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Sample records for acetylcholine receptor inhibits

  1. Menthol Binding and Inhibition of α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C.; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C.; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca2+-free bathing solution containing Ba2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner. PMID:23935840

  2. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Ashoor

    Full Text Available Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+-dependent Cl(- channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  3. Inhibition of human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by cyclic monoterpene carveol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozon, Yosra; Sultan, Ahmed; Lansdell, Stuart J; Prytkova, Tatiana; Sadek, Bassem; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Howarth, Frank Christopher; Millar, Neil S; Oz, Murat

    2016-04-05

    Cyclic monoterpenes are a group of phytochemicals with antinociceptive, local anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory actions. Effects of cyclic monoterpenes including vanilin, pulegone, eugenole, carvone, carvacrol, carveol, thymol, thymoquinone, menthone, and limonene were investigated on the functional properties of the cloned α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Monoterpenes inhibited the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the order carveol>thymoquinone>carvacrol>menthone>thymol>limonene>eugenole>pulegone≥carvone≥vanilin. Among the monoterpenes, carveol showed the highest potency on acetylcholine-induced responses, with IC50 of 8.3µM. Carveol-induced inhibition was independent of the membrane potential and could not be reversed by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine. In line with functional experiments, docking studies indicated that cyclic monoterpenes such as carveol may interact with an allosteric site located in the α7 transmembrane domain. Our results indicate that cyclic monoterpenes inhibit the function of human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, with varying potencies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood ...

  5. Inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a novel facet in the pleiotropic activities of snake venom phospholipases A2.

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    Catherine A Vulfius

    Full Text Available Phospholipases A2 represent the most abundant family of snake venom proteins. They manifest an array of biological activities, which is constantly expanding. We have recently shown that a protein bitanarin, isolated from the venom of the puff adder Bitis arietans and possessing high phospholipolytic activity, interacts with different types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and with the acetylcholine-binding protein. To check if this property is characteristic to all venom phospholipases A2, we have studied the capability of these enzymes from other snakes to block the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis neurons to acetylcholine or cytisine and to inhibit α-bungarotoxin binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins. Here we present the evidence that phospholipases A2 from venoms of vipers Vipera ursinii and V. nikolskii, cobra Naja kaouthia, and krait Bungarus fasciatus from different snake families suppress the acetylcholine- or cytisine-elicited currents in L. stagnalis neurons and compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to muscle- and neuronal α7-types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, as well as to acetylcholine-binding proteins. As the phospholipase A2 content in venoms is quite high, under some conditions the activity found may contribute to the deleterious venom effects. The results obtained suggest that the ability to interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may be a general property of snake venom phospholipases A2, which add a new target to the numerous activities of these enzymes.

  6. Bispyridinium Compounds Inhibit Both Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Human Cell Lines.

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    Avi Ring

    Full Text Available Standard treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus anticholinesterases uses atropine to reduce the muscarinic effects of acetylcholine accumulation and oximes to reactivate acetylcholinesterase (the effectiveness of which depends on the specific anticholinesterase, but does not directly address the nicotinic effects of poisoning. Bispyridinium molecules which act as noncompetitive antagonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been identified as promising compounds and one has been shown to improve survival following organophosphorus poisoning in guinea-pigs. Here, we have investigated the structural requirements for antagonism and compared inhibitory potency of these compounds at muscle and neuronal nicotinic receptors and acetylcholinesterase. A series of compounds was synthesised, in which the length of the polymethylene linker between the two pyridinium moieties was increased sequentially from one to ten carbon atoms. Their effects on nicotinic receptor-mediated calcium responses were tested in muscle-derived (CN21 and neuronal (SH-SY5Y cells. Their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity was tested using human erythrocyte ghosts. In both cell lines, the nicotinic response was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory potency of the compounds increased with greater linker length between the two pyridinium moieties, as did their inhibitory potency for human acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. These results demonstrate that bispyridinium compounds inhibit both neuronal and muscle nicotinic receptors and that their potency depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain linking the two pyridinium moieties. Knowledge of structure-activity relationships will aid the optimisation of molecular structures for therapeutic use against the nicotinic effects of organophosphorus poisoning.

  7. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

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    Catherine A Vulfius

    Full Text Available Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which

  8. Minimal RNA aptamer sequences that can inhibit or alleviate noncompetitive inhibition of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprakasam, Kannan; Pagán, Oné R; Hess, George P

    2010-02-01

    Combinatorially synthesized nucleotide polymers have been used during the last decade to find ligands that bind to specific sites on biological molecules, including membrane-bound proteins such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The neurotransmitter receptors belong to a group of four structurally related proteins that regulate signal transmission between ~10(11) neurons of the mammalian nervous system. The nAChRs are inhibited by compounds such as the anticonvulsant MK-801 [(+)-dizocilpine] and abused drugs such as cocaine. Based on predictions arising from the mechanism of receptor inhibition by MK-801 and cocaine, we developed two classes of RNA aptamers: class I members, which inhibit the nAChR, and class II members, which alleviate inhibition of the receptor by MK-801 and cocaine. The systematic evolution of ligands by the exponential enrichment (SELEX) method was used to obtain these compounds. Here, we report that we have truncated RNA aptamers in each class to determine the minimal nucleic acid sequence that retains the characteristic function for which the aptamer was originally selected. We demonstrate that a truncated class I aptamer containing a sequence of seven nucleotides inhibits the nAChR and that a truncated class II aptamer containing a sequence of only four nucleotides can alleviate MK-801 inhibition.

  9. Nicotine inhibits activation of microglial proton currents via interactions with α7 acetylcholine receptors.

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    Noda, Mami; Kobayashi, A I

    2017-01-01

    Alpha 7 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in microglia and are involved in the suppression of neuroinflammation. Over the past decade, many reports show beneficial effects of nicotine, though little is known about the mechanism. Here we show that nicotine inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proton (H+) currents and morphological change by using primary cultured microglia. The H+ channel currents were measured by whole-cell patch clamp method under voltage-clamp condition. Increased H+ current in activated microglia was attenuated by blocking NADPH oxidase. The inhibitory effect of nicotine was due to the activation of α7 nAChR, not a direct action on the H+ channels, because the effects of nicotine was cancelled by α7 nAChR antagonists. Neurotoxic effect of LPS-activated microglia due to inflammatory cytokines was also attenuated by pre-treatment of microglia with nicotine. These results suggest that α7 nAChRs in microglia may be a therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory diseases.

  10. Heterogeneous Inhibition in Macroscopic Current Responses of Four Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes by Cholesterol Enrichment.

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    Báez-Pagán, Carlos A; Del Hoyo-Rivera, Natalie; Quesada, Orestes; Otero-Cruz, José David; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2016-08-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), located in the cell membranes of neurons and muscle cells, mediates the transmission of nerve impulses across cholinergic synapses. In addition, the nAChR is also found in the electric organs of electric rays (e.g., the genus Torpedo). Cholesterol, which is a key lipid for maintaining the correct functionality of membrane proteins, has been found to alter the nAChR function. We were thus interested to probe the changes in the functionality of different nAChRs expressed in a model membrane with modified cholesterol to phospholipid ratios (C/P). In this study, we examined the effect of increasing the C/P ratio in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the neuronal α7, α4β2, muscle-type, and Torpedo californica nAChRs in their macroscopic current responses. Using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique, it was found that the neuronal α7 and Torpedo nAChRs are significantly more sensitive to small increases in C/P than the muscle-type nAChR. The peak current versus C/P profiles during enrichment display different behaviors; α7 and Torpedo nAChRs display a hyperbolic decay with two clear components, whereas muscle-type and α4β2 nAChRs display simple monophasic decays with different slopes. This study clearly illustrates that a physiologically relevant increase in membrane cholesterol concentration produces a remarkable reduction in the macroscopic current responses of the neuronal α7 and Torpedo nAChRs functionality, whereas the muscle nAChR appears to be the most resistant to cholesterol inhibition among all four nAChR subtypes. Overall, the present study demonstrates differential profiles for cholesterol inhibition among the different types of nAChR to physiological cholesterol increments in the plasmatic membrane. This is the first study to report a cross-correlation analysis of cholesterol sensitivity among different nAChR subtypes in a model membrane.

  11. Oseltamivir produces hypothermic and neuromuscular effects by inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor functions: comparison to procaine and bupropion.

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    Fukushima, Akihiro; Chazono, Kaori; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Iwajima, Yui; Yamamoto, Shohei; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Ono, Hideki

    2015-09-05

    Oseltamivir, an anti-influenza virus drug, induces marked hypothermia in normal mice. We have proposed that the hypothermic effect arises from inhibition of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function of sympathetic ganglion neurons which innervate the brown adipose tissue (a heat generator). It has been reported that local anesthetics inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function by acting on its ionic channels, and that bupropion, a nicotinic antagonist, induces hypothermia. In this study, we compared the effects of oseltamivir, procaine and bupropion on body temperature, cardiovascular function and neuromuscular transmission. Intraperitoneal administration of oseltamivir (100mg/kg), procaine (86.6mg/kg) and bupropion (86.7mg/kg) lowered the core body temperature of normal mice. At lower doses (10-30mg/kg oseltamivir, 8.7-26mg/kg procaine and bupropion), when administered subcutaneously, the three drugs antagonized the hypothermia induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotine (1mg/kg). In anesthetized rats, intravenous oseltamivir (30-100mg/kg), procaine (10mg/kg) and bupropion (10mg/kg) induced hypotension and bradycardia. Oseltamivir alone (100mg/kg) did not inhibit neuromuscular twitch contraction of rats, but at 3-30mg/kg it augmented the muscle-relaxing effect of d-tubocurarine. Similar effects were observed when lower doses of procaine (10-30mg/kg) and bupropion (3-10mg/kg) were administered, suggesting that systemic administration of oseltamivir inhibits muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These results support the idea that the hypothermic effect of oseltamivir is due to its effects on sympathetic ganglia which innervate the brown adipose tissue, and suggest that oseltamivir may exert non-selective ion channel blocking effects like those of ester-type local anesthetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An allosteric enhancer of M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function inhibits behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Dencker; Weikop, Pia; Sørensen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The mesostriatal dopamine system plays a key role in mediating the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs like cocaine. The muscarinic M(4) acetylcholine receptor subtype is centrally involved in the regulation of dopamine release in striatal areas. Consequently, striatal M(4) receptors could...... be a novel target for modulating psychostimulant effects of cocaine....

  13. Activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome through regulation of β-arrestin-1.

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    Ke, Ping; Shao, Bo-Zong; Xu, Zhe-Qi; Chen, Xiong-Wen; Wei, Wei; Liu, Chong

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate whether activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) could inhibit the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome through regulation of β-arrestin-1 in monocyte/macrophage system, thus contributing to the control of neuroinflammation. The protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1 (Casp-1) p20 and proCasp-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) p17 and proIL-1β, IL-18 and proIL-18 were measured using Western blotting. The mRNA levels of Casp-1 and IL-1β were detected by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The colocalization and interaction of NLRP3 protein and β-arrestin-1 were measured by immunofluorescence staining and immunoprecipitation. The expression of β-arrestin-1 was significantly increased and colocalized with CD45-positive cells in spinal cord of experimental auto-immune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice when compared with the sham mice, which was attenuated by pretreatment with PNU282987, a specific α7nAChR agonist. PNU282987 also significantly inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and thus decreased the production of IL-1β and IL-18 both in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/ATP-stimulated BV2 microglia in vitro and spinal cord from EAE mice in vivo, while inverse effects were observed in α7nAChR knockout mice. Furthermore, overexpression of β-arrestin-1 attenuated the inhibitory effect of PNU282987 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in LPS/ATP-stimulated BV2 microglia. PNU282987 inhibited the interaction between β-arrestin-1 and NLRP3 protein in vitro. The present study demonstrates that activating α7nAChR can lead to NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition via regulation of β-arrestin-1 in monocyte/microglia system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Bupropion-induced inhibition of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in heterologous cells and neurons from dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus.

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    Vázquez-Gómez, Elizabeth; Arias, Hugo R; Feuerbach, Dominik; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Mihailescu, Stefan; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; García-Colunga, Jesús

    2014-10-05

    The pharmacological activity of bupropion was compared between α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in heterologous cells and hippocampal and dorsal raphe nucleus neurons. The inhibitory activity of bupropion was studied on GH3-α7 cells by Ca2+ influx, as well as on neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus and interneurons from the stratum radiatum of the hippocampal CA1 region by using a whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. In addition, the interaction of bupropion with the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was determined by [3H]imipramine competition binding assays and molecular docking. The fast component of acetylcholine- and choline-induced currents from both brain regions was inhibited by methyllycaconitine, indicating the participation of α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Choline-induced currents in hippocampal interneurons were partially inhibited by 10 µM bupropion, a concentration that could be reached in the brain during clinical administration. Additionally, both agonist-induced currents were reversibly inhibited by bupropion at concentrations that coincide with its inhibitory potency (IC50=54 µM) and binding affinity (Ki=63 µM) for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from heterologous cells. The [3H]imipramine competition binding and molecular docking results support a luminal location for the bupropion binding site(s). This study may help to understand the mechanisms of actions of bupropion at neuronal and molecular levels related with its therapeutic actions on depression and for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by cobra venom α-neurotoxins: is there a perspective in lung cancer treatment?

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    Angela Alama

    Full Text Available Nicotine exerts its oncogenic effects through the binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and the activation of downstream pathways that block apoptosis and promote neo-angiogenesis. The nAChRs of the α7 subtype are present on a wide variety of cancer cells and their inhibition by cobra venom neurotoxins has been proposed in several articles and reviews as a potential innovative lung cancer therapy. However, since part of the published results was recently retracted, we believe that the antitumoral activity of cobra venom neurotoxins needs to be independently re-evaluated.We determined the activity of α-neurotoxins from Naja atra (short-chain neurotoxin, α-cobrotoxin and Naja kaouthia (long-chain neurotoxin, α-cobratoxin in vitro by cytotoxicity measurements in 5 lung cancer cell lines, by colony formation assay with α7nAChRs expressing and non-expressing cell lines and in vivo by assessing tumor growth in an orthotopic Non-Obese Diabetic/Severe Combined Immunodeficient (NOD/SCID mouse model system utilizing different treatment schedules and dosages.No statistically significant reduction in tumor growth was observed in the treatment arms in comparison to the control for both toxins. Paradoxically α-cobrotoxin from Naja atra showed the tendency to enhance tumor growth although, even in this case, the statistical significance was not reached.In conclusion our results show that, in contrast with other reports, the nAChR inhibitors α-cobratoxin from N. kaouthia and α-cobrotoxin from N. atra neither suppressed tumor growth nor prolonged the survival of the treated animals.

  16. D2-dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and release of acetylcholine from guinea-pig neostriatal slices.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, H.; Kato, N; Shuntoh, H; Tanaka, C

    1987-01-01

    The effect of dopamine receptor activation on electrically- or high K+ (30 mM)-evoked neurotransmitter release and rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration was investigated using slices of guinea-pig neostriatum. A specific D2-dopamine receptor agonist, LY-171555 (a laevorotatory enantiomer of LY-141865: N-propyl tricyclic pyrazole) at 10(-6) M inhibited electrical stimulation- and high K+-evoked release of [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) to 47.7 +/- 6.0% and 54.1 +/- 5.0% of control, respectiv...

  17. Characterization of the muscarinic receptor subtype(s) mediating contraction of the guinea-pig lung strip and inhibition of acetylcholine release in the guinea-pig trachea with the selective muscarinic receptor antagonist tripitramine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, A.F; Davids, J.H; Elzinga, C.R S; Wolf, D; Zaagsma, Hans; Kilbinger, H

    1 The muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating contraction of the guinea-pig lung strip and inhibition of the release of acetylcholine from cholinergic vagus nerve endings in the guinea-pig trachea in vitro have previously been characterized as M-2-like, i.e. having antagonist affinity profiles that

  18. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones: A novel class of insecticides inhibiting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming; Holyoke, Caleb W; Barry, James; Leighty, Robert M; Cordova, Daniel; Vincent, Daniel R; Hughes, Kenneth A; Tong, My-Hanh T; McCann, Stephen F; Xu, Ming; Briddell, Twyla A; Pahutski, Thomas F; Lahm, George P

    2016-11-15

    A novel class of mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones has been discovered with exceptional insecticidal activity controlling a number of insect species, particularly hemiptera and lepidoptera. Mode-of-action studies showed that they act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) primarily as inhibitors. Here we report the discovery, evolution, and preparation of this class of chemistry. Our efforts in structure-activity relationship elucidation and biological activity evaluation are also presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An allosteric enhancer of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function inhibits behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Weikop, Pia; Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David P. D.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Wess, Jürgen; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The mesostriatal dopamine system plays a key role in mediating the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs like cocaine. The muscarinic M4 acetylcholine receptor subtype is centrally involved in regulation of dopamine release in striatal areas. Consequently, striatal M4 receptors could be a novel target for modulating psychostimulant effects of cocaine. Objectives For the first time, we here addressed this issue by investigating the effects of a novel selective positive allosteric modulator of M4 receptors, VU0152100, on cocaine-induced behavioral and neurochemical effects in mice. Methods To investigate the effect of VU0152100 on the acute reinforcing effects of cocaine, we use an acute-cocaine self-administration model. We used in vivo microdialysis to investigate whether the effects of VU0152100 in the behavioral studies were mediated via effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission. In addition the effect of VU0152100 on cocaine-induced hyperactivity and rotarod performance was evaluated. Results We found that VU0152100 caused a prominent reduction in cocaine self-administration, cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion, and cocaine-induced striatal dopamine increase, without affecting motor performance. Consistent with these effects of VU0152100 being mediated via M4 receptors, its inhibitory effects on cocaine-induced increases in striatal dopamine were abolished in M4 receptor knockout mice. Furthermore, selective deletion of the M4 receptor gene in dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons resulted in a partial reduction of the VU0152100 effect, indicating that VU0152100 partly regulates dopaminergic neurotransmission via M4 receptors co-localized with D1 receptors. Conclusions These results show that positive allosteric modulators of the M4 receptor deserve attention as agents in the future treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:22648127

  20. Combined α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism and partial serotonin transporter inhibition produce antidepressant-like effects in the mouse forced swim and tail suspension tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Redrobe, John P; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to an involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in major depression. Nicotine improves symptoms of depression in humans and shows antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Monoamine release is facilitated by nAChR stimulation, and nicotine-evoked serotonin (5...... represents a compound displaying the synergistic effect of α7 nAChR agonism combined with partial 5-HT reuptake inhibition previously described. The addition of α7 nAChR agonism to classical monoamine-based mechanisms may represent a novel option for the improved treatment of major depression....

  1. Thujone inhibits the function of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and impairs nicotine-induced memory enhancement in one-trial passive avoidance paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ahmed; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Isaev, Dmitro; Nebrisi, Eslam El; Syed, Nurulain; Khan, Nadia; Howarth, Christopher F; Sadek, Bassem; Oz, Murat

    2017-06-01

    Effects of thujone, a major ingredient of absinthe, wormwood oil and some herbal medicines, were tested on the function of α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Thujone reversibly inhibited ACh (100μM)-induced currents with an IC50 value of 24.7μM. The effect of thujone was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels expressed endogenously in oocytes. Inhibition by thujone was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations. Moreover, specific binding of [125I] α-bungarotoxin was not altered by thujone. Further experiments in SH-EP1 cells expressing human α7 nACh receptor indicated that thujone suppressed choline induced Ca2+ transients in a concentration-dependent manner. In rat hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus synapses, nicotine-induced enhancement of long-term potentiation was also inhibited by thujone. Furthermore, the results observed in in-vivo one-trial passive avoidance paradigm show that thujone (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired nicotine-induced enhancement of learning and memory in Wistar rats. Collectively, our results indicate that thujone inhibits the function of the α7-nACh receptor and impairs cellular and behavioral correlates of cholinergic modulation of learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of antihistamines on the function of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Bassem; Khanian, Seyedeh Soha; Ashoor, Abrar; Prytkova, Tatiana; Ghattas, Mohammad A; Atatreh, Noor; Nurulain, Syed M; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Howarth, Frank Christopher; Oz, Murat

    2015-01-05

    Effects of the histamine H₁ receptor (H1R) antagonists (antihistamines), promethazine (PMZ), orphenadrine (ORP), chlorpheniramine (CLP), pyrilamine (PYR), diphenhydramine (DPH), citerizine (CTZ), and triprolidine (TRP) on the functional properties of the cloned α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes were investigated. Antihistamines inhibited the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the order PYR>CLP>TRP>PMZ>ORP≥DPH≥CTZ. Among the antihistamines, PYR showed the highest reversible inhibition of acetylcholine (100 µM)-induced responses with IC₅₀ of 6.2 µM. PYR-induced inhibition was independent of the membrane potential and could not be reversed by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine. Specific binding of [¹²⁵I] α-bungarotoxin, a selective antagonist for α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, was not changed in the presence of PYR suggesting a non-competitive inhibition of nicotinic receptors. In line with functional experiments, docking studies indicated that PYR can potentially bind allosterically with the α7 transmembrane domain. Our results indicate that the H₂-H₄ receptor antagonists tested in this study (10 µM) showed negligible inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. On the other hand, H₁ receptor antagonists inhibited the function of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, with varying potencies. These results emphasize the importance of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for future pharmacological/toxicological profiling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phospholipase C activity affinity purifies with the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Jonathan M; daCosta, Corrie J B; Wang, Shuzhi; Figeys, Daniel; Smith, Jeffrey C; Sturgeon, R Michel; Baenziger, John E

    2010-04-02

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission by fluxing ions across the membrane in response to neurotransmitter binding. We show here that during affinity purification of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo, phosphatidic acid, but not other anionic or zwitterionic phospholipids, is hydrolyzed to diacylglycerol. The phospholipase C activity elutes with the acetylcholine receptor and is inhibited by a lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase inhibitor, sodium vanadate, but not a phosphatidate phosphohydrolase inhibitor, N-ethylmaleimide. Further, the hydrolysis product of phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, enhances the functional capabilities of the acetylcholine receptor in the presence of anionic lipids. We conclude that a phospholipase C activity, which appears to be specific for phosphatidic acid, is associated with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The acetylcholine receptor may directly or indirectly influence lipid metabolism in a manner that enhances its own function.

  4. Docking to flexible nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Bruun, Anne T; Balle, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Computational docking to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and other members of the Cys-loop receptor family is complicated by the flexibility of the so-called C-loop. As observed in the large number of published crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a structural...... surrogate and homology modeling template for the nAChRs, the conformation of this loop is controlled by the ligand present in the binding pocket. As part of the development of a protocol for unbiased docking to the nAChRs, we here present the results of docking of ligands with known binding modes to an ACh...

  5. D2-dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and release of acetylcholine from guinea-pig neostriatal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, H; Kato, N; Shuntoh, H; Tanaka, C

    1987-06-01

    The effect of dopamine receptor activation on electrically- or high K+ (30 mM)-evoked neurotransmitter release and rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration was investigated using slices of guinea-pig neostriatum. A specific D2-dopamine receptor agonist, LY-171555 (a laevorotatory enantiomer of LY-141865: N-propyl tricyclic pyrazole) at 10(-6) M inhibited electrical stimulation- and high K+-evoked release of [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) to 47.7 +/- 6.0% and 54.1 +/- 5.0% of control, respectively. The maximal inhibition by LY-171555 at 10(-5) M was 54.8 +/- 5.1% reduction of the control. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of LY-171555 for the inhibition of [3H]-ACh release was 2.3 X 10(-7) M. A specific D2-dopamine receptor antagonist, (-)-sulpiride (10(-7) M) reversed the inhibition of [3H]-ACh release induced by LY-171555. A specific D1-dopamine receptor agonist, SK&F 38393 (2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-benzazepine) (10(-5) M) had no effect on the release of [3H]-ACh. LY-171555 (10(-6) M) also inhibited the high K+-evoked endogenous glutamate release, by 47% of control. This inhibitory effect was reversed by (-)-sulpiride (10(-7) M). We used a fluorescent, highly selective Ca2+ indicator, 'quin 2' to measure intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i). Electrical stimulation of slices preloaded with quin 2 led to an elevation of relative fluorescence intensity and this response was reduced by the removal of Ca2+ from the bathing medium. These results indicate that the enhanced elevation in fluorescence intensity in the quin 2-loaded slices reflects the increase of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i. The mixed D1- and D2-receptor agonist, apomorphine and LY-171555 inhibited the increase of [Ca2+]i induced by electrical stimulation or high K+ medium, in a concentration-dependent manner, while SK&F 38393 did not affect the increase of [Ca2+]i. The maximal inhibitory effect of LY-171555 at 3 X 10(-5) M was 35 +/- 3

  6. Parazoanthoxanthin A blocks Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Klara Bulc; Araoz, Romulo; Sepcić, Kristina; Molgo, Jordi; Suput, Dusan

    2010-09-06

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are implicated in different nervous system-related disorders, and their modulation could improve existing therapy of these diseases. Parazoanthoxanthin A (ParaA) is a fluorescent pigment of the group of zoanthoxanthins. Since it is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, it may also bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). For this reason its effect on Torpedo nAChR (alpha1(2)betagammadelta) transplanted to Xenopus laevis oocytes was evaluated, using the voltage-clamp technique. ParaA dose-dependently reduced the acetylcholine-induced currents. This effect was fully reversible only at lower concentrations. ParaA also reduced the Hill coefficient and the time to peak current, indicating a channel blocking mode of action. On the other hand, the combined effect of ParaA and d-tubocurarine (d-TC) on acetylcholine-induced currents exhibited only partial additivity, assuming a competitive mode of action of ParaA on nAChR. These results indicate a dual mode of action of ParaA on the Torpedo AChR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated interleukin-8 production in Cystic Fibrosis airway epithelial cells via the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2010-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder characterised by chronic inflammation of the airways. The lung manifestations of CF include colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus leading to neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and tissue damage. Inflammation in the CF lung is initiated by microbial components which activate the innate immune response via Toll-like receptors (TLRs), increasing airway epithelial cell production of proinflammatory mediators such as the neutrophil chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). Thus modulation of TLR function represents a therapeutic approach for CF. Nicotine is a naturally occurring plant alkaloid. Although it is negatively associated with cigarette smoking and cardiovascular damage, nicotine also has anti-inflammatory properties. Here we investigate the inhibitory capacity of nicotine against TLR2- and TLR4-induced IL-8 production by CFTE29o- airway epithelial cells, determine the role of alpha7-nAChR (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) in these events, and provide data to support the potential use of safe nicotine analogues as anti-inflammatories for CF.

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural Studies of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahsavar, Azadeh; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette

    2016-01-01

    -resolution structure of a nAChR is yet to be determined, structural studies are to a large extent based on acetylcholine binding proteins (AChBPs) that despite low overall sequence identity display high degree of conservation of overall structure and amino acids at the ligand-binding site. Further, AChBPs reproduce...... relative binding affinities of ligands at nAChRs. Over the past decade, AChBPs have been used extensively as models for nAChRs and have aided the understanding of drug receptor interactions at nAChRs significantly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Influence of acetylcholine on binding of 4-[{sup 125}i]iododexetimide to muscarinic brain receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weckesser, Matthias E-mail: m.weckesser@fz-juelich.de; Fixmann, Anton; Holschbach, Marcus; Mueller-Gaertner, Hans-W

    1998-11-01

    The distribution of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the human brain in vivo has been successfully characterized using radiolabeled tracers and emission tomography. The effect of acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft on receptor binding of these tracers has not yet been investigated. The present study examined the influence of acetylcholine on binding of 4-[{sup 125}I]iododexetimide to muscarinic cholinergic receptors of porcine brain synaptosomes in vitro. 4-Iododexetimide is a subtype-unspecific muscarinic receptor antagonist with high affinity. Acetylcholine competed with 4-[{sup 125}I]iododexetimide in a dose-dependent manner. A concentration of 500 {mu}M acetylcholine inhibited 50% of total specific 4-[{sup 125}I]iododexetimide binding to synaptosomes when both substances were given simultaneously. An 800 {mu}M acetylcholine solution reduced total specific 4-[{sup 125}I]iododexetimide binding by about 35%, when acetylcholine was given 60 min after incubation of synaptosomes with 4-[{sup 125}I]iododexetimide. Variations in the synaptic acetylcholine concentration might influence muscarinic cholinergic receptor imaging in vivo using 4-[{sup 123}I]iododexetimide. Conversely, 4-[{sup 123}I]iododexetimide might be an appropriate molecule to investigate alterations of acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography.

  11. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman S. Cheung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  12. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds...... in diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, α7 nAChR agonists and allosteric modulators differentially alter expression and functionality of the α7 nAChR with repeated administration, which suggests that there may be fundamentally different outcomes of long-term administration...... with these different types of compounds. Finally, we describe the special case of Aβ1-42 binding to the α7 nAChR, which may pose a unique challenge to drug development of α7 nAChR-specific ligands for Alzheimer's disease. Hopefully, a greater knowledge of the many factors influencing α7 nAChR function as well...

  13. Impulsive behavior and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Yu; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Higher impulsivity is thought to be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. Excessive levels of impulsivity are often observed in several psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in impulsive behavior. Here, we introduce recent advances in this field and describe the role of the following nAChR-related brain mechanisms in modulating impulsive behavior: dopamine release in the ventral striatum; α4β2 nAChRs in the infralimbic cortex, which is a ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); and dopamine release in the mPFC. We also suggest several potential therapeutic drugs to address these mechanisms in impulsivity-related disorders and explore future directions to further elucidate the roles of central nAChRs in impulsive behavior.

  14. Acetylcholine affects osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells via acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Xianxian; Fu, Jing; Li, Yue; Gao, Li; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Ping; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2014-03-25

    The identification of the neuronal control of bone remodeling has become one of the many significant recent advances in bone biology. Cholinergic activity has recently been shown to favor bone mass accrual by complex cellular regulatory networks. Here, we identified the gene expression of the muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (m- and nAChRs) in mice tibia tissue and in osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells. Acetylcholine, which is a classical neurotransmitter and an osteo-neuromediator, not only influences the mRNA expression of the AChR subunits but also significantly induces the proliferation and viability of osteocytes. Moreover, acetylcholine treatment caused the reciprocal regulation of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression, which resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA ratio of RANKL:OPG in osteocytes via acetylcholine receptors. The expression of neuropeptide Y and reelin, which are two neurogenic markers, was also modulated by acetylcholine via m- and nAChRs in MLO-Y4 cells. These results indicated that osteocytic acetylcholine receptors might be a new valuable mediator for cell functions and even for bone remodeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phencyclidine (PCP)-like inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate-evoked striatal acetylcholine release, /sup 3/H-TCP binding and synaptosomal dopamine uptake by metaphit, a proposed PCP receptor acylator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, L.D.; Johnson, K.M.; Yi, S.J.; Lessor, R.A.; Rice, K.C.; Jacobson, A.E.

    1987-12-14

    The phencyclidine (PCP) receptor acylator, metaphit, has been reported to act as a PCP antagonist. Recent electrophysiological and behavioral assessments of metaphit action have revealed, however, that this compound can also act as a PCP-like agonist. The present study examined the effects of metaphit on the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (ACh) release, /sup 3/H-TCP binding and synaptosomal /sup 3/H-dopamine (DA) uptake in the rat striatum. Preincubation of striatal slices for 10 min in the presence of metaphit, followed by a prolonged washout, produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the ACh release evoked by 300 ..mu..M NMDA. At high concentrations, preincubation with PCP also resulted in inhibition of this measure. However, this could be reduced by extending the washout period, a procedure which had no effect on the inhibition produced by metaphit. At 10..mu..M, metaphit resulted in a 53% reduction in NMDA-evoked ACh release while PCP had no effect under identical conditions. Preincubation of slices in 10 ..mu..M PCP and metaphit reduced the metaphit inhibition by 62%. The effects of PCP and metaphit, alone or in combination, on NMDA-induced ACh release were paralleled by a loss of /sup 3/H-TCP binding sites in striatal tissue incubated under identical conditions suggesting that metaphit exerts long-lasting agonist-like actions on PCP receptors coupled to NMDA receptors. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  16. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, S.F.; Mansvelder, H.D.; de Vries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are

  17. Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs): Important amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels which mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission in insect and vertebrate nervous systems. The great abundance of nAChRs within the insect central nervous system has led to the development of insecticides targeting these receptors, such as ...

  18. Functional partial agonism at cloned human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Ebert, B; Brann, M R

    1996-01-01

    of maximal response, depending on the molar ratio of agonist and antagonist used. Using recombinant human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (m1 and m5) and the functional assay, receptor selection and amplification technology (R-SAT), we have now shown that co-administration of the full agonist, carbachol...

  19. Influence of melatonin on the development of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured chick retinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.S. Sampaio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of melatonin on the developmental pattern of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated in embryonic 8-day-old chick retinal cells in culture. The functional response to acetylcholine was measured in cultured retina cells by microphysiometry. The maximal functional response to acetylcholine increased 2.7 times between the 4th and 5th day in vitro (DIV4, DIV5, while the Bmax value for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin was reduced. Despite the presence of alpha8-like immunoreactivity at DIV4, functional responses mediated by alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were observed only at DIV5. Mecamylamine (100 µM was essentially without effect at DIV4 and DIV5, while dihydro-ß-erythroidine (10-100 µM blocked the response to acetylcholine (3.0 nM-2.0 µM only at DIV4, with no effect at DIV5. Inhibition of melatonin receptors with the antagonist luzindole, or melatonin synthesis by stimulation of D4 dopamine receptors blocked the appearance of the alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive response at DIV5. Therefore, alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors were expressed in retinal cells as early as at DIV4, but they reacted to acetylcholine only after DIV5. The development of an alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive response is dependent on the production of melatonin by the retinal culture. Melatonin, which is produced in a tonic manner by this culture, and is a key hormone in the temporal organization of vertebrates, also potentiates responses mediated by alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors in rat vas deferens and cerebellum. This common pattern of action on different cell models that express alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors probably reflects a more general mechanism of regulation of these receptors.

  20. Activation and allosteric modulation of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Ring, Aaron M.; Manglik, Aashish; Hu, Jianxin; Hu, Kelly; Eitel, Katrin; Hübner, Harald; Pardon, Els; Valant, Celine; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Felder, Christian C.; Gmeiner, Peter; Steyaert, Jan; Weis, William I.

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in crystallography of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), little is known about the mechanism of their activation process, as only the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and rhodopsin have been crystallized in fully active conformations. Here, we report the structure of an agonist-bound, active state of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stabilized by a G-protein mimetic camelid antibody fragment isolated by conformational selection using yeast surface display....

  1. Acetylcholine receptors in the retinas of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marci L; Souza, Fred G Oliveira; Bruce, Kady S; Strang, Christianne E; Morley, Barbara J; Keyser, Kent T

    2014-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is widely expressed in the nervous system, including in the inner retinal neurons in all species studied to date. Although reductions in the expression of α7 nAChRs are thought to contribute to the memory and visual deficits reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia , the α7 nAChR knockout (KO) mouse is viable and has only slight visual dysfunction. The absence of a major phenotypic abnormality may be attributable to developmental mechanisms that serve to compensate for α7 nAChR loss. We hypothesized that the upregulation of genes encoding other nAChR subunits or muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes during development partially accounts for the absence of major deficiencies in the α7 nAChR KO mouse. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the deletion of the α7 nAChR subunit in a mouse model resulted in changes in the regulation of other cholinergic receptors or other ion channels in an α7 nAChR KO mouse when compared to a wild-type (WT) mouse. To examine gene expression changes, we employed a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using whole retina RNA extracts as well as RNA extracted from selected regions of the retina. These extracts were collected using laser capture microdissection (LCM). The presence of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit and subtype proteins was determined via western blotting. To determine any differences in the number and distribution of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) amacrine cells, we employed wholemount and vertical immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cell counting. Additionally, in both WT and α7 nAChR KO mouse retinas, the distribution of the nAChR subunit and mAChR subtype proteins were determined via IHC for those KO mice that experienced mRNA changes. In the whole retina, there was a statistically significant upregulation of α2, α9, α10, β4, nAChR subunit, and m1 and m4 mAChR subtype transcripts in the α7 nAChR KO

  2. Multiple inhibitory actions of lidocaine on Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors transplanted to Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberola-Die, Armando; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; González-Ros, José Manuel; Ivorra, Isabel; Morales, Andrés

    2011-06-01

    Lidocaine is a local anaesthetic that blocks sodium channels, but also inhibits several ligand-gated ion-channels. The aim of this work was to unravel the mechanisms by which lidocaine blocks Torpedo nicotinic receptors transplanted to Xenopus oocytes. Acetylcholine-elicited currents were reversibly blocked by lidocaine, in a concentration dependent manner. At doses lower than the IC(50) , lidocaine blocked nicotinic receptors only at negative potentials, indicating an open-channel blockade; the binding site within the channel was at about 30% of the way through the electrical field across the membrane. In the presence of higher lidocaine doses, nicotinic receptors were blocked both at positive and negative potentials, acetylcholine dose-response curve shifted to the right and lidocaine pre-application, before its co-application with acetylcholine, enhanced the current inhibition, indicating all together that lidocaine also blocked resting receptors; besides, it increased the current decay rate. When lidocaine, at low doses, was co-applied with 2-(triethylammonio)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl) acetamide bromide, edrophonium or 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)pentan-3-one dibromide, which are quaternary-ammonium molecules that also blocked nicotinic receptors, there was an additive inhibitory effect, indicating that these molecules bound to different sites within the channel pore. These results prove that lidocaine blocks nicotinic receptors by several independent mechanisms and evidence the diverse and complex modulation of this receptor by structurally related molecules. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Modulation of acetylcholine receptor channel by a polar component isolated from toxic Ostreopsis lenticularis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona De Motta, G; Mercado, J A; Tosteson, T R; González, I; Lasalde, J A

    1992-01-01

    Methanol extracts obtained from O. lenticularis clones are toxic to mice and inhibit acetylcholine-induced contractions in frog skeletal muscle. Chromatographic fractionation of extracts produced two major fractions with different retention times. Single channel recordings in myocyte membrane patches exposed to more polar fraction showed the appearance of acetylcholine-activated channels whose mean current amplitude was nearly half that of the controls. Channel open times under control and experimental conditions were similar. Thus, this dinoflagellate fraction reduces the ionic conductance of nicotinic receptor channels without altering their lifetime.

  4. [Autoantibodies detected in acetylcholine receptor antibody-negative myasthenia gravis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Rie; Motomura, Masakatsu

    2014-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is caused by the failure of neuromuscular transmission mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies (Abs) against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), and unknown autoantibodies. The seropositivity rates for routine AChR binding Ab and MuSK Ab in MG are 85% and a few % for MG patients in Japan, respectively. The autoimmune target in the remaining patients is unknown. In 2001, Hoch et al. reported that a proportion of AChR-Ab-negative MG patients had serum IgG antibodies against MuSK, shedding new light on the pathogenesis of the disease. This idea has been recently supported by many clinical studies, including neonatal myasthenic syndrome and animal model studies. In 2011, autoantibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4(Lrp4) were identified in Japanese MG patients and, thereafter, have been reported in Germany and the USA. We developed a simple technique termed Gaussia luciferase immunoprecipitation for detecting antibodies to Lrp4. As a result, nine generalized MG patients out of 300 lacking AChR Ab were found to be positive for Lrp4 antibodies. Thymoma was not observed in any of these patients. These antibodies inhibit the binding of Lrp4 to its ligand and are predominantly of the IgG1 subclass. In other reports of Lrp4 ab, Lrp4 ab-positive sera inhibited the agrin-induced aggregation of AChRs in cultured myotubes, suggesting a pathogenic role regarding the dysfunction of the neuromuscular endplate. These results indicate that Lrp4 is the third autoantigen in patients with MG, and anti-Lrp4 autoantibodies may be pathogenic. Further studies including neuromuscular junction biopsy are needed to clarify the pathomechanism of Lrp4 ab-positive MG.

