving synthetic arterial grafts, some of which were treated with ASA. The prostanoid synthesis was evaluated by measurement of their main urinary metabolites with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Platelet release was evaluated by measurements of beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) and the plasma coagulation by measurements of fibrinopeptide A (FPA). These compounds were also measured in urine in order to avoid artifacts caused by activation of platelets and plasma coagulation during blood sampling. Following replacement of the abdominal aorta with a synthetic vascular graft there was a marked increase in the synthesis of TxA2 and PGI2. Increased levels of beta-TG and FPA were also demonstrated. Administration of ASA on the first and second postoperative days significantly reduced the synthesis of TxA2 but caused no significant effects on the other parameters measured. It is concluded that ASA may be beneficial in the postoperative period since it counteracts TxA2 with vasoconstricting and platelet aggregating properties but leaves PGI2 with vasodilating and antiaggregating properties relatively uneffected.

  20. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu

    1983-09-01

    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  1. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    are the hallmark of phospholipidosis, a pathological condition characterized by lysosomal phospholipid accumulation. Phospholipidosis is observed in acquired lysosomal storage diseases and is induced by a large number of cationic amphiphilic drugs. Unlike the latter, however, OA does not act by accumulating...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....... hyper protein phosphorylation, but no detectable loss of cell polarity or cytoskeletal integrity of the enterocytes. Using a fluorescent membrane marker, FM dye, endocytosis from the brush border was affected by the toxin. Although constitutive uptake into subapical terminal web-localized early...

  2. Análise dos traçados de ondas da agregação plaquetária em pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares em uso do ácido acetil salicílico comparados a doadores de sangue Analysis of the waves and aggregation patterns in patients with cardiovascular diseases in using acetylsalicylic acid compared blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S. M. Bernardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A agregação plaquetária avalia a função das plaquetas através de diferentes vias de ativação plaquetária in vitro, fornecendo traçados de ondas equivalentes à propriedade física dessa agregação. Sabendo-se que a aspirina acetila irrever­sivelmente a enzima cicloxigenase prevenindo a geração de tromboxana A2, potente ativador da agregação plaquetária, esta droga tem sido analisada há mais de trinta anos na clínica médica em pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares como uma potente droga antitrombótica. Foram nossos objetivos obter traçados de ondas correspondentes às fases da agregação plaquetária para nossa padronização utilizando nosso grupo controle de doadores de sangue e compará-las com nosso grupo estudo, frente a diferentes agentes agonistas em diferentes concentrações: ADP 1µM e 3µM; AA, 0,5mM; ADR, 0,05 mg/mL, 0,025 mg/mL e 0,010 mg/mL. Os grupos analisados foram constituídos por 41 cardíacos e 40 doadores de sangue considerados controle. Dos cardíacos, 33 faziam uso regular do AAS na concentração de 200 mg/dia e oito na concentração de 100 mg/dia, sendo todos considerados hipertensos. A padronização da agregometria estava na dependência do encontro de traçados correspondentes a ondas de agregação, sendo esses obtidos em porcentagem no tempo de cinco minutos estandartizados pelo aparelho utilizado. Comparando os resultados entre os pacientes e o grupo controle, foi possível observar que, na presença dos agentes agregantes ADP 1µM e ADP 3 µM, ADR 0,05 mg/mL, 0,025mg/mL e 0,010 mg/mL, os pacientes apresentaram 1ª onda, mas não 2ª onda. Por sua vez, no caso do AA 0,5 mM não houve o encontro de traçados de ondas.Platelet aggregation illustrates the function of the platelets by different ways of in vitro platelet activation providing wave traces equivalent to the physical proprieties of this aggregation. It is well known that aspirin irreversibly blocks the cyclooxygenase enzyme preventing the release of thromboxane A2, a potent activator of platelet aggregation. This drug has been evaluated for more than thirty years as a potent antithrombotic drug in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to obtain wave traces corresponding to platelet aggregation phases for standardization purposes using blood donors as a control group and comparing the results with a study group using different agonistic agents at different concentrations: ADP 1 µM and 3 µM; AA 0.5 mM and ADR at 0.05 mg/mL, 0.025 mg/mL and 0.010 mg/mL. The analyzed groups were composed of 41 cardiac patients and 40 blood donors. Among the cardiac patients, 33 regularly used 200 mg of ASA per day and 8 patients normally used 100 mg of ASA per day, all of whom were considered hypertensive. The pattern of aggregation was dependent on conjunction traces corresponding to aggregation waves. A percentage at 5 minutes was obtained with these traces established by the equipment used. In our work, comparing the results among analysed patients and the control group, it was possible to observe that in the presence of the aggregating agents ADP 1µM and ADP 3µM; ADR 0.05 mg/mL, 0.025 mg/mL and 0.010 mg/mL the patients showed the first wave but no second wave aggregation. However, in respect to AA 0.5 mM the conjunction of the trace waves was not seen.

  3. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-D and ASA at 0, 8, 16, 32 or 64 mg L-1. 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' calli were subcultured on MS supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0, 2, 4 or 8 mg L-1 and 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 or 4 mg L-1. The increase in ASA concentrations decreased the pro-embryoid formation on calli of both cultivars and only 2,4-D promoted the formation of friable calli. However, the balance of auxin and cytokinin used in this study favored the production of friable calli.

  4. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  5. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  6. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  7. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  8. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  9. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  10. Dietary non-nutrients and haemostasis in humans : effects of salicylates, flavonoids and ginger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the content of acetylsalicylate and total salicylates in foods, and we studied the effects of the dietary non-nutrients salicylates and flavonoids and of certain foods on haemostatic parameters in humans.

    Acetylsalicylic acid -aspirin- irreversibly inhibits

  11. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  12. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  13. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i2.18 E-mail: hkshin@kiom.re.kr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    of 10% trichloroacetic acid and incubated for 15 min on ice. .... GST catalyzes the conjugation of GSH with many xenobiotics and their reactive metabolites and GR .... famotidine, omeprazole, and melatonin against acetylsalicylic acid-induced ...

  14. of aspirin The use of renal enzymes indication of renal toxicity dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-30

    Apr 30, 1983 ... analysis revealed that aspirin significantly increased the output of both ... Acetylsalicylic acid (Disprin) I500 mg wa administered 3 times a day .... completely removing salicylic acid and metabolites from the urine, as could be ...

  15. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  16. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  17. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  18. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  19. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and Pregnancy Print ...

  20. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  1. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  2. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  3. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  4. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  5. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  6. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  8. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  9. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  10. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  11. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  12. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  13. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have......Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...

  14. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  15. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    acids in the coastal Arabian Sea sediments: whereas amino acids content of fulvic acids was lower than that of humic acids in the coastal sediments of Bay of Bengal. Slope sedimentary humic acids were relatively enriched in amino acids as compared...

  16. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  17. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  18. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  19. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  20. Dgroup: DG01950 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15 ... Acetylsalicylic acid ... D00109 ... Aspirin (JP17/USP); Aspalon (JAN) ... D05181 ... Aspirin aluminum (JP17) ... D07579 ... Aspirin... calcium salt ... D07580 ... Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN) ... D07581 ... Aspirin magnesium salt ... D07582 ... Aspirin

  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: adverse effects and their prevention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - Methods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid,

  2. Hydrophobic interactions of phenoxazine modulators with bovine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effect of the displacing activities of hydroxyzine and acetylsalicylic acid on the ... concentration of the drugs, higher numbers being obtained at higher drug ... derivatives4 and have been claimed to be nervous system depressants, in particular ...

  3. Hemarthrosis of the knees following streptokinase therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A sixty-four-year-old male patient was studied who had acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation experienced bilateral hemarthrosis of the knees after administration of streptokinase and acetylsalicylic acid.

  4. Comparison of antiplatelet regimens in secondary stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christine Benn; Pallisgaard, Jannik; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with ischemic stroke of non-cardioembolic origin, acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, or a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole are recommended for the prevention of a recurrent stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of bleeding or recurrent...... stroke associated with these three treatments. METHODS: Patients who were discharged with first-time ischemic stroke from 2007-2010, with no history of atrial fibrillation were identified from Danish nationwide registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 1-year risks of recurrent ischemic stroke and bleeding...... were calculated for each antiplatelet regimen. RESULTS: Among patients discharged after first-time ischemic stroke, 3043 patients were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, 12,295 with a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole, and 3885 with clopidogrel. Adjusted HRs for clopidogrel versus...

  5. Acidity of hydroxamic acids and amides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, S.; Exner, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 7 (2003), s. 1176-1180 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : hydroxamic acids * DFT calculations * isodesmic reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  6. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown goo...

  7. Characterization of acid tars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Sunday A.; Stegemann, Julia A.; Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  8. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: sunday.leonard@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  9. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  10. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  11. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  12. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  13. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regularly removed from the body through urine, so excess amounts do not build up in the body. You should not get more than 1000 mcg per day of folic acid. Using higher levels of folic acid can mask vitamin B12 deficiency.

  14. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  15. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  16. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  17. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  18. Phosphates and phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P [Compagnie Francaise de l' Azote, Paris (France)

    1983-01-01

    In chapter 8.5 the following aspects of uranium recovery are treated: basis of extraction process, extraction principle, solvents, strength of the acid to be treated, technology, main processes in use, impact of uranium recovery on phosphoric acid plants, and economics of uranium recovery plants.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  20. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  1. Enzymatic formation of hexadecenoic acid from palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masao; Fujino, Yasuhiko

    1975-01-01

    Desaturation of palmitic acid was investigated in an enzyme system prepared from rat liver. 2-trans-Hexadecenoic acid as well as 9-cis-gexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid) were found to be formed as monoenoic acid in this system. (author)

  2. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  3. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  4. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  5. Glycosyltransferase glycosylating flavokermesic acid and/or kermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  6. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE GLYCOSYLATING FLAVOKERMESIC ACID AND/OR KERMESIC ACID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  7. Waht is 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tytko, K.H.; Baethe, G.; Mehmke, K.

    1987-01-01

    According to a comparative study of the literature, supplemented by well-aimed experimental investigations and equilibrium calculations, the terms 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid', used for many substances, species, or solutions in the literature, are applicable to a species, a solution, and two solids: a) The monomeric molybdic acid, most probably having the formula MoO 2 (OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 (= H 2 MoO 4 , aq), exists in (aqueous) solution only and never exceeds a concentration of ∼ 10 -3 M since at higher concentrations it reacts with other monomeric molybdenum(VI) species to give anionic or cationic polymers. b) A concentrated (> 0.1 M Mo VI ) aqueous molybdate solution of degree of acidification P = 2 (realized, e.g., by a solution of one of the Mo VI oxides; by any molybdate solutions whose cations have been exchanged by H 2 O + on a cation exchanger; by suitable acidification of a molybdate solution) contains 8 H 3 O + and the well-known polyanion Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 8- exactly in the stoichiometric proportions. c) A glassy substance, obtained from an alkali metal salt-free solution prepared acording to (b), refers to the compound (H 3 O) 8 [Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 ] · xH 2 O, x = 25 - 29. d) A solid having the ideal composition [(H 3 O)Mo 5 O 15 (OH)H 2 O · H 2 O] ∞ consists of a polymolybdate skeleton (the well-known 'decamolybdate' structure), in the tunnels of which H 3 O + and H 2 O are intercalated. The structure is very unstable if only H 3 O + cations are present, but it is enormously stabilized by a partial exchange of H 3 O + by certain alkali or alkaline earth metal cations. For the compounds MoO 3 , MoO 3 ·H 2 O, and MoO 3 · 2 H 2 O the term 'molybdic acid' is unjustified. The commercial product 'molybdic acid, ∼ 85% MoO 3 ' is the well-known polymolybdate (NH 4 ) 2 O · 4 MoO 3 with a layer structure of the polyanion. 84 refs. (author)

  8. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  9. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  10. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  11. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying amoxicillin. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

  12. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or tenderness (8), chemical burns (6), and increased sunburn (3). The frequency of such reports for skin ... bear a statement that conveys the following information: Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid ( ...

  13. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  14. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is possible. Studies have found that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual ... valproic acid to leave your body. Women with epilepsy or bipolar disorder who are planning a pregnancy ...

