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Sample records for acetylsalicylic acid

  1. [Interaction between NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid disregarded].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollaard, E J; Kramers, C; Brouwers, J R B J

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 the European Medicines Agency declared that diclofenac is contraindicated in patients with arterial thrombotic complications, based on a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on the adverse reactions of NSAIDs. The same decision was taken for coxibs some years earlier. The Dutch authorities (CBG/MEB) informed physicians and pharmacists about this decision without taking into account whether these patients were using prophylactic acetylsalicylic acid or not. It has been shown that NSAIDs with high COX-1 affinity like ibuprofen and naproxen cause a pharmacodynamic interaction with the inhibition of thromboxane synthesis by acetylsalicylic acid. This interaction does not occur with relatively COX-2-selective NSAIDs such as coxibs and diclofenac. Therefore, in patients who use acetylsalicylic acid for thromboprophylaxis, contraindicating coxibs or diclofenac is not justified, on the contrary: they are preferable.

  2. ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN RHEUMATOLOGY: NEW EVIDENCE

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    Yuri Vladimirovich Muravyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid that has long widely used in rheumatoid arthritis and condemned by rheumatologists to oblivion since the late 20th century and it may take its rightful place in the treatment of both rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.

  3. Synthesis and transdermal properties of acetylsalicylic acid and selected esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Minja; Breytenbach, Jaco C; Hadgraft, Jonathan; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2006-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the transdermal penetration of acetylsalicylic acid and some of its derivatives, to establish a correlation, if any, with selected physicochemical properties and to determine if transdermal application of acetylsalicylic acid and its derivatives will give therapeutic drug concentrations with respect to transdermal flux. Ten derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid were prepared by esterification of acetylsalicyloyl chloride with ten different alcohols. The experimental aqueous solubility, logD and transdermal flux values were determined for acetylsalicylic acid and its derivatives at pH 4.5. In vitro penetration was measured through excised female human abdominal skin in diffusion cells. The experimental aqueous solubility of acetylsalicylic acid (6.56 mg/ml) was higher than that of the synthesised acetylsalicylate derivatives (ranging from 1.76 x 10(-3) to 3.32 mg/ml), and the logD of acetylsalicylic acid (-0.85) was lower than that of its derivatives (ranging from -0.25 to 1.95). There was thus an inverse correlation between the aqueous solubility data and the logD values. The experimental transdermal flux of acetylsalicylic acid (263.83 nmol/cm(2)h) was much higher than that of its derivatives (ranging from 0.12 to 136.02 nmol/cm(2)h).

  4. Acetylsalicylic acid: Incoming 150 years of the first synthesis

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    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid is one of the most fascinating and versatile drugs known to medicine, as well as one of the oldest. Acetylsalicylic acid is a drug which is safe, with analgetic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory antiplatelet and antithrombotic action. It may be applied not only in clinical practice, but also as prevention. The first known use of an acetylsalicylic acid-like preparation can be traced to ancient Greece. In 1853 Charles Gerhardt published the first synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid. Felix Hoffmann, a chemist for Friedrich Bayer, a German dye company obtained a patent on acetylsalicylic acid some 40 years later. Bayer coined the name Aspirin for the new product. The 20 in century was the century in which many researchers in many companies tried to improve the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid not only in terms of yield but also purity. This paper describes the history, use, mechanism of action, synthesis and production as well as the purification and stability of acetylsalicylic acid.

  5. Electrochemical Sensors for Detection of Acetylsalicylic Acid

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    Rene Kizek

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid (AcSA, or aspirin, was introduced in the late 1890s and hasbeen used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. The aim of this work was to suggestelectrochemical sensor for acetylsalicylic detection. Primarily, we utilized square wavevoltammetry (SWV using both carbon paste electrode (CPE and of graphite pencilelectrode (GPE as working ones to indirect determination of AcSA. The principle ofindirect determination of AcSA bases in its hydrolysis on salicylic acid (SA, which isconsequently detected. Thus, we optimized both determination of SA and conditions forAcSA hydrolysis and found out that the most suitable frequency, amplitude, step potentialand the composition and pH of the supporting electrolyte for the determination of SA was260 Hz, 50 mV, 10 mV and Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 1.81, respectively. The detectionlimit (S/N = 3 of the SA was 1.3 ng/ml. After that, we aimed on indirect determination ofAcSA by SWV CPE. We tested the influence of pH of Britton-Robinson buffer andtemperature on yield of hydrolysis, and found out that 100% hydrolysis of AcSA wasreached after 80 minutes at pH 1.81 and 90°C. The method for indirect determination ofAcSA has been utilized to analyse pharmaceutical drug. The determined amount of AcSA in the pharmaceutical drug was in good agreement with the declared amounts. Moreover, weused GPE for determination of AcSA in a pharmaceutical drug. Base of the results obtainedfrom stationary electrochemical instrument we used flow injection analysis withelectrochemical detection to determine of salicylates (SA, AcSA, thiosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid – SuSA. We found out that we are able todetermine all of detected salicylates directly without any pre-treatment, hydrolysis and so onat units of femtomoles per injection (5 μl.

  6. Acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen protect against oxidative neurotoxicity.

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    Maharaj, H; Maharaj, D S; Daya, S

    2006-09-01

    Due to the implication of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders we decided to investigate the antioxidant properties of acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen either alone or in combination. The thiobarbituric acid assay (TBA) and the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay were used to investigate quinolinic acid (QA)-induced: lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion generation in the rat hippocampus, in vivo. The study also shows, using cresyl violet staining, the preservation of structural integrity of neuronal cells following treatment with acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen in QA-lesioned rat hippocampus. Furthermore the study sought to determine whether these agents have any effect on endogenous (QA) formation. This study shows that acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen inhibit QA-induced superoxide anion generation, lipid peroxidation and cell damage, in vivo, in the rat hippocampus. In addition these agents inhibit the enzyme, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase (3-HAO), responsible for the synthesis of endogenous QA.

  7. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    We developed a specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the determination of free acetylsalicylic acid, free salicylic acid, and free salicylic acid plus salicylic acid after alkaline hydrolysis (free-plus-bound) in foods. Acetylsalicylic acid was detected after postcolumn

  8. ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN THE PREVENTION OF ATHEROTHROMBOTIC EVENTS

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    A. V. Govorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of large-scale clinical trials have convincingly demonstrated the effectiveness of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA in primary and secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events. Studies on the safety of different ASA formulations have been continuing. Magnesium hydroxide included in combined medicine, Сardiomagnil, prevents ASA adverse effects on the gastric mucosa and reduces in severity of dyspeptic symptoms.

  9. ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN THE PREVENTION OF ATHEROTHROMBOTIC EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of large-scale clinical trials have convincingly demonstrated the effectiveness of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA in primary and secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events. Studies on the safety of different ASA formulations have been continuing. Magnesium hydroxide included in combined medicine, Сardiomagnil, prevents ASA adverse effects on the gastric mucosa and reduces in severity of dyspeptic symptoms.

  10. ON THE 125TH ANNIVERSARY OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID

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    I. N. Bokarev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experience of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA clinical use since its synthesis in 1887 is highlighted. ASA modes of action and its position among the modern antiplatelet agents are considered. The evidence based clinical data on ASA treatment and the problem of antiplatelet therapy resistance are discussed. ASA interaction with other drugs and ASA pleiotropic effects are reviewed 

  11. Influence of vitamin E on the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid in human blood.

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    González-Correa, J A; Arrebola, M M; Guerrero, A; Muñoz-Marín, J; Ruiz-Villafranca, D; Sánchez de La Cuesta, F; De La Cruz, J P

    2005-01-01

    We analysed the in vitro interaction between acetylsalicylic acid and vitamin E on the principal antiplatelet sites of action of acetylsalicylic acid, i.e., platelet aggregation, prostanoid production in platelets and leukocytes, and nitric oxide synthesis. Aggregation was measured in whole blood and in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with ADP, collagen or arachidonic acid as platelet inducers, and we measured the production of thromboxane B2, prostacyclin and nitric oxide. Vitamin E potentiated the antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid in both whole blood and PRP. In PRP induced with collagen the IC50 for acetylsalicylic acid alone was 339+/-11.26, and that of acetylsalicylic acid+vitamin E was 0.89+/-0.09 (Pacetylsalicylic acid. Vitamin E spared or even increased prostacyclin levels, and acetylsalicylic acid+vitamin E diminished the inhibition of prostacyclin synthesis by acetylsalicylic acid (IC50 acetylsalicylic acid alone=1.81+/-0.15 microM; IC50 acetylsalicylic acid+vitamin E= 12.92+/-1.10 microM, Pacetylsalicylic acid on neutrophil nitric oxide production 42-fold (Pacetylsalicylic acid in vitro, and thus merits further research in ex vivo studies.

  12. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

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    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis.

  13. Vanadocene reactions with hydroxy acids. [Hydroxy acids: acetylsalicylic, gallic, lactic, salicyclic, orotic,. gamma. -hydroxybutyric acids

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    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Ehllert, O.G.; Arsen' eva, T.I. (Gor' kovskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-03-01

    To prepare a series of vanadium cyclopentadienylcarboxylates soluble in water, the vanadocene reactions with lactic, ..gamma..-oxybutyric-, salicylic,- gallic-, orotic-, and acetylsalicylic acids have been studied. To determine the influence of cyclopentadienyl groups, bound with a vanadium atom, on the physiological activity of the complexes formed, vanadium halides are made to react with lactic acid. Only the vanadocene reaction with orotic acid was conducted in an aqueous medium, other interactions were realized in the diethyl ether, toluene, T, H, P medium. The interaction of vanadocene and vanadium halides with lactic-, salicylic-, acetylsalicylic- and gallic acids was found to lead to the formation of water-soluble vanadium complexes of Cp/sub 2/, VOCOR or CpV (OCOR)/sub 2/ type. The data on the produced compounds yield, their IR spectra, decomposition temperatures, solubility, effective magnetic moments are presented.

  14. Gastro-duodenal ulcers with perforation caused by short-term acetylsalicylic acid ingestion: Case report

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    Ćulafić Đorđe; Matejić Olivera; Rudić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Acetylsalicylic acid ingestion may cause serious gastrointestinal toxicity, in particular bleeding or perforated peptic ulcer. Case Outline. A 72-year-old male patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain, malaise, and dark stools. Several days before hospitalization, he had cerebrovascular insult and began to use acetylsalicylic acid of 100 mg per day. In physical findings a diffusely painful sensitivity of the abdomen was detected on palpation. Laboratory findings revealed hy...

  15. Maternal use of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Rebordosa, Cristina; Thulstrup, Ane Marie;

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors-acetaminophen, ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid-have endocrine-disruptive properties in the rainbow trout. In humans, aspirin blocks the androgen response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and, because hCG-stimulated androgen production in utero is crucial...... for normal testicular descent, exposure to COX inhibitors at vulnerable times during gestation may impair testicular descent. We examined whether prenatal exposure to acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid was associated with increased occurrence of cryptorchidism....

  16. Acetylsalicylic acid induces programmed cell death in Arabidopsis cell cultures.

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    García-Heredia, José M; Hervás, Manuel; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Navarro, José A

    2008-06-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a derivative from the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA), is a commonly used drug that has a dual role in animal organisms as an anti-inflammatory and anticancer agent. It acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COXs), which catalyze prostaglandins production. It is known that ASA serves as an apoptotic agent on cancer cells through the inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme. Here, we provide evidences that ASA also behaves as an agent inducing programmed cell death (PCD) in cell cultures of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, in a similar way than the well-established PCD-inducing agent H(2)O(2), although the induction of PCD by ASA requires much lower inducer concentrations. Moreover, ASA is herein shown to be a more efficient PCD-inducing agent than salicylic acid. ASA treatment of Arabidopsis cells induces typical PCD-linked morphological and biochemical changes, namely cell shrinkage, nuclear DNA degradation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release from mitochondria and induction of caspase-like activity. However, the ASA effect can be partially reverted by jasmonic acid. Taking together, these results reveal the existence of common features in ASA-induced animal apoptosis and plant PCD, and also suggest that there are similarities between the pathways of synthesis and function of prostanoid-like lipid mediators in animal and plant organisms.

  17. Effects of nocloprost clathrate on absorption of acetylsalicylic acid.

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    Siegmund, W; Zschiesche, M; Franke, G; Amon, I

    1994-01-01

    The cytoprotective prostaglandin E2 analog nocloprost clathrate (NOCLO) is tested as a prophylactic for gastrointestinal lesions of NSAID. The effects of 400 micrograms NOCLO versus respective placebos with and without equivalent amounts of beta-cyclodextrin on the pharmacokinetic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), given 30 min after NOCLO, were studied in two single-blind, parallel-group trials. The trials were performed in 15 male healthy volunteers (age 21-25 years, body weight 62-94 kg, body height 172-187 cm) with known N-acetylation and debrisoquine type hydroxylation phenotype. ASA, salicylic acid (SA), and salicyluric acid (SU) in plasma and SA and SU in urine were measured by HPLC. NOCLO delayed the absorption of ASA (increased tmax, lower Cmax) significantly in comparison with both placebos. AUC and clearance values were not changed by NOCLO premedication. There were neither differences between the two placebo groups nor between the two groups pretreated with NOCLO with regard to any pharmacokinetic parameter. The changes in drug absorption are caused by the sum of those cytoprotective effects of prostaglandin which are also determinants of drug absorption. PMID:8199752

  18. Acetylsalicylic acid protects erectile function in diabetic rats.

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    Hafez, G; Gonulalan, U; Kosan, M; Arioglu, E; Ozturk, B; Cetinkaya, M; Gur, S

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment on diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: (i) control (C), (ii) diabetic (D), (iii) ASA-treated control (C+ASA) and (iv) ASA-treated diabetic (D+ASA) groups. In groups 2 and 4, diabetes was induced by injection of 35 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin. ASA (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) , orally) was administrated to rats in groups 3 and 4 for 8 weeks. Both intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured in in vivo studies. In organ bath, the relaxation responses to acetylcholine (ACh), electrical field stimulation (EFS) and sodium nitroprusside were tested in corpus cavernosum (CC) strips. The mRNA expression for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was calculated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. In in vivo experiments, diabetic rats displayed reduced ICP/MAP values, which were normalised with ASA treatment. The relaxant response to high-dose ACh and EFS at low frequencies (1-8 Hz) in CC strips from the D+ASA group were significantly higher when compared to the D group. Treatment with ASA normalised the raised mRNA expressions of nNOS in diabetic penile tissues. ASA may be involved in mRNA of protein synthesis of NO released from nonadrenergic and noncholinergic cavernosal nerve in diabetes.

  19. Acetylsalicylic acid as a potential pediatric health hazard: legislative aspects concerning accidental intoxications in the European Union.

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    Mund, Menen E; Gyo, Christoph; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is a frequently used medication worldwide. It is not used in pediatrics due its association with Reye syndrome. However, in case of pediatric intoxication, children are more fragile to salicylate poisoning because of their reduced ability of buffer the acid stress. Intoxication leads to a decoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and subsequently to a loss in mitochondrial function. Symptoms of poisoning are diverse; eventually they can lead to the death of the patient. Governmental websites of various EU countries were searched for legal information on acetylsalicylic acid availability in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores. Various EU countries permit prescription-free sales of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores. In Sweden acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg may be sold in a maximum package size of 20 tablets or effervescent tablets in a non-pharmacy. In the UK a maximum of 16 tablets of acetylsalicylic acid 325 mg is allowed to sell in non-pharmacies. In Ireland acetylsalicylic acid is classified as S2 medication. Subsequently, acetylsalicylic acid is allowed to be sold prescription-free in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores. In the Netherlands acetylsalicylic acid may only be sold in drug stores or pharmacies. A maximum of 24 tablets of 500 mg is allowed to purchase in a drug store. Several countries in the European Union are permitted to offer acetylsalicylic acid prescription-free in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores without legal guidance on the storage position within the store. Further research is needed to investigate whether acetylsalicylic acid is located directly accessible to young children within the stores in EU countries which permit prescription-free sales of acetylsalicylic acid. PMID:27418941

  20. Acetylsalicylic acid and labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

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    Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Psicobiologia; Frydman, Jacques Natan Grinapel; Rocha, Vanessa Camara da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2005-10-15

    Acetylsalicylic acid is the drug most used an anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomenon. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99m Tc). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro or in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid on the labeling of the blood constituents with 99m Tc. In vitro assay was performed with samples of whole blood from Wistar rats incubated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.0 mg/ml) for one hour before the 99m Tc-labeling process. For in vivo assay, Wistar rats were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (1.5 mg/kg) during one hour, and the whole blood was withdrawn for the 99m Tc-labeling process. Saline was used in control groups. Data showed that the fixation of 99m Tc to the blood constituents was not significantly (p>0.05) modified in in vitro and in vivo assays with acetylsalicylic acid, at least not when the experiments were carried out with the doses normally used in human beings. (author)

  1. Synergistic inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid on prostaglandin E2 release in primary rat microglia.

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    Fiebich, Bernd L; Lieb, Klaus; Kammerer, Norbert; Hüll, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been suggested to protect cerebral tissue in a variety of pathophysiological situations such as head trauma, ischemia or Alzheimer's disease. Most of these protective actions have been attributed to the antioxidative capacity of ascorbic acid. Besides the presence of elevated levels of oxygen radicals, prostaglandins produced by neurones and microglial cells seem to play an important role in prolonged tissue damage. We investigated whether ascorbic acid alone inhibits prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and may augment the inhibitory effect of acetylsalicylic acid on prostaglandin synthesis. Ascorbic acid dose-dependently inhibited PGE2 synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-treated primary rat microglial cells (IC50 = 3.70 micro m). In combination with acetylsalicylic acid (IC50 = 1.85 micro m), ascorbic acid augmented the inhibitory effect of acetylsalicylic acid on PGE2 synthesis (IC50 = 0.25 micro m in combination with 100 micro m ascorbic acid). Ascorbic acid alone or in combination with acetylsalicylic acid did not inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein synthesis but inhibited COX-2 enzyme activity. Our results show that ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid act synergistically in inhibiting PGE2 synthesis, which may help to explain a possible protective effect of ascorbic acid in various brain diseases.

  2. Modified MCM-41 as a drug delivery system for acetylsalicylic acid

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    Vyskočilová, Eliška; Luštická, Ivana; Paterová, Iva; Machová, Libuše; Červený, Libor

    2014-12-01

    The modification of prepared MCM-41 by different groups (amino, chloro and oxo) was studied. Prepared materials were treated by acetylsalicylic acid and hybrid materials were characterized, compared from the point of view of immobilized amount of active substance. The highest amount of acetylsalicylic acid was detected using methyl-tert- butyl ether as a solvent and MCM-41 without modification after 1 h (0.35 g per 1 g of the support) or MCM modified by amino group after 5 h (0.37 g per 1 g of the support) as a support. Using amino modified MCM, the longer treatment by acetylsalicylic acid converged to the equilibrium and after 24 h the immobilized amount was 0.3 g per 1 g. A dissolution in vitro study was carried out, comparing the stability of formed interactions. The slowest dissolution was detected using non-modified MCM-41 and oxo modified material.

  3. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  4. Effect of transdermic acetylsalicylic acid on hemostasis in healthy volunteers.

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    Martínez, Adriana B; Funosas, Esteban; Maestri, Lorella; Lucena, Perla Hermida

    2007-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) exerts an antiaggregatory effect on platelets by irreversible inhibition of the enzyme thrombocyte cyclooxigenase when it is administered orally at doses above 80 mg/day. For several years ASA has been available as a solution that can be topically applied on the skin. It is widely used by athletes and individuals with chronic rheumatic disorders. However, it has not been established to date whether the plasma levels that result from these doses of ASA affect hemostasis during odontological procedures that involve bleeding, causing platelet dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether topical application is capable of affecting hemostasis. Three studies were conducted: A, B y C. Each of the 3 groups included 12 healthy volunteers of both sexes. The aim of study A was to evaluate if the formulation for topical application resulted in plasma levels of ASA that resembled those observed for the oral formulation and affect hemostasis. In experiment A, plasma levels of salicylic acid (SA) were assessed for each volunteer at 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours after oral administration of a dose of 500 mg ASA. Experiment B was identical to experiment A except for the fact that ASA was topically applied employing a commercial preparation Aspirub in a predetermined area at a rate of 2 ml/day over a period of 15 days. Experiment C was designed in the same way as experiment B, for a higher dose and a longer period of time (4 ml/day over a period of 30 days). One of the volunteers exhibited detectable salicylemia that could affect hemostasis as occurs with the oral formulation. The following two studies (C1 and C2) employed doses of Aspirub of 8 and 16 ml/day respectively, over a period of 30 days. We measured biochemical parameters associated to platelet function. The dose of 8 ml/day induced moderate alterations in all the parameters related to platelet function and the daily dose of 16 ml inhibited platelet

  5. ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN LOW DOSES FOR SECONDARY PREVENTION OF CARDIO-VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Dmitrieva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of evidence based medicine which confirm efficacy of acetylsalicylic acid (ACA in cardiologic practice are presented. The special attention is given to generic drugs of ACA. Their application has increased essentially recently. Some of generics are comparable with original drugs on clinical efficacy but have economic advantages.

  6. Stimulation of cysteinyl leukotriene production in mast cells by heat shock and acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Redegeld, Frank A; Dunsmore, Kathy; Odoms, Kelli; Wong, Hector R; Nijkamp, Frans P; Engels, Ferdi

    2007-04-30

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-dependent activation of mast cells is central to the allergic response. The engagement of IgE-occupied receptors initiates a series of molecular events that causes the release of preformed, and de novo synthesis of, allergic mediators. Cysteinyl leukotrienes are able to contract airway smooth muscle and increase mucus secretion and vascular permeability and recruit eosinophils. Mast cells have also recently been recognized as active participants in innate immune responses. Heat stress can modulate innate immunity by inducing stress proteins such as heat-shock proteins (HSPs). We previously demonstrated that treatment of mast cells with heat shock or acetylsalicylic acid results in an increase of TNF-alpha and IL-6 release. This effect was paralleled by expression of HSP70. In the current study, we further investigated the effects of heat shock and acetylsalicylic acid on the activation of mast cells and the release of cysteinyl leukotrienes. In mouse mast cells, derived from a culture of bone marrow cells, responsiveness to heat shock, acetylsalicylic acid and exogenous or endogenous HSP70 was monitored by measuring leukotriene C4 release. We show that after heat shock treatment and exposure to acetylsalicylic acid leukotriene production was increased. Moreover, exogenous rHSP70 also induced leukotriene production. Because it has been reported that leukotriene production in mast cells may be mediated by Toll like receptor (TLR) activation, and HSP70 also activates TLRs signaling, we further explored these issues by using mast cells that are not able to produce HSP70, i.e. heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) knockout cells. We found that in HSF-1 knockout bone marrow derived mast cells, heat shock and acetylsalicylic acid failed to induce release of leukotrienes. Moreover, in wild type cells the surface expression of TLR4 was attenuated, whereas the intracellular expression was up-regulated. We conclude that heat shock and acetylsalicylic acid induce

  7. Preparation of acetylsalicylic acid-acylated chitosan as a novel polymeric drug for drug controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changkun; Wu, Yiguang; Zhao, Liyan; Huang, Xinzheng

    2015-01-01

    The acetylsalicylic acid-acylated chitosan (ASACTS) with high degree of substitution (DS) was successfully synthesized, and characterized with FTIR, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis methods. The optimum synthesis conditions were obtained which gave the highest DS (about 60%) for ASACTS. Its drug release experiments were carried out in simulated gastric and intestine fluids. The results show that the drugs in the form of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) were released in a controlled manner from ASACTS only in simulated gastric fluid. The release profile can be best fitted with logistic and Weibull model. The research results reveal that ASACTS can be a potential polymeric drug for the controlled release of ASA and SA in the targeted gastric environment.

  8. Burden of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Pratt, Stephen; Elkin, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users.......Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users....

  9. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Ying; NAITO, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intest...

  10. Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared to Placebo in Treating High-Risk Patients With Subsolid Lung Nodules | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies acetylsalicylic acid compared to placebo in treating high-risk patients with subsolid lung nodules. A nodule is a growth or lump that may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep cancer from forming or coming back. The use of acetylsalicylic acid may keep cancer from forming in patients with subsolid lung nodules. |

  11. Pharmacological Correction of the Negative Effect of Acetylsalicylic Acid on the Energy-Generating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Udut, ScD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper demonstrates the effect of ASA and its combination with SUC on the energy-producing system of rat heart mitochondria as well as an assessment of SUC preventive application effect on ASA pharmacokinetic parameters. Experiments conducted on outbred male albino rats (200-250 g on a model of a xenobiotic load induced by seven days of intragastric injections of acetylsalicylic acid at a dose of 250 mg/kg have shown inhibition of the oxygen consumption rates in the heart mitochondria as well as a limitation of the succinate-dependent substrate oxidation pathways and a decrease in the mitochondria ATP/ADP coefficient. Succinic acid (50 mg/kg for 7 days was injected as a preventive medication to correct the mitochondrial bioenergetics revealed. A comparative research of the pharmacokinetics of acetylsalicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid against the background of succinic acid performed on the model of rabbits has shown total similarity in the parameters analyzed. This fact demonstrates the possibility of prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction using the intermediate Krebs cycle. SUC as preventive medication promotes the elimination of ASA-induced negative metabolic shifts in the rat heart mitochondria by normalizing the succinate- and NAD-dependent respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and therefore, it finds good use in the correction of ASA-induced negative side-effects of an energy-generating system

  12. Teratogenicity studies with methotrexate, aminopterin, and acetylsalicylic acid in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, K S

    1976-08-01

    Pregnancy was timed in cats following induced ovulation. Methotrexate, (0.5 mg/kg), aminopterin, (0.1 mg/kg), and acetylsalicylic acid, (25 or 50 mg/kg) were administered orally in gelatin capsules in single daily doses on different days of gestation, methotrexate (MTX) on days 11-14, 14-17, or 17-20, aminopterin on day 12, 14, or 16, and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on days 10-15 or 15-20. Maternal toxicity was produced only by MTX. MTX given on days 11-14 and 14-17 produced high frequencies of malformations including umbilical hernia. Aminopterin caused no conclusive teratogenic response. An overall increased frequency of anomalies occurred after 50 mg/kg ASA but no single anomaly predominated.

  13. Voltammetric determination of salicylic acid in pharmaceuticals formulations of acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriero, Angel A J; Luco, Juan M; Sereno, Leonides; Raba, Julio

    2004-02-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of salicylic acid (SA) has been studied on a glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method. SA gives a single irreversible oxidation wave over the wide pH range studied. The irreversibility of the electrode process was verified by different criteria. The mechanism of oxidation is discussed. Using differential pulse voltammetry, SA yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in Britton-Robinson buffer solution, pH 2.37 at 1.088V (versus Ag/AgCl). The method was linear over the SA concentration range: 1-60mugml(-1). The method was successfully applied for the analysis of SA as a hydrolysis product, in solid pharmaceutical formulations containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). PMID:18969288

  14. Acetylsalicylic-acid-containing drugs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs available in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Brigden, M; Smith, R E

    1997-01-01

    A large number of drugs containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are available by prescription and over the counter in Canada. The possibility of serious side effects and drug interactions is therefore high. The authors have compiled a comprehensive list of products containing these drugs from information supplied by pharmaceutical databases, independent marketing researchers and Health Canada's Drug Directorate. Physicians should ensure that add...

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of acetylsalicylic acid after intravenous and oral administration to healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Nagelschmitz J; Blunck M; Kraetzschmar J; Ludwig M; Wensing G; Hohlfeld T

    2014-01-01

    J Nagelschmitz,1 M Blunck,1 J Kraetzschmar,1 M Ludwig,1 G Wensing,1 T Hohlfeld2 1Bayer HealthCare AG, Clinical Pharmacology, Wuppertal, Germany; 2Institut für Pharmakologie und Klinische Pharmakologie, Heinrich-Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany Background: The pharmacology of single doses of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administered intravenously (250 or 500 mg) or orally (100, 300, or 500 mg) was evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled...

  16. Massive rectal bleeding after prostate biopsy controlled by endoclipping in a patient using acetylsalicylic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Özveren, Bora; Türkeri, Levent

    2013-01-01

    A case of severe rectal bleeding following transurethral ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy is reported. Rectal bleeding is considered a minor, transient complication of this standard diagnostic procedure that can usually be controlled successfully by conservative measures. In this case where the patient had been taking acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), massive bleeding required hospitalization and blood transfusions. Conservative treatment attempts were not succesful, and profuse rectal blee...

  17. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid in commercial tablets by SERS using silver nanoparticle-coated filter paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallum, Loriz Francisco; Soares, Frederico Luis Felipe; Ardila, Jorge Armando; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim

    2014-12-01

    In this work, filter paper was used as a low cost substrate for silver nanoparticles in order to perform the detection and quantification of acetylsalicylic acid by SERS in a commercial tablet. The reaction conditions were 150 mM of ammonium hydroxide, 50 mM of silver nitrate, 500 mM of glucose, 12 min of the reaction time, 45 °C temperature, pretreatment with ammonium hydroxide and quantitative filter paper (1-2 μm). The average size of silver nanoparticles deposited on the paper substrate was 180 nm. Adsorption time of acetylsalicylic acid on the surface of the silver-coated filter paper was studied and an adsorption time of 80 min was used to build the analytical curve. It was possible to obtain a calibration curve with good precision with a coefficient of determination of 0.933. The method proposed in this work was capable to quantify acetylsalicylic acid in commercial tablets, at low concentration levels, with relative error of 2.06% compared to the HPLC. The preparation of filter paper coated with silver nanoparticles using Tollen's reagent presents several advantages such as low cost of synthesis, support and reagents; minimum amount of residuals, which are easily treated, despite the SERS spectroscopy presenting fast analysis, with low sample preparation and low amount of reactants as in HPLC analysis.

  18. [Antithrombotic therapy after myocardial infarction: arguments for the use of acetylsalicylic acid and coumarin derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskowsky, W M; Brouwer, A; Verheugt, F W A

    2005-01-01

    Patients who survived myocardial infarction and who are being treated with the current optimal therapy (antithrombotics, statins and beta-blockers), have a 10-20% chance of death, re-infarction and stroke within in the first year. A possible explanation for this could be an increased activation and generation ofthrombin for at least 6 months following the cardiovascular event preceding preventative therapy. Acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel do not affect activation by thrombin of the platelet aggregation and the clotting cascade. The additional use of cumarin derivatives could therefore reduce the chance of recurring thrombotic events, and subsequently improve prognosis. Since the nineteen-nineties several randomised trials have been conducted to study the clinical relevance ofcumarin derivatives both with and without acetylsalicylic acid, in patients who had had a myocardial infarction. The conclusions of these studies were not unambiguous. If the international normalized ratio (INR) was kept > 2 for a long period, by means of frequent check-ups and effective dosage adjustment, the chance of death, recurrent myocardial infarction or stroke was 30-50% lower than when acetylsalicylic acid only was used. The risk of bleeding was raised by 2-4 times, but there were no life-threatening episodes of bleeding. In view of the recent development of anticoagulant agents, for which monitoring seems to be becoming unnecessary, identification of patients who would benefit most from a combined antithrombotic strategy is warranted. PMID:15688836

  19. Gastro-duodenal ulcers with perforation caused by short-term acetylsalicylic acid ingestion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćulafić Đorđe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acetylsalicylic acid ingestion may cause serious gastrointestinal toxicity, in particular bleeding or perforated peptic ulcer. Case Outline. A 72-year-old male patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain, malaise, and dark stools. Several days before hospitalization, he had cerebrovascular insult and began to use acetylsalicylic acid of 100 mg per day. In physical findings a diffusely painful sensitivity of the abdomen was detected on palpation. Laboratory findings revealed hyposideremic anaemia with inflammatory syndrome. Native abdominal x-ray did not show the presence of pneumoperitoneum. Upper endoscopy of the gastric corpus and antrum revealed several ulcerations 10-11 mm in diameter covered with fibrin, with bleeding ulceration in the angulus region of the lesser gastric curvature. The bulbus was oedematous and hyperaemic with a perforated ulcer on the anterior wall. Upper central laparotomy showed a perforated duodenal bulbus. The posterior wall of the bulbus was normal, while the anterior wall was without scarring. Given the general condition of the patient and local findings, interrupted suture of the ulcer was performed with omentoplasty. Postoperative course was uneventful. A peroral diet was initiated on the 4th postoperative day, and the patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day. Conclusion. Elderly people who use acetylsalicylic acid in prophylaxis should take it in lower doses, with proton pump inhibitors, especially during the first two months.

  20. Copper(II) interactions with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. I. Salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumas, V; Brumas, B; Berthon, G

    1995-02-15

    Recently a growing body of evidence has accumulated on the beneficial effects of copper compounds toward various models of inflammation, and copper complexes of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be more effective in this respect than the parent agents. However, the origin of this activity remains unclear: The ability of NSAIDs to influence copper metabolism is still questionable, and apart from the claimed SOD-like activity of copper salts in vivo, relatively little is known about how copper-NSAID interactions may help regulate the inflammatory process. Before the potential role of copper-NSAID complexes versus inflammation can be elucidated, speciation studies are necessary (i) to analyze the overall influence of these drugs on copper metabolism and (ii) to discriminate the individual complexes likely to represent the active form of the drug in vivo. In this paper, copper(II) complex equilibria with salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids--and benzoic acid used as a reference--as well as the mixed-ligand complex equilibria generated by these binary systems and L-histidine [main low-molar-mass ligand of copper(II) in blood plasma] have been investigated under physiological conditions (37 degrees C; 0.15-M NaCl). Confirming previous observations by others, resulting simulated plasma copper distributions virtually rule out any quantitative influence of salicylate on copper tissue diffusion at therapeutic levels. Even though, as is presently shown, both salicylate and acetylsalicylate may favor the gastrointestinal absorption of copper, it seems unlikely that salicylate can exert its antinflammatory activity predominantly through copper complexation. The assertion that copper-NSAID complexes represent the active forms of NSAIDs therefore seems to be of limited significance for salicylate. PMID:7876837

  1. [New biological active derivatives of indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterisation and structure validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Catalina; Stefanache, Alina; Dumitrache, M

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that niflumic acid glycinamide has a good antiinflammatory action useful in gum inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to obtain new glycinamides of acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin, which could have a better antiinflammatory action than niflumic acid glycinamide. The study presents the synthesis, physico-chemical characterisation and structure validation of these glycinamides.

  2. The study of acetylsalicylic acid effects on wheat seeds germination in salt stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Tănasa; Vasilica Barbu

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to determine whether a treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) would increase the germinative energy of wheat seeds in conditions of salt stress. Wheat seeds were immersed in six solutions of ASA of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mM) and then germinated in two solutions of different levels of salinity (one replicating normal conditions of salinity in crop soils, and one reproducing the conditions present in salty soil). The optimu...

  3. Protective Effect of Melatonin on the Quality of Spermatogenesis and Sperm Parameters in the Mice Treated with Acetylsalicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mohammad Ghasemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Melatonin, the most important secretary hormone of pineal gland, as a powerful antioxidant has a high potent for neutralizing the toxicity of drugs. In the present study we aimed to demonstrate the effect of melatonin on testicular damage and sperm parameters deficiency induced by acetylsalicylic acid, in adult male mice. Materials & Methods: Male NMRI mice were divided into 4 groups: 1 control 2 acetylsalicylic acid treated group 3 melatonin treated group 4 Melatonin-acetylsalicylic acid treated group. Acetylsalicylic acid was administered at a dose of 50mg/kg orally through gavage for 14 days. Melatonin was administered in dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 days intraperitoneally. The control mice were received vehicle (normal saline orally through gavage. The animals were sacrificed and their testes and epididymis were dissected on the 15th day after the treatment. Evaluations were made by determining Johnson's score, epididymal sperm count, and sperm morphology and sperm motility. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test. Results: Acetylsalicylic acid treated mice showed a reduction in Johnson's score and quality of spermatogenesis (P<0.05, sperm count, normal morphology and motility percent (P<0.001, compared to the control. Melatonin in group 4, significantly increased maturation of seminiferous tubules (P<0.05, and quality and quantity of sperm parameters (P<0.05 in comparison with group 2. Conclusion: It seems that intraperitoneal administration of melatonin for 5 days is a potentially beneficial agent to improve the quality of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in testis damaged by acetylsalicylic acid, probably by decreasing oxidative stresses. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:29-36

  4. Effect of O-acetylsalicylic acid on lipid synthesis by guinea pig gastric mucosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohn, M.; McColl, I.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the involvement of lipids as possible components of the gastric mucosal barrier by studying the synthesis and secretion of lipids by the epithelial cell lining of gastric mucosa and the effect of salicylate on these processes. O-Acetylsalicylic acid reversibly reduced in vitro incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C) and of DL-(2-/sup 14/C) mevalonic acid into lipids by isolated epithelial cells and by intact mucosa of guinea pig stomach, indicating reversible inhibition of lipid synthesis by the tissue in the presence of the drug. Inhibition of incorporation of both precursors into total lipids, into their fatty acid components, and into cholesterol is demonstrated. 19 refs.