  5. TC299423, a Novel Agonist for Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teagan R. Wall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available (E-5-(Pyrimidin-5-yl-1,2,3,4,7,8-hexahydroazocine (TC299423 is a novel agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. We examined its efficacy, affinity, and potency for α6β2∗ (α6β2-containing, α4β2∗, and α3β4∗ nAChRs, using [125I]-epibatidine binding, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, synaptosomal 86Rb+ efflux, [3H]-dopamine release, and [3H]-acetylcholine release. TC299423 displayed an EC50 of 30–60 nM for α6β2∗ nAChRs in patch-clamp recordings and [3H]-dopamine release assays. Its potency for α6β2∗ in these assays was 2.5-fold greater than that for α4β2∗, and much greater than that for α3β4∗-mediated [3H]-acetylcholine release. We observed no major off-target binding on 70 diverse molecular targets. TC299423 was bioavailable after intraperitoneal or oral administration. Locomotor assays, measured with gain-of-function, mutant α6 (α6L9′S nAChR mice, show that TC299423 elicits α6β2∗ nAChR-mediated responses at low doses. Conditioned place preference assays show that low-dose TC299423 also produces significant reward in α6L9′S mice, and modest reward in WT mice, through a mechanism that probably involves α6(non-α4β2∗ nAChRs. However, TC299423 did not suppress nicotine self-administration in rats, indicating that it did not block nicotine reinforcement in the dosage range that was tested. In a hot-plate test, TC299423 evoked antinociceptive responses in mice similar to those of nicotine. TC299423 and nicotine similarly inhibited mouse marble burying as a measure of anxiolytic effects. Taken together, our data suggest that TC299423 will be a useful small-molecule agonist for future in vitro and in vivo studies of nAChR function and physiology.

  6. Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs): Important amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... neonicotinoid insecticides affinity remarkably, but showed little effects on insect nAChRs normal function. Key words: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, neonicotinoid insecticides, selectivity, resistance. INTRODUCTION. Most commercially important insecticides are neurotoxins that act on ion channels, ...

  7. Measurement of anti- acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    myasthenia gravis. K. J. Steenkamp, W. Duim, M. s. Myer,. S. C. K. Malfeld, R. Anderson. Two different acetylcholine receptor (AChR) preparations derived from amputated human muscle (AChRAMP) and from the human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line TE671 (AChRTE67,) were compared in radio-immunoprecipitation assays ...

  8. Deletion of muscarinic type 1 acetylcholine receptors alters splenic lymphocyte functions and splenic noradrenaline concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainke, Susanne; Wildmann, Johannes; Del Rey, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    The existence of interactions between the immune and the sympathetic nervous systems is well established. Noradrenaline can promote or inhibit the immune response, and conversely, the immune response itself can affect noradrenaline concentration in lymphoid organs, such as the spleen. It is also well known that acetylcholine released by pre-ganglionic neurons can modulate noradrenaline release by the postsynaptic neuron. The spleen does not receive cholinergic innervation, but it has been reported that lymphocytes themselves can produce acetylcholine, and express acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholinesterase. We found that the spleen of not overtly immunized mice in which muscarinic type 1 acetylcholine receptors have been knocked out (M1KO) has higher noradrenaline concentrations than that of the wildtype mice, without comparable alterations in the heart, in parallel to a decreased number of IgG-producing B cells. Splenic lymphocytes from M1KO mice displayed increased in vitro-induced cytotoxicity, and this was observed only when CD4(+) T cells were present. In contrast, heterozygous acetylcholinesterase (AChE+/-) mice, had no alterations in splenic noradrenaline concentration, but the in vitro proliferation of AChE+/- CD4(+) T cells was increased. It is theoretically conceivable that reciprocal effects between neuronally and non-neuronally derived acetylcholine and noradrenaline might contribute to the results reported. Our results emphasize the need to consider the balance between the effects of these mediators for the final immunoregulatory outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural model of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor isotypes bound to acetylcholine and nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abagyan Ruben

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine is a psychoactive drug presenting a diverse array of biological activities, some positive, such as enhancement of cognitive performances, others negative, such as addiction liability. Ligands that discriminate between the different isotypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs could present improved pharmacology and toxicity profile. Results Based on the recent crystal structure of a soluble acetylcholine binding protein from snails, we have built atomic models of acetylcholine and nicotine bound to the pocket of four different human nAChR subtypes. The structures of the docked ligands correlate with available biochemical data, and reveal that the determinants for isotype selectivity are relying essentially on four residues, providing diversity of the ligand binding pocket both in terms of Van der Waals boundary, and electrostatic potential. We used our models to screen in silico a large compound database and identify a new ligand candidate that could display subtype selectivity. Conclusion The nAChR-agonist models should be useful for the design of nAChR agonists with diverse specificity profiles.

  10. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Andreasen T., Jesper; Arvaniti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been pursued for decades as potential molecular targets to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to their positioning within regions of the brain critical in learning and memory, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus......, and their demonstrated role in processes underlying cognition such as synaptic facilitation, and theta and gamma wave activity. Historically, activity at these receptors is facilitated in AD by use of drugs that increase the levels of their endogenous agonist acetylcholine, and more recently nAChR selective ligands have...... interactions to modify nAChR function adds a new level of complexity to cholinergic signaling in the brain that may be specifically altered in AD. It is currently not known to what degree current nAChR ligands affect these interactions, and it is possible that the difference in the clinical effect of n...

  11. Mechanisms of Action of Anticholinesterases and Oximes on Acetylcholine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-23

    psychotropic, antipsychotic, opiate, antidepressant, antibiotic, antiviral, and antiarrhythmic S drugs . Molec. Pharmacol. 22:72-81 (1982). 25. Kohanski, R.A...physostigmine as a pretreatment drug for protection of rats from organosphate poisoning. Fund. Appl. Tox. 6:566-77 (1986). 8. Seifert, S.A. and M.E...Eldefrawi. Affinity of myasthenia drugs to acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine receptor. Biochem. Med. 10:258-265 (1974). 9. Carpenter, D.O., L.A

  12. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    of such compounds in vivo is highly dependent on α7 nAChR-interacting proteins, such as RIC-3 and lynx1, which modulate expression and function of the receptor. These regulatory proteins are often not expressed in in vitro models used to study α7 nAChR function, and it is not known to what extent they are involved...

  13. Effect of galantamine on the human α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and spontaneous cholinergic synaptic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texidó, Laura; Ros, Esteve; Martín-Satué, Mireia; López, Susana; Aleu, Jordi; Marsal, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2005-01-01

    Various types of anticholinesterasic agents have been used to improve the daily activities of Alzheimer's disease patients. It was recently demonstrated that Galantamine, described as a molecule with anticholinesterasic properties, is also an allosteric enhancer of human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic receptor activity. We explored its effect on the human α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Galantamine, at a concentration of 0.1 μM, increased the amplitude of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced ion currents in the human α7 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes, but caused inhibition at higher concentrations. The maximum effect of galantamine, an increase of 22% in the amplitude of ACh-induced currents, was observed at a concentration of 250 μM Ach. The same enhancing effect was obtained in oocytes transplanted with Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) isolated from the electric organ, but in this case the optimal concentration of galantamine was 1 μM. In this case, the maximum effect of galantamine, an increase of 35% in the amplitude of ACh-induced currents, occurred at a concentration of 50 μM ACh. Galantamine affects not only the activity of post-synaptic receptors but also the activity of nerve terminals. At a concentration of 1 μM, quantal spontaneous events, recorded in a cholinergic synapse, increased their amplitude, an effect which was independent of the anticholinesterasic activity associated with this compound. The anticholinesterasic effect was recorded in preparations treated with a galantamine concentration of 10 μM. In conclusion, our results show that galantamine enhances human α7 neuronal nicotinic ACh receptor activity. It also enhances muscular AChRs and the size of spontaneous cholinergic synaptic events. However, only a very narrow range of galantamine concentrations can be used for enhancing effects. PMID:15834443

  14. Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Soni, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are modulated by regulatory proteins of the Lynx family. Here, we report for the first time a direct interaction of the Lynx protein LY6/PLAUR domain-containing 6 (Lypd6) with n...... findings suggest that Lypd6 is a versatile inhibitor of cholinergic signaling in the brain, and that Lypd6 is dysregulated by nicotine exposure during early development. Regulatory proteins of the Lynx family modulate the function of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). We report for the first time that the Lynx...

  15. Molecular environment of the phencyclidine binding site in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, A.L.; Wang, H.H. (Department of Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Phencyclidine is a highly specific noncompetitive inhibitor of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In a novel approach to study this site, a spin-labeled analogue of phencyclidine, 4-phenyl-4-(1-piperidinyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (PPT) was synthesized. The binding of PPT inhibits 86Rb flux (IC50 = 6.6 microM), and (3H)phencyclidine binding to both resting and desensitized acetylcholine receptor (IC50 = 17 microM and 0.22 microM, respectively). From an indirect Hill plot of the inhibition of (3H)phencyclidine binding by PPT, a Hill coefficient of approximately one was obtained in the presence of carbamylcholine and 0.8 in alpha-bungarotoxin-treated preparations. Taken together, these results indicate that PPT mimics phencyclidine in its ability to bind to the noncompetitive inhibitor site and is functionally active in blocking ion flux across the acetylcholine receptor channel. Analysis of the electron spin resonance signal of the bound PPT suggests that the environment surrounding the probe within the ion channel is hydrophobic, with a hydrophobicity parameter of 1.09. A dielectric constant for the binding site was estimated to be in the range of 2-3 units.

  16. Acetylcholine-induced inhibition of presynaptic calcium signals and transmitter release in the frog neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Khaziev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh, released from axonal terminals of motor neurones in neuromuscular junctions regulates the efficacy of neurotransmission through activation of presynaptic nicotinic and muscarinic autoreceptors. Receptor-mediated presynaptic regulation could reflect either direct action on exocytotic machinery or modulation of Ca2+ entry and resulting intra-terminal Ca2+ dynamics. We have measured free intra-terminal cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i using Oregon-Green 488 microfluorimetry, in parallel with voltage-clamp recordings of spontaneous (mEPC and evoked (EPC postsynaptic currents in post-junctional skeletal muscle fibre. Activation of presynaptic muscarinic and nicotinic receptors with exogenous acetylcholine and its non-hydrolized analogue carbachol reduced amplitude of the intra-terminal [Ca2+]i transients and decreased quantal content (calculated by dividing the area under EPC curve by the area under mEPC curve. Pharmacological analysis revealed the role of muscarinic receptors of M2 subtype as well as d-tubocurarine-sensitive nicotinic receptor in presynaptic modulation of [Ca2+]i transients. Modulation of synaptic transmission efficacy by ACh receptors was completely eliminated by pharmacological inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. We conclude that ACh receptor-mediated reduction of Ca2+ entry into the nerve terminal through N-type Ca2+ channels represents one of possible mechanism of presynaptic modulation in frog neuromuscular junction.

  17. Activation and desensitization of peripheral muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by selected, naturally-occurring pyridine alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscletype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiper...

  18. Back to the future: Rational maps for exploring acetylcholine receptor space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Christian J G; Emlaw, Johnathon R; Cao, Zhuo Qian; Pérez-Areales, F Javier; Salameh, Jean-Paul J; Prinston, Jethro E; McNulty, Melissa S; daCosta, Corrie J B

    2017-11-01

    Global functions of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, such as subunit cooperativity and compatibility, likely emerge from a network of amino acid residues distributed across the entire pentameric complex. Identification of such networks has stymied traditional approaches to acetylcholine receptor structure and function, likely due to the cryptic interdependency of their underlying amino acid residues. An emerging evolutionary biochemistry approach, which traces the evolutionary history of acetylcholine receptor subunits, allows for rational mapping of acetylcholine receptor sequence space, and offers new hope for uncovering the amino acid origins of these enigmatic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Rosemond, Erica; Green, Hillary F.; Liu, Tong; Chae, Pil Seok; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford); (NIH); (D.E. Shaw); (Hanyang); (UTSMC)

    2012-03-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate. Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences. We describe here the structure of the G{sub q/11}-coupled M3 mAChR ('M3 receptor', from rat) bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify the binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the G{sub i/o}-coupled M2 receptor, offers possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows a structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and provide additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors.

  20. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: specific antibodies and functions in humoral immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Skok,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are ligand-gated ion channels initially discovered in muscles and neurons and further found in many non-excitable cells. The present review summarizes the results of studies performed in the Department of Molecular Immunology during the last decade and concerning the structure and functions of nAChRs in B lymphocytes and in mitochondria, as well as the role of nAChR-specific antibodies in the develop­ment of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer disease.

  1. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Sybren F; Mansvelder, Huibert D; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-10-15

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are found in most brain regions, many studies on addiction have focused on the mesolimbic system and its reported behavioral correlates such as reward processing and reinforcement learning. Profound modulatory cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmentum to dopaminergic midbrain nuclei as well as local cholinergic interneuron projections to dopamine neuron axons in the striatum may play a major role in the effects of nicotine. Moreover, an indirect mesocorticolimbic feedback loop involving the medial prefrontal cortex may be involved in behavioral characteristics of nicotine addiction. Therefore, this review will highlight current understanding of the effects of nicotine on the function of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine projections in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Mapping of the acetylcholine binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: [3H]nicotine as an agonist photoaffinity label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, R E; Cohen, J B

    1991-07-16

    The agonist [3H]nicotine was used as a photoaffinity label for the acetylcholine binding sites on the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). [3H]nicotine binds at equilibrium with Keq = 0.6 microM to the agonist binding sites. Irradiation with 254-nm light of AChR-rich membranes equilibrated with [3H]nicotine resulted in covalent incorporation into the alpha- and gamma-subunits, which was inhibited by agonists and competitive antagonists but not by noncompetitive antagonists. Inhibition of labeling by d-tubocurarine demonstrated that the alpha-subunit was labeled via both agonist sites but the gamma-subunit was labeled only via the site that binds d-tubocurarine with high affinity. Within the alpha-subunit, 93% of the labeling was contained within a 20-kDa Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteolytic fragment beginning at Ser-173. Sequence analysis of this peptide indicated that approximately 80% of the incorporation was into Tyr-198, approximately 13% was into Cys-192, and approximately 7% was into Tyr-190. Chymotryptic digestion of the alpha-subunit confirmed that Tyr-198 was the principal amino acid labeled by [3H]nicotine. This confirmation required a novel radio-sequencing strategy employing omicron-phthalaldehyde, since the efficiency of photolabeling was low (approximately 1.0%) and the labeled chymotryptic peptide was not isolated in sufficient quantity to be identified by mass. [3H]Nicotine, which is the first photoaffinity agonist used, labels primarily Tyr-198 in contrast to competitive antagonist affinity labels, which label primarily Tyr-190 and Cys-192/Cys-193.

  3. Change in desensitization of cat muscle acetylcholine receptor caused by coexpression of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor subunits in Xenopus oocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Sumikawa, K; Miledi, R

    1989-01-01

    Cat muscle acetylcholine receptors (AcChoR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes desensitized more slowly than Torpedo electric organ AcChoRs, also expressed in oocytes. To examine the bases for the different degrees of desensitization, cat-Torpedo AcChoR hybrids were formed by injecting oocytes with cat denervated muscle mRNA mixed with a large excess of cloned Torpedo AcChoR subunit mRNAs. Hybrid AcChoRs formed by coinjection of cat muscle mRNA with the Torpedo beta or delta subunit mRNAs desensiti...

  4. Fluorescent agonists for the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Florian; Mourot, Alexandre; Araoz, Romulo; Kotzyba-Hibert, Florence; Molgó, Jordi; Bamberg, Ernst; Goeldner, Maurice

    2008-05-05

    We have synthesized a series of fluorescent acylcholine derivatives carrying different linkers that vary in length and structure and connect the acylcholine unit to the environment-sensitive fluorophores 7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carbonyl (DEAC) or N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-yl) (NBD). The pharmacological properties of the fluorescent analogues were investigated on heterologously expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo californica and on oocytes transplanted with nAChR-rich Torpedo marmorata membranes. Agonist action strongly depends on the length and the structure of the linker. One particular analogue, DEAC-Gly-C6-choline, showed partial agonist behavior with about half of the maximum response of acetylcholine, which is at least 20 times higher than those observed with previously described fluorescent dansyl- and NBD-acylcholine analogues. Binding of DEAC-Gly-C6-choline to Torpedo nAChR induces a strong enhancement of fluorescence intensity. Association and displacement kinetic experiments revealed dissociation constants of 0.5 nM for the alphadelta-binding site and 15.0 nM for the alphagamma-binding site. Both the pharmacological and the spectroscopic properties of this agonist show great promise for characterizing the allosteric mechanism behind the function of the Torpedo nAChR, as well as for drug-screening studies.

  5. Inhibitory effects of tramadol on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in adrenal chromaffin cells and in Xenopus oocytes expressing α7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Munehiro; Minami, Kouichiro; Uezono, Yasuhito; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Shigematsu, Akio; Shibuya, Izumi

    2002-01-01

    Tramadol has been used clinically as an analgesic; however, the mechanism of its analgesic effects is still unknown.We used bovine adrenal chromaffin cells to investigate effects of tramadol on catecholamine secretion, nicotine-induced cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) increases and membrane current changes. We also investigated effects of tramadol on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes.Tramadol concentration-dependently suppressed carbachol-induced catecholamine secretion to 60% and 27% of the control at the concentration of 10 and 100 μM, respectively, whereas it had little effect on veratridine- or high K+-induced catecholamine secretion.Tramadol also suppressed nicotine-induced ([Ca2+]i) increases in a concentration-dependent manner. Tramadol inhibited nicotine-induced inward currents, and the inhibition was unaffected by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone.Tramadol inhibited nicotinic currents carried by α7 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.Tramadol inhibited both α-bungarotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive nicotinic currents in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.In conclusion, tramadol inhibits catecholamine secretion partly by inhibiting nicotinic AChR functions in a naloxone-insensitive manner and α7 receptors are one of those inhibited by tramadol. PMID:12010769

  6. Rapid synthesis of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, D A; Drachman, D B; Pestronk, A

    1988-10-11

    The rate of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) degradation in mature, innervated mammalian neuromuscular junctions has recently been shown to be biphasic; up to 20% are rapidly turned over (RTOs; half life less than 1 day) whereas the remainder are lost more slowly ('stable' AChRs; half life 10-12 days). In order to maintain normal junctional receptor density, synthesis and insertion of AChRs should presumably be sufficiently rapid to replace both the RTOs and the stable receptors. We have tested this prediction by blocking pre-existing AChRs in the mouse sternomastoid muscle with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BuTx), and monitoring the subsequent appearance of 'new' junctional AChRs at intervals of 3 h to 20 days by labeling them with 125I-alpha-BuTx. The results show that new receptors were initially inserted rapidly (16% at 24 h and 28% at 48 h). The rate of increase of 'new' 125I-alpha-BuTx binding sites gradually slowed down during the remainder of the time period studied. Control observations excluded possible artifacts of the experimental procedure including incomplete blockade of AChRs, dissociation of toxin-receptor complexes, or experimentally induced alteration of receptor synthesis. The present demonstration of rapid synthesis and incorporation of AChRs at innervated neuromuscular junctions provides support for the concept of a subpopulation of rapidly turned over AChRs. The RTOs may serve as precursors for the larger population of stable receptors and have an important role in the metabolism of the neuromuscular synapse.

  7. Targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to treat smoking-related periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Feng; Ge, Xin; Wen, Ling-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2011-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered to be one of the major risk factors for periodontitis. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco smoke, has been considered playing an important role in tobacco-related morbidity by acting through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by non-neuronal cells. Recently studies found that nAChRs could be expressed on oral gingival and periodontal tissues. We hypothesize that nicotine may act on periodontal tissues directly and specifically through nAChRs to affect periodontitis activity, and that nicotine-induced periodontitis could be prevented by tissue-selective nAChR inhibitors targeting periodontal nAChRs. Thus, periodontal nAChRs may provide to be novel molecular targets to treat smoking-related periodontitis, effectively blocking of periodontal nAChRs may offer an optimistic outlook for the therapy of smoking- related periodontitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conformationally restrained carbamoylcholine homologues. Synthesis, pharmacology at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and biostructural considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Fuente Revenga, M; Balle, Thomas; Jensen, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of small selective ligands for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) based on acetylcholine (ACh) has led to the development of potent agonists with clear preference for the α4β2 nAChR, the most prevalent nAChR subtype in the central nervous system. In this work we present th...

  9. Serotoninergic dorsal raphe neurons possess functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Charles, Luis; Hernandez-Lopez, Salvador; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Bargas, José; Garduño, Julieta; Frías-Dominguez, Carmen; Drucker-Colin, René; Mihailescu, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Very few neurons in the telencephalon have been shown to express functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), among them, the noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons. However, there is no evidence for postsynaptic nAChRs on serotonergic neurons. In this study, we asked if functional nAChRs are present in serotonergic (5-HT) and nonserotonergic (non-5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In rat midbrain slices, field stimulation at the tegmental pedunculopontine (PPT) nucleus evoked postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) with different components in DRN neurons. After blocking the glutamatergic and GABAergic components, the remaining eEPSCs were blocked by mecamylamine and reduced by either the selective alpha7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) or the selective alpha4beta2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-beta-eritroidine (DHbetaE). Simultaneous addition of MLA and DHbetaE blocked all eEPSCs. Integrity of the PPT-DRN pathway was assessed by both anterograde biocytin tracing and antidromic stimulation from the DRN. Inward currents evoked by the direct application of acetylcholine (ACh), in the presence of atropine and tetrodotoxin, consisted of two kinetically different currents: one was blocked by MLA and the other by DHbetaE; in both 5-HT and non-5-HT DR neurons. Analysis of spontaneous (sEPSCs) and evoked (eEPSCs) synaptic events led to the conclusion that nAChRs were located at the postsynaptic membrane. The possible implications of these newly described nAChRs in various physiological processes and behavioral events, such as the wake-sleep cycle, are discussed.

  10. Alpha-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and tobacco smoke exposure : Effects on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torjussen, Tale M.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lodrup; Munthe-Kaas, Monica C.; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Helms, Peter J.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Whyte, Moira K.; Lenney, Warren; Undlien, Dag E.; Shianna, Kevin V.; Zhu, Guohua; Pillai, Sreekumar G.

    Background: The CHRNA 3 and 5 genes on chromosome 15 encode the alpha subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, mediating airway cholinergic activity. Polymorphisms are associated with cigarette smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Aims: To determine possible

  11. Differences in the interaction of acetylcholine receptor antibodies with receptor from normal, denervated and myasthenic human muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Lefvert, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of acetylcholine receptor antibodies with different kinds of human skeletal muscle receptor was investigated. The reaction of most receptor antibodies was strongest with receptor from a patient with myasthenia gravis and with receptor from denervated muscle. Results obtained with these receptors were well correlated. The binding of most receptor antibodies to receptor from functionally normal muscle was much weaker and also qualitatively different. In a few patients with moder...

  12. Non-Neuronal Functions of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Tikkanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter whose effects are mediated by two classes of receptors. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ion channels, whereas the muscarinic receptors belong to the large family of G protein coupled seven transmembrane helix receptors. Beyond its function in neuronal systems, it has become evident that acetylcholine also plays an important role in non-neuronal cells such as epithelial and immune cells. Furthermore, many cell types in the periphery are capable of synthesizing acetylcholine and express at least some of the receptors. In this review, we summarize the non-neuronal functions of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, especially those of the M2 muscarinic receptor in epithelial cells. We will review the mechanisms of signaling by the M2 receptor but also the cellular trafficking and ARF6 mediated endocytosis of this receptor, which play an important role in the regulation of signaling events. In addition, we provide an overview of the M2 receptor in human pathological conditions such as autoimmune diseases and cancer.

  13. Distinctive Modulation of Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Mediated by Dopamine and Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Hoon; Adrover, Martin F; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2017-11-15

    Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA-dependent behaviors such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A disynaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this disynaptic mechanism of DA transmission are not well understood in the NAc shell. In this study, in vitro fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the modulation of DA transmission evoked by CINs firing in the shell of mice and compared with other striatal regions. We found that DA signals in the shell displayed significant degree of summation in response to train stimulation of CINs, contrary to core and dorsal striatum. The summation was amplified by a D2-like receptor antagonist and experiments with mice with targeted deletion of D2 receptors to DANs or CINs revealed that D2 receptors in CINs mediate a fast inhibition observed within 100 ms of the first pulse, whereas D2 autoreceptors in DAN terminals are engaged in a slower inhibition that peaks at ∼500 ms. ACh also contributes to the use-dependent inhibition of DA release through muscarinic receptors only in the shell, where higher activity of acetylcholinesterase minimizes nAChR desensitization and promotes summation. These findings show that DA signals are modulated differentially by endogenous DA and ACh in the shell, which may underlie the unique features of shell DA signals in vivoSIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The present study reports that dopamine (DA) release evoked by activation of cholinergic interneurons displays a high degree of summation in the shell and shows unique modulation by endogenous DA and acetylcholine. Desensitization of nicotinic receptors, which is a prevailing mechanism for use-dependent inhibition in the nucleus accumbens core and dorsal striatum, is

  14. Wnt proteins regulate acetylcholine receptor clustering in muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liang, Chuan; Bates, Ryan; Yin, Yiming; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2012-02-06

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a cholinergic synapse that rapidly conveys signals from motoneurons to muscle cells and exhibits a high degree of subcellular specialization characteristic of chemical synapses. NMJ formation requires agrin and its coreceptors LRP4 and MuSK. Increasing evidence indicates that Wnt signaling regulates NMJ formation in Drosophila, C. elegans and zebrafish. In the study we systematically studied the effect of all 19 different Wnts in mammals on acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cluster formation. We identified five Wnts (Wnt9a, Wnt9b, Wnt10b, Wnt11, and Wnt16) that are able to stimulate AChR clustering, of which Wnt9a and Wnt11 are expressed abundantly in developing muscles. Using Wnt9a and Wnt11 as example, we demonstrated that Wnt induction of AChR clusters was dose-dependent and non-additive to that of agrin, suggesting that Wnts may act via similar pathways to induce AChR clusters. We provide evidence that Wnt9a and Wnt11 bind directly to the extracellular domain of MuSK, to induce MuSK dimerization and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the kinase. In addition, Wnt-induced AChR clustering requires LRP4. These results identify Wnts as new players in AChR cluster formation, which act in a manner that requires both MuSK and LRP4, revealing a novel function of LRP4.

  15. Wnt proteins regulate acetylcholine receptor clustering in muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neuromuscular junction (NMJ is a cholinergic synapse that rapidly conveys signals from motoneurons to muscle cells and exhibits a high degree of subcellular specialization characteristic of chemical synapses. NMJ formation requires agrin and its coreceptors LRP4 and MuSK. Increasing evidence indicates that Wnt signaling regulates NMJ formation in Drosophila, C. elegans and zebrafish. Results In the study we systematically studied the effect of all 19 different Wnts in mammals on acetylcholine receptor (AChR cluster formation. We identified five Wnts (Wnt9a, Wnt9b, Wnt10b, Wnt11, and Wnt16 that are able to stimulate AChR clustering, of which Wnt9a and Wnt11 are expressed abundantly in developing muscles. Using Wnt9a and Wnt11 as example, we demonstrated that Wnt induction of AChR clusters was dose-dependent and non-additive to that of agrin, suggesting that Wnts may act via similar pathways to induce AChR clusters. We provide evidence that Wnt9a and Wnt11 bind directly to the extracellular domain of MuSK, to induce MuSK dimerization and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the kinase. In addition, Wnt-induced AChR clustering requires LRP4. Conclusions These results identify Wnts as new players in AChR cluster formation, which act in a manner that requires both MuSK and LRP4, revealing a novel function of LRP4.

  16. Sodium nitrate decreases agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Jess; White, Cullen; Grow, Wade A

    2016-05-01

    Humans are exposed to nitrate predominantly through diet with peak plasma concentrations within an hour after ingestion, but additional exposure is obtained from the environment, and minimally through de novo synthesis. Higher nitrate consumption has been associated with methemoglobinemia, spontaneous abortions, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia, septic and distressed lung, inflammatory bowel disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neural tube defects. However, skeletal muscle development has not been examined. C2C12 skeletal muscle cell cultures were maintained, myoblasts were fused into myotubes, and then cultures were exposed to motor neuron derived agrin to enhance acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering. Untreated cultures were compared with cultures exposed to sodium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 10 ng/mL-100 μg/mL. The results reported here demonstrate that 1 μg/mL sodium nitrate was sufficient to decrease the frequency of agrin-induced AChR clustering without affecting myotube formation. In addition, concentrations of sodium nitrate of 1 μg/mL or 100 μg/mL decreased gene expression of the myogenic transcription factor myogenin and AChR in correlation with the agrin-induced AChR clustering data. These results reveal that sodium nitrate decreases the frequency of agrin-induced AChR clustering by a mechanism that includes myogenin and AChR gene expression. As a consequence sodium nitrate may pose a risk for skeletal muscle development and subsequent neuromuscular synapse formation in humans.

  17. Transmembrane topology of the acetylcholine receptor examined in reconstituted vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrea, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Each of the five acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits, ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta..-..gamma..delta, is believed to have the same number of transmembrane crossing and to share the same general folding pattern. AChR isolated from the electric organ of electric fish is predominantly dimeric. We have used this bridge as a marker for the C-terminus of the delta subunit, and presumably that of the other subunits in addition. The disulfide's accessibility to hydrophilic reductants, principally glutathione (GSH), was tested in a reconstituted vesicle system. The reduction of the delta-delta desulfide, as evidenced by the transition of AChrR dimers to monomers, was quantitatively monitored on velocity sedimentation sucrose gradients. Alternatively, the reduction of delta/sub 2/ to delta was followed by employing non-reducing SDS-PAGE. Reductants such as GSH were able to access the bridge in intact right-side-out vesicles. No acceleration of this process was evident when the vesicles were disrupted by freeze-thaw or by detergents. Control experiments which determined the rate of reduction of entrapped diphtheria toxin, or that of /sup 3/H-GSH efflux, demonstrated that intact reconstituted vesicles provide an adequate permeability barrier to GSH access of their intravesicular space.

  18. Functional role of acetylcholine and the expression of cholinergic receptors and components in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Takahiro; Chida, Dai; Nakamoto, Norimichi; Hori, Naoko; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Sakata, Yasuaki; Tomaru, Yasuhisa; Iwata, Takanori; Usui, Michihiko; Aiko, Katsuya; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2010-02-19

    Recent studies have indicated that acetylcholine (ACh) plays a vital role in various tissues, while the role of ACh in bone metabolism remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that ACh induced cell proliferation and reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity via nicotinic (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in osteoblasts. We detected mRNA expression of several nAChRs and mAChRs. Furthermore, we showed that cholinergic components were up-regulated and subunits/subtypes of acetylcholine receptors altered during osteoblast differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that osteoblasts express specific acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic components and that ACh plays a possible role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acetylcholine receptors in dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, Osama; Kendziorra, Kai [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike; Gertz, Hermann-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); Brust, Peter [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    To clarify whether changes in the cholinergic transmission occur early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380, which is supposed to be specific for {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We included patients with moderate to severe AD and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), presumed to present preclinical AD. Both patients with AD and MCI showed significant reductions in {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs in brain regions typically affected by AD pathology. These findings indicate that a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs occurs during early symptomatic stages of AD. The {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR availability in these regions correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment, indicating a stage sensitivity of the {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR status. Together, our results provide evidence for the potential of 2-[{sup 18}]F-A-85380 nAChR PET in the diagnosis of patients at risk for AD. Because of the extraordinary long acquisition time with 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380, we developed the new {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR-specific radioligands (+)- and (-)-[{sup 18}F]norchloro-fluoro-homoepibatidine (NCFHEB) and evaluated them preclinically. (-)-[{sup 18}F]NCFHEB shows twofold higher brain uptake and significantly shorter acquisition times. Therefore, (-)-[{sup 18}F]NCFHEB should be a suitable radioligand for larger clinical investigations. (orig.)

  20. Tramadol state-dependent memory: involvement of dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Sabet, Majid; Jafari-Sabet, Ali-Reza; Dizaji-Ghadim, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The effects on tramadol state-dependent memory of bilateral intradorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) injections of physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, were examined in adult male NMRI mice. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. Post-training intra-CA1 administration of an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse), dose dependently impaired memory retention. Pretest injection of tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under the influence of post-training tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). A pretest intra-CA1 injection of physostigmine (1 μg/mouse) reversed the memory impairment induced by post-training administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). Moreover, pretest administration of physostigmine (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) with an ineffective dose of tramadol (0.25 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) also significantly restored retrieval. Pretest administration of physostigmine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. A pretest intra-CA1 injection of the atropine (1 and 2 μg/mouse) 5 min before the administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) dose dependently inhibited tramadol state-dependent memory. Pretest administration of atropine (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. It can be concluded that dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mechanisms play an important role in the modulation of tramadol state-dependent memory.

  1. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya (Stanford-MED); (Kyoto); (Gakushuin); (Kyushu)

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

  2. Endocannabinoids mediate muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent long-term depression in the adult medial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Giles Stratten Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic inputs into the prefrontal cortex (PFC are associated with attention and cognition; however there is evidence that acetylcholine also has a role in PFC dependent learning and memory. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR in the PFC can induce synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain either opaque or unresolved. We have characterized a form of mAChR mediated long-term depression (LTD at glutamatergic synapses of layer 5 principal neurons in the adult medial PFC. This mAChR LTD is induced with the mAChR agonist carbachol and inhibited by selective M1 mAChR antagonists. In contrast to other cortical regions, we find that this M1 mAChR mediated LTD is coupled to endogenous cannabinoid (eCB signaling. Inhibition of the principal eCB CB1 receptor blocked carbachol induced LTD in both rats and mice. Furthermore, when challenged with a sub-threshold carbachol application, LTD was induced in slices pretreated with the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184, suggesting that the eCB 2-arachidonylglyerol (2-AG mediates M1 mAChR LTD. Yet, when endogenous acetylcholine was released from local cholinergic afferents in the PFC using optogenetics, it failed to trigger eCB-LTD. However coupling patterned optical and electrical stimulation to generate local synaptic signaling allowed the reliable induction of LTD. The light – electrical pairing induced LTD was M1 mAChR and CB1 receptor mediated. This shows for the first time that connecting excitatory synaptic activity with coincident endogenously released acetylcholine controls synaptic gain via eCB signaling. Together these results shed new light on the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult PFC and expand on the actions of endogenous cholinergic signaling.

  3. Nicotine Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice by Activating α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor on Mast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Chen, Han; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Yinchuan; Liu, Mingfei; Zhu, Lianlian; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Xianbao; Zhong, Zhiwei; Zhao, Jing; Jiang, Jun; Xiang, Meixiang; Yu, Hong; Hu, Xinyang; Lu, Hong; Wang, Jian'an

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, induces mast cell (MC) release and contributes to atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether nicotine accelerates atherosclerosis through MC-mediated mechanisms and whether MC stabilizer prevents this pathological process. Nicotine administration increased the size of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice fed a fat-enriched diet. This was accompanied by enhanced intraplaque macrophage content and lipid deposition but reduced collagen and smooth muscle cell contents. MC deficiency in Apoe-/- mice (Apoe-/-KitW-sh/W-sh) diminished nicotine-induced atherosclerosis. Nicotine activated bone marrow-derived MCs in vitro, which was inhibited by a MC stabilizer disodium cromoglycate or a nonselective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker mecamylamine. Further investigation revealed that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was a target for nicotine activation in MCs. Nicotine did not change atherosclerotic lesion size of Apoe-/-KitW-sh/W-sh mice reconstituted with MCs from Apoe-/-α7nAChR-/- animals. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on MCs is a mechanism by which nicotine enhances atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Structure-function relationships of curaremimetic neurotoxin loop 2 and of a structurally similar segment of rabies virus glycoprotein in their interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, T.L. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1991-11-12

    Peptides corresponding to portions of curaremimetic neurotoxin loop 2 and to a structurally similar segment of rabies virus glycoprotein were synthetically modified in order to gain information on structure-function relationships of neurotoxin loop 2 interactions with the acetylcholine receptor. Binding of synthetic peptides to the acetylcholine receptor of Torpedo electric organ membranes was assessed by measuring their ability to inhibit the binding of {sup 125}I-{alpha}-bungarotoxin to the receptor. The peptides showing the highest affinity for the receptor were a peptide corresponding to the sequence of loop 2 (residues 25-44) of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) toxin b and the structurally similar segment of CVS rabies virus glycoprotein. These affinities were comparable to those of d-tubocurarine and suberyldicholine. These results demonstrate the importance of loop 2 in the neurotoxin interaction with the receptor. N- and C-terminal deletions of the loop 2 peptides and substitution of residues invariant or highly conserved among neurotoxins were performed in order to determine the role of individual residues in binding. Residues 25-40 are the most crucial in the interaction with the acetylcholine receptor. Since this region of the glycoprotein contains residues corresponding to all of the functionally invariant neurotoxin residues, it may interact with the acetylcholine receptor through a mechanism similar to that of the neurotoxins.

  5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene expression is altered in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osta, Walid A; El-Osta, Mohamed A; Pezhman, Eric A; Raad, Robert A; Ferguson, Kris; McKelvey, George M; Marsh, Harold M; White, Michael; Perov, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    Burn patients have been observed to be more susceptible to the hyperkalemic effect of the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit composition may alter electrophysiologic, pharmacologic, and metabolic characteristics of the receptor inducing hyperkalemia on exposure to succinylcholine. No studies have been performed that show the upregulation and/or alteration of nAChR subunit composition in human burn patients. The scarcity of studies performed on humans with burn injury is mainly attributable to the technical and ethical difficulties in obtaining muscle biopsies at different time frames of illness in these acutely injured patients. nAChRs are expressed in oral keratinocytes and are upregulated or altered in smokers. However, no studies have addressed the expression of nAChRs in the oral mucosa of burn patients. Buccal mucosal scrapings were collected from 9 burn patients and 6 control nonburn surgical intensive care unit patients. For burn and control patients, tissues were collected upon presentation (time: 0 hour) and at time points 12, 24, and 48 hours, 1 week, and 2 weeks. Gene expression of the nAChR subunits alpha1, alpha7, gamma, and epsilon were performed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. alpha7 and gamma nAChR genes were significantly upregulated in burn patients, whereas alpha1 and epsilon nAChR genes were minimally affected, showing no significant changes over time. Over the 2 weeks of measurement, an upregulation of the alpha7 and gamma genes occurred in both burn and control patients; however, the proportion of alpha7 and gamma subunit increases was significantly higher in burn patients than in control surgical intensive care unit patients. The relationship between the thermal injury and the observed alteration in gene expression suggests a possible cause/effect relationship. This effect was observed at a site not affected by the burn injury and in

  6. Recent Duplication and Functional Divergence in Parasitic Nematode Levamisole-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B Duguet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites rely on fast-synaptic transmission in their neuromusculature to experience the outside world and respond to it. Acetylcholine plays a pivotal role in this and its receptors are targeted by a wide variety of both natural and synthetic compounds used in human health and for the control of parasitic disease. The model, Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by a large number of acetylcholine receptor subunit genes, a feature shared across the nematodes. This dynamic family is characterized by both gene duplication and loss between species. The pentameric levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor has been characterized from C. elegans, comprised of five different subunits. More recently, cognate receptors have been reconstituted from multiple parasitic nematodes that are found to vary in subunit composition. In order to understand the implications of receptor composition change and the origins of potentially novel drug targets, we investigated a specific example of subunit duplication based on analysis of genome data for 25 species from the 50 helminth genome initiative. We found multiple independent duplications of the unc-29, acetylcholine receptor subunit, where codon substitution rate analysis identified positive, directional selection acting on amino acid positions associated with subunit assembly. Characterization of four gene copies from a model parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, demonstrated that each copy has acquired unique functional characteristics based on phenotype rescue of transgenic C. elegans and electrophysiology of receptors reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. We found evidence that a specific incompatibility has evolved for two subunits co-expressed in muscle. We demonstrated that functional divergence of acetylcholine receptors, driven by directional selection, can occur more rapidly than previously thought and may be mediated by alteration of receptor assembly. This phenomenon is common among the

  7. A Single Pulse of Agrin Triggers a Pathway That Acts To Cluster Acetylcholine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittaud, Peggy; Camilleri, Alain A.; Willmann, Raffaella; Erb-Vögtli, Susanne; Burden, Steven J.; Fuhrer, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Agrin triggers signaling mechanisms of high temporal and spatial specificity to achieve phosphorylation, clustering, and stabilization of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Agrin transiently activates the kinase MuSK; MuSK activation has largely vanished when AChR clusters appear. Thus, a tyrosine kinase cascade acts downstream from MuSK, as illustrated by the agrin-evoked long-lasting activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and their requirement for AChR cluster stabilization. We have investigated this cascade and report that pharmacological inhibition of SFKs reduces early but not later agrin-induced phosphorylation of MuSK and AChRs, while inhibition of Abl kinases reduces late phosphorylation. Interestingly, SFK inhibition applied selectively during agrin-induced AChR cluster formation caused rapid cluster dispersal later upon agrin withdrawal. We also report that a single 5-min agrin pulse, followed by extensive washing, triggered long-lasting MuSK and AChR phosphorylation and efficient AChR clustering. Following the pulse, MuSK phosphorylation increased and, beyond a certain level, caused maximal clustering. These data reveal novel temporal aspects of tyrosine kinase action in agrin signaling. First, during AChR cluster formation, SFKs initiate early phosphorylation and an AChR stabilization program that acts much later. Second, a kinase mechanism rapidly activated by agrin acts thereafter autonomously in agrin's absence to further increase MuSK phosphorylation and cluster AChRs. PMID:15340048

  8. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Courtot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR.