  15. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  16. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  17. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  18. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  19. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Patrick; Hébert, Martin; Marchand, Patrick

    2005-11-08

    The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the 1000-3275 cm(-1) range. This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

  20. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  1. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  2. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  3. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Gerard

    1972-01-01

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF 3 (CH 3 COOH) 2 . The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF 3 COOH and CH 3 COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation [fr

  4. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  5. Citric acid by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, R M

    1978-11-30

    Citric acid is produced in 2 stages, in the first of which Escherichia coli KG93 F-is cultured on a substrate consisting of whey permeate to which phosphate and nitrate or urea is added. In the second stage, Hansenula wickerhamii CBS 4308 is cultured on the culture solution from the first stage and the citric acid isolated in the usual manner. Thus, a whey permeate comprising fat 0.20, protein 0.05, lactose 5.0, lactic acid 0.1, and salts 0.6% (Ca 0.06, P 0.06, K 0.16, N 0.03, and NaCl 0.3%) was amended with 1.2 g phosphate/L and 1.0 g NO/sub 3/sup -///L. After introducing the whey permeate into a continuous fermentor, it was inoculated with E. coli K693 F- and allowed to incubate at 37/sup 0/ and pH 7 (Maintained with NH/sub 3/ gas) for 12 h with aeration, thereby producing concentration pyruvic acid. After an additional 6 h cultivation without aeration, the broth was transferred to another fermentor and there inoculated with H. wickerhamii CBS 4308. The second cultivation step was carried out at 30/sup 0/ and a pH of 5 for 24 h with the pH stabilized by NH/sub 3/ gas. To the second stage culture, 0.3 g Fe(CN)/sup 4 -//L was added. The yield of pyruvic acid in the first stage was 32 g/L and the final yield of citric acid was 43 g/L.

  6. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1...

  7. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  8. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  9. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  10. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  11. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene

    2008-01-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  12. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  13. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  14. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  15. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  16. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  17. Microbial Propionic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid (propionate is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required.

  18. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  19. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphing...

  20. Nucleic acids in circulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elevated blood levels of extracellular nucleic acids have been reported in various disease conditions; such as ageing and age-related degenerative disorders, cancer; acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, severe trauma and autoimmune disorders. In addition to genomic DNA and nucleosomes, mitochondrial DNA is ...

  1. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  2. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  3. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  4. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  5. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  6. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the body can't store them. If the body can't use all of the vitamin, the extra vitamins leave the body through the ...

  7. and amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    P RABINDRA REDDY* and A MOHAN REDDY. Department of ... The mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with uridine and amino acids ..... Sabat M, Satyashur K A and Sundaralingam M 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc. ... Uemura T, Shimura T, Nakamishi H, Tomahiro T, Nagawa Y and Okuno (Yohmei) H 1991. Inorg.

  8. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a

  9. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  10. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  11. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  12. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  13. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  14. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  15. Radioimmunoassay for jasmonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoefel, H.D.; Brueckner, C.; Kramell, R.; Sembdner, G.; Schreiber, K. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1984-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the natural plant growth regulator jasmonic acid (JA) was developed. The antiserum was raised in rabbits against (+-)-JA linked to bovine serum albumin. As tracer tritium labelled (+-)-JA (spec. act. 7.4 x 10/sup 9/ Bq x mmol/sup -1/) was used. Cross-reactivity studies with compounds structurally related to JA demonstrated the antiserum to be specific for JA, abscisic acid normally present in the same extract does not interfer. The RIA has a detection limit of 2 ng (-)-JA methylester, a measuring range 2-200 ng, and no extensive purification is required prior to estimation. Therefore, in JA analysis the RIA described is superior to GC, HPLC, and bioassay. This new method has been employed for studies on the distribution of JA in different plant organs of the broad bean, Vicia faba L.

  16. Acid corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N G

    1964-04-28

    An acid corrosion inhibitor is prepared by a 2-stage vacuum evaporation of effluents obtained from the ammonia columns of the coking oven plant. The effluent, leaving a scrubber in which the phenols are removed at a temperature of 98$C, passes through a quartz filter and flows into a heated chamber in which it is used for preheating a solution circulating through a vacuum unit, maintaining the temperature of the solution at 55$ to 60$C. The effluent enters a large tank in which it is boiled at 55$ to 60$C under 635 to 640 mm Hg pressure. Double evaporation of this solution yields a very effective acid corrosion inhibitor. Its corrosion-preventing effect is 97.9% compared with 90.1% for thiourea and 88.5% for urotropin under identical conditions.

  17. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  18. N-(3-Chlorophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8ClNO3, the molecular conformation is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond which connects the amide group with the phenyl ring. The maleamic acid unit is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.044 Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 15.2 (1° with the phenyl ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(7 chains running [010].

  19. Mortar fights acid corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-14

    The burning of coal or oil to produce heat required to operate a power boiler also generates a severe corrosion problem within the interior of the duct and stacks used to emit the flue gas into the atmosphere. How can concrete and steel be protected from the effects of acid attack, when the acids are carried in a gas form, or come into direct contact with the steel or concrete from spillage or immersion conditions. Industry in North America has found that the solution to this problem is to build an outside concrete column, in this case of Portland cement, and inside that column, build a totally independent brick liner bonded with Sauereisen mortar.

  20. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  1. Acidity of Scandinavian precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E; Bordin, G

    1955-01-01

    Data on the pH of the total monthly precipitation at stations of a Swedish network for sampling and chemical analysis of precipitation and atmospheric aerosols during the year July 1953 to June 1954 are presented and discussed, together with the pH data from the first two months of operation of a large pan-Scandinavian net. It is found that well-defined regions of acidity and alkalinity relative to the pH of water in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide exist, and that these regions persist to such an extent that the monthly deviations from the pattern of the annual mean pH at stations unaffected by local pollution show persistently high acidity, while inland northern stations show equally persistent alkalinity. Some possible reasons for the observed distributions are considered.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  3. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  4. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  5. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  6. Sources of atmospheric acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of acid gases from anthropogenic sources and their impact on the environment are the main concern of this book. However, that impact can only be assessed if all the naturally occurring sources of these gases are also known and can be quantified. Given the widely dispersed nature of the natural sources and the problems of measurement of trace species at low concentrations, often in remote regions, the quantification is a very difficult task. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made over the last decade. In this chapter both man-made and natural sources of atmospheric acidity will be reviewed, but the emphasis will be placed not so much on the global balances as on the scale of the natural sources in relation to the man-made sources. This requires that the very uneven geographical distribution of emissions and the lifetime of individual chemical species be taken into account. The emissions considered are sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, chlorine compounds and organic acids. The anthropogenic sources discussed are the combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial processes. Emissions data for anthropogenic sources are given for the United Kingdom, Europe, USA and globally. A list of 95 references is given. (Author)

  7. Whence the acid raindrop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Absorption of NO 2 can cause damage in animals and plants and, if present trends for NO x emissions continue, their by-product nitric acid may soon overtake sulphuric acid as the main acidifying agent of 'acid' rain. In response to this problem the feasibility of reducing NO x emissions from power stations is being studied. Although there can be no doubt that these expensive controls are desirable, their benefits are difficult to predict for two reasons: NO x is not only emitted by fuel combustion and the degree to which an industrialised country benefits from the implementation of NO x emission controls depends on how much its pollutant 'fall out' is immediately returned from the atmosphere, and how much is exported to neighbouring countries. The above factors involve questions regarding the source and reaction mechanisms for nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Because stable isotope ratio analysis has proved to be of value in providing answers to such questions in other environments, an investigation of the 15 N/ 14 N ratios of atmospheric gases (NO x , NH 3 ) and their solution products in rain (NO 3 , NH + 4 ) seemed to be justified

  8. Hepatic Toxicity of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    1995). 3. N. V. Reo, C. M. Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n-octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate ...Artz, and B. M. Jarnot: "ILiver Phosphorous Metabolic Response to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids and Clofibrate in Rats and Guinea Pigs: A 31 P NMR Study...Peroxisome Induction by Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid and Clofibrate in the Rat: Proliferation Versus Activity." International Society for the Study of

  9. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  10. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  11. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids. A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick. Medical Research Council Unit for the Study of the Molecular Structure of Biological. Systems, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. April 2. We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid ...

  12. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  13. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  14. Danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by hydrochloric acid. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan with mineral acids, including hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite composition were determined. The chemical composition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was determined as well. The kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by hydrochloric acid was studied. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid was calculated.

  15. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  16. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.

    2017-05-01

    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  17. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  18. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  19. Folic Acid: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid in diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Folic Acid updates ... acid - test Folic acid in diet Related Health Topics Vitamins National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  20. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  1. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Arnold H.

    1966-01-01

    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  2. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerello, Elisa

    2018-04-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to increase in prevalence. While a relationship between uric acid stones and low urinary pH has been for long known, additional association with various metabolic conditions and pathophysiological basis has recently been elucidated. Some conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome disease, excessive dietary intake, and increased endogenous uric acid production and/or defect in ammoniagenesis are associated with low urinary pH. In addition, the phenomenon of global warming could result in an increase in areas with greater climate risk for uric acid stone formation. There are three therapeutic steps to be taken for management of uric acid stones: identification of urinary pH profiles, assessment of urinary volume status, and identification of disorders leading to excessive uric acid production. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is acid urinary pH, which is a prerequisite for uric acid precipitation. This article reviews recent insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stones and their management.

  3. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  4. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2012-09-27

    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1).

  5. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.

    2009-01-01

    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  6. Acidizing reservoirs while chelating iron with sulfosalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, W A; Berkshire, D C

    1980-09-30

    A well treating process is described in which an aqueous solution of a strong acid capable of dissolving solids in a manner increasing the permeability of a subterranean earth formation is injected into a subterranean reservoir that contains an asphaltenic oil. At least the first injected portion of the aqueous acid and a solution or homogeneous dispersion of at least enough 5-sulfosalicylic acid to chelate with and prevent the formation of iron-asphaltene solids are included with substantially all of the ferric ions that become dissolved within the strong acid solution that enters the earth formation. 10 claims.

  7. Polyphenols of Salix aegyptiaca modulate the activities of drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, and level of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Mohd; Kale, R K; Singh, Rana P

    2018-03-07

    Salix aegyptiaca is known for its medicinal properties mainly due to the presence of salicylate compounds. However, it also contains other beneficial phytochemicals such as gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin. The aim of the study was to examine the redox potential, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these phytochemicals along with acetylsalicylic acid. The redox potential and antioxidant activity of gallic acid, quercetin, rutin, vanillin and acetylsalicylic acid were determined by oxidation-reduction potential electrode method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In ex vivo studies, antioxidant activity of these phytochemicals was determined by lipid peroxidation and carbonyl content assay in the liver of mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by protein denaturation method. Six-week old C57BL/6 mice treated with gallic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) and acetylsalicylic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) to investigate their in vivo modulatory effects on the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and level of lipid peroxidation in liver. The order of ability to donate electron and antioxidant activity was found to be: gallic acid > quercetin > rutin > vanillin > acetylsalicylic acid. In ex vivo studies, the similar pattern and magnitude of inhibitory effects of these phytochemicals against peroxidative damage in microsomes and protein carbonyl in cytosolic fraction were observed. In in vivo studies, gallic acid and acetylsalicylic acid alone or in combination, enhanced the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver. These findings show a close link between the electron donation and antioxidation potential of these phytochemicals, and in turn their biological activity. Gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin were found to be better electron donors and

  8. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  9. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  10. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  11. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  12. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from phosphoric liquor by two extraction process is studied. First, uranium is reduced to tetravalent condition and is extracted by dioctypyrophosphoric acid. The re-extraction is made by concentrated phosphoric acid with an oxidizing agent. The re-extract is submitted to the second process and uranium is extracted by di-ethylhexilphosphoric acid and trioctylphosphine oxide. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. Acid precipitation literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seip, H M; Andersen, B; Andersson, G; Hov, Oe; Kucera, V; Moseholm, L

    1986-01-01

    There is an increasing number of publications on acid deposition and related phenomena. Interest in these topics has also been reflected in a considerable number of meetings and conferences in this field. The largest of these in 1985 was the ''International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation'' (Muskoka, Ontario). Most work so far has been carried out in North America and Europe. There is, however, an increasing interest in obtaining a better picture of sensitive areas and possible acidification in other parts of the world. Anthropogenic SO/sub 2/ emissions have been estimated to be (in TgSyr/sup -1/): 2.4 (Africa), 4.1 (South America), 0.7 (Ocenia), and 18.3 (Asia). The largest increase during the last decade has been in Asia. Based on Studies of precipitation in remote areas it has been suggested that the natural background concentration for sulphate in many areas should be about 6 ..mu..eq 1/sup -1/. A new study of sulphate and nitrate in Greenland snow showed that both ions increased by a factor of about 2 from 1895 to 1978. The concentrations of SO/sub 2/ at Norwegian rural sites show a decreasing trend since late 1970s, while concentrations of sulphate in air show no clear trend. More reliable models for transformation, transport and deposition of chemicals are being developed, including three-dimensional grid models to describe episodes of elevated pollution levels lasting for a few days. Model calculations indicate that control of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions is much more efficient in reducing the ozone level in southern Scandinavia in episodes influenced by long-range transported pollutants than NO/sub x/ control of combined NO/sub x/ and HC control. 36 refs. (EG).