  5. [Acetylsalicylic acid after iliac-femoro-popliteal interventions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, G; Rossmann, E; Gruber, E; Pratschner, T; Schemper, M; Piza, F; Zekert, F; Polterauer, P

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) in a daily dose of 1500 mg versus untreated controls is effective in patients with peripheral arterial disease a prospective randomized but not placebo-controlled one single centre trial was undertaken. Patients were assigned to one of two groups by means of multi-dimensional contingency tables whereas the risk factors age, sex, height, body weight, diabetic metabolic state, hypertension, history of myocardial infarction, smoking habits and preoperative clinical status according to the Fontaine classification where found in the state of balance. 298 patients with arterial occlusions in the iliaco-femoro-popliteal level were recruited during 1971-1974, the primary end points were probability of patency and probability of survival. In regard as well as to the probability of patency (p less than 0.56 Breslow, p less than 0.66 Mantel) as to the probability of survival (p less than 0.10 Breslow, p less than 0.70 Mantel) no statistical significant difference was detected. In conclusion ASA, in the doses administered here, was unable to improve patency or prolong patient survival, an outcome, which is at variance with results obtained by others. PMID:2050539

  6. Numerical simulation of the solvate structures of acetylsalicylic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide containing polar co-solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, V. E.; Antipova, M. L.; Gurina, D. L.; Odintsova, E. G.; Kumeev, R. S.; Golubev, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen-bonded complexes of acetylsalicylic acid with polar co-solvents in supercritical carbon dioxide, modified by methanol, ethanol, and acetone of 0.03 mole fraction concentration, are studied by numerical methods of classical molecular dynamics simulation and quantum chemical calculations. The structure, energy of formation, and lifetime of hydrogen-bonded complexes are determined, along with their temperature dependences (from 318 to 388 K at constant density of 0.7 g cm-3). It is shown that the hydrogen bonds between acetylsalicylic acid and methanol are most stable at 318 K and are characterized by the highest value of absolute energy. At higher supercritical temperatures, however, the longest lifetime is observed for acetylsalicylic acid-ethanol complexes. These results correlate with the known literature experimental data showing that the maximum solubility of acetylsalicylic acid at density values close to those considered in this work and at temperatures of 318 and 328 K is achieved when using methanol and ethanol as co-solvents, respectively.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of acetylsalicylic acid after intravenous and oral administration to healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelschmitz J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available J Nagelschmitz,1 M Blunck,1 J Kraetzschmar,1 M Ludwig,1 G Wensing,1 T Hohlfeld2 1Bayer HealthCare AG, Clinical Pharmacology, Wuppertal, Germany; 2Institut für Pharmakologie und Klinische Pharmakologie, Heinrich-Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany Background: The pharmacology of single doses of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA administered intravenously (250 or 500 mg or orally (100, 300, or 500 mg was evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Methods: Blood and urine samples were collected before and up to 24 hours after administration of ASA in 22 healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetic parameters and measurements of platelet aggregation were determined using validated techniques. Results: A comparison between administration routes showed that the geometric mean dose-corrected peak concentrations (Cmax/D and the geometric mean dose-corrected area under the curve (AUC0–∞/D were higher following intravenous administration of ASA 500 mg compared with oral administration (estimated ratios were 11.23 and 2.03, respectively. Complete inhibition of platelet aggregation was achieved within 5 minutes with both intravenous ASA doses, reflecting a rapid onset of inhibition that was not observed with oral dosing. At 5 minutes after administration, the mean reduction in arachidonic acid-induced thromboxane B2 synthesis ex vivo was 99.3% with ASA 250 mg intravenously and 99.7% with ASA 500 mg intravenously. In exploratory analyses, thromboxane B2 synthesis was significantly lower after intravenous versus oral ASA 500 mg (P<0.0001 at each observed time point up to the first hour after administration. Concentrations of 6-keto-prostaglandin1α at 5 and 20 minutes after dosing were also significantly lower with ASA 500 mg intravenously than with ASA 500 mg orally. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that intravenous ASA provides more rapid and consistent platelet inhibition than oral ASA within the first hour after dosing

  8. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

  9. Using Capillary Electrophoresis to Determine the Purity of Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized in the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, Frank; Colyer, Christa L.

    2001-11-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE), although a powerful analytical tool, has found only limited application in undergraduate laboratory study. In an effort to expose freshman and sophomore chemistry students to this technique, thereby giving them practical instrumental experience early in their careers, we propose to use CE in the analysis of student-synthesized acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). The synthesis of ASA from salicylic acid (SA) is a routine undergraduate laboratory, although students rarely have the opportunity to test the purity of their product. The CE method described herein provides students with a method to test purity and yield of their product and to determine the effect of aging on their sample. CE can accomplish this in a short period of time, with minimal disruption to the regular laboratory curriculum. Optimized separation conditions, limits of detection, and linear range for ASA and SA are also given.

  10. Chemometrical exploration of an isotopic ratio data set of acetylsalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanimirova, I. [ChemoAC, FABI, Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Daszykowski, M. [ChemoAC, FABI, Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Van Gyseghem, E. [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, Rue Pierre Adolphe Bobierre, 44323 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Bensaid, F.F. [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, Rue Pierre Adolphe Bobierre, 44323 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Lees, M. [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, Rue Pierre Adolphe Bobierre, 44323 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Smeyers-Verbeke, J. [ChemoAC, FABI, Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Massart, D.L. [ChemoAC, FABI, Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Vander Heyden, Y. [ChemoAC, FABI, Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: yvanvdh@vub.ac.be

    2005-11-03

    A data set consisting of fourteen isotopic ratios or quantities derived from such ratios for samples of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), commercialized by various pharmaceutical companies from different countries, was analyzed. The goal of the data analysis was to explore whether results can be linked to geographical origin or other features such as different manufacturing processes, of the samples. The methods of data analysis used were principal component analysis (PCA), robust principal component analysis (RPCA), projection pursuit (PP) and multiple factor analysis (MFA). The results do not seem to depend on geographic origin, except for some samples from India. They do depend on the pharmaceutical companies. Moreover, it seems that the samples from certain pharmaceutical companies form clusters of similar samples, suggesting that there is some common feature between those pharmaceutical companies. Variable selection performed by means of MFA showed that the number of variables can be reduced to five without loss of information.

  11. Demonstration of the analgesic efficacy and dose-response of acetylsalicylic acid with pseudoephedrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtel, Bernard P; Voelker, Michael; Sanner, Kathleen M; Gagney, Diana; Bey, Mary; Schachtel, Emily J; Becka, Michael

    2010-12-01

    To determine acute analgesia by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) when combined with pseudoephedrine (PSE) in patients with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), we used the sore throat pain model to measure single-dose effects of ASA 500 mg/PSE 30 mg, ASA 1000 mg/PSE 60 mg, and acetaminophen (APAP) 1000 mg/PSE 60 mg (serving as a positive control). Under double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled conditions, 640 adult patients with confirmed acute pharyngitis and rhinosinusitis associated with URTI rated throat pain intensity and relief at intervals over 6 hours. Efficacy was demonstrated for both doses of ASA/PSE compared with placebo for all end points, including total pain relief and summed pain intensity differences, beginning at 20 minutes on both scales (all P pseudoephedrine.

  12. Synthesis, characterisation and biological evaluation of copper and silver complexes based on acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubner, Gerhard; Bensdorf, Kerstin; Wellner, Anja; Bergemann, Silke; Gust, Ronald

    2011-10-01

    Metalcarbonyl complexes with ligands derived from acetylsalicylic acid demonstrated high cytotoxic potential against various tumor cell lines and strong inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and 2. In this study we tried to achieve comparable effects with [alkyne]silver or copper trifluoromethanesulfonate complexes which are more hydrophilic then the uncharged metalcarbonyl derivatives. All compounds were evaluated for growth inhibition against breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB 231) and colon cancer (HT-29) cell lines and for COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory effects at isolated isoenzymes. Pure ligands showed neither cytotoxic nor COX-inhibitory effects. While the silver complexes of (but-2-ynyl)-2-acetoxybenzoate (But-ASS-Ag) and (but-2-yne-1,4-diyl)-bis(2-acetoxybenzoate) (Di-ASS-But-Ag) were strong cytostatics, only the copper complex Di-ASS-But-Cu was active. At the COX enzymes the complexes were more effective than their ligands and aspirin.

  13. [Absolute bioavailability of a special sustained-release acetylsalicylic acid formulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, P W; Swoboda, M; Wetzelsberger, N

    1989-03-01

    Absolute Bioavailability of a Special Acetylsalicylic Acid Sustained Release Formulation. The absolute bioavailability of an acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) sustained release formulation (Contrheuma retard), containing 300 mg ASA as initial dose and 350 mg in a retard formulation, was determined in comparison to a standard ASA solution for intravenous administration in a two-treatment, two-period cross-over trial with 6 healthy male volunteers by comparing the areas under the plasma-fluctuation-time curves of the primary metabolite. In addition, it was examined by comparison of the mean times after administration of both formulations, whether the test formulation meets the requirements of a sustained release formulation. The investigations led to the following results: The absolute bioavailability of the test formulation was 95%. The statistical comparison of the areas under the concentration-time courses allowed no decision (neither for equivalence nor difference). The maximal concentration of SA after intravenous administration of the standard formulation was reached after 0.4 h on an average and amounted to 62 micrograms/ml. After oral administration of the test formulation, a mean concentration maximum of 28 micrograms/ml was calculated, which had been reached after about 2 h. The differences are statistically significant. The mean time for SA was 6 h after the standard formulation, whereas after administration of the test compound, a mean of 11.5 h was calculated. 24 h following administration, the concentration of SA was 1.3 micrograms/ml after intravenous administration of the standard formulation and 5.5 micrograms/ml after administration of the test formulation. These differences, too, are statistically significant. From the comparison of the mean time for SA, a retard factor of 1.9 was calculated. PMID:2757664

  14. The effect of acetylsalicylic acid and meloxicamon hematological parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćupić Vitomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work there was investigated the effect of two nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, acetylsalicylic acid or aspirin (nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor - COX1 i COX2 and meloxicam (selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor - COX2 on certain hematological parameters in rats. The objective of the work was to determine whether (and to which extent, these drugs, after multiple peroral application, influence erythrocyte number, concentration of hemoglobin, hematological indices (mean corpuscular value - MCV; mean concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes - MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration - MCHC, hematocrit, number of platelets, leukocytes, neutrophilic leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes. The experiment was conducted in in vivo conditions on 70 clinically healthy Wistar strain male rats, 10 to 12 weeks of age and body weight 250 to 300 g. The rats were divided into seven groups and they were daily perorally (by probe given aspirin (ASCOPIR at doses of 30, 40 and 80 mg/kg b.m. (I, II and III groups, or meloxicam (METACAM at doses of 100, 125 and 250 μg/kg b.m. (IV, V and VI groups, for seven days. The seventh group was a control one and they were given only saline. The obtained results showed that: acetylsalicylic acid in maximum dose tested (80 mg/kg b.m. statistically significantly reduced the number of platelets (p<0,05, the number of leukocytes (p<0,05, the number of lymphocytes (p<0,05 and the number of monocytes (p<0,05, while on the other side, meloxicam in maximum dose tested (250 μg/kg, statistically significantly reduced the mean corpuscular value (MCV, and increased the number of platelets (p<0,05, relative to the control value.

  15. Thermodynamics of inclusion complexes of natural and modified cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen in aqueous solution at 298 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Complexation forces acting in the association between natural and modified α- and β-cyclodextrins and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) or ibuprofen are examined through the analysis of the thermodynamic parameters obtained by isothermal calorimetry. Highlights: ► A calorimetric method is reported to study the association of natural and substituted cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen. ► The study aims to propose a hypothesis about the forces involved in the interaction. That can be useful for designing new cyclodextrins having suitable characteristics to include specific drugs. ► Enthalpic and entropic contributions on the association are discussed. The differences in the cavity dimensions of the cyclodextrins determine the values of the thermodynamic properties to be very different. - Abstract: Thermodynamic parameters for the association of natural and substituted α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid and ibuprofen have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Analysis of the data shows that complexes form, all having 1:1 stoichiometry. The shape-matching between the host and guest is the factor determining the values of the thermodynamic quantities. In the case of the smallest cyclodextrin interacting with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid, the parameters indicate that hydrophobic interactions play the major role. Association occurs through the shallow inclusion of the benzene ring into the cavity. In the case of substituted β-cyclodextrins, instead, inclusion of the benzene ring is deeper and the tight fitting of the guest molecule to the cavity makes the enthalpy and entropy to be both negative. Ibuprofen interacts through its isobutyl group: the values of the association constants are very high for β-cyclodextrins as determined by the large and positive entropies due to the relaxation of water molecules from the cavity and the hydration spheres of the interacting

  16. Thermodynamics of inclusion complexes of natural and modified cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen in aqueous solution at 298 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castronuovo, Giuseppina, E-mail: giuseppina.castronuovo@unina.it [Department of Chemistry, University Federico II of Naples, Complesso Universitario a Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Niccoli, Marcella [Department of Chemistry, University Federico II of Naples, Complesso Universitario a Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy)

    2013-04-10

    Graphical abstract: Complexation forces acting in the association between natural and modified α- and β-cyclodextrins and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) or ibuprofen are examined through the analysis of the thermodynamic parameters obtained by isothermal calorimetry. Highlights: ► A calorimetric method is reported to study the association of natural and substituted cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen. ► The study aims to propose a hypothesis about the forces involved in the interaction. That can be useful for designing new cyclodextrins having suitable characteristics to include specific drugs. ► Enthalpic and entropic contributions on the association are discussed. The differences in the cavity dimensions of the cyclodextrins determine the values of the thermodynamic properties to be very different. - Abstract: Thermodynamic parameters for the association of natural and substituted α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins with acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid and ibuprofen have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Analysis of the data shows that complexes form, all having 1:1 stoichiometry. The shape-matching between the host and guest is the factor determining the values of the thermodynamic quantities. In the case of the smallest cyclodextrin interacting with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid, the parameters indicate that hydrophobic interactions play the major role. Association occurs through the shallow inclusion of the benzene ring into the cavity. In the case of substituted β-cyclodextrins, instead, inclusion of the benzene ring is deeper and the tight fitting of the guest molecule to the cavity makes the enthalpy and entropy to be both negative. Ibuprofen interacts through its isobutyl group: the values of the association constants are very high for β-cyclodextrins as determined by the large and positive entropies due to the relaxation of water molecules from the cavity and the hydration spheres of the interacting

  17. Influence of cellulose powder structure on moisture-induced degradation of acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihranyan, A; Strømme, M; Ek, R

    2006-02-01

    The stability of crystalline acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) powder in binary mixtures with cellulose powders was investigated to reveal information about the influence of the cellulose structural properties on the moisture-induced ASA degradation. Different cellulose powder samples were manufactured and characterized by X-ray diffraction and N2 BET gas adsorption. The degradation patterns in ASA/cellulose mixtures were monitored as a function of salicylic acid increase versus time under various relative humidity conditions at 50 degrees C. The crystallinity index of cellulose samples varied between approximately 49 and 95%. The results indicated that cellulose powder with the lowest crystallinity index exhibited lower degradation rates than the samples with the higher crystallinity index. It should be noted that higher ASA degradation rates were observed in the samples with comparably lower moisture contents. This effect was most pronounced in the 1:3 (w/w), ASA/cellulose mixtures, whereas in 3:1 (w/w), ASA/cellulose mixtures the effect was less obvious. The findings emphasise the importance of cellulose structural organisation when governing the moisture's partition between cellulose and ASA during the hydrolytic degradation. PMID:16311024

  18. [Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of d,l-monolysine acetylsalicylate and an oral dose of acetylsalicylic acid in healthy volunteers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschka, C; Koch, H J

    2001-01-01

    We studied the ASA pharmacokinetics of single doses of 500 mg and 1000 mg of D,L-lysine-monoacetylsalicylate (Lys-ASA) administered both orally (Delgesic) and 500 mg parenterally (Aspisol) as well as 500 mg acetylsalicylate (ASA, Aspirin) in 13 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were taken before and at defined times up to 48 h after application of Lys-ASA and ASA. Analysis for ASA and its metabolite salicylic acid were performed by HPLC. All concentration versus time data were presented descriptively. As far as ASA was concerned, differences were assessed by means of ANOVA according to Friedman including post hoc Wilcoxon tests for each time point. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on a one-compartment model. The concentration vs. time curves after oral intake of 500 mg of ASA and Lys-ASA differed significantly (p salicylic acid concentration after injection of Lys-ASS. We conclude that concerning time dimension oral administration of Lys-ASA is almost equivalent to i.v. Lys-ASA and may be an alternative for i.v. administration in cases of acute heart attacks. PMID:11878089

  19. Acetylsalicylic acid regulates MMP-2 activity and inhibits colorectal invasion of murine B16F0 melanoma cells in C57BL/6J mice: effects of prostaglandin F(2)alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Shaw Stella; Luo, Shue-Fen; Ning, Chung-Chu; Lin, Chien-Liang; Jiang, Ming-Chung; Liao, Ching-Fong

    2009-08-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that acetylsalicylic acid may reduce the risk of mortality due to colon cancers. Metastasis is the major cause of cancer death. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in tumor invasion regulation, and prostaglandin F(2)alpha (PGF(2)alpha) is a key stimulator of MMP production. Thus, we investigated whether acetylsalicylic acid regulated MMP activity and the invasion of cancer cells and whether PGF(2)alpha attenuated acetylsalicylic acid-inhibited invasion of cancer cells. Gelatin-based zymography assays showed that acetylsalicylic acid inhibited the MMP-2 activity of B16F0 melanoma cells. Matrigel-based chemoinvasion assays showed that acetylsalicylic acid inhibited the invasion of B16F0 cells. Acetylsalicylic acid can inhibit PGF(2)alpha synthesis and PGF(2)alpha is a key stimulator of MMP-2 production. Our data showed that PGF(2)alpha treatment attenuated the acetylsalicylic acid-inhibited invasion of B16F0 cells. In animal experiments, acetylsalicylic acid reduced colorectal metastasis of B16F0 cells in C57BL/6J mice by 44%. Our results suggest that PGF(2)alpha is a therapeutic target for metastasis inhibition and acetylsalicylic acid may possess anti-metastasis ability.

  20. Severe nose bleeding after intake of acetylsalicylic acid: von Willebrand disease type 2A. Case 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Weid, N X; Mansouri Taleghani, B; Wuillemin, W A

    2003-08-01

    This case report of a school boy with a history of severe and repeated episodes of epistaxis presents a short overview of the clinical and laboratory findings which lead to confirm the suspected diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (vWD). Suspicion of defective primary haemostasis should arise when unusual (because of their number or duration) mucosal bleeds appear in an otherwise normal and healthy patient. Because of its definitive inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation, acetylsalicylic acid (more than other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs exerting unselective inhibition of cyclooxygenase) is a strong factor in triggering or sustaining the bleeding disorders in these patients. Among the congenital disorder of primary haemostasis, vWD is by far the most frequent one. The difficulties of laboratory diagnosis of vWD are stressed; the promises and pitfalls of new in vitro methods for measuring primary haemostasis (PFA-100 analyzer) are discussed. An accurate diagnosis of the specific type of vWD is of critical importance for correct patient management as well as for genetic counseling. PMID:12923584

  1. Acacia-gelatin microencapsulated liposomes: preparation, stability, and release of acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C; Rogers, J A

    1993-01-01

    Liposomes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) containing acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) have been microencapsulated by acacia-gelatin using the complex coacervation technique as a potential oral drug delivery system. The encapsulation efficiency of ASA was unaltered by the microencapsulation process. The stability of the microencapsulated liposomes in sodium cholate solutions at pH 5.6 was much greater than the corresponding liposomes. The optimum composition and conditions for stability and ASA release were 3.0% acacia-gelatin and a 1- to 2-hr formaldehyde hardening time. Approximately 25% ASA was released in the first 6 hr from microencapsulated liposomes at 23 degrees C and the kinetics followed matrix-controlled release (Q varies; is directly proportional to t1/2). At 37 degrees C, this increased to 75% released in 30 min followed by a slow constant release, likely due to lowering of the phase transition temperature of DPPC by the acacia-gelatin to near 37 degrees C. At both temperatures, the release from control liposomes was even more rapid. Hardening times of 4 hr and an acacia-gelatin concentration of 5% resulted in a lower stability of liposomes and a faster release of ASA. It is concluded that under appropriate conditions the microencapsulation of liposomes by acacia-gelatin may increase their potential as an oral drug delivery system. PMID:8430052

  2. Dual effects of acetylsalicylic acid on ERK signaling and Mitf transcription lead to inhibition of melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Usami, Mai; Awaji, Mizuki; Shinohara, Sumire; Sato, Kazuomi

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as an analgesic/antipyretic drug. It exhibits a wide range of biological effects, including preventative effects against heart attack and stroke, and the induction of apoptosis in various cancer cells. We previously found that ASA inhibits melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, the mechanisms of how ASA down-regulates melanin synthesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of ASA on melanogenic pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) transcription. ASA significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner without oxidative stress and cell death. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of ASA might be due to the inhibition of Mitf gene transcription. Interestingly, ASA also induced ERK phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, abolished the anti-melanogenic effect of ASA. These results suggest that the depigmenting effect of ASA results from down-regulation of Mitf, which is induced by both the induction of ERK phosphorylation and the inhibition of Mitf transcription. PMID:26699907

  3. The study of acetylsalicylic acid effects on wheat seeds germination in salt stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Tănasa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine whether a treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (ASA would increase the germinative energy of wheat seeds in conditions of salt stress. Wheat seeds were immersed in six solutions of ASA of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mM and then germinated in two solutions of different levels of salinity (one replicating normal conditions of salinity in crop soils, and one reproducing the conditions present in salty soil. The optimum concentration ofASA for alleviating the effects of salt stress proved to be 1 mM. The enzymatic activities of three antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and poliphenoloxidase were also monitored in all theexperimental variants to determine whether the effects of the ASA on wheat seeds germination were due to its effects on the antioxidant system. The treatment using ASA in 1 mM concentration increased,in high salinity conditions, foremost the catalase activity and less the peroxidase and poliphenoloxidase activity, making catalase the most indicative enzyme in explaining the effects of ASA on saline stress reduction.

  4. Dual effects of acetylsalicylic acid on ERK signaling and Mitf transcription lead to inhibition of melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Takashi; Usami, Mai; Awaji, Mizuki; Shinohara, Sumire; Sato, Kazuomi

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as an analgesic/antipyretic drug. It exhibits a wide range of biological effects, including preventative effects against heart attack and stroke, and the induction of apoptosis in various cancer cells. We previously found that ASA inhibits melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, the mechanisms of how ASA down-regulates melanin synthesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of ASA on melanogenic pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) transcription. ASA significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner without oxidative stress and cell death. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of ASA might be due to the inhibition of Mitf gene transcription. Interestingly, ASA also induced ERK phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, abolished the anti-melanogenic effect of ASA. These results suggest that the depigmenting effect of ASA results from down-regulation of Mitf, which is induced by both the induction of ERK phosphorylation and the inhibition of Mitf transcription.

  5. Effects of caffeine and paracetamol alone or in combination with acetylsalicylic acid on prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in rat microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebich, B L; Lieb, K; Hüll, M; Aicher, B; van Ryn, J; Pairet, M; Engelhardt, G

    2000-08-23

    Paracetamol has mild analgesic and antipyretic properties and is, along with acetylsalicylic acid, one of the most popular "over the counter" analgesic agents. However, the mechanism underlying its clinical effects is unknown. Another drug whose mechanism of action is unknown is caffeine, which is often used in combination with other analgesics, augmenting their effect. We investigated the inhibitory effect of paracetamol and caffeine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)- and prostaglandin (PG)E(2)-synthesis in primary rat microglial cells and compared it with the effect of acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, and dipyrone. Furthermore, combinations of these drugs were used to investigate a possible synergistic inhibitory effect on PGE(2)-synthesis. Both paracetamol (IC(50)=7.45 microM) and caffeine (IC(50)=42.5 microM) dose-dependently inhibited microglial PGE(2) synthesis. In combination with acetylsalicylic acid (IC(50)=3.12 microM), both substances augmented the inhibitory effect of acetylsalicylic acid on LPS-induced PGE(2)-synthesis. Whereas paracetamol inhibited only COX enzyme activity, caffeine also inhibited COX-2 protein synthesis. These results are compatible with the view that the clinical activity of paracetamol and caffeine is due to inhibition of COX. Furthermore, these results may help explain the clinical experience of an adjuvant analgesic effect of caffeine and paracetamol when combined with acetylsalicylic acid.

  6. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method for purity control of clopidogrel-acetylsalicylic acid in combined oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Getu; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2012-03-01

    A reversed phase liquid chromatographic method with UV detection for the simultaneous determination of clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid and their related substances in combined oral formulations was developed and validated. Good separation was achieved on a Luna C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) using gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a column temperature of 35 °C. UV detection was performed at 220 nm. The validation was performed according to the ICH guidelines. The method proved to be specific, sensitive (LOQ=0.975 μg/mL and 0.0384 μg/mL for clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively), linear in the concentration range from LOQ to 325 μg/mL for clopidogrel and from LOQ to 650 μg/mL for acetylsalicylic acid, precise (RSD values for intermediate precision acetylsalicylic acid, respectively. Moreover, the solution stability and method robustness were examined. The method gives satisfactory separation of impurities of clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid and so it is suitable for quantification of the related substances as well as for the assay of the actives. PMID:22226416

  7. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) - How much, how often, and when? A clinical-pharmacological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Dieter; Belz, Gustav G

    2016-08-01

    The dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) commonly used in the prevention and treatment of arteriosclerotic angiopathies is equal to or less than 100 mg daily. This choice of dose is predominantly based on molecular-pharmacological findings showing an inhibition in synthesis of the prothrombotic thromboxane (TXB2) and an irreversible inhibition in blood platelet aggregation. However, an analysis of ASA dose-effect relationships for doses of 50 - 500 mg (PO and IV) shows that doses of ASA up to 100 mg daily produce only a small or moderate inhibition in collagen/epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation and have no significant effect on the important platelet factors, PF3 and PF4. Doses of ASA 300 - 500 mg, on the other hand, inhibit platelet aggregation almost completely and, in addition, produce a 50 - 70% inhibition in PF3 and PF4 lasting at least 24 hours. There is also evidence that doses of ASA above 100 mg daily markedly inhibit thromboxane synthesis for up to 24 hours and that doses of 500 mg daily produce a clinically relevant inhibition in platelet adhesion to vessel walls for up 72 hours and prevent procoagulatory shape changes for up to 12 hours. These findings suggest that a dose of ≥ 300 mg at intervals of 2 - 3 days would be more appropriate for primary and secondary prophylaxis of arteriosclerotic angiopathies and that the benefit-risk ratio would be greater because of the increased availability of mucoprotective prostaglandins, PGI2 (prostacyclin) and the gastroprotective, PGE2. Our viewpoint, predominantly based on findings with biomarkers, could serve as a basis for further randomized controlled studies.

  8. Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Yu-Huang Lin,3 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Chun-Der Tai,3 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Yen Chu,4 Chao-Jan Wang,5 Ming-Yi Hsu,5 Hung Chang,6 Gwo-Jyh Chang,7 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Ming-Jer Hsieh,1 Fen-Chiung Lin,1 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Ming-Shien Wen,1 Yenlin Huang81Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, 4Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, 6Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicinal Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 8Department of Anatomical Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, TaiwanAbstract: Incomplete endothelialization, blood cell adhesion to vascular stents, and inflammation of arteries can result in acute stent thromboses. The systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid decreases endothelial dysfunction, potentially reducing thrombus, enhancing vasodilatation, and inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis; but, this is weakened by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study proposes a hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers, for the local, sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid to injured artery walls. Biodegradable nanofibers are prepared by first dissolving poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and acetylsalicylic acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The solution is then electrospun into nanofibrous tubes, which are then mounted onto commercially available bare-metal stents. In vitro release rates of pharmaceuticals from nanofibers are characterized using an elution method, and a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The experimental results suggest that biodegradable nanofibers

  9. Pharmacokinetics and plasma concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid after intravenous, rectal, and intragastric administration to horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Ted A; Brown, Murray P; Gronwall, Ronald R; Casey, Matthew F; Meritt, Kelly A

    2003-10-01

    Six healthy adult horses (5 mares and 1 stallion) were given a single dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 20 mg/kg of body weight, by intravenous (IV), rectal, and intragastric (IG) routes. Serial blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture over a 36-h period, and plasma ASA and salicylic acid (SA) concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After IV administration, the mean elimination rate constant of ASA (+/- the standard error of the mean) was 1.32 +/- 0.09 h(-1), the mean elimination half-life was 0.53 +/- 0.04 h, the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) was 2555 +/- 98 microg x min/mL, the plasma clearance was 472 +/- 18.9 mL/h/kg, and the volume of distribution at steady state was 0.22 +/- 0.01 L/kg. After rectal administration, the plasma concentration of ASA peaked at 5.05 +/- 0.80 microg/mL at 0.33 h, then decreased to undetectable levels by 4 h; the plasma concentration of SA peaked at 17.39 +/- 5.46 microg/mL at 2 h, then decreased to 1.92 +/- 0.25 microg/mL by 36 h. After rectal administration, the AUC for ASA was 439.4 +/- 94.55 microg x min/mL and the bioavailability was 0.17 +/- 0.037. After IG administration, the plasma concentration of ASA peaked at 1.26 +/- 0.10 microg/mL at 0.67 h, then declined to 0.37 +/- 0.37 microg/mL by 36 h; the plasma concentration of SA peaked at 23.90 +/- 4.94 microg/mL at 4 h and decreased to 0.85 +/- 0.31 microg/mL by 36 h. After IG administration, the AUC for ASA was 146.70 +/- 24.90 microg x min/mL and the bioavailability was 0.059 +/- 0.013. Administration of a single rectal dose of ASA of 20 mg/kg to horses results in higher peak plasma ASA concentrations and greater bioavailability than the same dose given IG. Plasma ASA concentrations after rectal administration should be sufficient to inhibit platelet thromboxane production, and doses lower than those suggested for IG administration may be adequate. PMID:14620867

  10. Novel {beta}-cyclodextrin modified CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence nanosensor for acetylsalicylic acid and metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarra, M. [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Campos, B.B.; Aguiar, F.R.; Rodriguez-Borges, J.E. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 169-007 Porto (Portugal); Esteves da Silva, J.C.G., E-mail: jcsilva@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-05-01

    {beta}-Cyclodextrin was modified with 11-[(ethoxycarbonyl)thio]undecanoic acid and used as a capping agent, together with mercaptosuccinic acid, to prepare water-stable CdTe quantum dots. The water soluble quantum dot obtained displays fluorescence with a maximum emission at 425 nm (under excitation at 300 nm) with lifetimes of 0.53, 4.8, 181, and 44.1 ns, respectively. The S-{beta}CD-MSA-CdTe can act as a nanoprobe that is due to the affinity of the cyclodextrin moiety for selected substances such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its metabolites as foreign species. The fluorescence of the S-{beta}CD-MSA-CdTe is enhanced on addition of ASA. Linear calibration plots are observed with ASA in concentrations between 0 and 1 mg/l, with a limit of detection at 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol/l (1.5 ng/ml) and a precision as relative standard deviation of 1% (0.05 mg/l). The interference effect of certain compounds as ascorbic acid and its main metabolites such as salicylic, gentisic and salicyluric acid upon the obtained procedure was studied. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanosensors constituted by CdTe quantum dots capped with modified cyclodextrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This nanomaterial shows fluorescence properties compatible with a semiconductor quantum dot. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanosensor shows fluorescence enhancement when inclusion complexes are formed with acetylsalicylic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This nanomaterial has nanosensor potential taking into consideration the formation stability of the inclusion complex.

  11. The Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients on Pharmacokinetics of (Acetyl)Salicylic Acid and Omeprazole : the ERY-PAO Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrov-Winkelmolen, Lieke; van Buul-Gast, Marie-Christine W.; Swank, Dingeman J.; Overdiek, Hans W. P. M.; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Touw, Daan J.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the absorption of orally administered drugs following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in obese patients are limited and inconclusive. As it is difficult to predict changes in absorption, studies on frequently used drugs in this population are necessary. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and

  12. Postharvest treatments with salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid or oxalic acid delayed ripening and enhanced bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Daniel; Díaz-Mula, Huertas M; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Castillo, Salvador; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María

    2011-05-25

    Sweet cherry cultivars ('Cristalina' and 'Prime Giant') harvested at commercial ripening stage were treated with salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or oxalic acid (OA) at 1 mM and then stored for 20 days under cold temperature. Results showed that all treatments delayed the postharvest ripening process, manifested by lower acidity, color changes and firmness losses, and maintained quality attributes for longer periods than controls. In addition, total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity increased in untreated fruit during the first 10 days of storage and then decreased, while in fruits of all treatments, these parameters increased continuously during storage without significant differences among treatments. Thus, postharvest treatments with natural compounds, such as SA, ASA or OA, could be innovative tools to extend the storability of sweet cherry with higher content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity as compared with control fruits. PMID:21506518

  13. [Study of acetylsalicylic acid role in the potentiation of antiamnesic and neuroprotective properties of piracetam in rats with alloxan diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A E; Mamchur, V I

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that prolonged alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats potentiates amnesic properties of scopolamine hydrobromide. It was characterized by shortening of the latent period by 44% (psynthesis in the cerebral cortex. Along with this, a significant enhancement of ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation was observed. These processes may play the leading role in the development of cognitive deficit in diabetes. Meanwhile, co-administration of piracetam with acetylsalicylic acid was accompanied by an expressed antiamnetic potential - the reduction of early markers of proteins degradation (aldehydephenylhydrazones, APH) by 21,7% (pacetylsalicylic acid to improve microcirculation in the ischemic areas of the brain in diabetes and probably to its neuroprotective potential.

  14. Continuation of medically necessary platelet aggregation inhibitors - acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel - during surgery for spinal degenerative disorders: Results in 100 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akhavan-Sigari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients undergoing spinal surgery while under anticoagulation therapy are at risk of developing bleeding complications, even though lower incidences have been reported for joint arthroplasty surgery. There is a gap in the medical literature examining the incidence of postoperative spinal bleeding in patients who were under anticoagulation medication at the time of surgery. Methods: We prospectively followed a consecutive cohort of 100 patients (58 male, 42 female undergoing spinal surgery. The average patient age was 48.7 years and the minimum follow up time was 12 months. Diagnosis was lumbar spinal stenosis in 20, herniated lumbar discs in 63, degenerative cervical disc disease in 3, and cervical disc herniation in 14 cases. In our study, platelet aggregation inhibitors (clopidogrel and/or acetylsalicylic acid were given for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular thrombotic events, to reduce risk of stroke in patients who have had transient ischemia of the brain or acute coronary syndrome, and as secondary prevention of atherosclerotic events (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI. A cessation of anticoagulants (acetylsalicylic acid or clopidogrel in our patients in the peri- and postoperative period was contraindicated. Results: Sixty-three patients were on both clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid and 37 on acetylsalicylic acid only. None of the patients suffered any postoperative bleeding complication. Three patients suffered postoperative wound dehiscence and one patient had an infection that required reoperation. Conclusion: The question of whether preoperative platelet aggregation inhibitors must be stopped before elective spinal surgery has never been answered in the literature. In our prospective series, we have found no increase in the risk of postoperative spinal bleeding with the use of clopidogrel or acetylsalicylic acid. This finding suggests that spine surgery can be done without stopping

  15. Protective role of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) against gamma irradiation-induced ophthalmic and histological changes in rat's eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation generates a variety of free radicals during the exposure of biological tissues through radiolysis of water. These free radicals are highly reactive and cause oxidative damage to biological molecules. This study examined the protective ability of aspirin against radiation-induced ophthalmic and histological disorders in the eye of rats exposed to 6.5 Gy single dose of gamma irradiation, Acetylsalicylic acid was given daily to rats in drinking water (2.5 g/ L) 1 week pre-irradiation, during irradiation and 9 weeks post-irradiation. Experimental investigations showed that irradiation caused cataract formation. Irradiation also caused histopathological changes in the retina of the eyes described as focal degeneration and necrosis of the inner and outer nuclear layers, vacuolation of ganglionic cell layer as well as necrosis of retinal inner and outer segments of the rods and cones. The cornea revealed vacuolation of stratified epithelial layer, edema in substantia propria with dispersion of the connective tissue as well as presence of extravasated red blood cells as a result of exposure to radiation. The lens became homogenous and oesinophilic due to radiation exposure. The eye tissues of rats .that received acetylsalicylic acid supplement showed slight improvement of radiation-induced histological damage in the eyes and it also delayed the onset of cataract formation. According to the results obtained it could be concluded that oral administration of aspirin gave only a slight, nonsignificant reduction of eye radiation injury after exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy). The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the visual system make the eye uniquely vulnerable to damage from injurious agents, physical and chemical. Although many studies were conducted on a broad range of agents, the majority of all efforts are directed at deleterious effect of radiation on the eye tissues, and

  16. Formation of molecular complexes of salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate in a mixture of supercritical carbon dioxide with a polar cosolvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, V. E.; Antipova, M. L.; Gurina, D. L.; Odintsova, E. G.

    2015-08-01

    The solvate structures formed by salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and methyl salicylate in supercritical (SC) carbon dioxide with a polar cosolvent (methanol, 0.03 mole fractions) at a density of 0.7 g/cm3 and a temperature of 318 K were studied by the molecular dynamics method. Salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids were found to form highly stable hydrogen-bonded complexes with methanol via the hydrogen atom of the carboxyl group. For methyl salicylate in which the carboxyl hydrogen is substituted by a methyl radical, the formation of stable hydrogen bonds with methanol was not revealed. The contribution of other functional groups of the solute to the interactions with the cosolvent was much smaller. An analysis of correlations between the obtained data and the literature data on the cosolvent effect on the solubility of the compounds in SC CO2 showed that the dissolving ability of SC CO2 with respect to a polar organic substance in the presence of a cosolvent increased only when stable hydrogen-bonded complexes are formed between this substance and the cosolvent.