  9. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtot, Elise; Charvet, Claude L.; Beech, Robin N.; Harmache, Abdallah; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O’Connor, Vincent; Peineau, Nicolas; Woods, Debra J.; Neveu, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand–gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR. PMID:26625142

  10. Covalent attachment of antagonists to the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: synthesis and reactivity of substituted maleimides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Joseph I; Halliday, Jill I; Kanizaj, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The 3-methylmaleimide congeners of the natural product methyllycaconitine (MLA) and an analogue covalently attach to functional cysteine mutants of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR).......The 3-methylmaleimide congeners of the natural product methyllycaconitine (MLA) and an analogue covalently attach to functional cysteine mutants of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)....

  11. Enhancement of D1 dopamine receptor-mediated locomotor stimulation in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gomeza, Jesus; Zhang, Lu; Kostenis, Evi; Felder, Christian; Bymaster, Frank; Brodkin, Jesse; Shannon, Harlan; Xia, Bing; Deng, Chu-Xia; Wess, Jürgen

    1999-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1–M5) regulate many key functions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Primarily because of the lack of receptor subtype-selective ligands, the precise physiological roles of the individual muscarinic receptor subtypes remain to be elucidated. Interestingly, the M4 receptor subtype is expressed abundantly in the striatum and various other forebrain regions. To study its potential role in the regulation of locomotor activity and other central funct...

  12. Acetylcholine Protects against Candida albicans Infection by Inhibiting Biofilm Formation and Promoting Hemocyte Function in a Galleria mellonella Infection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Borghi, Elisa; Falleni, Monica; Perdoni, Federica; Tosi, Delfina; Lappin, David F.; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Greetham, Darren; Ramage, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Both neuronal acetylcholine and nonneuronal acetylcholine have been demonstrated to modulate inflammatory responses. Studies investigating the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections have revealed contradictory findings with regard to disease outcome. At present, the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of fungal infections is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether acetylcholine plays a role in fungal biofilm formation and the pathogenesis of Candida albicans infection. The effect of acetylcholine on C. albicans biofilm formation and metabolism in vitro was assessed using a crystal violet assay and phenotypic microarray analysis. Its effect on the outcome of a C. albicans infection, fungal burden, and biofilm formation were investigated in vivo using a Galleria mellonella infection model. In addition, its effect on modulation of host immunity to C. albicans infection was also determined in vivo using hemocyte counts, cytospin analysis, larval histology, lysozyme assays, hemolytic assays, and real-time PCR. Acetylcholine was shown to have the ability to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, acetylcholine protected G. mellonella larvae from C. albicans infection mortality. The in vivo protection occurred through acetylcholine enhancing the function of hemocytes while at the same time inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation. Furthermore, acetylcholine also inhibited inflammation-induced damage to internal organs. This is the first demonstration of a role for acetylcholine in protection against fungal infections, in addition to being the first report that this molecule can inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. Therefore, acetylcholine has the capacity to modulate complex host-fungal interactions and plays a role in dictating the pathogenesis of fungal infections. PMID:26092919

  13. Septal and hippocampal glutamate receptors modulate the output of acetylcholine in hippocampus : A microdialysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, E; Auth, F; DeBoer, P; Westerink, BHC

    In the present study, glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists were administered by retrograde microdialysis into either the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band-(MS/vDB), or hippocampus, and the output of acetylcholine (ACh) was measured in the hippocampus by using intracerebral

  14. GABA receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites modulate hippocampal acetylcholine release in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, E; de Boer, P; Westerink, B.H.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, the regulation of acetylcholine release from the ventral hippocampus by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was investigated in vivo. GABA receptor agonists and antagonists were administered locally in the medial septum and the adjacent vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca,

  15. Cholinergic and GABAergic neurons in the rat medial septum express muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, E.A. van der; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the cellular distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the medial septum (MS), employing the monoclonal antibody M35 raised against purified mAChR-protein, mAChR-positive neurons are found throughout the MS, but are predominantly located in the midline area

  16. Immunocytochemical localization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat endocrine pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, E.A. van der; Buwalda, B.; Strubbe, J.H.; Strosberg, A.D.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    Immunocytochemical application of the antimuscarinic acetylcholine receptor antibody M35 to pancreas tissue revealed the target areas for the parasympathetic nervous system. Immunoreactivity in the endocrine pancreas was much higher than that in the exocrine part. Moreover, the endocrine cells at

  17. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Caitlin Alexis; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I

    2013-01-01

    ). In this study, we cloned two structurally related GPCRs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which, after expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, proved to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. One mAChR (the A-type; encoded by gene CG4356) is activated by acetylcholine (EC50, 5 × 10(-8) M...... by the antagonists. A- and B-type mAChRs were also cloned and functionally characterized from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Recently, Haga et al. (Nature 2012, 482: 547-551) published the crystal structure of the human m2 mAChR, revealing 14 amino acid residues forming the binding pocket for QNB......Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play a central role in the mammalian nervous system. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine, and blocked by a variety of antagonists. Mammals have five mAChRs (m1-m5...

  18. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of Erythrina alkaloid analogues as neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Jensen, Anders A.; Borch, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of a new series of Erythrina alkaloid analogues and their pharmacological characterization at various nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes are described. The compounds were designed to be simplified analogues of aromatic erythrinanes with the aim of obtaining subtype-sel...

  19. a2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Influence Hippocampus-Dependent Learning and Memory in Adolescent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Mojica, Celina; Nakauchi, Sakura; Lipovsek, Marcela; Silverstein, Sarah; Cushman, Jesse; Tirtorahardjo, James; Poulos, Andrew; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Sumikawa, Katumi; Fanselow, Michael S.; Boulter, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) GABAergic interneurons ablate the facilitation of nicotine-induced hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation and impair memory. The current study delineated whether genetic mutations of a2* nAChRs ("Chrna2"[superscript L9'S/L9'S] and…

  20. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Act in Synergy to Facilitate Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaderbrand, Katherine; Chen, Helen J.; Corcoran, Kevin A.; Guedea, Anita L.; Jovasevic, Vladimir; Wess, Jurgen; Radulovic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how episodic memories are formed and retrieved is necessary if we are to treat disorders in which they malfunction. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the hippocampus and cortex underlie memory formation, but there is conflicting evidence regarding their role in memory retrieval. Additionally, there is no consensus on…

  1. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of DHβE analogs as neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Tue H.; Jensen, Anders A.; Lund, Mads Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) is a member of the Erythrina family of alkaloids and a potent competitive antagonist of the α4β2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Guided by an X-ray structure of DHβE in complex with an ACh binding protein, we detail the design, synthesis...

  2. COLOCALIZATION OF MUSCARINIC ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTORS AND PROTEIN KINASE-C-GAMMA IN RAT PARIETAL CORTEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERZEE, EA; STROSBERG, AD; BOHUS, B; LUITEN, PGM

    The present investigation analyzes the cellular distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and the gamma isoform of protein kinase C (PKC) in the rat parietal cortex employing the monoclonal antibodies M35 and 36G9, respectively. Muscarinic cholinoceptive neurons were most present

  3. Coexistence of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Somatostatin in Nonpyramidal Neurons of the Rat Dorsal Hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, E.A. van der; Benoit, R.; Strosberg, A.D.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    This study describes the colocalization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and the neuropeptide somatostatin (SOM) in nonpyramidal neurons of the rat dorsal hippocampus. SOM and mAChRs were identified by immunocytochemistry employing antibody S309 and M35, respectively. Half of the

  4. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Variants Are Related to Smoking Habits, but Not Directly to COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budulac, Simona E.; Vonk, Judith M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Timens, Wim; Boezen, Marike H

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) cluster as a risk factor for nicotine dependency and COPD. We investigated whether SNPs in the nAChR cluster are associated with smoking habits and lung function

  5. Prostate stem cell antigen interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is affected in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majbrit Myrup; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Arvaniti, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving impaired cholinergic neurotransmission and dysregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Ly-6/neurotoxin (Lynx) proteins have been shown to modulate cognition and neural plasticity by binding to nAChR subtypes...

  6. Effects of the nootropic agents adafenoxate, meclofenoxate and the acetylcholine precursor citicholine on the brain muscarinic receptors (experiments on rats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, V D; Popova, J S

    1987-01-01

    The effect of adafenoxate (Af), meclofenoxate (Mf) and citicholine on the brain muscarinic receptors was studied in groups of ten male Wistar rats. The compounds were administered in doses of 50 mg/kg body weight twice daily for 7 days. One hour after the last treatment the animals were killed and the frontal cerebral cortex striatum, the hypothalamus and the hippocampus were removed immediately. Af and Mf were found to diminish significantly and to an analogous extent the density (Bmax) of the muscarinic receptors in the cerebral cortex, striatum and the hippocampus. At the same time, however, the greater decrease of Kd induced by these two nootropic agents, i.e. the increased affinity of the muscarinic binding sites, exceeded considerably the decreased number of the binding sites. These differences in the effects on Bmax and Kd suggest that the functional capacity of the cerebral cholinergic system increases under the action of Mf and Af. The surprising increase in the number of muscarinic receptors in the striatum, observed in citicholine-treated animals, is assumed to be due to the great increase of the dopamine content in this structure, induced by this acetylcholine precursor, observed in other experiments. This increase would result in reduced acetylcholine production by the inhibited cholinergic neurones, with a subsequent increase in the number of the muscarinic receptors.

  7. Differential role of ventral tegmental area acetylcholine and N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors in cocaine-seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Wojciech; Wickham, Robert J.; Behrens, Shay; Wang, Jie; Zwerling, Blake; Mason, Graeme F.; Addy, Nii A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Cues evoke burst firing of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons and phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Cholinergic and glutamatergic input to the VTA is suggested to gate phasic DA activity. However, the role of VTA cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in regulating phasic dopamine release and cue-induced drug-seeking in cocaine experienced subjects is not known. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, we found that VTA inactivation strongly inhibited, while VTA stimulation promoted, cocaine-seeking behavior during early withdrawal. Blockade of phasic activated D1 receptors in the NAc core also strongly inhibited cue-induced cocaine-seeking - suggesting an important role of phasic DA activity in the VTA to NAc core circuit. Next, we examined the role of VTA acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in regulating both NAc core phasic DA release and cue-induced cocaine-seeking. In cocaine naïve subjects, VTA infusion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antagonist mecamylamine, the muscarinic AChR antagonist scopolamine, or the NMDAR antagonist AP-5, led to robust attenuation of phasic DA release in the NAc core. During early cocaine withdrawal, VTA infusion of AP-5 had limited effects on NAc phasic DA release and cue-induced cocaine-seeking while VTA infusion of mecamylamine or scopolamine robustly inhibited both phasic DA release and cocaine-seeking. The results demonstrate that VTA AChRs, but not NMDARs, strongly regulate cue-induced cocaine-seeking and phasic DA release during early cocaine withdrawal. PMID:23850572

  8. Molecular mechanisms of acetylcholine receptor-lipid interactions: from model membranes to human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenziger, John E; daCosta, Corrie J B

    2013-03-01

    Lipids are potent modulators of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Lipids influence nicotinic receptor function by allosteric mechanisms, stabilizing varying proportions of pre-existing resting, open, desensitized, and uncoupled conformations. Recent structures reveal that lipids could alter function by modulating transmembrane α-helix/α-helix packing, which in turn could alter the conformation of the allosteric interface that links the agonist-binding and transmembrane pore domains-this interface is essential in the coupling of agonist binding to channel gating. We discuss potential mechanisms by which lipids stabilize different conformational states in the context of the hypothesis that lipid-nicotinic receptor interactions modulate receptor function at biological synapses.

  9. Calcium-dependent effect of the thymic polypeptide thymopoietin on the desensitization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revah, F.; Mulle, C.; Pinset, C.; Audhya, T.; Goldstein, G.; Changeux, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    The effects of the thymic polypeptide thymopoietin (Tpo) on the properties of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) were investigated by patch clamp techniques on mouse C/sub 2/ myotubes and by biochemical assays on AcChoR-rich membrane fragments purified from the Torpedo marmorata electric organ. At high concentrations (> 100 nM), Tpo inhibits the binding of cholinergic agonists to the AcChoR in a Ca/sup 2 +/-insensitive manner. At lower concentrations (2 nM), Tpo applied on C/sub 2/ myotubes simultaneously with nondesensitizing concentrations of acetylcholine results in the appearance of long closed times separating groups of openings. This effect depends on the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the external medium. Outside-out recordings, performed with various concentrations of EGTA in the intracellular medium, suggest that Ca/sup 2 +/ acts on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane after entry through acetylcholine-activated channels. Parallel studies with T. marmorata AcChoR-rich membranes show that in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ Tpo causes a decrease in the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of the noncompetitive blocker (/sup 3/H)phencyclidine, enhances, at low concentrations, the binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine, and also alters the binding kinetics of the fluorescent agonist 6-(5-dimethylamino-1-naphthalenesulfonamido)-n-hexanoic acid ..beta..-(N-trimethylammonium bromide) ethyl ester to the AcChoR. It was concluded that, in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/, Tpo displaces the conformational equilibrium of the AcChoR towards a high-affinity desensitized state and increases the transition rate towards the same state.

  10. Kinetics of agonist-induced intrinsic fluorescence changes in the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hideki; Raftery, Michael A

    2010-05-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo electric organs is a ligand-gated ion channel that undergoes conformational transitions for activation and/or desensitization. Earlier work suggested that intrinsic fluorescence changes of the receptor monitors kinetic transitions toward the high-affinity, desensitized state. Here, using highly purified membrane preparations to minimize contaminating fluorescence, we examined kinetic mechanisms of the receptor as monitored by its intrinsic fluorescence. Fluorescence changes were specific to the receptor as they were blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin and were induced by agonists, but not by the antagonist hexamethonium. Acetylcholine, carbamylcholine and suberyldicholine showed only one kinetic phase with relatively fast rates (t(1/2) = 0.2-1.2 s). Effective dissociation constants were at least an order of magnitude higher than the high affinity, equilibrium binding constants for these agonists. A semirigid agonist isoarecolone-methiodide, whose activation constant was approximately 3-fold lower than acetylcholine, induced an additional slow phase (t(1/2) = 4.5-9 s) with apparent rates that increased and then decreased in a concentration dependent manner, revealing a branched mechanism for conformational transitions. We propose that the intrinsic fluorescence changes of the receptor describe a process(es) toward a fast desensitization state prior to the formation of the high affinity state.

  11. Drug binding to the acetylcholine receptor: Nitroxide analogs of phencyclidine and a local anesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of noncompetitive inhibitors (NCIs) with Torpedo californica native nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) membranes was examined primarily by the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The goal of this work being to define some of the physical characteristics for the site(s) of association between an NCI and the nAChR membrane. A nitroxide labeled analog of a quaternary amine local anesthetic, 2-(N,N-dimethyl-N-4-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl)amino)-ethyl 4-hexyloxybenzoate iodide (C6SLMeI), displays a strongly immobilized EPR component when added to nAChR membranes in the presence of carbamylcholine (carb). To further this work, a nitroxide labeled analog of phencyclidine (PCP), a potent NCI, was synthesized. 4-phenyl-4-(1-piperidinyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (PPT) exhibited one-third the potency of PCP in inhibiting nAChR mediated ion flux, and from competition binding studies with ({sup 3}H)PCP displayed a K{sub D} of 0.21 {mu}M towards a carb desensitized nAChR and a K{sub 0.5} of 18 {mu}M for a resting {alpha}-bungarotoxin treated nAChR.

  12. Acetylcholine Attenuates Hypoxia/ Reoxygenation-Induced Mitochondrial and Cytosolic ROS Formation in H9c2 Cells via M2 Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Miao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anti-infammatory and cardioprotective effect of acetylcholine (ACh has been reported; nevertheless, whether and how ACh exhibits an antioxidant property against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced oxidative stress remains obscure. Methods: In the present study, H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R to mimic I/R injury. We estimated intracellular different sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS by measuring mitochondrial ROS (mtROS, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number, xanthine oxidase (XO and NADPH oxidase (NOX activity and expression of rac 1. Cell injury was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and cleaved caspase-3 expression. The siRNA transfection was performed to knockdown of M2 acetylcholine receptor (M2 AChR expression. Results: 12-h hypoxia followed by 2-h reoxygenation resulted in an abrupt burst of ROS in H9c2 cells. Administration of ACh reduced the levels of ROS in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to the H/R group, ACh decreased mtROS, recovered mtDNA copy number, diminished XO and NOX activity, rac 1 expression as well as cell injury. Co- treatment with atropine rather than hexamethonium abolished the antioxidant and cardioprotective effect of ACh. Moreover, knockdown of M2 AChR by siRNA showed the similar trends as atropine co-treatment group. Conclusions: ACh inhibits mitochondria-, XO- and NOX-derived ROS production thus protecting H9c2 cells against H/R-induced oxidative stress, and these benefcial effects are mainly mediated by M2 AChR. Our findings suggested that increasing ACh release could be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment and prevention of I/R injury.

  13. Discovery of novel N-substituted oxindoles as selective m1 and m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors partial agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Takaaki; Enomoto, Takeshi; Takai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoko; Konishi, Yasuko; Uruno, Yoshiharu; Tojo, Kengo; Suwa, Atsushi; Matsuda, Harumi; Nakako, Tomokazu; Sakai, Mutsuko; Kitamura, Atsushi; Uematsu, Yasuaki; Kiyoshi, Akihiko

    2013-02-14

    Activation of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors is thought to play an important role in improving the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, discovery of selective agonists for these receptors has been a challenge, considering the high sequence homology and conservation of the orthosteric acetylcholine binding site among muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. We report in this study the discovery of novel N-substituted oxindoles as potent muscarinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists selective for M1 and M4 over M2, M3, and M5. Among these oxindoles, compound 1 showed high selectivity for the M1 and M4 receptors with remarkable penetration into the central nervous system. Compound 1 reversed methamphetamine- and apomorphine-induced psychosis-like behaviors with low potency to extrapyramidical and peripheral side effects.

  14. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brann, M R; Ellis, J; Jørgensen, H

    1993-01-01

    Based on the sequence of the five cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1-m5), subtype selective antibody and cDNA probes have been prepared. Use of these probes has demonstrated that each of the five subtypes has a markedly distinct distribution within the brain and among peripheral tissues....... The distributions of these subtypes and their potential physiological roles are discussed. By use of molecular genetic manipulation of cloned muscarinic receptor cDNAs, the regions of muscarinic receptors that specify G-protein coupling and ligand binding have been defined in several recent studies. Overall...

  15. Crystal Structures of the M1 and M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, David M.; Sun, Bingfa; Feng, Dan; Nawaratne, Vindhya; Leach, Katie; Felder, Christian C.; Bures, Mark G.; Evans, David A.; Weis, William I.; Bachhawat, Priti; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Sexton, Patrick M.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Summary Muscarinic M1–M5 acetylcholine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that regulate many vital functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In particular, the M1 and M4 receptor subtypes have emerged as attractive drug targets for treatments of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, but the high conservation of the acetylcholine-binding pocket has spurred current research into targeting allosteric sites on these receptors. Here, we report the first crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors bound to the inverse agonist, tiotropium. Comparison of these structures to each other, as well as the previously reported M2 and M3 receptor structures, reveals differences in the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites that contribute to a role in drug selectivity at this important receptor family. We also report identification of a cluster of residues that form a network linking the orthosteric and allosteric sites of the M4 receptor, which provides new insight into how allosteric modulation may be transmitted between the two spatially distinct domains. PMID:26958838

  16. The function of cortactin in the clustering of acetylcholine receptors at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan Madhavan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postsynaptic enrichment of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ depends on the activation of the muscle receptor tyrosine MuSK by neural agrin. Agrin-stimulation of MuSK is known to initiate an intracellular signaling cascade that leads to the clustering of AChRs in an actin polymerization-dependent manner, but the molecular steps which link MuSK activation to AChR aggregation remain incompletely defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we used biochemical, cell biological and molecular assays to investigate a possible role in AChR clustering of cortactin, a protein which is a tyrosine kinase substrate and a regulator of F-actin assembly and which has also been previously localized at AChR clustering sites. We report that cortactin was co-enriched at AChR clusters in situ with its target the Arp2/3 complex, which is a key stimulator of actin polymerization in cells. Cortactin was further preferentially tyrosine phosphorylated at AChR clustering sites and treatment of myotubes with agrin significantly enhanced the tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin. Importantly, forced expression in myotubes of a tyrosine phosphorylation-defective cortactin mutant (but not wild-type cortactin suppressed agrin-dependent AChR clustering, as did the reduction of endogenous cortactin levels using RNA interference, and introduction of the mutant cortactin into muscle cells potently inhibited synaptic AChR aggregation in response to innervation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a novel function of phosphorylation-dependent cortactin signaling downstream from agrin/MuSK in facilitating AChR clustering at the developing NMJ.

  17. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Roskams, Tania [Department of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University of Leuven (Belgium); Oben, Jude A., E-mail: j.oben@ucl.ac.uk [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  18. Expression of a Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholine receptor-related gene in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, S.C.; Rosenthal, L.S.; Kammermeyer, K.L.; Potter, M.B.; Nelson, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    The authors isolated Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequences with nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology to subunits of vertebrate acetylcholine receptor by hybridization with a Torpedo acetylcholine receptor subunit cDNA probe. Five introns are present in the portion of the Drosophila gene encoding the unprocessed protein and are positionally conserved relative to the human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit gene. The Drosophila genomic clone hybridized to salivary gland polytene chromosome 3L within region 64B and was termed AChR64B. A 3-kilobasae poly(A)-containing transcript complementary to the AChR64B clone was readily detectable by RNA blot hybridizations during midembryogenesis, during metamorphosis, and in newly enclosed adults. AChR64B transcripts were localized to the cellular regions of the central nervous system during embryonic, larval, pupal, and adult stages of development. During metamorphosis, a temporal relationship between the morphogenesis of the optic lobe and expression of AChR64B transcripts was observed.

  19. The role of electrostatic interactions in governing anesthetic action on the torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Douglas E; Claycomb, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    Isoflurane and normal alkanols reduce the apparent agonist dissociation constant (Kd) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) at clinically relevant concentrations, whereas cyclopropane and butane do not. This suggests that electrostatic (hydrogen bonding and/or dipolar) interactions modulate anesthetic potency in this model receptor system. To further define the nature of these interactions, we quantified the potencies with which a heterologous group of general anesthetics reduces the nAChR's apparent Kd for acetylcholine. We assessed the importance that an anesthetic's molecular volume, ability to donate a hydrogen bond (hydrogen bond acidity), ability to accept a hydrogen bond (hydrogen bond basicity), and dipole moment play in determining aqueous potency. We found that aqueous anesthetic potency increases with molecular volume and decreases with hydrogen bond basicity but is unaffected by dipole moment and hydrogen bond acidity. These results suggest that anesthetics reduce the apparent agonist Kd of the nAChR by binding to a site that has a dipolarity and ability to accept hydrogen bonds that are similar to those of water, but a hydrogen bond-donating capacity that is less. Anesthetics representing a wide range of chemical classes reduce the apparent agonist dissociation constant of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with aqueous potencies that are governed by their molecular volumes and hydrogen bond basicities. However, neither their hydrogen bond acidities nor dipole moments influence aqueous potency.

  20. The interaction of l-cysteine/H2S pathway and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in mouse corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinoglu, Fatma; Dalkir, Fatma Tugce; Demirbag, Hatice Oruc; Ogulener, Nuran

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interaction of l-cysteine/H2S pathway and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the mouse corpus cavernosum (CC). l-cysteine (endogenous H2S substrate; 10-6-10-3 M), sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS; exogenous H2S; 10-6-10-3 M) and acetylcholine (10-9-10-4 M) produced concentration-dependent relaxation in isolated mouse CC tissues. Relaxations to endogenous and exogenous H2S were reduced by non-selective mAChR antagonist atropine (5 × 10-5 M), selective M1 mAChR antagonist pirenzepine (5 × 10-5 M) and selective M3 mAChR antagonist 4-DAMP (10-7 M) but not by selective M2 mAChR antagonist AF-DX 116 (10-6 M). Also, acetylcholine-induced relaxations were reduced by atropine, pirenzepine, 4-DAMP and AF-DX 116, confirming the selective effects of mAChR antagonists. Furthermore, acetylcholine-induced relaxations were attenuated by cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) inhibitor d,l-propargylglycine (PAG, 10-2 M) and cystathionine-β-synthase inhibitor (CBS) aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, 10-3 M). l-nitroarginine, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, augmented the inhibitory effects of mAChR antagonists and H2S enzyme inhibitors on acetylcholine-induced relaxations. In addition, the existence and localization of CSE, CBS and 3-MST were demonstrated in mouse CC. Furthermore, tissue acetylcholine release was significantly increased by l-cysteine but not by exogenous H2S. The increase in acetylcholine level was completely inhibited by AOAA and PAG. These results suggest that M1 and M3 mAChRs contributes to relaxant effect mediated by endogenous H2S but at same time l-cysteine triggers acetylcholine release from cavernosal tissue. Also, the role of NO in the interaction of l-cysteine/H2S pathway and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) could not be excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural Compounds Interacting with Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Low-Molecular Weight Ones to Peptides and Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kudryavtsev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt, and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds.

  2. Functional analysis of Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in multiple activation states by SSM-based electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, K V; Muschik, S; Langguth, F; Rappenglück, S; Seeger, T; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2016-04-15

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPC), i.e. nerve agents or pesticides, are highly toxic due to their strong inhibition potency against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Inhibited AChE results in accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and thus the desensitisation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the postsynaptic membrane is provoked. Direct targeting of nAChR to reduce receptor desensitisation might be an alternative therapeutic approach. For drug discovery, functional properties of potent therapeutic candidates need to be investigated in addition to affinity properties. Solid supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology is useful for functional characterisation of ligand-gated ion channels like nAChRs, as charge translocations via capacitive coupling of the supporting membrane can be measured. By varying the agonist (carbamoylcholine) concentration, different functional states of the nAChR were initiated. Using plasma membrane preparations obtained from Torpedo californica electric organ, functional properties of selected nAChR ligands and non-oxime bispyridinium compounds were investigated. Depending on overall-size, the bispyridinium compounds enhanced or inhibited cholinergic signals induced by 100 μM carbamoylcholine. Applying excessive concentrations of the agonist carbamoylcholine provoked desensitisation of the nAChRs, whereas addition of bispyridinium compounds bearing short alkyl linkers exhibited functional recovery of previously desensitised nAChRs. The results suggest that these non-oxime bispyridinium compounds possibly interacted with nAChR subtypes in a manner of a positive allosteric modulator (PAM). The described newly developed functional assay is a valuable tool for the assessment of functional properties of potential compounds such as nAChR modulating ligands, which might be a promising approach in the therapeutically treatment of OPC-poisonings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interaction of alpha-conotoxin ImII and its analogs with nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins: additional binding sites on Torpedo receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasheverov, I.E.; Zhmak, M.N.; Fish, A.; Rucktooa, P.; Khruschov, A.Y.; Osipov, A.V.; Ziganshin, R.H.; D'Hoedt, D.; Bertrand, D.; Sixma, T.K.; Smit, A.B.; Tsetlin, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    α-Conotoxins interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) at the sites for agonists/competitive antagonists. α-Conotoxins blocking muscle-type or α7 nAChRs compete with α-bungarotoxin. However, α-conotoxin ImII, a close homolog of the α7

  4. Heteromeric α7β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Qiang; Tang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is highly expressed in the brain, where it maintains various neuronal functions including (but not limited to) learning and memory. In addition, the protein expression levels of α7 nAChRs are altered in various brain disorders. The classic rule...... governing α7 nAChR assembly in the mammalian brain was that it was assembled from five α7 subunits to form a homomeric receptor pentamer. However, emerging evidence demonstrates the presence of heteromeric α7 nAChRs in heterologously expressed systems and naturally in brain neurons, where α7 subunits are co...

  5. Identification of Propofol Binding Sites in a Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor with a Photoreactive Propofol Analog*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakar, Selwyn S.; Dailey, William P.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Propofol, a widely used intravenous general anesthetic, acts at anesthetic concentrations as a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and at higher concentration as an inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we characterize propofol binding sites in a muscle-type nAChR by use of a photoreactive analog of propofol, 2-isopropyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenol (AziPm). Based upon radioligand binding assays, AziPm stabilized the Torpedo nAChR in the resting state, whereas propofol stabilized the desensitized state. nAChR-rich membranes were photolabeled with [3H]AziPm, and labeled amino acids were identified by Edman degradation. [3H]AziPm binds at three sites within the nAChR transmembrane domain: (i) an intrasubunit site in the δ subunit helix bundle, photolabeling in the nAChR desensitized state (+agonist) δM2-18′ and two residues in δM1 (δPhe-232 and δCys-236); (ii) in the ion channel, photolabeling in the nAChR resting, closed channel state (−agonist) amino acids in the M2 helices (αM2-6′, βM2-6′ and -13′, and δM2-13′) that line the channel lumen (with photolabeling reduced by >90% in the desensitized state); and (iii) at the γ-α interface, photolabeling αM2-10′. Propofol enhanced [3H]AziPm photolabeling at αM2-10′. Propofol inhibited [3H]AziPm photolabeling within the δ subunit helix bundle at lower concentrations (IC50 = 40 μm) than it inhibited ion channel photolabeling (IC50 = 125 μm). These results identify for the first time a single intrasubunit propofol binding site in the nAChR transmembrane domain and suggest that this is the functionally relevant inhibitory binding site. PMID:23300078

  6. Structural characterization of the main immunogenic region of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Stuart W; Trinh, Vu B; Gudipati, Eswari; Friend, Alexander; Page, Nelson A; Agius, Mark A; Richman, David P; Fairclough, Robert H

    2014-03-01

    To develop antigen-specific immunotherapies for autoimmune diseases, knowledge of the molecular structure of targeted immunological hotspots will guide the production of reagents to inhibit and halt production of antigen specific attack agents. To this end we have identified three noncontiguous segments of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) α-subunit that contribute to the conformationally sensitive immunological hotspot on the AChR termed the main immunogenic region (MIR): α(1-12), α(65-79), and α(110-115). This region is the target of greater than 50% of the anti-AChR Abs in serum from patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and animals with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised in one species against an electric organ AChR cross react with the neuromuscular AChR MIR in several species. Probing the Torpedo AChR α-subunit with mAb 132A, a disease inducing anti-MIR mAb raised against the Torpedo AChR, we have determined that two of the three MIR segments, α(1-12) and α(65-79), form a complex providing the signature components recognized by mAb 132A. These two segments straddle a third, α(110-115), that seems not to contribute specific side chains for 132A recognition, but is necessary for optimum antibody binding. This third segment appears to form a foundation upon which the three-dimensional 132A epitope is anchored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pemphigus vulgaris antibodies target the mitochondrial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that protect keratinocytes from apoptolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyavsky, Alex; Chen, Yumay; Wang, Ping H; Grando, Sergei A

    2015-11-01

    The mechanism of detachment and death of keratinocytes in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) involves pro-apoptotic action of constellations of autoantibodies determining disease severity and response to treatment. The presence of antibodies to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and the therapeutic efficacy of cholinomimetics in PV is well-established. Recently, adsorption of anti-mitochondrial antibodies abolished the ability of PVIgGs to cause acantholysis, demonstrating their pathophysiological significance. Since, in addition to cell membrane, nAChRs are also present on the mitochondrial outer membrane, wherein they act to prevent activation of intrinsic (mitochondrial apoptosis), we hypothesized that mitochondrial (mt)-nAChRs might be targeted by PVIgGs. To test this hypothesis, we employed the immunoprecipitation-western blot assay of keratinocyte mitochondrial proteins that visualized the α3, α5, α7, α9, α10, β2 and β4 mt-nAChR subunits precipitated by PV IgGs, suggesting that functions of mt-nAChRs are compromised in PV. To pharmacologically counteract the pro-apoptotic action of anti-mitochondrial antibodies in PV, we exposed naked keratinocyte mitochondria to PVIgGs in the presence of the nicotinic agonist nicotine ± antagonists, and measured cytochrome c (CytC) release. Nicotine abolished PVIgG-dependent CytC release, showing a dose-dependent effect, suggesting that protection of mitochondria can be a novel mechanism of therapeutic action of nicotinic agonists in PV. The obtained results indicated that the mt-nAChRs targeted by anti-mitochondrial antibodies produced by PV patients are coupled to inhibition of CytC release, and that nicotinergic stimulation can abolish PVIgG-dependent activation of intrinsic apoptosis in KCs. Future studies should determine if and how the distinct anti-mt-nAChR antibodies penetrate KCs and correlate with disease severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional Characterization of CCHamide and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signalling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guilin Robin

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large and ancient superfamily of membraneproteins responsible for the transduction of extracellular signals to the inside of the cells. In thisPh.D. thesis, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) was used as a model organism to investigate a numberof topics...... is a newly discovered insect peptide hormone. The function of this novel peptide hasnot been well characterised. In this Ph.D. thesis, I identified CCHamide-2 peptides in endocrinecells of the gut and neurones of the brain of larvae and endocrine cells of the gut of adultDrosophila. Behavioural assays...... little is known about muscarinic acetylcholine receptorsignalling in insects. In this study, I found that two types of mAChRs occur in D. melanogaster, onecoupling to Gq (A-type) and the other to Gi (B-type). Both A- and B-type Dm-mAChRs can beactivated by acetylcholine (ACh), but the classical...

  9. Multiple transmembrane binding sites for p-trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-etomidate, a photoreactive Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Stewart, Deirdre S; Husain, S Shaukat; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2011-06-10

    Photoreactive derivatives of the general anesthetic etomidate have been developed to identify their binding sites in γ-aminobutyric acid, type A and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. One such drug, [(3)H]TDBzl-etomidate (4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzyl-[(3)H]1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate), acts as a positive allosteric potentiator of Torpedo nACh receptor (nAChR) and binds to a novel site in the transmembrane domain at the γ-α subunit interface. To extend our understanding of the locations of allosteric modulator binding sites in the nAChR, we now characterize the interactions of a second aryl diazirine etomidate derivative, TFD-etomidate (ethyl-1-(1-(4-(3-trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate). TFD-etomidate inhibited acetylcholine-induced currents with an IC(50) = 4 μM, whereas it inhibited the binding of [(3)H]phencyclidine to the Torpedo nAChR ion channel in the resting and desensitized states with IC(50) values of 2.5 and 0.7 mm, respectively. Similar to [(3)H]TDBzl-etomidate, [(3)H]TFD-etomidate bound to a site at the γ-α subunit interface, photolabeling αM2-10 (αSer-252) and γMet-295 and γMet-299 within γM3, and to a site in the ion channel, photolabeling amino acids within each subunit M2 helix that line the lumen of the ion channel. In addition, [(3)H]TFD-etomidate photolabeled in an agonist-dependent manner amino acids within the δ subunit M2-M3 loop (δIle-288) and the δ subunit transmembrane helix bundle (δPhe-232 and δCys-236 within δM1). The fact that TFD-etomidate does not compete with ion channel blockers at concentrations that inhibit acetylcholine responses indicates that binding to sites at the γ-α subunit interface and/or within δ subunit helix bundle mediates the TFD-etomidate inhibitory effect. These results also suggest that the γ-α subunit interface is a binding site for Torpedo nAChR negative allosteric modulators (TFD-etomidate) and for positive

  10. Multiple Transmembrane Binding Sites for p-Trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-etomidate, a Photoreactive Torpedo Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Allosteric Inhibitor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ayman K.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Husain, S. Shaukat; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    Photoreactive derivatives of the general anesthetic etomidate have been developed to identify their binding sites in γ-aminobutyric acid, type A and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. One such drug, [3H]TDBzl-etomidate (4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzyl-[3H]1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate), acts as a positive allosteric potentiator of Torpedo nACh receptor (nAChR) and binds to a novel site in the transmembrane domain at the γ-α subunit interface. To extend our understanding of the locations of allosteric modulator binding sites in the nAChR, we now characterize the interactions of a second aryl diazirine etomidate derivative, TFD-etomidate (ethyl-1-(1-(4-(3-trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate). TFD-etomidate inhibited acetylcholine-induced currents with an IC50 = 4 μm, whereas it inhibited the binding of [3H]phencyclidine to the Torpedo nAChR ion channel in the resting and desensitized states with IC50 values of 2.5 and 0.7 mm, respectively. Similar to [3H]TDBzl-etomidate, [3H]TFD-etomidate bound to a site at the γ-α subunit interface, photolabeling αM2-10 (αSer-252) and γMet-295 and γMet-299 within γM3, and to a site in the ion channel, photolabeling amino acids within each subunit M2 helix that line the lumen of the ion channel. In addition, [3H]TFD-etomidate photolabeled in an agonist-dependent manner amino acids within the δ subunit M2-M3 loop (δIle-288) and the δ subunit transmembrane helix bundle (δPhe-232 and δCys-236 within δM1). The fact that TFD-etomidate does not compete with ion channel blockers at concentrations that inhibit acetylcholine responses indicates that binding to sites at the γ-α subunit interface and/or within δ subunit helix bundle mediates the TFD-etomidate inhibitory effect. These results also suggest that the γ-α subunit interface is a binding site for Torpedo nAChR negative allosteric modulators (TFD-etomidate) and for positive modulators (TDBzl

  11. Mice Lacking the Alpha9 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Exhibit Deficits in Frequency Difference Limens and Sound Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clause

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound processing in the cochlea is modulated by cholinergic efferent axons arising from medial olivocochlear neurons in the brainstem. These axons contact outer hair cells in the mature cochlea and inner hair cells during development and activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors composed of α9 and α10 subunits. The α9 subunit is necessary for mediating the effects of acetylcholine on hair cells as genetic deletion of the α9 subunit results in functional cholinergic de-efferentation of the cochlea. Cholinergic modulation of spontaneous cochlear activity before hearing onset is important for the maturation of central auditory circuits. In α9KO mice, the developmental refinement of inhibitory afferents to the lateral superior olive is disturbed, resulting in decreased tonotopic organization of this sound localization nucleus. In this study, we used behavioral tests to investigate whether the circuit anomalies in α9KO mice correlate with sound localization or sound frequency processing. Using a conditioned lick suppression task to measure sound localization, we found that three out of four α9KO mice showed impaired minimum audible angles. Using a prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response paradigm, we found that the ability of α9KO mice to detect sound frequency changes was impaired, whereas their ability to detect sound intensity changes was not. These results demonstrate that cholinergic, nicotinic α9 subunit mediated transmission in the developing cochlear plays an important role in the maturation of hearing.

  12. Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict T. Green

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiperidinyl analog anabaseine, to activate and desensitize peripheral nAChRs expressed in TE-671 and SH-SY5Y cells. Activation-concentration response curves for each alkaloid were obtained in the same multi-well plate. To measure rapid desensitization, cells were first exposed to five potentially-desensitizing concentrations of each alkaloid in log10 molar increments from 10 nM to 100 µM and then to a fixed concentration of acetylcholine (ACh, which alone produces near-maximal activation. The fifty percent desensitization concentration (DC50 was calculated from the alkaloid concentration-ACh response curve. Agonist fast desensitization potency was predicted by the agonist potency measured in the initial response. Anabaseine was a more potent desensitizer than anabasine. Relative to anabaseine, nicotine was more potent to autonomic nAChRs, but less potent to the fetal neuromuscular nAChRs. Our experiments have demonstrated that anabaseine is more effective at desensitizing fetal muscle-type nAChRs than anabasine or nicotine and, thus, it is predicted to be more teratogenic.