  14. A radioimmunoassay for abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.; Dashek, W.; Galson, E.

    1979-01-01

    We have developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for abscisic acid (ABA) in the 0.1 ng to 2.5 ng range. Antibodies were obtained from rabbits immunized with ABA bound via its carboxyl group to bovine serum albumin. Cross-reactivity studies indicate that ABA esters are completely cross-reactive with ABA, while trans, trans abscisic acid (t-ABA) phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) have much lower but significant cross-reactivities. Purification methods which reduce the levels of cross-reacting substances are described. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  15. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  16. [Fatty acids in confectionery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniewski, M; Mielniczuk, E; Jacórzyński, B; Pawlicka, M; Balas, J; Filipek, A; Górnicka, M

    2000-01-01

    The content of fat and fatty acids in 144 different confectionery products purchased on the market in Warsaw region during 1997-1999 have been investigated. In examined confectionery products considerable variability of both fat and fatty acids content have been found. The content of fat varied from 6.6% (coconut cookies) up to 40% (chocolate wafers). Saturated fatty acids were present in both cis and trans form. Especially trans fatty acids reach (above 50%) were fats extracted from nut wafers, coconuts wafers.

  17. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  18. Zirconium for nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid has been known for over 30 years. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using zirconium for nitric acid services. Therefore, an extensive research effort has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the corrosion properties of zirconium in nitric acid. Particular attention is paid to the effect of concentration, temperature, structure, solution impurities, and stress. Immersion, autoclave, U-bend, and constant strain-rate tests were used in this study. Results of this study indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid is little affected by changes in temperature and concentration, and the presence of common impurities such as seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, iron, and stainless steel. Moreover, the presence of seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, and stainless steel has little effect on the stress corrosion craking (SCC) susceptibility of zirconium in 70% nitric acid at room temperatures. However, zirconium could be attacked by fluoride-containing nitric acid and the vapors of chloride-containing nitric acid. Also, high sustained tensile stresses should be avoided when zirconium is used to handle 70% nitric acid at elevated temperatures or > 70% nitric acid

  19. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanat, S.; Shahbaz, N.; Hassan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  20. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  1. [No role for oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0) after transient ischaemic attack or cerebral infarction of arterial origin; the 'European/Australasian stroke prevention in reversible ischaemia trial' (ESPRIT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schryver, E L L M; Halkes, P H A

    2008-02-23

    The 'European/Australasian stroke prevention in reversible ischaemia trial' (ESPRIT) aimed to determine whether oral anticoagulation of moderate intensity (target international normalised ratio (INR): 2.0-3.0) is more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in preventing future vascular events in patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke of arterial origin. International, multicentre randomised clinical trial. Patients were randomised within 6 months of TIA or minor stroke of arterial origin to oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0; n = 536) or acetylsalicylic acid (30-325 mg daily; n = 532). The primary endpoint was a composite of vascular death, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction or major bleeding complications. In a post hoc analysis, the efficacy of anticoagulants was compared with that of the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole (200 mg twice daily), a third arm of ESPRIT. Treatment was unblinded, but auditing of endpoints was blinded. Data were analysed on an intent-to-treat basis. The comparison of anticoagulants and acetylsalicylic acid was stopped prematurely because the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole was found to be more effective than acetylsalicylic acid alone. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.6 years (SD: 2.2). The mean INR was 2.57 (SD: 0.86; nearly 70% of the time within target range). The primary endpoint occurred in 99 patients (19%) in the anticoagulation group and 98 patients (18%) in the acetylsalicylic acid group (hazard ratio: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.77-1.35). The hazard ratio was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.52-1.01) for ischaemic events and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.48-4.43) for major bleeding complications. The hazard ratio for the primary outcome event comparing anticoagulants with the combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole was 1.31 (95% CI: 0.98-1.75). Oral anticoagulants (target INR: 2.0-3.0) were not more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of

  2. How salicylic acid takes transcriptional control over jasmonic acid signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, Lotte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371746213; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a central process in plant immunity. The induction or repression of defense genes is orchestrated by signaling networks that are directed by plant hormones of which salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are the major players. Extensive cross-communication between

  3. C-11 Acid and the Stereochemistry of Abietic Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    While many features, like the phenanthrene-type of fusion of the three ... thought to contain the original ring A of abietic acid, retaining the. 'nuclear methyl .... Thinking that the anhydride he had obtained by the action of heat on the C-11 acid ...

  4. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  5. Application of citric acid in acid stimulation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhaldi, M.H.; Sarma, H.K. [Adelaide Univ., Adelaide (Australia); Nasr-el-Din, H.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A rotating disk apparatus was used to investigate mass transfer during the reaction of citric acid with calcite. The study evaluated the effects of initial acid concentrations, temperature, and disk rotational speed on the effective diffusion coefficient of citric acid. The diffusion coefficient was calculated at 25, 40, and 50 degrees C using various citric acid concentrations. The study indicated that the coefficient was a function of the interactions between calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions. At high acid concentrations, the effects of calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions were significant. The calculated citric acid diffusion coefficients were not comparable with measured effective diffusion coefficients using the rotating disk. At lower initial citric acid concentrations, the effects of both calcium citrate precipitation and counter calcium ions on citric acid diffusivity were minimal. It was concluded that temperature effects on the diffusion coefficient followed Arrhenius law. Activation energy was equal to 37.9 kJ/mol. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  6. Bile acid analysis in human disorders of bile acid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids in the gut, but are also needed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, induce bile flow, excrete toxic substances and regulate energy metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Bile acid biosynthesis is a complex process distributed across many cellular

  7. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting...

  8. Biopropionic acid production via molybdenumcatalyzed deoxygenation of lactic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, T.J.; Kleijn, H.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    As the search for non-fossil based building blocks for the chemical industry increases, new methods for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived substrates are required. Here we present the deoxygenation of lactic acid to propionic acid, using a catalyst based on the non-noble and abundant metal

  9. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid acetate (BAAC) was most effective than other betulinic acid derivatives. It had most ... blastoma (Schmidt et al., 1997), malignant brain tumor .... 96 well plate and incubated in 37oC, 5% CO2 and 90% humidity.

  10. Classifying Your Food as Acid, Low-Acid, or Acidified

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Karleigh

    2012-01-01

    As a food entrepreneur, you should be aware of how ingredients in your product make the food look, feel, and taste; as well as how the ingredients create environments for microorganisms like bacteria, yeast, and molds to survive and grow. This guide will help you classifying your food as acid, low-acid, or acidified.

  11. Origin of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  12. Preparation of fulvic acid and low-molecular organic acids by oxidation of weathered coal humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, T.; Ito, A.; Sasaki, O.; Yazawa, Y.; Yamaguchi, T. [Chiba Institute of Technolgy, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Weathered coal contains much humic acid and a little fulvic acid. Therefore, the production of fulvic acid, the most valuable humic substance because of its water-solubility, was examined by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation of humic acid extracted form Xinjiang (China) weathered coal. The resulting products of the oxidation were water soluble fulvic acid and organic acids, mainly formic acid and oxalic acid. The product yield of fulvic acid was 20 (C%) and that of organic acids were 39 (C%) for formic and acid 13 (C%) for oxalic acid. The formed fulvic acid showed a higher content of oxygen and carboxyl groups, than those of the extracted one from the original weathered coal.

  13. Ascorbic acid in bronchial asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-23

    Apr 23, 1983 ... by comparing the pre-ascorbic acid results with those obtained 21/2 hours after the intravenous ... (ASO), C-reactive protein and antibodies to certain respiratory viruses. These investigations were ..... vitamin.6 However, other investigators were unable to detect any protective effects of ascorbic acid on the ...

  14. Chloroacetic acids in environmental processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Schröder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2003), s. 127-130 ISSN 1610-3653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Dichloroacetic acid * Trichloroacetic acid * Microbial degradation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  15. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  16. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  17. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  18. Reactive extraction and recovery of levulinic acid, formic acid and furfural from aqueous solutions containing sulphuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Thomas; Blahusiak, Marek; Babic, Katarina; Schuur, Boelo

    2017-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced from lignocellulosic materials via hydroxylation followed by an acid-catalyzed conversion of hexoses. Inorganic homogeneous catalysts are mostly used, in particular sulphuric acid, yielding a mixture of LA with sulphuric acid, formic acid (FA) and furfural.

  19. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1978-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of adding methionine on the loss of amino acid by γ-irradiation in amino acid mixture, because methionine is one of the most radio-sensitive in amino acids, the remaining amino acids in γ-irradiated aqueous solution of amino acid mixture were studied by determining the total amount of each remaining amino acid. The mixture of 18 amino acids which contains methionine and that of 17 amino acids without methionine were used. Amino acids and the irradiation products were determined with an automatic amino acid analyzer. The total amount of remaining amino acids in the irradiated solution of 18 amino acid mixture was more than that of 17 amino acid mixture. The order of the total amount of each remaining amino acid by low-dose irradiation was Gly>Ala>Asp>Glu>Val>Ser, Pro>Ile, Leu>Thr>Lys>Tyr>Arg>His>Phe>Try>Cys>Met. In case of the comparison of amino acids of same kinds, the total remaining amount of each amino acid in amino acid mixture was more than that of individually irradiated amino acid. The total remaining amounts of glycine, alanine and aspartic acid in irradiated 17 amino acid mixture resulted in slight increase. Ninhydrin positive products formed from 18 amino acid mixture irradiated with 2.640 x 10 3 rad were ammonia, methionine sulfoxide and DOPA of 1.34, 0.001 and 0.25 μmoles/ml of the irradiated solution, respectively. (Kobake, H.)

  20. Valproic Acid-induced Agranulocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chuan Hsu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is considered to be the most well-tolerated antiepileptic drug. However, few cases of neutropenia or leukopenia caused by valproic acid have been reported. We present a patient who took valproic acid to treat a complication of brain surgery and in whom severe agranulocytosis occurred after 2.5 months. Valproic acid was stopped immediately, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered for 2 days. The patient's white blood cell count returned to normal within 2 weeks. The result of bone marrow aspiration was compatible with drug-induced agranulocytosis. This case illustrates that patients who take valproic acid may need regular checking of complete blood cell count.

  1. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  2. Bioactive phenolic acids from Scorzonera radiata Fisch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tsevegsuren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of the crude extract obtained from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Scorzonera radiata yielded five new dihydrostilbenes [4], two new flavonoids, one new quinic acid derivative, as well as twenty known compounds including eight quinic acid derivatives, four flavonoids, two coumarins, five simple benzoic acids, and one monoterpene glycoside. We present here results on isolation and structural identification some active phenolic compounds from the Scorzonera radiata - eight quinic acid derivatives (quinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (cis. Quinic acid derivatives exhibited antioxidative activity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.177 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 78-84

  3. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...