  17. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF APIXABAN AS COMPARED WITH WARFARIN AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. For prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF the following types of antithrombotic therapy are used: anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin, antiplatelet therapy (such as acetylsalicylic acid and novel oral anticoagulants such as apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran. Administration of vitamin K antagonists (VKA is complicated by the need for individual dose adjustment and frequent monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR. Both warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid are widely used for thrombosis prevention in patients with NVAF in the Russian Federation.Aim. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of apixaban compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid in patients with NVAF from the Russian Federation national health care system perspective.Material and methods. This analysis used a Markov model that allowed estimation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for apixaban as compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid over lifetime horizon in VKA suitable and VKA unsuitable patients with NVAF respectively. The model enclosed cardiovascular event rates based on the results of the randomized clinical trials comparing clinical effectiveness and safety of apixaban with warfarin (ARISTOTLE and acetylsalicylic acid (AVERROES. The following cardiovascular events were taken into consideration: ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic embolism, intracranial hemorrhage, other major bleeds, clinically relevant non-major bleeds and myocardial infarction. Direct medical costs were determined based on the rates of the compulsory national medical insurance system. The price of the antithrombotic drugs was taken as a weighted average tender price for the year 2013. In the model both costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life years and life-years were discounted at 3.5%. Cost-effectiveness threshold was set at 1.4 million rubles per quality

  18. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF APIXABAN AS COMPARED WITH WARFARIN AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. For prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF the following types of antithrombotic therapy are used: anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin, antiplatelet therapy (such as acetylsalicylic acid and novel oral anticoagulants such as apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran. Administration of vitamin K antagonists (VKA is complicated by the need for individual dose adjustment and frequent monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR. Both warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid are widely used for thrombosis prevention in patients with NVAF in the Russian Federation.Aim. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of apixaban compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid in patients with NVAF from the Russian Federation national health care system perspective.Material and methods. This analysis used a Markov model that allowed estimation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for apixaban as compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid over lifetime horizon in VKA suitable and VKA unsuitable patients with NVAF respectively. The model enclosed cardiovascular event rates based on the results of the randomized clinical trials comparing clinical effectiveness and safety of apixaban with warfarin (ARISTOTLE and acetylsalicylic acid (AVERROES. The following cardiovascular events were taken into consideration: ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic embolism, intracranial hemorrhage, other major bleeds, clinically relevant non-major bleeds and myocardial infarction. Direct medical costs were determined based on the rates of the compulsory national medical insurance system. The price of the antithrombotic drugs was taken as a weighted average tender price for the year 2013. In the model both costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life years and life-years were discounted at 3.5%. Cost-effectiveness threshold was set at 1.4 million rubles per quality

  19. Simultaneous quantitation of acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel along with their metabolites in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhonker, Yashpal S; Pandey, Chandra P; Chandasana, Hardik; Laxman, Tulsankar Sachin; Prasad, Yarra Durga; Narain, V S; Dikshit, Madhu; Bhatta, Rabi S

    2016-03-01

    The interest in therapeutic drug monitoring has increased over the last few years. Inter- and intra-patient variability in pharmacokinetics, plasma concentration related toxicity and success of therapy have stressed the need of frequent therapeutic drug monitoring of the drugs. A sensitive, selective and rapid liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), salicylic acid, clopidogrel and carboxylic acid metabolite of clopidogrel in human plasma. The chromatographic separations were achieved on Waters Symmetry Shield(TM) C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) using 3.5 mm ammonium acetate (pH 3.5)-acetonitrile (10:90, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/min. The present method was successfully applied for therapeutic drug monitoring of aspirin and clopidogrel in 67 patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:26230053

  20. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced changes in the chemical coding of extrinsic sensory neurons supplying the prepyloric area of the porcine stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytel, L; Calka, J

    2016-03-23

    Acetylsalicylic acid is a popular drug that is commonly used to treat fever and inflammation, but which can also negativity affect the mucosal layer of the stomach, although knowledge concerning its influence on gastric innervation is very scarce. Thus, the aim of the present study was to study the influence of prolonged acetylsalicylic acid supplementation on the extrinsic primary sensory neurons supplying the porcine stomach prepyloric region. Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the above-mentioned region of the stomach. Acetylsalicylic acid was then given orally to the experimental gilts from the seventh day after FB injection to the 27th day of the experiment. After euthanasia, the nodose ganglia (NG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were collected. Sections of these ganglia were processed for routine double-labelling immunofluorescence technique for substance P (SP), calcitonine gene related peptide (CGRP), galanin (GAL), neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Under physiological conditions within the nodose ganglia, the percentage of the FB-labeled neurons immunoreactive to particular substances ranged between 17.9 ± 2.7% (VIP-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons in the right NG) and 60.4 ± 1.7% (SP-LI cells within the left NG). Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation caused a considerable increase in the expression of all active substances studied within both left and right NG and the percentage of neurons positive to particular substances fluctuated from 47.2 ± 3.6% (GAL-LI neurons in the right NG) to 67.2 ± 2.0% (cells immunoreactive to SP in the left NG). All studied substances were also observed in DRG neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the stomach, but the number of immunoreactive neurons was too small to conduct a statistical analysis. The obtained results show that ASA may influence chemical coding of the sensory neurons supplying the porcine stomach, but the exact mechanisms of this action still

  1. Binding modes of aromatic ligands to mammalian heme peroxidases with associated functional implications: crystal structures of lactoperoxidase complexes with acetylsalicylic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, and benzylhydroxamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit K; Singh, Nagendra; Sinha, Mau; Bhushan, Asha; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P

    2009-07-24

    The binding and structural studies of bovine lactoperoxidase with three aromatic ligands, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), salicylhydoxamic acid (SHA), and benzylhydroxamic acid (BHA) show that all the three compounds bind to lactoperoxidase at the substrate binding site on the distal heme side. The binding of ASA occurs without perturbing the position of conserved heme water molecule W-1, whereas both SHA and BHA displace it by the hydroxyl group of their hydroxamic acid moieties. The acetyl group carbonyl oxygen atom of ASA forms a hydrogen bond with W-1, which in turn makes three other hydrogen-bonds, one each with heme iron, His-109 N(epsilon2), and Gln-105 N(epsilon2). In contrast, in the complexes of SHA and BHA, the OH group of hydroxamic acid moiety in both complexes interacts with heme iron directly with Fe-OH distances of 3.0 and 3.2A respectively. The OH is also hydrogen bonded to His-109 N(epsilon2) and Gln-105N(epsilon2). The plane of benzene ring of ASA is inclined at 70.7 degrees from the plane of heme moiety, whereas the aromatic planes of SHA and BHA are nearly parallel to the heme plane with inclinations of 15.7 and 6.2 degrees , respectively. The mode of ASA binding provides the information about the mechanism of action of aromatic substrates, whereas the binding characteristics of SHA and BHA indicate the mode of inhibitor binding.

  2. A Prevention of Pre-eclampsia with the Use of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Low-molecular Weight Heparin - Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota; Kolarz, Bogdan; Korzeniewski, Michal; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Patro-Malysza, Jolanta; Mierzynski, Radzisław; Przegalinska-Kałamucka, Monika; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia appears to be the main cause for the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia are more likely to be threatened with conditions which potentially may be lethal, such as: disseminated intravascular coagulation, cerebral hemorrhage, liver and renal failure. Pregnancy complicated with pre-eclampsia is also associated with a greater risk for iatrogenic prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, premature abruption of placenta, and even intrauterine fetal death. In the majority of cases the reasons for arterial hypertension among pregnant women remain obscure. For the past decades, there were many abortive attempts in the use of some microelements, vitamins or specific diets, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, for the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia. Recently, it has been shown that a prevention of pre-eclampsia with the use of a lowmolecular- weight heparins (LMWHs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) could considerably reduce the frequency of preeclampsia. In this review, we present the studies concerning the applications of LMWHs and aspirin in the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia and some important data about the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions of LMWHs and ASA. PMID:26927215

  3. Inhibition of Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in the Lung Tissue: May Acetylsalicylic Acid Have a Positive Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Can; Kilciksiz, Sevil Cagiran; Gurgul, Serkan; Erdal, Nurten; Yigit, Seyran; Tamer, Lulufer; Ayaz, Lokman

    2016-02-01

    The lung is relatively sensitive to irradiation. It is shown that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) might reduce oxidative injury and that it has a place in protection from cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential radioprotective effects of ASA. Whole-body irradiation (6 Gy, single dose) was applied to the rats. Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the lung tissue were measured. Control (C), Radiation (R), Radiation + ASA (R + ASA; received irradiation and 25 mg/kg of ASA intraperitoneally (i.p.)), and Radiation + Amifostine (R + WR-2721; received irradiation and 200 mg/kg of WR-2721 i.p.) groups were used. The MPO levels decreased statistically significantly in the group administered ASA. Histopathologically, a radioprotective effect of ASA was more evident in the R + ASA group. ASA is an agent which has not been used as a radioprotector in the clinic yet, and it is worth supporting with more advanced studies. PMID:26276129

  4. Characterization of a dextran–coated layered double hydroxide acetylsalicylic acid delivery system and its pharmacokinetics in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-e Dong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prepare a dextran–coated layered double hydroxide acetylsalicylic acid (DEX–LDH–ASA delivery system by co-precipitation of LDH–ASA and its in-situ compositing with DEX. The structure of the system was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and thermogravimetry (TG. Its in vitro drug release properties and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbit were also determined. The results show that the DEX–LDH–ASA system retained the crystal structure of LDH–ASA and gave a marked improvement in its dispersion. It also prolonged the release of ASA and shifted the release pattern from first-order to zero-order kinetics. The pharmacokinetics of ASA administered in the DEX–LDH–ASA system to rabbits produced two absorption peaks with a Cmax of 14.8±1.7 mg/L at 2.11±0.69 h and an elimination half-life of 2.25±0.84 h for the first peak. The fact that delivery of ASA in the DEX–LDH–ASA system was sustained with improved bioavailability indicates the potential of the system as a controlled release formulation with application to other drugs.

  5. Experimental research on synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid by miniaturization methods%乙酰水杨酸微型化合成实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾琦斐

    2011-01-01

    探讨乙酰水杨酸微型化合成的最佳实验条件.以浓硫酸作催化剂,用乙酸酐与水杨酸进行酰化反应制备乙酰水杨酸,改变反应条件进行实验,重点考察了反应物摩尔数比、反应温度、反应时间及催化剂等条件对反应的影响.乙酰水杨酸微型化合成的最佳实验条件是:乙酸酐和水杨酸的摩尔数比为3:1,反应温度60~80℃,以浓硫酸作催化剂,反应时间3~5 min.%The best experimental conditions of synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid by miniaturization methods were studies.The acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized from the salicylic acid and acetic anhydrode through acetoxylation, which takes the strong sulfuric acid as catalysis.Experiments were carried out under different conditions.The effect of molar ratio,reaction temperature,reaction time and catalyst on reaction were discussed.The best experiment conditions of synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid by miniaturization methods are:the optimum molar ratio of acetic anhydride to salicylic acid is 3 ∶ 1 ,the best reaction temperature is 60 ~80 ℃,taking the strong sulfuric acid as catalyst,the best reaction time is 3 ~5 min.

  6. Pharmacokinetic study of a new oral buffered acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation in comparison with plain ASA in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, G; Garagiola, U; Gaspari, F

    1991-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic study was carried out to investigate the bioavailability of a new oral buffered 325 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation (ASPIRINA 03) in comparison with a 325 mg plain tablet. Twelve healthy volunteers of both sexes, aged between 20 and 37 years, received buffered or plain ASA on two separate occasions with a wash-out interval of at least two weeks. ASA and salicylic acid (SA) plasma levels were determined by a chromatographic method. The results showed no difference between the area under concentration time curve (AUC0-infinity) ASA values of both formulations (p = 0.19), and buffered ASA relative bioavailability was 102.49% (= bioequivalence). A significant difference was found between the AUC0-30 min ASA values: 90.5 micrograms. min/ml with buffered and 67.7 micrograms. min/ml with the plain tablet (p less than 0.05). The buffered ASA time of maximum concentration was shorter (28 +/- 8 min) than the plain one (38 +/- 19 min, p less than 0.05). The plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of SA were not significantly different after the administration of the two ASA formulations. The plain ASA tablet had a significantly lower (p less than 0.05) dissolution rate than buffered ASA tablet. Moreover, the buffered ASA tablet significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the pH by 0.5 units. In conclusion, the bioavailability of the new oral buffered ASA was equivalent to that of plain ASA, but the plasma concentration peak was reached in a shorter time. PMID:1809699

  7. Synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid catalyzed by carbon-based solid acid%碳基固体酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占昌朝; 曹小华; 严平; 王剑波; 余祖进; 江小平

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-based solid acid catalysts synthesized from starch andp-toluene sulphonic acid were characterized by FTIR, TG, BET, SEM and EDS. Its catalytic activity and effect of conventional heat and microwave heat on yield of acetylsalicylic acid were studied. The better condition was determined with single factor tests, which is as follows: the molar ratio of acetic anhydride to salicylic acid was 1.5 : 1, the weight ratio of carbon-based solid acid to salicylic acid was 5.8%, acylation reaction temperature was 76--80 ~C, reaction time was 25 min under conventional heat. The yield of acetylsalicylic acid was 82.1% and kept 78.2% after used five times under conventional heat. The carbon-based solid acid catalyst has high catalytic activity and retrievability under conventional heat, which are better than that of microwave heat.%以淀粉和对甲苯磺酸为原料合成了碳基固体酸催化剂,并采用FTIR、TG、BET、SEM和EDS对催化剂进行了表征。研究了催化剂对乙酰水杨酸合成反应的催化活性,并比较了常规加热和微波加热方式对反应的影响。通过单因素试验确定了较佳工艺条件为:乙酸酐与水杨酸物质的量比为1.5∶1,催化剂用量为水杨酸质量的5.8%,反应时间25 min,反应温度76~80℃。常规加热条件下收率82.1%,使用5次后,收率仍保持在78.2%。碳基固体酸催化剂在常规加热条件下催化性能和重复使用性能均优于微波加热条件反应。

  8. Effects of nimesulide, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen and nabumetone on cyclooxygenase-1- and cyclooxygenase-2-mediated prostanoid production in healthy volunteers ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerola, Markku; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Kosonen, Outi; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Sarna, Seppo; Moilanen, Eeva

    2009-01-01

    : The beneficial actions of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), whereas some of their adverse effects are associated mainly with inhibition of COX-1. Selective COX-2 inhibitors reduce the risk of gastrointestinal adverse events, but increase the risk of thromboembolic events pointing to importance of optimal COX-1/COX-2 inhibition in drug safety. We compared the effects of acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, nabumetone and nimesulide on COX-1 and COX-2 pathways in healthy volunteers in an ex vivo set-up using single oral doses commonly used to treat acute pain. In a randomized, double-blind four-phase cross-over study, 15 healthy volunteers were given orally a single dose of either acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg, nabumetone 1 g or nimesulide 100 mg. Blood samples were drawn before and 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hr after the drug for the assessment of COX-1 and COX-2 activity. COX-1 activity was measured as thromboxane(2) production during blood clotting and COX-2 activity as endotoxin-induced prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in blood leucocytes. The data show that after a single oral dose these four NSAIDs have different profiles of action on COX-1 and COX-2. As expected, acetylsalicylic acid appeared to be COX-1-selective and ibuprofen effectively inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2. Nabumetone showed only a slight inhibitory effect on COX-1 and COX-2. Nimesulide caused almost complete suppression of COX-2 activity and a partial reduction of COX-1 activity. This confirms the relative COX-2 selectivity of nimesulide.

  9. Comparison of the concentration-effect relationship of a local antiinflammatory agent and oral acetylsalicylic acid: the value of local application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, M; Ralambosoa, C; Blehaut, H; Astoin, J

    1985-01-01

    Using a pharmacological model, the comparison between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), administered orally, and a solution combining two salicylate derivatives (ethyl 5-methoxy-salicylate and 3-phenyl-propyl-salicylate), applied locally, demonstrated the value of the local application. Indeed, the pharmacological activity was highly significant and directly related to the tissue concentration of salicyl ions, which was higher after local application of the solution than after oral administration of ASA. The local solution also resulted in a lower plasma concentration of salicylate ions, allowing high plasma salicylate concentrations to be avoided. PMID:4074414

  10. Promoting endothelial recovery and reducing neointimal hyperplasia using sequential-like release of acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel-loaded biodegradable stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Chia-Ying Yu,2 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Chao-Jan Wang,3 Ming-Yi Hsu,3 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Wei-Jan Chen,1 Yu-Shien Ko,1 Ming-Shien Wen1 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan Introduction: This work reports on the development of a biodegradable dual-drug-eluting stent with sequential-like and sustainable drug-release of anti-platelet acetylsalicylic acid and anti-smooth muscle cell (SMC proliferative paclitaxel.Methods: To fabricate the biodegradable stents, poly-L-lactide strips are first cut from a solvent-casted film. They are rolled onto the surface of a metal pin to form spiral stents. The stents are then consecutively covered by acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel-loaded polylactide-polyglycolide nanofibers via electrospinning.Results: Biodegradable stents exhibit mechanical properties that are superior to those of metallic stents. Biodegradable stents sequentially release high concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel for more than 30 and 60 days, respectively. In vitro, the eluted drugs promote endothelial cell numbers on days 3 and 7, and reduce the proliferation of SMCs in weeks 2, 4, and 8. The stents markedly inhibit the adhesion of platelets on days 3, 7, and 14 relative to a non-drug-eluting stent. In vivo, the implanted stent is intact, and no stent thrombosis is observed in the stent-implanted vessels without the administration of daily oral acetylsalicylic acid. Promotion of endothelial recovery and inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia are also observed on the stented vessels.Conclusion: The work demonstrates the efficiency and safety of the biodegradable dual-drug-eluting stents with sequential and sustainable drug release

  11. Effects of paracetamol and propacetamol on gastric mucosal damage and gastric lipid peroxidation caused by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galunska, B; Marazova, K; Tankova, T; Popov, A; Frangov, P; Krushkov, I; Di Massa, A

    2002-08-01

    We have studied the effect of paracetamol and its pro-drug propacetamol on gastric mucosal damage induced by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and its possible relation to changes in gastric lipid peroxidation status in rats. Paracetamol or propacetamol were administered intragastrically 1h before ASA (300 mg kg(-1)) in the following equivalent doses: 62.5, 125.0 and 250.0 mg kg(-1) or 125.0, 250.0 and 500.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. The effects of the tested agents were compared to that of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) 15, 30 and 60 mg kg(-1). Gastric ulcer formation was estimated morphometrically 4h after ASA administration. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (reduced, GSH, and oxidized, GSSG) and uric acid (UA) were determined in gastric mucosa and blood plasma and used as biochemical markers of the oxidative status. The results showed that paracetamol (250, 125, 62.5 mg kg(-1)) and propacetamol (500, 250, 125 mg kg(-1)) diminished the area of ASA-induced gastric lesions. The effect of propacetamol was more pronounced than that of paracetamol and similar to that of PGE2. Gastric MDA increased 3-fold in the ASA-group. The tested agents reduced it by a range of 30-70%. In all pretreated groups gastric glutathione and UA levels were found higher than that of control group and lower than that of ASA-group. Paracetamol and propacetamol, as well as PGE2, diminished the lipid peroxidation in plasma to a lesser extent than in gastric mucosa, but maintained elevated levels of the selective plasma antioxidant UA. These results show that the ASA-induced gastric mucosal damage is accompanied by the development of oxidative stress, evidenced by the accumulation of MDA, and concomitant initial activation of cell antioxidant defences. As paracetamol and propacetamol tend to decrease gastric lesions caused by ASA and alter gastric mucosal MDA, glutathione and UA values in a favorable manner, it could be suggested that their effects on the gastric mucosa could be related to interference with

  12. Inhibition of aberrant complement activation by a dimer of acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonhee; Wathier, Matthew; Love, Jennifer A; McGeer, Edith; McGeer, Patrick L

    2015-10-01

    We here report synthesis for the first time of the acetyl salicylic acid dimer 5,5'-methylenebis(2-acetoxybenzoic acid) (DAS). DAS inhibits aberrant complement activation by selectively blocking factor D of the alternative complement pathway and C9 of the membrane attack complex. We have previously identified aurin tricarboxylic and its oligomers as promising agents in this regard. DAS is much more potent, inhibiting erythrocyte hemolysis by complement-activated serum with an IC50 in the 100-170 nanomolar range. There are numerous conditions where self-damage from the complement system has been implicated in the pathology, including such chronic degenerative diseases of aging as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Consequently, there is a high priority for the discovery and development of agents that can successfully treat such conditions. DAS holds considerable promise for being such an agent.

  13. Food sensitivity reported by patients with asthma and hay fever. A relationship between food sensitivity and birch pollen-allergy and between food sensitivity and acetylsalicylic acid intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, N E

    1978-08-01

    Among adult patients with bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis undergoing allergological investigation with skin test, nasal provocation test and RAST, 1129 answered a questionaire regarding food sensitivity (FS). 276 (24%) of the patients reported some kind of allergic symptoms on eating or handling various foods, of which hazel nut, apple and shell fish were the most often named. Females reported FS more often than males. A correlation was found between birch pollen allergy and FS with nuts, apple, peach, cherry, pear, plum, carrot and new potato. The higher the degree of birch pollen allergy, according to skin test, RAST or provocation test, the higher the frequency of FS. A correlation was found too between acetylsalicylic acid intolerance and FS with some foods, e.g. nuts, strawberry, almond, green pepper, hip, chocolate, egg, cabbage, milk and wine. The connection between birch pollen allergy and FS is probably explained by the structural relationship between birch pollen allergen and some allergens of the foodstuffs, whereas the high incidence of FS in acetylsalicylic acid-intolerant patients is probably explained by additives in foods as well as salicylates or benzoates naturally occurring in some food. PMID:717703

  14. Dose-Related Effects of Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on Gamma Radiation-Induced Teratogenicity in Pregnant Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviews of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a widely used nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug, has consistently suggested a possible association between prenatal ASA ingestion and adverse effects in the pregnant mothers and their developing fetuses. The objective of the current study was to comprehensively define the effect of relatively low and high doses of ASA (25 mg/kg body wt. and 200 mg/kg body wt. respectively) on gestating rats and their possible impact on the irradiated ones. Therefore 36 pregnant rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Three rat groups were daily orally gavaged from the 7th to the 18th gestational days with: distilled water (Group 1), 25 mg/kg body wt. ASA (Group 2) and 200 mg/kg body wt. ASA (Group 3). The other three groups similarly received the same previous treatments besides 2 Gy whole body gamma irradiation of each, to serve as: Group 4 (distilled water + irradiation), Group 5 (25 mg/kg body wt. ASA + irradiation) and Group 6 (200 mg/kg body wt. ASA + irradiation). All rat groups were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy and the uterine contents were examined. The lower ASA dose (25 mg/kg body wt.) treated group (Group 2) displayed healthy mothers and fetuses whereas that of the higher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) (Group 3) despite not showing significant maternal or fetal mortalities, yet the intrauterine contents presented fetal developmental disorders including stunted growth and resorption together with some head and limb anomalies including plagiocephaly, marked acampsia and acrocontracture. Meanwhile, results have unexpectedly shown a radioprotective role of the lower ASA dose (25 mg/kg. body wt.) (Group 5) to pregnant rats and their fetuses as inspected by its efficacy in retrieving the radiation induced maternal weight loss together with its noticeable ameliorating effects on the intrauterine lethality of the affected fetuses and their externally detected abnormalities in addition toits effectiveness in retaining some

  15. [Platelet aggregation upon acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel treatment and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa content in patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaspekova, S G; Ziuriaev, I T; Iakushkin, V V; Golubeva, N V; Ruda, M Ia; Mazurov, A V

    2011-01-01

    Interaction between aggregating activity of platelets and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (fibrinogen receptor) content on their surface was investigated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Eighty nine ACS patients were included into the study - 69 with and 20 without elevation of ST segment. Blood was collected within the first hour of admission to the clinic (1 day), and then at 3-5 and 8-12 days. All patients received standard antiaggregant therapy - acetylsalicylic acid - ASA (thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor) and clopidogrel (ADP receptor antagonist). Platelet aggregation was analyzed at the first time point when patients had already taken ASA but not clopidogrel, and then (3-5 and 8- 12 days) upon combined therapy with both preparations. Aggregation was induced by 5 and 20 uM ADP and measured by turbidimetric method. In comparison with the initial level (1 day, ASA) at days 3-5, i.e. after development of clopidogrel effect, platelet aggregation was decreased by 54 and 40% upon its stimulation with 5 and 20 uM ADP, and was not further changed at days 8-12. GP IIb/IIIa content on platelet surface was determined by binding of 125I-labelled monoclonal antibody CRC64. GP IIb/IIIa number varied from 31100 to 73000 per platelet with the mean level of 48500 +/- 8400 (mean +/- standard deviation). No differences were detected between mean GP IIb/IIIa number at 1, 3-5 and 8-12 days after ACS onset. Upon repeat GP IIb/IIIa measurement coefficient of variation was 6.1% demonstrating the stability of this parameter in each patient. Positive correlation between platelet aggregation and GP IIb/IIIa content was detected at the first day - correlation coefficients (r) 0.425 and 0.470 for 5 and 20 uM ADP (n=57, p0.05). These results indicates that variations of GP IIb/IIIa content affect platelet aggregating activity within first hours of ACS upon ASA treatment. However after saturation with clopidogrel this factor has no significant influence on platelet aggregation

  16. Development of a new analytical method for determination of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids in tablets by reversed phase liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Neves de Aguiar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid (AAS is a drug utilized as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic medication, available worldwide and commonly used in Brazil. Salicylic acid (AS is a precursor in AAS synthesis and is also produced during its degradation. The official United States Pharmacopoeia (USP suggests the determination of these drugs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, with ultraviolet detection, but this method has neither a high sensitivity (S AAS=0.12 mAbs/(μg/mL and S AS=0.48 mAbs/(μg/mL nor resolution (Rs=1.61. The purpose of this study was to develop a new more adequate, accurate method by liquid phase chromatography than the current official methodology, and to use this new method in the determination of the tenors of acetylsalicylic, as of salicylic acids in tablets. The parameters of the chromatographic system for both the AAS and AS were satisfactory. Selectivity was verified by absorption spectra comparison in the ultraviolet (UV range, during and after substance retention time. The linear range for AAS was 0.21 to 0.39 mg/mL, and that for AS was 6.3 to 11.7 μg/mL. The correlation coefficients (r of the analytical curves of AAS and AS were 0.9995 and 0.9988, respectively; and the detection and quantification limits for the AS were 0.23 and 0.69 μg/mL. The sensitivity (S AAS=1.88 mAbs/(μg/mL and S AS=1.84 mAbs/(μg/mL and the resolution (Rs =5.06 show the improvement obtained using this method over that described by the USP.O ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS é um fármaco utilizado como analgésico, antiinflamatório, antipirético, sendo amplamente comercializado e consumido no Brasil e no mundo. Como precursor de sua síntese utiliza-se o ácido salicílico (AS que também é produzido através de sua degradação. A metodologia oficial da Farmacopéia Americana (USP preconiza a determinação destes fármacos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE com detecção por ultravioleta, mas este método n

  17. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and salicylic acid interaction with the human erythrocyte membrane bilayer induce in vitro changes in the morphology of erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Belmar, Jessica; Villena, Fernando; Gallardo, María José; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-documented information, there are insufficient reports concerning the effects of salicylate compounds on the structure and functions of cell membranes, particularly those of human erythrocytes. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) with cell membranes, human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models were utilized. These consisted of bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representative of phospholipid classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, respectively. The capacity of ASA and SA to perturb the multibilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was evaluated by X-ray diffraction while DMPC unilamellar vesicles (LUV) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. Moreover, we took advantage of the capability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the changes in the thermotropic phase behavior of lipid bilayers resulting from ASA and SA interaction with PC and PE molecules. In an attempt to further elucidate their effects on cell membranes, the present work also examined their influence on the morphology of intact human erythrocytes by means of defocusing and scanning electron microscopy, while isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. Results indicated that both salicylates interact with human erythrocytes and their molecular models in a concentration-dependent manner perturbing their bilayer structures.

  18. 合成乙酰水杨酸的反应条件的探讨%Research of Reaction Conditions about Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅生; 刘大勇; 王九; 王昱航; 陈强; 付富生

    2012-01-01

    对乙酰水杨酸“老药新用”的应用现状以及应用前景进行了详细的分析。比较了目前市场上乙酰水杨酸各种合成方法的优劣,设计了适合于工业化的较佳的合成路线,考察了原料物质的量之比、催化剂用量、反应温度、反应时间对反应收率的影响,进一步优化了合成工艺。经过实验数据的处理与分析,采用O-酰基化反应合成乙酰水杨酸的适宜条件为:无水环境下,对甲苯磺酸为催化剂,n(水杨酸):n(乙酸酹)=1:2.0:反应温度为85℃和反应时间为30rain时,乙酰水杨酸的收率高于97%。所得样品符合《中国药典》和《美国药典》中乙酰水杨酸的质量要求,能够用于合成乙酰水杨酸。%Acetylsalicylic acid "new use for an old drug" application status and application prospect were analyzed in detail. Compared with the present market of acetylsalicylic acid synthesis methods advantages and disadvantages. Design suitable for industrialization of better synthetic route. The effect of raw material ratio, the dosage of catalyst, reaction temperature, reaction time on the yield of the reaction, further optimization of the synthesis technology. Through the experimental data processing and analysis, the O acylation reaction conditions for synthesis of acetyl salicylic acid: without water environment, concentrated 4-Toluene sulfonic acid as catalyst, n(salicylic acid) " n(acetic anhydride)=l : 2.0; when the reaction temperature of 85 ℃ and reaction time of 30 min, acetyl salicylic acid yield were higher than 97 %. The sample meets acetylsalicylic acid quality requirements of"Chinese Pharmacopoeia" and "with the United States Pharmacopoeia", can be used for the synthesis of acetyl salicylic acid.

  19. Effects of paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetylsalicylic acid, and opioids on bone mineral density and risk of fracture: results of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Hermann, P; Jensen, J-E B;

    2012-01-01

    Pain medication has been associated with fractures. We found higher weight in paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) users and lower vitamin D levels in opioid and acetylsalicylic acid users. None of the pain medications influenced bone mineral density or loss. NSAID were...

  20. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), ASA plus L-glutamine and L-glutamine on healing of chronic gastric ulcer in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, S; Takeuchi, K; Honda, K; Takagi, K

    1976-01-01

    A chronic gastric ulcer model was produced in rats by the subserosal injection of 20% acetic acid solution (0.015 ml) in order to examine whether (1) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) irritates the chronic gastric ulcer in active or healed or diminished stage, (2) L-glutamine, given together with ASA, inhibits the adverse effect of ASA. Oral ASA 200 mg/kg/day, given in two divided doses for 10 consecutive days, apparently delayed the healing of the gastric ulcer and irritated the healed ulcer to reulcerate. L-Glutamine, 1,500 mg/kg/day, which was given together with ASA in two divided doses, markedly protected the gastric ulcer both in active and healed stages from the deleterious activity of ASA. PMID:955326

  1. Editorial on low-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment and impact on short-term mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: a propensity score-matched cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoergenhofer, Christian; Schwameis, Michael; Lagler, Heimo

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript “Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment and Impact on Short-Term Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) Bloodstream Infection: A propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study” published in Critical Care Medicine by Osthoff et al. reported an association of aspirin intake with a reduced short-term mortality. Direct anti-microbial effects of aspirin and its metabolite salicylate were suggested in preclinical studies. Especially intriguing is the inclusion of a control group with Escherichia coli (E. coli) blood stream infections in this study, in which aspirin was not associated with an improved outcome. However, as other observational studies also reported benefits of aspirin in critically ill patients, randomized trials are needed to confirm the effects of low-dose aspirin. PMID:27294095

  2. Editorial on low-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment and impact on short-term mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: a propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoergenhofer, Christian; Schwameis, Michael; Lagler, Heimo; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    The manuscript "Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment and Impact on Short-Term Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) Bloodstream Infection: A propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study" published in Critical Care Medicine by Osthoff et al. reported an association of aspirin intake with a reduced short-term mortality. Direct anti-microbial effects of aspirin and its metabolite salicylate were suggested in preclinical studies. Especially intriguing is the inclusion of a control group with Escherichia coli (E. coli) blood stream infections in this study, in which aspirin was not associated with an improved outcome. However, as other observational studies also reported benefits of aspirin in critically ill patients, randomized trials are needed to confirm the effects of low-dose aspirin. PMID:27294095

  3. The effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid on bleeding after transurethral prostatectomy--a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Dan; Holm-Nielsen, A; Jespersen, J;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An increase in the loss of blood after ingestion of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has been reported after several types of surgery, but randomized placebo-controlled studies have exclusively been performed after coronary artery bypass surgery. The reported effects of ASA on bleeding after...... transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) have been conflicting. We have studied the effect of low doses of ASA (150 mg) on bleeding after TURP in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive either 150 mg ASA (n = 26) or placebo (n = 27...... group (median 284; quartiles 196-660 ml) was significantly higher than in the placebo group (median 144; quartiles 75-379 ml), (p = 0.011). No significant difference was observed between the groups regarding the amount of resected tissue (p = 0.209) or the operating time (p = 0.297). In both groups the...

  4. Effects of the precalving administration of omega-3 fatty acids alone or in combination with acetylsalicylic acid in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, P; Bertoni, G; Cappelli, F Piccioli; Trevisi, E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of the administration of long chain omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on inflammation, performance, and fertility in periparturient dairy cows. Five weeks before calving, 26 multiparous dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: ω-3 FA (n = 9; OME), ω-3 FA and ASA (n = 9; OMAS), or palm oil (n = 8; CTR). During the last 3 wk of pregnancy, OME and OMAS groups received daily 12.0 g of fish-derived ω-3 FA, whereas CTR cows received only SFA. In addition, OMAS cows received daily 6.0 mg ASA/kg BW starting at 7 d before calving. Only a few cows had health problems after calving, but those in OMAS were most affected (n = 3 vs. 1 in CTR). Inflammatory status around calving did not improve in OME cows, as confirmed by the patterns of concentration of acute-phase proteins (APP), which were similar to CTR. Compared with CTR and OME, the increase of the positive APP and the decrease of the negative APP (e.g., albumin; P synthesis of PGF2α. A decreased concentration of PGF2α is connected with alterations in the physiologic processes related to labor and to uterine motility. Cows in OMAS had a longer pregnancy (P synthesis of PGF2α. The administration of ω-3 FA alone did not delay calving or the expulsion of fetal membranes. In conclusion, long-chain ω-3 FA improved the physiological status of cows, partly through better energy balance. The administration of ASA before calving (even at a low dose) in combination with ω-3 FA did not exert any synergistic positive effect on inflammation and performance.

  5. A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin C effervescent tablet by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan

    2013-05-01

    In present study, a rapid and sensitive method using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin C effervescent tablet. The optimum chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase Waters® Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 μm particle size, 100 mm × 2.1 mm ID) with an isocratic elution profile and mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (75:25, v/v, pH 3.5) at flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1. The influences of mobile phase composition, flow rate and pH on chromatographic resolution were investigated. The total chromatographic analysis time was as short as 2 min with excellent resolution. Detection and quantification of the target compounds were carried out with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes. The performance of the method was evaluated and very low limits of detection less than 0.09 μg g-1, excellent coefficient correlation (r2 > 0.999) with liner range over a concentration range of 0.1-1.0 μg g-1 for both L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, and good intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) HPLC-PDA) was made with respect to analysis time, sensitivity, linearity and precisions. The proposed UPLC-MS/MS method was found to be reproducible and appropriate for quantitative analysis of L-ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin C effervescent tablet.

  6. Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduces the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases the Formation of Anti-Inflammatory Lipid Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Köhnke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation.