  13. Acetylcholine stimulation of human neutrophil chemotactic activity is directly inhibited by tiotropium involving Gq and ERK-1/2 regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurai M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiotropium, a long-acting anticholinergic, may improve chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD by mechanisms beyond bronchodilatation. We tested the hypothesis that tiotropium may act as an anti-inflammatory mediator by directly acting on and inhibiting human neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA that is promoted by acetylcholine (ACh exposure. ACh treatment increased NCA in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.001 and tiotropium pretreatment reduced ACh stimulation (dose effect; 0 to 1000 nM; p < 0.001. Selective muscarinic receptor inhibitors demonstrated that subtype-3 (M3 receptor plays a role in NCA regulation. In addition, NCA that was stimulated by cevimeline (M3 agonist and pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT, M3 coupled Gq agonist. However, the increased NCA to cevimeline and PMT was reduced by tiotropium pretreatment (p < 0.001. ACh treatment stimulated ERK-1/2 activation by promoting protein phosphorylation and tiotropium reduced this effect (p < 0.01. In addition, pretreatment of the cells with a specific MEK-1/2 kinase inhibitor reduced ACh stimulated NCA (p < 0.01. Together these results demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation of NCA is effectively inhibited by tiotropium and is governed by a mechanism involving M3 coupled Gq signaling and downstream ERK signaling. This study further demonstrates that tiotropium may act as an anti-inflammatory agent in lung disease.

  14. Partial neuromuscular blockade in humans enhances muscle blood flow during exercise independently of muscle oxygen uptake and acetylcholine receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Krustrup, Peter; Iaia, F Marcello

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one-legged k......This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one....... The enhanced exercise hyperemia during partial neuromuscular blockade may be related to a greater recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibres. Key words: blood flow, neuromuscular blockade, exercise, skeletal muscle....

  15. Amino acids of the Torpedo marmorata acetylcholine receptor. cap alpha. subunit labeled by a photoaffinity ligand for the acetylcholine binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, M.; Giraudat, J.; Kotzyba-Hibert, F.; Goeldner, M.; Hirth, C.; Chang, J.Y.; Lazure, C.; Chretien, M.; Changeux, J.P.

    1988-04-05

    The acetylcholine-binding sites on the native, membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata were covalently labeled with the photoaffinity reagent (/sup 3/H)-p-(dimethylamino)-benzenediazonium fluoroborate (DDF) in the presence of phencyclidine by employing an energy-transfer photolysis procedure. The ..cap alpha..-chains isolated from receptor-rich membranes photolabeled in the absence or presence of carbamoylcholine were cleaved with CNBr and the radiolabeled fragments purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Amino acid and/or sequence analysis demonstrated that the ..cap alpha..-chain residues Trp-149, Tyr-190, Cys-192, and Cys-193 and an unidentified residue(s) in the segment ..cap alpha.. 31-105 were all labeled by the photoaffinity reagent in an agonist-protectable manner. The labeled amino acids are located within three distinct regions of the large amino-terminal hydrophilic domain of the ..cap alpha..-subunit primary structure and plausibly lie in proximity to one another at the level of the acetylcholine-binding sites in the native receptor. These findings are in accord with models proposed for the transmembrane topology of the ..cap alpha..-chain that assign the amino-terminal segment ..cap alpha.. 1-210 to the synaptic cleft. Furthermore, the results suggest that the four identified (/sup 3/H)DDF-labeled resides, which are conserved in muscle and neuronal ..cap alpha..-chains but not in the other subunits, may be directly involved in agonist binding.

  16. Selective effect of the anthelmintic bephenium on Haemonchus contortus levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Claude L; Robertson, Alan P; Cabaret, Jacques; Martin, Richard J; Neveu, Cédric

    2012-06-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in the neurotransmission of both vertebrates and invertebrates. A number of anthelmintic compounds like levamisole and pyrantel target the AChRs of nematodes producing spastic paralysis of the worms. The muscle AChRs of nematode parasites fall into three pharmacological classes that are preferentially activated by the cholinergic agonists levamisole (L-type), nicotine (N-type) and bephenium (B-type), respectively. Despite a number of studies of the B-type AChR in parasitic species, this receptor remains to be characterized at the molecular level. Recently, we have reconstituted and functionally characterized two distinct L-AChR subtypes of the gastro-intestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system by providing the cRNAs encoding the receptor subunits and three ancillary proteins (Boulin et al. in Br J Pharmacol 164(5):1421-1432, 2011). In the present study, the effect of the bephenium drug on Hco-L-AChR1 and Hco-L-AChR2 subtypes was examined using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. We demonstrate that bephenium selectively activates the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype made of Hco-UNC-29.1, Hco-UNC-38, Hco-UNC-63, Hco-ACR-8 subunits that is more sensitive to levamisole than acetylcholine. Removing the Hco-ACR-8 subunit produced the Hco-L-AChR2 subtype that is more sensitive to pyrantel than acetylcholine and partially activated by levamisole, but which was bephenium-insensitive indicating that the bephenium-binding site involves Hco-ACR-8. Attempts were made to modify the subunit stoichiometry of the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype by injecting five fold more cRNA of individual subunits. Increased Hco-unc-29.1 cRNA produced no functional receptor. Increasing Hco-unc-63, Hco-unc-38 or Hco-acr-8 cRNAs did not affect the pharmacological characteristics of Hco-L-AChR1 but reduced the currents elicited by acetylcholine and the other agonists. Here, we

  17. Selective effect of the anthelmintic bephenium on Haemonchus contortus levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Claude L.; Robertson, Alan P.; Cabaret, Jacques; Martin, Richard J.; Neveu, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in the neurotransmission of both vertebrates and invertebrates. A number of anthelmintic compounds like levamisole and pyrantel target the AChRs of nematodes producing spastic paralysis of the worms. The muscle AChRs of nematode parasites fall into three pharmacological classes that are preferentially activated by the cholinergic agonists levamisole (L-type), nicotine (N-type) and bephenium (B-type), respectively. Despite a number of studies of the B-type AChR in parasitic species, this receptor remains to be characterized at the molecular level. Recently, we have reconstituted and functionally characterized two distinct L-AChR subtypes of the gastro-intestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system by providing the cRNAs encoding the receptor subunits and three ancillary proteins (Boulin et al. in Br J Pharmacol 164(5):1421–1432, 2011). In the present study, the effect of the bephenium drug on Hco-L-AChR1 and Hco-L-AChR2 subtypes was examined using the two microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. We demonstrate that bephenium selectively activates the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype made of Hco-UNC-29.1, Hco-UNC-38, Hco-UNC-63, Hco-ACR-8 subunits that is more sensitive to levamisole than acetylcholine. Removing the Hco-ACR-8 subunit produced the Hco-L-AChR2 subtype that is more sensitive to pyrantel than acetylcholine and partially activated by levamisole, but which was bephenium-insensitive indicating that the bephenium-binding site involves Hco-ACR-8. Attempts were made to modify the subunit stoichiometry of the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype by injecting five fold more cRNA of individual subunits. Increased Hco-unc-29.1 cRNA produced no functional receptor. Increasing Hco-unc-63, Hco-unc-38 or Hco-acr-8 cRNAs did not affect the pharmacological characteristics of Hco-L-AChR1 but reduced the currents elicited by acetylcholine and the other agonists. Here

  18. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  19. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion. PMID:15251036

  20. Probing the structure of the affinity-purified and lipid-reconstituted torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Chiara, David C; Blanton, Michael P; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2008-12-02

    The Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the only member of the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) that is available in high abundance in a native membrane preparation. To study the structure of the other LGICs using biochemical and biophysical techniques, detergent solubilization, purification, and lipid reconstitution are usually required. To assess the effects of purification on receptor structure, we used the hydrophobic photoreactive probe 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-[(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([(125)I]TID) to compare the state-dependent photolabeling of the Torpedo nAChR before and after purification and reincorporation into lipid. For the purified nAChR, the agonist-sensitive photolabeling within the M2 ion channel domain of positions M2-6, M2-9, and M2-13, the agonist-enhanced labeling of deltaThr274 (deltaM2-18) within the delta subunit helix bundle, and the labeling at the lipid-protein interface (alphaMu4) were the same as for the nAChR in native membranes. However, addition of agonist did not enhance [(125)I]TID photolabeling of deltaIle288 within the deltaM2-M3 loop. These results indicate that after purification and reconstitution of the Torpedo nAChR, the difference in structure between the resting and desensitized states within the M2 ion channel domain was preserved, but not the agonist-dependent change of structure of the deltaM2-M3 loop. To further characterize the pharmacology of [(125)I]TID binding sites in the nAChR in the desensitized state, we examined the effect of phencyclidine (PCP) on [(125)I]TID photolabeling. PCP inhibited [(125)I]TID labeling of amino acids at the cytoplasmic end of the ion channel (M2-2 and M2-6) while potentiating labeling at M2-9 and M2-13 and allosterically modulating the labeling of amino acids within the delta subunit helix bundle.

  1. High expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 predicts poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lingfu Zhang,1 Dianrong Xiu,1 Jun Zhan,2,3 Xiaokun He,3 Limei Guo,4,5 Jilian Wang,1 Ming Tao,1 Wei Fu,1 Hongquan Zhang2,3 1Department of General Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, 2Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, 3Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Tumor Biology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, 4Department of Pathology, Peking University Health Science Center, 5Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Aims: Recent studies showed that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (M3, as a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family member that plays an important role in normal physiological function, is engaged in cancer progression. However, the role of M3 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression and prognostic value of M3 in patients with PDAC.Materials and methods: The localization and expression of M3 in PDAC were examined by immunohistochemistry. VAChT was employed to detect parasympathetic nerve fibers in the corresponding M3 PDAC tissues. The correlation between M3 expression and patients’ survival was assessed by Kaplan–Meier analysis.Results: M3 was discovered predominantly localized in the cell cytoplasm and expressed in all specimens of PDAC patients. Significant correlation was noted between increased M3 intensity and high grade of PDAC (P<0.01, more lymph node metastasis (P<0.01 as well as shorter patient overall survival (P<0.01. Morphologically, cells with high M3 expression were more frequently located at the invasive tumor front/tumor budding cells, metastatic lymph nodes and parasympathetic nerve fibers.Conclusion: High expression of M3 is a prognostic marker for PDAC. Keywords: PDAC, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3, M3, tumor budding, parasympathetic nerve fiber, prognosis

  2. Effects of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Muzaffar; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2016-07-15

    Evidence indicates that microglial activation contributes to the pathophysiology and maintenance of neuroinflammatory pain involving central nervous system alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of 3a,4,5,9b-Tetrahydro-4-(1-naphthalenyl)-3H-cyclopentan[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide (TQS), an alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM), on tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation in hippocampus, a neuroinflammatory pain model in mice. In addition, we examined the effects of TQS on microglial activation marker, an ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), in the hippocampus may be associated with neuroinflammatory pain. Pretreatment of TQS (4mg/kg) significantly reduced LPS (1mg/kg)-induced tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Moreover, pretreatment of methyllycaconitine (3mg/kg) significantly reversed TQS-induced antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic responses indicating the involvement of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pretreatment of TQS significantly decreased LPS-induced increased in hippocampal Iba-1 expression. Overall, these results suggest that TQS reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammatory pain like symptoms via modulating microglial activation likely in the hippocampus and/or other brain region by targeting alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Therefore, alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PAM such as TQS could be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of neuroinflammatory pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [[sup 3]H]imidacloprid: synthesis of a candidate radioligand for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latli, B.; Casida, J.E. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Entomological Sciences)

    1992-08-01

    Imidacloprid is an exceptionally potent insecticide known from physiological studies to act at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. To prepare [[sup 3]H]imidacloprid as a candidate radioligand, 6-chloronicotinoyl chloride was reduced with NaB[sup 2]H[sub 4] (in model studies) or NaB[sup 3]H[sub 4] in absolute ethanol to 2-chloro-5-pyridinylmethanol which was transformed to 2-chloro-5-chloromethylpyridine on refluxing with thionyl chloride. Coupling with 4,5-dihydro-N-nitro-1H-imidazol-2-amine then gave [[sup 2]H[sub 2

  4. Some properties of human neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors fused to the green fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Eleonora; Mileo, Anna M.; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Eusebi, Fabrizio; Miledi, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    The functional properties and cellular localization of the human neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (AcCho) receptor (α7 AcChoR) and its L248T mutated (mut) form were investigated by expressing them alone or as gene fusions with the enhanced version of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Xenopus oocytes injected with wild-type (wt), mutα7, or the chimeric subunit cDNAs expressed receptors that gated membrane currents when exposed to AcCho. As already known, AcCho currents generated by wtα7 receptors decay much faster than those elicited by the mutα7 receptors. Unexpectedly, the fusion of GFP to the wt and mutated α7 receptors led to opposite results: the AcCho-current decay of the wt receptors became slower, whereas that of the mutated receptors was accelerated. Furthermore, repetitive applications of AcCho led to a considerable “run-down” of the AcCho currents generated by mutα7-GFP receptors, whereas those of the wtα7-GFP receptors remained stable or increased in amplitude. The AcCho-current run-down of mutα7-GFP oocytes was accompanied by a marked decrease of α-bungarotoxin binding activity. Fluorescence, caused by the chimeric receptors expressed, was seen over the whole oocyte surface but was more intense and abundant in the animal hemisphere, whereas it was much weaker in the vegetal hemisphere. We conclude that fusion of GFP to wtα7 and mutα7 receptors provides powerful tools to study the distribution and function of α7 receptors. We also conclude that fused genes do not necessarily recapitulate all of the properties of the original receptors. This fact must be borne close in mind whenever reporter genes are attached to proteins. PMID:11891308

  5. Enhanced self-administration of alcohol in muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor knockout mice.

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    de la Cour, Cecilie; Sørensen, Gunnar; Wortwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Molander, Anna

    2015-01-05

    Modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is known to alter alcohol-drinking behavior. It is not known if muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes have similar effects. The muscarinic M4 receptor is highly expressed in the brain reinforcement system and involved in regulation of cholinergic and dopaminergic transmission. Here we investigate, for the first time, the role of the M4 receptor in alcohol consumption using M4 knockout (M4(-/-)) and wild-type (M4(+/+)) mice. Experimentally naïve M4(-/-) and M4(+/+) mice were trained to orally self-administer 5%, 8% and 10% alcohol in 60min sessions, 6 days/week, after having undergone a standard sucrose fading training procedure on a fixed ratio schedule. The mice were further subjected to an extinction period followed by a 1 day reinstatement trial. M4(-/-) mice consumed more alcohol at 5% and 8% compared to their M4(+/+) littermates. The highest alcohol concentration used (10%) did not immediately result in divergent drinking patterns, but after 4 weeks of 10% alcohol self-administration, baseline levels as well as a pattern of M4(-/-) mice consuming more alcohol than their M4(+/+) controls were re-established. Moreover, the M4(-/-) mice displayed a reduced capacity to extinguish their alcohol-seeking behavior. Taken together, alcohol consumption is elevated in M4(-/-) mice, indicating that the M4 receptor is involved in mediating the reinforcing effects of alcohol. The M4 receptor should be further explored as a potential target for pharmacological (positive allosteric modulators or future agonists) treatment of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: A mediator of pathogenesis and therapeutic target in autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Stephen I; Burket, Jessica A; Urbano, Maria R; Benson, Andrew D

    2015-10-15

    Currently, there are no medications that target core deficits of social communication and restrictive, repetitive patterns of behavior in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Adults with Down syndrome (DS) display a progressive worsening of adaptive functioning, which is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like histopathological changes in brain. Similar to persons with ASDs, there are no effective medication strategies to prevent or retard the progressive worsening of adaptive functions in adults with DS. Data suggest that the α7-subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is implicated in the pathophysiology and serves as a promising therapeutic target of these disorders. In DS, production of the amyloidogenic Aβ1-42 peptide is increased and binds to the α7nAChR or the lipid milieu associated with this receptor, causing a cascade that results in cytotoxicity and deposition of amyloid plaques. Independently of their ability to inhibit the complexing of Aβ1-42 with the α7nAChR, α7nAChR agonists and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) also possess procognitive and neuroprotective effects in relevant in vivo and in vitro models. The procognitive and neuroprotective effects of α7nAChR agonist interventions may be due, at least in part, to stimulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade, cross-talk with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade and both transcriptional and non-transcriptional effects of β-catenin, and effects of transiently increased intraneuronal concentrations of Ca(2+) on metabolism and the membrane potential. Importantly, α7nAChR PAMs are particularly attractive medication candidates because they lack intrinsic efficacy and act only when and where endogenous acetylcholine is released or choline is generated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Conversion of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M5 to Muscarinic Toxin 7 (MT7-Binding Protein

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    Katja Näreoja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic toxin 7 (MT7 is a mamba venom peptide that binds selectively to the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. We have previously shown that the second (ECL2 and third (ECL3 extracellular loops of the M1 receptor are critically involved in binding the peptide. In this study we used a mutagenesis approach on the M5 subtype of the receptor family to find out if this possesses a similar structural architecture in terms of toxin binding as the M1 receptor. An M5 receptor construct (M5-E175Y184E474, mutated at the formerly deciphered critical residues on ECL2 and 3, gained the ability to bind MT7, but with rather low affinity as determined in a functional assay (apparent Ki = 24 nM; apparent Ki for M1 = 0.5 nM. After screening for different domains and residues, we found a specific residue (P179 to L in M5 in the middle portion of ECL2 that was necessary for high affinity binding of MT7 (M5-EL179YE, apparent Ki = 0.5 nM. Mutation of P179 to A confirmed a role for the leucine side chain in the binding of MT7. Together the results reveal new binding interactions between receptors and the MT7 peptide and strengthen the hypothesis that ECL2 sequence is of utmost importance for MT binding to muscarinic receptors.

  8. Expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on human B-lymphoma cells

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    Skok M. V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find a correlation between the level of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR expression and B lymphocyte differentiation or activation state. Methods. Expression of nAChRs in the REH, Ramos and Daudi cell lines was studied by flow cytometry using nAChR subunit-specific antibodies; cell proliferation was studied by MTT test. Results. It is shown that the level of 42/4 and 7 nAChRs expression increased along with B lymphocyte differentiation (Ramos > REH and activation (Daudi > > Ramos and depended on the antigen-specific receptor expression. The nAChR stimulation/blockade did not influence the intensity of cell proliferation.

  9. Acetylcholine Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Intracellular Calcium Dyshomeostasis Through Both Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors in Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Palee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Oxidative stress induced intracellular Ca2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several heart diseases. Acetylcholine (ACh has been shown to suppress reactive oxygen species generation during oxidative stress. However, there is little information regarding the effects of ACh on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in the presence of oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ACh applied before or after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 treatment on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in isolated cardiomyocytes. Methods: Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the male Wistar rats for the intracellular Ca2+ transient study by a fluorimetric ratio technique. Results: H2O2 significantly decreased both of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. ACh applied before, but not after, H2O2 treatment attenuated the reduction of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. Both atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocker and mecamylamine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker significantly decreased the protective effects of acetylcholine on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation. Moreover, the combination of atropine and mecamylamine completely abolished the protective effects of acetylcholine on intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. Conclusion: ACh pretreatment attenuates H2O2-induced intracellular Ca2+ dyshomeostasis through both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.

  10. Inhibition by halothane of potassium-stimulated acetylcholine release from rat cortical slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R.; Greiff, J. M.; Haycock, J.; Elton, C. D.; Rowbotham, D. J.; Norman, R. I.

    1995-01-01

    1. Cholinergic neurones in the basal forebrain are linked to cortical activation and arousal. 2. The present study was designed to examine the hypothesis that clinically relevant doses of halothane (0.1 to 5%) would significantly reduce depolarization-evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release from rat cortical slices. 3. ACh release was measured from rat cortical slices by a chemiluminescent technique. 4. Depolarization-evoked ACh release was inhibited significantly by halothane with an IC50 of 0.38%. This value equates to 0.3 MAC (the minimum alveolar concentration at which no movement occurs to a standard surgical stimulus in 50% of subjects) for the rat. 5. The potent effect of halothane on ACh release suggests that this mechanism may be a target for the action of volatile anaesthetic agents. This in vitro effect on ACh release is consistent with effects of halothane reported in vivo. PMID:8564265

  11. Aspects of dopamine and acetylcholine release induced by glutamate receptors; Aspectos das liberacoes de dopamina e acetilcolina mediadas por receptores de glutamato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Paulo Cesar de Arruda

    2002-07-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in the motor control of rats and humans. This control involves different neurotransmitters and the mutual control of these key elements has been subject to several studies. In this work we determined the role of glutamate on the release of radioactively labelled dopamine and acetylcholine from chopped striatal tissue in vitro. The values of Effective Concentration 50% for glutamate, NMDA, kainic, quisqualic acids and AMPA on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine were obtained. The inhibitory effects of magnesium, tetrodotoxin, MK-801, AP5 and MCPG, as well as the effects of glycin were evaluated. The results suggested that dopamine is influenced by the NMDA type glutamate receptor while acetylcholine seems to be influenced by NMDA, kainate and AMPA receptors. Tetrodotoxin experiments suggested that kainate receptors are both present in cholinergic terminals and cell bodies while AMPA and NMDA receptors are preferentially distributed in cell bodies. Magnesium effectively blocked the NMDA stimulation and unexpectedly also AMPA- and quisqualate-induced acetylcholine release. The latter could not be blocked by MCPG ruling out the participation of methabotropic receptors. MK-801 also blocked NMDA-receptors. Results point out the importance of the glutamic acid control of dopamine and acetylcholine release in striatal tissue. (author)

  12. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Gao, Ming; Taylor, Devin H

    2014-03-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence. Alcoholism is a serious public health problem and has been identified as the third major cause of preventable mortality in the world. Worldwide, about 2 billion people consume alcohol, with 76.3 million having diagnosable alcohol use disorders. Alcohol is currently responsible for the death of 4% of adults worldwide (about 2.5 million deaths each year), and this number will be significantly increased by 2020 unless effective action is taken. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance by humans. Ethanol (EtOH) is the intoxicating agent in alcoholic drinks that can lead to abuse and dependence. Although it has been extensively studied, the mechanisms of alcohol reward and dependence are still poorly understood. The major reason is that, unlike other addictive drugs (eg, morphine, cocaine or nicotine) that have specific molecular targets, EtOH affects much wider neuronal functions. These functions include phospholipid membranes, various ion channels and receptors, synaptic and network functions, and intracellular signaling molecules. The major targets in the brain that mediate EtOH's effects remain unclear. This knowledge gap results in a therapeutic barrier in the treatment of alcoholism. Interestingly, alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused, which suggests that neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the molecular targets for nicotine, may also contribute to alcohol's abusive properties. Here, we briefly summarize recent lines of evidence showing how EtOH modulates nAChRs in the mesolimbic pathway, which provides a perspective that nAChRs are important targets mediating alcohol abuse.

  13. Accumulation of human full-length tau induces degradation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 via activating calpain-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yaling; Wang, Yali; Gao, Di; Ye, Jinwang; Wang, Xin; Fang, Lin; Wu, Dongqin; Pi, Guilin; Lu, Chengbiao; Zhou, Xin-Wen; Yang, Ying; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2016-06-09

    Cholinergic impairments and tau accumulation are hallmark pathologies in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, the intrinsic link between tau accumulation and cholinergic deficits is missing. Here, we found that overexpression of human wild-type full-length tau (termed hTau) induced a significant reduction of α4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with an increased cleavage of the receptor producing a ~55kDa fragment in primary hippocampal neurons and in the rat brains, meanwhile, the α4 nAChR currents decreased. Further studies demonstrated that calpains, including calpain-1 and calpain-2, were remarkably activated with no change of caspase-3, while simultaneous suppression of calpain-2 by selective calpain-2 inhibitor but not calpain-1 attenuated the hTau-induced degradation of α4 nAChR. Finally, we demonstrated that hTau accumulation increased the basal intracellular calcium level in primary hippocampal neurons. We conclude that the hTau accumulation inhibits nAChRs α4 by activating calpain-2. To our best knowledge, this is the first evidence showing that the intracellular accumulation of tau causes cholinergic impairments.

  14. Presynaptic α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors increase glutamate release and serotonin neuron excitability in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño, Julieta; Galindo-Charles, Luis; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Javier; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Mihailescu, Stefan; Hernandez-Lopez, Salvador

    2012-10-24

    Several behavioral effects of nicotine are mediated by changes in serotonin (5-HT) release in brain areas that receive serotonergic afferents from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In vitro experiments have demonstrated that nicotine increases the firing activity in the majority of DRN 5-HT neurons and that DRN contains nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) located at both somata and presynaptic elements. One of the most common presynaptic effects of nicotine is to increase glutamate release. Although DRN receives profuse glutamatergic afferents, the effect of nicotine on glutamate release in the DRN has not been studied in detail. Using whole-cell recording techniques, we investigated the effects of nicotine on the glutamatergic input to 5-HT DRN neurons in rat midbrain slices. Low nicotine concentrations, in the presence of bicuculline and tetrodotoxin (TTX), increased the frequency but did not change the amplitude of glutamate-induced EPSCs, recorded from identified 5-HT neurons. Nicotine-induced increase of glutamatergic EPSC frequency persisted 10-20 min after drug withdrawal. This nicotinic effect was mimicked by exogenous administration of acetylcholine (ACh) or inhibition of ACh metabolism. In addition, the nicotine-induced increase in EPSC frequency was abolished by blockade of α4β2 nAChRs, voltage-gated calcium channels, or intracellular calcium signaling but not by α7 nAChR antagonists. These data suggest that both nicotine and endogenous ACh can increase glutamate release through activation of presynaptic α4β2 but not α7 nAChRs in the DRN. The effect involves long-term changes in synaptic function, and it is dependent on voltage-gated calcium channels and presynaptic calcium stores.

  15. Spontaneous opening of the acetylcholine receptor channel in developing muscle cells from normal and dystrophic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco-Obregon, A.; Lansman, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    Single-channel activity was recorded from cell-attached patches on skeletal muscle cells isolated from wild-type mice and from mice carrying the dy or mdx mutations. Spontaneous openings of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel (nAChR) were detected in virtually all recordings from either 4v/dy or dyl + myotubes. but only infrequently from wild-type or mdx myotubes. Spontaneous openings were also present in most recordings from undifferentiated myoblasts from all of the mouse strains studied. The biophysical properties of the spontaneous activity were similar to those of the embryonic form of the nAChR in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh). Examination of the single-channel currents evoked by low concentrations of ACh showed a reduced sensitivity to the agonist in the dystrophic dy and mdx myotubes. but not in wild- type myotubes. The results suggest that alterations in nAChR function are associated with the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy in the dy mouse.

  16. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Nicotine acts on growth plate chondrocytes to delay skeletal growth through the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

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    Atsuo Kawakita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking adversely affects endochondral ossification during the course of skeletal growth. Among a plethora of cigarette chemicals, nicotine is one of the primary candidate compounds responsible for the cause of smoking-induced delayed skeletal growth. However, the possible mechanism of delayed skeletal growth caused by nicotine remains unclarified. In the last decade, localization of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, a specific receptor of nicotine, has been widely detected in non-excitable cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine affect growth plate chondrocytes directly and specifically through nAChR to delay skeletal growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effect of nicotine on human growth plate chondrocytes, a major component of endochondral ossification. The chondrocytes were derived from extra human fingers. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and hypertrophic differentiation in human growth plate chondrocytes in suspension culture in a concentration-dependent manner. Both human and murine growth plate chondrocytes expressed alpha7 nAChR, which constitutes functional homopentameric receptors. Methyllycaconitine (MLA, a specific antagonist of alpha7 nAChR, reversed the inhibition of matrix synthesis and functional calcium signal by nicotine in human growth plate chondrocytes in vitro. To study the effect of nicotine on growth plate in vivo, ovulation-controlled pregnant alpha7 nAChR +/- mice were given drinking water with or without nicotine during pregnancy, and skeletal growth of their fetuses was observed. Maternal nicotine exposure resulted in delayed skeletal growth of alpha7 nAChR +/+ fetuses but not in alpha7 nAChR -/- fetuses, implying that skeletal growth retardation by nicotine is specifically mediated via fetal alpha7 nAChR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that nicotine, from cigarette smoking, acts directly on growth plate chondrocytes to decrease

  18. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population....

  19. Hippocampal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor levels in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Weyn, Annelies; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is involved in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. Consequently, changes in α7 nAChR function have been implicated in a variety of mental disorders, especially schizophrenia. However, there is little knowledge regarding the levels of the α7 n...

  20. Topographic Studies of Torpedo Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits as a Transmembrane Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Catherine D.; Raftery, Michael A.

    1980-10-01

    The exposure of the four subunits of the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica on both the extracellular and cytoplasmic faces of the postsynaptic membranes of the electroplaque cells has been investigated. Sealed membrane vesicles containing no protein components other than the receptor were isolated and were shown to have 95% of their synaptic surfaces facing the medium. The susceptibility of the four receptor subunits in these preparations to hydrolysis by trypsin both from the external and from the internal medium was used to investigate the exposure of the subunits on the synaptic and cytoplasmic surfaces of the membrane. It was shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the tryptic products that all four subunits are exposed on the extracellular surface to a similar degree. All four subunits are also exposed on the internal surface of the membrane, but the apparent degree of exposure varies with the subunit size, the larger subunits being more exposed. The results are discussed in terms of a possible topographic model of the receptor as a transmembrane protein complex.

  1. α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: role in early odor learning preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hellier

    Full Text Available Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP, an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5-18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21, mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits.

  2. Activation of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The contribution of residues alphaArg55 and gammaGlu93.

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    Kapur, Ankur; Davies, Martin; Dryden, William F; Dunn, Susan M J

    2006-03-01

    The Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a heteropentamer (alpha2betagammadelta) in which structurally homologous subunits assemble to form a central ion pore. Viewed from the synaptic cleft, the likely arrangement of these subunits is alpha-gamma-alpha-delta-beta lying in an anticlockwise orientation. High affinity binding sites for agonists and competitive antagonists have been localized to the alpha-gamma and alpha-delta subunit interfaces. We investigated the involvement of amino acids lying at an adjacent interface (gamma-alpha) in receptor properties. Recombinant Torpedo receptors, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, were used to investigate the consequences of mutating alphaArg55 and gammaGlu93, residues that are conserved in most species of the peripheral nicotinic receptors. Based on homology modeling, these residues are predicted to lie in close proximity to one another and it has been suggested that they may form a salt bridge in the receptor's three-dimensional structure (Sine et al. 2002 J Biol Chem277, 29 210-29 223). Although substitution of alphaR55 by phenylalanine or tryptophan resulted in approximately a six-fold increase in the EC50 value for acetylcholine activation, the charge reversal mutation (alphaR55E) had no significant effect. In contrast, the replacement of gammaE93 by an arginine conferred an eight-fold increase in the potency for acetylcholine-induced receptor activation. In the receptor carrying the double mutations, alphaR55E-gammaE93R or alphaR55F-gammaE93R, the potency for acetylcholine activation was partially restored to that of the wild-type. The results suggest that, although individually these residues influence receptor activation, direct interactions between them are unlikely to play a major role in the stabilization of different conformational states of the receptor.

  3. Cognitive improvement by activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from animal models to human pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Timmerman, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    AChR agonists improves learning, memory, and attentional function in variety of animal models, and pro-cognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR agonists have recently been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. The alpha(7) nAChR desensitizes rapidly in vitro, and this has been a major...... preclinical evaluation of alpha(7) nAChR activation. It is therefore important to consider the translational power of the animal models used before entering into a clinical evaluation of the pro-cognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR activation.......Agonists and positive allosteric modulators of the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are currently being developed for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. This review describes the neurobiological properties of the alpha n...

  4. Cognitive improvement by activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from animal models to human pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Timmerman, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    Agonists and positive allosteric modulators of the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are currently being developed for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. This review describes the neurobiological properties of the alpha n......AChR and the cognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR activation, focusing on the translational aspects in the development of these drugs. The functional properties and anatomical localization of the alpha(7) nAChR makes it well suited to modulate cognitive function. Accordingly, systemic administration of alpha(7) n......AChR agonists improves learning, memory, and attentional function in variety of animal models, and pro-cognitive effects of alpha(7) nAChR agonists have recently been demonstrated in patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. The alpha(7) nAChR desensitizes rapidly in vitro, and this has been a major...

  5. A quantitative structure–activity relationship study of tetrabutylphosphonium bromide analogs as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI NEKOEI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR of tetrabutyl­phosphonium bromide (TBPB analogs as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs agonists was studied. A suitable set of molecular descriptors was calculated and stepwise multiple linear regression (SW-MLR was employed to select those descriptors that resulted in the best fitted models. A MLR model with three selected descriptors was obtained. Furthermore, the MLR model was va­lidated using the leave-one-out (LOO and leave-group-out (LGO cross-vali­dation, and the Y-randomization test. This model, with high statistical signifi­cance (R2train = 0.982, F = 388.715, Q2LOO = 0.973, Q2LGO = 0.977 and R2test = 0.986 could predict the activity of the molecules with a percentage predic­tion error lower than 5 %.

  6. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B.; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-01-01

    with [3H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg......The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1–5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus...... musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies...

  7. Snake alpha-neurotoxin binding site on the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Is conserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Z; Wilhelmsen, K C; Sorota, S

    2001-09-01

    Evolutionary success requires that animal venoms are targeted against phylogenetically conserved molecular structures of fundamental physiological processes. Species producing venoms must be resistant to their action. Venoms of Elapidae snakes (e.g., cobras, kraits) contain alpha-neurotoxins, represented by alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX) targeted against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of the neuromuscular junction. The model which presumes that cobras (Naja spp., Elapidae) have lost their binding site for conspecific alpha-neurotoxins because of the unique amino acid substitutions in their nAChR polypeptide backbone per se is incompatible with the evolutionary theory that (1) the molecular motifs forming the alpha-neurotoxin target site on the nAChR are fundamental for receptor structure and/or function, and (2) the alpha-neurotoxin target site is conserved among Chordata lineages. To test the hypothesis that the alpha-neurotoxin binding site is conserved in Elapidae snakes and to identify the mechanism of resistance against conspecific alpha-neurotoxins, we cloned the ligand binding domain of the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) nAChR alpha subunit. When expressed as part of a functional Naja/mouse chimeric nAChR in Xenopus oocytes, this domain confers resistance against alpha-BTX but does not alter responses induced by the natural ligand acetylcholine. Further mutational analysis of the Naja/mouse nAChR demonstrated that an N-glycosylation signal in the ligand binding domain that is unique to N. haje is responsible for alpha-BTX resistance. However, when the N-glycosylation signal is eliminated, the nAChR containing the N. haje sequence is inhibited by alpha-BTX with a potency that is comparable to that in mammals. We conclude that the binding site for conspecific alpha-neurotoxin in Elapidae snakes is conserved in the nAChR ligand binding domain polypeptide backbone per se. This conclusion supports the hypothesis that animal toxins are targeted against

  8. Modulation of high- and low-frequency components of the cortical local field potential via nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in anesthetized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, Abigail; Waters, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Release of acetylcholine (ACh) in neocortex is important for learning, memory and attention tasks. The primary source of ACh in neocortex is axons ascending from the basal forebrain. Release of ACh from these axons evokes changes in the cortical local field potential (LFP), including a decline in low-frequency spectral power that is often referred to as desynchronization of the LFP and is thought to result from the activation of muscarinic ACh receptors. Using channelrhodopsin-2, we selectively stimulated the axons of only cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of the urethane-anesthetized mouse while monitoring the LFP. Cholinergic stimulation caused desynchronization and two brief increases in higher-frequency power at stimulus onset and offset. Desynchronization (1-6 Hz) was localized, extending ≤ 1 mm from the edge of stimulation, and consisted of both nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-mediated components that were inhibited by mecamylamine and atropine, respectively. Hence we have identified a nicotinic receptor-mediated component to desynchronization. The increase in higher-frequency power (>10 Hz) at stimulus onset was also mediated by activation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. However, the increase in higher-frequency power (10-20 Hz) at stimulus offset was evoked by activation of muscarinic receptors and inhibited by activation of nicotinic receptors. We conclude that the activation of nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors in neocortex exerts several effects that are reflected in distinct frequency bands of the cortical LFP in urethane-anesthetized mice.

  9. Accumulation of human full-length tau induces degradation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?4 via activating calpain-2

    OpenAIRE

    Yaling Yin; Yali Wang; Di Gao; Jinwang Ye; Xin Wang; Lin Fang; Dongqin Wu; Guilin Pi; Chengbiao Lu; Xin-Wen Zhou; Ying Yang; Jian-Zhi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic impairments and tau accumulation are hallmark pathologies in sporadic Alzheimer?s disease (AD), however, the intrinsic link between tau accumulation and cholinergic deficits is missing. Here, we found that overexpression of human wild-type full-length tau (termed hTau) induced a significant reduction of ?4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with an increased cleavage of the receptor producing a ~55kDa fragment in primary hippocampal neurons and in the rat brains...

  10. Synergistic Action of Presynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Adenosine Receptors in Developmental Axonal Competition at the Neuromuscular Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria Angel; Cilleros, Victor; Tomàs, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    The development of the nervous system involves the initial overproduction of synapses, which promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity. We used quantitative immunohistochemistry to investigate, in the postnatal day 7 (P7) to P9 neuromuscular junctions, the involvement of muscarinic receptors (muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors and the M1, M2, and M4 subtypes) and adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A subtypes) in the control of axonal elimination after the mouse levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to selective antagonists in vivo. In a previous study we analyzed the role of each of the individual receptors. Here we investigate the additive or occlusive effects of their inhibitors and thus the existence of synergistic activity between the receptors. The main results show that the A2A, M1, M4, and A1 receptors (in this order of ability) delayed axonal elimination at P7. M4 produces some occlusion of the M1 pathway and some addition to the A1 pathway, which suggests that they cooperate. M2 receptors may modulate (by allowing a permissive action) the other receptors, mainly M4 and A1. The continued action of these receptors (now including M2 but not M4) finally promotes axonal loss at P9. All 4 receptors (M2, M1, A1, and A2A, in this order of ability) are necessary. The M4 receptor (which in itself does not affect axon loss) seems to modulate the other receptors. We found a synergistic action between the M1, A1, and A2A receptors, which show an additive effect, whereas the potent M2 effect is largely independent of the other receptors (though can be modulated by M4). At P9, there is a full mutual dependence between the A1 and A2A receptors in regulating axon loss. In summary, postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that involves the cooperation of several muscarinic and adenosine receptor subtypes.

  11. Is modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by melatonin relevant for therapy with cholinergic drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Regina P; Silva, Claudia L M; Franco, Daiane Gil; Barbosa, Eduardo Mortani; Ferreira, Zulma S

    2010-06-01

    Melatonin, the darkness hormone, synchronizes several physiological functions to light/dark cycle. Besides the awake/sleep cycle that is intuitively linked to day/night, daily variations in memory acquisition and innate or acquired immune responses are some of the major activities linked to melatonin rhythm. The daily variation of these complex processes is due to changes in specific mechanisms. In the last years we focused on the influence of melatonin on the expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Melatonin, either "in vivo" or "in vitro", increases, in a selective manner, the efficiency of alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX)-sensitive nAChRs. Melatonin's effect on receptors located in rat sympathetic nerve terminals, cerebellum, skeletal muscle and chick retina, was tested. We observed that melatonin is essential for the development of alpha-BTX-sensitive nAChRs, and important for receptor maintenance in aging models. Taking into account that both melatonin and alpha-7 nAChRs (one of the subtypes sensitive to alpha-BTX) are involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease, here we discuss the possibility of a therapeutic strategy focused on both melatonin replacement and its potential association with cholinergic drugs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the structural basis of neuromuscular transmission: insights from Torpedo postsynaptic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel

    2013-11-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor, at the neuromuscular junction, is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel that has been fine-tuned through evolution to transduce a chemical signal into an electrical signal with maximum efficiency and speed. It is composed from three similar and two identical polypeptide chains, arranged in a ring around a narrow membrane pore. Central to the design of this assembly is a hydrophobic gate in the pore, more than 50 Å away from sites in the extracellular domain where ACh binds. Although the molecular properties of the receptor have been explored intensively over the last few decades, only recently have structures emerged revealing its complex architecture and illuminating how ACh entering the binding sites opens the distant gate. Postsynaptic membranes isolated from the (muscle-derived) electric organ of the Torpedo ray have underpinned most of the structural studies: the membranes form tubular vesicles having receptors arranged on a regular surface lattice, which can be imaged directly in frozen physiological solutions. Advances in electron crystallographic techniques have also been important, enabling analysis of the closed- and open-channel forms of the receptor in unreacted tubes or tubes reacted briefly with ACh. The structural differences between these two forms show that all five subunits participate in a concerted conformational change communicating the effect of ACh binding to the gate, but that three of them (αγ, β and δ) play a dominant role. Flexing of oppositely facing pore-lining α-helices is the principal motion determining the closed/open state of the gate. These results together with the findings of biochemical, biophysical and other structural studies allow an integrated description of the receptor and of its mode of action at the synapse.