  4. Analytical application of aminohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl Elmoula, Abd ELfatah Abdella

    2000-11-01

    Anthranilic hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling of methylanthranilate (prepared by esterification of anthranilic acid with methyl alcohol using the fisher-speir method) with freshly prepared hydroxylamine. The lignad was characterized by the usual reaction of hydroxamic acid with acidic V(V) and Fe(III) solutions that gives blood-red colour in amyl alcohol and deep-violet colour in aqueous solution, respectively. The absorbance of Fe(III)-hydroxamic acids complexes increases with increase of pH. In this study, the effect of pH on the absorbance of Fe(III)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid was in accordance with this trend. The maximum absorbance was obtained at pH 5.0 at maximum wavelength of 482 nm. For Cu(II)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex, the use of acidic basic pH lead to precipitation of Cu(II)-ligand complex. But when using buffer pH (acetic acid/sodium acetate) a clear green colour of Cu(II)-ligand complex was obtained. The maximum wavelength of 390 nm. V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex was extracted in acidic medium in amyl alcohol at pH 2.0 because in aqueous solution V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex has not clear colour. It was observed the the maximum extraction in acidic medium decrease sharply with the increasing of pH value. The maximum wavelength for maximum absorbance was recorded at 472 nm. V(V) interfered with determination of Fe(III)) above concentration of 2 ppm, whereas Cu(II) interferes slightly with the determination of Fe(III) ions even at a high concentration of the Cu(II) ions. Both Cu(II) and Ni(II) do not interfere with the determination of V(V) ions even at high concentrations, Fe(III) ion produced slight interference, while Mo(VI) ions have a pronounced interference. Both V(V) and Fe(III) ions interfered markedly with the determination of Cu(II) ions, and made impractical under conditions. However, the calibration curves for the three metal ions produced a practical linear dynamic range.(Author)

  5. Placement of acid spoil materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pionke, H B; Rogowski, A S

    1982-06-01

    Potentially there are several chemical and hydrologic problems associated with placement of acid spoil materials. The rationale for a deep placement well below the soil surface, and preferably below a water table, is to prevent or minimize oxidation of pyrite to sulfuric acid and associated salts by reducing the supply of oxygen. If, however, substantial sulfuric acid or associated salts are already contained within the spoil because of present or previous mining, handling and reclamation operations (or if large supplies of indigenous salts exist, placement below a water table) may actually increase the rate of acid and salt leaching. Specific placement of acid- and salt-containing spoil should be aimed at preventing contact with percolating water or rising water tables. We recommend placement based on chemical and physical spoil properties that may affect water percolation O/sub 2/ diffusion rates in the profile. Both the deeper placement of acid spoil and coarser particle size can substantially reduce the amount of acid drainage. Placement above the water table with emphasis on percolate control may be better for high sulfate spoils, while placement below the non-fluctuating water table may be better for pyritic spoils.

  6. Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumm, W; Sigg, L; Schnoor, J L

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acid precipitation in many regions of the Northern hemisphere is a consequnece of human interference in the cycles that unite land, water and atmosphere. The oxidation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, resulting mostly from fossil fuel burning, rivals oxidation processes induced by photosynthesis and respiration and disturbs redox conditions in the atmosphere. The paper discusses oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly those involving atmospheric pollutants that are important in the formation of acid precipitation. Topics covered are: a stoichiometric model of acid rain formation; sulfur dioxide and ammonia adsorption; acid neutralizing capacity. The paper concludes that explanations of simple chemical equilibria between gases and water aid our understanding of how acidifying gases become dissolved in cloud water, in droplets of falling rain, or in fog. Rigorous definitions of base- or acid-neutralizing capacities are prerequisites to measuring and interpreting residual acidity in dry and wet deposition and for assessing the disturbance caused by the transfer of acid to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 20 references.

  7. catalyzed oxidation of some amino acids by acid bromate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: Kinetic investigations on Pd(II) catalyzed oxidation of dl-serine and dl- ... A suitable mechanism in agreement with observed kinetics has been ..... In acidic solution of potassium bromate quick .... Annual Review of Biochemistry.

  8. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid exerts a selective anti-tumor activity on cultured human melanoma .... percentage of proliferation was calculated by the following formula: Proliferation ..... artificially imposing the cell cycle checkpoint. Among.

  9. Influence of fluorozirconic acid on sulfuric acid anodizing of aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Elaish, R.; Curioni, M.; Gowers, K.; Kasuga, A.; Habazaki, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Skeldon, P.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of additions of fluorozirconic acid to sulfuric acid on the anodizing behavior of aluminum have been investigated under a constant voltage at temperatures of 0 and 20◦C. The fluoroacid increased the rate of film growth, with a dependence on the fluoroacid concentration, the electrolyte temperature and the anodizing time. Compositional analyses showed that fluorine species were present in the films. However, zirconium species were absent. The fluoroacid generally enhanced film diss...

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid affects arachidonic acid uptake in megakaryocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schick, P.K.; Webster, P.

    1987-01-01

    Dietary omega 3 fatty acids are thought to prevent atherosclerosis, possibly by modifying platelet (PT) function and arachidonic acid (20:4) metabolism. The study was designed to determine whether omega 3 fatty acids primarily affect 20:4 metabolism in megakaryocytes (MK), bone marrow precursors of PT, rather than in circulating PT. MK and PT were isolated from guinea pigs and incubated with [ 14 C]-20:4 (0.13uM). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) is a major omega 3 fatty acid in marine oils. The incubation of MK with 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) resulted in the decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into total MK phospholipids, 16% and 41% respectively. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), a major omega 3 fatty acid present in American diets, had no effect on 20:4 uptake in MK. 22:6 primarily affected the uptake of [ 14 C]-20:4 into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in MK. In MK, 22:6 (0.1, 1.0 uM) caused a decrease of incorporation of [ 14 C]-20:4 into PE, 21% and 55% respectively; a decrease into PS, 16% and 48% respectively; but only a decrease of 4% and 18%, respectively, into phosphatidylcholine; and a decrease of 3% and 21% into phosphatidylinositol 22:6 (3.0 uM) had no effect on the uptake of AA into PT phospholipids. The study shows that 22:6 has a selective effect on AA uptake in MK and that the acylation or transacylation of PE and PS are primarily affected. 22:6 and other marine omega 3 fatty acids appear to primarily affect megakaryocytes which may result in the production of platelets with abnormal content and compartmentalization of AA

  11. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, D.; Barnard, R.

    1993-01-01

    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  12. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  13. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  14. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  15. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  16. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1977-01-01

    In order to elucidate the radiolysis of amino acid, peptide, protein and enzyme, the radiolytic mechanisms of neutral amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-serine, and L-threonine) and acidic amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and DL-amino-n-adipic acid) were studied in the presence of air or in the atmosphere nitrogen. An aqueous solution of 1 mM. of each amino acid was sealed in a glass ampoule under air or nitrogen. Irradiation of amino acid solutions was carried out with γ-rays of 60 Co at doses of 4.4-2,640x10 3 rads. The amino acids and the radiolytic products formed were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. From the results of determining amino acids and the radiolytic products formed and their G-values, the radiolytic mechanisms of the amino acids were discussed. (auth.)

  17. Ectopic expression of Crambe abyssinica lysophosphatidic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase in transgenic rapeseed increases its oil .... pathway [fatty acid desaturase-2 (BnFAD2, AY577313), fatty acid desaturase-3 ..... Acyltransferases from basic science to modified seed oils.

  18. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  19. Transport of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid by pancreatic islet cells from neonatal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, A; Farver, O; Thorn, N A

    1991-01-01

    . Dehydroascorbic acid was converted to ascorbic acid by an unknown mechanism after uptake. The uptake of both ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid was inhibited by tri-iodothyronine, and uptake of ascorbic acid, but not of dehydroascorbic acid, was inhibited by glucocorticoids. Isolated secretory granules...

  20. Increased Bile Acid Synthesis and Impaired Bile Acid Transport in Human Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Camastra, Stefania; Nannipieri, Monica; Astiarraga, Brenno; Castro-Perez, Jose; Xie, Dan; Wang, Liangsu; Chakravarthy, Manu; Ferrannini, Ele

    2015-01-01

    We measured plasma bile acids, markers of bile acid synthesis, and expression of bile acid transporters in obese and nonobese subjects. We found that obesity was associated with increased bile acid synthesis and 12-hydroxylation, blunted response of plasma bile acids to insulin infusion or a mixed meal, and decreased expression of liver bile acid transporters.

  1. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  2. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  3. Thermometric titration of acids in pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, R; Mukherjee, L M

    1974-04-01

    Thermometric titration of HClO(4), HI, HNO(3), HBr, picric acid o-nitrobenzoic acid, 2,4- and 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid have been attempted in pyridine as solvent, using 1,3-diphenylguanidine as the base. Except in the case of 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid, the results are, in general, reasonably satisfactory. The approximate molar heats of neutralization have been calculated.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is...

  5. Mannuronic Acids : Reactivity and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; de Jong, Ana-Rae; Lodder, Gerrit; Overkleeft, Herman S.; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes our recent studies toward the reactivity and selectivity of mannopyranosyl uronic acid donors, which have been found to be very powerful donors for the construction of beta-mannosidic linkages.

  6. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, A.

    1983-05-01

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  7. Uronic acids in oligosaccharide synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Leendert Johannes van den

    2007-01-01

    This Thesis reports on research aimed at the assembly of acidic and zwitterionic polysaccharides of bacterial origin, using suitably protected 1-thioglycoside residues. Thioglycosides are attractive monosaccharide building blocks because of their high stability towards the diverse reaction

  8. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  9. N-substituted iminodiacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, A.; Loberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of several new N-substituted iminodiacetic acid derivatives are described. These compounds when complexed with sup(99m)Tc provide useful radiopharmaceuticals for the external imaging of the hepatobiliary system. (U.K.)

  10. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2005-11-07

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  11. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoconstructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the design, synthesis, characterization, and development of spherical nucleic acid constructs as effective nanotherapeutic, single-entity agents for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and prostate cancers.

  12. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  13. Structural features of lignohumic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František; Šestauberová, Martina; Hrabal, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1093, August (2015), s. 179-185 ISSN 0022-2860 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : C-13 NMR * FTIR * humic acids * lignohumate * lignosulfonate * structure Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2015

  14. Biomaterials made of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JiaWei; ZHU XiaoXia

    2009-01-01

    The use of natural compounds in the preparation of new materials can improve the biocompatibility of the materials and avoid any potential toxicity of the degradation products when used for biomedical applications.Bile acids are amphiphilic molecules biosynthesized in the liver.They are used to prepare various polymers and oligomers.These polymers made of bile acids are promising materials in both biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

  15. Biomaterials made of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The use of natural compounds in the preparation of new materials can improve the biocompatibility of the materials and avoid any potential toxicity of the degradation products when used for biomedical applications. Bile acids are amphiphilic molecules biosynthesized in the liver. They are used to prepare various polymers and oligomers. These polymers made of bile acids are promising materials in both biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

  16. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  17. DEFINITION OF ACTIVATED THROMBOCYTE NUMBER WITH ANTIBODIES FOR ACTIVATED FIBRINOGEN AND P-SELECTIN IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL THROMBOCYTHEMIA AND ANTIAGGREGATION DRUG EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Zver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Essential thrombocythemia (ET is a chronic myeloproliferative disease with a platelet count within the range of 400–2000 × 109/L. Higher percentage of platelets in the circulation of patients with ET express also activation markers on their membranes. Two of such markers are P-selectin and activated fibrinogen on platelet membranes. Because of frequent thrombembolic and also bleeding related complications, treatment of ET is mandatory. Patients whose platelet count is less than 1000 × 109/L and who did not suffer any thrombembolic complication during the course of the disease, are ussually treated with an antiaggregation drug, acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/daily orally. Clopidogrel is an adenosyn-di-phosphate (ADP receptor antagonist in platelets. There is no routine clinical data about clopidogrel treatment in the patients with ET and only sporadic case reports can be find in the literature.Patients and methods. In our clinical study we compared antiaggregational effects of acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel, by measuring the P-selectin level and activated fibrinogen expression on platelet membranes.There were 35 ET patients included, within the age range between 21 and 78 years and with platelet counts within 451–952 × 109/L. None of the patients did suffer any thrombembolic complication during the course of the disease. During the sequential 14 day periods, patients received acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/daily orally, followed by clopidogrel 75 mg/daily orally and ultimativelly, together acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/daily orally plus clopidogrel 75 mg/daily orally. After each fourteen days period the level of P-selectin and activated fibrinogen activated platelets were determined with monoclonal antibodies on flow cytometer. Statistical evaluation was calculated on the difference of average values between the two small, independent pair groups with the t-test.Results. When the patients stopped with acetylsalicylic acid and

  18. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  19. Ursodeoxycholic acid for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-di; Li, Lei; Wang, Ji-yao

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Databases, and article references were searched. We included randomized controlled trials using liver biopsy as a reference standard. We identified three eligible studies. Among histological responses, only lobular inflammation improved in the high-dose ursodeoxycholic acid subgroup compared with the control group [mean deviation (MD): -0.23 (-0.40, -0.06), P=0.008]. However, fibrosis may tend to increase [MD: 0.08 (-0.04, 0.20), P=0.17]. Among biochemical responses, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase reduction was significantly greater in the ursodeoxycholic acid group than in the placebo group, and the reduction tendency was only shown in the high-dose subgroup [MD: -35.58 (-52.60, -18.56), Pursodeoxycholic acid subgroup compared with the control group [MD: 0.43 (0.14, 0.72), P=0.004]. Ursodeoxycholic acid-treated patients did not differ significantly from control patients with regard to alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities. Adverse events were nonspecific and considered of no major clinical relevance. Ursodeoxycholic acid in monotherapy has no substantial positive effect on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  20. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  1. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  2. Specific bile acid radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of unconjugated cholic acid, conjugated cholic acid and conjugated deoxycholic acid in serum and their clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matern, S.; Gerok, W.