  7. Non-enzymatic modifications of prostaglandin H synthase 1 affect bifunctional enzyme activity - Implications for the sensitivity of blood platelets to acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassassir, Hassan; Siewiera, Karolina; Talar, Marcin; Stec-Martyna, Emilia; Pawlowska, Zofia; Watala, Cezary

    2016-06-25

    Due to its ability to inhibit the blood platelet PGHS-1, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin(®)) is widely used as a preventive agent in atherothrombotic diseases. However, its beneficial effects seem to be lower in diabetic patients, suggesting that protein glycation may impair effective ASA-mediated acetylation process. On the other hand, it is proposed that ASA can prevent some of the late complications of diabetes by lowering the extent of glycation at protein free amino groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the extents of non-enzymatic N-glycosylation (glycation) and acetylation of blood platelet PGHS-1 (COX-1) and the competition between glycation and acetylation was investigated in order to demonstrate how these two reactions may compete against platelet PGHS-1. When PGHS-1 was incubated with glycating/acetylating agents (glucose, Glu; 1,6-bisphosphofructose, 1,6-BPF; methylglyoxal, MGO, acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), the enzyme was modified in 13.4 ± 1.6, 5.3 ± 0.5, 10.7 ± 1.2 and 6.4 ± 1.1 mol/mol protein, respectively, and its activity was significantly reduced. The prior glycation/carbonylation of PGHS-1 with Glu, 1,6-BPF or MGO decreased the extent of acetylation from 6.4 ± 1.1 down to 2.5 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.3 and 5.2 ± 0.2 mol/mol protein, respectively, but the enzyme still remained susceptible to the subsequent inhibition of its activity with ASA. When PGHS-1 was first acetylated with ASA and then incubated with glycating/carbonylating agents, we observed the following reductions in the enzyme modifications: from 13.4 ± 1.6 to 8.7 ± 0.6 mol/mol protein for Glu, from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 3.9 ± 0.3 mol/mol protein for 1,6-BPF and from 10.7 ± 1.2 to 7.5 ± 0.5 mol/mol protein for MGO, however subsequent glycation/carbonylation did not significantly affect PGHS-1 function. Overall, our outcomes allow to better understand the structural aspects of the chemical competition between glycation and acetylation of PGHS-1

  8. The Influence of Prolonged Acetylsalicylic Acid Supplementation-Induced Gastritis on the Neurochemistry of the Sympathetic Neurons Supplying Prepyloric Region of the Porcine Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Katarzyna; Całka, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was designed to establish the localization and neurochemical phenotyping of sympathetic neurons supplying prepyloric area of the porcine stomach in a physiological state and during acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) induced gastritis. In order to localize the sympathetic perikarya the stomachs of both control and acetylsalicylic acid treated (ASA group) animals were injected with neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB). Seven days post FB injection, animals were divided into a control and ASA supplementation group. The ASA group was given 100 mg/kg of b.w. ASA orally for 21 days. On the 28th day all pigs were euthanized with gradual overdose of anesthetic. Then fourteen-micrometer-thick cryostat sections were processed for routine double-labeling immunofluorescence, using primary antisera directed towards tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), galanin (GAL), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), leu 5-enkephalin (LENK), cocaine- and amphetamine- regulated transcript peptide (CART), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The data obtained in this study indicate that postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers supplying prepyloric area of the porcine stomach originate from the coeliac-cranial mesenteric ganglion complex (CCMG). In control animals, the FB-labelled neurons expressed TH (94.85 ± 1.01%), DβH (97.10 ± 0.97%), NPY (46.88 ± 2.53%) and GAL (8.40 ± 0.53%). In ASA group, TH- and DβH- positive nerve cells were reduced (85.78 ± 2.65% and 88.82 ± 1.63% respectively). Moreover, ASA- induced gastritis resulted in increased expression of NPY (76.59 ± 3.02%) and GAL (26.45 ± 2.75%) as well as the novo-synthesis of nNOS (6.13 ± 1.11%) and LENK (4.77 ± 0.42%) in traced CCMG neurons. Additionally, a network of CART-, CGRP-, SP-, VIP-, LENK-, nNOS- immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibers encircling the FB-positive perikarya were observed in both intact and ASA

  9. The Influence of Prolonged Acetylsalicylic Acid Supplementation-Induced Gastritis on the Neurochemistry of the Sympathetic Neurons Supplying Prepyloric Region of the Porcine Stomach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Palus

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to establish the localization and neurochemical phenotyping of sympathetic neurons supplying prepyloric area of the porcine stomach in a physiological state and during acetylsalicylic acid (ASA induced gastritis. In order to localize the sympathetic perikarya the stomachs of both control and acetylsalicylic acid treated (ASA group animals were injected with neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB. Seven days post FB injection, animals were divided into a control and ASA supplementation group. The ASA group was given 100 mg/kg of b.w. ASA orally for 21 days. On the 28th day all pigs were euthanized with gradual overdose of anesthetic. Then fourteen-micrometer-thick cryostat sections were processed for routine double-labeling immunofluorescence, using primary antisera directed towards tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, galanin (GAL, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, leu 5-enkephalin (LENK, cocaine- and amphetamine- regulated transcript peptide (CART, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP. The data obtained in this study indicate that postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers supplying prepyloric area of the porcine stomach originate from the coeliac-cranial mesenteric ganglion complex (CCMG. In control animals, the FB-labelled neurons expressed TH (94.85 ± 1.01%, DβH (97.10 ± 0.97%, NPY (46.88 ± 2.53% and GAL (8.40 ± 0.53%. In ASA group, TH- and DβH- positive nerve cells were reduced (85.78 ± 2.65% and 88.82 ± 1.63% respectively. Moreover, ASA- induced gastritis resulted in increased expression of NPY (76.59 ± 3.02% and GAL (26.45 ± 2.75% as well as the novo-synthesis of nNOS (6.13 ± 1.11% and LENK (4.77 ± 0.42% in traced CCMG neurons. Additionally, a network of CART-, CGRP-, SP-, VIP-, LENK-, nNOS- immunoreactive (IR nerve fibers encircling the FB-positive perikarya were observed in both intact and ASA

  10. Esomeprazole for prevention and resolution of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular protection: the OBERON trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, James M; Herlitz, Johan; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander J; Lanas, Angel; Agewall, Stefan; Nauclér, Emma C; Svedberg, Lars-Erik; Nagy, Péter

    2013-03-01

    Although low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for prevention of cardiovascular events in at-risk patients, its long-term use can be associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that may impact treatment compliance. This prespecified secondary analysis of the OBERON study (NCT00441727) determined the efficacy of esomeprazole for prevention/resolution of low-dose ASA-associated upper GI symptoms. A post hoc analysis of predictors of symptom prevention/resolution was also conducted. Helicobacter pylori-negative patients taking low-dose ASA (75-325 mg) for cardiovascular protection who had ≥1 upper GI risk factor were eligible. The patients were randomized to once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg, 20 mg, or placebo, for 26 weeks; 2303 patients (mean age 67.6 years; 36% aged >70 years) were evaluable for upper GI symptoms. The proportion of patients with dyspeptic or reflux symptoms (self-reported Reflux Disease Questionnaire) was significantly lower (P 70 years (P symptoms at baseline (P prevention/resolution of upper GI symptoms. Together, these analyses demonstrate that esomeprazole is effective in preventing and resolving patient-reported upper GI symptoms in low-dose ASA users at increased GI risk.

  11. Histopathological, Ultrastructural, and Immunohistochemical Assessment of Hippocampus Structures of Rats Exposed to TCDD and High Doses of Tocopherol and Acetylsalicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosińczuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD on central nervous system consists of changing expression of estrogen receptors, whereas the result of chronic inflammatory reaction caused by dioxin is occurrence of destructive changes in various organs connected with disturbed metabolism of connective tissue and damage of cells. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dioxins on function, ultrastructure, and cytological and histological structure of hippocampus, particularly on expression of estrogen receptors in central nervous system as well as to define protective influence of tocopherol (TCP and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA on the decrease in activity of proinflammatory effects in central nervous system. It was shown that TCDD contributes to destructive and inflammatory changes along with demyelization of myelin sheaths and atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus. Dioxin contributes to atrophy of estrogen receptors in hippocampus, in which also destructive and inflammatory changes were found along with demyelination of myelin sheaths. Histopathological and ultrastructural image of hippocampus areas in rats, in which both TCP and ASA were used, is characterized by poorly expressed degenerative changes and smaller inflammatory reactivity. Using both TCP and ASA has a protective effect on functions of central nervous system.

  12. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Benedict, Sheela

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, reduce the risk of cancer. The anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Several other mechanisms which contribute to the anti-cancer effect of these drugs in different cancer models both in vivo and in vitro are also presumed to be involved. The precise molecular mechanism, however, is still not clear. We investigated, therefore, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) on multiple cellular and functional targets, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, using human hepatoma HepG2 cancer cells in culture. Our results demonstrate that ASA induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ASA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced the cellular glutathione (GSH) pool and inhibited the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) and the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, aconitase. Apoptosis was triggered by alteration in mitochondrial permeability transition, inhibition of ATP synthesis, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and the DNA repairing enzyme, poly (-ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These findings strongly suggest that ASA-induced toxicity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells is mediated by increased metabolic and oxidative stress, accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction which result in apoptosis.

  13. Protective Role of Acetylsalicylic Acid in Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: Evidence of a 15-epi-Lipoxin A4-Mediated Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Natalia; Faúndez, Mario; Torres, Gloria; Castillo, Christian; Escanilla, Sebastián; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Morello, Antonio; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo A.; Maya, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    Chagas' disease, produced by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects more than 8 million people, producing approximately 10,000 deaths each year in Latin America. Migration of people from endemic regions to developed countries has expanded the risk of infection, transforming this disease into a globally emerging problem. PGE2 and other eicosanoids contribute to cardiac functional deficits after infection with T. cruzi. Thus, the inhibition of host cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme emerges as a potential therapeutic target. In vivo studies about the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) upon T. cruzi infection are controversial, and always report the effect of ASA at a single dose. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of ASA at different doses in an in vivo model of infection and correlate it with the production of arachidonic acid metabolites. ASA decreased mortality, parasitemia, and heart damage in T. cruzi (Dm28c) infected mice, at the low doses of 25 and 50 mg/Kg. However, this effect disappeared when the high ASA doses of 75 and 100 mg/Kg were used. We explored whether this observation was related to the metabolic shift toward the production of 5-lipoxygenase derivatives, and although we did not observe an increase in LTB4 production in infected RAW cells and mice infected, we did find an increase in 15-epi-LXA4 (an ASA-triggered lipoxin). We also found high levels of 15-epi-LXA4 in T. cruzi infected mice treated with the low doses of ASA, while the high ASA doses decreased 15-epi-LXA4 levels. Importantly, 15-epi-LXA4 prevented parasitemia, mortality, and cardiac changes in vivo and restored the protective role in the treatment with a high dose of ASA. This is the first report showing the production of ASA-triggered lipoxins in T. cruzi infected mice, which demonstrates the role of this lipid as an anti-inflammatory molecule in the acute phase of the disease. PMID:23638194

  14. The Teaching Reform and Exploration on Synthesis Experiments of Acetylsalicylic Acid%乙酰水杨酸合成实验教学改革与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿会玲; 逯嫒琳; 于新池; 袁茂森; 王俊儒

    2016-01-01

    文章通过对比国内外大学教材中乙酰水杨酸合成实验,在前人基础上推陈出新,兼顾实验技能系统训练和内容探索研究,对经典实验内容和方法进行改革与创新,建立了开放创新型实验体系.实践表明,创新性教学内容的引入和教学方法的改革激发了学生的求知欲,使学生在知识和技能的获取中变被动为主动,既提高了实验操作技能,又提升了创新思维能力和团队协作能力,为后续专业学习和科学研究奠定了坚实基础,达到了预期的教学效果.%Through comparing the synthesis experiments of acetylsalicylic acid in domestic and foreign textbooks,based on previous fundamental and seminal study,the paper explores the system training of exper-imental skills and content, reforms and innovates the traditional experimental contents and method, and builds open innovative experiment system. The practice shows that the introduction of innovative teaching con-tent and the reform of teaching method can stimulate studentsˊdesire to acquire knowledge,change their atti-tude to further obtain knowledge and skills from passivity to activation,enhance their experimental operation skills,improve their innovative thinking ability and team cooperation ability,lay the firm foundation for future professional learning and scientific research,and achieve expected teaching results.

  15. Adjuvant effect of caffeine on acetylsalicylic acid anti-nociception: prostaglandin E2 synthesis determination in carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Sánchez, Sílvia; Planas, Eulàlia; Poveda, Raquel

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we report a synergistic interaction between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and caffeine (CAF) on the inhibition of nociception in a model of peripheral inflammation in rat; on the contrary no interaction have been found on anti-inflammatory effects and peripheral prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) synthesis inhibition. Acute inflammation was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan into the right hind paw, and the effects of the drugs were evaluated from 0 to 5h. Nociception was assessed using the Randall & Selitto test, and the inflammatory response by plethismometry. Oral administration of ASA (10-400mg/kg) induced dose-related anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. On the other hand, oral CAF administration (5-50mg/kg) did not show a dose-related inhibitory effect, neither on the inhibition of nociception nor on the inflammatory response. To analyze a possible interaction between both drugs a dose-response curve to ASA plus a fixed dose of CAF (5mg/kg) was obtained 3h after the injection of carrageenan, when the inflammatory pain peaked. A fixed dose of CAF was able to improve the anti-nociceptive, but not the anti-inflammatory, effects of ASA. We also assessed, by enzyme immunoassay, the effects of the combination on peripheral PGE-2 levels: CAF did not alter the inhibitory effect of ASA on PGE-2 synthesis. Our results corroborate the well-known clinical effects of combining ASA and CAF; on the other hand, we rule out that prostaglandin synthesis inhibition at peripheral sites would be the mechanism responsible of the adjuvant anti-nociceptive effect of CAF.

  16. Acetylsalicylic acid regulates overexpressed small GTPase RhoA in vascular smooth muscle cells through prevention of new synthesis and enhancement of protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Bo; Fu, Zhi-Xuan; Ruan, Shu-Qin; Hu, Shen-Jiang; Li, Xia

    2012-04-01

    RhoA has been shown to play a major role in vascular processes and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is known to exert a cytoprotective effect via multiple mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the effect of aspirin on RhoA expression under a stress state in rat VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) and the underlying mechanisms. The expression of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and iNOS activity as well as NO concentration was significantly promoted by LPS (lipopolysaccharide) accompanying the elevation of RhoA expression, which was blocked by the addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NIL [L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine dihydrochloride]. Aspirin (30 μM) significantly attenuated the elevation of RhoA, while indomethacin and salicylate had no similar effect. The sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase) inhibitor ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) showed the same effect as aspirin in down-regulating RhoA but was reversed by the addition of the cGMP analogue 8-Br-PET-cGMP (β-phenyl-1,N2-ethano-8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate). 8-Br-PET-cGMP solely enhanced the RhoA expression that was abrogated by preincubation with aspirin. Degradation analysis indicated that aspirin enhanced the protein degradation rate of RhoA and GDP-bound RhoA seemed to be more susceptible to aspirin-enhanced degradation compared with the GTP-bound form. Our results indicate that aspirin attenuates the LPS-induced overexpression of RhoA both by inhibiting new synthesis and accelerating protein degradation, which may help elucidate the multiple beneficial effects of aspirin.

  17. Reduced mucosal side-effects of acetylsalicylic acid after conjugation with tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new anti-inflammatory compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Gabriella; Lajkó, Norbert; Ugocsai, Melinda; Érces, Dániel; Horváth, Gyöngyi; Tóth, Gábor; Boros, Mihály; Ghyczy, Miklós

    2016-06-15

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) causes adverse haemorrhagic reactions in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and previous results have suggested that combination therapy with 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris) could provide protection in this scenario. Based on this hypothesis, our aim was to develop a new compound from ASA and Tris precursors and to characterize the biological effects of ASA-Tris and the derivatives ASA-bis- and mono-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane (ASA-Bis, ASA-Mono, respectively) using in vivo and in vitro test systems. ASA or ASA conjugates (0.55mmol/kg, each) were administered intragastrically to Sprague-Dawley rats. Changes in the mucosal structure and in the serosal microcirculation were detected by in vivo imaging techniques, the plasma TNF-alpha, tissue xanthine oxidoreductase and myeloperoxidase activities, and liver cytochrome c changes were also determined. In two separate series, platelet aggregation and carrageenan arthritis-induced inflammatory pain were measured in control, ASA and ASA-Tris-treated groups. Severe mucosal injury and a significant decrease in serosal red blood cell velocity developed in the ASA-treated group and an ~2-fold elevation in proinflammatory mediator levels evolved. ASA-Tris did not cause bleeding, microcirculatory dysfunction, mucosal injury or an elevation in proinflammatory markers. The ASA-Mono and ASA-Bis conjugates did not cause macroscopic bleeding, but the inflammatory activation was apparent. ASA-Tris did not influence the cyclooxygenase-induced platelet aggregation significantly, but the inflammatory pain was reduced as effectively as in the case of equimolar ASA doses. ASA-Tris conjugation is an effective approach through which the GI side-effects of ASA are controlled by decreasing the cytokine-mediated progression of pro-inflammatory events.

  18. The Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients on Pharmacokinetics of (Acetyl)Salicylic Acid and Omeprazole : the ERY-PAO Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrov-Winkelmolen, Lieke; van Buul-Gast, Marie-Christine W; Swank, Dingeman J; Overdiek, Hans W P M; van Schaik, Ron H N; Touw, Daan J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the absorption of orally administered drugs following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in obese patients are limited and inconclusive. As it is difficult to predict changes in absorption, studies on frequently used drugs in this population are necessary. Acetylsalicylic ac

  19. The Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients on Pharmacokinetics of (Acetyl)Salicylic Acid and Omeprazole: the ERY-PAO Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrov-Winkelmolen, Lieke; van Buul-Gast, Marie Christine W; Swank, Dingeman J.; Overdiek, Hans W P M; van Schaik, Ron H N; Touw, Daan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on the absorption of orally administered drugs following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in obese patients are limited and inconclusive. As it is difficult to predict changes in absorption, studies on frequently used drugs in this population are necessary. Acetylsalicylic aci

  20. Bleeding peptic ulcer. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/acetylsalicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergard, A.; Bredahl, K.; Muckadell, O.B. de;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) are risk factors for bleeding peptic ulcer. HP eradication reduces the risk of rebleeding. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and presence of blood...

  1. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, University of Brussels (Belgium); Peny, M.O. [Department of Pathology, University of Brussels (Belgium); Gossum, A. van [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.) With 6 figs., 20 refs.

  2. Synthesis and biological activities of transition metal complexes based on acetylsalicylic acid as neo-anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubner, Gerhard; Bensdorf, Kerstin; Wellner, Anja; Kircher, Brigitte; Bergemann, Silke; Ott, Ingo; Gust, Ronald

    2010-10-14

    [(μ(4)-η(2))-(Prop-2-ynyl)-2-acetoxybenzoate]dicobalthexacarbonyl (Co-ASS), a derivative of aspirin (ASS), demonstrated high growth-inhibitory potential against various tumor cells with interference in the arachidonic acid cascade as probable mode of action. The significance of the kind of metal and cluster was verified in this structure-activity study: Co(2)(CO)(6) was respectively exchanged by a tetrameric cobalt-, trimeric ruthenium-, or trimeric ironcarbonyl cluster. Furthermore, the metal binding motif was changed from alkyne to 1,3-butadiene. Compounds were evaluated for growth inhibition, antiproliferative effects, and apoptosis induction in breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB 231) and colon cancer (HT-29) cell lines and for COX-1/2 inhibitory effects at isolated isoenzymes. Additionally, the major COX metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) was quantified in arachidonic acid-stimulated MDA-MB 231 breast tumor cells. It was demonstrated that the metal cluster was of minor importance for effects on cellular activity if an alkyne was used as ligand. Generally, no correlation existed between growth inhibition and COX activity. Cellular growth inhibition and antiproliferative activity at higher concentrations of the most active compounds Prop-ASS-Co(4) and Prop-ASS-Ru(3) correlated well with apoptosis induction.

  3. Semi-physiologic model validation and bioequivalence trials simulation to select the best analyte for acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Gragera, Ana; Navarro-Fontestad, Carmen; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; García-Arieta, Alfredo; Trocóniz, Iñaki F; Casabó, Vicente G; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this paper is to apply a previously developed semi-physiologic pharmacokinetic model implemented in NONMEM to simulate bioequivalence trials (BE) of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) in order to validate the model performance against ASA human experimental data. ASA is a drug with first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism following Michaelis-Menten kinetics that leads to the formation of two main metabolites in two generations (first and second generation metabolites). The first aim was to adapt the semi-physiological model for ASA in NOMMEN using ASA pharmacokinetic parameters from literature, showing its sequential metabolism. The second aim was to validate this model by comparing the results obtained in NONMEM simulations with published experimental data at a dose of 1000 mg. The validated model was used to simulate bioequivalence trials at 3 dose schemes (100, 1000 and 3000 mg) and with 6 test formulations with decreasing in vivo dissolution rate constants versus the reference formulation (kD 8-0.25 h (-1)). Finally, the third aim was to determine which analyte (parent drug, first generation or second generation metabolite) was more sensitive to changes in formulation performance. The validation results showed that the concentration-time curves obtained with the simulations reproduced closely the published experimental data, confirming model performance. The parent drug (ASA) was the analyte that showed to be more sensitive to the decrease in pharmaceutical quality, with the highest decrease in Cmax and AUC ratio between test and reference formulations. PMID:25869458

  4. 凹凸棒黏土负载型固体酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid over Attapulgite Supported Solid Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴洁; 蒋金龙; 钱晓敏

    2011-01-01

    Attapulgite (ATP) supported H+ and AlCl3 solid acid catalysts (H+/ATP and AlCl3/ATP) were prepared and their catalytic activities for synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid (AA) from salicylic acid and acetic anhydride were compared with the free acids.The results suggested that the solid acid catalysts exhibited higher activity than those of the free acids, especially AlCl3/ATP catalyst.Under the optimum conditions of AlCl3/ATP catalyst mass fraction 5% (based on salicylic acid), reaction temperature 80 ℃, reaction time 30 min and mole ratio of acetic anhydride to salicylic acid 2.0, the yield and the purity of AA reached 92.5% and 99.5% respectively.The synthesized AA was characterized by means of FTIR and 1H NMR.The AA yield still reached 89.2% after it was regenerated and reused for 5 times.%以凹凸棒黏土(ATP)为载体,制备了负载H+和AlCl3的固体酸催化剂(分别标记为H+/ATP,AlCl3/ATP),比较了负载前后催化剂对乙酰水杨酸合成反应的催化活性.实验结果表明,固体酸催化剂的活性高于游离酸催化剂,其中AlCl3/ATP催化剂的活性最高.以AlCl3/ATP为催化剂催化合成乙酰水杨酸的最佳工艺条件为:催化剂用量为5%(基于水杨酸质量),n(乙酸酐):n(水杨酸)=2.0,反应温度80℃,反应时间30 min;在此条件下,乙酰水杨酸收率达92.5%,纯度为99.5%.用FTIR和1H NMR表征了产物结构.AlCl3/ATP催化剂经活化再生重复使用5次后,乙酰水杨酸收率仍可达89.2%,表明AlCl3/ATP催化剂具有一定的稳定性,可实现再生利用.

  5. Simultaneous extraction of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid from human plasma and simultaneous estimation by liquid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry detection. Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Kandikere, Vishwottam; Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Ajjala, Devender; Suraneni, Ramakrishna; Thoddi, Parthasarathi

    2011-01-01

    A simple analytical method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in atmospheric chemical ionization mode (APCI) for the simultaneous estimation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, CAS 50-78-2) and its active metabolite salicylic acid (SA, CAS 69-72-7) in human plasma has been developed and validated. ASA and SA were analyzed simultaneously despite differences in plasma concentration ranges of ASA and SA after oral administration of ASA. In spite of having different chemical, ionization and chromatographic properties, ASA and SA were extracted simultaneously from the plasma sample using acetonitrile protein precipitation followed by liquid-liquid extraction. The analytes were separated on a reversed phase column with rapid gradient program using mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer and methanol. The structural analogue diclofenac was used as an internal standard. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions m/z 179 --> 137 for ASA, m/z 137 --> 65 for SA and m/z 294 --> 250 for IS were used. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.02-10 microg/mL for ASA and 0.1-50 microg/mL for SA. The between-batch precision (%CV) ranged from 2.1 to 7.9% for ASA and from 0.2 to 5.2% for SA. The between-batch accuracy ranged from 95.4 to 96.7% for ASA and from 94.6 to 111.3% for SA. The validated method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of ASA after single oral administration of 650 mg test formulation versus two 325 mg reference formulations of ASA in human subjects. PMID:21755814

  6. 强酸性阳离子交换树脂催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid using strong-acidic cation-exchange resin as catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志刚; 谢志融; 陈靠山

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨001×7强酸性阳离子交换树脂催化合成乙酰水杨酸的方法和最佳工艺.方法:通过正交试验探讨了乙酸酐与水杨酸的摩尔比、反应时间、催化剂用量和反应温度对乙酰水杨酸产率的影响,并探讨催化剂的催化能力与使用次数的关系.结果:乙酸酐与水杨酸的摩尔比为3:1、催化剂用量为水杨酸质量的14.50%、反应时间120 min、反应温度60 ℃时,乙酰水杨酸产率最高,为77.93%.结论:001×7强酸性苯乙烯系阳离子交换树脂对酯化反应催化效果好,副反应少,对环境污染小,能重复使用,值得大力推广.%Objective:To optimize the technology of synthesizing acetylsalicylic acid using 001 × 7 strong-acidic cation-exchange resin as catalyst . Methods : Orthogonal experiment was performed to examine the effect of molar ratio of reactants,reaction time, dosage of catalyst, and reaction temperature on the yield of product as well as the efficiency and frequencies of the resin recycled and shifted on the synthesis. Results :The optimal reaction conditions were 3:1 (the ratio of acetic anhydride to salicylic acid,n:n),in a dosage of the resin 14. 50% of salicylic acid,for the reaction time of 120 min at temperature of 60 ℃ , which led to a yield of 77.93 % . Conclusion: 001 × 7 strong-acidic cat ion-exchange resin works well on esterification reaction as a environmentally friendly catalyst and is worthy of wider use, for it has efficient activity, less adverse reaction and recyclable advantages.

  7. Efeitos da injeção de solução bicarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico em mucosa colorretal de coelhos, com vistas a aplicação no preparo pré-operatório do cólon Local effects of rectal washout with acetylsalicylic acid solution on the colonic mucosa of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Salomão Ioriatti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A recidiva local no câncer colorretal tem como principal causa o implante de células tumorais nas anastomoses. 11-15 Dessa maneira, lavagem química do lúmen intestinal é preconizada para evitar tanto o implante quanto à recidiva local. 11-28 Em estudos prévios constatamos que a solução bicarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico tem efeitos citolíticos e anti-tumorais in-vitro.31 OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a toxicidade da solução de aspirina na mucosa colônica de coelhos com o objetivo de usá-la no preparo intestinal de portadores de câncer colorretal. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 coelhos. Um clampe vascular foi colocado acima do cólon sigmóide. Os animais foram submetidos a um enema com 50 ml da solução de aspirina ou soro fisiológico de acordo com o grupo. Os animais foram sacrificados ao término do procedimento ou tardiamente de acordo com o grupo. RESULTADOS: A solução de aspirina não altera a mucosa colônica de coelhos. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da solução bicarbonatada de ácido acetilsalicílico no preparo intestinal de portadores de câncer colorretal é clinicamente possível.BACKGROUND: The implantation of viable exfoliated intraluminal tumour cells is the major cause of local recurrence in colorectal cancer. 11-28 Therefore, the bowel lumen wash with a tumoricidal agent has been recommended. 11-28 In previous study we observe that acetylsalicylic acid solution cause neoplastic cell death in vitro.31 PURPOSE: Assess the local effect of acetylsalicylic acid solution on the colonic mucosa of rabbits, in order to use this agent in the bowel lumen wash. METHODS: 20 rabbits were used. A vascular clamp was placed on the distal colon, followed by the instillation per rectum of 50 ml of acetylsalicylic acid solution or saline solution, according to the group. The euthanasia was performed immediately or later according to the group. RESULTS: The acetylsalicylic acid solution doesn't cause any injury on the

  8. Psychotropic effects of aspirin, acetylsalicylate cobalt and acetylsalicylate zinc at various doses

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Yakovchyuk; Oksana V. Katiushyna; Ivan I. Koreniuk; Denis R. Khusainov; Tatyana V. Gamma

    2012-01-01

    For the first time it is shown that psychotropic action of acetylsalicylates at various doses is manifested as a nonmonotonic dependence having its peaks at therapeutic and ultra-low dose zones. It is discovered that development of effects of aspirin resembles that of acetylsalicylate zinc. Acetylsalicylate cobalt at extremely low doses zone showed the highest antidepressant activity, demonstrating toxicity at high doses. Generally, it is revealed that the use of aspirin and its salts at high...

  9. Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid by Microwave Irradiation and Analysis of Reaction Kinetics%微波合成乙酰水杨酸及其反应动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安从俊; 徐帅; 刘东

    2014-01-01

    采用微波辐射法合成了乙酰水杨酸,考察了反应时间、辐射功率、pH 值、反应底物比(水杨酸与乙酸类衍生物的物质的量比)等因素对反应的影响,并研究了反应动力学。确定最佳反应条件为:反应时间70 s、辐射功率450 W、pH 值5.4、反应底物比1∶2,推算了宏观动力学方程并计算得到表观反应活化能为75.60 kJ·mol-1。%Acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized by microwave irradiation.The effect of several factors,such as reaction time,irradiation power,pH value and reactant ratio(molar ratio of salicylic acid to acetic acid deriva-tive)on reaction were investigated,and reaction kinetics was studied.The optimal conditions were obtained as follows:reaction time of 70 s,irradiation power of 450 W,pH value of 5.4,reactant ratio of 1∶2.The kinetics e-quation was obtained and Arrhenius activation energy was 75.60 kJ·mol-1 .

  10. 磷钨钼杂多阴离子柱撑水滑石的制备及催化合成乙酰水杨酸%Tungstomolybdophosphate heteropolyanions pillared layered double hydroxides (LDHs) :preparation and catalytic systhesis of acetylsalicylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文权; 王力耕; 袁庭; 施炜; 倪哲明

    2011-01-01

    Three kinds of tungstomolybdophosphate heteropolyanions [PWχMo12-χO40]3- (χ=l, 3,6) pillared layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were prepared by ion exchange using NO3 - LDHs as a precursor. The materials prepared were characterized by XRD and FT-IR . The catalytic activity were further investigated in the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid with salicylic acid and acetic anhydride as materials. The results showed that [PWχMo12-χO40]3- (χ = 1,3,6) could totally replace the original interlayer nitrate anions of the NO3-LDHs, producing PWχMo12-χ- LDHs (χ=l,3,6) with good crystallinity. And the PWMo11-LDHs catalyst has high catalytic activity. The optimum reaction conditions for the catalytic synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid on the PWMo11-LDHs catalyst were obtained as follows: the reaction time was 10 min, the reaction temperature was 75℃, the molar ratio of salicylic acid to acetic anhydride was 1:2, the amount of catalyst was equal to 10% salicylic acid. Under these conditions, the yield of acetylsalicylic acid reached 82.02%.%以NO3-LDHs水滑石为前躯体,用离子交换法将三种磷钨钼杂多阴离子[PWxMo12-xO40]3-(x=1,3,6)柱撑到水滑石层间,用XRD和FT-IR方法对样品进行了表征.并以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,考察了催化剂合成乙酰水杨酸的催化活性.结果表明:[PWxMo12-xO40]3- (x=1,3,6)已完全取代了前体水滑石中NO3-进入水滑石层间,得到晶相良好的PWxMo12-x-LDHs(x=1,3,6).其中PWMo11-LDHs催化剂具有催化活性高,其最佳催化合成条件:反应时间10 min,反应温度75℃,水杨酸与乙酸酐摩尔比为1:2,催化剂用量为水杨酸质量的10%,乙酰水杨酸收率达82.02%.

  11. Preparation and characterization of H6P2W18O62/Kaolin and its activity on the catalytic synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid%H6P2W18O62/高岭土的制备、表征及催化合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小华; 王原平; 徐常龙; 雷艳虹; 占昌朝

    2014-01-01

    H6P2W18O62/kaolin was fabricated by dipping Kaolin in the mixing solution of phosphotungstic acid with Dawson structure,and characterized by FT-IR,XRD,SEM and EDS. The catalytic synthesis of acetylsalicylic was carried out as a probe reaction to study the acid catalytic performance of the catalyst,under the optimal condition,i.e. the supported quantity of 40%,w (catalyst)=7.2%(relative to the dosage of salicylic acid),reaction temperature of 90℃,and reaction time of 40min. The average yield of acetylsalicylic acid reaches 90.2%. The catalyst shows good reusability. After its five time usage,the yield of acetylsalicylic acid was still above 85.1%. The catalyst is attractive for esterification by its low cost,high activity,simple post-treatment,no corrosion to the equipment and no pollution.%以高岭土为载体,Dawson结构磷钨酸(H6P2W18O62·13H2O)为活性组分制备了负载型催化剂H6P2W18O62/高岭土,并通过FT-IR、XRD、SEM和EDS对催化剂进行表征。以催化合成乙酰水杨酸为探针反应,考察了催化剂的酸催化性能。结果表明,在优化反应条件为H6P2W18O62负载量为40%,w(H6P2W18O62/高岭土)=7.2%(基于水杨酸的质量),反应温度为90℃,反应时间为40min时,乙酰水杨酸收率达90.2%,催化剂重复使用5次,乙酰水杨酸收率仍可达到85.1%。该催化剂具有价廉易得、催化活性高、后处理工艺简单、不腐蚀设备、无环境污染、可重复使用等优点。

  12. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions in VX2 carcinoma cells: In vitro analysis Efeito da solução de ácido acetilsalicílico e de ácido acético sobre o carcinoma vx-2: Análise in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad-Hossne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze, in vitro, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin and acetic acid solutions on VX2 carcinoma cells in suspension and to examine the correlation between these effects and neoplastic cell death. METHODS: The VX2 tumor cells (10(7 cells/ml were incubated in solutions containing differing concentrations (2.5% and 5% of either acetylsalicylic acid or acetic acid, or in saline solution (controls. Every five minutes, cell viability was tested (using the trypan blue test and analyzed under light microscopy. RESULTS: Tumor cell viability (in % decreased progressively and, by 30 minutes, neoplastic cell death had occurred in all solutions. CONCLUSION: Based on this experimental model and the methodology employed, we conclude that these solutions cause neoplastic cell death in vitro.OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de ácido acetil salicílico (aspirina e de ácido acético, in vitro, sobre células em suspensão do carcinoma VX-2, verificando-se as mesmas causam a morte das células neoplásicas. MÉTODOS: Procedeu-se a incubação das células tumorais VX-2 (10(7 células/ml com diferentes concentrações do ácido acetil salicílico (2,5% e 5% e de ácido acético (2,5% e 5%, sendo estudada a viabilidade celular pelo teste do azul tripian a cada 5 minutos; procedeu-se à análise à microscopia ótica. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o percentual de viabilidade das células tumorais foi progressivamente diminuindo, sendo que ao final de 30 minutos todas as células neoplásicas estavam inviáveis em todas as soluções e concentrações utilizadas. CONCLUSÃO: Com base neste modelo experimental e com a metodologia empregada, concluiu-se que in vitro, estas soluções causam a morte (inviabilidade das células neoplásicas.

  13. [Clopidogrel plus acetylsalicylic acid: a deadly combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the recently published SPS3 trial, clopidogrel plus aspirin increased mortality compared with aspirin alone in patients with lacunar cerebral infarcts. A detailed review of currently available trial data on this dual-antiplatelet strategy, having taken the between-trial variation in mortality in

  14. [Interaction between NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid disregarded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, E.J.; Kramers, C.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 the European Medicines Agency declared that diclofenac is contraindicated in patients with arterial thrombotic complications, based on a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials on the adverse reactions of NSAIDs. The same decision was taken for coxibs some years earlier. The Dutch auth

  15. [Therapeutic use of acetylsalicylic acid in diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zácková, V

    2003-12-01

    Aterosclerosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetics. Macrovascular diseases--myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular accident, ischemic lower extremities--start in persons with diabetes earlier and in a bigger scope then in non-diabetics. Development of these changes is determined by diabetic vasculopathy which is connected with endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulation state, and platelet abnormalities. Treatment of a patient with diabetes is based on compensation of diabetes and management of hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Drugs that inhibit platelets constitute an important part of prevention of cardiovascular disabilities in diabetics.

  16. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions on VX2 liver carcinoma in rabbits: in vivo analysis Efeitos das soluções de aspirina e de ácido acético em fígado de coelhos portadores de tumor hepático VX2: análise in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad-Hossne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze, in vitro, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin and acetic acid solutions on VX2 carcinoma cells in the liver of rabbits with VX2 hepatic tumors; to determine the histolytic and anatomopathological characteristics of the solutions; and to evaluate the eventual biochemical and hepatic changes. METHODS: A total of 48 rabbits were evaluated. The animals were randomized into two groups, protocol 3 (study group and protocol 4 (controls, and each group was then subdivided into 3 subgroups. Four days after implantation of the tumor in the liver, median laparotomy was performed with a 0.4-ml injection of a solution of either aspirin (5.0%, acetic acid (5.0% or saline. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours (protocol 3 or after 11 days (protocol 4. Body weight, clinical evolution and biochemical levels, as well as the abdominal and thoracic cavities, were evaluated, and liver microscopy was performed. RESULTS: No changes in clinical evolution, body weight or biochemical levels were reported. However, an increase in alkaline phosphatase was observed in protocol 4 (controls. The tumor was eliminated in both protocols. CONCLUSION: Acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions cause the destruction of experimental hepatic tumors.OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de aspirina e de ácido acético, in vivo, em fígado de coelhos portadores de tumor hepático VX2, verificando o efeito histolítico e anatomo-patológico das soluções e eventuais alterações bioquímicas hepáticas. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 48 coelhos, divididos em 2 protocolos experimentais(3 e 4, subdivididos em 3 grupos cada. Após 4 dias da implantação do tumor no fígado, procedeu-se a laparotomia mediana, com injeção de 0,4 ml da solução de aspirina (5,0%, de ácido acético (5,0% e solução salina; o sacrifício ocorreu apos 24 horas (protocolo 3 e 11 dias (protocolo 4; avaliou-se o peso, evolução clinica, dosagens bioquímicas, cavidade

  17. Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    updated 3/10/08 Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products © National Reye's Syndrome Foundation Inc. 2008 Epidemiologic research has shown an association between the development of Reye's ...