  13. Synthesis of selective agonists for the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with in situ click-chemistry on acetylcholine-binding protein templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, John G; Gomez, Kimberly; Grimster, Neil; Dufouil, Mikael; Nemecz, Akos; Fotsing, Joseph R; Ho, Kwok-Yiu; Talley, Todd T; Sharpless, K Barry; Fokin, Valery V; Taylor, Palmer

    2012-10-01

    The acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs), which serve as structural surrogates for the extracellular domain of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), were used as reaction templates for in situ click-chemistry reactions to generate a congeneric series of triazoles from azide and alkyne building blocks. The catalysis of in situ azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions at a dynamic subunit interface facilitated the synthesis of potentially selective compounds for nAChRs. We investigated compound sets generated in situ with soluble AChBP templates through pharmacological characterization with α7 and α4β2 nAChRs and 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3A receptors. Analysis of activity differences between the triazole 1,5-syn- and 1,4-anti-isomers showed a preference for the 1,4-anti-triazole regioisomers among nAChRs. To improve nAChR subtype selectivity, the highest-potency building block for α7 nAChRs, i.e., 3α-azido-N-methylammonium tropane, was used for additional in situ reactions with a mutated Aplysia californica AChBP that was made to resemble the ligand-binding domain of the α7 nAChR. Fourteen of 50 possible triazole products were identified, and their corresponding tertiary analogs were synthesized. Pharmacological assays revealed that the mutated binding protein template provided enhanced selectivity of ligands through in situ reactions. Discrete trends in pharmacological profiles were evident, with most compounds emerging as α7 nAChR agonists and α4β2 nAChR antagonists. Triazoles bearing quaternary tropanes and aromatic groups were most potent for α7 nAChRs. Pharmacological characterization of the in situ reaction products established that click-chemistry synthesis with surrogate receptor templates offered novel extensions of fragment-based drug design that were applicable to multisubunit ion channels.

  14. Menthol Enhances the Desensitization of Human α3β4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Hoai T; Smart, Amanda E; Aguilar, Brittany L; Olson, Thao T; Kellar, Kenneth J; Ahern, Gerard P

    2015-08-01

    The α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems, including in airway sensory nerves. The nAChR subtype transduces the irritant effects of nicotine in tobacco smoke and, in certain brain areas, may be involved in nicotine addiction and/or withdrawal. Menthol, a widely used additive in cigarettes, is a potential analgesic and/or counterirritant at sensory nerves and may also influence nicotine's actions in the brain. We examined menthol's effects on recombinant human α3β4 nAChRs and native nAChRs in mouse sensory neurons. Menthol markedly decreased nAChR activity as assessed by Ca(2+) imaging, (86)Rb(+) efflux, and voltage-clamp measurements. Coapplication of menthol with acetylcholine or nicotine increased desensitization, demonstrated by an increase in the rate and magnitude of the current decay and a reduction of the current integral. These effects increased with agonist concentration. Pretreatment with menthol followed by its washout did not affect agonist-induced desensitization, suggesting that menthol must be present during the application of agonist to augment desensitization. Notably, menthol acted in a voltage-independent manner and reduced the mean open time of single channels without affecting their conductance, arguing against a simple channel-blocking effect. Further, menthol slowed or prevented the recovery of nAChRs from desensitization, indicating that it probably stabilizes a desensitized state. Moreover, menthol at concentrations up to 1 mM did not compete for the orthosteric nAChR binding site labeled by [(3)H]epibatidine. Taken together, these data indicate that menthol promotes desensitization of α3β4 nAChRs by an allosteric action. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. A model for short alpha-neurotoxin bound to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvintsev, Dmitry Y; Polyak, Yakov L; Kuzmine, Dmitry A; Levtsova, Olga V; Tourleigh, Yegor V; Kasheverov, Igor E

    2006-01-01

    Short- and long-chain alpha-neurotoxins from snake venoms are potent blockers of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Short alpha-neurotoxins consist of 60-62 amino acid residues and include 4 disulfide bridges, whereas long alpha-neurotoxins have 66-75 residues and 5 disulfides. The spatial structure of these toxins is built by three loops, I-III "fingers," confined by four disulfide bridges; the fifth disulfide of long-chain alpha-neurotoxins is situated close to the tip of central loop II. An accurate knowledge of the mode of alpha-neurotoxin-nAChR interaction is important for rational design of new nAChR agonists and antagonists for medical purposes. Ideas on the topography of toxin-nAChR complexes were based until recently on nAChR interactions with selectively labeled alpha-neurotoxins, mutations in toxins, nAChR, or both. Recently, crystal structures have been solved for the Torpedo marmorata nAChR (4A[Unwin, 2005]) and for the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) complexed with mollusk alpha-conotoxin (2.4 A[Celie et al., 2005]) or alpha-cobratoxin, long-chain alpha-neurotoxin (4 A [Bourne et al., 2005]). However, there were no angstrom-resolution models for complexes of short-chain alpha-neurotoxins. Here, we report the model of the Torpedo californica nAChR extracellular domain complexed to a short-chain alpha-neurotoxin II (NTII) from Naja oxiana cobra venom.

  16. Molecular-Dynamics Simulations of ELIC a Prokaryotic Homologue of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Ivanov, Ivaylo N [ORNL; Wang, Hailong [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine; McCammon, Jonathan [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The ligand-gated ion channel from Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. ELIC is similar to the nAChR in its primary sequence and overall subunit organization, but despite their structural similarity, it is not clear whether these two ligand-gated ion channels operate in a similar manner. Further, it is not known to what extent mechanistic insights gleaned from the ELIC structure translate to eukaryotic counterparts such as the nAChR. Here we use molecular-dynamics simulations to probe the conformational dynamics and hydration of the transmembrane pore of ELIC. The results are compared with those from our previous simulation of the human ?7 nAChR. Overall, ELIC displays increased stability compared to the nAChR, whereas the two proteins exhibit remarkable similarity in their global motion and flexibility patterns. The majority of the increased stability of ELIC does not stem from the deficiency of the models used in the simulations, and but rather seems to have a structural basis. Slightly altered dynamical correlation features are also observed among several loops within the membrane region. In sharp contrast to the nAChR, ELIC is completely dehydrated from the pore center to the extracellular end throughout the simulation. Finally, the simulation of an ELIC mutant substantiates the important role of F246 on the stability, hydration and possibly function of the ELIC channel.

  17. Identifying the binding site of novel methyllycaconitine (MLA) analogs at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Gracia X J; Lin, Diana; Halliday, Jill I; Absalom, Nathan; Ambrus, Joseph I; Thompson, Andrew J; Lochner, Martin; Lummis, Sarah C R; McLeod, Malcolm D; Chebib, Mary

    2010-12-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic transmission. Methyllycaconitine (MLA) is a selective and potent antagonist of the α7 nAChR, and its anthranilate ester side-chain is important for its activity. Here we report the influence of structure on nAChR inhibition for a series of novel MLA analogs, incorporating either an alcohol or anthranilate ester side-chain to an azabicyclic or azatricyclic core against rat α7, α4β2, and α3β4 nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The analogs inhibited ACh (EC(50)) within an IC(50) range of 2.3-26.6 μM. Most displayed noncompetitive antagonism, but the anthranilate ester analogs exerted competitive behavior at the α7 nAChR. At α4β2 nAChRs, inhibition by the azabicyclic alcohol was voltage-dependent suggesting channel block. The channel-lining residues of α4 subunits were mutated to cysteine and the effect of azabicyclic alcohol was evaluated by competition with methanethiosulfonate ethylammonium (MTSEA) and a thiol-reactive probe in the open, closed, and desensitized states of α4β2 nAChRs. The azabicyclic alcohol was found to compete with MTSEA between residues 6' and 13' in a state-dependent manner, but the reactive probe only bonded with 13' in the open state. The data suggest that the 13' position is the dominant binding site. Ligand docking of the azabicyclic alcohol into a (α4)(3)(β2)(2) homology model of the closed channel showed that the ligand can be accommodated at this location. Thus our data reveal distinct pharmacological differences between different nAChR subtypes and also identify a specific binding site for a noncompetitive channel blocker.

  18. The non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor APS12-2 is a potent antagonist of skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandič, Marjana [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi [CNRS, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, FRC 2118, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Développement, UPR 3294, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Turk, Tom; Sepčić, Kristina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Benoit, Evelyne [CNRS, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, FRC 2118, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Développement, UPR 3294, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Frangež, Robert, E-mail: robert.frangez@vf.uni-lj.si [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-12-01

    APS12-2, a non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is one of the synthetic analogs of polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. In the present work the effects of APS12-2 were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve–hemidiaphragm muscle preparations, using twitch tension measurements and electrophysiological recordings. APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner blocked nerve-evoked isometric muscle contraction (IC{sub 50} = 0.74 μM), without affecting directly-elicited twitch tension up to 2.72 μM. The compound (0.007–3.40 μM) decreased the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials until a complete block by concentrations higher than 0.68 μM, without affecting their frequency. Full size endplate potentials, recorded after blocking voltage-gated muscle sodium channels, were inhibited by APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 0.36 μM) without significant change in the resting membrane potential of the muscle fibers up to 3.40 μM. The compound also blocked acetylcholine-evoked inward currents in Xenopus oocytes in which Torpedo (α1{sub 2}β1γδ) muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been incorporated (IC{sub 50} = 0.0005 μM), indicating a higher affinity of the compound for Torpedo (α1{sub 2}β1γδ) than for the mouse (α1{sub 2}β1γε) nAChR. Our data show for the first time that APS12-2 blocks neuromuscular transmission by a non-depolarizing mechanism through an action on postsynaptic nAChRs of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. -- Highlights: ► APS12-2 produces concentration-dependent inhibition of nerve-evoked muscle contraction in vitro. ► APS12-2 blocks MEPPs and EPPs at the neuromuscular junction. APS12-2 blocks ACh-activated current in Xenopus oocytes incorporated with Torpedo nAChRs.

  19. Drug-dependent behaviors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressions in Caenorhabditis elegans following chronic nicotine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, Joseph R; Dobbins, Dorothy L; Kobet, Robert A; Farwell, Mary A; Zhang, Baohong; Lee, Myon-Hee; Pan, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    Nicotine, the major psychoactive compound in tobacco, targets nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and results in drug dependence. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans' (C. elegans) genome encodes conserved and extensive nicotinic receptor subunits, representing a useful system to investigate nicotine-induced nAChR expressions in the context of drug dependence. However, the in vivo expression pattern of nAChR genes under chronic nicotine exposure has not been fully investigated. To define the role of nAChR genes involved in nicotine-induced locomotion changes and the development of tolerance to these effects, we characterized the locomotion behavior combining the use of two systems: the Worm Tracker hardware and the WormLab software. Our results indicate that the combined system is an advantageous alternative to define drug-dependent locomotion behavior in C. elegans. Chronic (24-h dosing) nicotine exposure at 6.17 and 61.7μM induced nicotine-dependent behaviors, including drug stimulation, tolerance/adaption, and withdrawal responses. Specifically, the movement speed of naïve worms on nicotine-containing environments was significantly higher than on nicotine-free environments, suggesting locomotion stimulation by nicotine. In contrast, the 24-h 6.17μM nicotine-treated worms exhibited significantly higher speeds on nicotine-free plates than on nicotine-containing plates. Furthermore significantly increased locomotion behavior during nicotine cessation was observed in worms treated with a higher nicotine concentration of 61.7μM. The relatively low locomotion speed of nicotine-treated worms on nicotine-containing environments also indicates adaption/tolerance of worms to nicotine following chronic nicotine exposure. In addition, this study provides useful information regarding the comprehensive in vivo expression profile of the 28 "core" nAChRs following different dosages of chronic nicotine treatments. Eleven genes (lev-1, acr-6, acr-7, acr-11, lev-8, acr

  20. Regulation of acetylcholine receptor clustering by ADF/cofilin-directed vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Wai; Han, Jianzhong; Bamburg, James R; Han, Liang; Lynn, Rachel; Zheng, James Q

    2009-07-01

    Postsynaptic receptor localization is crucial for synapse development and function, but the underlying cytoskeletal mechanisms remain elusive. Using Xenopus neuromuscular junctions as a model, we found that actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin regulated actin-dependent vesicular trafficking of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) to the postsynaptic membrane. Active ADF/cofilin was concentrated in small puncta adjacent to AChR clusters and was spatiotemporally correlated with the formation and maintenance of surface AChR clusters. Notably, increased actin dynamics, vesicular markers and intracellular AChRs were all enriched at the sites of ADF/cofilin localization. Furthermore, a substantial amount of new AChRs was detected at these ADF/cofilin-enriched sites. Manipulation of either ADF/cofilin activity through its serine-3 phosphorylation or ADF/cofilin localization via 14-3-3 proteins markedly attenuated AChR insertion and clustering. These results suggest that spatiotemporally restricted ADF/cofilin-mediated actin dynamics regulate AChR trafficking during the development of neuromuscular synapses.

  1. Drugs Interfering with Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Their Effects on Place Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Svoboda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs have been found to regulate many diverse functions, ranging from motivation and feeding to spatial navigation, an important and widely studied type of cognitive behavior. Systemic administration of non-selective antagonists of mAChRs, such as scopolamine or atropine, have been found to have adverse effects on a vast majority of place navigation tasks. However, many of these results may be potentially confounded by disruptions of functions other than spatial learning and memory. Although studies with selective antimuscarinics point to mutually opposite effects of M1 and M2 receptors, their particular contribution to spatial cognition is still poorly understood, partly due to a lack of truly selective agents. Furthermore, constitutive knock-outs do not always support results from selective antagonists. For modeling impaired spatial cognition, the scopolamine-induced amnesia model still maintains some limited validity, but there is an apparent need for more targeted approaches such as local intracerebral administration of antagonists, as well as novel techniques such as optogenetics focused on cholinergic neurons and chemogenetics aimed at cells expressing metabotropic mAChRs.

  2. Transcriptomic evaluation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor pathway in levamisole-resistant and -sensitive Oesophagostomum dentatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Nathan M; Martin, Richard J; Beetham, Jeffrey K

    2014-01-01

    Nematode anthelminthic resistance is widespread for the 3 major drug classes commonly used in agriculture: benzamidazoles, macrocyclic lactones, and nicotinic agonists e.g. levamisole. In parasitic nematodes the genetics of resistance is unknown other than to the benzimidazoles which primarily involve a single gene. In previous work with a levamisole resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum isolate, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) exhibited decreased levamisole sensitivity. Here, using a transcriptomic approach on the same isolate, we investigate whether that decreased nAChR sensitivity is achieved via a 1-gene mechanism involving 1 of 27 nAChR pathway genes. 3 nAChR receptor subunit genes exhibited ≥2-fold change in transcript abundance: acr-21 and acr-25 increased, and unc-63 decreased. 4 SNPs having a ≥2-fold change in frequency were also identified. These data suggest that resistance is likely polygenic, involving modulated abundance of multiple subunits comprising the heteropentameric nAChR, and is not due to a simple 1-gene mechanism. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electron microscopy of complexes of isolated acetylcholine receptor, biotinyl-toxin, and avidin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, E. (Columbia Univ., New York); Wise, D.; Wall, J.; Karlin, A.

    1982-01-01

    The principal curarimimetic toxin of Naja naja siamensis derivatized with biothinyl groups binds specifically both to acetylcholine receptor, isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, and to avidin. Isolated complexes of receptor monomer or dimer, biotinyl-toxin, and avidin were negatively stained and examined in the scanning transmission electron microscope. We measured the angle made by the radius to each avidin bound at the periphery of a monomeric unit in dimer to the axis connecting the centers of the monomers, starting at the crosslink between the monomers. We infer from the distribution of these angles that one toxin binding site is located in the range of 45/sup 0/ to 85/sup 0/ and another at about 100/sup 0/ further from the crosslink between the monomers. Because it is known that there are two toxin binding sites per monomer, associated with the two ..cap alpha.. chains, the bound avidins presumably point to portions of the ..cap alpha.. chains, indicating their positions relative to that portion of the delta chain located at the crosslink between monomers in dimer.

  4. Gating of long-term potentiation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the cerebellum input stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Prestori

    Full Text Available The brain needs mechanisms able to correlate plastic changes with local circuit activity and internal functional states. At the cerebellum input stage, uncontrolled induction of long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD between mossy fibres and granule cells can saturate synaptic capacity and impair cerebellar functioning, which suggests that neuromodulators are required to gate plasticity processes. Cholinergic systems innervating the cerebellum are thought to enhance procedural learning and memory. Here we show that a specific subtype of acetylcholine receptors, the α7-nAChRs, are distributed both in cerebellar mossy fibre terminals and granule cell dendrites and contribute substantially to synaptic regulation. Selective α7-nAChR activation enhances the postsynaptic calcium increase, allowing weak mossy fibre bursts, which would otherwise cause LTD, to generate robust LTP. The local microperfusion of α7-nAChR agonists could also lead to in vivo switching of LTD to LTP following sensory stimulation of the whisker pad. In the cerebellar flocculus, α7-nAChR pharmacological activation impaired vestibulo-ocular-reflex adaptation, probably because LTP was saturated, preventing the fine adjustment of synaptic weights. These results show that gating mechanisms mediated by specific subtypes of nicotinic receptors are required to control the LTD/LTP balance at the mossy fibre-granule cell relay in order to regulate cerebellar plasticity and behavioural adaptation.

  5. Segregation of lipids near acetylcholine-receptor channels imaged by cryo-EM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Unwin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid communication at the chemical synapse depends on the action of ion channels residing in the postsynaptic membrane. The channels open transiently upon the binding of a neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic nerve terminal, eliciting an electrical response. Membrane lipids also play a vital but poorly understood role in this process of synaptic transmission. The present study examines the lipid distribution around nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh receptors in tubular vesicles made from postsynaptic membranes of the Torpedo ray, taking advantage of the recent advances in cryo-EM. A segregated distribution of lipid molecules is found in the outer leaflet of the bilayer. Apparent cholesterol-rich patches are located in specific annular regions next to the transmembrane helices and also in a more extended `microdomain' between the apposed δ subunits of neighbouring receptors. The particular lipid distribution can be interpreted straightforwardly in relation to the gating movements revealed by an earlier time-resolved cryo-EM study, in which the membranes were exposed briefly to ACh. The results suggest that in addition to stabilizing the protein, cholesterol may play a mechanical role by conferring local rigidity to the membrane so that there is productive coupling between the extracellular and membrane domains, leading to opening of the channel.

  6. Promoted neuronal differentiation after activation of alpha4/beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in undifferentiated neural progenitors.

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    Takeshi Takarada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural progenitor is a generic term used for undifferentiated cell populations of neural stem, neuronal progenitor and glial progenitor cells with abilities for proliferation and differentiation. We have shown functional expression of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and gamma-aminobutyrate type-A receptors endowed to positively and negatively regulate subsequent neuronal differentiation in undifferentiated neural progenitors, respectively. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the possible functional expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR by undifferentiated neural progenitors prepared from neocortex of embryonic rodent brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed mRNA expression of particular nAChR subunits in undifferentiated rat and mouse progenitors prepared before and after the culture with epidermal growth factor under floating conditions. Sustained exposure to nicotine significantly inhibited the formation of neurospheres composed of clustered proliferating cells and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction activity at a concentration range of 1 µM to 1 mM without affecting cell survival. In these rodent progenitors previously exposed to nicotine, marked promotion was invariably seen for subsequent differentiation into cells immunoreactive for a neuronal marker protein following the culture of dispersed cells under adherent conditions. Both effects of nicotine were significantly prevented by the heteromeric α4β2 nAChR subtype antagonists dihydro-β-erythroidine and 4-(5-ethoxy-3-pyridinyl-N-methyl-(3E-3-buten-1-amine, but not by the homomeric α7 nAChR subtype antagonist methyllycaconitine, in murine progenitors. Sustained exposure to nicotine preferentially increased the expression of Math1 among different basic helix-loop-helix proneural genes examined. In undifferentiated progenitors from embryonic mice

  7. FRET-based detection of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation by orthosteric and allosteric agonists.

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    Danijela Markovic

    Full Text Available Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs are 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors that regulate a variety of physiological processes and represent potentially important targets for therapeutic intervention. mAChRs can be stimulated by full and partial orthosteric and allosteric agonists, however the relative abilities of such ligands to induce conformational changes in the receptor remain unclear. To gain further insight into the actions of mAChR agonists, we have developed a fluorescently tagged M(1 mAChR that reports ligand-induced conformational changes in real-time by changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET.Variants of CFP and YFP were inserted into the third intracellular loop and at the end of the C-terminus of the mouse M(1 mAChR, respectively. The optimized FRET receptor construct (M(1-cam5 was expressed stably in HEK293 cells.The variant CFP/YFP-receptor chimera expressed predominantly at the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells and displayed ligand-binding affinities comparable with those of the wild-type receptor. It also retained an ability to interact with Gα(q/11 proteins and to stimulate phosphoinositide turnover, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and undergo agonist-dependent internalization. Addition of the full agonist methacholine caused a reversible decrease in M(1 FRET (F(EYFP/F(ECFP that was prevented by atropine pre-addition and showed concentration-dependent amplitude and kinetics. Partial orthosteric agonists, arecoline and pilocarpine, as well as allosteric agonists, AC-42 and 77-LH-28-1, also caused atropine-sensitive decreases in the FRET signal, which were smaller in amplitude and significantly slower in onset compared to those evoked by methacholine.The M(1 FRET-based receptor chimera reports that allosteric and orthosteric agonists induce similar conformational changes in the third intracellular loop and/or C-terminus, and should prove to be a valuable molecular reagent for pharmacological and structural

  8. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies to Study the Structure and Function of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Electric Organ and Muscle and to Determine the Structure of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-16

    zebra finches . 5 9 Their primary 20 interest was in the sexually dimorphic song nuclei, which, it turns out, lack substantial amounts of mAb binding...of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata). J Comp Neurol, in press. 60. Swanson L, 3 Lindstrom, S...several other ligand-gated ion channels. 1 This is summarized in Figure 1. 11 During the past year, we wrote a rather extensive review on molecular

  9. α7 and β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits Form Heteromeric Receptor Complexes that Are Expressed in the Human Cortex and Display Distinct Pharmacological Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Zwart, Ruud; Ursu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The existence of α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has recently been demonstrated in both the rodent and human brain. Since α7-containing nAChRs are promising drug targets for schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, it is critical to determine whether α7β2 nAChRs are present...

  10. Identification, expression and functional characterization of M4L, a muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor splice variant.

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    Douglas A Schober

    Full Text Available Rodent genomic alignment sequences support a 2-exon model for muscarinic M4 receptor. Using this model a novel N-terminal extension was discovered in the human muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor. An open reading frame was discovered in the human, mouse and rat with a common ATG (methionine start codon that extended the N-terminus of the muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor subtype by 155 amino acids resulting in a longer variant. Transcriptional evidence for this splice variant was confirmed by RNA-Seq and RT-PCR experiments performed from human donor brain prefrontal cortices. We detected a human upstream exon indicating the translation of the mature longer M4 receptor transcript. The predicted size for the longer two-exon M4 receptor splice variant with the additional 155 amino acid N-terminal extension, designated M4L is 69.7 kDa compared to the 53 kDa canonical single exon M4 receptor (M4S. Western blot analysis from a mammalian overexpression system, and saturation radioligand binding with [3H]-NMS (N-methyl-scopolamine demonstrated the expression of this new splice variant. Comparative pharmacological characterization between the M4L and M4S receptors revealed that both the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites for both receptors were very similar despite the addition of an N-terminal extension.

  11. Computer modeling of binding of diverse weak toxins to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvitsev, D Yu; Polyak, Ya L; Kuzmin, D A; Levtsova, O V; Tourleigh, Ye V; Utkin, Yu N; Shaitan, K V; Tsetlin, V I

    2007-04-01

    Weak toxins are the "three-fingered" snake venoms toxins grouped together by having an additional disulfide in the N-terminal loop I. In general, weak toxins have low toxicity, and biological targets have been identified for some of them only, recently by detecting the effects on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Here the methods of docking and molecular dynamics simulations are used for comparative modeling of the complexes between four weak toxins of known spatial structure (WTX, candoxin, bucandin, gamma-bungarotoxin) and nAChRs. WTX and candoxin are those toxins whose blocking of the neuronal alpha7- and muscle-type nAChR has been earlier shown in binding assays and electrophysiological experiments, while for the other two toxins no such activity has been reported. Only candoxin and WTX are found here to give stable solutions for the toxin-nAChR complexes. These toxins appear to approach the binding site similarly to short alpha-neurotoxins, but their final position resembles that of alpha-cobratoxin, a long alpha-neurotoxin, in the complex with the acetylcholine-binding protein. The final spatial structures of candoxin and WTX complexes with the alpha7 neuronal or muscle-type nAChR are very similar and do not provide immediate answer why candoxin has a much higher affinity than WTX, but both of them share a virtually irreversible mode of binding to one or both these nAChR subtypes. Possible explanation comes from docking and MD simulations which predict fast kinetics of candoxin association with nAChR, no gross changes in the toxin conformation (with smaller toxin flexibility on alpha7 nAChR), while slow WTX binding to nAChR is associated with slow irreversible rearrangement both of the tip of the toxin loop II and of the binding pocket residues locking finally the toxin molecule. Computer modeling showed that the additional disulfide in the loop I is not directly involved in receptor binding of WTX and candoxin, but it stabilizes the structure of

  12. Prorocentrolide-A from Cultured Prorocentrum lima Dinoflagellates Collected in Japan Blocks Sub-Types of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

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    Muriel Amar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prorocentrolides are members of the cyclic imine phycotoxins family. Their chemical structure includes a 26-membered carbo-macrocycle and a 28-membered macrocyclic lactone arranged around a hexahydroisoquinoline that incorporates the characteristic cyclic imine group. Six prorocentrolides are already known. However, their mode of action remains undetermined. The aim of the present work was to explore whether prorocentrolide A acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, using competition-binding assays and electrophysiological techniques. Prorocentrolide-A displaced [125I]α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo membranes, expressing the muscle-type (α12β1γδ nAChR, and in HEK-293 cells, expressing the chimeric chick neuronal α7-5HT3 nAChR. Functional studies revealed that prorocentrolide-A had no agonist action on nAChRs, but inhibited ACh-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes that had incorporated the muscle-type α12β1γδ nAChR to their membranes, or that expressed the human α7 nAChR, as revealed by voltage-clamp recordings. Molecular docking calculations showed the absence of the characteristic hydrogen bond between the iminium group of prorocentrolide-A and the backbone carbonyl group of Trp147 in the receptor, explaining its weaker affinity as compared to all other cyclic imine toxins. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that prorocentrolide-A acts on both muscle and neuronal nAChRs, but with higher affinity on the muscle-type nAChR.

  13. α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influence locomotor activity and ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, Helen M; Peck, Colette; Garrity, Caitlin; Gechlik, Alex; Jenkins, Brenita C; Rajan, Akshat

    2017-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic dopamine system have been implicated in ethanol behaviors. In particular, work in genetically engineered mice has demonstrated that α6-containing nAChRs are involved in ethanol consumption and sedation. A limitation of these studies is that the alteration in the receptor was present throughout development. The recently described α6β2 antagonist, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI), now makes it possible to test for the involvement of these receptors using a pharmacological approach. The aim of this study was to examine the role of α6β2 nAChRs in ethanol behaviors using a pharmacological approach. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice were treated with bPiDI 30 min prior to testing the mice for binge-like ethanol consumption in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) test, ethanol-induced motor incoordination using the balance beam, and ethanol-induced sedation using the Loss of Righting Reflex (LORR) paradigm. Adolescent animals were chosen because they express a high amount of α6 mRNA relative to adult animals. Control studies were also performed to determine the effect of bPiDI on locomotor activity and ethanol metabolism. Female mice treated with 20 mg/kg bPiDI had reduced locomotor activity compared to saline-treated animals during the first 30 min following an acute injection. Pretreatment with the α6β2 antagonist reduced adolescent ethanol consumption but also reduced saccharin consumption. No significant effects were observed on ethanol-induced ataxia, sedation, or metabolism. This study provides evidence that α6β2 nAChRs are involved in locomotor activity as well as ethanol and saccharin consumption in adolescent animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Autonomic function in mice lacking alpha5 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningshan; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Chapman, Joab; Rabinowitz, Ruth; Nachman, Rachel; Korczyn, Amos D

    2002-07-15

    Neuronal acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (nAChR) are composed of 12 subunits (alpha2-10, beta2-4), of which alpha3, alpha5, alpha7, beta2 and beta4 subunits are known to exist in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). alpha5 subunits possess unique biophysical and pharmacological properties. The present study was undertaken to examine the functional role and pharmacological properties of the nAChR alpha5 subunits in the ANS using mice lacking alpha5 nAChR subunits (alpha5-/-). These mice grew to normal size showing no obvious physical or neurological deficit. They also showed normality in thermoregulation, pupil size and resting heart rate under physiological conditions. The heart rate and rectal temperature did not differ between alpha5-/- and wild-type mice during exposure to cold stress. An impairment of cardiac parasympathetic ganglionic transmission was observed during high frequency vagal stimulation, which caused cardiac arrest in all wild-type animals while alpha5-/- mice were more resistant. Deficiency of alpha5 subunits strikingly increased the sensitivity to a low concentration of hexamethonium, leading to a nearly complete blockade of bradycardia in response to vagal stimulation. Such a concentration of hexamethonium only slightly depressed the effects of vagal stimulation in control mice. Deficiency of alpha5 subunits significantly increased ileal contractile responses to cytisine and epibatidine. These results suggest that alpha5 subunits may affect the affinity and sensitivity of agonists and antagonists in the native receptors. Previous studies revealed that alpha5 subunits form functional receptors only in combination with other alpha and beta subunits. Thus, the data presented here imply that alpha5 subunits modulate the activity of nAChR in autonomic ganglia in vivo.

  15. Targeting brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in Alzheimer's disease: rationale and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallés, Ana Sofía; Borroni, María Virginia; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older persons. Pathognomonic hallmarks of the disease include the development of amyloid senile plaques and deposits of neurofibrillary tangles. These changes occur in the brain long before the clinical manifestations of AD (cognitive impairment in particular) become apparent. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), particularly the α7 subtype, are highly expressed in brain regions relevant to cognitive and memory functions and involved in the processing of sensory information. There is strong evidence that implicates the participation of AChRs in AD. This review briefly introduces current strategies addressing the pathophysiologic findings (amyloid-β-peptide plaques, neurofibrillary tangles) and then focuses on more recent efforts of pharmacologic intervention in AD, specifically targeted to the α7 AChR. Whereas cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine, together with the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine are at the forefront of present-day clinical intervention for AD, new insights into AChR molecular pharmacology are bringing other drugs, directed at AChRs, to center stage. Among these are the positive allosteric modulators that selectively target α7 AChRs and are aimed at unleashing the factors that hinder agonist-mediated, α7 AChR channel activation. This calls for more detailed knowledge of the distribution, functional properties, and involvement of AChRs in various signaling cascades-together with the corresponding abnormalities in all these properties-to be able to engineer strategies in drug design and evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of new compounds targeting this class of neurotransmitter receptors.

  16. Functional reconstitution of Haemonchus contortus acetylcholine receptors in Xenopus oocytes provides mechanistic insights into levamisole resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulin, T; Fauvin, A; Charvet, CL; Cortet, J; Cabaret, J; Bessereau, J-L; Neveu, C

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The cholinergic agonist levamisole is widely used to treat parasitic nematode infestations. This anthelmintic drug paralyses worms by activating a class of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors (L-AChRs) expressed in nematode muscle cells. However, levamisole efficacy has been compromised by the emergence of drug-resistant parasites, especially in gastrointestinal nematodes such as Haemonchus contortus. We report here the first functional reconstitution and pharmacological characterization of H. contortus L-AChRs in a heterologous expression system. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, five AChR subunit and three ancillary protein genes are necessary in vivo and in vitro to synthesize L-AChRs. We have cloned the H. contortus orthologues of these genes and expressed them in Xenopus oocytes. We reconstituted two types of H. contortus L-AChRs with distinct pharmacologies by combining different receptor subunits. KEY RESULTS The Hco-ACR-8 subunit plays a pivotal role in selective sensitivity to levamisole. As observed with C. elegans L-AChRs, expression of H. contortus receptors requires the ancillary proteins Hco-RIC-3, Hco-UNC-50 and Hco-UNC-74. Using this experimental system, we demonstrated that a truncated Hco-UNC-63 L-AChR subunit, which was specifically detected in a levamisole-resistant H. contortus isolate, but not in levamisole-sensitive strains, hampers the normal function of L-AChRs, when co-expressed with its full-length counterpart. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We provide the first functional evidence for a putative molecular mechanism involved in levamisole resistance in any parasitic nematode. This expression system will provide a means to analyse molecular polymorphisms associated with drug resistance at the electrophysiological level. PMID:21486278

  17. A novel in vitro potency assay of antisera against Thai Naja kaouthia based on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding

    OpenAIRE

    Ratanabanangkoon, Kavi; Simsiriwong, Pavinee; Pruksaphon, Kritsada; Tan, Kae Yi; Eursakun, Sukanya; Tan, Choo Hock; Chantrathonkul, Bunkuea; Wongwadhunyoo, Wongsakorn; Youngchim, Sirida; Tan, Nget Hong

    2017-01-01

    Snake envenomation is an important medical problem. One of the hurdles in antivenom development is the in vivo assay of antivenom potency which is expensive, gives variable results and kills many animals. We report a novel in vitro assay involving the specific binding of the postsynaptic neurotoxins (PSNTs) of elapid snakes with purified Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The potency of an antivenom is determined by its antibody ability to bind and neutralize the PS...

  18. Targeted drug delivery system to neural cells utilizes the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Rachel; O'Hagan, Barry; McCarron, Paul; Hawthorne, Susan

    2017-06-15

    Drug delivery to the brain is still a major challenge in the field of therapeutics, especially for large and hydrophilic compounds. In order to achieve drug delivery of therapeutic concentration in the central nervous system, the problematic blood brain barrier (BBB) must be overcome. This work presents the formulation of a targeted nanoparticle-based drug delivery system using a specific neural cell targeting ligand, rabies virus derived peptide (RDP). Characterization studies revealed that RDP could be conjugated to drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of average diameter 257.10±22.39nm and zeta potential of -5.51±0.73mV. In vitro studies showed that addition of RDP to nanoparticles enhanced drug accumulation in a neural cell line specifically as opposed to non-neural cell lines. It was revealed that this drug delivery system is reliant upon nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function for RDP-facilitated effects, supporting a cellular uptake mechanism of action. The specific neural cell targeting capabilities of RDP via the nAChR offers a non-toxic, non-invasive and promising approach to the delivery of therapeutics to the brain. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated [3H]norepinephrine release from neonatal rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, K T; Leslie, F M

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-evoked release of norepinephrine (NE) has been demonstrated in a number of brain regions that receive sole noradrenergic innervation from the locus coeruleus (LC). Many of these structures display enhanced nicotine-stimulated NE release in the neonate. We have examined the hypothalamus in order to determine if this region, which receives NE projections from both the LC and medullary catecholaminergic nuclei, also demonstrates maturational changes in nAChR-mediated NE release. Quantification of radiolabeled-NE release from rat hypothalamus slices by a maximally effective dose of nicotine revealed a peak response during the first postnatal week. This was followed by a decrease at postnatal day (P) 14, and a second peak at P21. Thereafter, release was equivalent to that observed at P14. Comparison of the pharmacological properties of nAChRs mediating NE release in neonatal (P7) and mature hypothalamus suggested involvement of different nAChR subtypes at the two ages. Using the selective toxin, DSP-4, nAChR-mediated NE release in the neonatal hypothalamus was shown to be from LC terminals. Our findings demonstrate an early sensitivity of hypothalamic LC terminals to nAChR regulation that may be associated with development of systems controlling critical homeostatic functions such as stress, feeding and cardiovascular regulation.

  20. Menthol Suppresses Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Functioning in Sensory Neurons via Allosteric Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, M.; Swandulla, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated how the function of native and recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is modulated by the monoterpenoid alcohol from peppermint (−) menthol. In trigeminal neurons (TG), we found that nicotine (75 μM)-activated whole-cell currents through nAChRs were reversibly reduced by menthol in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 111 μM. To analyze the mechanism underlying menthol's action in more detail, we used single channel and whole-cell recordings from recombinant human α4β2 nAChR expressed in HEK tsA201 cells. Here, we found a shortening of channel open time and a prolongation of channel closed time, and an increase in single channel amplitude leading in summary to a reduction in single channel current. Furthermore, menthol did not affect nicotine's EC50 value for currents through recombinant human α4β2 nAChRs but caused a significant reduction in nicotine's efficacy. Taken together, these findings indicate that menthol is a negative allosteric modulator of nAChRs. PMID:22281529

  1. Effect of Secondhand Smoke on Occupancy of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Arthur L.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; London, Edythe D.; Khan, Aliyah; Kozman, Daniel; Costello, Matthew R.; Vellios, Evan E.; Archie, Meena M.; Bascom, Rebecca; Mukhin, Alexey G.

    2012-01-01

    Context Despite progress in tobacco control, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure remains prevalent worldwide and is implicated in the initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. Objective To determine whether moderate SHS exposure results in brain α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) occupancy. Design, Setting, and Participants Positron emission tomography scanning and the radiotracer 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine (also known as 2-[18F]fluoro-A-85380, or 2-FA) were used to determine α4β2* nAChR occupancy from SHS exposure in 24 young adult participants (11 moderately dependent cigarette smokers and 13 nonsmokers). Participants underwent two bolus-plus-continuous-infusion 2-FA positron emission tomography scanning sessions during which they sat in the passenger’s seat of a car for 1 hour and either were exposed to moderate SHS or had no SHS exposure. The study took place at an academic positron emission tomography center. Main Outcome Measure Changes induced by SHS in 2-FA specific binding volume of distribution as a measure of α4β2* nAChR occupancy. Results An overall multivariate analysis of variance using specific binding volume of distribution values revealed a significant main effect of condition (SHS vs control) (F1,22=42.5, P cars and other enclosed spaces. PMID:21536968

  2. Sources of energy for gating by neurotransmitters in acetylcholine receptor channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Prasad; Bruhova, Iva; Auerbach, Anthony

    2012-06-12

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) mediate signaling in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The AChR gating conformational change is powered by a low- to high-affinity change for neurotransmitters at two transmitter binding sites. We estimated (from single-channel currents) the components of energy for gating arising from binding site aromatic residues in the α-subunit. All mutations reduced the energy (TyrC1>TrpB≈TyrC2>TyrA), with TyrC1 providing ~40% of the total. Considered one at a time, the fractional energy contributions from the aromatic rings were TrpB ~35%, TyrC1 ~28%, TyrC2 ~28%, and TyrA ~10%. Together, TrpB, TyrC1, and TyrC2 comprise an "aromatic triad" that provides much of the total energy from the transmitter for gating. Analysis of mutant pairs suggests that the energy contributions from some residues are nearly independent. Mutations of TyrC1 cause particularly large energy reductions because they remove two favorable and approximately equal interactions between the aromatic ring and the quaternary amine of the agonist and between the hydroxyl and αLysβ7.

  3. Clinical experience of seropositive ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibody in a tertiary neurology referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuebing; Jammoul, Adham; Mente, Karin; Li, Jianbo; Shields, Robert W; Vernino, Steven; Rae-Grant, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Antibody against the acetylcholine receptor of autonomic ganglia (gAChR-Ab) is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) and several other disorders. This study was a retrospective evaluation of 95 patients positive for gAChR-Ab. Twenty-one (22%) patients had AAG, with a greater median gAChR-Ab level (0.21 nmol/L) and higher percentage (57%) of antibody levels >0.20 nmol/L when compared with the remaining 74 patients without autonomic manifestations (non-AAG group, 0.10 nmol/L and 15%, respectively). Only 2 new cases of malignancy were diagnosed after gAChR-Ab detection. The non-AAG group was associated with high frequencies of neurological and non-neurological autoimmunity, but also included 23 (31%) patients with mostly degenerative disorders. Detection of gAChR-Ab, especially at a higher level, is helpful for the diagnosis of AAG in patients with corresponding autonomic symptoms. However, its value is limited for predicting cancer risk and for diagnosis and management of patients without autonomic symptoms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Neuroplastic Changes underlying Alcohol and Nicotine Addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Anne Feduccia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Addictive drugs can activate systems involved in normal reward-related learning, creating long-lasting memories of the drug’s reinforcing effects and the environmental cues surrounding the experience. These memories significantly contribute to the maintenance of compulsive drug use as well as cue-induced relapse which can occur even after long periods of abstinence. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be a prominent molecular mechanism underlying drug-induced learning and memories. Ethanol and nicotine are both widely abused drugs that share a common molecular target in the brain, the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. The nAChRs are ligand-gated ion channels that are vastly distributed throughout the brain and play a key role in synaptic neurotransmission. In this review, we will delineate the role of nAChRs in the development of ethanol and nicotine addiction. We will characterize both ethanol and nicotine’s effects on nAChR-mediated synaptic transmission and plasticity in several key brain areas that are important for addiction. Finally, we will discuss some of the behavioral outcomes of drug-induced synaptic plasticity in animal models. An understanding of the molecular and cellular changes that occur following administration of ethanol and nicotine will lead to better therapeutic strategies.