    1977-01-01

    Specific radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of serum unconjugated cholic, conjugated cholic and conjugated deoxycholic acids have been developed. Prior to the radioimmunoassay, extraction of serum bile acids was performed with Amberlite XAD-2. Unconjugated cholic acid was separated from glyco- and taurocholic acids by thin-layer chromatography. At 50% displacement of bound labeled glyco[ 3 H]cholic acid using antiserum obtained after immunization with cholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate the cross-reactivity of taurocholic acid was 100%, cholic acid 80%, glycochenodeoxycholic acid 10%, chenodeoxycholic acid 7%, conjugated deoxycholic acid 3%, and conjugated lithocholic acid 3 H]cholic acid was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 80 pmol of unlabeled glycocholic acid. Fasting serum conjugated cholic acid in healthy subjects was 0.68 +- 0.34 μmol/l. Unconjugated cholic acid was determined by a solid phase radioimmunoassay using the cholic acid antibody chemically bound to Sepharose. The displacement curve of [ 3 H]cholic acid in the solid phase radioimmunoassay was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 200 pmol of unlabeled cholic acid. The coefficient of variation between samples was 5%. Fasting serum conjugated deoxycholic acid concentrations in 10 healthy subjects ranged from 0.18 to 0.92 μmol/l determined by a radioimmunoassay using antiserum obtained after immunization with deoxycholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate. The clinical application of these bile acid radioimmunoassays is shown by an 'oral cholate tolerance test' as a sensitive indicator of liver function and by an 'oral cholyglycine tolerance test' as a useful test for bile acid absorption. (orig.) [de

  3. Bile acids: regulation of apoptosis by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Joana D; Viana, Ricardo J S; Ramalho, Rita M; Steer, Clifford J; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2009-09-01

    Bile acids are a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. At high concentrations they become toxic to mammalian cells, and their presence is pertinent in the pathogenesis of several liver diseases and colon cancer. Bile acid cytoxicity has been related to membrane damage, but also to nondetergent effects, such as oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strikingly, hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and its taurine-conjugated form (TUDCA), show profound cytoprotective properties. Indeed, these molecules have been described as potent inhibitors of classic pathways of apoptosis, although their precise mode of action remains to be clarified. UDCA, originally used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution, is currently considered the first choice therapy for several forms of cholestatic syndromes. However, the beneficial effects of both UDCA and TUDCA have been tested in other experimental pathological conditions with deregulated levels of apoptosis, including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we review the role of bile acids in modulating the apoptosis process, emphasizing the anti-apoptotic effects of UDCA and TUDCA, as well as their potential use as novel and alternate therapeutic agents for the treatment of apoptosis-related diseases.

  4. [Regulating acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-07-04

    As cell factories, lactic acid bacteria are widely used in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and other industries. Acid stress is one the important survival challenges encountered by lactic acid bacteria both in fermentation process and in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, the development of systems biology and metabolic engineering brings unprecedented opportunity for further elucidating the acid tolerance mechanisms and improving the acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria. This review addresses physiological mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria during acid stress. Moreover, strategies to improve the acid stress resistance of lactic acid were proposed.

  5. Bile Acid Metabolism in Liver Pathobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.; Ferrell, Jessica M.

    2018-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism. The gut-to-liver axis plays a critical role in the regulation of enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, bile acid pool size, and bile acid composition. Bile acids control gut bacteria overgrowth, and gut bacteria metabolize bile acids to regulate host metabolism. Alteration of bile acid metabolism by high-fat diets, sleep disruption, alcohol, and drugs reshapes gut microbiome and causes dysbiosis, obesity, and metabolic disorders. Gender differences in bile acid metabolism, FXR signaling, and gut microbiota have been linked to higher prevalence of fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in males. Alteration of bile acid homeostasis contributes to cholestatic liver diseases, inflammatory diseases in the digestive system, obesity, and diabetes. Bile acid-activated receptors are potential therapeutic targets for developing drugs to treat metabolic disorders. PMID:29325602

  6. Determination of dissociation constants or propionic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid) by potentiometry and conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeeduddin; Khanzada, A.W.K.

    2004-01-01

    Dissociation constants of propionic acid and 2-hydroxypropionic acid (lactic acid) have been studied at different temperatures between 25 to 50 deg. C interval. Propionic acid is analyzed by conductometry while 2-hydroxypropionic acid is analyzed by potentiometry. Both investigated compounds are symmetrical carboxylic acids having same length of carbon chain but are markedly different in ionic behavior. We were interested to see how the hydroxyl group (-OH) induction in propionic acid affects on pKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid. We observed that as temperature increases pKa values increase. The increase is observed for both the investigated compounds. PKa values of 2-hydroxypropionic acid are lower as compared to propionic acid because of electron withdrawing (-OH). (author)

  7. 17,21-Secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids in source rocks and crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xueming Pan; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2006-09-15

    The presence of three families of hopanoic acids, 17,21-secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids, is discussed. Oils from West Siberia and tar balls from the Seychelles Islands were found to contain relatively high proportions of 17,21-secohopanoic acids. These acids have not been previously reported in any oils or source rocks. A heavily biodegraded West Siberian oil, was found to contain an homologous series of 25-norhopanoic acids co-occurring with the 25-norhopanes as previously reported in only a small number of oils from Campos Basin, Brazil. 28-Norhopanoic acids have been reported in various sediments and extracts of the Monterey Shale, but in this study their occurrence has been extended to oils, degraded oils, and tar balls sourced from the Monterey Shale. The primary purpose herein is to report the occurrence of these acids and possible relationships between the acids and corresponding hydrocarbons. (Author)

  8. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaen, J. A.; Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

    2003-01-01

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  9. Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J. A., E-mail: jjaen@ancon.up.ac.p [Universidad de Panama, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama); Gonzalez, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G. [Universidad de Panama, Escuela de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnologia (Panama)

    2003-06-15

    The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

  10. The bile acids, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid, regulate colonic epithelial wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Magdalena S; Lajczak, Natalia K; Goggins, Bridie J; Keely, Simon; Keely, Stephen J

    2018-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium constitutes an innate barrier which, upon injury, undergoes self-repair processes known as restitution. Although bile acids are known as important regulators of epithelial function in health and disease, their effects on wound healing processes are not yet clear. Here we set out to investigate the effects of the colonic bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on epithelial restitution. Wound healing in T 84 cell monolayers grown on transparent, permeable supports was assessed over 48 h with or without bile acids. Cell migration was measured in Boyden chambers. mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. DCA (50-150 µM) significantly inhibited wound closure in cultured epithelial monolayers and attenuated cell migration in Boyden chamber assays. DCA also induced nuclear accumulation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), whereas an FXR agonist, GW4064 (10 µM), inhibited wound closure. Both DCA and GW4064 attenuated the expression of CFTR Cl - channels, whereas inhibition of CFTR activity with either CFTR- inh -172 (10 µM) or GlyH-101 (25 µM) also prevented wound healing. Promoter/reporter assays revealed that FXR-induced downregulation of CFTR is mediated at the transcriptional level. In contrast, UDCA (50-150 µM) enhanced wound healing in vitro and prevented the effects of DCA. Finally, DCA inhibited and UDCA promoted mucosal healing in an in vivo mouse model. In conclusion, these studies suggest bile acids are important regulators of epithelial wound healing and are therefore good targets for development of new drugs to modulate intestinal barrier function in disease treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The secondary bile acid, deoxycholic acid, inhibits colonic epithelial wound healing, an effect which appears to be mediated by activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor, FXR, with subsequent downregulation of CFTR expression and activity. In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid promotes

  11. 15N NMR spectroscopic investigation of nitrous and nitric acids in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, G.K.S.; Heiliger, L.; Olah, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Both nitrous and nitric acids were studied in sulfuric acid solutions of varying acid strengths by 15 N NMR spectroscopy. The study gives new insights into the nature of intermediates present at different acid strengths. Furthermore, we have also discovered a novel redox reaction between NO 2 + and NO + ions involving the intermediacy of their respective acids. A mechanism is proposed to explain the observed results. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  13. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  14. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid ... Gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was ... Total amino acid analysis was done on acid hydrolysates of RJ samples by the ion-exchange ... The data of amino acids and protein content for all analyzed fresh and.

  16. 21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbic acid. 582.5013 Section 582.5013 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be...

  17. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  18. Influence of acidified acidity to uranium bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiang; Liu Yajie; Zheng Zhihong; Yuan Baohua; Shen Chuan; Shi Weijun

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the acidified acidity and the acid consumption and uranium leaching rate in the process of uranium bioleaching is investigated. Results indicate that higher uranium leaching rate is obtained when the relatively high acidity was applied at beginning. For different minerals, although the original acidity should be different, lower original acidity was not better for shortening leaching period and improving uranium leaching rate. It confirms 30-40 g/L sulfuric acid as the original acidity was more suitable and more than 30 g/ L should be applied if the mineral particle sizes were larger. (authors)

  19. Queensland Mines plant trials with Caro's acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, G.C.; Fulton, E.J.; Vautier, F.E.; Waters, D.J.; Ring, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory leach tests have been carried out to compare the effectiveness of Caro's acid (permonosulphuric acid) as an alternative oxidant to pyrolusite in the leaching of uranium ores. Results demonstrated that Caro's acid reduced acid consumption in leaching and the time required for neutralisation of tailings liquor. The uranium extraction was unaffected by choice of oxidant. A plant trial confirmed that significant savings in acid and lime usage can be achieved under plant conditions. Plant operations also demonstrated that Caro's acid has a number of significant operating advantages over pyrolusite. Queensland Mines Ltd. have recently decided to convert their leaching process from pyrolusite to Caro's acid

  20. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  1. Mine waters: Acidic to circumneutral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Acid mine waters, often containing toxic concentrations of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, and Cr, can be produced from the mining of coal and metallic deposits. Values of pH for acid mine waters can range from –3.5 to 5, but even circumneutral (pH ≈ 7) mine waters can have high concentrations of As, Sb, Mo, U, and F. When mine waters are discharged into streams, lakes, and the oceans, serious degradation of water quality and injury to aquatic life can ensue, especially when tailings impoundments break suddenly. The main acid-producing process is the exposure of pyrite to air and water, which promotes oxidative dissolution, a reaction catalyzed by microbes. Current and future mining should plan for the prevention and remediation of these contaminant discharges by the application of hydrogeochemical principles and available technologies, which might include remining and recycling of waste materials.

  2. Preparation of deuterated succinic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Masashi; Tsuzuki, Hirohisa; Goto, Hideyuki; Ogasahara, Shoji; Mataka, Shuntaro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Yonemitsu, Tadashi (Kyushu Sangyo Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1991-04-01

    Succinic (2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2})- and (2,2,3,3-{sup 2}H{sub 4})-acids were prepared from maleic anhydride and dimethyl fumarate, and acetylene dicarboxylic acid and its dimethyl ester by treatment with Cu-Al and Ni-Al alloys in 10% NaOD-D{sub 2}0 in 95% to 100% isotopic purity. The succinic {sup 2}H{sub 4} acid having high isotopic purity was also obtained on the hydrolysis of 1,2-ethanedinitrile with alkaline deuterium oxide. Based on the {sup 1}H({sup 2}H) spectra analysis of N-(o-biphenyl)(2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2})succinimide, it was elucidated that the Raney alloy reduction with alkaline deuterium oxide proceeds stepwise. (author).

  3. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Giraldo, Maria Paulina; Quiceno Calderon, William de Jesus; Melo Arango Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  4. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Figueiredo, C. de

    1984-01-01

    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author) [pt

  5. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  6. Identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2005-02-08

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  7. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent pathways. Cross-talk between the salicylic acid-dependent and the salicy...

  8. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. I...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Formic acid. 186.1316 Section 186.1316 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1316 Formic acid. (a) Formic acid (CH2O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-18-6) is also referred to as methanoic acid or hydrogen carboxylic acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (C17H31COOH) (CAS Reg. No. 60-33-3)), a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.5...

  12. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  13. Nitrous Acid as an Oxidant in Acidic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-25

    current work is the account of Ogsts and Sawski3 who studied the oxidation of benzyl ethers at 90C in acidic, aqueous dioxane. They found an increase in...and G. Tobin, Chem. Com., 180 (1978); (b) J. Hoggett , R. Moodie, and K. Schofield, Chem. Comm., 605 (1969). 15. (a) B. Challis and A. Lawson. J. Chem

  14. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows first- ... amino acids by chloramines 7,8 while, little attention has been focused on ... in glass-stoppered pyrex boiling tubes whose outer surface was coated ... BAB in a measured aliquot (5 ml each) of the reaction mixture at different intervals of.