  18. Estudo comparativo entre agregação plaquetária por turbidimetria e impedância elétrica em pacientes sob terapia antiplaquetária à base de ácido acetilsalicílico Comparative study of platelet aggregation by turbidimetric and impedance methods in patients under acetylsalicylic acid antiplatelet therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lorenzo da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A hiperagregação (agregação excessiva das plaquetas pode causar a formação de um trombo e a posterior oclusão dos vasos sanguíneos levando à isquemia. Esse fenômeno é responsável por doenças isquêmicas cardiovasculares, como angina pectoris e aterosclerose, bem como outras formas de isquemia, como o acidente vascular cerebral. Visando diminuir a função das plaquetas para reduzir a formação de trombos, o ácido acetilsalicílico vem sendo utilizado para tratamento antitrombótico, com diversos estudos mostrando sua eficácia. Dessa forma faz-se mister o uso de uma ferramenta laboratorial para o monitoramento da efetividade do tratamento, o que é feito por meio do teste de agregação plaquetária. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar duas metodologias para esse exame (impedância elétrica e turbidimetria em relação a trinta pacientes adultos de ambos os sexos em uso do fármaco. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram uma boa correlação entre os métodos, possibilitando o uso concomitante de ambas as técnicas em laboratórios clínicos de rotina.INTRODUCTION: Hyperaggregation of platelets can cause the formation of thrombi and subsequent occlusion of blood vessels leading to ischemia. This phenomenon can be responsible for ischemic cardiovascular diseases such as angina pectoris and atherosclerosis as well as other forms of ischemia such as stroke. To decrease platelet function and reduce the formation of thrombi, acetylsalicylic acid has been used for antithrombotic treatment, with several studies showing its effectiveness. Therefore it is necessary to use a laboratory tool to monitor the effectiveness of treatment, which is achieved through laboratory testing of platelet aggregation. The aim of this study was to compare two different methods (impedance and turbidimetry to test platelet aggregation in 30 adult patients of both genders taking acetylsalicylic acid. CONCLUSION: The results show that there is a

  19. Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin) in Vitro Inhibition of Influenza Virus H1N1%乙酰水杨酸(阿司匹林)体外对流感病毒H1N1的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宁; 卢芯; 郑丛龙; 韦淳巍; 许梦亭; 向敏; 林雨馨

    2014-01-01

    探讨乙酰水杨酸(Acetylsalicylic Acid)在体外对流感病毒H1N1的抑制作用。采用血球凝集试验、神经氨酸酶活性抑制试验和鸡胚接种法,观察AS对流感病毒H1N1的抑制作用。血球凝集试验可以看出,AS对流感病毒H1N1包膜表面的血凝素活性有一定的抑制作用,且作用较为显著;鸡胚培养法的结果显示,AS明显抑制了流感病毒H1N1在鸡胚内的增值,实验组血凝效价低于1:2,对照组血凝效价为1:512;神经氨酸酶活性抑制试验的结果显示,AS能够明显抑制流感病毒H1N1的神经氨酸酶活性。结果表明AS在体外对流感病毒H1N1有明显的抑制作用,其抑制机理可能与AS对流感病毒血凝素和神经氨酸酶活性抑制有关。%To study the acetylsalicylic acid (AS) in vitro inhibition of influenza virus H1N1. Using methods of hemagglutination test, neuraminidase enzyme inhibition test and chicken embryo inoculation, the inhibition of influenza virus H1N1 was observed. Hemagglutination test results showed that AS inhibited activity of the H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin and the effect is more significant; embryo culture results showed, AS significantly inhibited H1N1 influenza virus in eggs value within the experimental group hemagglutination titer less than 1:2, the control group hemagglutination titer 1:512;neuraminidase enzyme inhibition test results showed, AS can inhibit the influenza virus H1N1 neuraminidase activity. All study showed that H1N1 influenza virus in vitro was significantly inhibited by AS, the mechanism is concern with AS inhibition of influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase inhibition of enzyme activity.

  20. Synthesis, spectral properties and thermal behaviour of zinc(II) acetylsalicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambi, John N.; Nsehyuka, Alfred T.; Egbewatt, Nkongho; Cafferata, Lazaro F.R.; Arvia, Alejandro J

    2003-03-05

    The thermal behaviour of zinc(II) acetylsalicylate [Zn(acsa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] with respect to phase transitions, pyrolysis both in air and inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere, and product identification has been investigated. The complex was synthesised by metathesis in hot ethanol solution using aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) as precursor and characterised via electronic and IR spectral analyses. Optical observations showed that the white salt does not undergo a direct transition from the solid to the liquid phase but rather goes slowly through an intermediate mesophase around 80 deg. C before melting rapidly to the brick-brown isotropic liquid around 134-136 deg. C. No liquid crystalline phases are however formed. This result was complemented by that from thermogravimetric (TG) studies in the ca. 25-600 deg. C range, which showed three main weight-loss phases of 8.0, 50.0 and 14.0% (around 200, 250 and 400 deg. C) corresponding, respectively, to the elimination of CO{sub 2}, xanthone and acetic acid. The pyrolysis products, as identified using a combination of instrumental (GC-MS) and wet chemical techniques are: CO{sub 2}; non-stoichiometric zinc oxide, most likely in the form: Zn{sub 1+x}O (where 0.0000{<=}x{<=}0.0003); and a mixture of organic products resulting from further decomposition, charring and other attendant thermal effects at the relatively high temperatures (ca. 600 deg. C) involved. Six of the principal organic products were identified and included salsalate and benorylate which are pro-drugs of salicylic acid, a well-known pharmaceutical.

  1. [Chronic refractory pain in cancer patients. Value of the spinal injection of lysine acetylsalicylate. 60 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, M; Hardy, F; Abergel, A; Boule, D; Palacci, J H; Babinet, P; Wingtin, L N; Glowinski, J; Amiot, J F; Mechali, D

    1987-09-19

    Several animal studies have demonstrated that pain is modulated by spinal mechanisms involving prostaglandins and that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administered intrathecally has an analgesic effect. We report our experience of this treatment in 60 patients with proven and advanced cancer. An isobaric solution of lysine acetylsalicylate was administered by lumbar puncture in doses ranging from 120 to 720 mg of ASA. The results were evaluated using the habitual criteria: scoring system, behaviour, consumption of analgesic drugs. In this trial the method proved astonishingly effective (78% of the cases). Analgesia was strong, almost immediate and without influence on motricity. No thermic or neurovegetative changes were noted. The effect of one injection lasted from 3 weeks to 1 month on average; it was reproduced and often more prolonged after a repeat injection. Pain associated with bone metastases seems to constitute the best indication, notably in breast and lung cancer and in myeloma. Visceral (pancreas) or neural pain requires higher doses to respond. Failures (22%) were due to such factors as insufficient dosage at the very beginning of our experience or severe depressive syndrome. The perineal and sphincteral pain of rectal cancer often resists treatment. This simple, inexpensive and very effective method with no other complication than a frequent tendency to fatigue should rank among other analgesic measures in cancer. The lack of respiratory depression is a major advantage over catheter spinal opiate analgesia. We consider that its main indications are pain associated with osteolytic metastases of adenocarcinomas, and myelomas. Owing to the absence of formal toxicological data, its use must be limited to cancer pain and to patients with a life expectancy of less than 2 years. PMID:2957675

  2. Absorption of acetylsalicylic acid from the rat nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A A; Iseki, K; Kagoshima, M; Dittert, L W

    1992-04-01

    The fate of salicylate in the plasma of rats was followed after nasal, intravenous, and oral administration of 2.0-mg doses of aspirin. Aspirin was well absorbed following nasal administration of a neutralized, nonirritating solution containing triethanolamine. The rate of absorption was slower than that of other nasally administered drugs, such as propranolol or progesterone. The bioavailability of aspirin following nasal administration was 100%, whereas the oral bioavailability was only 58.8% at the dose studied. PMID:1501071

  3. [Correlation between the output and composition of essential oil and the level of salicylic acid in mint plants at different ontogenetic stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Voronkova, T V; Olekhnovich, L S

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the content of acetylsalicylic acid and the output and qualitative composition of essential oil have been studied in mint plants (Mentha spicata L. and cultivar Medichka) during their ontogenesis with allowance for changes in weather conditions. Ontogenetic changes in the level of acetylsalicylic acid in leaf tissues are found to be similar in both cv. Medichka and M. spicata. In the case of cv. Medichka, this change is connected with the dynamics of the production and the qualitative composition of essential oil; in the case of M. spicata, this connection is less expressed. The role of acetylsalicylic acid and essential oil in plant adaptation to the environment is discussed.

  4. Efeito da solução de ácido acetilsalicílico e de ácido acético em fígado de coelhos Effect of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions in liver of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad-Hossne

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de aspirina e de ácido acético, in vivo, em fígado de coelhos sadios, verificando o efeito histolítico e o resultado anatomo-patológico das lesões e eventuais alterações bioquímicas hepáticas. Métodos: Utilizou-se 80 coelhos, divididos em 2 protocolos experimentais (1 e 2, subdivididos em 5 grupos cada, sendo os mesmos submetidos a laparotomia mediana, com injeção de 0,4 ml da solução de aspirina (2,5 e 5,0%, de ácido acético (2,5 e 5,0% e solução salina; o sacrifício ocorreu apos 24 horas (protocolo1 e 14 dias (protocolo 2; avaliou-se o peso, evolução clinica, dosagens bioquímicas, cavidade abdominal e torácica e microscopia do fígado. Resultados: Não foram observadas alterações na evolução clinica, peso e nas dosagens bioquímicas, apenas elevação da AST e ALT no grupo 24 horas(Protocolo 1. À macroscópica mostrou que nos animais tratados, em ambos os grupos, a presença de lesão hepática localizada na área infiltrada, correspondente a necrose (24 horas e fibrose (14 dias. Conclusão: Ambas as soluções (aspirina e ácido acético acarretaram destruição localizada do órgão substituída por fibrose apos 14 dias.Purpose: In the present work, 2.5% and 5% acetyl salicylic acid solution and acetic acid solutions were tested in vivo. Methods: In all tests control animals were used and given salt solution. 80 male rabbits were employed and randomly distributed among the different experimental groups. Results: When injected in the liver of healthy rabbits (in vivo, both solutions produced localized destruction (coagulative necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma in 24 hours. After 14 days, these lesions either disappeared or were replaced by mild scars (fibrosis. The lesions were not followed by clinical alterations and the only observed biochemical alteration was an increase in the amount of alanine amino transferase after 24 hours. Conclusion: In vivo, the effects of

  5. Chemoprevention with Acetylsalicylic Acid, Vitamin D and Calcium Reduces Risk of Carcinogen-induced Lung Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, J;

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: Research has shown that chemoprevention may be effective against the development of lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor.......Background/Aim: Research has shown that chemoprevention may be effective against the development of lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor....

  6. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Lesné, L.; Fol, V. Le;

    2012-01-01

    analgesics exert potent anti-androgenic effects in the male rat and several endocrine-disrupting compounds, known to alter masculinization, have also been shown to be potent inhibitors of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis similar to mild analgesics. Using a 3-day ex vivo organotypic model system based...... of indomethacin were correlated. We conclude that mild analgesics exert direct and specific anti-androgenic effects in rat foetal testis in our experimental setup and that the mechanism of action is probably uncoupled from the inhibition of PG synthesis....

  7. Detection of Salicylic Acid in Willow Bark: An Addition to a Classic Series of Experiments in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Matthew D.; McLeod, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid and its derivative, acetylsalicylic acid, are often encountered in introductory organic chemistry experiments, and mention is often made that salicylic acid was originally isolated from the bark of the willow tree. This biological connection, however, is typically not further pursued, leaving students with an impression that biology…

  8. [Correlation between the output and composition of essential oil and the level of salicylic acid in mint plants at different ontogenetic stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Voronkova, T V; Olekhnovich, L S

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the content of acetylsalicylic acid and the output and qualitative composition of essential oil have been studied in mint plants (Mentha spicata L. and cultivar Medichka) during their ontogenesis with allowance for changes in weather conditions. Ontogenetic changes in the level of acetylsalicylic acid in leaf tissues are found to be similar in both cv. Medichka and M. spicata. In the case of cv. Medichka, this change is connected with the dynamics of the production and the qualitative composition of essential oil; in the case of M. spicata, this connection is less expressed. The role of acetylsalicylic acid and essential oil in plant adaptation to the environment is discussed. PMID:24171311

  9. Synthesis of [{sup 11}C]salicylic acid and related compounds and their biodistribution in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Toru; Ishii, Shin-Ichi; Senda, Michio [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Nakacho, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Koji [Radiological Technology Course, Faculty of Medical Engineering and Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    For in vivo measurement of the hydroxyl radical ({sup %s{center_dot}}OH), we synthesized [{sup 11}C]salicylic acid, [{sup 11}C]O-acetylsalicylic acid and [{sup 11}C]2-methoxybenzoic acid by carboxylation of 2-bromomagnesiumanisol using [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2}. The radiochemical yield of [{sup 11}C]salicylic acid, [{sup 11}C]O-acetylsalicylic acid and [{sup 11}C]2-methoxybenzoic acid calculated from trapped [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} in a liquid argon cooled stainless tube was 7.3{+-}1.6, 5.2 and 10.2{+-}1.7% (decay corrected), respectively. The uptake of {sup 11}C tracers by mouse brain was 0.46, 0.32 and 0.46% dose/g tissue, respectively, at 10 min post injection and presented washout patterns thereafter.

  10. Synthesis of [11C]salicylic acid and related compounds and their biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For in vivo measurement of the hydroxyl radical (%s·OH), we synthesized [11C]salicylic acid, [11C]O-acetylsalicylic acid and [11C]2-methoxybenzoic acid by carboxylation of 2-bromomagnesiumanisol using [11C]CO2. The radiochemical yield of [11C]salicylic acid, [11C]O-acetylsalicylic acid and [11C]2-methoxybenzoic acid calculated from trapped [11C]CO2 in a liquid argon cooled stainless tube was 7.3±1.6, 5.2 and 10.2±1.7% (decay corrected), respectively. The uptake of 11C tracers by mouse brain was 0.46, 0.32 and 0.46% dose/g tissue, respectively, at 10 min post injection and presented washout patterns thereafter

  11. Pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid following administration of aspirin tablets and three different forms of soluble aspirin in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Attardo Parrinello, G; Vitiello, B; Perucca, E

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of an innovative formulation of soluble aspirin (l-ornithine acetylsalicylate, ldB 1003) was compared with that of conventional tablets and two other soluble dosage forms (d, l-lysine acetylsalicylate and a buffered effervescent formulation of acetylsalicylic acid) after administration of single oral doses in six normal volunteers. All soluble forms showed a rapid absorption profile, peak plasma salicylic acid levels being attained after about 30 min on average and without statistically significant differences among the solutions tested. As compared to the soluble formulations, acetylsalicylic acid given as tablets resulted in slower absorption, with peak plasma salicylic acid levels being reached more than 1 h after dosing. Despite these differences in time course of plasma level profiles, the extent of absorption was similar for all formulations. Apart from the potential advantages in terms of improved gastric tolerability, the increased rate of absorption of aspirin solutions is therapeutically useful whenever a rapid onset of action is required. In this respect, the kinetic pattern of the innovative formulation compares favourably with that of other available soluble dosage forms. PMID:2517497

  12. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the pr...

  13. Lysine acetylsalicylate ameliorates lung injury in rats acutely exposed to paraquat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei-dong; WANG Jie-zan; LU Yuan-qiang; DI Ya-min; JIANG Jiu-kun; ZHANG Qin

    2011-01-01

    Background Paraquat (PQ), an effective and widely used herbicide, has been proven to be safe when appropriately applied to eliminate weeds. However, PQ poisoning is an extremely frustrating clinical condition with a high mortality and with a lack of effective treatments in humans. PQ mainly accumulates in the lung, and the main molecular mechanism of PQ toxicity is based on redox cycling and intracellular oxidative stress generation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) could protect the lung from the damage of PQ poisoning and to study the mechanisms of protection.Methods A model of PQ poisoning was established in 75 Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration of 50 mg/kg PQ, followed by treatment with 200 mg/kg of LAS. The rats were randomly divided into sham, PQ, and PQ+LAS groups, with 25 in each group. We assessed and compared the malonaldehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in serum and lung and the hydroxyproline (HYP)content, pathological changes, apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2/Bax protein in lung of rats on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21after PQ poisoning and LAS treatment.Results Compared to the PQ group rats, early treatment with LAS reduced the MDA and HYP contents, and increased the SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities in the serum and lung on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after PQ poisoning (all P<0.05).After early LAS treatment, the apoptotic rate and Bax expression of lung decreased, the Bcl-2 expression increased, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased, compared to the PQ group rats. Furthermore, the pathological results of lungs revealed that after LAS treatment, early manifestations of PQ poisoning, such as hemorrhage, edema and inflammatory-cell infiltration, were improved to some degree, and collagen fibers in the pulmonary interstitium were also obviously reduced.Conclusion In this rat model of PQ poisoning, LAS effectively ameliorated the lung

  14. In vitro release of arachidonic acid metabolites, glutathione peroxidase, and oxygen-free radicals from platelets of asthmatic patients with and without aspirin intolerance.

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, V.; J. Prat; Rosellò, J.; Ballester, E; Ramis, I; Mullol, J; Gelpí, E; Vives-Corrons, J. L.; Picado, C.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--An abnormal platelet release of oxygen-free radicals has been described in acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)-induced asthma, a finding which might suggest the existence of an intrinsic, specific platelet abnormality of arachidonic acid metabolism in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate platelet arachidonic acid metabolism in asthmatic patients with or without intolerance to aspirin. METHODS--Thirty subjects distributed into three groups were studied: group 1, 1...

  15. Lysine acetylsalicylate increases the safety of a paraquat formulation to freshwater primary producers: A case study with the microalga Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltazar, Maria Teresa, E-mail: mteresabaltazar@gmail.com [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); IINFACTS-Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Department of Sciences, Advanced Institute of Health Sciences-North, CESPU, CRL, Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, 4585-116 Gandra (Portugal); Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); IINFACTS-Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Department of Sciences, Advanced Institute of Health Sciences-North, CESPU, CRL, Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, 4585-116 Gandra (Portugal); Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); CENCIFOR-Forensic Sciences Center, Largo da Sé Nova, 3000-213, Coimbra (Portugal); Martins, Alexandra [CIIMAR Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology and Ecology, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Institute of Biomedical Sciences of Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Department of Populations Studies, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Bastos, Maria de Lourdes [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Duarte, José Alberto [CIAFEL, Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa, 91-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •The formulation has a reduced toxicity to C. vulgaris when compared to Gramoxone{sup ®}. •The highest protection was achieved at the proportion of 1:8 (PQ/LAS). •LAS conferred a protection of approximately 1.8 fold (% of inhibition of growth). •Salicylic acid is biotransformed by C. vulgaris after 48 h, and not detectable at 96 h. -- Abstract: Large amounts of herbicides are presently used in the industrialized nations worldwide, with an inexorable burden to the environment, especially to aquatic ecosystems. Primary producers such as microalgae are of especial concern because they are vital for the input of energy into the ecosystem and for the maintenance of oxygen in water on which most of other marine life forms depend on. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) is known to cause inhibition of photosynthesis and irreversible damage to photosynthetic organisms through generation of reactive oxygen species in a light-dependent manner. Previous studies have led to the development of a new formulation of PQ containing lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) as an antidote, which was shown to prevent the mammalian toxicity of PQ, while maintaining the herbicidal effect. However, the safety of this formulation to primary producers in relation to commercially available PQ formulations has hitherto not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the PQ + LAS formulation in comparison with the PQ, using Chlorella vulgaris as a test organism. Effect criterion was the inhibition of microalgal population growth. Following a 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of PQ, C. vulgaris growth was almost completely inhibited, an effect that was significantly prevented by LAS at the proportion used in the formulation (PQ + LAS) 1:2 (mol/mol), while the highest protection was achieved at the proportion of 1:8. In conclusion, the present work demonstrated that the new formulation with PQ + LAS has a reduced toxicity to C. vulgaris when

  16. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  17. Improved Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid%乙酰水杨酸合成方法改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远军; 陈丽

    2010-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,以弱酸硫酸铝钾作催化剂可以方便的合成乙酰水杨酸,实验结果表明:反应温度、反应时间、催化剂用量、水杨酸与乙酸酐的比例等因素均有影响,最佳反应条件是:催化剂的用量为0.6g,n(水杨酸):n(乙酸酐)=1.0:2.0,恒温70℃,反应时间为30min,在优化的反应条件下,乙酰水杨酸的产率为77.8%.结果还表明,硫酸铝钾作为催化剂产率高于浓硫酸作催化剂的产率,而且产品色泽为白色,且纯度高.

  18. 碘催化合成乙酰水杨酸%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid with Iodine as Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原方圆; 邵红兵; 董丽花

    2008-01-01

    乙酰水杨酸(2-乙酰氧基苯甲酸)俗称阿司匹林,是一种常用的解热镇痛药,作为治疗和预防心脑血管疾病的药物已被广泛应用于临床。近年来的研究表明:阿司匹林能有效防治动脉梗塞,抑制血小板聚集,在防治心血管疾病方面有较好的疗效,服用阿司匹林能使胆道再次结石的可能性减少50%,使人患自内障的可能性减少70%,对防治乳腺癌、肺癌、皮肤癌也有较好的功效。乙酰水杨酸(阿司匹林)通常用水杨酸和乙酸酐反应来合成,

  19. Synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid catalyzed by urea%尿素催化合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑广进; 龙盛京

    2010-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,采用尿素作催化剂合成乙酰水杨酸.考察了温度、尿素用量、n(水杨酸):n(乙酸酐)和时间对反应的影响.正交试验结果表明,较适宜的反应条件为:n(水杨酸):n(乙酸酐)=1:3,尿素用量为水杨酸质量的5%,反应温度85℃,反应时间60 min,此条件下,乙酰水杨酸收率达94.06%.

  20. 负载型杂多酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid Catalyzed by Supported Heteropoly Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宝华; 曹小华; 徐常龙; 陶春元

    2007-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,负载型杂多酸为催化剂合成了乙酰水杨酸.考察催化剂用量、水杨酸和乙酸酐物料配比、反应时间、温度等因素对反应的影响.结果表明:当n(水杨酸)∶n(乙酸酐)为1.0∶1.5,催化剂用量为水杨酸质量的5%,71~75 ℃反应15 min,产率达94.2%.

  1. 氨基磺酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Study on Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid Catalyzed by Amidosulphonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树

    2007-01-01

    利用氨基磺酸作为催化剂,由水杨酸和乙酸酐合成了乙酰水杨酸.研究了各因素对该反应的影响.通过实验确定了其最佳反应条件.实验表明:该催化剂催化效果好,使用量少,产率高,三废排放少,廉价易得.

  2. 酸性膨润土催化合成乙酰水杨酸研究%Studies on synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid catalyzed by acid bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志勇; 何奕波

    2005-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,在自制酸性膨润土催化下合成了乙酰水杨酸;探讨了催化剂的结构特征及最佳合成条件.结果表明:酸性膨润土对乙酰水杨酸的合成具有良好催化活性;在水杨酸与乙酸酐投料比为1∶ 3.6,酸性膨润土加入量等于5%水杨酸投料量(质量)和85~90 ℃下,催化反应0.5~1.0 h,产物收率可达90.44%.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID CATALYZED BY SILICOTUNGSTIC ACID%硅钨酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐常龙; 柳闽生; 曹小华; 赵新萍; 薛蒙伟

    2007-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,硅钨酸为催化剂合成了乙酰水杨酸.考察了催化剂用量、反应物物料配比、反应时间、温度等因素对反应的影响.结果表明:硅钨酸具有催化活性高、稳定,对环境友好的特点.最佳工艺条件为:n(水杨酸):n(乙酸酐):n(硅钨酸)=1.0:2.5:0.002 4,76~80 ℃反应15 min,乙酰水杨酸收率达92.6%.

  4. 以酸活化膨润土催化合成阿司匹林%Synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid by acid bentonite as catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵全; 陈志勇

    2004-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,在自制酸化膨润土催化下合成了阿司匹林;探讨了催化剂的结构特征及最佳催化条件.结果表明:酸化膨润土对阿司匹林的合成具有良好的催化活性;在最佳工艺条件下,收率可达:90.44%.

  5. 氨基磺酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid over sulfaminic acid supported on activated carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继忠; 王俊梅; 田曼

    2008-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,采用氨基磺酸作催化剂合成乙酰水杨酸.考察了影响反应的因素.结果表明,酰化反应的优化条件为:n(水杨酸):n(乙酸酐):n(氨基磺酸)=1:1.5:0.006 1,反应时间25 min,反应温度(81~85)℃,产率可达93.34%.

  6. Concentrations of acidic antiinflammatory drugs in gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H H; El-Sayed, M A

    1977-12-01

    In rats, the concentrations of the acidic antiinflammatory drugs salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, phenylbutazone, flufenamic acid and indomethacin in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa were determined 30 and 60 min after oral or subcutaneous administration. In another series of experiments, solutions of the drugs were introduced into the ligated stomach and the concentrations in the mucosa and in the contents of the stomach were determined after 60 min. The ratio between the concentrations in the musoca and those in serum or gastric contents were much lower than expected according to the distribution by passive non-ionic diffusion. This apparent discrepancy may be explained as a result of a drug-induced damage to the mucosal cell allowing free diffusion of ionized drug across the cell membrane. PMID:603322

  7. Synthesis of a nano-crystalline solid acid catalyst from fly ash and its catalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitralekha Khatri; Ashu Rani [Government P.G. College, Kota (India). Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    The synthesis of nano-crystalline activated fly ash catalyst (AFAC) with crystallite size of 12 nm was carried out by chemical and thermal treatment of fly ash, a waste material generated from coal-burning power plants. Fly ash was chemically activated using sulfuric acid followed by thermal activation at 600{sup o}C. The variation of surface and physico-chemical properties of the fly ash by activation methods resulted in improved acidity and therefore, catalytic activity for acid catalyzed reactions. The AFAC was characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N{sub 2}-adsorption-desorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and sulfur content by CHNS/O elemental analysis. It showed amorphous nature due to high silica content (81%) and possessed high BET surface area (120 m{sup 2}/g). The catalyst was found to be highly active solid acid catalyst for liquid phase esterification of salicylic acid with acetic anhydride and methanol giving acetylsalicylic acid and methyl salicylate respectively. A maximum yield of 97% with high purity of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and a very high conversion 87% of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) was obtained with AFAC. The surface acidity and therefore, catalytic activity in AFAC was originated by increased silica content, hydroxyl content and higher surface area as compared to fly ash. The study shows that coal generated fly ash can be converted into potential solid acid catalyst for acid catalyzed reactions. Furthermore, this catalyst may replace conventional environmentally hazardous homogeneous liquid acids making an ecofriendly; solvent free, atom efficient, solid acid based catalytic process. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873. PMID:26528317

  9. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy eDieryckx

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the presence of salicylic acid or methylsalicylic acid. These data suggest several mechanisms that could potentially account for the observed fungal growth inhibition, notably pH regulation, metal homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, ROS accumulation and cell wall remodeling. The present observations support a role played by the phytohormone SA and derivatives in directly containing the pathogen. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002873.

  10. Hospital physicians' influence on gastrointestinal protection during treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetylsalicylic acid and the impact on prescribing in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Due Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the use of gastrointestinal (GI protection before, during and after hospitalisation for elderly patients using NSAID or low-dose ASA. METHODS: This study included all elderly patients (75+ admitted to hospital in the period of 1(st April 2010 to 31(st March 2011 at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, who were regular users of NSAID or low-dose ASA before hospital admission, or had one of these drugs initiated during hospital stay. By using pharmacy dispensing data and a hospital-based pharmacoepidemiological database, the treatment strategy for the individual patients was followed across hospital stay. RESULTS: In total, 3,587 patients were included. Before hospital admission, 93 of 245 NSAID users (38.0% and 597 of 1994 user of low-dose ASA (29.9% had used GI protection. During hospital stay, use of GI protection increased to 75% and 33.9%, respectively. When hospital physicians initiated new treatment with NSAID or with low-dose ASA, 305 of 555 (55.0% and 647 of 961 (67.3% were initiated without concomitant use of GI protection. When hospital physicians initiated GI protection, 26.8-51.0% were continued in primary care after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: During hospital stay, the use of GI protection increases, but when new treatment with NSAIDs or low-dose ASA is initiated in hospital, the use of gastrointestinal protection is low. The low use of GI protection is carried on in primary care after discharge.

  11. Effect of the ulcerogenic agents ethanol, acetylsalicylic acid and taurocholate on actin cytoskeleton and cell motility in cultured rat gastric mucosal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siamak Bidel; Harri Mustonen; Giti Khalighi-Sikaroudi; Eero Lehtonen; Pauli Puolakkainen; Tuula Kiviluoto; Eero Kivilaakso

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of ulcerogenic agents on actin cytoskeleton and cell motility and the contribution of oxidative stress.METHODS: Rat gastric mucosal cell monolayers were cultured on coverslips. The cells were exposed, with or without allopurinol (2 mmol/L), for 15 min to ethanol (10-150 mL/L), ASA (1-20 mmol/L) or taurocholate (1-20 mmol/L), then the cells were processed for actin and vinculin staining. Cell migration after wounding was also measured.RESULTS: Exposure to 10 mL/L ethanol caused divergence of zonula adherens-associated actin bundles of adjacent cells and decreased rate of migration. These actions were opposed by xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. Exposure to 50 mL/L ethanol induced degradation and divergence of zonula adherens-associated vinculin from adjacent cells,which was, again, partially reverted by allopurinol. With 1 mmol/L ASA actin filaments became shorter and thicker.However, higher concentrations (10, 20 mmol/L) of ASA returned microfilaments thinner and longer, and decreased rate of migration. Zonula adherens-associated actin bundles were moderately distorted with 10 mmol/L ASA and with 10 mmol/L taurocholate. Exposure to taurocholate provoked changes resembling those of ASA. Taurocholate 5-20 mmol/L decreased the rate of migration dose dependently. The effects of ASA and taurocholate were not prevented by allopurinol.CONCLUSION: All ulcerogenic agents decreased the rate of migration dose dependently and induced divergence of zonula adherens-associated actin bundles of adjacent cells.In addition, ethanol and ASA caused degradation of actin cytoskeleton. Oxidative stress seems to underlie ethanol,but not ASA or taurocholate, induced cytoskeletal damage.

  12. Synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid by microwave irradiation under the assistance of sodium bicarbonate catalyst%微波辐射催化合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李西安; 李丕高; 贺宝宝; 李苗

    2005-01-01

    在微波辐射下以碳酸氢钠为催化剂合成乙酰水杨酸,考察了影响反应的主要因素,实验结果表明合成最佳工艺条件为n(水杨酸):n(乙酸酐)=1:2.0,微波功率为微波炉"中低"档(40%)151 W,辐射时间45 s,催化剂用量为水杨酸质量的2%,产率可达96.9%(重结晶产率可达92.1%).

  13. Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid Catalyzed by Acetocaustin%三氯乙酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开成

    2013-01-01

    以水杨酸、乙酸酐为原料,三氯乙酸为催化剂合成乙酰水杨酸,探讨影响乙酰水杨酸的收率因素.实验结果显示:在催化剂用量为0.2 g,原料物质的量比为1∶1.5,反应温度为76~80℃,反应时间为5 min的条件下反应,其收率最高达78.97%.

  14. Clear Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid catalyzed by GY Zeoite%脱铝改性Y分子筛催化清洁合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张康华; 徐庆荣; 曹小华; 陈义凡; 陶春元

    2009-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,脱铝改性分子筛为催化剂合成了乙酰水杨酸.考察催化剂用量、水杨酸和乙酸酐物料配比、反应时间、反应温度等因素对该反应的影响.结果表明:当n(水杨酸):n(乙酸酐)为1.0:1.2,催化剂用量为水杨酸质量的7.5%,80 ℃,反应10 min,产物收率达94.2%.

  15. Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid with Microwave Radiation%微波辐射快速合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟国清

    2003-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料、无水碳酸钠作催化剂微波辐射快速合成乙酰水杨酸,并用正交试验筛选出最佳合成工艺条件:n(水杨酸)∶n(乙酸酐)=1∶2.0,微波功率464W,辐射时间60s,催化剂用量为水杨酸质量的2%,重结晶后产率可达90.8%.

  16. Synthesis of bis-cellobiose and bis-glucose derivatives of azacrown macrocycles as hosts in complexes with acetylsalicylic acid and 4-acetamidophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintal, Michalina; Kryczka, Bogusław; Marsura, Alain; Porwański, Stanisław

    2014-03-11

    Two new C2 symmetric bis-cellobiose and bis-glucose azacrown derivatives were prepared according to the one-step procedure using azacrown ethers and azidosaccharides. Their complexes with aspirin and paracetamol were studied with the use of proton NMR spectroscopy. It was found that these pseudocryptands bind aspirin and paracetamol but each one in a different manner.

  17. Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid under Microwave Radiation Condition by Vitamin C%维生素C催化微波合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红英; 周芳; 张强; 李海玲; 张莎莎

    2013-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,采用维生素C作催化剂微波辐射合成乙酰水杨酸.考察了催化剂用量、微波功率、辐射时间对反应产率的影响.优选出的较佳反应条件为:水杨酸6.3 g和新蒸馏乙酸酐9mL时,用维生素C0.5 g的催化剂,在400W的功率下催化40 s.在此条件下,乙酰水杨酸产率达60.60%.

  18. Prophylactic Properties Of Licorice Roots (GLYCYRRHIZA Gabbler) And / Or Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) Against GAMMA Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress And Metabolic Disorders In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress with subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been postulated as one of the mechanism of cardiac and renal toxicity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible protective effects of licorice and/or aspirin on gamma irradiation-induced cardiac and renal damage in rats. Licorice and/or aspirin was supplemented daily to rats (100 mg licorice/kg body wt and 50 mg aspirin/kg body wt) orally, 15 days before and after whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy (applied as a shot dose). Gamma irradiation caused significant drop in haemoglobin, erythrocytes, haematocrit values, platelets count, prothrombin time (PT) and leukocytes with their differential counts with elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT).The results obtained showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats induced biochemical alteration in the levels of serum lipid profile (total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol), creatinine and urea. Furthermore, some markers of cardiac injury enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities showed significant increase associated with decrease in the glutathione content (GSH) of cardiac and renal tissues. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation end products malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cardiac and renal tissues was observed.Licorice and/or aspirin treatment prior and post gamma irradiation of rats has attenuated the renal and cardiac toxic effects of radiation manifested by reduction in the levels of MDA and NO, rescued the depletion of endogenous GSH, haematologial parameters and diminished the increase of cardiac and renal injury markers .

  19. Uptake of ascorbic acid by freshly isolated cells and secretory granules from the intermediate lobe of ox hypophyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, A; Matsumoto, T; Farver, O;

    1990-01-01

    Mechanically isolated cells from the intermediate lobe of ox hypophyses contained 40.6 +/- 3.7 nmol mg-1 protein (mean +/- SE, n = 5) of ascorbic acid. They accumulated radioactivity time dependently, on incubation with L-[14C]ascorbic acid in ionic medium dominated by NaCl. No definite saturation...... of uptake occurred when mechanically isolated cells were incubated with increasing ascorbic acid concentrations up to 0.6 mM. But if such cells were purified on a Percoll gradient, a clear saturation of uptake could be observed. Acetylsalicylic acid reduced the uptake markedly. When cells loaded with L-[14C......]ascorbic acid were homogenized and placed on a Percoll gradient, the radioactivity was recovered in several subcellular fractions. Decrease of the Na+ concentration or presence of ouabain in the medium did not cause noticeable changes in uptake by non-purified cells, whereas uptake by purified cells was clearly...

  20. Mechanism of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin Degradation under Solar Light in Presence of a TiO2-Polymeric Film Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Mukherjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of titanium dioxide (TiO2 as a photocatalyst has presented a promising avenue for the safe photocatalytic degradation of pollutants. Increasing levels of the release of pharmaceuticals in the environment and formation of the intermediates during their degradation may impose health and environmental risks and therefore require more attention. Photocatalytic degradation of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin was carried out in the presence of the TiO2-filled polymeric film as a photocatalyst under solar light irradiation. The polymeric film incorporates TiO2 in the matrix, which acts as a photocatalyst under solar illumination and degrades the acetyl salicylic acid (ASA into a range of organic compounds before complete demineralization (formation of carbon dioxide and water as final products. Among the intermediates, acetic acid was found to be present in a larger amount compared to other organic acids. The qualitative/quantitative analyses of the intermediates resulted in the determination of the most probable reaction’s mechanism in the degradation process. The mechanism of degradation of acetylsalicylic acid and its reaction pathway were developed from liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR and UV spectrophotometric analysis. It was found that hydroxyl groups were dominant in the degradation process compared to electrons and holes generated by TiO2. The total organic carbon (TOC analysis was also carried out to analyze the organic carbon content of the intermediates formed during the course of degradation.

  1. Comparative studies about the influence of salicylic and acetylsalicilic acid on content of assimilatory pigments in the primary leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia PURCAREA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA and some of its derivates are phenolic compounds recently recognized as plant growth regulators involved in many physiological processes including photosynthesis. One of the important derivates of Salicylic Acid is the Acetylsalicylic Acid. In the present investigation we studied the influence of exogenous Acetylsalicylic and Salicylic acid with different concentrations on the assimilatory pigments contents of the primary leaves of wheat seedlings in comparison with the same parameters of the control lots which were treated with water. The wheat seedlings were soaked for 6 hours in 0.01mM; 0.1mM; 0.5mM and 1 mM SA or ASA solutions and in water for the control lot, germinated for 7 days on filter paper moistened with water. After that, we planted the plantlets in sand and sprayed their coleoptiles and primary leaves, each day for an additional 7 days, with water. In the 14th days of germination we determined the content of assimilatory pigments extracted with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. The results showed that exogenous 0.01 mM, 0.1mM, 0.5 mM or 1.0 mM SA solution treatments cause more significant increases in the assimilatory pigments contents in leaves of wheat plantlets than treatments with ASA solutions of the same concentrations do.