  5. Ethanol decreases agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor clustering in C2C12 myotube culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, David B; Chamberlain, Kevin T; Shishido, Sonia; Grow, Wade A

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the effect of ethanol on skeletal muscle development using C2C12 cell culture. The ethanol concentrations of 10mM, 25mM, and 100mM, were tested because plasma samples of alcohol-dependent individuals fall within this range. We assessed two specific events in skeletal muscle development, the fusion of myoblasts to form myotubes and the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering associated with neuromuscular synapse formation. We report that ethanol does not effect myotube formation or the viability of myoblasts or myotubes in C2C12 cell culture. However, ethanol does effect AChR clustering on C2C12 myotubes. As motor neurons approach skeletal muscle during development, agrin is released by motor neurons and induces AChR clustering on muscle fibers. In our experiments, agrin was applied to cell cultures during the period when myoblasts fuse to form myotubes. In cell cultures exposed to ethanol during myotube formation, agrin-induced AChR clustering was decreased compared to untreated cultures. In cell cultures exposed to ethanol during myoblast proliferation, with ethanol removed during myotube formation, agrin-induced AChR clustering was unaffected. We conclude that exposure to a physiologically relevant concentration of ethanol during the specific period of myotube formation decreases agrin-induced AChR clustering. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonicotinoids target distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neurons, leading to differential risks to bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Christopher; Buckland, Stephen T.; Samson, Andrew J.; McArthur, Robin; Chamosa Pino, Victor; Bollan, Karen A.; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2016-04-01

    There is growing concern over the risk to bee populations from neonicotinoid insecticides and the long-term consequences of reduced numbers of insect pollinators to essential ecosystem services and food security. Our knowledge of the risk of neonicotinoids to bees is based on studies of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and these findings are extrapolated to clothianidin based on its higher potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This study addresses the specificity and consequences of all three neonicotinoids to determine their relative risk to bumblebees at field-relevant levels (2.5 ppb). We find compound-specific effects at all levels (individual cells, bees and whole colonies in semi-field conditions). Imidacloprid and clothianidin display distinct, overlapping, abilities to stimulate Kenyon cells, indicating the potential to differentially influence bumblebee behavior. Bee immobility was induced only by imidacloprid, and an increased vulnerability to clothianidin toxicity only occurred following chronic exposure to clothianidin or thiamethoxam. At the whole colony level, only thiamethoxam altered the sex ratio (more males present) and only clothianidin increased queen production. Finally, both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused deficits in colony strength, while no detrimental effects of clothianidin were observed. Given these findings, neonicotinoid risk needs to be considered independently for each compound and target species.

  7. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in cognitively intact subjects at an early stage of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Spiegel, Jörg; Brumberg, Joachim; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Marotta, Giorgio; Oishi, Naoya; Higuchi, Takahiro; Küsters, Sebastian; Schiller, Markus; Dillmann, Ulrich; van Dyck, Christopher H; Buck, Andreas; Herrmann, Ken; Schloegl, Susanne; Volkmann, Jens; Lassmann, Michael; Fassbender, Klaus; Lorenz, Reinhard; Samnick, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated in vivo brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) distribution in cognitively intact subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) at an early stage of the disease. Fourteen patients and 13 healthy subjects were imaged with single photon emission computed tomography and the radiotracer 5-[(123)I]iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine ([(123)I]5IA). Patients were selected according to several criteria, including short duration of motor signs (<7 years) and normal scores at an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. In PD patients, nAChR density was significantly higher in the putamen, the insular cortex and the supplementary motor area and lower in the caudate nucleus, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the middle temporal gyrus. Disease duration positively correlated with nAChR density in the putamen ipsilateral (ρ = 0.56, p < 0.05) but not contralateral (ρ = 0.49, p = 0.07) to the clinically most affected hemibody. We observed, for the first time in vivo, higher nAChR density in brain regions of the motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits of subjects with PD. Our findings support the notion of an up-regulated cholinergic activity at the striatal and possibly cortical level in cognitively intact PD patients at an early stage of disease.

  8. Nicotine increases GABAergic input on rat dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vázquez, F; Chavarría, K; Garduño, J; Hernández-López, S; Mihailescu, S P

    2014-12-15

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) contains large populations of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. This nucleus receives GABAergic inhibitory afferents from many brain areas and from DRN interneurons. Both GABAergic and 5-HT DRN neurons express functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotine increases 5-HT release and 5-HT DRN neuron discharge rate by stimulating postsynaptic nAChRs and by increasing glutamate and norepinephrine release inside DRN. However, the influence of nicotine on the GABAergic input to 5-HT DRN neurons was poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of nicotine on GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) of 5-HT DRN neurons and the subtype of nAChR(s) involved in this response. Experiments were performed in coronal slices obtained from young Wistar rats. GABAergic sIPSCs were recorded from post hoc-identified 5-HT DRN neurons with the whole cell voltage patch-clamp technique. Administration of nicotine (1 μM) increased sIPSC frequency in 72% of identified 5-HT DRN neurons. This effect was not reproduced by the α4β2 nAChR agonist RJR-2403 and was not influenced by TTX (1 μM). It was mimicked by the selective agonist for α7 nAChR, PNU-282987, and exacerbated by the positive allosteric modulator of the same receptor, PNU-120596. The nicotine-induced increase in sIPSC frequency was independent on voltage-gated calcium channels and dependent on Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). These results demonstrate that nicotine increases the GABAergic input to most 5-HT DRN neurons, by activating α7 nAChRs and producing CICR in DRN GABAergic terminals. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Stabilization of acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular synapse: the role of the nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, D A; Drachman, D B; Drachman, R J; Stanley, E F

    1992-05-29

    The majority of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at innervated neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are stable, with half-lives averaging about 11 days in rodent muscles. In addition to the stable AChRs, approximately 18% of AChRs at these innervated junctions are rapidly turned over (RTOs), with half lives of less than 24 h. We have postulated that RTOs may be precursors of stable AChRs, and that the motor nerve may influence their stabilization. This hypothesis was tested by: (i) labeling AChRs in mouse sternomastoid (SM) muscles with 125I-alpha-BuTx; (ii) denervating one SM muscle in each mouse, and (iii) following the fate of the labeled AChRs through a 5-day period when RTOs were either stabilized or degraded. The hypothesis predicts that denervation should preclude stabilization of RTOs, resulting in a deficit of stable AChRs in denervated muscles. The results showed a highly significant (P less than 0.002) deficit of stable AChRs in denervated as compared with innervated muscles. Control experiments excluded the possibility that this deficit could be attributed to independent accelerated degradation of either RTOs or pre-existing stable AChRs. The observed deficit was quantitatively consistent with the deficit predicted by a mathematical model based on interruption of stabilization following denervation. We conclude that: (i) the observed deficit after denervation of NMJs is due to failure of stabilization of pre-existing RTOs; (ii) RTOs at normally innervated NMJs are precursors of stable AChRs; (iii) stabilization occurs after the insertion of AChRs at NMJs, and (iv) motor nerves play a key role in stabilization of RTOs. The concept of receptor stabilization has important implications for understanding the biology of the neuromuscular junction and post-synaptic plasticity.

  10. Characteristics Of acetylcholine-receptor-antibody-negative myasthenia gravis in a South African cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Saif; Woodhall, Mark R; Vincent, Angela; Heckmann, Jeannine M

    2016-12-01

    In this study we determined the frequencies of antibodies (Abs) directed against muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) and lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) in the sera of a South African cohort with acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-antibody-negative generalized MG and determined outcomes to therapies. Sera negative by commercial AChR radioimmunoassay (RIA) were tested by MuSK RIA (n = 30; 2006-2012) and AChR, MuSK, and LRP4 RIA with or without cell-based assays (CBA) (n = 53; 2012-2015). AChR-Abs were detected in 4 of 53 and MuSK-Abs in 20 of 83 (24%) cases. Thirty-six of 53 (68%) were triple seronegative (triple-SNMG) for MuSK, AChR, and LRP4-Abs. When compared with triple-SNMG, individuals with MuSK-MG had a younger onset age (P = 0.008), a greater likelihood of African genetic ancestry (P = 0.008), and 4-fold higher odds of reaching MGFA grade IVB/V (P = 0.018), but were also 9-fold more likely to reach at least minimal manifestations status after ≥12 months of therapy (P = 0.003). Individuals with African genetic ancestry and severe bulbar/respiratory AChR-Ab-negative MG are likely to have MuSK-MG, but most respond favorably to maintenance immunotherapies. Muscle Nerve 54: 1023-1029, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. N-methyl serotonin analogues from the Bufo bufo toad venom interact efficiently with the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukova, E V; Lebedev, D S; Ivanov, I A; Ivanov, D A; Starkov, V G; Tsetlin, V I; Utkin, Yu N

    2017-01-01

    Two low-molecular-weight compounds were isolated from the parotid gland secret of the toad Bufo bufo, which by absorption spectra and HPLC-MS/MS chromatography data correspond to di- and trimethyl derivatives of serotonin (5-hydorxytryptamine): bufotenine (confirmed by counter synthesis) and bufotenidine (5-HTQ). In experiments on competitive radioligand binding, these compounds showed a higher affinity and selectivity for neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors compared with the muscular cholinergic receptors. The most efficient compound in terms of binding value was bufotenine, the efficiency of 5-HTQ was an order of magnitude lower, and the minimal activity was exhibited by serotonin.

  12. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced...... PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801...

  13. Effects of neostigmine and atropine on basal and handling-induced acetylcholine output from ventral hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, E; Schirm, Eric; Jacsó, J; Westerink, B.H.C.

    The involvement of muscarinic autoreceptors in the regulation of hippocampal acetylcholine levels during acetylcholinesterase inhibition was examined by perfusing the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine bromide(10, 100 or 1000 nM) alone and in the presence of the muscarinic receptor

  14. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are expressed by most parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in area MT of the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Anita A; Alasady, Hussein A; Reynolds, John H

    2014-05-01

    In the mammalian neocortex, cells that express parvalbumin (PV neurons) comprise a dominant class of inhibitory neuron that substantially overlaps with the fast/narrow-spiking physiological phenotype. Attention has pronounced effects on narrow-spiking neurons in the extrastriate cortex of macaques, and more consistently so than on their broad-spiking neighbors. Cortical neuromodulation by acetylcholine (ACh) is a candidate mechanism for aspects of attention and in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the macaque, receptors for ACh (AChRs) are strongly expressed by inhibitory neurons. In particular, most PV neurons in macaque V1 express m1 muscarinic AChRs and exogenously applied ACh can cause the release of γ-aminobutyric acid. In contrast, few PV neurons in rat V1 express m1 AChRs. While this could be a species difference, it has also been argued that macaque V1 is anatomically unique when compared with other cortical areas in macaques. The aim of this study was to better understand the extent to which V1 offers a suitable model circuit for cholinergic anatomy in the macaque occipital lobe, and to explore cholinergic modulation as a biological basis for the changes in circuit behavior seen with attention. We compared expression of m1 AChRs by PV neurons between area V1 and the middle temporal visual area (MT) in macaque monkeys using dual-immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. We find that, as in V1, most PV neurons in MT express m1 AChRs but, unlike in V1, it appears that so do most excitatory neurons. This provides support for V1 as a model of cholinergic modulation of inhibition in macaque visual cortex, but not of cholinergic modulation of visual cortical circuits in general. We also propose that ACh acting via m1 AChRs is a candidate underlying mechanism for the strong effects of attention on narrow-spiking neurons observed in behaving animals.

  15. Chronic nicotine modifies skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase activity through its interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and phospholemman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Chibalin

    Full Text Available Our previous finding that the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR and the Na,K-ATPase interact as a regulatory complex to modulate Na,K-ATPase activity suggested that chronic, circulating nicotine may alter this interaction, with long-term changes in the membrane potential. To test this hypothesis, we chronically exposed rats to nicotine delivered orally for 21-31 days. Chronic nicotine produced a steady membrane depolarization of ∼3 mV in the diaphragm muscle, which resulted from a net change in electrogenic transport by the Na,K-ATPase α2 and α1 isoforms. Electrogenic transport by the α2 isoform increased (+1.8 mV while the activity of the α1 isoform decreased (-4.4 mV. Protein expression of Na,K-ATPase α1 or α2 isoforms and the nAChR did not change; however, the content of α2 subunit in the plasma membrane decreased by 25%, indicating that its stimulated electrogenic transport is due to an increase in specific activity. The physical association between the nAChR, the Na,K-ATPase α1 or α2 subunits, and the regulatory subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, phospholemman (PLM, measured by co-immuno precipitation, was stable and unchanged. Chronic nicotine treatment activated PKCα/β2 and PKCδ and was accompanied by parallel increases in PLM phosphorylation at Ser(63 and Ser(68. Collectively, these results demonstrate that nicotine at chronic doses, acting through the nAChR-Na,K-ATPase complex, is able to modulate Na,K-ATPase activity in an isoform-specific manner and that the regulatory range includes both stimulation and inhibition of enzyme activity. Cholinergic modulation of Na,K-ATPase activity is achieved, in part, through activation of PKC and phosphorylation of PLM.

  16. Agonist and antagonist effects of tobacco-related nitrosamines on human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eBrusco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the ‘neuronal’ nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs is implicated in both tobacco addiction and smoking-dependent tumor promotion. Some of these effects are caused by the tobacco-derived N-nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic compounds that avidly bind to nAChRs. However, the functional effects of these drugs on specific nAChR subtypes are largely unknown. By using patch-clamp methods, we tested 4-(methylnitrosamine-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN on human α4β2 nAChRs. These latter are widely distributed in the mammalian brain and are also frequently expressed outside the nervous system. NNK behaved as a partial agonist, with an apparent EC50 of 16.7 μM. At 100 μM, it activated 16 % of the maximal current activated by nicotine. When NNK was co-applied with nicotine, it potentiated the currents elicited by nicotine concentrations ≤ 100 nM. At higher concentrations of nicotine, NNK always inhibited the α4β2 nAChR. In contrast, NNN was a pure inhibitor of this nAChR subtype, with IC50 of approximately 1 nM in the presence of 10 μM nicotine. The effects of both NNK and NNN were mainly competitive and largely independent of Vm. The different actions of NNN and NNK must be taken into account when interpreting their biological effects in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Taurolithocholic acid promotes intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell growth via muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonyingcharoen, Sumet; Suriyo, Tawit; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant cancer of the biliary tract and its occurrence is associated with chronic cholestasis which causes an elevation of bile acids in the liver and bile duct. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanistic effect of bile acids on the CCA cell growth. Intrahepatic CCA cell lines, RMCCA-1 and HuCCA-1, were treated with bile acids and their metabolites to determine the growth promoting effect. Cell viability, cell cycle analysis, EdU incorporation assays were conducted. Intracellular signaling proteins were detected by western immunoblotting. Among eleven forms of bile acids and their metabolites, only taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) concentration dependently (1-40 µM) increased the cell viability of RMCCA-1, but not HuCCA-1 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed induction of cells in the S phase and the EdU incorporation assay revealed induction of DNA synthesis in the TLCA-treated RMCCA-1 cells. Moreover, TLCA increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK 1/2 and also increased the expression of cyclin D1 in RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, TLCA-induced RMCCA-1 cell growth could be inhibited by atropine, a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, AG 1478, a specific EGFR inhibitor, or U 0126, a specific MEK 1/2 inhibitor. These results suggest that TLCA induces CCA cell growth via mAChR and EGFR/EKR1/2 signaling pathway. Moreover, the functional presence of cholinergic system plays a certain role in TLCA-induced CCA cell growth.

  18. Antipsychotic drug-like effects of the selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator VU0152100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Nellie E; Grannan, Michael; Bubser, Michael; Barry, Robert L; Thompson, Analisa; Rosanelli, John; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Damon, Stephen; Bridges, Thomas M; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Brogan, John T; Avison, Malcolm J; Deutch, Ariel Y; Wess, Jürgen; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Gore, John C; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that selective M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activators may offer a novel strategy for the treatment of psychosis. However, previous efforts to develop selective M4 activators were unsuccessful because of the lack of M4 mAChR subtype specificity and off-target muscarinic adverse effects. We recently developed VU0152100, a highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that exerts central effects after systemic administration. We now report that VU0152100 dose-dependently reverses amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats and wild-type mice, but not in M4 KO mice. VU0152100 also blocks amphetamine-induced disruption of the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These effects were observed at doses that do not produce catalepsy or peripheral adverse effects associated with non-selective mAChR agonists. To further understand the effects of selective potentiation of M4 on region-specific brain activation, VU0152100 alone and in combination with amphetamine were evaluated using pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). Key neural substrates of M4-mediated modulation of the amphetamine response included the nucleus accumbens (NAS), caudate-putamen (CP), hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Functional connectivity analysis of phMRI data, specifically assessing correlations in activation between regions, revealed several brain networks involved in the M4 modulation of amphetamine-induced brain activation, including the NAS and retrosplenial cortex with motor cortex, hippocampus, and medial thalamus. Using in vivo microdialysis, we found that VU0152100 reversed amphetamine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine levels in NAS and CP. The present data are consistent with an antipsychotic drug-like profile of activity for VU0152100. Taken together, these data support the development of selective M4 PAMs as a new approach to the treatment of psychosis

  19. The Dinoflagellate Toxin 20-Methyl Spirolide-G Potently Blocks Skeletal Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Couesnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic imine toxin 20-methyl spirolide G (20-meSPX-G, produced by the toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii/Alexandrium peruvianum, has been previously reported to contaminate shellfish in various European coastal locations, as revealed by mouse toxicity bioassay. The aim of the present study was to determine its toxicological profile and its molecular target selectivity. 20-meSPX-G blocked nerve-evoked isometric contractions in isolated mouse neuromuscular preparations, while it had no action on contractions elicited by direct electrical stimulation, and reduced reversibly nerve-evoked compound muscle action potential amplitudes in anesthetized mice. Voltage-clamp recordings in Xenopus oocytes revealed that 20-meSPX-G potently inhibited currents evoked by ACh on Torpedo muscle-type and human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR, whereas lower potency was observed in human α4β2 nAChR. Competition-binding assays showed that 20-meSPX-G fully displaced [3H]epibatidine binding to HEK-293 cells expressing the human α3β2 (Ki = 0.040 nM, whereas a 90-fold lower affinity was detected in human α4β2 nAChR. The spirolide displaced [125I]α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo membranes (Ki = 0.028 nM and in HEK-293 cells expressing chick chimeric α7-5HT3 nAChR (Ki = 0.11 nM. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that 20-meSPX-G is a potent antagonist of nAChRs, and its subtype selectivity is discussed on the basis of molecular docking models.

  20. Acetylcholine release in mouse hippocampal CA1 preferentially activates inhibitory-selective interneurons via alpha4 beta2* nicotinic receptor activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Andrew Bell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh release onto nicotinic receptors directly activates subsets of inhibitory interneurons in hippocampal CA1. However, the specific interneurons activated and their effect on the hippocampal network is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated subsets of hippocampal CA1 interneurons that respond to ACh release through the activation of nicotinic receptors and the potential downstream effects this may have on hippocampal CA1 network function. ACh was optogenetically released in mouse hippocampal slices by expressing the excitatory optogenetic protein oChIEF-tdTomato in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca cholinergic neurons using Cre recombinase-dependent adeno-associated viral mediated transfection. The actions of optogenetically released ACh were assessed on both pyramidal neurons and different interneuron subtypes via whole cell patch clamp methods. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP-expressing interneurons that selectively innervate other interneurons (VIP/IS were excited by ACh through the activation of nicotinic receptors containing alpah4 and beta2 subunits (alpha4 beta2*. ACh release onto VIP/IS was presynaptically inhibited by M2 muscarinic autoreceptors. ACh release produced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC barrages blocked by dihydro-beta-erythroidine in interneurons but not pyramidal neurons. Optogenetic suppression of VIP interneurons did not inhibit these sIPSC barrages suggesting other interneuron-selective interneurons were also excited by 42* nicotinic receptor activation. In contrast, interneurons that innervate pyramidal neuron perisomatic regions were not activated by ACh release onto nicotinic receptors. Therefore, we propose ACh release in CA1 facilitates disinhibition through activation of 42* nicotinic receptors on interneuron-selective interneurons whereas interneurons that innervate pyramidal neurons are less affected by nicotinic receptor activation.

  1. Activation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtype 4 is Essential for Cholinergic Stimulation of Gastric Acid Secretion - Relation To D Cell/Somatostatin -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Takeuchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground/Aim: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in five subtypes (M1~M5, and they are widely expressed in various tissues to mediate diverse autonomic functions, including gastric secretion. In the present study, we demonstrated, using M1~M5 KO mice, the importance of M4 receptors in carbachol (CCh stimulation of acid secretion and investigated how the secretion is modulated by the activation of M4 receptors. Methods: C57BL/6J mice of wild-type (WT and M1-M5 KO were used. Under urethane anesthesia, acid secretion was measured in the stomach equipped with an acute fistula. CCh (30 µg/kg was given s.c. to stimulate acid secretion. Atropine or octreotide (a somatostatin analogue was given s.c. 20 min before the administration of CCh. CYN154806 (a somatostatin SST2 receptor antagonist was given i.p. 20 min before the administration of octreotide or CCh. Results: CCh caused an increase of acid secretion in WT mice, and the effect was totally inhibited by prior administration of atropine. The effect of CCh was similarly observed in the animals lacking M1, M2 or M5 receptors but significantly decreased in M3 or M4 KO mice. CYN154806, the SST2 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently and significantly reversed the decreased acid response to CCh in M4 but not M3 KO mice. Octreotide, the somatostatin analogue, inhibited the secretion of acid under CCh-stimulated conditions in WT mice. The immunohistochemical study showed the localization of M4 receptors on D cells in the stomach. Serum somatostatin levels in M4 KO mice were higher than WT mice under basal conditions, while those in WT mice were significantly decreased in response to CCh. Conclusions: These results suggest that under cholinergic stimulation the acid secretion is directly mediated by M3 receptors and indirectly modified by M4 receptors. It is assumed that the activation of M4 receptors inhibits the release of somatostatin from D cells and minimizes the acid inhibitory effect

  2. Affinities of bispyridinium non-oxime compounds to [(3)H]epibatidine binding sites of Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors depend on linker length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, K V; Seeger, T; Tattersall, J E H; Timperley, C M; Bird, M; Green, C; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2013-12-05

    The toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents or pesticides arises from accumulation of acetylcholine and overstimulation of both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Standard treatment by administration of atropine and oximes, e.g., obidoxime or pralidoxime, focuses on antagonism of mAChRs and reactivation of AChE, whereas nicotinic malfunction is not directly treated. An alternative approach would be to use nAChR active substances to counteract the effects of accumulated acetylcholine. Promising in vitro and in vivo results were obtained with the bispyridinium compounds SAD-128 (1,1'-oxydimethylene bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) dichloride) and MB327 (1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) di(iodide)), which were partly attributed to their interaction with nAChRs. In this study, a homologous series of unsubstituted and 4-tert-butyl-substituted bispyridinium compounds with different alkane linker lengths was investigated in competition binding experiments using [(3)H]epibatidine as a reporter ligand. Additionally, the effect of the well-characterised MB327 on the [(3)H]epibatidine equilibrium dissociation (KD) constant in different buffers was determined. This study demonstrated that divalent cations increased the affinity of [(3)H]epibatidine. Since quaternary ammonium molecules are known to inhibit AChE, the obtained affinity constants of the tested bispyridinium compounds were compared with the inhibition of human AChE. In competition experiments, bispyridinium derivatives of longer linker length displaced [(3)H]epibatidine and inhibited AChE strongly. Bispyridinium compounds with short linkers, at most, have an allosteric interaction with the [(3)H]epibatidine binding sites and barely inhibited AChE. In dependence on alkane linker length, the bispyridinium compounds seemed to interact at different binding sites. However, the exact binding sites of the bispyridinium

  3. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse, and Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as “dopamine based”. There are five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1 to M5). Due to their overlapping expression patterns and the lack of receptor subtype-specific ligands, the roles of the individual muscarinic receptors have long remained elusive. During the past decade, studies with knockout mice lacking specific muscarinic receptor subtypes have greatly advanced our knowledge of the physiological roles of the M1–M5 receptors. Recently, new ligands have been developed that can interact with allosteric sites on different muscarinic receptor subtypes, rather than the conventional (orthosteric) acetylcholine binding site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse, and Parkinson’s disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knockout mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess the roles of M1, M4, and M5 receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the central nervous system. PMID:22389751

  4. Colorimetric microtiter plate receptor-binding assay for the detection of freshwater and marine neurotoxins targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Fernando; Kamp, Lisa; Carpino, Justin; Faltin, Erin; Loftin, Keith A.; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo

    2014-01-01

    Anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a, produced by cyanobacteria, are agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Pinnatoxins, spirolides, and gymnodimines, produced by dinoflagellates, are antagonists of nAChRs. In this study we describe the development and validation of a competitive colorimetric, high throughput functional assay based on the mechanism of action of freshwater and marine toxins against nAChRs. Torpedo electrocyte membranes (rich in muscle-type nAChR) were immobilized and stabilized on the surface of 96-well microtiter plates. Biotinylated α-bungarotoxin (the tracer) and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (the detector) enabled the detection and quantitation of anatoxin-a in surface waters and cyclic imine toxins in shellfish extracts that were obtained from different locations across the US. The method compares favorably to LC/MS/MS and provides accurate results for anatoxin-a and cyclic imine toxins monitoring. Study of common constituents at the concentrations normally found in drinking and environmental waters, as well as the tolerance to pH, salt, solvents, organic and inorganic compounds did not significantly affect toxin detection. The assay allowed the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 samples within 3.5 h and it is well suited for on-site or laboratory monitoring of low levels of toxins in drinking, surface, and ground water as well as in shellfish extracts.

  5. Pharmacogenetic study of seven polymorphisms in three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in smoking-cessation therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintarelli, Giulia; Galvan, Antonella; Pozzi, Paolo; Noci, Sara; Pasetti, Giovanna; Sala, Francesca; Pastorino, Ugo; Boffi, Roberto; Colombo, Francesca

    2017-12-01

    Smoking-cessation therapy reduces the risk of smoking-related diseases, but is successful only in a fraction of smokers. There is growing evidence that genetic variations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits influence the risk of nicotine dependence and the ability to quit smoking. To investigate the role of polymorphisms in nAChR genes on smoking quantity and the outcome of smoking-cessation therapies, we carried out an association study on 337 smokers who underwent pharmacotherapy with varenicline, bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) alone, or NRT plus bupropion. Smoking habit and abstention were assessed from the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and the exhaled CO (eCO), at baseline and up to 12 months. We genotyped seven polymorphisms in genes encoding the nAChR subunits CHRNA4, CHRNA5, and CHRNB2. At baseline, both CPD and eCO were associated with polymorphisms in the CHRNA5 locus (rs503464, rs55853698, rs55781567 and rs16969968; P < 0.01). rs503464, a variant in the 5'-UTR of CHRNA5, was also associated with short-, mid- and long-term responses to therapy (P = 0.011, P = 0.0043, P = 0.020, respectively), although after correction for multiple testing only the association at the mid-term assessment remained significant (FDR = 0.03). These data support the role of individual genetic makeup in the ability to quit smoking.

  6. Cloning and structural analysis of partial acetylcholine receptor subunit genes from the parasitic nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Hoekstra, R; Roos, M H; Wiley, L J; Weiss, A S; Sangster, N C; Tait, A

    2001-06-28

    Nematode nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the sites of action for the anthelmintic drug levamisole. Recent findings indicate that the molecular mechanism of levamisole resistance may involve changes in the number and/or functions of target nAChRs. Accordingly, we have used an RT-PCR approach to isolate and characterise partial cDNA clones (tca-1 and tca-2) encoding putative nAChR subunits from the economically important trichostrongyloid, Teladorsagia circumcincta. The predicted tca-1 gene product is a 248 aa fragment (TCA-1) which contains structural motifs typical of ligand-binding (alpha-) subunits, and which shows very high sequence similarities (98.8 and 97.2% amino acid identities) to the alpha-subunits encoded by tar-1 and hca-1 from Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus, respectively. Sequence analyses of partial tca-1 cDNAs from one levamisole-resistant and two susceptible populations of T. circumcincta revealed polymorphism at the predicted amino acid level, but there was no apparent association of any particular tca-1 allele with resistance. tca-2 encodes a 67 aa fragment (TCA-2) containing the TM4 transmembrane domain and carboxyl terminus of a putative nAChR structural (non-alpha) subunit. The deduced amino acid sequence of TCA-2 shows highest similarity (75% amino acid identity) to ACR-2, a structural subunit involved in forming levamisole-gated ion channels in Caenorhabditis elegans, but low similarity (43% identity) to the corresponding regions of TAR-1 and HCA-1. tca-2 is the first nAChR subunit gene of this type to be isolated from parasitic nematodes, and it provides a basis for further characterisation of structural subunits in trichostrongyloids.

  7. 3-Pyridyl ethers as SPECT radioligands for imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, D.J.; Eberl, S.; Thomson, S.; Smith, A.; Allan, R.D.; Fulham, M.J.; Loiacono, R.; Kassiou, M. E-mail: mkassiou@med.usyd.edu.au

    2004-05-01

    To develop a suitable single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radioligand for neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that displays faster in vivo kinetics than 5-[{sup 123}I]iodo-A-85380, we synthesised the radioiodinated analogue of A-84543. 5-[{sup 123}I]Iodo-A-84543 was prepared by electrophilic iododestannylation in a modest yield of 23%. In the baboon brain, 5-[{sup 123}I]iodo-A-85380 displayed a profile consistent with the known distribution of nAChRs, however, 5-[{sup 123}I]iodo-A-84543 displayed a homogenous uptake with no preferential localisation in regions known to contain nAChRs. To examine the effect of halogen substitution on the 3-pyridyl ether, A-84543, the 5-chloro, 5-bromo and 5-iodo analogues were synthesised and evaluated with respect to nAChR binding. In vitro binding data revealed that halogen substitution at the 5-position of A-84543 was not well tolerated with an increase in halogen size resulting in lower binding towards nAChRs. The 5-chloro analogue 4 displayed highest affinity, K{sub i}=1.3 nM, compared to the 5-bromo and 5-iodo compounds, 5 K{sub i}=3.3 nM and 3 K{sub i}=40.8 nM, respectively. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that 5-[{sup 123}I]iodo-A-84543 is not suitable for the study of nAChRs in vivo using SPECT.

  8. Orthosteric and Allosteric Ligands of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors for Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim S. Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine addiction, the result of tobacco use, leads to over six million premature deaths world-wide, a number that is expected to increase by a third within the next two decades. While more than half of smokers want and attempt to quit, only a small percentage of smokers are able to quit without pharmacological interventions. Therefore, over the past decades, researchers in academia and the pharmaceutical industry have focused their attention on the development of more effective smoking cessation therapies, which is now a growing 1.9 billion dollar market. Because the role of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR in nicotine addiction is well established, nAChR based therapeutics remain the leading strategy for smoking cessation. However, the development of neuronal nAChR drugs that are selective for a nAChR subpopulation is challenging, and only few neuronal nAChR drugs are clinically available. Among the many neuronal nAChR subtypes that have been identified in the brain, the α4β2 subtype is the most abundant and plays a critical role in nicotine addiction. Here, we review the role of neuronal nAChRs, especially the α4β2 subtype, in the development and treatment of nicotine addiction. We also compare available smoking cessation medications and other nAChR orthosteric and allosteric ligands that have been developed with emphasis on the difficulties faced in the development of clinically useful compounds with high nAChR subtype selectivity.

  9. Minor structural changes in nicotinoid insecticides confer differential subtype selectivity for mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E

    1999-01-01

    The major nitroimine insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) and the nicotinic analgesics epibatidine and ABT-594 contain the 6-chloro-3-pyridinyl moiety important for high activity and/or selectivity. ABT-594 has considerable nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtype specificity which might carry over to the chloropyridinyl insecticides. This study considers nine IMI analogues for selectivity in binding to immuno-isolated α1, α3 and α7 containing nicotinic AChRs and to purported α4β2 nicotinic AChRs.α1- and α3-Containing nicotinic AChRs (both immuno-isolated by mAb 35, from Torpedo and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, respectively) are between two and four times more sensitive to DN-IMI than to (−)-nicotine.With immuno-isolated α3 nicotinic AChRs, the tetrahydropyrimidine analogues of IMI with imine or nitromethylene substituents are 3–4 fold less active than (−)-nicotine. The structure-activity profile with α3 nicotinic AChRs from binding assays is faithfully reproduced in agonist potency as induction of 86rubidium ion efflux in intact cells.α7-Containing nicotinic AChRs of SH-SY5Y cells (immuno-isolated by mAb 306) and rat brain membranes show maximum sensitivity to the tetrahydropyrimidine analogue of IMI with the nitromethylene substituent.The purported α4β2 nicotinic AChRs [mouse (Chao & Casida, 1997) and rat brain] are similar in sensitivity to DN-IMI, the tetrahydropyrimidine nitromethylene and nicotine.The commercial insecticides (IMI, acetamiprid and nitenpyram) have low to moderate potency at the α3 and purported α4β2 nicotinic AChRs and are essentially inactive at α1 and α7 nicotinic AChRs.In conclusion, the toxicity of the analogues and metabolites of nicotinoid insecticides in mammals may involve action at multiple receptor subtypes with selectivity conferred by minor structural changes. PMID:10369463

  10. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chuan-Xi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs mediate fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the insect central nervous system. The insect nAChR is the molecular target of a class of insecticides, neonicotinoids. Like mammalian nAChRs, insect nAChRs are considered to be made up of five subunits, coded by homologous genes belonging to the same family. The nAChR subunit genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera and Anopheles gambiae have been cloned previously based on their genome sequences. The silkworm Bombyx mori is a model insect of Lepidoptera, among which are many agricultural pests. Identification and characterization of B. mori nAChR genes could provide valuable basic information for this important family of receptor genes and for the study of the molecular mechanisms of neonicotinoid action and resistance. Results We searched the genome sequence database of B. mori with the fruit fly and honeybee nAChRs by tBlastn and cloned all putative silkworm nAChR cDNAs by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE methods. B. mori appears to have the largest known insect nAChR gene family to date, including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. The silkworm possesses three genes having low identity with others, including one α and two β subunits, α9, β2 and β3. Like the fruit fly and honeybee counterparts, silkworm nAChR gene α6 has RNA-editing sites, and α4, α6 and α8 undergo alternative splicing. In particular, alternative exon 7 of Bmα8 may have arisen from a recent duplication event. Truncated transcripts were found for Bmα4 and Bmα5. Conclusion B. mori possesses a largest known insect nAChR gene family characterized to date, including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. RNA-editing, alternative splicing and truncated transcripts were found in several subunit genes, which might enhance the diversity of the gene family.

  11. Acotiamide Hydrochloride, a Therapeutic Agent for Functional Dyspepsia, Enhances Acetylcholine-induced Contraction via Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Circular Muscle Strips of Guinea Pig Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Kawachi, M; Matsunaga, Y; Hori, Y; Ozaki, T; Nagahama, K; Hirayama, M; Kawabata, Y; Shiraishi, Y; Takei, M; Tanaka, T

    2016-04-01

    Acotiamide is a first-in-class prokinetic drug approved in Japan for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Given that acotiamide enhances gastric motility in conscious dogs and rats, we assessed the in vitro effects of this drug on the contraction of guinea pig stomach strips and on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in stomach homogenate following fundus removal. We also investigated the serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist mosapride, dopamine D2 receptor and AChE inhibitor itopride, and representative AChE inhibitor neostigmine. Acotiamide (0.3 and 1 μM) and itopride (1 and 3 μM) significantly enhanced the contraction of gastric body strips induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), but mosapride (1 and 10 μM) did not. Acotiamide and itopride significantly enhanced the contraction of gastric body and antrum strips induced by acetylcholine (ACh), but not that induced by carbachol (CCh). Neostigmine also significantly enhanced the contraction of gastric body strips induced by ACh, but not that by CCh. In contrast, mosapride failed to enhance contractions induced by either ACh or CCh in gastric antrum strips. Acotiamide exerted mixed inhibition of AChE, and the percentage inhibition of acotiamide (100 μM) against AChE activity was markedly reduced after the reaction mixture was dialyzed. In contrast, itopride exerted noncompetitive inhibition on AChE activity. These results indicate that acotiamide enhances ACh-dependent contraction in gastric strips of guinea pigs via the inhibition of AChE activity, and that it exerts mixed and reversible inhibition of AChE derived from guinea pig stomach. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. State of the art on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the insect brain and the most numerous acetylcholine receptors are the nicotinic ones (nAChRs). The genome sequencing of diverse insect species has demonstrated the existence of at least 10 nAChR genes coding for alpha and beta subunits, suggesting the existence in the insect CNS of several subtypes ofnAChRs whose molecular composition and pharmacological properties are still unknown. Insect nAChRs have given rise to an abundance of literature about their sensitivity to neonicotinoid insecticides but only limited data are available on the functional role of nAChRs in insect cognitive functions. The data we have collected on honeybees are the only data that shed light on the role of nAChRs in learning and memory processes. The behavioral response of proboscis extension (PER), which appears when the honeybee perceives sugar, was used to quantify learning and memory performances in associative and non-associative learning procedures. Habituation of the PER, which consists in ceasing to respond to sucrose upon repetitive antennal sucrose stimulation, was facilitated by the injection into the brain of one of the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine, alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BGT) or methyllycaconitine (MLA). Pavlovian associative protocol was used to condition the PER to olfactory or tactile stimulus after single- or multiple-trial training. Localized brain injections of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine were performed before or after one-trial olfactory learning in the mushroom bodies (MB), the integrative structures of the insect brain. The results showed that the calical input structures of the MB are necessary for the acquisition processes and the output a-lobe regions are involved in retrieval processes. Brain injection of one of the three nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine, alpha-BGT and MLA was combined with single- and multiple-trial olfactory and tactile learning and memory performances were

  13. Mutation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β subunit is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Puinean, Alin M; Andrews, Melanie; Cutler, Penny; Daniels, Miriam; Elias, Jan; Paul, Verity Laura; Crossthwaite, Andrew J; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Foster, Stephen P; Lind, Rob; Williamson, Martin S; Slater, Russell

    2011-05-31

    Myzus persicae is a globally important aphid pest with a history of developing resistance to insecticides. Unusually, neonicotinoids have remained highly effective as control agents despite nearly two decades of steadily increasing use. In this study, a clone of M. persicae collected from southern France was found, for the first time, to exhibit sufficiently strong resistance to result in loss of the field effectiveness of neonicotinoids. Bioassays, metabolism and gene expression studies implied the presence of two resistance mechanisms in the resistant clone, one based on enhanced detoxification by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and another unaffected by a synergist that inhibits detoxifying enzymes. Binding of radiolabeled imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) to whole body membrane preparations showed that the high affinity [3H]-imidacloprid binding site present in susceptible M. persicae is lost in the resistant clone and the remaining lower affinity site is altered compared to susceptible clones. This confers a significant overall reduction in binding affinity to the neonicotinoid target: the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of six nAChR subunit (Mpα1-5 and Mpβ1) genes from resistant and susceptible aphid clones revealed a single point mutation in the loop D region of the nAChR β1 subunit of the resistant clone, causing an arginine to threonine substitution (R81T). Previous studies have shown that the amino acid at this position within loop D is a key determinant of neonicotinoid binding to nAChRs and this amino acid change confers a vertebrate-like character to the insect nAChR receptor and results in reduced sensitivity to neonicotinoids. The discovery of the mutation at this position and its association with the reduced affinity of the nAChR for imidacloprid is the first example of field-evolved target-site resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides and also provides further validation of exisiting models of

  14. Mutation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β subunit is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Field Linda M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myzus persicae is a globally important aphid pest with a history of developing resistance to insecticides. Unusually, neonicotinoids have remained highly effective as control agents despite nearly two decades of steadily increasing use. In this study, a clone of M. persicae collected from southern France was found, for the first time, to exhibit sufficiently strong resistance to result in loss of the field effectiveness of neonicotinoids. Results Bioassays, metabolism and gene expression studies implied the presence of two resistance mechanisms in the resistant clone, one based on enhanced detoxification by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and another unaffected by a synergist that inhibits detoxifying enzymes. Binding of radiolabeled imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid to whole body membrane preparations showed that the high affinity [3H]-imidacloprid binding site present in susceptible M. persicae is lost in the resistant clone and the remaining lower affinity site is altered compared to susceptible clones. This confers a significant overall reduction in binding affinity to the neonicotinoid target: the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of six nAChR subunit (Mpα1-5 and Mpβ1 genes from resistant and susceptible aphid clones revealed a single point mutation in the loop D region of the nAChR β1 subunit of the resistant clone, causing an arginine to threonine substitution (R81T. Conclusion Previous studies have shown that the amino acid at this position within loop D is a key determinant of neonicotinoid binding to nAChRs and this amino acid change confers a vertebrate-like character to the insect nAChR receptor and results in reduced sensitivity to neonicotinoids. The discovery of the mutation at this position and its association with the reduced affinity of the nAChR for imidacloprid is the first example of field-evolved target-site resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides and also

  15. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture alters acetylcholine receptor expression in the neuromuscular junction of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

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    Hai-peng Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies have been shown to form against the nicotinic acetylcholine nicotinic postsynaptic receptors located at the neuromuscular junction. "Warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment has been shown to reduce serum inflammatory cytokine expression and increase transforming growth factor beta expression in rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. However, few studies have addressed the effects of this type of acupuncture on the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the area and density of immunoreactivity for an antibody to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction in the phrenic nerve of rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis following "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture therapy. Needles were inserted at acupressure points Shousanli (LI10, Zusanli (ST36, Pishu (BL20, and Shenshu (BL23 once daily for 7 consecutive days. The treatment was repeated after 1 day of rest. We found that area and the integrated optical density of the immunoreactivity for the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of the phrenic nerve was significantly increased following acupuncture treatment. This outcome of the acupuncture therapy was similar to that of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide. These findings suggest that "warming yang and invigorating qi" acupuncture treatment increases acetylcholine receptor expression at the neuromuscular junction in a rat model of autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

  16. M3 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor promotes cardioprotection via the suppression of miR-376b-5p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Pan

    Full Text Available The M(3 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M(3-mAChR plays a protective role in myocardial ischemia and microRNAs (miRNAs participate in many cardiac pathophysiological processes, including ischemia-induced cardiac injury. However, the role of miRNAs in M(3-mAChR mediated cardioprotection remains unexplored. The present study was designed to identify miRNAs that are involved in cardioprotective effects of M(3-mAChR against myocardial ischemia and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. We established rat model of myocardial ischemia and performed miRNA microarray analysis to identify miRNAs involved in the cardioprotection of M(3-mAChR. In H9c2 cells, the viability, intracellular free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]i, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, miR-376b-5p expression level, brain derived neurophic factor (BDNF and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB levels were measured. Our results demonstrated that M(3-mAChR protected myocardial ischemia injury. Microarray analysis and qRT-PCR revealed that miR-376b-5p was significantly up-regulated in ischemic heart tissue and the M(3-mAChRs agonist choline reversed its up-regulation. In vitro, miR-376b-5p promoted H(2O(2-induced H9c2 cell injuries measured by cells viability, [Ca(2+]i and ROS. Western blot and luciferase assay identified BDNF as a direct target of miR-376b-5p. M(3-mAChR activated NF-κB and thereby inhibited miR-376b-5p expression. Our data show that a novel M(3-mAChR/NF-κB/miR-376b-5p/BDNF axis plays an important role in modulating cardioprotection. MiR-376b-5p promotes myocardial ischemia injury possibly by inhibiting BDNF expression and M(3-mAChR provides cardioprotection at least partially mediated by the downregulation of miR-376b-5p through NF-κB. These findings provide new insight into the potential mechanism by which M(3-mAChR provides cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia injury.