  15. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. salivarius alone showed relatively good assimilation of various amino acids that existed at only a little amounts in MRS media (Asn, Asp, Cit, Cys, Glu, His, Lys, Orn, Phe, Pro, Tyr, Arg, Ile, Leu, Met, Ser, Thr, Trp and Val), whereas Ala and Gly accumulated in L. salivarius cultures. P. acidilactici, in contrast, hydrolyzed the ...

  16. Fatty acids and amino acids contents in Scomber scombrus fillets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition, fats and amino acids of Atlantic Mackerel fillets (Scomber scombrus) from the South East of Tunisia in different seasons, were analyzed in order to assess nutritive characteristics of this species. Samples were collected monthly from Zarzis fishing port located in the South-East of Tunisia. Total fats and ...

  17. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible bo....... Evidence suggests that geometric and steric factors are key features for controlling the equilibria. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]...

  18. Kinetics of oxidation of acidic amino acids by sodium N

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asp)) by sodium N-bromobenzenesulphonamide (bromamine-B or BAB) has been carried out in aqueous HClO4 medium at 30°C. The rate shows firstorder dependence each on [BAB]o and [amino acid]o and inverse first-order on [H+]. At [H+] > ...

  19. Formic acid assisted hydrogenation of levulinic acid to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muppala Ashokraju

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... to γ-valerolactone over ordered mesoporous Cu/Fe2O3 catalyst ... Compared to the direct use of biomass as fuel, its con- ... still room for the design and development of an efficient. 1 ... advantages no necessity of separation of levulinic acid ... of catalyst was placed in a quartz reactor and pre-treated in.

  20. Effect of para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid on acid invertase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato cv. Liaoyuanduoli (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were cultivated in a greenhouse to allow sampling of the second fruit in the first cluster and comparison with tomato fruit that developed following para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (PCPA) treatment. Sugar content, activities of sugar related enzymes and the effects of ...

  1. Serum n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic Acid and Tetracosahexaenoic Acid Increase Following Higher Dietary α-Linolenic Acid but not Docosahexaenoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Lin, Yu-Hong; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-02-01

    n-3 Tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3, TPAn-3) and tetracosahexaenoic acid (24:6n-3, THA) are believed to be important intermediates to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis. The purpose of this study is to report for the first time serum concentrations of TPAn-3 and THA and their response to changing dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) and DHA. The responses will then be used in an attempt to predict the location of these fatty acids in relation to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway. Male Long Evans rats (n = 6 per group) were fed either a low (0.1% of total fatty acids), medium (3%) or high (10%) ALA diet with no added DHA, or a low (0%), medium (0.2%) or high (2%) DHA diet with a background of 2% ALA for 8 weeks post-weaning. Serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations (nmol/mL ± SEM) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Serum THA increases from low (0.3 ± 0.1) to medium (5.8 ± 0.7) but not from medium to high (4.6 ± 0.9) dietary ALA, while serum TPAn-3 increases with increasing dietary ALA from 0.09 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.09 to 1.23 ± 0.14 nmol/mL. Following DHA feeding, neither TPAn-3 or THA change across all dietary DHA intake levels. Serum TPAn-3 demonstrates a similar response to dietary DHA. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that increases in dietary ALA but not DHA increase serum TPAn-3 and THA in rats, suggesting that both fatty acids are precursors to DHA in the biosynthetic pathway.

  2. Acid precipitation and forest vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, C O; Cowling, E B

    1977-04-01

    Effects of acidic precipitation on forest vegetation may be classified as being either direct or indirect. Among the most important direct effects are damage to protective cuticular layers, interference with normal functioning of guard cells, poisoning of plant cells after diffusion of acidic substances through stomata or cuticle and interference with reproductive processes. Indirect effects include accelerated leaching of substances from foliar organs, increased susceptibility to drought and other environmental stress factors, and alteration of symbiotic associations and host-parasite interactions. The potential importance of nutrient uptake through foliage and the need to understand atmosphere-plant-soil interactions are stressed.

  3. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  4. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-07

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  5. Enzymatic synthesis of 11C-pyruvic acid and 11C-L-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.B.; Spolter, L.; Chang, C.C.; Cook, J.S.; Macdonald, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    L-Lactic acid is formed as the end product of glycolysis under anaerobic conditions in all cells, but this reaction is of special significance in the myocardium. L-Lactic acid is reversibly formed from and is in equilibrium with myocardial pyruvic acid, which is its sole metabolic pathway. 11 C-Pyruvic acid is synthesized from 11 C carbon dioxide using pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and coenzymes. The 11 C-pyruvic acid is then converted to 11 -L-lactic acid by lactic acid dehydrogenase. The availability of 11 C-pyruvic acid and 11 C-L-lactic acid will permit the in vivo investigation of lactate metabolism. (author)

  6. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  7. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  9. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  10. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  11. Dgroup: DG01504 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory drug, salicylic acid derivatives ... DG00015 ... Acetylsalicylic acid ... D00109 ... Aspirin (JP17/USP); Aspalon (JAN) ... D05181 ... Aspirin... aluminum (JP17) ... D07579 ... Aspirin calcium salt ... D07580 ... Aspirin DL-lysine (JAN) ... D07581 ... Aspirin... magnesium salt ... D07582 ... Aspirin sodium ... DG00099 ... Olsalazine ... D0

  12. Antiulcer effect of artemisia absinthium L. in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, N.; Khan, G.A.; Ghauri, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    The extracts of Artemisia absinthium induced a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, acid output and peptic activity but no effect was determined on mucin activity in acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) ulcerated rats. Moreover, they decreased the ulcer index significantly. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of saponins and glycosidic sugars in the extract. (author)

  13. Coupling of subcritical methanol with acidic ionic liquids for the acidity reduction of naphthenic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Faisal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of naphthenic acids (NAs in crude oil is the major cause of corrosion in the refineries and its processing equipment. The goal of this study is to reduce the total acid number (TAN of NAs by treating them with subcritical methanol in the presence of acidic ionic liquid (AIL catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave batch reactor and the effect of different reaction parameters was investigated. It was observed that TAN reduction was positively dependent on the temperature and concentration of the AIL whereas excess of methanol has a negative effect. Approximately 90% TAN reduction was achieved under the optimized reaction conditions using [BMIM]HSO4 as catalyst. It was also perceived from the experimental results that the AILs with longer alkyl chain exhibited higher catalytic activity. The activity and stability of AIL showed that they can be promising catalyst to esterify NAs under subcritical methanol.

  14. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  16. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic

  17. 2-(3-Hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Zhi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two independent 2-(3-hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid molecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent molecules is 58.12 (4°. The crystal packing is stablized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  18. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.; Ritchey, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Precipitation of Fe 3 HN 4 H 8 (PO 4 ) 6 is prevented in the second cycle extractor, in a two cycle uranium recovery process, by washing ammonia laden organic solvent stream, from the second cycle stripper, with first cycle raffinate iron stream containing phosphoric acid, prior to passing the solvent stream into the second cycle extractor. (author)

  19. Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fabrication of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres containing total alkaloids of Caulis sinomenii was investigated. The formation, diameter, morphology and properties of the microspheres were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), laser particle size analyser and scanning ...

  20. Back to acid soil fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti Zunin, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma

  1. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125 I. (author)

  2. An assessment of acid fog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H 2 SO 4 was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H + concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ''clear air'') aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions

  3. An assessment of acid fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    Airborne particles have long been associated with adverse effects on public health, begin with the notorious air pollution disasters of several decades ago. Although H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was identified early on as a potential causal factors during these episodes (in part because of concern for potential health effects of particle acidity per se has intensified only recently. Most of the recent aerometric research in the US on acid fog has focused on the ability of clouds and fog to deliver acidity to vegetation and ecosystems. Strong acids are characterized chemically by their pH or H{sup +} concentration. For fog, concentrations are referred to the droplet liquid content; for other (i.e., ``clear air``) aerosols, to the volume of air sampled. A useful measure of the relationship between aerosol and fog is obtained by comparing their mass concentrations on the basis of the same volume of air, by multiplying fogwater concentrations by liquid water content (LWC). This paper reviews fog measurement capability, physical properties and chemistry, and presents a simple urban airshed model which is used to simulate the evolution of fog and aerosol concentrations under urban stagnation conditions.

  4. Endocrine functions of bile acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, Sander M.; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Auwerx, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs), a group of structurally diverse molecules that are primarily synthesized in the liver from cholesterol, are the chief components of bile. Besides their well-established roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis, it has recently emerged that BAs are also

  5. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the inf......Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal...... of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  6. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  7. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, George N.; Burns, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of UO 3 and H 3 PO 3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 )[UO 2 (HPO 2 OH)(HPO 3 )]. This compound crystallizes in space group P2 1 /n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO 2 OH) 4 (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O)·2(H 2 O). α- and β-An(HPO 2 OH) 4 crystallize in space groups C2/c and P2 1 /n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An 4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·(H 2 O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An 4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of UO 3 and H 3 PO 3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with DMF produces crystals of (NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 )[UO 2 (HPO 2 OH)(HPO 3 )] with a layered structure. Reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup and further solution-state reactions result in the crystallization of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO 2 OH) 4 (An=U, Th), with a three-dimensional network structure, and the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·(H 2 O) with a layered structure. - Highlights: • U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) phosphites were synthesized by solution

  8. Amino acid metabolism in plant leaf, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Osamu; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    14C-labelled sodium bicarbonate and 15N-labelled ammonium sulfate were simultaneously vacuum-infiltrated into detached sunflower leaves, and the incorporation of 14C and 15N into free amino acids was chased during 60-min period in the light and in the dark. In the light, the 14C specific activity of aspartic acid, alanine, serine and glycine rapidly increased for 5 min and thereafter decreased. On the other hand, that of glutamic acid continued to increase slowly during the entire 60-min period. In the dark, aspartic acid most actively incorporated 14C. The difference of changes in 14C specific activity between glutamic acid and other amino acids was also observed in the dark as in the light. These results suggest that the carbon skeleton of glutamic acid is synthesized from aspartic acid, alanine, serine and glycine. 15N content of glutamine was the highest of all amino acids investigated in the light, and it was followed by glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, serine and glycine, in this order. In the dark, 15N content of glutamic acid fell remarkably and was lower than that of alanine up to 5 min. From these 15N tracer experiments, it is suggested that the incorporation of ammonium into glutamic acid is strictly dependent on light and that alanine incorporates ammonium by the direct animation besides the transamination from glutamic acid. (auth.)

  9. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  10. Molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts to convert cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu; Zhang, Jizhe; Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include methods and compositions related to catabolic conversion of cellulosic biomass to glycolic acid using molybdenum-containing acidic catalysts. The invention includes the use of heteropoly and isopoly acids

  11. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited informationabout nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition offatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp..The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids,total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography(HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fattyacid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggscontained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.Keywords: Amino acids, carotenoid total, fatty acid, flying fish egg, α-tocopherol

  12. Role of sialic acid in synaptosomal transport of amino acid transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleska, M.M.; Erecinska, M.

    1987-01-01

    Active, high-affinity, sodium-dependent uptake of [ 14 C]-aminobutyric acid and of the acidic amino acid D-[ 3 H]-aspartate was inhibited by pretreatment of synaptosomes with neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae. Inhibition was of a noncompetitive type and was related to the amount of sialic acid released. The maximum accumulation ratios of both amino acids (intracellular [amino acid]/extracellular [amino acid]) remained largely unaltered. Treatment with neuraminidase affected neither the synaptosomal energy levels nor the concentration of internal potassium. It is suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid and acidic amino acid transporters are glycosylated and that sialic acid is involved in the operation of the carrier proteins directly and not through modification of driving forces responsible for amino acid uptake

  13. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  14. Incorporation and distribution of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in cultured human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Human keratinocytes in culture were labelled with 14 C-dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, 14 C-arachidonic acid or 14 C-eicosapentaenoic acid. All three eicosanoid precursor fatty acids were effectively incorporated into the cells. In phospholipids most of the radioactivity was recovered, in neutral lipids a substantial amount, and as free unesterified fatty acids only a minor amount. Most of the radioactivity was found in phosphatidylethanolamine which was also the major phospholipid as measured by phosphorous assay. The incorporation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid into lipid subfractions was essentially similar. Eicosapentaenoic acid was, however, much less effectively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol + phosphatidylserine and, correspondingly, more effectively into triacylglycerols as compared to the two other precursor fatty acids. Once incorporated, the distribution of all three precursor fatty acids was relatively stable, and only minor amounts of fatty acids were released into the culture medium during short term culture (two days). Our study demonstrates that eicosanoid precursor fatty acids are avidly taken up by human keratinocytes and esterified into membrane lipids. The clinical implication of this finding is that dietary manipulations might be employed to cause changes in the fatty acid composition of keratinocytes

  15. Classical bile acids in animals, beta-phocaecholic acid in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, M; Klinot, J; Klinotová, E; Ubik, K; Kucera, K

    1989-01-01

    1. Bile samples of different animals were analysed and the percentage content of classical bile acids was determined. 2. Herbivorous birds mostly excreted a large proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid. 3. The anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) excreted deoxycholic acid most probably as a primary bile acid. 4. In the bile of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) a large amount of (23R)3 alpha, 7 alpha, 23-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (beta-phocaecholic acid) was found.