  2. Effects of very low versus standard dose acetyl salicylic acid, dipyridamole and sulfinpyrazone on platelet function and thromboxane formation in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R; Siess, W; Weber, P C

    1981-04-01

    The effects of three conventional antiplatelet regimes, dipyridamole 3 X 75 mg/day (D), sulfinpyrazone 4 X 200 mg/day (S), acetylsalicylic acid 3 X 330 mg/day combined with dipyridamole 3 X 75 mg/day (ASA + D), and very low dose acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/day (ASA) on platelet function were studied in man following 4 days of treatment. D and S slightly increased mean minimal ADP concentration for irreversible aggregation (n.s.), S reduced aggregation and thromboxane (TXB2) formation on low dose collagen (2P less than or equal to 0.05), ASA and ASA + D increased platelet count (2P less than or equal to 0.05), increased bleeding time (n.s. for ASA, 2P less than or equal to 0.05 for ASA + D), abolished irreversible aggregation on ADP, suppressed TXB2 formation on all (2P less than or equal to 0.001) and aggregation on lower concentrations of collagen (2P less than or equal to 0.01) and abolished aggregation and TXB2 formation on arachidonic acid (2P less than or equal to 0.001). Very low dose ASA suppresses platelet aggregation and TXB2 formation on several stimuli of possible physiologic significance. In the light of a recently proposed critical balance of vascular antiaggregatory prostacyclin and platelet proaggregatory TXA2 very low dose ASA might offer advantages over conventional dosage of ASA and should be evaluated in thromboembolic disorders. PMID:7238575

  3. Utilization of oriented crystal growth for screening of aromatic carboxylic acids cocrystallization with urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław; Mroczyńska, Karina; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of molecular complex formation in the solid state of urea with benzoic acid analogues was measured directly on the crystallite films deposited on the glass surface using powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). Obtained solid mixtures were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simple droplet evaporation method was found to be efficient, robust, fast and cost-preserving approach for first stage cocrystal screening. Additionally, the application of orientation effect to cocrystal screening simplifies the analysis due to damping of majority of diffraction signals coming from coformers. During validation phase the proposed approach successfully reproduced both positive cases of cocrystallization (urea:salicylic acid and urea:4-hydroxy benzoic acid) as well as pairs of co-formers immiscible in the solid state (urea:benzoic acid and urea:acetylsalicylic acids). Based on validated approach new cocrystals of urea were identified in complexes with 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. In all cases formation of multicomponent crystal phase was confirmed by the appearance of new reflexes on the diffraction patterns and FTIR absorption band shifts of O-H and N-H groups.

  4. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence quenching of Ru(bpy)32+ (bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) in the presence of acetaminophen, salicylic acid and their metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenching of Ru(bpy) 32+ (bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) coreactant electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) has been observed in the presence of acetaminophen, salicylic acid and related complexes. However, no quenching is observed with the acetylsalicylic acid. In most instances, quenching is observed with 100-fold excess of quencher (compared to ECL luminophore) with complete quenching observed between 10,000 and 100,000 fold excess. Fluorescence and UV–vis experiments coupled with bulk electrolysis support the formation of benzoquinone products upon electrochemical oxidation. The mechanism of quenching may involve the interaction of the electrochemically generated benzoquinone species with (i) the ⁎Ru(bpy)32+ excited state or (ii) highly energetic coreactant radicals. - Highlights: ▶ Efficient quenching of the electrogenerated chemiluminescence is observed. ▶ Acetaminophen, salicylic acid and related compounds can be detected. ▶ The mechanism of quenching involves benzoquinones formed upon electrolysis.

  5. 对甲苯磺酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid with P—Toluene Sulphonic Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳辉; 王清斌

    2006-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,采用对甲苯磺酸作催化剂合成了乙酰水杨酸,采用正交实验法研究了影响反应的因素.实验结果表明酰化反应的优化条件为水杨酸:乙酸酐摩尔比为1:2,反应20 min,反应温度65~75℃.

  6. 对甲苯磺酸催化微波合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Study on the microwave synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid by p-Toluene Sulphonic Acid catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立中; 卞小琴

    2008-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,以对甲苯磺酸为催化剂,微波辐射合成了乙酰水杨酸,并考察了影响反应的因素.实验表明:在n(水杨酸):n(乙酸酐)=1:1.7,催化剂用量为水杨酸质量的2.5%,微波输出功率为151W,辐射时间为60s,产率可达91.2%.

  7. 紫外二阶导数光谱法监测柠檬酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸%Monitoring synthesis systems of acetylsalicylic acid with citric acid as the catalyst by second derivative spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建群; 徐艳霞; 唐静成; 何深知; 张枫

    2015-01-01

    目的 采用紫外二阶导数光谱法监测柠檬酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸.方法 选择二阶导数光谱在289 nm和308 nm处的吸光度值,分别建立乙酰水杨酸和水杨酸质量浓度与二阶导数值的标准工作曲线.在不同温度条件下,实时监测合成反应体系中乙酰水杨酸和水杨酸的质量浓度.结果 反应温度为70℃、80℃、90 ℃和95℃,完成反应所需时间分别为80 min、50 min、20 min和15 min.结论 紫外二阶导数光谱法,可以实现对乙酰水杨酸合成过程的监测和判断反应终点.

  8. 对甲苯磺酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid with p-Toluene Sulphonic Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继忠

    2005-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,采用对甲苯磺酸作催化剂合成了乙酰水杨酸,考察了影响反应的因素.实验结果表明酰化反应的优化条件为水杨酸:乙酸酐:对甲苯磺酸摩尔比为1:2:0.0153,反应20 min,反应温度81~85℃,产率达94.44%.

  9. Effects of L-glutamine on acetylsalycylic acid induced gastric lesions and acid back diffusion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C R; Takeuchi, K; Okabe, S; Murata, T; Takagi, K

    1976-12-01

    Effects of L-glutamine on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-induced gastric mucosal lesions were studied in mongrel dogs. It was confirmed that when oral ASA at 1.0 or 2.0 g per dog is given in two divided doses, there is severe and consistent dose-dependent mucosal damage in the glandular portion of the stomach in fasted dogs. However, when L-glutamine 2.0 or 4.0 g per dog in two divided doses is given concomitantly with ASA 2.0 g per dog orally, the gastric irritation is significantly inhibited. Instillation of 20 mM of ASA in 100 mM HCl solution into the Heidenhain pouch of Beagle dogs produced a significant loss of H+ from the pouch and a gain of Na+ in the lumen compared with ASA-free controls. When L-glutamine (100 mM) was given concomitantly with ASA (20 mM) into the pouch, changes of electrolyte fluxes in response to ASA alone were significantly suppressed. However, 50 mM of L-glutamine had no appreciable effect on acid back diffusion caused by ASA 20 mM. The amino acid itself had little effect on the ionic movement in the pouch. Gross bleeding from the pouch treated with ASA was never observed with the concomitant dosing of ASA and L-glutamine 50 or 100 mM. PMID:15154

  10. Aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid and aspirin by human cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Mirza; Sedgeman, Carl A; Nagy, Leslie D; Guengerich, F Peter

    2015-06-20

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known and widely-used analgesic. It is rapidly deacetylated to salicylic acid, which forms two hippuric acids-salicyluric acid and gentisuric acid-and two glucuronides. The oxidation of aspirin and salicylic acid has been reported with human liver microsomes, but data on individual cytochromes P450 involved in oxidation is lacking. In this study we monitored oxidation of these compounds by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 (P450) using UPLC with fluorescence detection. Microsomal oxidation of salicylic acid was much faster than aspirin. The two oxidation products were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid, documented by its UV and mass spectrum) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Formation of neither product was inhibited by desferrioxamine, suggesting a lack of contribution of oxygen radicals under these conditions. Although more liphophilic, aspirin was oxidized less efficiently, primarily to the 2,5-dihydroxy product. Recombinant human P450s 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 all catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid. Inhibitor studies with human liver microsomes indicated that all six of the previously mentioned P450s could contribute to both the 5- and 3-hydroxylation of salicylic acid and that P450s 2A6 and 2B6 have contributions to 5-hydroxylation. Inhibitor studies indicated that the major human P450 involved in both 3- and 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid is P450 2E1.

  11. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 μM SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: ► Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions ► Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia ► Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia ► Salicylic acid does not influence any of the investigated parameters under hypoxia

  12. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Anthraquinone-2-Carboxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Yong; Hong, Sungyoul; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Shi Hyung; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinone compounds are one of the abundant polyphenols found in fruits, vegetables, and herbs. However, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms of anthraquinones have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the activity of anthraquinones using acute inflammatory and nociceptive experimental conditions. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, AQCA), one of the major anthraquinones identified from Brazilian taheebo, ameliorated various inflammatory and algesic symptoms in EtOH/HCl- and acetylsalicylic acid- (ASA-) induced gastritis, arachidonic acid-induced edema, and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing without displaying toxic profiles in body and organ weight, gastric irritation, or serum parameters. In addition, AQCA suppressed the expression of inflammatory genes such as cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 in stomach tissues and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW264.7 cells. According to reporter gene assay and immunoblotting analyses, AQCA inhibited activation of the nuclear factor- (NF-) κB and activator protein- (AP-) 1 pathways by suppression of upstream signaling involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK1), p38, Src, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Our data strongly suggest that anthraquinones such as AQCA act as potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive components in vivo, thus contributing to the immune regulatory role of fruits and herbs. PMID:27057092

  14. The Effects of Salicylic Acid on Juvenile Zebrafish Danio rerio Under Flow-Through Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Blahova, Jana; Siroka, Zuzana; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Doubkova, Veronika; Zelinska, Gabriela; Vecerek, Vladimir; Tichy, Frantisek; Sehonova, Pavla; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-09-01

    The aquatic environment is becoming increasingly contaminated with pharmaceuticals. Salicylic acid (SA), which can be used individually or appear as a degradation product of the widely used acetylsalicylic acid was chosen for testing. Juvenile zebrafish Danio rerio were subjected to OECD test No. 215 (fish, juvenile growth test) with salicylic acid concentrations of 0.004; 0.04; 0.4; 4 and 40 mg/L. Specific growth rate (SGR), histological changes, and parameters of oxidative stress were evaluated. SA had no effects on histological changes, SGR, glutathione reductase, and lipid peroxidation. Increased catalytic activity of GPx was found at 0.04 mg/L compared to control, increased catalytic activity of catalase was found at 0.04 and 4 mg/L compared to control, and increased catalytic activity of glutathione-S-transferase was found at 0.004 and 0.04 mg/L compared to control (P < 0.05). Juvenile zebrafish turned out to be relatively insensitive to both environmentally relevant (0.004 mg/L) and higher concentrations of salicylic acid. PMID:27385367

  15. The Effects of Salicylic Acid on Juvenile Zebrafish Danio rerio Under Flow-Through Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Blahova, Jana; Siroka, Zuzana; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Doubkova, Veronika; Zelinska, Gabriela; Vecerek, Vladimir; Tichy, Frantisek; Sehonova, Pavla; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-09-01

    The aquatic environment is becoming increasingly contaminated with pharmaceuticals. Salicylic acid (SA), which can be used individually or appear as a degradation product of the widely used acetylsalicylic acid was chosen for testing. Juvenile zebrafish Danio rerio were subjected to OECD test No. 215 (fish, juvenile growth test) with salicylic acid concentrations of 0.004; 0.04; 0.4; 4 and 40 mg/L. Specific growth rate (SGR), histological changes, and parameters of oxidative stress were evaluated. SA had no effects on histological changes, SGR, glutathione reductase, and lipid peroxidation. Increased catalytic activity of GPx was found at 0.04 mg/L compared to control, increased catalytic activity of catalase was found at 0.04 and 4 mg/L compared to control, and increased catalytic activity of glutathione-S-transferase was found at 0.004 and 0.04 mg/L compared to control (P < 0.05). Juvenile zebrafish turned out to be relatively insensitive to both environmentally relevant (0.004 mg/L) and higher concentrations of salicylic acid.

  16. Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid under Microwave Radiation Using Sodium Bicarbonate as the Catalyst%NaHCO3催化微波合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红英; 吴建丽; 周芳; 李海玲; 张莎莎

    2013-01-01

    [目的]采用NaHCO3催化微波辐射法合成乙酰水杨酸.[方法]以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,碳酸氢钠作催化剂、采用微波辐射法合成乙酰水杨酸,通过单因素试验考察催化剂用量、微波功率、辐射时间对乙酰水杨酸产率的影响,并通过正交试验确定最佳工艺条件.[结果]优选出的最佳反应条件为:取6.3g水杨酸和9ml乙酸酐时,催化剂碳酸氢钠用量0.7g,微波辐射功率400W,辐射时间80 s.在此条件下,乙酰水杨酸产率达76.38%.[结论]该研究为乙酸水杨酸的合成提供了一种新的工艺.

  17. The Catalytic Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid with Aluminium P-toluenesulfonate%对甲苯磺酸铝催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡磊; 刘万毅

    2013-01-01

    经复分解反应制得了对甲苯磺酸铝,并用元素分析、IR、TGA等测试技术对产物的组成与结构进行了表针,并将其作为固体酸,用于催化水杨酸与乙酸酐合成乙酰水杨酸的O-酰化反应.实验结果表明,对甲苯磺酸铝对O-酰化反应表现出良好的催化活性,水杨酸与乙酸酐摩尔比1∶2(0.01 mol水杨酸),对甲苯磺酸铝0.15g,水浴温度75℃,反应时间35 min,乙酰水杨酸平均收率可达87%以上.

  18. Study on Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid under Microwave Radiation Condition by Sodium Hydroxyethyl Sulfonate%羟乙基磺酸钠催化微波合成乙酰水杨酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红英; 尚磊; 陈超鹏

    2014-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,采用羟乙基磺酸钠作催化剂微波辐射合成乙酰水杨酸.考察了催化剂用量、微波功率、微波辐射时间对反应产率的影响.优选出的较佳反应条件为:取6.3g水杨酸和9mL乙酸酐时,催化剂羟乙基磺酸钠用量0.7 g,微波功率400W,微波辐射时间120 s.在此条件下,乙酰水杨酸产率达79.02%.

  19. 苯甲酸钠微波催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Study on the Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid with Sodium Benzoate by Microwave Radiation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红英; 侯巧芝; 肖培杰; 王慧星

    2014-01-01

    [目的]利用微波辐射法制备乙酰水杨酸.[方法]以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,以苯甲酸钠作为催化剂,微波辐射合成乙酰水杨酸.采用正交试验优化微波辐射苯甲酸钠催化合成乙酰水杨酸的工艺条件,并探讨合成工艺的影响因素.[结果]乙酰水杨酸的最佳合成工艺为:6.3 g水杨酸,9ml乙酸酐,催化剂苯甲酸钠用量0.4g,微波功率240W,辐射时间90s.在此优化条件下,乙酰水杨酸产率达67.07%.[结论]与传统合成工艺相比,微波辐射合成乙酰水杨酸反应时间短,产品收率高.

  20. Synthesis and Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Using Acetylsalicylic Acid as Template%乙酰水杨酸分子印迹聚合物的合成及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘运美; 吕昌银; 范翔; 高治平

    2007-01-01

    采用分子印迹技术,以乙酰水杨酸为模板分子,1,4-二乙烯基苯为交联剂,分别以α-甲基丙烯酸和丙烯酰胺为功能单体,合成了对乙酰水杨酸具有特异性吸附能力的两种分子印迹聚合物;它们对乙酰水杨酸都存在两类不同亲和性的结合位点,其中用丙烯酰胺合成的分子印迹聚合物对模板分子乙酰水杨酸的氢键作用力和结合能力都比用α-甲基丙烯酸合成的聚合物强.这对分子印迹技术用于环境、血液等复杂样品中乙酰水杨酸的分离和富集具有重要意义.

  1. 微波辐射六氢吡啶催化快速合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Research on rapid synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid catalysed by piperidine under microwave radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士举; 金秋; 苏惠; 李伟; 徐翠莲

    2010-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,微波辐射加热,六氢吡啶为催化剂,快速合成了乙酰水杨酸.通过正交试验及直观分析,探索出了最佳合成工艺条件;通过方差分析,得出了影响次序和程度.该方法为高效、环保、低能合成乙酰水杨酸提供了新的工艺条件.

  2. 超声辐射分子碘催化乙酰水杨酸的合成研究%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid Catalyzed by Molecular Iodine Under Ultrasound Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施小宁; 赵素瑞; 吴巧玲

    2008-01-01

    以碘作催化剂,以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,通过超声辐射快速合成了乙酰水杨酸.最佳合成条件为:原料比n(乙酸酐)∶n(水杨酸)∶n(碘)=100∶50∶1,超声功率300W,辐射时问15min,产率96.2%.研究结果表明该法反应时间短,操作简单,环境友好,节约能源,产率高.

  3. 微波辐射分子筛催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid by Microwave Irradiation with Molecular Sieve as Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸿; 黄华

    2007-01-01

    介绍了一种采用微波辐射技术、分子筛催化合成乙酰水杨酸的方法,探讨了不同反应条件对产物收率的影响,实验结果表明:当n(水杨酸)∶n(乙酸酐)=1∶2.0、催化剂的用量为水杨酸质量的5%、微波辐射功率为200 W、辐射时间为2.5 min时,乙酰水杨酸的收率可达95.1%.

  4. Na2CO3催化微波合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid under Microwave Radiation Condition by Sodium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红英; 侯巧芝; 周芳; 张莎莎

    2013-01-01

    [目的]以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,采用碳酸钠作催化剂微波辐射合成乙酰水杨酸.[方法]采用正交试验法,考察了催化剂用量、微波功率、辐射时间对反应产率的影响.[结果]优选出的较佳反应条件为:取6.3g水杨酸和9ml乙酸酐,催化剂碳酸钠用量0.4g,微波功率400W,辐射时间90s.在此条件下,乙酰水杨酸产率达83.25%.[结论]采用碳酸钠微波催化合成乙酰水杨酸,反应收率较好.

  5. SYNTHESIS OF ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID CATALYZED BY SO42-/SILINAITE%固体超强酸SO42-/硅锂钠石催化合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达波; 邱祖民

    2008-01-01

    用浸渍法制备了SO42-/硅锂钠石固体超强酸催化剂,最佳工艺条件为:硫酸浸渍浓度0.25 mol/L,浸渍2 h,焙烧温度450℃,焙烧时同3 h.考察了催化剂用量、酸酐摩尔比及反应温度对乙酰水杨酸合成的影响,乙酰水扬酸的较佳制备工艺条件为:酸酐摩尔比1:2,催化剂的质量为水杨酸质量的1.5%,在75℃反应15min,乙酰水杨酸的收率达83.4%,催化剂可重复使用2次.

  6. Synthesis and Biological Activities of the Conjugates of Acetylsalicylic Acid with Fungicide%乙酰水杨酸与杀菌剂的藕合物合成及生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊凯; 徐汉虹; 谭堂峰; 朱建永

    2008-01-01

    通过乙酰水杨酸(ASA)分别与噻菌灵、三唑醇和(噁)鄂霉灵3种杀菌剂拼接,合成了未见文献报道的ASA-噻菌灵、ASA-三唑醇、ASA-(噁)霉灵的藕合物,并以未藕合的3种杀菌剂为对照,测定了3种藕合物对水稻纹枯病菌Rhizoctonia solani的室内毒力;以水杨酸(SA)为对照,测定了ASA-??霉灵藕合物对大豆叶片过氧化物酶(POD)活性的影响.结果表明,3种杀菌剂与ASA藕合后,杀菌毒力与藕合前的相当,同时还具有类似SA诱导植物POD活性升高的特性.

  7. Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid Catalyzed by SiO24-/TiO2 Solid Superacid%SO24-/TiO2固体超强酸催化合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽; 任立国

    2008-01-01

    以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料在SO24-/TiO2固体超强酸催化下合成了乙酰水杨酸.考察了催化剂的焙烧温度、反应时间、反应温度、原料配比、催化剂用量等对反应的影响以及催化荆的稳定性.确定最佳反应条件为:催化荆的焙烧温度500℃、反应温度90℃、反应时间40 min、n(乙酸酐):n(水杨酸)=2.0:1、催化剂用量1.0 g,此时乙酰水杨酸的收率可达77.8%.SO24-/TiO2固体超强酸催化荆制备简单、催化活性高、重复使用性好、后处理简便、无三废污染,符合节能环保的绿色催化发展趋势.

  8. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  9. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  10. Strong and long-lasting antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory conjugate of naturally occurring oleanolic acid and aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bednarczyk-Cwynar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The conjugate 8 was obtained as a result of condensation of 3-hydroxyiminooleanolic acid morfolide (7 and aspirin in dioxane. Analgesic effect of OAO-ASA (8 for the range of doses 0.3 – 300.0 mg/kg (p.o. was performed in mice using a hot plate test. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats for the same range of doses. The conjugate OAO-ASA (8 did not significantly change locomotor activity of mice, therefore sedative properties of the compound should be excluded. The compound 8 proved a simple, proportional, dose-dependent analgesic action and expressed strong anti-inflammatory activity showing a reversed U-shaped, dose-dependent relation with its maximum at 30.0 mg/kg. After its combined administration with morphine (MF, 5.0 mg/kg, s.c. the lowering of antinociceptive activity was found; however, the interaction with naloxone (NL, 3.0 mg/kg, s.c. did not affect the antinociceptive effect of OAO-ASA (8, therefore its opioid mechanism of action should be rather excluded. After combined administration with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 300.0 mg/kg, p.o. in hot-plate test, the examined compound 8 enhanced the antinociceptive activity in significant way. It also shows that rather the whole molecule is responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the tested compound 8, however it cannot be excluded that the summarizing effect is produced by ASA released from the compound 8 and the rest of triterpene derivative. The occurrence of tolerance for triterpenic derivative 8 was not observed, since the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects after chronic administration of the conjugate OAO-ASA (8 was on the same level as after its single treatment. It seemed that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of OAO-ASA (8 is not simple, even its chronic administration lowered both blood concentration of IL-6 and mRNA IL-6 expression. However, the effects of the conjugate OAO-ASA (8 on TNF-α level

  11. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels Expression, Identity and Role in the Excitability of the Cochlear Afferent Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Garrido, Antonia; Vega, Rosario; Mercado, Francisco; López, Iván A.; Soto, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are activated by an increase in the extracellular proton concentration. There are four genes (ASIC1-4) that encode six subunits, and they are involved in diverse neuronal functions, such as mechanosensation, learning and memory, nociception, and modulation of retinal function. In this study, we characterize the ASIC currents of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). These ASIC currents are primarily carried by Na+, exhibit fast activation and desensitization, display a pH50 of 6.2 and are blocked by amiloride, indicating that these are ASIC currents. The ASIC currents were further characterized using several pharmacological tools. Gadolinium and acetylsalicylic acid reduced these currents, and FMRFamide, zinc (at high concentrations) and N,N,N’,N’–tetrakis-(2-piridilmetil)-ethylenediamine increased them, indicating that functional ASICs are composed of the subunits ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3. Neomycin and streptomycin reduced the desensitization rate of the ASIC current in SGNs, indicating that ASICs may contribute to the ototoxic action of aminoglycosides. RT-PCR of the spiral ganglion revealed significant expression of all ASIC subunits. By immunohistochemistry the expression of the ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, and ASIC3 subunits was detected in SGNs. Although only a few SGNs exhibited action potential firing in response to an acidic stimulus, protons in the extracellular solution modulated SGN activity during sinusoidal stimulation. Our results show that protons modulate the excitability of SGNs via ASICs. PMID:26733809

  12. Carminic acid dye from the homopteran Dactylopius coccus hemolymph is consumed during treatment with different microbial elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz; de Muñoz, Fernando García-Gil; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2003-09-01

    The activation of Dactylopius coccus (Costa) hemolymph with microbial polysaccharide molecules was studied. Hemolymph incubated in the presence of laminarin, zymosan, and N-acetyl glucosamine produced a dark fibrillar precipitated, and the red pigment (carminic acid) was consumed (measured spectrophotometrically at 495 nm). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not induce any response. The reaction was inhibited with millimolar concentrations of serine and cysteine protease inhibitors, EGTA and phenyl thiourea. It was also diminished by prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors: dexamethasone, acetylsalicylic acid, and indomethacin. However, Mg2+ chelator EDTA did not inhibit hemolymph activation. Hemolymph proteins were depleted from soluble phase during treatment with laminarin, but a group of around 34 kDa remained unmodified. These results showed that D. coccus hemolymph is activated by microbial elicitors, its activation depends on eicosanoids, and suggest participation of a prophenoloxidase (PPO)-like activation system that could consume carminic acid. We are currently dissecting the molecular factors involved in D. coccus hemolymph activation to determine homologies and differences with other arthropods immune response pathways. PMID:12942514

  13. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium: 2-hydroxy-5-selenocyanatobenzoic acid as an anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Pietro Maria; Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Sari, Marcel Henrique Marcondes; Oliveira, Carla Elena Sartori; Canto, Rômulo Faria Santos; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Braga, Antonio Luiz; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of per oral (p.o.) administration of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium compounds in chemical models of nociception in mice. The compounds (50 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered 30 and 60 min before the nociceptive behavior and compared to the positive-control, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 200 mg/kg; p.o.). In addition, a dose-response curve (25-100 mg/kg) for compounds was carried out in the formalin test. When assessed in the chemical models, acetic acid-induced writhing behavior, formalin and glutamate tests, the compounds showed the following antinociceptive profile 1B>2B>1A>2A, suggesting a chemical structure-dependent relationship. Then, the anti-inflammatory properties and toxicological potential of compound 1B were investigated. Compound 1B, similar to the positive-control, ASA, diminished the edema formation and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity induced by croton oil (2.5%) in the ear tissue. The results also indicate that a single oral administration of 1B caused neither signs of acute toxicity nor those of gastrointestinal injury. The administration of 1B did not alter the water and food intakes, plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities or urea levels and cerebral or hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity. Salicylic acid-derivative organoseleniums, mainly compound 1B, have been found to be novel compounds with antinociceptive/anti-inflammatory properties; nevertheless, more studies are required to examine their therapeutic potential for pain treatment. PMID:24398148

  14. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  15. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  16. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence quenching of Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+} (bpy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine) in the presence of acetaminophen, salicylic acid and their metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslag, Catherine S. [Department of Chemistry, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65897 (United States); Richter, Mark M., E-mail: MarkRichter@missouristate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65897 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Quenching of Ru(bpy) {sub 3}{sup 2+} (bpy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine) coreactant electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) has been observed in the presence of acetaminophen, salicylic acid and related complexes. However, no quenching is observed with the acetylsalicylic acid. In most instances, quenching is observed with 100-fold excess of quencher (compared to ECL luminophore) with complete quenching observed between 10,000 and 100,000 fold excess. Fluorescence and UV-vis experiments coupled with bulk electrolysis support the formation of benzoquinone products upon electrochemical oxidation. The mechanism of quenching may involve the interaction of the electrochemically generated benzoquinone species with (i) the {sup Low-Asterisk }Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} excited state or (ii) highly energetic coreactant radicals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Efficient quenching of the electrogenerated chemiluminescence is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Acetaminophen, salicylic acid and related compounds can be detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle The mechanism of quenching involves benzoquinones formed upon electrolysis.

  17. Direct and indirect inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase by salicylic acid and anthocyanidins reactivates intercellular ROS signaling and allows for synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Salicylic acid and anthocyanidins are known as plant-derived antioxidants, but also can provoke paradoxically seeming prooxidant effects in vitro. These prooxidant effects are connected to the potential of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins to induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells in vitro and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. Several epidemiological studies have shown that salicylic acid and its prodrug acetylsalicylic acid are tumor-preventive for humans. The mechanism of salicylic acid- and anthocyanidin-dependent antitumor effects has remained enigmatic so far. Extracellular apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl signaling pathway specifically induces apoptosis in transformed cells. Tumor cells have acquired resistance against intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Here, we show that salicylic acid and anthocyanidins inactivate tumor cell protective catalase and thus reactive apoptosis-inducing intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling of tumor cells and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis Salicylic acid inhibits catalase directly through its potential to transform compound I of catalase into the inactive compound II. In contrast, anthocyanidins provoke a complex mechanism for catalase inactivation that is initiated by anthocyanidin-mediated inhibition of NO dioxygenase. This allows the formation of extracellular singlet oxygen through the reaction between H(2)O(2) and peroxynitrite, amplification through a caspase8-dependent step and subsequent singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of catalase. The combination of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins allows for a remarkable synergistic effect in apoptosis induction. This effect may be potentially useful to elaborate novel therapeutic approaches and crucial for the interpretation of epidemiological results related to the antitumor effects of secondary plant compounds.

  18. [Gastric Acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  19. Solid-state 17O NMR of pharmaceutical compounds: salicylic acid and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianqi; Shan, Melissa; Terskikh, Victor; Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong; Wu, Gang

    2013-08-22

    We report solid-state NMR characterization of the (17)O quadrupole coupling (QC) and chemical shift (CS) tensors in five site-specifically (17)O-labeled samples of salicylic acid and o-acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin). High-quality (17)O NMR spectra were obtained for these important pharmaceutical compounds under both static and magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions at two magnetic fields, 14.0 and 21.1 T. A total of 14 (17)O QC and CS tensors were experimentally determined for the seven oxygen sites in salicylic acid and Aspirin. Although both salicylic acid and Aspirin form hydrogen bonded cyclic dimers in the solid state, we found that the potential curves for the concerted double proton transfer in these two compounds are significantly different. In particular, while the double-well potential curve in Aspirin is nearly symmetrical, it is highly asymmetrical in salicylic acid. This difference results in quite different temperature dependencies in (17)O MAS spectra of the two compounds. A careful analysis of variable-temperature (17)O MAS NMR spectra of Aspirin allowed us to obtain the energy asymmetry (ΔE) of the double-well potential, ΔE = 3.0 ± 0.5 kJ/mol. We were also able to determine a lower limit of ΔE for salicylic acid, ΔE > 10 kJ/mol. These asymmetrical features in potential energy curves were confirmed by plane-wave DFT computations, which yielded ΔE = 3.7 and 17.8 kJ/mol for Aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively. To complement the solid-state (17)O NMR data, we also obtained solid-state (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra for salicylic acid and Aspirin. Using experimental NMR parameters obtained for all magnetic nuclei present in salicylic acid and Aspirin, we found that plane-wave DFT computations can produce highly accurate NMR parameters in well-defined crystalline organic compounds.

  20. Screening procedure for detection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their metabolites in urine as part of a systematic toxicological analysis procedure for acidic drugs and poisons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extractive methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Tauvel, F X; Kraemer, T

    2001-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used as analgesic and anti-rheumatic drugs, and they are often misused. A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) screening procedure was developed for their detection in urine as part of a systematic toxicological analysis procedure for acidic drugs and poisons after extractive methylation. The compounds were separated by capillary GC and identified by computerized MS in the full-scan mode. Using mass chromatography with the ions m/z 119, 135, 139, 152, 165, 229, 244, 266, 272, and 326, the possible presence of NSAIDs and their metabolites could be indicated. The identity of positive signals in such mass chromatograms was confirmed by comparison of the peaks underlying full mass spectra with the reference spectra recorded during this study. This method allowed the detection of therapeutic concentrations of acemetacin, acetaminophen (paracetamol), acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, diflunisal, etodolac, fenbufen, fenoprofen, flufenamic acid, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, indometacin, kebuzone, ketoprofen, lonazolac, meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid, mofebutazone, naproxen, niflumic acid, phenylbutazone, suxibuzone, tiaprofenic acid, tolfenamic acid, and tolmetin in urine samples. The overall recoveries of the different NSAIDs ranged between 50 and 80% with coefficients of variation of less than 15% (n = 5), and the limits of detection of the different NSAIDs were between 10 and 50 ng/mL (S/N = 3) in the full-scan mode. Extractive methylation has proved to be a versatile method for STA of various acidic drugs, poisons, and their metabolites in urine. It has also successfully been used for plasma analysis.

  1. Aspirin's Active Metabolite Salicylic Acid Targets High Mobility Group Box 1 to Modulate Inflammatory Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Tian, Miaoying; Song, Fei; Venereau, Emilie; Preti, Alessandro; Park, Sang-Wook; Hamilton, Keith; Swapna, G V T; Manohar, Murli; Moreau, Magali; Agresti, Alessandra; Gorzanelli, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesco; Wang, Huang; Antonyak, Marc; Micikas, Robert J; Gentile, Daniel R; Cerione, Richard A; Schroeder, Frank C; Montelione, Gaetano T; Bianchi, Marco E; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and its derivatives have been used for millennia to reduce pain, fever and inflammation. In addition, prophylactic use of acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin, reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke and certain cancers. Because aspirin is rapidly de-acetylated by esterases in human plasma, much of aspirin's bioactivity can be attributed to its primary metabolite, SA. Here we demonstrate that human high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a novel SA-binding protein. SA-binding sites on HMGB1 were identified in the HMG-box domains by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies and confirmed by mutational analysis. Extracellular HMGB1 is a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), with multiple redox states. SA suppresses both the chemoattractant activity of fully reduced HMGB1 and the increased expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) induced by disulfide HMGB1. Natural and synthetic SA derivatives with greater potency for inhibition of HMGB1 were identified, providing proof-of-concept that new molecules with high efficacy against sterile inflammation are attainable. An HMGB1 protein mutated in one of the SA-binding sites identified by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies retained chemoattractant activity, but lost binding of and inhibition by SA and its derivatives, thereby firmly establishing that SA binding to HMGB1 directly suppresses its proinflammatory activities. Identification of HMGB1 as a pharmacological target of SA/aspirin provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of one of the world's longest and most used natural and synthetic drugs. It may also provide an explanation for the protective effects of low-dose aspirin usage. PMID:26101955

  2. Stearic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  3. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  4. Biochemical and pharmacological effects of dipyrone and its metabolites in model systems related to arachidonic acid cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weithmann, K U; Alpermann, H G

    1985-01-01

    The metabolites of dipyrone (metamizol, Novalgin) were compared with appropriate standard drugs for their influences on the pathways of the arachidonic acid metabolism. The drugs in this study had no significant effects on the lipoxygenase pathway in human neutrophils in vitro. The dipyrone metabolites 4-methylaminoantipyrine (MAAP) and 4-aminoantipyrine (AAP) inhibited prostaglandin synthesis in the 10(-3) to 10(-4) mol/l range thus being comparable to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), whereas the two additional metabolites 4-acetylaminoantipyrine (AAAP) and 4-formylaminoantipyrine (FAAP) were practically inactive. This result is in accordance with the effects of the metabolites on the formation of oedema in the arthritis rat model, and supports published data showing that MAAP and AAP are the metabolites responsible for the clinical effects of dipyrone. Further systems in our study depending at least partially on the prostaglandin pathway were the release of antiaggregatory activity from rat aortae in vitro and the aggregation of human platelets induced by arachidonic acid in vitro. MAAP exhibits antiaggregatory activity (IC50 5 x 10(-6) mol/l), whereas the inhibitory effect on the vascular antiaggregatory release is much weaker. Compared to normals platelet aggregability ex vivo is enhanced in arthritic rats, but could significantly be lowered again by treatment of the rats with MAAP. A further system studied was the release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha from rat mucosa in vitro and ex vivo. In vitro there is inhibition to be found with MAAP as well as with ASA. Ex vivo, however, dipyrone or MAAP slightly stimulates mucosal 6-keto-PGF1 alpha rather than inhibiting it, whereas ASA exerts inhibition, as expected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. SYNTHESIS OF 1-(ACETYLSALICYLYL)-BENZOTRIAZOLE AND ITS REACTION WITH POLYVINYL ALCOHOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhongwei; LI Fumian; FENG Xinde

    1983-01-01

    1-(Acetylsalicylyl)-benzotriazole, a new active amide of acetylsalicylic acid has been synthesized either from acetylsalicylic acid and benzotriazole using DCCI as condensation agent or via acetylsalicylyl chloride and benzotriazole in the presence of triethylamine. The obtained active amide reacted readily with the hydroxyl group of PVA to produce the acetylsalicylyl ester of PVA.

  6. Comparison of antiplatelet regimens in secondary stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christine Benn; Pallisgaard, Jannik; Gerds, Thomas Alexander;

    2015-01-01

    were calculated for each antiplatelet regimen. RESULTS: Among patients discharged after first-time ischemic stroke, 3043 patients were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, 12,295 with a combination of acetylsalicylic acid and dipyridamole, and 3885 with clopidogrel. Adjusted HRs for clopidogrel versus...

  7. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  8. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorhydric acid ... stomach, or intestine have holes (perforations) from the acid. ... Hydrofluoric acid is especially dangerous. The most common accidents involving hydrofluoric acid cause severe burns on the skin ...

  9. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  10. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    was studied at the electron microscopic level using the membrane-impermeable marker Ruthenium Red (RR). Like FM dye, RR was taken up into TWEEs and multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However, OA induced the formation of a large number of lamellar bodies (LBs), a type of lysosome-related organelles. LBs...... hyper protein phosphorylation, but no detectable loss of cell polarity or cytoskeletal integrity of the enterocytes. Using a fluorescent membrane marker, FM dye, endocytosis from the brush border was affected by the toxin. Although constitutive uptake into subapical terminal web-localized early...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  11. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  12. Dietary non-nutrients and haemostasis in humans: effects of salicylates, flavonoids and ginger.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.L.T.M.K.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the content of acetylsalicylate and total salicylates in foods, and we studied the effects of the dietary non-nutrients salicylates and flavonoids and of certain foods on haemostatic parameters in humans.Acetylsalicylic acid -aspirin- irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclo-ox

  13. Retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  14. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  15. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  16. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  17. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  18. Novel mixed metal Ag(I)-Sb(III)-metallotherapeutics of the NSAIDs, aspirin and salicylic acid: Enhancement of their solubility and bioactivity by using the surfactant CTAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkaniatsou, E I; Banti, C N; Kourkoumelis, N; Skoulika, S; Manoli, M; Tasiopoulos, A J; Hadjikakou, S K

    2015-09-01

    The already known Ag(I)-Sb(III) compound of the formula {Ag(Ph3Sb)3(NO3)} (1) and two novel mixed metal Ag(I)-Sb(III) metallotherapeutics of the formulae {Ag(Ph3Sb)3(SalH)}(2) and {Ag(Ph3Sb)3(Asp)}(3) (SalH2=salicylic acid, AspH=aspirin or 2-acetylsalicylic acid and Ph3Sb=triphenyl antimony(III)) have been synthesised and characterised by m.p., vibrational spectroscopy (mid-FT-IR), (13)C-,(1)H-NMR, UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopic techniques, high resolution mass spectroscopy (HRMS) and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1,-3 were treated with the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in order to enhance their solubility and as a consequence their bioactivity. The resulting micelles a-c were characterised with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), conductivity, Thermal gravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and atomic absorption. Compounds 1-3 and the relevant micelles a-c were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (breast, estrogen receptor (ER) positive), MDA-MB-231 (breast, ER negative) and MRC-5 (normal human fetal lung fibroblast cells) with sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay. The results show significant increase in the activity of micelles compared to that of the initial compounds. Moreover, micelles exhibited lower activity against normal cells than tumor cells. The binding affinity of a-c towards the calf thymus (CT)-DNA, lipoxygenase (LOX) and glutathione (GSH) was studied by the fluorescent emission light and UV-vis spectroscopy.