  17. Central loop of non-conventional toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia is important for interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Kasheverov, Igor E; Chugunov, Anton O; Kulbatskii, Dmitrii S; Myshkin, Mikhail Yu; Utkin, Yuri N; Efremov, Roman G; Tsetlin, Victor I; Arseniev, Alexander S; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Dolgikh, Dmitry A

    2016-09-01

    'Three-finger' toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia interacts with nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and mAChRs). Mutagenesis and competition experiments with (125)I-α-bungarotoxin revealed that Arg31 and Arg32 residues from the WTX loop II are important for binding to Torpedo californica and human α7 nAChRs. Computer modeling suggested that loop II occupies the orthosteric binding site at α7 nAChR. The similar toxin interface was previously described as a major determinant of allosteric interactions with mAChRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterodimerization of Dibenzodiazepinone-Type Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Ligands Leads to Increased M2R Affinity and Selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    She, Xueke; Pegoli, Andrea; Mayr, Judith; Hübner, Harald; Bernhardt, Günther; Gmeiner, Peter; Keller, Max

    2017-01-01

    In search for selective ligands for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (MR) subtype M2, the dimeric ligand approach, that is combining two pharmacophores in one and the same molecule, was pursued. Different types (agonists, antagonists, orthosteric, and allosteric) of monomeric MR ligands were combined by various linkers with a dibenzodiazepinone-type MR antagonist, affording five types of heterodimeric compounds (“DIBA-xanomeline,” “DIBA-TBPB,” “DIBA-77-LH-28-1,” “DIBA-propantheline,” and...

  19. A synthetic combinatorial strategy for developing a-conotoxin analogs as potent a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armishaw, Christopher J; Singh, Narender; Medina-Franco, Jose L

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Conotoxins are peptide neurotoxins isolated from venomous cone snails that display exquisite selectivity for different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). They are valuable research tools that have profound implications in the discovery of new drugs for a myriad of neurop......alpha-Conotoxins are peptide neurotoxins isolated from venomous cone snails that display exquisite selectivity for different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). They are valuable research tools that have profound implications in the discovery of new drugs for a myriad......-conotoxin ImI to develop potent and selective alpha(7) nAChR antagonists. A positional scan synthetic combinatorial library was constructed based on the three residues of the n-loop of alpha-conotoxin ImI to give a total of 10,648 possible combinations that were screened for functional activity in an alpha(7......) nAChR Fluo-4/Ca2+ assay, allowing amino acids that confer antagonistic activity for this receptor to be identified. A second series of individual alpha-conotoxin analogs based on the combinations of defined active amino acid residues from positional scan synthetic combinatorial library screening...

  20. Pharmacological characterisation of α6β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors assembled from three different α6/α3 subunit chimeras in tsA201 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Bjørnskov; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Jensen, Anders A.

    2014-01-01

    should be made keeping the molecular modifications in the α6 surrogate subunits in mind, this study sheds light on the pharmacological properties of α6β4⁎ nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and demonstrates the applicability of the C6F223L and C16F223L chimeras for studies of these receptors....

  1. Molecular determinants of subtype-selective efficacies of cytisine and the novel compound NS3861 at heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Hald, Helle; Timmermann, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering which specific agonist-receptor interactions affect efficacy levels is of high importance, because this will ultimately aid in designing selective drugs. The novel compound NS3861 and cytisine are agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and both bind with high affinity...... to heteromeric a3ß4 and a4ß2 nAChRs. However, initial data revealed that the activation patterns of the two compounds show very distinct maximal efficacy readouts at various heteromeric nAChRs. To investigate the molecular determinants behind these observations, we performed in-depth patch clamp...... and a complete lack of activation at a4-containing receptors. The maximal efficacy of NS3861 appeared solely dependent on the nature of the ligand-binding domain, whereas efficacy of cytisine was additionally affected by the nature of the ß-subunit transmembrane domain. Molecular docking to nAChR subtype...

  2. Rational design of a-conotoxin analogues targeting a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armishaw, Christopher; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Balle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    BPs) that share significant sequence homology with the amino-terminal domains of the nAChRs. alpha-Conotoxins which are isolated from the venom of carnivorous marine snails selectively inhibit the signalling of neuronal nAChR subtypes. Co-crystal structures of alpha-conotoxins in complex with AChBP show...... reduced antagonistic activities, analogues with aromatic and hydrophobic substituents in the Pro6 position exhibit moderate activity at the receptor. Interestingly, introduction of a 5-(R)-Phenyl substituent at Pro6 in alpha-conotoxin ImI gives rise to a conotoxin analogue with a significantly higher...

  3. Anti-M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antibodies in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Hiroto; Ohira, Hiromasa; Asashima, Hiromitsu; Tsuzuki, Sayaka; Iizuka, Mana; Matsuo, Naomi; Kondo, Yuya; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki

    2014-12-01

    M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) is expressed in biliary tracts as well as in exocrine glands. It is reported that some patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) carry autoantibodies against M3R. The aim of this study is to clarify the presence, potential use as diagnostic marker and clinical roles of anti-M3R antibodies in PBC. We synthesized peptides encoding the extracellular domains of human-M3R, including the N-terminal region, the first, second and third extracellular loops. Antibodies against these regions were examined by peptide-based enzyme-linked immunoassay in sera of 90 patients with PBC and 40 with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), 21 with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), 10 with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), 14 with obstructive jaundice, 10 with drug-induced liver injury and 42 healthy controls. Antibodies to the N-terminal, first, second and third loop were detected in 90.0% (81/90), 73.3% (66/90), 76.7% (69/90) and 66.7% (60/90) of PBC, in 67.5% (27/40), 10.0% (4/40), 67.5% (27/40) and 27.5% (11/40) of CHC, in 85.7% (18/21), 9.5% (2/21), 4.8% (1/21) and 57.1% (12/21) of NASH, in 60.0% (6/10), 20.0% (2/10), 60.0% (6/10) and 60.0% (6/10) of PSC, in 100.0% (14/14), 0% (0/14), 64.3% (9/14) and 78.6% (11/14) of obstructive jaundice, in 100.0% (10/10), 0% (0/10), 30.0% (3/10) and 10.0% (1/10) of drug-induced liver injury, and in 4.8% (2/42), 7.1% (3/42), 2.4% (1/42) and 2.4% (1/42) of the controls, respectively. A high frequency of PBC carried anti-M3R antibodies. Anti-M3R antibodies against the first loop of M3R are a potentially useful diagnostic marker for PBC. © 2014 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  4. [The synergetic effects of nitric oxide and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on learning and memory of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhi-Hua; Wei, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Shao-Hu; Chen, Yu-Fen; Liu, Li-Xia; Qi, Wen-Xiu

    2014-06-25

    The aim of the present study is to explore the interaction of nitric oxide (NO) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) on learning and memory of rats. Rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with L-arginine (L-Arg, the NO precursor) (L-Arg group) or choline chloride (CC, an agonist of α7nAChR) (CC group), and with combined injection of L-Arg and CC (L-Arg+CC group), and methyllycaconitine (MLA, α7nAChR antagonist) or N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) i.c.v. injected first and followed by administration of L-Arg combined with CC (MLA+L-Arg+CC group or L-NAME+L-Arg+CC group), respectively, and normal saline was used as control (NS group). The learning and memory ability of rats was tested with Y-maze; the level of NO and the expressions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or α7nAChR in hippocampus were measured by NO assay kit, immunohistochemistry or Western blot. The results showed that compared with L-Arg group or CC group, the rats' learning and memory behavioral ability in Y-maze was observably enhanced and the level of NO, the optical density of nNOS-like immunoreactivity (LI) or α7nAChR-LI in hippocampus were significantly increased in L-Arg+CC group; Compared with L-Arg+CC group, the ability of learning and memory and the level of NO as well as the expressions of nNOS-LI or α7nAChR-LI were obviously decreased in MLA+L-Arg+CC group or in L-NAME+L-Arg+CC group. In conclusion, i.c.v. administration of L-Arg combined with CC significantly improved the action of the L-Arg or CC on the content of NO and the nNOS or α7nAChR expressions in hippocampus along with the learning and memory behavior of rats; when nNOS or α7nAChR was interrupted in advance, the effects of L-Arg combined with CC were also suppressed. The results suggest that there are probably synergistic effects between NO and nAChR on learning and memory.

  5. Haemonchus contortus acetylcholine receptors of the DEG-3 subfamily and their role in sensitivity to monepantel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien Rufener

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-intestinal nematodes in ruminants, especially Haemonchus contortus, are a global threat to sheep and cattle farming. The emergence of drug resistance, and even multi-drug resistance to the currently available classes of broad spectrum anthelmintics, further stresses the need for new drugs active against gastro-intestinal nematodes. A novel chemical class of synthetic anthelmintics, the Amino-Acetonitrile Derivatives (AADs, was recently discovered and the drug candidate AAD-1566 (monepantel was chosen for further development. Studies with Caenorhabditis elegans suggested that the AADs act via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR of the nematode-specific DEG-3 subfamily. Here we identify nAChR genes of the DEG-3 subfamily from H. contortus and investigate their role in AAD sensitivity. Using a novel in vitro selection procedure, mutant H. contortus populations of reduced sensitivity to AAD-1566 were obtained. Sequencing of full-length nAChR coding sequences from AAD-susceptible H. contortus and their AAD-1566-mutant progeny revealed 2 genes to be affected. In the gene monepantel-1 (Hco-mptl-1, formerly named Hc-acr-23H, a panel of mutations was observed exclusively in the AAD-mutant nematodes, including deletions at intron-exon boundaries that result in mis-spliced transcripts and premature stop codons. In the gene Hco-des-2H, the same 135 bp insertion in the 5' UTR created additional, out of frame start codons in 2 independent H. contortus AAD-mutants. Furthermore, the AAD mutants exhibited altered expression levels of the DEG-3 subfamily nAChR genes Hco-mptl-1, Hco-des-2H and Hco-deg-3H as quantified by real-time PCR. These results indicate that Hco-MPTL-1 and other nAChR subunits of the DEG-3 subfamily constitute a target for AAD action against H. contortus and that loss-of-function mutations in the corresponding genes may reduce the sensitivity to AADs.

  6. Muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptors play a critical role in oxotremorine-induced DARPP-32 phosphorylation at threonine 75 in isolated medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Huang, Yuqi; Huang, Qing; Zhao, Zhe; Yu, Jianqiang; Wang, Liyun

    2017-05-01

    Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) play essential roles in dopamine (DA) transmission in the striatum. It is suggested that a link exists between muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and DA/DARPP-32 signaling, but the molecular mechanisms mediating this relationship have not been elucidated. The predominant mAChRs subtypes in the striatum are M1 and M4. In this study, we investigated the functions of these two receptors, particularly M4, in regulating cAMP production and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in rat striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We used time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, and western blot assays. In cultured intact MSNs, we confirmed that muscarinic M1 and M4 receptors were highly expressed. Notably, M4 receptors were co-expressed with D1 receptors in only a portion of the cultured MSNs. The nonselective muscarinic agonist oxotremorine M (OX) slightly enhanced cAMP production, but this effect was independent of M1 or M4 receptors. However, OX directly participated in DARPP-32 phosphorylation, phosphorylating DARPP-32 at Thr75 (the CDK5 site) and concomitantly de-phosphorylating DARPP-32 at Thr34 (the PKA site) in virtually cultured MSNs, whereas APO phosphorylated DARPP-32 at both Thr34 and Thr75. The OX-induced time-dependent increase in DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr75 was accompanied by increased p35 and CDK5 activity. Specifically, elevated immunoreactivity for phospho-DARPP-32-Thr75 and p35 was detected in M4 receptor-expressing MSNs. Both genetic knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of M4 receptors with MT3, an M4 receptor-selective antagonist, decreased the OX-induced DARPP-32-Thr75 phosphorylation in MSNs. These results indicate that the M4 muscarinic receptor plays a critical role in modulating phosphorylation of DARPP-32-Thr75 in MSNs. The results suggest that M4 receptor activation acts antagonistically with dopamine D1-like receptors within

  7. Intersubunit bridge formation governs agonist efficacy at nicotinic acetylcholine alpha4beta2 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Line Aagot Hede; Ahring, Philip Kiær; Jensen, Marianne Lerbech

    2012-01-01

    . Using binding experiments, electrophysiology and X-ray crystallography we have investigated a consecutive series of five prototypical pyridine-containing agonists derived from 1-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,4-diazepane. A correlation between binding affinities at a4ß2 and the acetylcholine binding protein from...

  8. Photolabeling of membrane-bound Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with the hydrophobic probe 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)diazirine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.J.; Cohen, J.B.

    1988-11-29

    The hydrophobic, photoactivatable probe 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)diazirine ((/sup 125/I)TID) was used to label acetylcholine receptor rich membranes purified from Torpedo californica electric organ. All four subunits of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) were found to incorporate label, with the ..gamma..-subunit incorporating approximately 4 times as much as each of the other subunits. Carbamylcholine, an agonist, and histrionicotoxin, a noncompetitive antagonist, both strongly inhibited labeling of all AChR subunits in a specific and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the competitive antagonist ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin and the noncompetitive antagonist phencyclidine had only modest effect on (/sup 125/I)TID labeling of the AChR. The regions of the AChR ..cap alpha..-subunit that incorporate (/sup 125/)TID were mapped by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protest digestion. The carbamylcholine-sensitive site of labeling was localized to a 20-kDa V8 cleavage fragment that begins at Ser-173 and is of sufficient length to contain the three hydrophobic regions M1, M2, and M3. A 10-kDa fragment beginning at Asn-339 and containing the hydrophobic region M4 also incorporated (/sup 125/I)TID but in a carbamylcholine-insensitive manner. Two further cleavage fragments, which together span about one-third of the ..cap alpha..-subunit amino terminus, incorporated no detectable (/sup 125/I)TID. The mapping results place constraints on suggested models of AChR subunit topology.

  9. Mood and anxiety regulation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: A potential pathway to modulate aggression and related behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciotto, Marina R; Lewis, Alan S; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Mineur, Yann S

    2015-09-01

    The co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders is striking. Preclinical and clinical studies of nicotinic effects on mood, anxiety, aggression, and related behaviors, such as irritability and agitation, suggest that smokers may use the nicotine in tobacco products as an attempt to self-medicate symptoms of affective disorders. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in circuits regulating mood and anxiety is beginning to be elucidated in animal models, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on aggression-related behavioral states (ARBS) are still not understood. Clinical trials of nicotine or nicotinic medications for neurological and psychiatric disorders have often found effects of nicotinic medications on ARBS, but few trials have studied these outcomes systematically. Similarly, the increase in ARBS resulting from smoking cessation can be resolved by nicotinic agents, but the effects of nicotinic medications on these types of mental states and behaviors in non-smokers are less well understood. Here we review the literature on the role of nAChRs in regulating mood and anxiety, and subsequently on the closely related construct of ARBS. We suggest avenues for future study to identify how nAChRs and nicotinic agents may play a role in these clinically important areas. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The A- and B-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from Drosophila melanogaster couple to different second messenger pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guilin Robin; Folke, Jonas; Hauser, Frank

    2015-01-01

    to classical antagonists such as atropine. Here, we find that the D. melanogaster A-type mAChR is coupled to Gq/11 and D. melanogaster B-type mAChR to Gi/0. Furthermore, by comparing the second and third intracellular loops of all animal mAChRs for which the G protein coupling has been established, we could......Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine and blocked by several antagonists, among them atropine. In mammals five mAChRs (m1-m5) exist of which m1, m3, and m5 are coupled to members of the Gq...... identify several amino acid residues likely to be specific for either Gq/11 or Gi/0 coupling. Using these hallmarks for specific mAChR G protein interaction we found that all protostomes with a sequenced genome have one mAChR coupled to Gq/11 and one to four mAChRs coupled to Gi/0. Furthermore...

  11. Nicotine-Induced Effects on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (nAChRs), Ca2+ and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in STC-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jie; Mummalaneni, Shobha K; Alkahtani, Reem M; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S; Grider, John R; Lyall, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. Our studies using RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blotting techniques demonstrate that STC-1 cells express several α and β nAChR subunits. Exposing STC-1 cells to nicotine acutely (24h) or chronically (4 days) induced a differential increase in the expression of nAChR subunit mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Mecamylamine, a non-selective antagonist of nAChRs, inhibited the nicotine-induced increase in mRNA expression of nAChRs. Exposing STC-1 cells to nicotine increased intracellular Ca2+ in a dose-dependent manner that was inhibited in the presence of mecamylamine or dihydro-β-erythroidine, a α4β2 nAChR antagonist. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein were detected in STC-1 cells using RT-PCR, specific BDNF antibody, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Acute nicotine exposure (30 min) decreased the cellular content of BDNF in STC-1 cells. The nicotine-induced decrease in BDNF was inhibited in the presence of mecamylamine. We also detected α3 and β4 mRNA in intestinal mucosal cells and α3 protein expression in intestinal enteroendocrine cells. We conclude that STC-1 cells and intestinal enteroendocrine cells express nAChRs. In STC-1 cells nAChR expression is modulated by exposure to nicotine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Nicotine interacts with nAChRs and inhibits BDNF expression in STC-1 cells.

  12. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse and Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Thomsen, Morgane; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's dis...... the roles of M(1), M(4), and M(5) receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the CNS.......The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson......'s disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based...

  13. A targeted genome association study examining transient receptor potential ion channels, acetylcholine receptors, and adrenergic receptors in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Samantha; Staines, Donald; Klein, Anne; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya

    2016-11-11

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, also known as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a debilitating condition of unknown aetiology. It is characterized by a range of physiological effects including neurological, sensory and motor disturbances. This study examined candidate genes for the above clinical manifestations to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles associated with CFS/ME compared with healthy controls. DNA was extracted and whole genome genotyping was performed using the HumanOmniExpress BeadChip array. Gene families for transient receptor potential ion channels, acetylcholine receptors, and adrenergic receptors, and acetylcholinesterase were targeted. The frequency of each SNP and their association between CFS/ME and healthy controls was examined using Fisher's exact test, and to adjust for multiple testing, False Detection Rate (FDR) and Bonferroni corrections were applied (p < 0.05). The study included 172 participants, consisting of 95 Fukuda defined CFS/ME patients (45.8 ± 8.9; 69 % female) and 77 healthy controls (42.3 ± 10.3; 63 % female). A total of 950 SNPs were included for analysis. 60 significant SNPs were associated with CFS/ME compared with healthy controls. After applying FDR and Bonferroni corrections, SNP rs2322333 in adrenergic receptor α1 (ADRA1A) was higher in CFS/ME compared with healthy controls (45.3 % vs. 23.4 %; p = 0.059). The genotype class that was homozygous minor (AA) was substantially lower in CFS/ME compared with healthy controls (4.2 % vs. 24.7 %). This study reports for the first time the identification of ADRA1A and a possible association between CFS/ME and genotype classes. Further examination of the functional role of this class of adrenergic receptors may elucidate the cause of particular clinical manifestations observed in CFS/ME.

  14. D2‐dopamine receptor‐mediated inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and release of acetylcholine from guinea‐pig neostriatal slices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Kato, Noriko; Shuntoh, Hisato; Tanaka, Chikako

    1987-01-01

    ... (a laevorotatory enantiomer of LY‐141865: N‐propyl tricyclic pyrazole) at 10 −6 m inhibited electrical stimulation‐and high K + ‐evoked release of [ 3 H]‐acetylcholine ([ 3 H]‐ACh) to 47.7 ± 6.0% and 54.1 ± 5.0...

  15. Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect growth regulation of human mesothelioma cells: role of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombino, Sonya; Cesario, Alfredo; Margaritora, Stefano; Granone, PierLuigi; Motta, Giovanni; Falugi, Carla; Russo, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    This study presents data suggesting that both human mesothelioma (cell lines and human mesothelioma biopsies) and human normal mesothelial cells express receptors for acetylcholine and that stimulation of these receptors by nicotine prompted cell growth via activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Thus, these data demonstrate that: (a) human mesothelioma cells and human biopsies of mesothelioma as well as of normal pleural mesothelial cells express functionally alpha-7 nicotinic acethlycholine receptors, evaluated by alpha-bungarotoxin-FITC binding, receptor binding assay, Western blot, and reverse transcription-PCR; (b) choline acetyltransferase immunostaining is present in mesothelioma cells; (c) mesothelioma cell growth is modulated by the cholinergic system in which agonists (i.e., nicotine) has a proliferative effect, and antagonists (i.e., curare) has an inhibitory effect, evaluated by cell cloning, DNA synthesis and cell cycle; (d) nicotine induces Ca(+2) influx, evaluated by [(45)Ca(2+)] uptake, and consequently activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p90(RSK) phosphorylation), evaluated by Western blot; and (e) apoptosis mechanisms in mesothelioma cells are under the control of the cholinergic system (nicotine antiapoptotic via induction of nuclear factor-kappaB complexes and phosphorylation of Bad at Ser(112); curare proapoptotic via G(0)-G(1) arrest p21(waf-1) dependent but p53 independent). The involvement of the nonneuronal cholinergic system in mesothelioma appears reasonable and open up new therapeutic strategies.

  16. Tryptophan Substitutions at Lipid-exposed Positions of the Gamma M3 Transmembrane Domain Increase the Macroscopic Ionic Current Response of the Torpedo californica Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martín, A.; Mercado, J.L.; Rojas, L.V.; McNamee, M.G.; Lasalde-Dominicci, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Our previous amino-acid substitutions at the postulated lipid-exposed transmembrane segment M4 of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AChR) focused on the alpha subunit. In this study we have extended the mutagenesis analysis using single tryptophan replacements in seven positions (I288, M291, F292, S294, L296, M299 and N300) near the center of the third transmembrane domain of the gamma subunit (γM3). All the tryptophan substitution mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes following mRNA injections at levels close to wild type. The functional response of these mutants was evaluated using macroscopic current analysis in voltage-clamped oocytes. For all the substitutions the concentration for half-maximal activation, EC50, is similar to wild type using acetylcholine. For F292W, L296W and M299W the normalized macroscopic responses are 2- to 3-fold higher than for wild type. Previous photolabeling studies demonstrated that these three positions were in contact with membrane lipids. Each of these M3 mutations was co-injected with the previously characterized αC418W mutant to examine possible synergistic effects of single lipid-exposed mutations on two different subunits. For the γM3/αM4 double mutants, the EC50s were similar to those measured for the αC418W mutant alone. Tryptophan substitutions at positions that presumably face the interior of the protein (S294 and M291) or neighboring helices (I288) did not cause significant inhibition of channel function or surface expression of AChRs. PMID:11547353

  17. Marine Natural Products Acting on the Acetylcholine-Binding Protein and Nicotinic Receptors: From Computer Modeling to Binding Studies and Electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kudryavtsev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For a small library of natural products from marine sponges and ascidians, in silico docking to the Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP, a model for the ligand-binding domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, was carried out and the possibility of complex formation was revealed. It was further experimentally confirmed via competition with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin ([125I]-αBgt for binding to AChBP of the majority of analyzed compounds. Alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines С and G had relatively high affinities (Ki 0.5–1.3 μM. With the muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica ray and human neuronal α7 nAChR, heterologously expressed in the GH4C1 cell line, no competition with [125I]-αBgt was detected in four compounds, while the rest showed an inhibition. Makaluvamines (Ki ~ 1.5 μM were the most active compounds, but only makaluvamine G and crambescidine 359 revealed a weak selectivity towards muscle-type nAChR. Rhizochalin, aglycone of rhizochalin, pibocin, makaluvamine G, monanchocidin, crambescidine 359 and aaptamine showed inhibitory activities in electrophysiology experiments on the mouse muscle and human α7 nAChRs, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Thus, our results confirm the utility of the modeling studies on AChBPs in a search for natural compounds with cholinergic activity and demonstrate the presence of the latter in the analyzed marine biological sources.

  18. Effect of acetylcholine receptors on the pain-related electrical activities in the hippocampal CA3 region of morphine-addicted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Zeng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:To determine the effect of acetylcholine (ACh, pilocarpine, and atropine on pain evoked responses of pain excited neurons (PEN and pain inhibited neurons (PIN in hippocampal CA3 region of morphine addicted rats. Materials and Methods:Female Wistar rats, weighing between 230-260 g were used in this study. Morphine addicted rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of increasing concentrations of morphine hydrochloride for six days. Trains of electrical impulses applied to the sciatic nerve were used as noxious stimulation and the evoked electrical activities of PEN or PIN in hippocampal CA3 area were recorded using extracellular electrophysiological recording techniques in hippocampal slices. The effect of acetylcholine receptor stimulation byACh, the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine, and the muscarinic antagonist atropine on the pain evoked responses of pain related electrical activities was analyzed in hippocampal CA3 area of morphine addicted rats. Results:Intra-CA3 microinjection of ACh (2 μg/1 μl or pilocarpine (2 μg/1 μl decreased the discharge frequency and prolonged the firing latency of PEN, but increased the discharge frequency and shortened the firing inhibitory duration (ID of PIN. The intra-CA3 administration of atropine (0.5 μg/1 μl produced opposite effect. The peak activity of cholinergic modulators was 2 to 4 min later in morphine addicted rats compared to peak activity previously observed in normal rats. Conclusion: ACh dependent modulation of noxious stimulation exists in hippocampal CA3 area of morphine addicted rats. Morphine treatment may shift the sensitivity of pain related neurons towards a delayed response to muscarinergic neurotransmission in hippocampal CA3 region.

  19. An experimental study on (131)I-CHIBA-1001: a radioligand for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lei; Zhao, Qian; Li, Ling; Zhang, Su Lei; Chen, Xue Qi; Ma, Chao; Kang, Lei; Liu, Meng; Zhang, Chun Li; Yan, Ping; Wang, Rong Fu

    2013-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a vital role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and depression. However, there is currently no suitable positron emission tomography (PET) or Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radioligands for imaging α7 nAChRs in brain. Here our aim is to radiosynthesize a novel SPECT radioligand (131)I-CHIBA-1001 for whole body biodistribution study and in vivo imaging of α7 nAChRs in brain. (131)I-CHIBA-1001 was radiosynthesized by chloramine-T method. Different conditions of reaction time and temperature were tested to get a better radiolabeling yield. Radiolabeling yield and radiochemical purities of (131)I-CHIBA-1001 were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Whole body biodistribution study was performed at different time points post injection of (131)I-CHIBA-1001 in KM mice. Monkey subject was used for in vivo SPECT imaging in brain. The radiolabeling yield of (131)I-CHIBA-1001 reached 96% within 1.5∼2.0 h at 90∼95°C. The radiochemical purity reached more than 99% after HPLC purification. (131)I-CHIBA-1001 was highly stable in saline and fresh human serum in room temperature and 37°C separately. The biodistribution data of brain at 15, 30, and 60 min were 11.05±1.04%ID/g, 8.8±0.04%ID/g and 6.28±1.13%ID/g, respectively. In experimental SPECT imaging, the distribution of radioactivity in the brain regions was paralleled with the distribution of α7 nAChRs in the monkey brain. Moreover, in the blocking SPECT imaging study, the selective α7 nAChR agonist SSR180711 blocked the radioactive uptake in the brain successfully. The CHIBA-1001 can be successfully radiolabeled with (131)I using the chloramine-T method. (131)I-CHIBA-1001 can successfully accumulate in the monkey brain and image the α7 acetylcholine receptors. (131)I-CHIBA-1001 can be a candidate for imagingα7 acetylcholine

  20. An experimental study on (131I-CHIBA-1001: a radioligand for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play a vital role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and depression. However, there is currently no suitable positron emission tomography (PET or Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT radioligands for imaging α7 nAChRs in brain. Here our aim is to radiosynthesize a novel SPECT radioligand (131I-CHIBA-1001 for whole body biodistribution study and in vivo imaging of α7 nAChRs in brain. METHOD: (131I-CHIBA-1001 was radiosynthesized by chloramine-T method. Different conditions of reaction time and temperature were tested to get a better radiolabeling yield. Radiolabeling yield and radiochemical purities of (131I-CHIBA-1001 were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC system. Whole body biodistribution study was performed at different time points post injection of (131I-CHIBA-1001 in KM mice. Monkey subject was used for in vivo SPECT imaging in brain. RESULT: The radiolabeling yield of (131I-CHIBA-1001 reached 96% within 1.5∼2.0 h at 90∼95°C. The radiochemical purity reached more than 99% after HPLC purification. (131I-CHIBA-1001 was highly stable in saline and fresh human serum in room temperature and 37°C separately. The biodistribution data of brain at 15, 30, and 60 min were 11.05±1.04%ID/g, 8.8±0.04%ID/g and 6.28±1.13%ID/g, respectively. In experimental SPECT imaging, the distribution of radioactivity in the brain regions was paralleled with the distribution of α7 nAChRs in the monkey brain. Moreover, in the blocking SPECT imaging study, the selective α7 nAChR agonist SSR180711 blocked the radioactive uptake in the brain successfully. CONCLUSION: The CHIBA-1001 can be successfully radiolabeled with (131I using the chloramine-T method. (131I-CHIBA-1001 can successfully accumulate in the monkey brain and image the α7 acetylcholine receptors. (131I-CHIBA-1001 can be a

  1. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by nicotine selectively up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in rat microglial cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghetti Luisa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotinic acetylcholine (Ach receptors are ligand-gated pentameric ion channels whose main function is to transmit signals for the neurotransmitter Ach in peripheral and central nervous system. However, the α7 nicotinic receptor has been recently found in several non-neuronal cells and described as an important regulator of cellular function. Nicotine and ACh have been recently reported to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α production in human macrophages as well as in mouse microglial cultures. In the present study, we investigated whether the stimulation of α7 nicotinic receptor by the specific agonist nicotine could affect the functional state of activated microglia by promoting and/or inhibiting the release of other important pro-inflammatory and lipid mediator such as prostaglandin E2. Methods Expression of α7 nicotinic receptor in rat microglial cell was examined by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining and Western blot. The functional effects of α7 receptor activation were analyzed in resting or lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated microglial cells pre-treated with nicotine. Culture media were assayed for the levels of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1β, nitric oxide, interleukin-10 and prostaglandin E2. Total RNA was assayed by RT-PCR for the expression of COX-2 mRNA. Results Rat microglial cells express α7 nicotinic receptor, and its activation by nicotine dose-dependently reduces the LPS-induced release of TNF-α, but has little or no effect on nitric oxide, interleukin-10 and interleukin-1β. By contrast, nicotine enhances the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the synthesis of one of its major products, prostaglandin E2. Conclusions Since prostaglandin E2 modulates several macrophage and lymphocyte functions, which are instrumental for inflammatory resolution, our study further supports the existence of a brain cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by α7 nicotinic receptor that could be

  2. Structural differences in the two agonist binding sites of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor revealed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, K. L.; Corringer, P. J.; Edelstein, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata carries two nonequivalent agonist binding sites at the αδ and αγ subunit interfaces. These sites have been characterized by time-resolved fluorescence with the partial nicotinic agonist dansyl-C6-choline (Dnscho). When bound...

  3. Alpha-conotoxin analogs with additional positive charge show increased selectivity towards Torpedo californica and some neuronal subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasheverov, I.E.; Zhmak, M.N.; Vulfius, C.A.; Corbacheva, E.V.; Mordvintsev, D.Y.; Utkin, Y.N.; van Elk, R.; Smit, A.B.; Tsetlin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    α-Conotoxins from Conus snails are indispensable tools for distinguishing various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and synthesis of α-conotoxin analogs may yield novel antagonists of higher potency and selectivity. We incorporated additional positive charges into α-conotoxins

  4. Structural and functional studies of the modulator NS9283 reveal agonist-like mechanism of action at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jeppe A; Ahring, Philip K; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of Cys loop receptor ion channels is a proven drug discovery strategy, but many underlying mechanisms of the mode of action are poorly understood. We report the x-ray structure of the acetylcholine-binding protein from Lymnaea stagnalis with NS9283, a stoichiometry selective positive...

  5. Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): blocking 5HT3 receptors enhances release of serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2015-10-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multiple pharmacologic modes of action at targets where serotonin neurons connect with other neurons. 5HT3 receptor antagonism is one of these actions, and this leads to increased release of norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh), and serotonin (5HT) within various brain circuits.

  6. PASSIVE-AVOIDANCE TRAINING INDUCES ENHANCED LEVELS OF IMMUNOREACTIVITY FOR MUSCARINIC ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTOR AND COEXPRESSED PKC-GAMMA AND MAP-2 IN RAT CORTICAL-NEURONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERZEE, EA; DOUMA, BRK; BOHUS, B; LUITEN, PGM

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neocortical immunoreactivity (ir) for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PARV) induced by the performance of a one-trial passive shock avoidance (PSA) task

  7. 11C-NS14492 as a novel PET radioligand for imaging cerebral alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: in vivo evaluation and drug occupancy measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Lehel, Szabolcs

    2011-01-01

    Small-molecule a(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a(7)nAChR) agonists are currently validated for use as treatment for cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia and in Alzheimer disease. A suitable radiolabeled a(7)nAChR PET tracer would be important for in vivo quantification of a(7)n...

  8. 11C-NS14492 as a novel PET radioligand for imaging cerebral alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: in vivo evaluation and drug occupancy measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Lehel, Szabolcs

    2011-01-01

    Small-molecule α(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α(7)nAChR) agonists are currently validated for use as treatment for cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia and in Alzheimer disease. A suitable radiolabeled α(7)nAChR PET tracer would be important for in vivo quantification of α(7)n...

  9. CLASP2-dependent microtubule capture at the neuromuscular junction membrane requires LL5β and actin for focal delivery of acetylcholine receptor vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Basu (Saonli); S. Sladecek (Stefan); I.M. De La Peña Y Valenzuela (Isabel Martinez); M. Akaaboune (Mohammed); I. Smal (Ihor); K. Martin (Katrin); N.J. Galjart (Niels); H.R. Brenner (Hans Rudolf)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA hallmark of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the high density of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in the postsynaptic muscle membrane. The postsynaptic apparatus of the NMJ is organized by agrin secreted from motor neurons. The mechanisms that underlie the focal delivery of AChRs to

  10. Engineered α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as models for measuring agonist binding and effect at the orthosteric low-affinity α4-α4 interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Philip K.; Olsen, Jeppe A.; Nielsen, Elsebet O.

    2015-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 beta 2 is important for normal mammalian brain function and is known to express in two different stoichiometries, (alpha 4)(2)(beta 2)(3) and (alpha 4)(3)(beta 2)(2). While these are similar in many aspects, the (alpha 4)(3)(beta 2)(2) stoichiometry...

  11. Pesticide exposure during pregnancy, like nicotine, affects the brainstem α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression, increasing the risk of sudden unexplained perinatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Cappiello, Achille; Pusiol, Teresa; Corna, Melissa Felicita; Termopoli, Veronica; Matturri, Luigi

    2015-01-15

    This study indicates the impact of nicotine and pesticides (organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides used in agriculture) on neuronal α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in brainstem regions receiving cholinergic projections in human perinatal life. An in-depth anatomopathological examination of the autonomic nervous system and immunohistochemistry to analyze the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in the brainstem from 44 fetuses and newborns were performed. In addition, the presence of selected agricultural pesticides in cerebral cortex samples of the victims was determined by specific analytical procedures. Hypodevelopment of brainstem structures checking the vital functions, frequently associated with α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor immunopositivity and smoke absorption in pregnancy, was observed in high percentages of victims of sudden unexpected perinatal death. In nearly 30% of cases however the mothers never smoked, but lived in rural areas. The search for pesticides highlighted in many of these cases traces of both organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides. We detain that exposition to pesticides in pregnancy produces homologous actions to those of nicotine on neuronal α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, allowing to developmental alterations of brainstem vital centers in victims of sudden unexplained death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Purification of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein by affinity chromatography using a regioselectively modified and reversibly immobilized alpha-toxin from Naja nigricollis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringler, P; Kessler, P; Menez, A; Brisson, A

    1997-01-01

    A new method of affinity chromatography purification of the detergent-solubilized nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein (nAChR) is presented, based on the reversible coupling of a chemically monomodified alpha-toxin from Naja nigricollis to a resin. The alpha-toxin was monothiolated on the

  13. Habituation to a test apparatus during associative learning is sufficient to enhance muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-immunoreactivity in rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, EA; Biemans, BAM; Gerkema, MP; Daan, S

    2004-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is engaged in modulation of memory retention after (fear) conditioning, but it is unknown which pathways and neurotransmitter system(s) play a role in this action. Here we examine immunocytochemically whether muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), mediating

  14. The selective alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist A-582941 activates immediate early genes in limbic regions of the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M S; Mikkelsen, J D; Timmermann, D B

    2008-01-01

    Due to the cognitive-enhancing properties of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR) agonists, they have attracted interest for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia typically presents in late adolescence or early adulthood. It is therefore important...... to study whether alpha7 nAChR stimulation activates brain regions involved in cognition in juvenile as well as adult individuals. Here, we compared the effects of the novel and selective alpha7 nAChR agonist 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) in the juvenile...... regions critically involved in working memory and attention. Furthermore, this effect is more pronounced in juvenile than adult rats, indicating that the juvenile forebrain is more responsive to alpha7 nAChR stimulation. This observation may be relevant in the treatment of juvenile-onset schizophrenia....