  16. Bioisosteric modifications of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Peters, Dan

    2004-01-01

    2-Arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) have recently been presented as the first series of selective noncompetitive GluR5 antagonists. In this paper we have modified the acidic moiety of the AUBAs by introducing different acidic and neutral groups, and similarly, we have replaced the urea linker...... of the AUBAs with other structurally related linkers. Replacing the acid with neutral substituents led to inactive compounds in all instances, showing that an acidic moiety is necessary for activity. Replacing the carboxylic moiety in 2a with a sulfonic acid (5c) or a tetrazole ring (5d) improved the potency...

  17. FACTS ABOUT TRANS FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Asgary

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fatty acids constitute the main class of lipids in the human diet, being found in nature mainly as glycerol esters that originate triacylglycerols. In the vegetal and animal kingdoms, fatty acids generally have cis unsaturations. In this form, the hydrogens bound to the double bond carbons are on the same side. In another possible configuration, called trans, the hydrogens are bound to un saturations, carbons on opposing sides. Fatty acids with one or more un saturations in the trans configuration are called trans fatty acids (TFAs.1-4      There are two major sources of TFA, those that come from ruminant animals and those that are industrially produced.      The majority of TFAs are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, which contain 10–40% as TFA.5 Hydrogenation is based on the reaction of unsaturated fatty acids of either vegetable or marine oil in the presence of a catalyst, in general nickel. The objective is to increase the oxidative stability of oils by reduction of the concentration of more unsaturated fatty acids and changing their physical properties, thus extending their application. Hydrogenation depends mainly on oil temperature, hydrogen pressure, stirring speed, reaction time, and the catalyst type and concentration. According to the process conditions, hydrogenation is classified as either partial or total and either selective or nonselective.6 It has been estimated that dietary TFAs from partially hydrogenated oils may be responsible for between 30,000 and 100,000 premature coronary deaths per year in the United States.7      The concentration of TFA in meat and milk from ruminants (i.e., cattle, sheep, goats, etc. contain 3 to 8% of total fat.5 It is hypothesized that ruminant TFAs, or certain TFA isomers from ruminant sources, may confer some health benefits; however, since TFA from animal sources accompany saturated fatty acids (SFA, an increase in a single ruminant TFA in the diet is not

  18. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Man Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  19. The effects of borate minerals on the synthesis of nucleic acid bases, amino acids and biogenic carboxylic acids from formamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Barontini, Maurizio; Cossetti, Cristina; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Crestini, Claudia

    2011-08-01

    The thermal condensation of formamide in the presence of mineral borates is reported. The products afforded are precursors of nucleic acids, amino acids derivatives and carboxylic acids. The efficiency and the selectivity of the reaction was studied in relation to the elemental composition of the 18 minerals analyzed. The possibility of synthesizing at the same time building blocks of both genetic and metabolic apparatuses, along with the production of amino acids, highlights the interest of the formamide/borate system in prebiotic chemistry.

  20. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  1. Complex formation of calcium with humic acid and polyacrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirishima, A.; Tanaka, K.; Niibori, Y.; Tochiyama, O. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    In order to understand the migration behavior of radionuclides in the underground, it is also important to estimate the effect of the competing cations originally present in the groundwater. In this connection, the complexation of Ca(II) with Aldrich humic acid has been examined. For the study at trace concentrations ({proportional_to} 10{sup -10} M) of Ca(II), the solvent extraction of {sup 45}Ca with TTA and TOPO in cyclohexane has been used. At macro concentrations (10{sup -4} M) of Ca(II), the measurement of the free Ca{sup 2+} ion concentration with a calcium selective electrode has been conducted. To estimate the polyelectrolyte effect of humic acid separately from its heterogeneous composition effect, polyacrylic acid ([-CH{sub 2}CH(COOH)-]{sub n}) has been selected as a representative of the homogeneous polymeric weak acids and its complexation with Ca(II) has also been examined. The values of log {beta}{sub {alpha}} have been obtained at pH 5 {proportional_to} 7 in 0.1, 0.4 and 1.0 M NaCl, where {beta}{sub {alpha}} is the apparent formation constants defined by {beta}{sub {alpha}} = [ML]/([M][R]). In this definition, [ML] and [M] are the concentrations of bound and free Ca{sup 2+} respectively, [R] is the concentration of dissociated proton exchanging sites. log {beta}{sub {alpha}} of humate decreases from 2.19 {proportional_to} 2.92 (depending on pH and ionic strength 1.0 < I < 0.4) at pCa = 10 to 1.98 {proportional_to} 2.44 at pCa = 4, while the variation of pCa has no appreciable influence on the log {beta}{sub {alpha}} of polyacrylate (1.36 {proportional_to} 3.24 for I = 0.1 {proportional_to} 1.0). For both humate and polyacrylate, log {beta}{sub {alpha}} decreases linearly with log[Na{sup +}], where [Na{sup +}] is the bulk concentration of sodium ion. Their dependences of log {beta}{sub {alpha}} on ionic strength are stronger than those of log {beta} of monomeric carboxylates such as oxalate and EDTA, indicating the large electrostatic effect of

  2. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  3. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  4. Thermochemistry of aqueous pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Elsa M. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTBarreiro, Rua Americo da Silva Marinho, 2839-001 Lavradio (Portugal); Rego, Talita S. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Minas da Piedade, Manuel E., E-mail: memp@fc.ul.p [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We determined the {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} of solid nicotinic acid (NA) in water by solution calorimetry. {yields} We determined {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m} of an aqueous nicotinic acid solution by flow calorimetry. {yields} We determined (aq, {infinity}) for the 3 NA species involved in acid/base equilibria. {yields} We determined the enthalpy of formation of NA(aq) under saturation conditions.. - Abstract: The molar enthalpy of solution of solid nicotinic acid (NA) at T = 298.15 K, to give an aqueous solution of molality m = 3.748 . 10{sup -3} mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}, was determined as {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} = (19,927 {+-} 48) J {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, by solution calorimetry. Enthalpies of dilution, {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m}, of 0.1005 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} aqueous nicotinic acid to yield final solutions with molality in the approximate range (0.03 to 0.09) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} were also measured by flow calorimetry. Combining the two sets of data and the results of pH measurements, with values of proton dissociation enthalpies and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NA, cr) selected from the literature, it was possible to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three nicotinic acid species involved in protonation/deprotonation equilibria, at infinite dilution: {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COOH.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (328.2 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (325.0 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NC{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (313.7 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. Finally, the enthalpy of solution of nicotinic acid at T = 298.15 K, under saturation conditions (m = 0.138 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}), and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the corresponding solution could also be obtained as {Delta

  5. Prediction of acid generation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses acid rock drainage (ARD), a term used to describe leachate, seepage, or drainage that has been affected by the natural oxidation of sulfide minerals contained in rock which is exposed to air and water. The principal ingredients for ARD formation are reactive sulfide minerals, oxygen, and water. The oxidation reactions responsible for the formation of ARD are often accelerated by biological activity. These reactions yield low pH (acidic) water that has the potential to mobilize heavy metals that may be contained in the geologic materials that are contacted. ARD can cause a detrimental impact on the quality of ground or surface water to which it discharges. ARD likely has been associated with mines since mining began. ARD is not necessarily confined to mining activities, but can occur naturally wherever sulfide-bearing rock is exposed to air and water. It is important to recognize that not all operations that expose sulfide-bearing rock will result in ARD

  6. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-10-01

    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  7. Fluoroacetic acid in guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, T; Gynther, J

    1984-04-01

    The toxicity of guar gum, derived from the Indian leguminous plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, is thought to be due to a globulin which can be denaturated and made non-toxic. Another very toxic compound, fluoroacetic acid, has been detected at a low level in raw samples of guar gum (0.07-1.42 micrograms fluoroacetic acid/g). A sample of a guar-gum pharmaceutical formulation contained only 0.08 ppm fluoroacetate. One exceptionally high value of 9.5 micrograms/g was found in a guar-gum powder. The low concentrations of fluoroacetate found in guar gum dispel any considerations about possible health risks associated with fluoroacetate during the prolonged use of guar gum at the recommended doses.

  8. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  9. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  10. Biobased synthesis of acrylonitrile from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notre, le J.E.L.; Scott, E.L.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamic acid was transformed into acrylonitrile in a two step procedure involving an oxidative decarboxylation in water to 3-cyanopropanoic acid followed by a decarbonylation-elimination reaction using a palladium catalyst

  11. Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...

  12. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic

  13. Acid rain information book. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation are reviewed through an extensive literature search. Major aspects of the acid rain phenomena are discussed, areas of uncertainty identified, and current research summarized

  14. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [fr

  15. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear.......Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear....

  16. THE INTERCORRELATION OF THE AMINO ACID QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. Levels of amino acids were determined in the grains of guinea corn, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ... KEY WORDS: Amino acid quality, Raw, Steeped, Germinated, Guinea corn ..... Health Organization: Geneva; 1999; pp. 101-119.

  17. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  18. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  19. Transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Nishida, T.; Yao, T.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo 7 beta-epimerization of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid and the role of 7-ketolithocholic acid as an intermediate in this biotransformation were studied in 11 patients with Crohn's disease and in 5 healthy volunteers. The incorporation of deuterium into biliary ursodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid was determined by computed gas chromatography-mass fragmentography after ingestion of a dideuterated chenodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic-11,12-d2 acid. The incorporation of deuterium into ursodeoxycholic acid increased to a peak level at 48 h in the patients with Crohn's disease, but was delayed in healthy volunteers. In 8 patients and 2 healthy controls there were small amounts of 7-ketolithocholic acid in bile. The incorporation of deuterium into 7-ketolithocholic acid was confirmed in only 2 patients and the peak level was noted at 48 h. These observations suggest that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate of this biotransformation in patients with Crohn's disease

  20. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  1. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acid chat: gestural interface design

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan, Ali Oytun; Gokhan, Ali Oytun

    2005-01-01

    AcidChat is an experimental design project that aims to create an innovative computer software interface for Internet chat software using today's well known technologies; Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Freehand and digital photography. The aim of the project is to create new understandings of interface and it's usage, by adding new conceptions to chat based interfaces which creates a totally new look at the computer software and application. One of the key features is to add a gestural approach ...

  3. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-01-01

    KLM Technologies was recently awarded a contract by the Department of Energy for a Phase II demonstration of an optimized full-scale prototype membrane system including performance evaluation under plant operating conditions. The program will serve as the catalyst for developing technology to augment the industry's incentive toward innovative and compact volume reduction alternatives for PWRs. The development and demonstration of the KLM Boric Acid Reclamation System, which is readily retrofitted into existing PWR facilities, will provide a positive means of reducing PWR waste volumes without requiring the $25-50 million equipment and support facility expenditures associated with most liquid waste volume reduction systems. This new application for membrane separation technology can reduce waste by upward of 50 percent for two-thirds of the operating nuclear plants in the U.S. The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in radwaste and related applications. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultrafiltration (UF) can provide selective filtration capability and concentrate contaminants without the need of filter aids, thus minimizing the requirements of chemical regeneration, costly resins, and major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing RO and UF to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase I Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs

  4. Neutralising acid mine waters underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, A S

    1978-09-01

    It is essential to treat acid mine drainage in order to avoid its corrosive effects on plant and equipment. Neutralisation aims at increasing the pH to 7 and is carried out using lime, limestone or dolomite, in conjunction with aeration. Use of residues from settling ponds to slake the lime increases economy in water and lime, improves sedimentation and provides a better and more even sediment.