  19. Análise dos traçados de ondas da agregação plaquetária em pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares em uso do ácido acetil salicílico comparados a doadores de sangue Analysis of the waves and aggregation patterns in patients with cardiovascular diseases in using acetylsalicylic acid compared blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S. M. Bernardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A agregação plaquetária avalia a função das plaquetas através de diferentes vias de ativação plaquetária in vitro, fornecendo traçados de ondas equivalentes à propriedade física dessa agregação. Sabendo-se que a aspirina acetila irrever­sivelmente a enzima cicloxigenase prevenindo a geração de tromboxana A2, potente ativador da agregação plaquetária, esta droga tem sido analisada há mais de trinta anos na clínica médica em pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares como uma potente droga antitrombótica. Foram nossos objetivos obter traçados de ondas correspondentes às fases da agregação plaquetária para nossa padronização utilizando nosso grupo controle de doadores de sangue e compará-las com nosso grupo estudo, frente a diferentes agentes agonistas em diferentes concentrações: ADP 1µM e 3µM; AA, 0,5mM; ADR, 0,05 mg/mL, 0,025 mg/mL e 0,010 mg/mL. Os grupos analisados foram constituídos por 41 cardíacos e 40 doadores de sangue considerados controle. Dos cardíacos, 33 faziam uso regular do AAS na concentração de 200 mg/dia e oito na concentração de 100 mg/dia, sendo todos considerados hipertensos. A padronização da agregometria estava na dependência do encontro de traçados correspondentes a ondas de agregação, sendo esses obtidos em porcentagem no tempo de cinco minutos estandartizados pelo aparelho utilizado. Comparando os resultados entre os pacientes e o grupo controle, foi possível observar que, na presença dos agentes agregantes ADP 1µM e ADP 3 µM, ADR 0,05 mg/mL, 0,025mg/mL e 0,010 mg/mL, os pacientes apresentaram 1ª onda, mas não 2ª onda. Por sua vez, no caso do AA 0,5 mM não houve o encontro de traçados de ondas.Platelet aggregation illustrates the function of the platelets by different ways of in vitro platelet activation providing wave traces equivalent to the physical proprieties of this aggregation. It is well known that aspirin irreversibly blocks the cyclooxygenase enzyme preventing the release of thromboxane A2, a potent activator of platelet aggregation. This drug has been evaluated for more than thirty years as a potent antithrombotic drug in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to obtain wave traces corresponding to platelet aggregation phases for standardization purposes using blood donors as a control group and comparing the results with a study group using different agonistic agents at different concentrations: ADP 1 µM and 3 µM; AA 0.5 mM and ADR at 0.05 mg/mL, 0.025 mg/mL and 0.010 mg/mL. The analyzed groups were composed of 41 cardiac patients and 40 blood donors. Among the cardiac patients, 33 regularly used 200 mg of ASA per day and 8 patients normally used 100 mg of ASA per day, all of whom were considered hypertensive. The pattern of aggregation was dependent on conjunction traces corresponding to aggregation waves. A percentage at 5 minutes was obtained with these traces established by the equipment used. In our work, comparing the results among analysed patients and the control group, it was possible to observe that in the presence of the aggregating agents ADP 1µM and ADP 3µM; ADR 0.05 mg/mL, 0.025 mg/mL and 0.010 mg/mL the patients showed the first wave but no second wave aggregation. However, in respect to AA 0.5 mM the conjunction of the trace waves was not seen.

  20. Solid Acid Catalyst Loaded on Bentonite and Its Catalysis of the Synthesis of Acetylsalicylate%膨润土负载型固体酸的制备、表征及催化乙酰水杨酸合成反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红斌; 施金榆; 宁平; 杨敏; 冯桂权

    2009-01-01

    用无水浸渍法制备了膨润土负载型固体酸催化剂,以乙酰水杨酸合成反应为探针考察了制备及反应条件对催化性能的影响,通过XRD、DTA及离子酸度等分析测试技术对催化剂进行表征分析. 结果表明,当用体积分数10%HCl浸泡12 h以上,负载5.0 mmol/g ZnCl2或4.0 mmol/g CuCl2,550 ℃下焙烧活化3 h,制备固体酸及固体酸用量为水杨酸的5%,水杨酸和乙酸酐投料摩尔比为1∶ 2,反应温度为80~90 ℃,反应时间为1 h,产率可达96.6%. 制备的固体酸催化剂可替代浓硫酸并能重复使用.

  1. Preparation of Y2P2W18O62·nH2O/4A Zeolite and Its Application for Catalytic Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid%Y2P2W18O62·nH2O/4A-分子筛的制备及催化合成乙酰水杨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小华

    2016-01-01

    以4A-分子筛为载体,Dawson结构磷钨酸钇(Y2P2W18O62·nH2O)为活性组分,采用浸渍法制备出负载型40%Y2P2W18 O62· nH2O/4A-分子筛,并通过FT IR、EDS、SEM、NH3-TPD及N2吸附-脱附等方法对催化剂进行表征.将其用于催化水杨酸和乙酸酐反应制备乙酰水杨酸,考察了各因素对反应的影响.结果表明,负载前后磷钨酸钇均保持Dawson结构,Y2P2W18O62·nH2O和40%Y2P2W18O62·nH2O/4A-分子筛均呈球形,负载后催化剂的比表面积增大,酸强度和酸量均明显提高.在优化反应条件(水杨酸与乙酸酐摩尔比为1∶3,反应时间为30min,催化剂用量为反应物质量分数的2.3%)下,乙酰水杨酸收率为95.2%.催化剂重复使用6次,乙酰水杨酸收率仍保持为77.9%.

  2. 微波辐射Dawson结构多金属氧酸盐催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid Catalyzed by Substituted Dawson-Type Polyoxometa-lates under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德武; 林险峰

    2009-01-01

    以Dawson结构多金属氧酸盐为催化剂,采用微波技术,用水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料直接合成乙酰水杨酸.考虑了不同Dawson结构多金属氧酸盐催化剂及最佳催化剂用量、水杨酸和乙酸酐物料配比、微波辐射功率以及辐射时间等对反应转化率的影响,为选择最佳合成条件提供了理论基础.

  3. Synthesis and antithrombotic activity of acetylsalicyl ferulic acid-coupling furoxans and nitrates%乙酰水杨酰阿魏酸与呋咱氮氧化物和硝酸酯偶联物的合成及其抗血栓作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洲; 蒋丽媛; 张奕华; 季晖; 孙易; 彭司勋

    2006-01-01

    目的 研究NO供体型阿司匹林衍生物的合成和抗血栓活性,寻找新型抗血栓药物.方法 阿司匹林经阿魏酸分别与呋咱氮氧化物和硝酸酯连接得到目标化合物;通过体外、体内血小板聚集试验和大鼠动静脉旁路血栓试验对新化合物进行抗血栓作用初筛.结果 合成了14个新化合物I1-14,其结构经MS,IR,1H NMR和元素分析确证;药理初筛结果表明,部分化合物在体内、体外均显示出较好的抗血栓活性.结论 乙酰水杨酰阿魏酸与呋咱氮氧化物和硝酸酯偶联物可作为抗血栓先导物,值得深入研究.

  4. Synthesis and Antithrombotic Activity of Acetylsalicyl p-Coumaric Acid Coupled with Furoxans and Nitrates%乙酰水杨酰对羟基桂皮酸与呋咱氮氧化物和硝酸酯偶联物的合成及其抗血栓作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洲; 蒋丽媛; 张奕华; 季晖; 孙易; 彭司勋

    2006-01-01

    对羟基桂皮酸酚羟基经保护后与相应的羟基呋咱氮氧化物酯化,酯化物脱保护,再与阿司匹林缩合得Ⅱ1~Ⅱ3;对羟基桂皮酸与相应二溴烷烃作用,再经阿司匹林酯化,得到的溴代烷基酯与硝酸银反应得Ⅱ4~Ⅱ4;酚羟基保护的对羟基桂皮酸与异山梨醇单硝酸酯酯化,脱保护后与阿司匹林缩合得Ⅱ8.目标物Ⅱ1~Ⅱ8均经MS,IR,1HNMR和元素分析确证,并通过大小鼠体内外抗血栓活性初筛,结果表明,多数目标物显示与阿司匹林相当的抗血栓活性,Ⅱ6活性优于阿司匹林.

  5. H6P2W18O62/MCM-41催化剂的制备、表征及其催化合成乙酰水杨酸%Preparation and Characterization of H6P2W18O62/MCM-41 Catalyst for Acetylsalicylic Acid Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小华; 王原平; 雷艳虹; 徐常龙; 占昌朝

    2014-01-01

    采用浸渍法将Dawson结构的磷钨酸H6P2W 18O62(简写为P2W18)负载在MCM-41分子筛上,制备出新型P2W18/MCM-41催化剂;采用FTIR,XRD,SEM,EDS等方法对催化剂进行了表征.表征结果显示,P2W18/MCM-41催化剂既保持了MCM-41分子筛的孔道结构,又保持了P2W18的Dawson结构.同时研究了P2W18/MCM-41催化剂对乙酰水杨酸合成反应的活性,通过正交实验确定了优化工艺条件:n(水杨酸)∶n(乙酸酐)=1.0∶1.5、P2W18/MCM-41催化剂用量2.7%(基于反应物的质量)、反应温度80℃、反应时间10 min.在此优化条件下,乙酰水杨酸收率为88.1%.P2W18/MCM-41催化剂重复使用5次,乙酰水杨酸收率仍可达76.7%.

  6. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-D and ASA at 0, 8, 16, 32 or 64 mg L-1. 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' calli were subcultured on MS supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0, 2, 4 or 8 mg L-1 and 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 or 4 mg L-1. The increase in ASA concentrations decreased the pro-embryoid formation on calli of both cultivars and only 2,4-D promoted the formation of friable calli. However, the balance of auxin and cytokinin used in this study favored the production of friable calli.

  7. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  8. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  9. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  10. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic...: This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil... residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid on food...

  11. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  12. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  13. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie;

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form fr...

  14. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  15. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Mazaud-Guittot, Sverine; Gaudriault, Pierre;

    2016-01-01

    policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have......Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental...

  16. Salicylates in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohto, P

    1976-01-01

    The possible excretion of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid into human whole-mouth saliva was studied after the ingestion of 1.0 g of acetylsalicylic acid in gelatine capsules. In addition, the oral clearance of both salicylates was determined after a sham intake of acetylsalicylic acid in solution. No acetylsalicylic acid was excreted in saliva. The maximum concentration of 1.2 mug/ml of the metabolite, salicylic acid, was excreted after 3 hours. Considerable concentrations of both salicylates were retained from 2 to 3 hours in the mouth after the sham intake of the drug in solution. During the retention period, part of the acetylsalicylic acid was hydrolyzed to salicylic acid. In vitro, at low concentration levels about 50% of salicylic acid was bound to salivary proteins. The degree of binding was dependent on the drug concentration. The reason for the absence of excreted acetylsalicylic acid from the saliva was evidently its hydrolysis in the body. Protein binding in the oral cavity may explain the slow clearance of locally applied salicylates. Retention of salicylates in the mouth after the use of drug solutions or effervescent preparations should be considered in, e.g. evaluations of local analgesic effects or bleeding disorders. PMID:1067733

  17. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  18. Acidizing carbonate reservoirs with chlorocarboxylic acid salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Templeton, C.C.

    1978-10-31

    A carbonate reservoir is acidized slowly by injecting an aqueous solution of a chlorocarboxylic acid salt so that the rate of the acidization is limited to the rate at which an acid is formed by the hydrolyzing of the chlorocarboxylate ions. The rate at which a chlorocarboxylic acid salt hydrolyzes to form an acid provides the desired rate of acid-release. A more complete acid-base reaction by chloroacetic acid, as compared to formic, acetic, and proprionic, is due to its being a much stronger acid. The pKa of chloroacetic acid is 2.86, whereas that of formic acid is 3.75, and that of acetic acid is 4.75. The pKa of a solution of a weak acid is the pH exhibited when the concentration of undissociated acid equals the concentration of the acid anion. 14 claims.

  19. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  20. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  1. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  2. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  3. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Adverse Effects and Their Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald E.; Laar, van de Mart A.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - Methods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid, asp

  4. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  5. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid Neurolipidomics

    OpenAIRE

    Niemoller, Tiffany D.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2009-01-01

    Mediator lipidomics is a field of study concerned with the characterization, structural elucidation and bioactivity of lipid derivatives generated by enzymatic activity. Omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects for vision, brain function, cardiovascular function, and immune-inflammatory responses. Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)], the most abundant essential omega-3 fatty acid in the human body, is selectively enriched and avidly retained in the central nervous system as an acyl chain...

  7. The acid rain primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  8. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  9. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides ( ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  11. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  12. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  13. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  14. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  15. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  17. Uric acid - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  19. Carbolic acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to. If the person swallowed the carbolic acid, give them water or milk right away, if a provider tells ... well someone does depends on how much carbolic acid they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better ...

  20. Neurotoxicity of Folic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam van JGC; Jansen EHJM; A Opperhuizen; TOX

    2004-01-01

    The present review summarises the neurotoxicological effects of folic acid. Some studies in animals have shown that folic acid is neurotoxic and epileptogenic when applied directly to the brain. One poorly controlled and not further reproduced study from 1970 reported neurotoxic symptoms like malais

  1. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  2. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  3. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  4. Gluconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  5. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    , chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids......Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  6. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  7. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  8. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... green leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Folic Acid Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  9. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of ... in black currant seed, borage seed, and evening primrose oils. Omega-6 fatty acids are used for ...

  10. Acid rain: An overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  11. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  12. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your provider for more information. ... acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The ... acid levels: A high carbohydrate diet Estrogen therapy Vitamin D

  13. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  14. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  15. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pores and by decreasing production of keratin, a natural substance that can lead to the development of ... acid controls acne and rosacea but does not cure these conditions. It may take 4 weeks or ...

  16. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  17. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  18. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  19. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  20. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  1. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  2. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele;

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  3. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON ACID-SENSITIVE UV CURING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-dao Chen; Bing Wu; Xiao-yin Hong

    1999-01-01

    By using diphenyliodonium salts with different counterions as photo acid generators (PAGs), the effect of acidity on ring-opening polymerization of epoxy monomers and polycondensation of polyol with hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) was studied. The result shows that the rate of ring-opening polymerization is evidently dependent on the acidity of the acid and strong photo-generated acid is required.However, there is a leveling effect in the polycondensation system; if the photo-generated acid is stronger than protonated HMMM, the acidity does not obviously affect the polycondensation rate.

  4. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF3(CH3COOH)2. The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF3COOH and CH3COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation

  5. Determination of Sialic Acids by Acidic Ninhydrin Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao,Kenzabroh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A new acidic ninhydrin method for determining free sialic acids is described. The method is based on the reaction of sialic acids with Gaitonde's acid ninhydrin reagent 2 which yields a stable color with an absorption maximum at 470 nm. The standard curve is linear in the range of 5 to 500 nmol of N-acetylneuraminic acid per 0.9 ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was specific only for sialic acids among the various sugars and sugar derivatives examined. Some interference of this method by cysteine, cystine and tryptophan was noted, although their absorption maxima differed from that of sialic acids. The interference by these amino acids was eliminated with the use of a small column of cation-exchange resin. The acidic ninhydrin method provides a simple and rapid method for the determination of free sialic acids in biological materials.

  6. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  7. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  8. Amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, J W; West, K A; Dodson, W S; Hulmes, J D

    2001-05-01

    Amino acid analysis (AAA) is one of the best methods to quantify peptides and proteins. Two general approaches to quantitative AAA exist, namely, classical postcolumn derivatization following ion-exchange chromatography and precolumn derivatization followed by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). Excellent instrumentation and several specific methodologies are available for both approaches, and both have advantages and disadvantages. This unit focuses on picomole-level AAA of peptides and proteins using the most popular precolumn-derivatization method, namely, phenylthiocarbamyl amino acid analysis (PTC-AAA). It is directed primarily toward those interested in establishing the technology with a modest budget. PTC derivatization and analysis conditions are described, and support and alternate protocols describe additional techniques necessary or useful for most any AAA method--e.g., sample preparation, hydrolysis, instrument calibration, data interpretation, and analysis of difficult or unusual residues such as cysteine, tryptophan, phosphoamino acids, and hydroxyproline. PMID:18429107

  9. Biodegradation of cyanuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldick, J

    1974-12-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO(2) and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand.

  10. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation...... and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  11. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  12. [Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Shimizu, S

    1999-10-01

    Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called niacin. They are the antipellagra vitamin essential to many animals for growth and health. In human being, niacin is believed necessary together with other vitamins for the prevention and cure of pellagra. Niacin is widely distributed in nature; appreciable amounts are found in liver, fish, yeast and cereal grains. Nicotinamide is a precursor of the coenzyme NAD and NADP. Some of the most understood metabolic processes that involve niacin are glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and respiration. Niacin is also related to the following diseases: Hartnup disease; blue diaper syndrome; tryptophanuria; hydroxykynureninuria; xanthurenic aciduria; Huntington's disease. PMID:10540864

  13. Whither Acid Rain?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and s...

  14. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan;

    2003-01-01

    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1...

  15. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  16. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Calder Philip C

    2004-01-01

    The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites) and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consumption of these fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and ...

  18. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  19. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  20. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  1. The Acid Rain Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  2. The Acid Rain Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  3. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  4. Acid Rain Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  5. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  6. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis Skovsgaard; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  7. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  8. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela;

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphing...

  9. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells that produce substances needed to fight infection)] or by cancer that began in another part of the body but has spread to the bones. Zoledronic acid (Zometa) is not cancer chemotherapy, and it will not slow or stop the ...

  10. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  11. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  12. Potentiometric determination of peroxodisulfuric acid during electrolysis sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Malchik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Was proposed two potentiometric methods for determining peroxodisulfuric acid during electrolysis of sulfuric acid (potentiometric titration method and direct potentiometry, based on its interaction with a known excess of a solution Fe2+.

  13. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium.

  14. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  15. Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Rui-Dong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acids (AKBA, a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health.

  16. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  17. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  18. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  19. Retinoic acid and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Ho; Yang, Tsung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid which belongs to the retinoid class of chemical compounds is an important metabolite of vitamin A in diets. It is currently understood that retinoic acid plays important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid. Our results also show that low doses and high doses of retinoic acid may respectively cause cell cycle arrest and a...

  20. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  1. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  2. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  3. Self-neutralizing well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.

    1974-07-30

    A process for acidizing a subterranean region by contacting it with an acidic solution is improved by dissolving in the solution a pH-increasing reactant that subsequently adjusts the pH of the solution to a selected relatively neutral value. Urea is an example of the acid neutralizer. (10 claims)

  4. Acid Rain Limits Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Will Knight; 张林玲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acid rain restricts global warming by reducing methane① emissions from natural wetland areas, suggests a global climate study. Acid rain is the result of industrial pollution,which causes rainwater to carry small quantities of acidic compoumds② such as sulphuric and nitric acid③. Contaminated rainwater can upset rivers and lakes, killing fish and other organisms and also damage plants, trees and buildings.

  5. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    -negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  6. Heterogeneous uptake of amines by citric acid and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2012-10-16

    Heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) onto citric acid and humic acid was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer at 298 K. Acid-base reactions between amines and carboxylic acids were confirmed. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on citric acid at 298 K were measured to be 7.31 ± 1.13 × 10(-3), 6.65 ± 0.49 × 10(-3), and 5.82 ± 0.68 × 10(-3), respectively, and showed independence of sample mass. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on humic acid at 298 K increased linearly with sample mass, and the true uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA were measured to be 1.26 ± 0.07 × 10(-5), 7.33 ± 0.40 × 10(-6), and 4.75 ± 0.15 × 10(-6), respectively. Citric acid, having stronger acidity, showed a higher reactivity than humic acid for a given amine; while the steric effect of amines was found to govern the reactivity between amines and citric acid or humic acid.

  7. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  8. Ionic liquid supported acid-catalysed esterification of lauric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic Liquid (IL) based on 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro methylsulfonyl)imide (BMI.NTf2) under acidic condition was used as catalyst for the esterification reaction of fatty acid. Various acids namely sulphuric acid, perchloric acid, p-toulene sulphonic acid and various chloride salts such as zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) immobilized in ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 gave acidic ILs. These acidic ILs were tested as catalysts for esterification reactions. Esterification of alcohol (methanol) with fatty acid (lauric acid) using ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 combined with H2SO4 (BMI.NTf2(H2SO4)) gave high activity (>85 %) and selectivity (100 %) observed over a period of 2 hours reaction with reaction temperature 70 degree Celsius. The ester became easily separated due to IL forming biphasic with product after the reaction where ester accumulated as the upper phase and IL with water produced after reaction at lower phase. Catalytic activities comparison also be studied between acidic ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 with acidic ionic liquid ChCl.2ZnCl2 and conventional acid catalyst. These ILs were characterised by using FTIR, NMR and TGA. Results from FTIR were showed no significant difference between ILs with ILs in acidic condition. The TGA curve show BMI.NTf2 thermals decomposition is ≥400 degree Celsius but when BMI.NTf2 combination with H2SO4, TGA curve show weight loss increase and becomes unstable. The advantages of ILs as catalyst are clean process and green chemistry due to its behaviour such as non-volatile, no loss of solvent through evaporation and reduced environmentally impact. This ILs-catalyst system can be recycle for further reaction. (author)

  9. Microbial transformations of isocupressic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S J; Rosazza, J P

    1998-07-01

    Microbial transformations of the labdane-diterpene isocupressic acid (1) with different microorganisms yielded several oxygenated metabolites that were isolated and characterized by MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Nocardia aurantia (ATCC 12674) catalyzed the cleavage of the 13,14-double bond to yield a new nor-labdane metabolite, 2. Cunninghamella elegans (-) (NRRL 1393) gave 7beta-hydroxyisocupressic acid (3) and labda-7,13(E)-diene-6beta,15, 17-triol-19-oic acid (4), and Mucor mucedo (ATCC 20094) gave 2alpha-hydroxyisocupressic acid (5) and labda-8(17),14-diene-2alpha, 13-diol-19-oic acid (6).

  10. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consumption of these fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and so available for eicosanoid production. Thus, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids act as arachidonic acid antagonists. Components of both natural and acquired immunity, including the production of key inflammatory cytokines, can be affected by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although some of the effects of n-3 fatty acids may be brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, it is possible that these fatty acids might elicit some of their effects by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms. Such n-3 fatty acid-induced effects may be of use as a therapy for acute and chronic inflammation, and for disorders that involve an inappropriately-activated immune response.

  12. Mycophenolic Acid in Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneweis, Isabell; Meyer, Karsten; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Bauer, Johann

    2000-01-01

    We examined 233 silage samples and found that molds were present in 206 samples with counts between 1 × 103 and 8.9 × 107 (mean, 4.7 × 106) CFU/g. Mycophenolic acid, a metabolite of Penicillium roqueforti, was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 74 (32%) of these samples at levels ranging from 20 to 35,000 (mean, 1,400) μg/kg. This compound has well-known immunosuppressive properties, so feeding with contaminated silage may promote the development of infectious diseases in livestock. PMID:10919834

  13. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  14. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  15. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    OpenAIRE

    B. Syama Sundar; P.S.Radhakrishna murti

    2014-01-01

    Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation wi...

  16. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-05-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1 - 3 × 10-4 Torr H2O and 1 - 2.5 × 10-6 Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  17. Caro's acid - its introduction to uranium acid leaching in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After extensive testing and plant trials to establish the benefits of Caro's acid (H2SO5) as an alternative oxidant, Queensland Mines Limited decided to replace pyrolusite with Caro's acid in its acid leach uranium treatment plant at Nabarlek. The decision was based on the reagent savings and environmental gains associated with the removal of manganese from the process liquors, as well as the labour savings and improved oxidation reduction potential control possible in leaching using the Caro's acid system. Some changes in operating parameters were necessary with the introduction of Caro's acid to the treatment plant. Operating results have confirmed the relationship between oxidant demand and uranium content of ore established during the trials. Acid savings have been as predicted from the plant trials. The major saving has been of hydrated lime required for tailings neutralisation

  18. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  19. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.;

    2002-01-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  20. Therapeutic targeting of bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The first objectives of this article are to review the structure, chemistry, and physiology of bile acids and the types of bile acid malabsorption observed in clinical practice. The second major theme addresses the classical or known properties of bile acids, such as the role of bile acid sequestration in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in therapeutics, from traditional oriental medicine to being, until recently, the drug of choice in cholestatic liver diseases; and the potential for normalizing diverse bowel dysfunctions in irritable bowel syndrome, either by sequestering intraluminal bile acids for diarrhea or by delivering more bile acids to the colon to relieve constipation. The final objective addresses novel concepts and therapeutic opportunities such as the interaction of bile acids and the microbiome to control colonic infections, as in Clostridium difficile-associated colitis, and bile acid targeting of the farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 with consequent effects on energy expenditure, fat metabolism, and glycemic control. PMID:26138466

  1. Synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Geng; Qiu Xiao Li; Ya Jie Jiang; Wei Wang

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts was investigated.The results showed that the catalytic activity and selectivity of zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(6)(pore diameter 6 nm)is better than that of commonly used hypophosphorous acid,zirconium sulfate supported on MCM-41 and zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(9)(pore diameter 9 nm).

  2. Bile acid interactions with cholangiocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng Xia; Heather Francis; Shannon Glaser; Gianfranco Alpini; Gene LeSage

    2006-01-01

    Cholangiocytes are exposed to high concentrations of bile acids at their apical membrane. A selective transporter for bile acids, the Apical Sodium Bile Acid Cotransporter (ASBT) (also referred to as Ibat; gene name Slc10a2)is localized on the cholangiocyte apical membrane. On the basolateral membrane, four transport systems have been identified (t-ASBT, multidrug resistance (MDR)3,an unidentified anion exchanger system and organic solute transporter (Ost) heteromeric transporter, OstαOstβ. Together, these transporters unidirectionally move bile acids from ductal bile to the circulation. Bile acids absorbed by cholangiocytes recycle via the peribiliaryplexus back to hepatocytes for re-secretion into bile.This recycling of bile acids between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is referred to as the cholehepatic shunt pathway. Recent studies suggest that the cholehepatic shunt pathway may contribute in overall hepatobiliary transport of bile acids and to the adaptation to chronic cholestasis due to extrahepatic obstruction. ASBT is acutely regulated by an adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent translocation to the apical membrane and by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. ASBT is chronically regulated by changes in gene expression in response to biliary bile acid concentration and inflammatory cytokines.Another potential function of cholangiocyte ASBT is to allow cholangiocytes to sample biliary bile acids in order to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Bile acids trigger changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signalregulated protein kinase (ERK) intracellular signals.Bile acids significantly alter cholangiocyte secretion,proliferation and survival. Different bile acids have differential effects on cholangiocyte intracellular signals,and in some instances trigger opposing effects on cholangiocyte secretion

  3. Molecular Simulation of Naphthenic Acid Removal on Acidic Catalyst Ⅱ. Experimental results of catalytic decarboxylation over acidic catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiaoqin; Tian Songbai; Hou Shuandi; Longjun; Wang Xieqing

    2008-01-01

    The energy barriers of thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids and catalytic decarboxylation reactions of Br(o)nsted acid and Lewis acid were analyzed using molecular simulation technology.Compared with thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids, the decarboxylation reactions by acid catalysts were easier to occur. The decarboxylaton effect by Lewis acid was better than Br(o)nsted acid. The mechanisms of catalytic decarboxylation over acid catalyst were also verified by experiments on a fixed bed and a fluidized bed, the experimental results showed that the rate of acid removal could reach up to 97% over the acidic catalyst at a temperature above 400℃.

  4. Kojic acid in organic synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    ZIRAK, MARYAM; Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    The reactions of kojic acid in organic synthesis are reviewed. The aim of this review is to cover the literature up to the end of 2014, showing the distribution of publications involving kojic acid chemistry in the synthesis of various pyrone containing compounds, pyridine and pyridone heterocycles, and also other organic compounds. First, introductory text about the preparation, biological, and industrial applications, and the chemical properties of kojic acid is given. Then its uses in orga...

  5. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-im...

  6. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation fo...

  7. Kwas acetylosalicylowy i jego zastosowanie w profilaktyce chorób u kobiet po menopauzie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Połać

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is a simple chemical compound belonging to a group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatorydrugs (NSAIDs. The mechanism of acetylsalicylic acid is based on the inhibition of cyclooxygenase(COX. That enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of cyclic prostanoids, i.e. prostaglandins (D2, E2, F2, I2,thromboxane A2 (TXA2 and prostacyclin. For this reason ASA is one of the most popular anti-inflammatorydrugs present on the pharmaceutical market. Due to its ability to inhibit the synthesis of TXA2 (moleculescapable of platelet activation ASA is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases such as ischemicheart disease. Clinical trials confirm the efficacy of aspirin in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases inpostmenopausal women. In some cases ASA is unable to inhibit platelet activation. This phenomenon iscalled aspirin resistance. Acetylsalicylic acid can also inhibit aromatase activity, therefore it may be used inthe prevention of breast cancer. Many clinical trials confirm that acetylsalicylic acid reduces the risk of breastcancer in postmenopausal women. Use of ASA may also increase bone mineral density (BMD. This articledescribes the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of the acetylsalicylic acid as well as clinical trialsconducted on postmenopausal women.

  8. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  9. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  10. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  11. Molecular structural studies of lichen substances II: atranorin, gyrophoric acid, fumarprotocetraric acid, rhizocarpic acid, calycin, pulvinic dilactone and usnic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Newton, Emma M.; Wynn-Williams, David D.

    2003-06-01

    The FT-Raman and infrared vibrational spectra of some important lichen compounds from two metabolic pathways are characterised. Key biomolecular marker bands have been suggested for the spectroscopic identification of atranorin, gyrophoric acid, fumarprotocetraric acid rhizocarpic acid, calycin, pulvinic dilactone and usnic acid. A spectroscopic protocol has been defined for the detection of these molecules in organisms subjected to environmental stresses such as UV-radiation exposure, desiccation and low temperatures. Use of the protocol will be made for the assessment of survival strategies used by stress-tolerant lichens in Antarctic cold deserts.

  12. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of nat...

  13. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  14. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  15. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  16. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scalabrin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m−3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m−3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45–60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m−3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 μm and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  17. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Yakabi; Junichi Kawashima; Shingo Kato

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-in-duced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric add secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  18. Origin of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  19. Folic Acid: Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid fortification in the United States Recently, the American Journal of Preventive Medicine published a new study looking at the costs ... acid fortification and spina bifida in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. January 2016 [epub ahead of print]. Related Links ...

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega- ... fish including tuna, salmon, and mackerel. Other important omega 3 fatty acids are found in dark green leafy vegetables, flaxseed ...

  1. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  2. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  3. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  4. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  5. Cocrystals of fenamic acids with nicotinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Fábián, László; Hamill, Noel; Eccles, Kevin S; Moynihan, Humphrey A; Maguire, Anita R.; McCausland, Linda; Lawrence, Simon E.

    2011-01-01

    Cocrystal formation between nicotinamide and five fenamic acid derivative drugs (flufenamic acid, niflumic tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid and meclofenamic acid) was investigated using solution-based and solid-state preparation methods. It was anticipated that the well-known acid-aromatic nitrogen heterosynthon would provide a sufficient driving force for cocrystallization. The experiments yielded cocrystals with four of the five acids. Although the structures of these molecules are similar, ...

  6. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Syama Sundar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation with Mn (VII in case of DL-Mandelic acid. The following order of reactivity is observed: DL-Mandelic acid > Phenyl acetic acid. The high reactivity of DL-Mandelic acid over phenyl acetic acid may be due to different mechanisms operating with the two substrates and benzaldehyde is the final product in both the cases.

  7. N-(3-Nitrophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8N2O5, the molecule is slightly distorted from planarity. The molecular structure is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 1.57 Å within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond (H...O distance = 2.24 Å which connects the amide group with the benzene ring. The nitro group is twisted by 6.2 (2° out of the plane of the benzene ring. The crystal structure manifests a variety of hydrogen bonding. The packing is dominated by a strong intermolecular N—H...O interaction which links the molecules into chains running along the b axis. The chains within a plane are further assembled by three additional types of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a sheet parallel to the (overline{1}01 plane.

  8. Microfluidics in amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumera, Martin

    2007-07-01

    Microfluidic devices have been widely used to derivatize, separate, and detect amino acids employing many different strategies. Virtually zero-dead volume interconnections and fast mass transfer in small volume microchannels enable dramatic increases in on-chip derivatization reaction speed, while only minute amounts of sample and reagent are needed. Due to short channel path, fast subsecond separations can be carried out. With sophisticated miniaturized detectors, the whole analytical process can be integrated on one platform. This article reviews developments of lab-on-chip technology in amino acid analysis, it shows important design features such as sample preconcentration, precolumn and postcolumn amino acid derivatization, and unlabeled and labeled amino acid detection with focus on advanced designs. The review also describes important biomedical and space exploration applications of amino acid analysis on microfluidic devices. PMID:17542043

  9. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163

  10. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid.

  11. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid. PMID:27422507

  12. Biophysical properties of phenyl succinic acid derivatised hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic materials. In the present study, hyaluronic...... acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA). The fluorescence of PheSA was efficiently quenched by the HA matrix. HA also acted as a singlet oxygen scavenger. Fluorescence lifetime(s) of PheSA in solution and when attached to the HA matrix has been monitored...

  13. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    KANAZAWA, Akio; TESHIMA, Shin-ichi; TOKIWA, Shigeru; IMATANAKA, Nobuya; カナザワ, アキオ; テシマ, シンイチ; トキワ, シゲル; イマタナカ, ノブヤ; 金沢, 昭夫; 手島, 新一; 常盤, 繁; 今田中, 伸哉

    1984-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) methylesters (ME) were preparedfrom a squid-liver oil and their hypocholesterolemic activities examined with rats. The supplementof 0.3% EPA-ME to the diet containing 1.0% cholesterol and 4.0% butter as lipids reduced a serum-cholesterollevel markedly, whereas DHA-ME gave almost no effect on the serum-cholesterol level.Both EPA-ME and DHA-ME reduced the liver-cholesterol level as effectively as linoleic acid did.The supplement of smal...

  14. Analytical application of aminohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthranilic hydroxamic acid was prepared by coupling of methylanthranilate (prepared by esterification of anthranilic acid with methyl alcohol using the fisher-speir method) with freshly prepared hydroxylamine. The lignad was characterized by the usual reaction of hydroxamic acid with acidic V(V) and Fe(III) solutions that gives blood-red colour in amyl alcohol and deep-violet colour in aqueous solution, respectively. The absorbance of Fe(III)-hydroxamic acids complexes increases with increase of pH. In this study, the effect of pH on the absorbance of Fe(III)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid was in accordance with this trend. The maximum absorbance was obtained at pH 5.0 at maximum wavelength of 482 nm. For Cu(II)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex, the use of acidic basic pH lead to precipitation of Cu(II)-ligand complex. But when using buffer pH (acetic acid/sodium acetate) a clear green colour of Cu(II)-ligand complex was obtained. The maximum wavelength of 390 nm. V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex was extracted in acidic medium in amyl alcohol at pH 2.0 because in aqueous solution V(V)-anthranilic hydroxamic acid complex has not clear colour. It was observed the the maximum extraction in acidic medium decrease sharply with the increasing of pH value. The maximum wavelength for maximum absorbance was recorded at 472 nm. V(V) interfered with determination of Fe(III)) above concentration of 2 ppm, whereas Cu(II) interferes slightly with the determination of Fe(III) ions even at a high concentration of the Cu(II) ions. Both Cu(II) and Ni(II) do not interfere with the determination of V(V) ions even at high concentrations, Fe(III) ion produced slight interference, while Mo(VI) ions have a pronounced interference. Both V(V) and Fe(III) ions interfered markedly with the determination of Cu(II) ions, and made impractical under conditions. However, the calibration curves for the three metal ions produced a practical linear dynamic range.(Author)

  15. Neuroprotection by Aspirin and Sodium Salicylate Through Blockade of NF-kappaB Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Mariagrazia; Pizzi, Marina; Memo, Maurizio; Spano, Pierfranco

    1996-11-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a commonly prescribed drug with a wide pharmacological spectrum. At concentrations compatible with amounts in plasma during chronic anti-inflammatory therapy, acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite sodium salicylate were found to be protective against neurotoxicity elicited by the excitatory amino acid glutamate in rat primary neuronal cultures and hippocampal slices. The site of action of the drugs appeared to be downstream of glutamate receptors and to involve specific inhibition of glutamate-mediated induction of nuclear factor kappa B. These results may contribute to the emerging theme of anti-inflammatory drugs and neurodegeneration.

  16. The Property and Application of Arachidonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相勤; 姚建铭; 袁成凌; 王纪; 余增亮

    2002-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most important PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in human body. A high-yield arachidonic acid-producing strain (mortierella alpina) was selected by ion implantation (the relative content of arachidonic acid is 70.2% among all fatty acids). This paper mainly introduced the structure, distribution, source, physiologic healthcare function and application of AA.