  5. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented

  6. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with 14 CO 2 . None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating 14 CO 2 into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria

  7. Parabanic acid is the singlet oxygen specific oxidation product of uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Sayaka; Ohkubo, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Fujisawa, Akio

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid quenches singlet oxygen physically or reacts with it, but the oxidation product has not been previously characterized. The present study determined that the product is parabanic acid, which was confirmed by LC/TOFMS analysis. Parabanic acid was stable at acidic pH (acid at neutral or alkaline pH. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid based on consumed uric acid were ~100% in clean singlet oxygen production systems such as UVA irradiation of Rose Bengal and thermal decomposition of 3-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-epidioxy-4-methyl-1-naphthyl)propionic acid. However, the ratio of the amount of uric acid consumed to the total amount of singlet oxygen generated was less than 1/180, indicating that most of the singlet oxygen was physically quenched. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid were high in the uric acid oxidation systems with hydrogen peroxide plus hypochlorite or peroxynitrite. They became less than a few percent in peroxyl radical-, hypochlorite- or peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of uric acid. These results suggest that parabanic acid could be an in vivo probe of singlet oxygen formation because of the wide distribution of uric acid in human tissues and extracellular spaces. In fact, sunlight exposure significantly increased human skin levels of parabanic acid.

  8. Folic acid derivatives for use in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical preparation of two folic acid derivatives, labelled with 125 I or 131 I, is described for use in radioimmunoassay of folic acid and its metabolites in biological fluids such as blood serum. Labelled compounds of the present invention more closely resemble folic acid in that they have glutamic acid in the terminal position. Examples of the use of these compounds in three different assays are given. (U.K.)

  9. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  10. Amino acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Krick, Teresa; Shub, David A.; Verstraete, Nina; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, Michael; Sanchez, Ignacio E.

    2014-01-01

    The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that n...

  11. Efficacy of Lactic Acid, Lactic Acid-Acetic Acid Blends, and Peracetic Acid To Reduce Salmonella on Chicken Parts under Simulated Commercial Processing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirex-Hernandez, Alejandra; Brashears, Mindy M; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X

    2018-01-01

    The poultry processing industry has been undergoing a series of changes as it modifies processing practices to comply with new performance standards for chicken parts and comminuted poultry products. The regulatory approach encourages the use of intervention strategies to prevent and control foodborne pathogens in poultry products and thus improve food safety and protect human health. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial interventions for reducing Salmonella on inoculated chicken parts under simulated commercial processing conditions. Chicken pieces were inoculated by immersion in a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at 6 log CFU/mL and then treated with organic acids and oxidizing agents on a commercial rinsing conveyor belt. The efficacy of spraying with six different treatments (sterile water, lactic acid, acetic acid, buffered lactic acid, acetic acid in combination with lactic acid, and peracetic acid) at two concentrations was evaluated on skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs at three application temperatures. Skinless chicken breasts were used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of lactic acid and peracetic acid. The color stability of treated and untreated chicken parts was assessed after the acid interventions. The lactic acid and buffered lactic acid treatments produced the greatest reductions in Salmonella counts. Significant differences between the control and water treatments were identified for 5.11% lactic acid and 5.85% buffered lactic acid in both skin-on and skin-off chicken thighs. No significant effect of treatment temperature for skin-on chicken thighs was found. Lactic acid and peracetic acid were effective agents for eluting Salmonella cells attached to chicken breasts.

  12. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  13. Extraction of cesium from acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.; Simonov, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction of cesium from acidic solutions is studied. Halogen-substituted carboxylic acids were chosen for the aqueous phase and nitrobenzene the diluent. The distribution coefficients are determined by the use of radioactive tracers 134 Cs and 137 Cs. It is believed that large singly charged anions of strong acids are necessary for the extraction of cesium. Metal halide acids are selected for supplying the anions

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

  15. Bile acids in treatment of ocular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; Pardue, Machelle T.

    2009-01-01

    Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are available as synthetic formulations and are approved by the health administrations of several countries for treatment of cirrhosis and gallstones. This review briefly covers the use of bear bile in ...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1061 - Lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactic acid. 184.1061 Section 184.1061 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1061 Lactic acid. (a) Lactic acid (C3H6O3, CAS Reg. Nos.: dl mixture, 598... hydrogen cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis to lactic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malic acid. 184.1069 Section 184.1069 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1069 Malic acid. (a) Malic acid (C4H6O5, CAS Reg. No. of L-form 97-67-6, CAS Reg. No. of DL-form 617-48-1) is the common name for 1-hydroxy-1, 2-ethanedicarboxylic acid. L...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...

  19. 21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formic acid. 573.480 Section 573.480 Food and... Listing § 573.480 Formic acid. Formic acid may be safely used as a preservative in hay crop silage in an.... The top foot of silage stored should not contain formic acid and silage should not be fed to livestock...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfamic acid. 186.1093 Section 186.1093 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3NO3S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6) is a white crystalline solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and...

  1. Targeted metabolomics analysis reveals the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and fatty acids and amino acids profiles in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhipeng; Liu, Rui; Chou, Jing; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaowei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying; Liu, Liyan

    2018-07-15

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence offspring's health by affecting development and metabolism. This study aimed to analyze the influence of maternal folic acid (FA) supplementation on the metabolism of rat pups using targeted metabolomics. Twenty female rats were randomly assigned to a FA supplementation (FAS group, n = 10) or control group (n = 10), which were fed AIN93G diet with 2 or 10 mg/kg FA, respectively. We then measured amino acids and their derivatives, biogenic amines, and fatty acids in the female rats and their pups by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS). In maternal rats, the significant changes of three metabolites (proline, γ-aminobutyric acid and esterified octadecatetraenoic acid, P acids (leucine, isoleucine, serine, proline) were obtained in FAS pups. Furthermore, there were the decreased esterified fatty acids (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosatetraenoic acid) and free fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, octadecatetraenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and selacholeic acid) in FAS pups. Metabolic changes in the FAS pups were characterized by changes in fatty acids and amino acids. These results suggested that FA supplementation during pregnancy influenced amino acids and fatty acids metabolism in rat pups. This study provides new insights into the regulation of amino acids and fatty acids metabolism during early life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reactions of tritium atoms with amino acids, deuterated amino acids and mixtures of amino acids. Additivity property and isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, G.A.; Filatov, Eh.S.

    1988-01-01

    Interaction of tritium atoms with glycine (1) and leucine (2) amino acids, deuterated amino acids, their mixtures and glycylleucine (3) peptide in the 77-300 K temperature range is studied in isothermal and gradient regimes. Tagged amino acids were separated from targets after conducting the reaction. At T 150 K are associated with intermolecular transmission of free valence in the mixture of amino acids. Regularities of the reaction found for the mixture of amino acids are conserved for (3) as well, i.e. the peptide bond does not essentially affect the reaction of isotopic exchange conditioned by atomic tritium

  3. An Organic Puzzle Using Meldrum's Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, R. David; Holden, Michael S.

    2002-04-01

    Meldrum's acid or 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione undergoes a Knoevenagel condensation with formaldehyde to form an active Michael acceptor for a second molecule of Meldrum's acid. The structure of the resulting product is determined by correlation of the products of possible reactions of Meldrum's acid and formaldehyde with the NMR spectrum of the product.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1033 - Citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mole of water per mole of citric acid. Citric acid may be produced by recovery from sources such as... for the recovery of citric acid from Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor. (b) The ingredient meets...., Washington, DC 20418, and the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy...

  5. Acidic deposition and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, N.P.; Ecsedy, C.; Olem, H.; Nikolaidis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    A literature is presented which examines the research published on understanding ecosystem acidification and the effects of acidic deposition on freshwaters. Topics of discussion include the following: acidic deposition; regional assessments; atmospheric deposition and transport; aquatic effects; mathematical modeling; liming acidic waters; global climate change; atmospheric changes; climate feedbacks; and aquatic effects

  6. 21 CFR 582.6033 - Citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citric acid. 582.6033 Section 582.6033 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6033 Citric acid. (a) Product. Citric acid. 2 For the purpose of this subpart, no attempt has been made to...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1033 - Citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citric acid. 582.1033 Section 582.1033 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1033 Citric acid. (a) Product. Citric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. Unesterified docosahexaenoic acid is protective in neuroinflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Sarah K; Palumbo, Sara; Bosetti, Francesca; Mount, Howard T; Kang, Jing X; E, Carol; Greenwood; Ma, David WL; Serhan, Charles N; Bazinet, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) is the major brain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and it is possible that docosahexaenoic acid is anti-inflammatory in the brain as it is known to be in other tissues. Using a combination of models including the fat-1 transgenic mouse, chronic dietary n-3 PUFA modulation in transgenic and wildtype mice, and acute direct brain infusion, we demonstrated that unesterified docosahexaenoic acid attenuates neuroinflammation initiated by intracerebroventricular lipopolysaccharide. Hippocampal neuroinflammation was assessed by gene expression and immunohistochemistry. Further, docosahexaenoic acid protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal loss. Acute intracerebroventricular infusion of unesterified docosahexaenoic acid or its 12/15-lipoxygenase product and precursor to protectins and resolvins, 17S-hydroperoxy-docosahexaenoic acid, mimics anti-neuroinflammatory aspects of chronically increased unesterified docosahexaenoic acid. LCMS/MS revealed that neuroprotectin D1 and several other docosahexaenoic acid-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators are present in the hippocampus. Acute icv infusion of 17S-hydroperoxydocosahexaenoic acid increases hippocampal neuroprotectin D1 levels concomitant to attenuating neuroinflammation. These results show that unesterified docosahexaenoic acid is protective in a lipopolysaccharide-initiated mouse model of acute neuroinflammation, at least in part, via its conversion to specialized pro-resolving mediators; these docosahexaenoic acid stores may provide novel targets for the prevention and treatment(s) of neurological disorders with a neuroinflammatory component. PMID:23919613

  9. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. The present review includes updated searches of randomised trials on tranexamic acid versus placebo, cimetidine or lansoprazole....

  10. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-10-25

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  11. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2010-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM.

  12. Succinic acid production from Jerusalem artichoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    In this work, A. succinogenes 130Z was used to produce succinic acid from Jerusalem artichoke tuber hydrolysate. Results showed that both fructose and glucose in the tuber hydrolysate were utilized for succinic acid production. The sugar utilization was found to be dependent on process control...... that Jerusalem artichoke tubers could be utilized for production of bio-succinic acid....

  13. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  14. QUAFRINOIC ACIDS: TWO NEW TRITERPENIODS FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the stem bark of Quassia africana, two new triterpenoids with the ursolic acid skeleton, characterized as 3-oxo-urs-12-en-27a, 28di-oic acid and its dihydro derivative, 3β-urs-12-en-27α, 28di-oic acid have been isolated. The structures were determined using spectroscopic techniques. KEY WORDS: Quassia africana; ...

  15. Hydrophosphorylation of alkynes with phosphinous acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifant'ev, E.E.; Solovetskaya, L.A.; Magdeeva, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    A feature of the homolytic hydrophosphorylation of alkynes, as compared with alkenes, is more ready addition of phosphinous acids in presence of benzoyl peroxides. A difference was found in the hydrophosphorylation of acetylenes with dibutylphosphinous acid and with diarylphosphinous acids: the latter tend to form diaddition products

  16. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  17. 21 CFR 582.1061 - Lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic acid. 582.1061 Section 582.1061 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1061 Lactic acid. (a) Product. Lactic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar lev...

  19. A novel approach in acidic disinfection through inhibition of acid resistance mechanisms; Maleic acid-mediated inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase activity enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Ranju; Barnes, Ruth H; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G

    2018-02-01

    Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L. monocytogenes were investigated and found that it has a higher antimicrobial activity under acidic conditions than other organic acids, while this could not be explained by its pKa or Ka values. The effects were found to be more pronounced on strains with higher GAD activity. Maleic acid affected the extracellular GABA levels while it did not affect the intracellular ones. Maleic acid had a major impact mainly on GadD2 activity as also shown in cell lysates. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that maleic acid is able to partly remove biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Maleic acid is able to inhibit the GAD of L. monocytogenes significantly enhancing its sensitivity to acidic conditions and together with its ability to remove biofilms, make a good candidate for disinfection regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Methods for preparation of deuterated amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnikova, A.B.; Karnaukhova, E.N.; Zvonkova, E.N.

    1995-01-01

    The current state and prospects for the use of amino acids labeled with stable isotopes are considered. Methods for the preparation of deuterated amino acids, including synthetic, chemicoenzymatic, and biosynthetic ones, and deuterium exchange reactions are summarized. Problems in the preparation of optically pure amino acids are discussed. 120 refs., 15 figs