  17. Cycloadditions for Studying Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kath-Schorr, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Cycloaddition reactions for site-specific or global modification of nucleic acids have enabled the preparation of a plethora of previously inaccessible DNA and RNA constructs for structural and functional studies on naturally occurring nucleic acids, the assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures, therapeutic applications, and recently, the development of novel aptamers. In this chapter, recent progress in nucleic acid functionalization via a range of different cycloaddition (click) chemistries is presented. At first, cycloaddition/click chemistries already used for modifying nucleic acids are summarized, ranging from the well-established copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction to copper free methods, such as the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, tetrazole-based photoclick chemistry and the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction between strained alkenes and tetrazine derivatives. The subsequent sections contain selected applications of nucleic acid functionalization via click chemistry; in particular, site-specific enzymatic labeling in vitro, either via DNA and RNA recognizing enzymes or by introducing unnatural base pairs modified for click reactions. Further sections report recent progress in metabolic labeling and fluorescent detection of DNA and RNA synthesis in vivo, click nucleic acid ligation, click chemistry in nanostructure assembly and click-SELEX as a novel method for the selection of aptamers. PMID:27572987

  18. PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PROTOCATECHUIC ACID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Rashid, Rehana; Fatima, Nighat; Mahmood, Sadaf; Mir, Sadullah; Khan, Sara; Jabeen, Nyla; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a simple phenolic acid. It is found in a large variety of edible plants and possesses various pharmacological activities. This article aims to review the modern trends in phytochemical isolation and extraction of PCA from plants and other natural resources. Moreover, this article also encompasses pharmacological and biological activities of PCA. It is well known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemia, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-ageing, anti-athro- genic, anti-tumoral, anti-asthma, antiulcer, antispasmodic and neurological properties. PMID:26647619

  19. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  20. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  1. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEENA GARG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LAB are used as starter culture, consortium members and bioprotective agents in food industry that improve food quality, safety and shelf life. A variety of probiotic LAB species are available including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. esselnsis, B. lactis, B. infantis that are currently recommended for development of functional food products with health-promoting capacities.

  2. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  3. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Max

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

  4. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is widely found in both plants and animals including meat, vegetables, cereal grains, legumes, eggs, and ... vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin/niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), ...

  5. Low acid producing solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  6. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  7. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  8. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  9. Aqueous Photochemistry of Glyoxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Alexis J; Xia, Sha-Sha; Guzman, Marcelo I

    2016-06-01

    Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging of photoproducts is studied by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies to reveal that the optical properties are altered by the glyoxal produced. The optical properties display periodicity in the time domain of the UV-visible spectrum of chromophores with absorption enhancement (thermochromism) or loss (photobleaching) during nighttime and daytime cycles, respectively. During irradiation, excited state glyoxylic acid can undergo α-cleavage or participate in hydrogen abstractions. The use of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis shows that glyoxal is an important intermediate produced during direct photolysis. Glyoxal quickly reaches a quasi-steady state as confirmed by UHPLC-MS analysis of its corresponding (E) and (Z) 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The homolytic cleavage of glyoxylic acid is proposed as a fundamental step for the production of glyoxal. Both carbon oxides, CO2(g) and CO(g) evolving to the gas-phase, are quantified by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally, formic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid photoproducts are identified by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity and electrospray (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) detection and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. A reaction mechanism is proposed based on all experimental observations. PMID:27192089

  10. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B;

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  11. SATURATED PICRIC ACID PREVENTS AUTOPHAGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rahimi-Movaghar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg and xylazine (10 mg/kg for the SCI procedures. In the first 39 rats, no solution applied to the hind limbs, but in the next 26 cases, we smeared the saturated picric acid on the tail, lower extremities, pelvic, and abdomen of the rats immediately after SCI. In the rats without picric acid, 23 rats died following autophagia, but in the 26 rats with picric acid, there was no autophagia (P < 0.001. Picric acid side effects in skin and gastrointestinal signs such as irritation, redness and diarrhea were not seen in any rat. Saturated picric acid is a topical solution that if used appropriately and carefully, might be safe and effectively prevents autophagia and self-mutilation. When the solution is applied to the lower abdomen and limbs, we presume that its bitterness effectively prevents the rat from licking and biting the limb.

  12. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  13. An Efficient Procedure for Esterification of Aryloxyacetic Acid and Arylthioacetic Acid Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Hong-Ya; LI,Ji-Tai; LI,Hui-Zhang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Aryloxyacetate and arylthioacetate are wildly used in herbicides, plant regulator and insecticides. Recently, Wille et al. have reported that methyl aryloxyacetate is an efficient agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.[1] The most popular synthesis is by heating sodium phenoxide (mercaptide) with ethyl chloroacetate in DMF,[2] or by the esterification of acid with alcohol using concentrated H2SO4 as catalyst.[3] In this paper, synthesis of aryloxyacetate and aryl thioacetate from aryloxyacetic acid and arylthioacetic acid respectively in ether catalyzed by silica sulfuric acid in 83%~94% yields is described. The catalyst is reused for 3 times without significant loss of activity (Entry 4). Compared with common procedures, the present procedure possesses the advantages of the operational simplicity, short reaction time,less-corrosion, high yield and reusable catalyst.

  14. Fluorotelomer acids are more toxic than perfluorinated acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michelle M MacDonald; Dinglasan-Panlilio, Mary Joyce A; Mabury, Scott A; Solomon, Keith R; Sibley, Paul K

    2007-10-15

    Saturated and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids have been identified as intermediates in the degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols to perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Although surface waters are the likely environmental sink for telomer acids, no fate or toxicity data exist for this matrix. We assessed the acute toxicity of the 4:2, 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 saturated (FTCA) and unsaturated (FTUCA) fluorotelomer carboxylic acids to Daphnia magna, Chironomus tentans, and Lemna gibba. In general, toxicity increased with increasing fluorocarbon (FC) chain length, particularly for telomer acids of > or =8 FCs. In addition, the FTCAs were generally more toxic than the corresponding FTUCAs. Acute EC50s ranged from 0.025 mg/L (0.04 micromol/L) for D. magna (10:2 FTCA, immobility) to 63 mg/L (167 micromol/L) for C. tentans (6:2 FTCA, growth). While chain-length trends observed in the current study agree with those previously reported for PFCAs, the toxicity thresholds generated here are up to 10,000 times smaller. Our data provide the first evidence that PFCA precursors are more toxic than the PFCAs themselves. PMID:17993163

  15. Nucleic Acid Backbone Structure Variations: Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic analogues and mimics of the natural genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are potential gene therapeutic (antisense or antigene) drugs. One of these mimics, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), are chemically closer to peptides and proteins than to DNA, but nonetheless have retained many...... of the structural properties of DNA. These molecules have found applications as probes in genetic diagnostics and are also being developed into antisense (RNA (ribonucleic acid) interference) gene therapeutic drugs, targeting selected genes through sequence-specific recognition of (messenger or micro......)RNA and in the future also antigene applications targeting the double-stranded DNA of the genes themselves leading to gene silencing or guiding specific gene repair. Finally, the special chemical and structural properties of PNA suggest that these or similar molecules might have played a role in the prebiotic origin...

  16. Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J.A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  17. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible...... boronate internucleosidic linkages. The DNA- or RNA-templated system comprises a 5′-ended boronic acid probe connecting a 3′-ended ribonucleosidic oligonucleotide partner. To explore the dominant factors that control the reversible linkage, we synthesized a series of 3′-end modified ribonucleotidic strands...

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10-Hydroxy-12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Jun; Matsumura, Kenji; Kishino, Shigenobu; Omura, Yoriko; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2001-01-01

    Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or trans-9, cis-11-octadecadienoic acid and trans-9, trans-11-octadecadie...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1007 - Aconitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... salt from cane sugar or molasses. It may be synthesized by sulfuric acid dehydration of citric acid.... 102-103, test for citric acid, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a... carbonizable substances. Passes the test for citric acid of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 4th ed. (1996), pp....

  20. How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a major foodborne pathogen, possesses a number of mechanisms which enable it to combat the challenges posed by acidic environments such as acidic foods and the acidity in the gastrointestinal tract. These mechanisms include the acid tolerance response, a two-component regula...

  1. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Kos; Jelena Ramljak; Ante Ivanković; Miljenko Konjačić; Nikolina Kelava

    2010-01-01

    Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein). Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P

  2. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  3. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART. PMID:26298813

  4. Toxicologic Study of Monochloroacetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Bo; Zhan Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Monochloroacetic Acid (MCA) is a chlorinated analog of acetic acids. MCA and its sodium salt (SMCA) are widely used as a chemical intermediate (primarily in the manufacture of chlorophenoxy herbicides,carboxymethylcelluose, glycine and indigoid dyes).Moreover, MCA has been found as a common by-product of the chlorination of drinking water. Chloroacetates are ubiquitous in the environment, and MCA is the most abundant among chloroacetates. A background level of 0.1 - 1μg/L is expected to occur in precipitation[1]. Total world wide annual production of MCA reported was about 400 000 tons[2]. Many studies have showed that MCA not only caused acute or chronic damage to the skin , liver, kidney, heart, brain and other organs, but also caused acute death systemically under high concentration[2,3]. So this article will discuss the toxic effect of Monochloroacetic Acid in Toxicology.

  5. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  6. Fauna of an acid stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, M.E.

    1922-01-01

    The hydrogen-ion concentration of the water of the big muddy river was found to vary between pH 5.8 and pH 6.8 to 7.2, the higher acidity occurring during the winter. The bottom fauna was characterized by the abundance of clams and shrimp, and by the absence of branchiate snails and ephemerid nymphs. Fish fry and fingerlings were found in large numbers during the summer in weakly acid water, pH 6.8. Observations on our acid streams, continued over a considerable period of time, would tell us much concerning the adaptability of various species to different hydrogen-ion concentrations and are greatly needed in the interpretation of experimental data.

  7. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed E. A. Shayoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  8. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O., E-mail: khalid.alfarouk@act.sd [Department of Biotechnology, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum (Sudan); Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Muddathir, Abdel Khalig [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Shayoub, Mohammed E. A. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-01-20

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  9. Influence of acidified acidity to uranium bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the acidified acidity and the acid consumption and uranium leaching rate in the process of uranium bioleaching is investigated. Results indicate that higher uranium leaching rate is obtained when the relatively high acidity was applied at beginning. For different minerals, although the original acidity should be different, lower original acidity was not better for shortening leaching period and improving uranium leaching rate. It confirms 30-40 g/L sulfuric acid as the original acidity was more suitable and more than 30 g/ L should be applied if the mineral particle sizes were larger. (authors)

  10. Solubilities of Isophthalic Acid in Acetic Acid + Water Solvent Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Youwei; HUO Lei; LI Xi

    2013-01-01

    The solubilities of isophthalic acid (1) in binary acetic acid (2) + water (3) solvent mixtures were determined in a pressurized vessel.The temperature range was from 373.2 to 473.2K and the range of the mole fraction of acetic acid in the solvent mixtures was from x2 =0 to 1.A new method to measure the solubility was developed,which solved the problem of sampling at high temperature.The experimental results indicated that within the temperature range studied,the solubilities of isophthalic acid in all mixtures showed an increasing trend with increasing temperature.The experimental solubilities were correlated by the Buchowski equation,and the calculate results showed good agreement with the experimental solubilities.Furthermore,the mixed solvent systems were found to exhibit a maximum solubility effect on the solubility,which may be attributed to the intermolecular association between the solute and the solvent mixture.The maximum solubility effect was well modeled by the modified Wilson equation.

  11. Bipolar lead acid battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskra, Michael; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan; Perrone, David

    1991-01-01

    A modular bipolar battery configuration is under development at Johnson Control, Inc. (JCI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The battery design, incorporating proven lead acid electrochemistry, yields a rechargeable, high-power source that is light weight and compact. This configuration offers advantages in power capability, weight, and volume over conventional monopolar batteries and other battery chemistries. The lead acid bipolar battery operates in a sealed, maintenance-free mode allowing for maximum application flexibility. It is ideal for high-voltage and high-power applications.

  12. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, D M; Andersen, L M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø;

    2011-01-01

    Proteases are potential or realized therapeutic targets in a wide variety of pathological conditions. Moreover, proteases are classical subjects for studies of enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms. We here review the literature on nucleic acid aptamers selected with proteases as targets. Designing......-specifically, for instance with vastly different affinities to zymogen and active enzyme forms. Furthermore, aptamers can be selected to inhibit the enzyme activity of the target proteases, but also to inhibit functionally important exosite interactions, for instance cofactor binding. Several protease-inhibiting aptamers...... strategies and of new principles for regulating the activity of the inhibitory action of aptamers of general interest to researchers working with nucleic acid aptamers...

  13. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  14. 21 CFR 184.1033 - Citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Citric acid. 184.1033 Section 184.1033 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1033 Citric acid. (a) Citric acid (C6H8O7, CAS Reg. No. 77-92-9) is the... mole of water per mole of citric acid. Citric acid may be produced by recovery from sources such...

  15. General consideration on sialic acid chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids, also known as neuraminic acids, are a family of negatively charged α-keto acids with a nine-carbon backbone. These unique sugars have been found at the termini of many glycan chains of vertebrate cell surface, which play pivotal roles in mediating or modulating a variety of physiological and pathological processes. This brief review covers general approaches for synthesizing sialic acid containing structures. Recently developed synthetic methods along with structural diversities and biological functions of sialic acid are discussed.

  16. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-07

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  17. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  18. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Ristić, Gordana; Tepsić, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANCE AND METABOLISM OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be produced in the body and must be taken by food. Both in animals and humans, alpha-linolenic acid is desaturated and elongated into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also incorporated into plasma and tissue lipids and its conversion is affected by levels of linoleic acid. POTENTIAL ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the incidence of cardiac death. Studies have shown that alpha linolenic acid prevents ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of cardiac death. Studies in rats suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may be more effective in preventing ventricular fibrillations than eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid is the main fatty acid decreasing platalet aggregation which is an important step in thrombosis i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. DIETARY SOURCES AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary sources include flaxseed and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean and soybean oil, pumpkin seed and pumpkin oil, walnuts and walnut oil. Strong evidence supports beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid and its dietary sources should be incorporated into balanced diet for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The recommended daily intake is 2 g with a ratio of 5/1 for linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:15510909

  19. Hydroxylated analogues of 5-aminovaleric acid as 4-aminobutyric acidB receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, U; Hedegaard, A; Herdeis, C;

    1992-01-01

    The (R) and (S) forms of 5-amino-2-hydroxyvaleric acid (2-OH-DAVA) and 5-amino-4-hydroxyvaleric acid (4-OH-DAVA) were designed as structural hybrids of the 4-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist (R)-(-)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [(R)-(-)-3-OH-GABA] and the GABAB antagonist 5-aminovaleric acid...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... coco acid triamine condensate, poly-car-box-ylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-446) is subject to...

  1. Peptide Nucleic Acids Complexes of Two Peptide Nucleic Acid Strands and One

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids and analogues of peptide nucleic acids are used to form duplex, triplex, and other structures with nucleic acids and to modify nucleic acids. The peptide nucleic acids and analogues thereof also are used to modulate protein activity through, for example, transcription arrest...

  2. 5-Caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid orally administered suppresses P-selectin expression on mouse platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffeic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid are a naturally occurring phenolic acid and its ester found in human diets. In this paper, potential effects of caffeic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid found in coffee and other plant sources on platelet activation were studied via investigating P-selectin expre...

  3. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help!

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  4. 2-(3-Hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Zhi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two independent 2-(3-hydroxybenzylaminoacetic acid molecules, C9H11NO3, in the asymmetric unit of the title compound. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the two independent molecules is 58.12 (4°. The crystal packing is stablized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  5. Getting folic acid nutrition right

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two articles in this issue of the journal provide some definitive answers to questions relating to folic acid exposure and folate nutritional status of the US population in the post-fortification era, and, by implication, pose other questions. Most convincingly, these reports, which are based la...

  6. Adipic Acid: Vigorous Import Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Adipic acid is mainly used to manufacture nylon 6,6, plasticizers, grease, polyurethane etc. There are three major commercial production processes: cyclohexane process, cyclohexanol process, butadiene carbonylation process, and the air oxidation of cyclohexane process constitute 93% of the total.

  7. Boric Acid in Kjeldahl Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    The use of boric acid in the Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen is a variant of the original method widely applied in many laboratories all over the world. Its use is recommended by control organizations such as ISO, IDF, and EPA because it yields reliable and accurate results. However, the chemical principles the method is based on are not…

  8. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  9. Engineering robust lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Wels, M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been industrially exploited as starter cultures in the fermentation of foods and feeds for their spoilage-preventing and flavor-enhancing characteristics. More recently, the health-promoting effects of LAB on the consumer have been widely acknowledged,

  10. Uric acid in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    2006-01-01

    Peroxynitrite, a reactive oxidant formed by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide at sites of inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS), is capable of damaging tissues and cells. Uric acid, a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite, reduces inflammatory demyelination in experimental allergic encepha

  11. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys. This project is a direct follow-on to United Space Alliance (USA) work at KSC to optimize the parameters for the use of citric acid and verify effectiveness. This project will build off of the USA study to further evaluate citric acids effectiveness and suitability for corrosion protection of a number of stainless steels alloys used by NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  12. Benzylidene Acetal Protecting Group as Carboxylic Acid Surrogate: Synthesis of Functionalized Uronic Acids and Sugar Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amit; Senthilkumar, Soundararasu; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2016-01-18

    Direct oxidation of the 4,6-O-benzylidene acetal protecting group to C-6 carboxylic acid has been developed that provides an easy access to a wide range of biologically important and synthetically challenging uronic acid and sugar amino acid derivatives in good yields. The RuCl3 -NaIO4 -mediated oxidative cleavage method eliminates protection and deprotection steps and the reaction takes place under mild conditions. The dual role of the benzylidene acetal, as a protecting group and source of carboxylic acid, was exploited in the efficient synthesis of six-carbon sialic acid analogues and disaccharides bearing uronic acids, including glycosaminoglycan analogues. PMID:26572799

  13. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  14. Eskimo plasma constituents, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit the release of atherogenic mitogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D L; Willis, A L; Nguyen, N; Conner, D; Zahedi, S; Fulks, J

    1989-01-01

    Studies in man and laboratory animals suggest that omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid constituents of fish oils have antiatherosclerotic properties. We have studied the effects of several such polyunsaturated fatty acids for ability to modify the in vitro release of mitogens from human platelets. Such mitogens may produce the fibro-proliferative component of atherosclerotic plaques. Both 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3), major constituents of fish oils, inhibited adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation of platelets and the accompanying release of mitogens. These effects are dose dependent. Linolenic acid (18:3 omega 3), the biosynthetic precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid, also inhibited platelet aggregation and mitogen release. Eicosapentaenoic acid also inhibited mitogen release from human monocyte-derived macrophages, which, in vivo, are an additional source of mitogens during atherogenesis. Potent inhibition of human platelet aggregation and mitogen release was also seen with dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid 20:3 omega 6), whose levels are reportedly elevated in Eskimos subsisting on marine diets. We conclude that diets that elevate plasma and/or tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid precursor gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega 6) may exert antiatherosclerotic effects by inhibiting the release of mitogens from platelets and other cells.

  15. Crystal growth and physical characterization of picolinic acid cocrystallized with dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somphon, Weenawan; Haller, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are multicomponent materials containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient with another component in well-defined stoichiometry within the same unit cell. Such cocrystals are important in drug design, particularly for improving physicochemical properties such as solubility, bioavailability, or chemical stability. Picolinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of tryptophan and is widely used for neuroprotective, immunological, and anti-proliferative effects within the body. In this paper we present cocrystallization experiments of a series of dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, succinic acid, DL-tartaric acid, pimelic acid, and phthalic acid, with picolinic acid. Characterization by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, DSC and TG/DTG analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction show that new compounds are formed, including a 1:1 picolinium tartrate monohydrate, a 2:1 monohydrate adduct of picolinic acid and oxalic acid, and a 2:1 picolinic acid-succinic acid monohydrate cocrystal.

  16. Chemical peeling - Glycolic acid versus trichloroacetic acid in melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalla G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma continues to be a therapeutic challenge. 100 patients of melasma not responding to conventional depigmenting agents were divided into 2 groups, one treated with 55 - 75% glycolic acid (68 patients and the other with 10-15% trichloroacetic acid (32 patients. Applications were made after every 15 days and response assessed clinically along with relapse or hyperpigmentation after 3 month follow up period. More than 75% improvement was seen in 30%, and 50-75% improvement in 24% patients. Response with TCA was more rapid as compared to GA. Chronic pigmentation responded more favourably to TCA. Relapse and hyperpigmentation was more-25% in TCA as compared to 5.9% GA. Sun exposure was the most important precipitating factor followed by pregnancy and drugs.

  17. Quinone-amino acid conjugates targeting Leishmania amino acid transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Federica; Goldman-Pinkovich, Adele; Lizzi, Federica; Belluti, Federica; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7) to import these nutrients. Probes 1-15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III) with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine) by means of an amide linkage. The toxicity of the synthesized conjugates against Leishmania extracellular (promastigotes) and intracellular (amastigotes) forms was investigated, as well their inhibition of the relevant amino acid transporters. We observed that some conjugates indeed displayed toxicity against the parasites; in particular, 7 was identified as the most potent derivative (at concentrations of 1 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL residual cell viability was reduced to 15% and 48% in promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively). Notably, 6, while retaining the cytotoxic activity of quinone II, displayed no toxicity against mammalian THP1 cells. Transport assays indicated that the novel conjugates inhibited transport activity of lysine, arginine and proline transporters. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that the toxic conjugates might be translocated by the transporters into the cells. The non-toxic probes that inhibited transport competed with the natural substrates for binding to the transporters without being translocated. Thus, it is likely that 6, by exploiting amino acid transporters, can selectively deliver its toxic effects to Leishmania cells. This work provides the first evidence that amino acid transporters of the human pathogen Leishmania might be modulated by small molecules, and warrants their further investigation from drug discovery and chemical biology perspectives. PMID:25254495

  18. Quinone-Amino Acid Conjugates Targeting Leishmania Amino Acid Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Prati; Adele Goldman-Pinkovich; Federica Lizzi; Federica Belluti; Roni Koren; Dan Zilberstein; Maria Laura Bolognesi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7) to import these nutrients. Probes 1-15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III) with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine) by means of an amide linkage. The toxi...

  19. Quinone-amino acid conjugates targeting Leishmania amino acid transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Prati

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7 to import these nutrients. Probes 1-15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine by means of an amide linkage. The toxicity of the synthesized conjugates against Leishmania extracellular (promastigotes and intracellular (amastigotes forms was investigated, as well their inhibition of the relevant amino acid transporters. We observed that some conjugates indeed displayed toxicity against the parasites; in particular, 7 was identified as the most potent derivative (at concentrations of 1 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL residual cell viability was reduced to 15% and 48% in promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively. Notably, 6, while retaining the cytotoxic activity of quinone II, displayed no toxicity against mammalian THP1 cells. Transport assays indicated that the novel conjugates inhibited transport activity of lysine, arginine and proline transporters. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that the toxic conjugates might be translocated by the transporters into the cells. The non-toxic probes that inhibited transport competed with the natural substrates for binding to the transporters without being translocated. Thus, it is likely that 6, by exploiting amino acid transporters, can selectively deliver its toxic effects to Leishmania cells. This work provides the first evidence that amino acid transporters of the human pathogen Leishmania might be modulated by small molecules, and warrants their further investigation from drug discovery and chemical biology perspectives.

  20. Bioisosteric modifications of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Peters, Dan;

    2004-01-01

    2-Arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) have recently been presented as the first series of selective noncompetitive GluR5 antagonists. In this paper we have modified the acidic moiety of the AUBAs by introducing different acidic and neutral groups, and similarly, we have replaced the urea linker...... of the AUBAs with other structurally related linkers. Replacing the acid with neutral substituents led to inactive compounds in all instances, showing that an acidic moiety is necessary for activity. Replacing the carboxylic moiety in 2a with a sulfonic acid (5c) or a tetrazole ring (5d) improved the potency...

  1. Endocrine and paracrine role of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verena Keitel; Ralf Kubitz; Dieter H(a)ussinger

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids are not only important for the absorption of dietary lipids and fat soluble vitamins but are signalling molecules with diverse endocrine and paracrine functions.Bile acids regulate bile acid,lipid and glucose metabolism and modulate temperature and energy homeostasis.Furthermore,bile acids can not only promote cell proliferation and liver regeneration but can also induce programmed cell death.Bile acid functions are mediated through different pathways which comprise the activation of nuclear hormone receptors,of intracellular kinases and of the plasma membranebound,G-protein coupled bile acid receptor TGR5/Gpbar-1.

  2. Oxidation-reduction reactions of simple hydroxamic acids and plutonium(IV) ions in nitric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Carrott, M. J.; Fox, O. D.; LeGurun, G.; Jones, C J; Mason, C; Taylor, Robin; Andrieux, Fabrice; Boxall, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Simple hydroxamic acids such as formo- and aceto-hydroxamic acids have been proposed as suitable reagents for the separation of either Pu and/or Np from U in modified or single cycle Purex based solvent extraction processes designed to meet the emerging requirements of advanced fuel cycles. The stability of these hydroxamic acids is dominated by their decomposition through acid hydrolysis. Kinetic studies of the acid hydrolysis of formo- and acetohydroxamic acids are reported in the absence a...

  3. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smędra-Kaźmirska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  4. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smędra-Kaźmirska, A; Kędzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  5. Spontaneous curvature of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Edgar E; Chupin, Vladimir; Fuller, Nola L; Kozlov, Michael M; de Kruijff, Ben; Burger, Koert N J; Rand, Peter R

    2005-02-15

    The formation of phosphatidic acid (PA) from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), diacylglycerol, or phosphatidylcholine plays a key role in the regulation of intracellular membrane fission events, but the underlying molecular mechanism has not been resolved. A likely possibility is that PA affects local membrane curvature facilitating membrane bending and fission. To examine this possibility, we determined the spontaneous radius of curvature (R(0p)) of PA and LPA, carrying oleoyl fatty acids, using well-established X-ray diffraction methods. We found that, under physiological conditions of pH and salt concentration (pH 7.0, 150 mM NaCl), the R(0p) values of PA and LPA were -46 A and +20 A, respectively. Thus PA has considerable negative spontaneous curvature while LPA has the most positive spontaneous curvature of any membrane lipid measured to date. The further addition of Ca(2+) did not significantly affect lipid spontaneous curvature; however, omitting NaCl from the hydration buffer greatly reduced the spontaneous curvature of PA, turning it into a cylindrically shaped lipid molecule (R(0p) of -1.3 x 10(2) A). Our quantitative data on the spontaneous radius of curvature of PA and LPA at a physiological pH and salt concentration will be instrumental in developing future models of biomembrane fission. PMID:15697235

  6. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Man Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  7. Individual dosing of ASA prophylaxis by controlling platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrbe, G; Redlich, H; Weidlich, B; Ludwig, J; Kopitzsch, S; Göckefitz, A; Herzog, T

    2001-07-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, we used platelet aggregation ex vivo in platelet-rich plasma induced with arachidonic acid as a routine method for the determination of the individual dose of acetylsalicylic acid necessary to inhibit platelet aggregation in 108 patients with cardiovascular diseases. In 40% of all patients studied, a dose of 30 mg/day was sufficient to block the arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation nearly completely. In 50% of all patients, a dose of 100 mg/day was necessary. In 10% of all patients, the dose had to be further increased to 300 mg/day or even to 500 mg/day to inhibit platelet aggregation nearly completely. These results demonstrate that platelet aggregation can be used as a simple routine laboratory method to control acetylsalicylic acid treatment in patients with cardiovascular diseases and to determine individual doses of acetylsalicylic acid for a nearly complete inhibition of platelet aggregation. With a standard dose of 100 mg/day, 10% of the patients were nonresponders. PMID:11441981

  8. Nitric acid uptake by sulfuric acid solutions under stratospheric conditions - Determination of Henry's Law solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihs, Christa M.; Golden, David M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of nitric acid by sulfuric acid solutions representative of stratospheric particulate at low temperatures was measured to determine the solubility of nitric acid in sulfuric acid solutions as a function of H2SO4 concentration and solution temperature. Solubilities are reported for sulfuric acid solutions ranging from 58 to 87 wt pct H2SO4 over a temperature range from 188 to 240 K, showing that, in general, the solubility of nitric acid increases with decreasing sulfuric acid concentration and with decreasing temperature. The measured solubilities indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

  9. Linoleic acid: between doubts and certainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque, Benjamin; Catheline, Daniel; Rioux, Vincent; Legrand, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Linoleic acid is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in human nutrition and represents about 14 g per day in the US diet. Following the discovery of its essential functions in animals and humans in the early 1920's, studies are currently questioning the real requirement of linoleic acid. It seems now overestimated and creates controversy: how much linoleic acid should be consumed in a healthy diet? Beyond the necessity to redefine the dietary requirement of linoleic acid, many questions concerning the consequences of its excessive consumption on human health arise. Linoleic acid is a direct precursor of the bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites. It is also a precursor of arachidonic acid, which produces pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and endocannabinoids. A majority of the studies on linoleic acid and its derivatives show a direct/indirect link with inflammation and metabolic diseases. Many authors claim that a high linoleic acid intake may promote inflammation in humans. This review tries to (i) highlight the importance of reconsidering the actual requirement of linoleic acid (ii) point out the lack of knowledge between dietary levels of linoleic acid and the molecular mechanisms explaining its physiological roles (iii) demonstrate the relevance of carrying out further human studies on the single variable linoleic acid.

  10. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  11. Thermochemistry of aqueous pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Elsa M. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTBarreiro, Rua Americo da Silva Marinho, 2839-001 Lavradio (Portugal); Rego, Talita S. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Minas da Piedade, Manuel E., E-mail: memp@fc.ul.p [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We determined the {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} of solid nicotinic acid (NA) in water by solution calorimetry. {yields} We determined {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m} of an aqueous nicotinic acid solution by flow calorimetry. {yields} We determined (aq, {infinity}) for the 3 NA species involved in acid/base equilibria. {yields} We determined the enthalpy of formation of NA(aq) under saturation conditions.. - Abstract: The molar enthalpy of solution of solid nicotinic acid (NA) at T = 298.15 K, to give an aqueous solution of molality m = 3.748 . 10{sup -3} mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}, was determined as {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m} = (19,927 {+-} 48) J {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, by solution calorimetry. Enthalpies of dilution, {Delta}{sub dil}H{sub m}, of 0.1005 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} aqueous nicotinic acid to yield final solutions with molality in the approximate range (0.03 to 0.09) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} were also measured by flow calorimetry. Combining the two sets of data and the results of pH measurements, with values of proton dissociation enthalpies and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NA, cr) selected from the literature, it was possible to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three nicotinic acid species involved in protonation/deprotonation equilibria, at infinite dilution: {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COOH.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (328.2 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(HN{sup +}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (325.0 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, and {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(NC{sub 5}H{sub 4}COO{sup -}.{infinity}H{sub 2}O,aq) = (313.7 {+-} 1.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. Finally, the enthalpy of solution of nicotinic acid at T = 298.15 K, under saturation conditions (m = 0.138 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}), and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the corresponding solution could also be obtained as {Delta

  12. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  13. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  14. [Inherited amino acid transport disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Y; Tada, K

    1992-07-01

    Disorders due to inherited amino acids transport defect are reviewed. The disorders were categorized into three types of transport defects, namely, brush-border membrane of epithelial cells of small intestine and kidney tubules (Hartnup disease, blue diaper syndrome, cystinuria, iminoglycinuria and lysine malabsorption syndrome), basolateral membrane (lysinuric protein intolerance) and membrane of intracellular organelles (cystinosis and hyperornitinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome). Pathogenesis, clinical feature, laboratory findings, diagnosis, genetics and treatment of these disorders are described, briefly. There is not much data for the transport systems themselves, so that further investigation in molecular and gene levels for transport systems is necessary to clarify the characteristics of the transport and heterogeneity of phenotypes in inherited amino acids transport disorders. PMID:1404888

  15. Nucleic acid based logical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2014-05-12

    Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.

  16. Europium complexes with trifluoroacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis conditions and spectra-luminescent properties of different-ligand europium complexes of the composition Eu (TFA)2x2D, where TFA = anion of trifluoroacetic acid, D = 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2-dipyridyl, triphenylphosphinoxide, hexamethyl-phosphotriamide, were studied. The compounds prepared have been characterized by the methods of elementary chemical analysis, IR and luminescence spectroscopy. It is shown that in the complex compounds two methods of coordination of the acid residue functional groups are realized, i.e. monodentate and bridge functions. The compounds were tested for resistance to UV light effect and to heating in the air. Complex with 2,2-dipyridyl proved the most thermally stable complex in the series studied, its decomposition temperature being 240 deg C

  17. Ursodeoxycholic acid and superoxide anion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Predrag Ljubuncic; Omar Abu-Salach; Arieh Bomzon

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ability of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) to scavenge superoxide anion (O2-).METHODS: We assessed the ability of UDCA to scavenge (O2-) generated by xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) in a cell-free system and its effect on the rate of O2--induced ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in hepatic post-mitochondrial supernatants.RESULTS: UDCA at a concentration as high as 1 mmol/Ldid not impair the ability of the X-XO system to generate O2-, but could scavenge O2- at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mmol/L, and decrease the rate of AA oxidation at a concentration of 100 μmol/L.CONCLUSION: UDCA can scavenge O2-, an action that may be beneficial to patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

  18. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations. PMID:25764181

  19. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, D M; Andersen, L M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Andreasen, P A

    2011-01-01

    Proteases are potential or realized therapeutic targets in a wide variety of pathological conditions. Moreover, proteases are classical subjects for studies of enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms. We here review the literature on nucleic acid aptamers selected with proteases as targets. Designing small molecule protease inhibitors of sufficient specificity has proved a daunting task. Aptamers seem to represent a promising alternative. In our review, we concentrate on biochemical mechanisms of...

  20. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages.

  1. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with 14CO2. None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating 14CO2 into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria

  2. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  3. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  4. Nature in the Classroom: Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Charles

    1982-01-01

    As a lesson topic, acid rain is defined, its chemistry given, and its development since the 1950s described. The worldwide effects of acid rain are discussed along with the available technology for controlling the problem. (CM)

  5. How Acid Reflux Disease Damages Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more Seniors' Oral Health How to Keep Your Teeth for a Lifetime Tooth loss is simply the ... your desktop! more... How Acid Reflux Disease Damages Teeth Article Chapters How Acid Reflux Disease Damages Teeth ...

  6. Acid rain information book. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation are reviewed through an extensive literature search. Major aspects of the acid rain phenomena are discussed, areas of uncertainty identified, and current research summarized

  7. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear.......Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear....

  8. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  9. Role of succinic acid in chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1982-01-01

    Succinic acid is converted into other carboxylic acids by ionizing radiation. The results obtained have been correlated with the ready formation of this compound in prebiotic experiments. Its role in biological systems may be related to its prebiotic occurrence.

  10. RETINOIC ACID ALTERS EPITHELIAL DIFFERENTIATION DURING PALATOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinoids are teratogenic in humans and animals, producing a syndrome of craniofacial malformations which includes cleft palate. his study investigates the mechanism through which retinoic acid induces cleft palate. urine palatogenesis after exposure to retinoic acid in utero is ...

  11. Self-breaking retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherubel, G.A.

    1979-02-20

    A subterranean formation is acidized with an acid-in-oil emulsion consisting of an aqueous acidizing solution, an oil, an alkyl C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary fatty amine, and at least one diethanolamide of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ fatty acid. The present invention is an improved acid-in-oil acidizing emulsion, and acidizing method such as an emulsion, the emulsion being of the type containing an effective amount of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary amine as a cationic surfactant to increase the normal reaction. The diethanolamine is a nonionic surfactant which causes the emulsion to break as the acidizing capacity of the emulsion becomes substantially depleted, i.e., spent, on the formation. 41 claims.

  12. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  13. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  14. The Use of Acid-Aluminium Tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculant for Soybean Grown on Acid Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELIA REZTY FITRIANI SITUMORANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Land with low pH soil spread widely in Indonesia can be used for soybean (Glycine max cultivation, although the production is low. The use of acid tolerant soybean and acid-Al tolerant nitrogen-fixing bacteria was an alternative way to increase soybean productivity on acid soils. This research was conducted to study the influence of acid-Al tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum on growth of Slamet cultivar soybean planted on acid soils in greenhouse. Three strains of acid-Al tolerant B. japonicum, i.e. BJ 11 (19, BJ 11 (5, and BJ 11 (wt, were used in this experiment. The result showed that inoculation of all acid-Al tolerant B. japonicum strains could increase plant height, shoot and root weight, number of flowers, pods, seeds, seeds dry weight, and shoot and seed nitrogen content.

  15. Analysis of the apple fruit acid/low-acid trait by SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxin YAO; Heng ZHAI; Lingling ZHAO; Kai YI; Zhi LIU; Ye SONG

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to find out the genetic character-istics of malic acid in the course of apple genomic research and breeding. In this study, the SSR marker linked to the acid/low-acid trait in apple fruit was identified from 140 SSR primer pairs, using 91 F1 population hybrids from the intra-specific cross between apple cultivar 'Dongguang' and 'Fuji' as the experimental materials. Of 140 SSR primer pairs, only primer SDY085 produced a polymorphic band linked to acid trait, and the linkage distance was 8.89 cM. Also, the titrated acid and malic acid in different developmental stages were determined. The SSR marker analysis, coupled with the change of the total acid and malic acid contents, revealed that the acid/low-acid trait was governed by a major gene and acid trait was completely dominant.

  16. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  17. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kunikazu Moribe; Waree Limwikrant; Kenjirou Higashi; Keiji Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  19. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  20. Complicated Composting: Persistent Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews pyridine carboxylic acid herbicide impacts on compost. Pyridine carboxylic acid herbicides are not completely broken down during grass growth, harvest and drying of hay, in the digestive tract of livestock, or during composting. These herbicides are a popular choice for broadleaf weed control because of this persistence: they remain effective for months or years. Pyridine carboxylic acids are also more effective than the common herbicide 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and ...