  15. Structure-based discovery of selective positive allosteric modulators of antagonists for the M2muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczynska, Magdalena; Clark, Mary J; Valant, Celine; Xu, Jun; Moo, Ee Von; Albold, Sabine; Weiss, Dahlia R; Torosyan, Hayarpi; Huang, Weijiao; Kruse, Andrew C; Lyda, Brent R; May, Lauren T; Baltos, Jo-Anne; Sexton, Patrick M; Kobilka, Brian K; Christopoulos, Arthur; Shoichet, Brian K; Sunahara, Roger K

    2018-02-16

    Subtype-selective antagonists for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have long been elusive, owing to the highly conserved orthosteric binding site. However, allosteric sites of these receptors are less conserved, motivating the search for allosteric ligands that modulate agonists or antagonists to confer subtype selectivity. Accordingly, a 4.6 million-molecule library was docked against the structure of the prototypical M 2 mAChR, seeking molecules that specifically stabilized antagonist binding. This led us to identify a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that potentiated the antagonist N -methyl scopolamine (NMS). Structure-based optimization led to compound '628, which enhanced binding of NMS, and the drug scopolamine itself, with a cooperativity factor (α) of 5.5 and a K B of 1.1 μM, while sparing the endogenous agonist acetylcholine. NMR spectral changes determined for methionine residues reflected changes in the allosteric network. Moreover, '628 slowed the dissociation rate of NMS from the M 2 mAChR by 50-fold, an effect not observed at the other four mAChR subtypes. The specific PAM effect of '628 on NMS antagonism was conserved in functional assays, including agonist stimulation of [ 35 S]GTPγS binding and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Importantly, the selective allostery between '628 and NMS was retained in membranes from adult rat hypothalamus and in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, supporting the physiological relevance of this PAM/antagonist approach. This study supports the feasibility of discovering PAMs that confer subtype selectivity to antagonists; molecules like '628 can convert an armamentarium of potent but nonselective GPCR antagonist drugs into subtype-selective reagents, thus reducing their off-target effects. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. Genetic deletion of the adenosine A(2A) receptor prevents nicotine-induced upregulation of alpha 7, but not alpha 4 beta 2*nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metaxas, A.; Al-Hasani, R.; Farshim, P.; Tubby, K.; Berwick, A.; Ledent, C.; Hourani, S.; Kitchen, I.; Bailey, A.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adenosine A2Areceptors (A2ARs) modulate cholinergic neurotransmission, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, and nicotine-induced behavioural effects. To explore the interaction between A2Aand nAChRs, we examined if

  17. Distribution of the a2, a3, and a5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the chick brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrão A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are ionotropic receptors comprised of a and ß subunits. These receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system, and previous studies have revealed specific patterns of localization for some nAChR subunits in the vertebrate brain. In the present study we used immunohistochemical methods and monoclonal antibodies to localize the a2, a3, and a5 nAChR subunits in the chick mesencephalon and diencephalon. We observed a differential distribution of these three subunits in the chick brain, and showed that the somata and neuropil of many central structures contain the a5 nAChR subunit. The a2 and a3 subunits, on the other hand, exhibited a more restricted distribution than a5 and other subunits previously studied, namely a7, a8 and ß2. The patterns of distribution of the different nAChR subunits suggest that neurons in many brain structures may contain several subtypes of nAChRs and that in a few regions one particular subtype may determine the cholinergic nicotinic responses

  18. Pyridoxal phosphate as a probe of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins: Application to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Ramirez, B.; Martinez-Carrion, M. (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City (USA))

    1989-06-13

    A novel procedure has been developed to specifically label the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins with the aldehyde pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP). Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AcChR) vesicles were loaded with ({sup 3}H)pyridoxine 5-phosphate (({sup 3}H)PNP) and pyridoxine-5-phosphate oxidase, followed by intravesicular enzymatic oxidation of ({sup 3}H)PNP at 37{degree}C in the presence of externally added cytochrome c as a scavenger of possible leaking PLP product. The four receptor subunits were labeled whether the reaction was carried out on the internal surface or separately designed to mark the external one. On the other hand, the relative pyridoxylation of the subunits differed in both cases, reflecting differences in accessible lysyl residues in each side of the membrane. Even though there are no large differences in the total lysine content among the subunits and there are two copies of the {alpha}-subunit, internal surface labeling by PLP was greatest for the highest molecular weight ({delta}) subunit, reinforcing the concept that the four receptor subunits are transmembranous and may protrude into the cytoplasmic face in a fashion that is proportional to their subunit molecular weight. Yet, the labeling data do not fit well to any of the models proposed for AcChR subunit folding. The method described can be used for selective labeling of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins in sealed membrane vesicles.

  19. α-RgIB: A Novel Antagonist Peptide of Neuronal Acetylcholine Receptor Isolated from Conus regius Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Vianna Braga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conus venoms are rich sources of biologically active peptides that act specifically on ionic channels and metabotropic receptors present at the neuromuscular junction, efficiently paralyzing the prey. Each species of Conus may have 50 to 200 uncharacterized bioactive peptides with pharmacological interest. Conus regius is a vermivorous species that inhabits Northeastern Brazilian tropical waters. In this work, we characterized one peptide with activity on neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR. Crude venom was purified by reverse-phase HPLC and selected fractions were screened and sequenced by mass spectrometry, MALDI-ToF, and ESI-Q-ToF, respectively. A new peptide was identified, bearing two disulfide bridges. The novel 2,701 Da peptide belongs to the cysteine framework I, corresponding to the cysteine pattern CC-C-C. The biological activity of the purified peptide was tested by intracranial injection in mice, and it was observed that high concentrations induced hyperactivity in the animals, whereas lower doses caused breathing difficulty. The activity of this peptide was assayed in patch-clamp experiments, on nAChR-rich cells, in whole-cell configuration. The peptide blocked slow rise-time neuronal receptors, probably α3β4 and/or α3β4α5 subtype. According to the nomenclature, the new peptide was designated as α-RgIB.

  20. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic function in brain pathways thought to mediate cocaine's abuse-related effects. Here, we sought to confirm and extend in the mouse species findings that nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonists can enhance cocaine's discriminative stimulus....... More importantly, we tested the hypothesis that muscarinic receptor agonists with varied receptor subtype selectivity can blunt cocaine's discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects; we hypothesized a critical role for the M(1) and/or M(4) receptor subtypes in this modulation. Mice were trained...

  1. Binding sites for. alpha. -bungarotoxin and the noncompetitive inhibitor phencyclidine on a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the. alpha. -subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly-Roberts, D.L.; Lentz, T.L. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1991-07-30

    The binding of the competitive antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-Btx) and the noncompetitive inhibitor phencyclidine (PCP) to a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the {alpha}-subunit of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor has been characterized. {sup 125}I-{alpha}-Btx bound to the 172-227 peptide in a solid-phase assay and was competed by {alpha}-Btx d-tubocurarine and NaCl. In the presence of 0.02% sodium dodecyl sulfate, {sup 125}I-{alpha}-Btx bound to the 56-residue peptide with a K{sub D} of 3.5 nM, as determined by equilibrium saturation binding studies. Because {alpha}Btx binds to a peptide comprising residues 173-204 with the same affinity and does not bind to a peptide comprising residues 205-227, the competitive antagonist and hence agonist binding site lies between residues 173 and 204. After photoaffinity labeling, ({sup 3}H)PCP was bound to the 172-227 peptide. ({sup 3}H)PCP binding was inhibited by chlorpromazine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. It is concluded that a high-affinity binding site for PCP is located between residues 205 and 227, which includes the first 18 residues of transmembrane segment M1, and that a low-affinity site is located in the competitive antagonist binding site between residues 173 and 204. These results show that a synthetic peptide comprising residues 172-227 of the {alpha} subunit contains three binding sites, one for {alpha}-Btx and two for PCP. Previous studies on the intact receptor indicate high-affinity PCP binding occurs in the receptor channel.

  2. Dysfunctional Presynaptic M2 Receptors in the Presence of Chronically High Acetylcholine Levels: Data from the PRiMA Knockout Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Mohr

    Full Text Available The muscarinic M2 receptor (M2R acts as a negative feedback regulator in central cholinergic systems. Activation of the M2 receptor limits acetylcholine (ACh release, especially when ACh levels are increased because acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity is acutely inhibited. Chronically high ACh levels in the extracellular space, however, were reported to down-regulate M2R to various degrees. In the present study, we used the PRiMA knockout mouse which develops severely reduced AChE activity postnatally to investigate ACh release, and we used microdialysis to investigate whether the function of M2R to reduce ACh release in vivo was impaired in adult PRiMA knockout mice. We first show that striatal and hippocampal ACh levels, while strongly increased, still respond to AChE inhibitors. Infusion or injection of oxotremorine, a muscarinic M2 agonist, reduced ACh levels in wild-type mice but did not significantly affect ACh levels in PRiMA knockout mice or in wild-type mice in which ACh levels were artificially increased by infusion of neostigmine. Scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, increased ACh levels in wild-type mice receiving neostigmine, but not in wild-type mice or in PRiMA knockout mice. These results demonstrate that M2R are dysfunctional and do not affect ACh levels in PRiMA knockout mice, likely because of down-regulation and/or loss of receptor-effector coupling. Remarkably, this loss of function does not affect cognitive functions in PRiMA knockout mice. Our results are discussed in the context of AChE inhibitor therapy as used in dementia.

  3. Insights into the structural determinants required for high-affinity binding of chiral cyclopropane-containing ligands to α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: an integrated approach to behaviorally active nicotinic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.K.; Eaton, J.B.; Yu, L.F.; Nys, M; Mazzolari, A; van Elk, R.; Smit, A.B.; Alexandrov, V; Hanania, T; Sabath, E; Fedolak, A; Brunner, D; Lukas, R.J.; Vistoli, G; Ulens, C.; Kozikowski, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Structure-based drug design can potentially accelerate the development of new therapeutics. In this study, a cocrystal structure of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) from Capitella teleta (Ct) in complex with a cyclopropane-containing selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)

  4. Novel acetylcholine and carbamoylcholine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Christensen, Jeppe K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine analogues were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Several of the compounds displayed low nanomolar binding affinities to the alpha 4beta 2 nAChR and pronounced selectivity for this ...

  5. Trace eyeblink conditioning is impaired in α7 but not in β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knock-out mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L Brown

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are essentially involved in learning and memory. A neurobiologically and behaviorally well-characterized measure of learning and memory, eyeblink classical conditioning, is sensitive to disruptions in acetylcholine neurotransmission. The two most common forms of eyeblink classical conditioning – the delay and trace paradigms - differentially engage forebrain areas densely-populated with nAChRs. The present study used genetically modified mice to investigate the effects of selective nAChR subunit deletion on delay and trace eyeblink classical conditioning. α7 and β2 nAChR subunit knockout (KO mice and their wild-type littermates were trained for 10 daily sessions in a 500 ms delay or 500 ms trace eyeblink conditioning task, matched for the interstimulus interval (ISI between conditioned stimulus (CS and unconditioned stimulus (US onset. Impairments in conditioned responding were found in α7 KO mice trained in trace – but not delay – eyeblink conditioning. Relative to littermate controls, β2 KO mice were unimpaired in the trace task but displayed higher levels of conditioned responding in delay eyeblink conditioning. Elevated conditioned response levels in delay-conditioned β2 KOs corresponded to elevated levels of alpha responding in this group. These findings suggest that α7 nAChRs play a role in normal acquisition of 500 ms trace eyeblink classical conditioning in mice. The prominent distribution of α7 nAChRs in the hippocampus and other forebrain regions may account for these genotype-specific acquisition effects in this hippocampus-dependent trace paradigm.

  6. Acetylcholine muscarinic receptors and response to anti-cholinesterase therapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Derek [Department of Psychiatry, Stobhill Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Chisholm, Jennifer A.; Patterson, Jim; Wyper, David [Department of Clinical Physics, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, G51 4TF (United Kingdom); Owens, Jonathan; Pimlott, Sally [Department of Clinical Physics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-01

    An acetylcholine deficit remains the most consistent neurotransmitter abnormality found in Alzheimer's disease and various therapeutic agents have been targeted at this. In this study we investigated the action of Donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor that has few side-effects. In particular we set out to investigate whether muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) availability influences the response to this therapy. We used the novel single-photon emission tomography (SPET) tracer (R,R)[{sup 123}I]I-quinuclidinyl benzilate (R,R[{sup 123}I]I-QNB), which has high affinity for the M1 subtype of mAChR. Regional cerebral perfusion was also assessed using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. We investigated 20 patients on Donepezil treatment and ten age-matched controls. The results showed a reduction in (R,R)[{sup 123}I]I-QNB binding in the caudal anterior cingulate in patients compared with controls and relatively high binding in the putamen and rostral anterior cingulate, suggesting a relative sparing of mAChR in these regions. The main finding of the study was that mAChR availability as assessed by (R,R)[{sup 123}I]I-QNB binding did not distinguish responders from non-responders. Interestingly, we found that the extent of cognitive improvement showed no positive correlation with (R,R)[{sup 123}I]I-QNB binding in any brain region but was inversely related to binding in the insular cortex. This suggests that, within the advised cognitive performance band for use of Donepezil, response is greater in those patients with evidence of a more marked cholinergic deficit. A larger study should investigate this. (orig.)

  7. 5-[I-125/123]lodo-3(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine, a radioiodinated analog of A-85380 for in vivo studies of central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musachio, J L; Scheffel, U; Finley, P A; Zhan, Y; Mochizuki, T; Wagner, H N; Dannals, R F

    1998-01-01

    The in vivo biodistribution profile of the novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) radioligand 5-[I-125/123]Iodo-3(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine, [I-125/123]-5-IA, in mouse brain was examined. This radiotracer displayed good brain penetration (3.1% of the injected dose (ID) in whole brain at 15 min post-radioligand injection). Radioligand distribution was consistent with the density of high affinity nAChRs with highest uptake observed in the nAChR-rich thalamus (14.9 %ID/g at 60 min), moderate uptake in cortex (8.5 %ID/g at 60 min), and lowest uptake in the cerebellum (2.4 %ID/g at 60 min). Pretreatment with several different nAChR agonists (A-85380, (-)-nicotine, cytisine) significantly inhibited [I-125]-5-IA binding in all brain regions studied (P 3 mg/kg via intravenous injection in mice) and high in vivo specificity and selectivity, 5-IA labeled with the imaging radionuclide I-123 may prove useful for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies of nAChRs in human subjects.

  8. Identifying the binding site(s) for antidepressants on the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: [3H]2-azidoimipramine photolabeling and molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Mitesh; Hamouda, Ayman K; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Blanton, Michael P; Trudell, James R; Arias, Hugo R

    2008-12-01

    Radioligand binding, photoaffinity labeling, and docking and molecular dynamics were used to characterize the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) binding sites in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Competition experiments indicate that the noncompetitive antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) inhibits [3H]imipramine binding to resting (closed) and desensitized nAChRs. [3H]2-azidoimipramine photoincorporates into each subunit from the desensitized nAChR with approximately 25% of the labeling specifically inhibited by TCP (a PCP analog), whereas no TCP-inhibitable labeling was observed in the resting (closed) state. For the desensitized nAChR and within the alpha subunit, the majority of specific [3H]2-azidoimipramine labeling mapped to a approximately 20 kDa Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease fragment (alphaV8-20; Ser173-Glu338). To further map the labeling site, the alphaV8-20 fragment was further digested with endoproteinase Lys-C and resolved by Tricine SDS-PAGE. The principal labeled fragment (11 kDa) was further purified by rpHPLC and subjected to N-terminal sequencing. Based on the amino terminus (alphaMet243) and apparent molecular weight, the 11 kDa fragment contains the channel lining M2 segment. Finally, docking and molecular dynamics results indicate that imipramine and PCP interact preferably with the M2 transmembrane segments in the middle of the ion channel. Collectively, these results are consistent with a model where PCP and TCA bind to overlapping sites within the lumen of the Torpedo nAChR ion channel.

  9. Highly Selective and Sensitive Detection of Acetylcholine Using Receptor-Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shihong; Kim, Byeongju; Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Park, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Byung Yang; Park, Tai Hyun; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-03-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter in a human central nervous system and is related to various neural functions such as memory, learning and muscle contractions. Dysfunctional ACh regulations in a brain can induce several neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and myasthenia gravis. In researching such diseases, it is important to measure the concentration of ACh in the extracellular fluid of the brain. Herein, we developed a highly sensitive and selective ACh sensor based on single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistors (swCNT-FETs). In our work, M1 mAChR protein, an ACh receptor, was expressed in E.coli and coated on swCNT-FETs with lipid membranes. Here, the binding of ACh onto the receptors could be detected by monitoring the change of electrical currents in the underlying swCNT-FETs, allowing the real-time detection of ACh at a 100 pM concentration. Furthermore, our sensor could selectively detect ACh from other neurotransmitters. This is the first report of the real-time sensing of ACh utilizing specific binding between the ACh and M1 mAChR, and it may lead to breakthroughs in various biomedical applications such as drug screening and disease diagnosis.

  10. Antipsychotic-induced catalepsy is attenuated in mice lacking the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink-Jensen, Anders; Schmidt, Lene S; Dencker, Ditte

    2011-01-01

    of the striatum, suggesting a role for muscarinic M4 receptors in the motor side effects of antipsychotics, and in the alleviation of these side effects by anticholinergics. Here we investigated the potential role of the muscarinic M4 receptor in catalepsy induced by antipsychotics (haloperidol and risperidone...

  11. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic function in brain pathways thought to mediate cocaine's abuse-related effects. Here, we sought to confirm and extend in the mouse species findings that nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonists can enhance cocaine's discriminative stimulus....... More importantly, we tested the hypothesis that muscarinic receptor agonists with varied receptor subtype selectivity can blunt cocaine's discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects; we hypothesized a critical role for the M(1) and/or M(4) receptor subtypes in this modulation. Mice were trained...... to discriminate cocaine from saline, or to self-administer intravenous cocaine chronically. The nonselective muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and methylscopolamine, the nonselective muscarinic agonists oxotremorine and pilocarpine, the M(1)/M(4)-preferring agonist xanomeline, the putative M(1)-selective agonist...

  12. Time-resolved photolabeling by the noncompetitive blocker chlorpromazine of the acetylcholine receptor in its transiently open and closed ion channel conformations.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidmann, T; Changeux, J P

    1984-01-01

    A rapid-mixing photolabeling apparatus is developed to resolve the kinetics of association of the noncompetitive channel blocker [3H]chlorpromazine (CPZ) with the membrane-bound acetylcholine (AcCho) receptor from Torpedo marmorata and to photolabel its subunits in the 100-milli-seconds to seconds time range. Rapid mixing of AcCho and [3H]CPZ with the receptor followed by brief (less than 20 msec) UV irradiation results in the selective labeling of the four chains of the AcCho receptor, accor...

  13. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation Is Required for Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation by Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wymke Ockenga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-neuronal acetylcholine plays a substantial role in the human skin by influencing adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. These processes are regulated by the Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP kinase cascade. Here we show that in HaCaT keratinocytes all five muscarinic receptor subtypes are expressed, but M1 and M3 are the subtypes involved in mitogenic signaling. Stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol leads to activation of the MAP kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase, together with the protein kinase Akt. The activation is fully dependent on the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, which even appears to be the sole pathway for the muscarinic receptors to facilitate MAP kinase activation in HaCaT cells. The transactivation pathway involves a triple-membrane-passing process, based on activation of matrix metalloproteases, and extracellular ligand release; whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src family kinases or protein kinase C do not appear to be involved in MAP kinase activation. Furthermore, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the EGF receptor after cholinergic transactivation are different from that induced by a direct stimulation with EGF, suggesting that ligands other than EGF itself mediate the cholinergic transactivation.

  14. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonism contributes to blonanserin-induced cortical dopamine and acetylcholine efflux and cognitive improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei; Kwon, Sunoh; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-11-01

    Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic drug (APD), which, unlike most atypical APDs, has a slightly higher affinity for dopamine (DA) D2 than serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors, and is an antagonist at both, as well as at D3 receptors. The effects of atypical APDs to enhance rodent cortical, hippocampal, limbic, and dorsal striatal (dSTR) DA and acetylcholine (ACh) release, contribute to their ability to improve novel object recognition (NOR) in rodents treated with sub-chronic (sc) phencyclidine (PCP) and cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). Here we determined the ability of blonanserin, the D3 antagonist NGB 2904, and the typical APD, haloperidol, a D2 antagonist, to enhance neurotransmitter efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dSTR of mice, and to ameliorate the scPCP-induced deficit in NOR in rats. Blonanserin, 10mg/kg, i.p., increased DA, norepinephrine (NE), and ACh efflux in mPFC and dSTR. NGB 2904, 3mg/kg, increased DA and ACh, but not NE, efflux in mPFC, and DA, but not ACh, efflux in dSTR. Haloperidol increased DA and NE efflux in dSTR only. The selective D3 agonist PD 128907 partially blocked the blonanserin-induced cortical ACh, DA, NE and striatal DA efflux. NGB 2904, 3mg/kg, like blonanserin, 1mg/kg, and the combination of sub-effective doses of NGB 2904 and blonanserin (both 0.3mg/kg), ameliorated the scPCP-induced NOR deficit in rats. These results suggest that D3 receptor blockade may contribute to the ability of blonanserin to increase cortical DA and ACh efflux, as well as to restore NOR and improve CIAS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte; Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael; Noetzel, Meredith J; Lamsal, Atin; Niswender, Colleen M; Daniels, J Scott; Poslusney, Michael S; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Byers, Frank W; Wess, Jürgen; Duggan, Mark E; Dunlop, John; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-10-15

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced an antipsychotic drug-like profile in rodents after amphetamine challenge. Previous studies suggest that enhanced cholinergic activity may also improve cognitive function and reverse deficits observed with reduced signaling through the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the central nervous system. Prior to this study, the M1 mAChR subtype was viewed as the primary candidate for these actions relative to the other mAChR subtypes. Here we describe the discovery of a novel M4 PAM, VU0467154, with enhanced in vitro potency and improved pharmacokinetic properties relative to other M4 PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant-induced deficits in M4 KO mice. VU0467154 also enhanced the acquisition of both contextual and cue-mediated fear conditioning when administered alone in wild-type mice. These novel findings suggest that M4 PAMs may provide a strategy for addressing the more complex affective and cognitive disruptions associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Role of M2 domain residues in conductance and gating of acetylcholine receptors in developing Xenopus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael P; Owens, Jesse L; Kullberg, Richard W

    1999-01-01

    The contributions of specific residues in γ- and ɛ-subunits to the developmental changes in conductance and open time of Xenopus muscle acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) were investigated. This study was directed primarily at residues in the M2 domains of γ- and ɛ-subunits; however, the results of additional mutations in the extracellular region flanking M2 and in the amphipathic region between M3 and M4 are also described. The M2 domains of γ- and ɛ-subunits differ at only three amino acid residues, two of which are adjacent to each other and located near the narrowest part of the pore. These two residues (NI in γ, SV in ɛ) were found to be major determinants of the difference in conductance and open time of AChRs bearing γ- or ɛ-subunits. Mutation of N to S in the γ-subunit converted the long open time of receptors bearing the γ-subunit (γ-AChRs) to the brief open time characteristic of receptors bearing an ɛ-subunit (ɛ-AChRs). Conversely, ɛ-AChRs with SV mutated to NI in the ɛ-subunit exhibited a long open time characteristic of γ-AChRs. Mutation of N to S in the γ-subunit increased the conductance of γ-AChRs but did not confer the full conductance of wild-type ɛ-AChRs. Conversely, mutation of SV to NI in the ɛ-subunit reduced the conductance of ɛ-AChRs, but not completely to the level of wild-type γ-AChRs. PMID:9925875

  17. Imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and their imine derivatives up-regulate the alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in M10 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, M; Casida, J E

    2000-11-15

    Neonicotinoids are the most important new class of insecticides of the last decade. They act as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonists. This investigation tests the hypothesis for the first time that neonicotinoid insecticides and their imine derivatives up-regulate the alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic AChR subtype, which represents >90% of the high-affinity [(3)H]nicotine binding sites in mammalian brain. The alpha 4 beta 2 receptor stably expressed in mouse fibroblast M10 cells was assayed after 3 days' exposure to the test compound, as [(3)H]nicotine binding following immunoisolation by monoclonal antibody (mAb 299) or as [(125)I]mAb 299 labeling for cell surface receptors. We found that imidacloprid (IMI) (one of the most important insecticides) and thiacloprid (THIA) increased [(3)H]nicotine binding levels (up-regulation of the alpha 4 beta 2 AChRs) by five- to eightfold with EC50s of approximately 70,000 and 19,000 nM, respectively, compared with 760 nM for (-)-nicotine. In contrast, two imine analogs [the desnitro metabolite of IMI (DNIMI) and the descyano derivative of THIA] gave up-regulation by eightfold and EC50s of 870 and 500 nM, respectively. The potency order for up-regulation by the five aforementioned compounds was correlated with their in vitro IC50s for inhibiting [(3)H]nicotine binding (r(2) = 0.99, n = 5), indicating that binding to the alpha 4 beta 2 receptor initiates the up-regulation. A potent olefin derivative of the THIA imine up-regulated with an EC50 of 22 nM. DNIMI-induced up-regulation mainly occurred intracellularly rather than at the cell surface. These findings in alpha 4 beta 2-expressing M10 cells indicate the possibility that some neonicotinoid insecticides or their metabolites, on accidental human exposure or when used for flea control on dogs, may also up-regulate the receptor in mammals. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Achieving Acetylcholine Receptor Clustering in Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Constructs In vitro through a Materials-Directed Agrin Delivery Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, John B.; Ward, Catherine L.; Corona, Benjamin T.; Deschenes, Michael R.; Harrison, Benjamin S; Saul, Justin M.; Christ, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) can result from trauma, infection, congenital anomalies, or surgery, and produce permanent functional and cosmetic deficits. There are no effective treatment options for VML injuries, and recent advances toward development of muscle constructs lack the ability to achieve innervation necessary for long-term function. We sought to develop a proof-of-concept biomaterial construct that could achieve acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering on muscle-derived cells (MDC...

  19. Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activates muscarinic acetylcholine M1 receptor pathway in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Simona; Petrozziello, Tiziana; Ucci, Valentina; Amente, Stefano; Santillo, Mariarosaria; Mondola, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) control several neuronal functions and are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS): M1 subtype represents the predominant mAChR in the CNS. Previously, we showed that antioxidant enzyme Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is secreted by many cellular lines and specifically interacts with cell surface membrane of human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells thus activating phospholipase C (PLC) transduction pathway and increasing intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). In addition, we demonstrated that a small amount of SOD1 is contained in large core dense vesicles and that it is secreted in response to depolarization induced by elevated extracellular K(+) concentration. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of muscarinic M1 receptors in SOD1-induced activation of PLC transduction pathway. We showed that, in SK-N-BE cells, SOD1 was able to activate muscarinic M1 receptor producing a phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt in dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, in the presence of the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, ERK 1/2 and Akt phosphorylation induced by SOD1 was remarkably prevented. This effect was mimicked by knocking-down M1 receptor using two sequences of RNA silencing (siRNA). At functional level, siRNAs against M1 receptor were able to prevent the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by SOD1. The same inhibitory effect on [Ca(2+)](i) changes was produced by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrated that SOD1 could activate a transductional pathway through the involvement of M1 muscarinic receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of a neuregulin and protein-tyrosine phosphatase response element in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene: regulatory role of an Rts transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapru, M K; Florance, S K; Kirk, C; Goldman, D

    1998-02-03

    At the neuromuscular synapse, innervation induces endplate-specific expression of adult-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by selective expression of their subunit-encoding genes (alpha2betaepsilondelta) in endplate-associated myonuclei. These genes are specifically regulated by protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity. In addition, neuregulin/acetylcholine-receptor-inducing activity, a nerve-derived factor that stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptor synthesis, induces adult-type specific epsilon subunit gene expression via activation of a Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. However, the DNA regulatory elements and the binding proteins that mediate PTPase and neuregulin-dependent gene expression remain unknown. Herein we report that PTPase, neuregulin, and Ras-dependent regulation of the epsilon subunit gene map to a 15-bp promoter sequence. Interestingly, this same 15-bp sequence appears to be necessary for low epsilon subunit gene expression in extrajunctional regions of the muscle fiber. Site-directed mutagenesis of a putative Ets binding site located within this 15-bp sequence, reduced PTPase, neuregulin, and Ras-dependent regulation. Overexpression of the rat muscle Ets-2 transcription factor resulted in a sequence-specific induction of epsilon subunit promoter activity. Further, a dominant negative mutant of Ets-2 abolished neuregulin-dependent induction of epsilon subunit gene expression. Thus, these results indicate a crucial role for the 15-bp element in determining synapse-specific and neuregulin-mediated motor neuron control of epsilon subunit gene expression and suggest the participation of Ets transcription factor(s) in this control.

  1. Increased cocaine self-administration in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lene Sørensen; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Objectives Here we investigated...... with these results, cocaine-induced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and hyperlocomotion were increased in M4 -/- mice compared to M4 +/+ mice. Conclusions Our data suggest that M4 receptors play an important role in regulation of the reward circuitry and may serve as a new target in the medical treatment...... of drug addiction...

  2. Guidelines for standard preclinical experiments in the mouse model of myasthenia gravis induced by acetylcholine receptor immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzun, Erdem; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Brenner, Talma; Kusner, Linda L; Le Panse, Rozen; Yang, Huan; Tzartos, Socrates; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2015-08-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by generalized muscle weakness due to neuromuscular junction (NMJ) dysfunction brought by acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies in most cases. Although steroids and other immunosuppressants are effectively used for treatment of MG, these medications often cause severe side effects and a complete remission cannot be obtained in many cases. For pre-clinical evaluation of more effective and less toxic treatment methods for MG, the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) induced by Torpedo AChR immunization has become one of the standard animal models. Although numerous compounds have been recently proposed for MG mostly by using the active immunization EAMG model, only a few have been proven to be effective in MG patients. The variability in the experimental design, immunization methods and outcome measurements of pre-clinical EAMG studies make it difficult to interpret the published reports and assess the potential for application to MG patients. In an effort to standardize the active immunization EAMG model, we propose standard procedures for animal care conditions, sampling and randomization of mice, experimental design and outcome measures. Utilization of these standard procedures might improve the power of pre-clinical EAMG experiments and increase the chances for identifying promising novel treatment methods that can be effectively translated into clinical trials for MG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroimmune Interactions in Schizophrenia: Focus on Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Activation of the Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria das Graças Corsi-Zuelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients. Although elucidating the mechanism that induces this inflammatory profile remains a challenge, mounting evidence suggests that neuroimmune interactions may provide therapeutic advantages to control inflammation and hence schizophrenia. Recent studies have indicated that vagus nerve stimulation controls both peripheral and central inflammation via alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR. Other findings have indicated that vagal stimulation and α7nAChR-agonists can provide therapeutic advantages for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and epilepsy. This review analyzes the latest results regarding: (I the immune-to-brain pathogenesis of schizophrenia; (II the regulation of inflammation by the autonomic nervous system in psychiatric disorders; and (III the role of the vagus nerve and α7nAChR in schizophrenia.

  4. Transgenic mouse model reveals an unsuspected role of the acetylcholine receptor in statin-induced neuromuscular adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales-Reyes, G E; Báez-Pagán, C A; Zhu, H; Grajales-Reyes, J G; Delgado-Vélez, M; García-Beltrán, W F; Luciano, C A; Quesada, O; Ramírez, R; Gómez, C M; Lasalde-Dominicci, J A

    2013-08-01

    High cholesterol levels are an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the world's leading cause of death. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (statins) are prescribed to lower serum cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of CVD. Despite the success of statins, many patients abandon treatment owing to neuromuscular adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Genome-wide association studies have identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4149056 in the SLCO1B1 gene as being associated with an increased risk for statin-induced ADRs. By studying slow-channel syndrome transgenic mouse models, we determined that statins trigger ADRs in mice expressing the mutant allele of the rs137852808 SNP in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α-subunit gene CHRNA1. Mice expressing this allele show a remarkable contamination of end-plates with caveolin-1 and develop early signs of neuromuscular degeneration upon statin treatment. This study demonstrates that genes coding for nAChR subunits may contain variants associated with statin-induced ADRs.

  5. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Density in Cognitively Intact Subjects at an Early Stage of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Spiegel, Jörg; Brumberg, Joachim; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Marotta, Giorgio; Oishi, Naoya; Higuchi, Takahiro; Küsters, Sebastian; Schiller, Markus; Dillmann, Ulrich; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Buck, Andreas; Herrmann, Ken; Schloegl, Susanne; Volkmann, Jens; Lassmann, Michael; Fassbender, Klaus; Lorenz, Reinhard; Samnick, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated in vivo brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) distribution in cognitively intact subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) at an early stage of the disease. Fourteen patients and 13 healthy subjects were imaged with single photon emission computed tomography and the radiotracer 5-[123I]iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine ([123I]5IA). Patients were selected according to several criteria, including short duration of motor signs (<7 years) and normal scores at an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. In PD patients, nAChR density was significantly higher in the putamen, the insular cortex and the supplementary motor area and lower in the caudate nucleus, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the middle temporal gyrus. Disease duration positively correlated with nAChR density in the putamen ipsilateral (ρ = 0.56, p < 0.05) but not contralateral (ρ = 0.49, p = 0.07) to the clinically most affected hemibody. We observed, for the first time in vivo, higher nAChR density in brain regions of the motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits of subjects with PD. Our findings support the notion of an up-regulated cholinergic activity at the striatal and possibly cortical level in cognitively intact PD patients at an early stage of disease. PMID:25177294

  6. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Gunawan, Rudy; Timchalk, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the development and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.

  7. Non-quantal release of acetylcholine in rat atrial myocardium is inhibited by noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodinova, Anastasia A; Abramochkin, Denis V; Sukhova, Galina S

    2013-12-01

    In the mammalian myocardium, ACh, which is the main neurotransmitter of cardiac parasympathetic postganglionic fibres, can be released via both quantal (vesicular) and non-quantal (non-vesicular) mechanisms of secretion. Non-quantal release is continuous and independent of vagus activity and exocytosis of ACh-containing vesicles. During the incubation of myocardium in the presence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, non-quantal ACh release leads to accumulation of ACh in the myocardium and cholinergic effects, which are proportional to the intensity of non-quantal secretion. The aim of the present study was to reveal whether non-quantal release of ACh can be modulated by another major cardioregulator, noradrenaline, or whether it represents uncontrolled leakage of ACh from cholinergic fibres. Cholinergic changes of electrical activity induced by the AChE inhibitor paraoxon (5 × 10(-6) M) in isolated rat right atrial preparations were determined by means of a standard microlectrode technique and used as a measure of the intensity of non-quantal release. Noradrenaline (10(-7) and 10(-6) M) substantially suppressed, but did not abolish, effects of paraoxon via stimulation of α-adrenoceptors, because all experiments were conducted in the presence of the β-blocker propranolol (5 × 10(-6) M). A blocker of ganglionic transmission, hexamethonium bromide (10(-4) M), failed to alter the inhibitory effect of noradrenaline, indicating that only non-quantal ACh release is suppressed by this neurotransmitter. The effects of noradrenaline could be reduced by the α2-antagonist yohimbine (10(-6) M). However, both the α1-agonist phenylephrine (10(-6) M) and the α2-agonist clonidine (10(-6) M) significantly inhibited the cholinergic effects of paraoxon, indicating the possible involvement of both α-adrenoceptor subtypes in mediation of the adrenergic inhibition of non-quantal ACh release. Thus, cardiac non-quantal ACh release can be negatively regulated by

  8. Allosteric transitions of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor in lipids, detergent and amphipols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Karen L.; Gohon, Yann; Corringer, Pierre Jean

    2002-01-01

    The binding of a fluorescent agonist to the acetycholine receptor from Torpedo electric organ has been studied by time-resolved spectroscopy in three different environments: in native membrane fragments, in the detergent CHAPS, and after complexation by amphipathic polymers ('amphipols'). Binding...

  9. Unraveling the high- and low-sensitivity agonist responses of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Ahring, Philip K; Christensen, Jeppe K

    2011-01-01

    for the observation of two distinct agonist sensitivities. Using different expression ratios of mammalian a4 and ß2 subunits and concatenated constructs, we demonstrate that a biphasic response is an intrinsic functional property of the (a4)(3)(ß2)(2) receptor. In addition to two high-sensitivity sites at a4ß2...

  10. Increased cocaine self-administration in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lene S; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte; Wess, Jürgen; Woldbye, David P D; Wortwein, Gitta; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M(4) receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here we investigated for the first time the involvement of M(4) receptors in the reinforcing effects of cocaine using chronic intravenous cocaine self-administration in extensively backcrossed M(4) receptor knockout (M(4) (-/-)) mice. We evaluated acquisition of cocaine self-administration in experimentally naïve mice. Both cocaine self-administration and food-maintained operant behavior were evaluated under fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In addition, cocaine-induced dopamine release and cocaine-induced hyperactivity were evaluated. M(4) (-/-) mice earned significantly more cocaine reinforcers and reached higher breaking points than their wild-type littermates (M(4) (+/+)) at intermediate doses of cocaine under both FR 1 and PR schedules of reinforcement. Under the PR schedule, M(4) (-/-) mice exhibited significantly higher response rates at the lowest liquid food concentration. In accordance with these results, cocaine-induced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and hyperlocomotion were increased in M(4) (-/-) mice compared to M(4) (+/+) mice. Our data suggest that M(4) receptors play an important role in regulation of the reward circuitry and may serve as a new target in the medical treatment of drug addiction.

  11. 6-Bromohypaphorine from Marine Nudibranch Mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis is an Agonist of Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor E. Kasheverov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 6-Bromohypaphorine (6-BHP has been isolated from the marine sponges Pachymatisma johnstoni, Aplysina sp., and the tunicate Aplidium conicum, but data on its biological activity were not available. For the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis no endogenous compounds were known, and here we describe the isolation of 6-BHP from this mollusk and its effects on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR. Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on the chimeric α7 nAChR (built of chicken α7 ligand-binding and glycine receptor transmembrane domains or on rat α4β2 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed no action of 6-BHP. However, in radioligand analysis, 6-BHP competed with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 nAChR expressed in GH4C1 cells (IC50 23 ± 1 μM, but showed no competition on muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica. In Ca2+-imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells, 6-BHP in the presence of PNU120596 behaved as an agonist (EC50 ~80 μM. To the best of our knowledge, 6-BHP is the first low-molecular weight compound from marine source which is an agonist of the nAChR subtype. This may have physiological importance because H. crassicornis, with its simple and tractable nervous system, is a convenient model system for studying the learning and memory processes.

  12. A novel inhibitor of α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Conus vexillum delineates a new conotoxin superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulan Luo

    Full Text Available Conotoxins (CTxs selectively target a range of ion channels and receptors, making them widely used tools for probing nervous system function. Conotoxins have been previously grouped into superfamilies according to signal sequence and into families based on their cysteine framework and biological target. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a new conotoxin, from Conus vexillum, named αB-conotoxin VxXXIVA. The peptide does not belong to any previously described conotoxin superfamily and its arrangement of Cys residues is unique among conopeptides. Moreover, in contrast to previously characterized conopeptide toxins, which are expressed initially as prepropeptide precursors with a signal sequence, a ''pro'' region, and the toxin-encoding region, the precursor sequence of αB-VxXXIVA lacks a ''pro'' region. The predicted 40-residue mature peptide, which contains four Cys, was synthesized in each of the three possible disulfide arrangements. Investigation of the mechanism of action of αB-VxXXIVA revealed that the peptide is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR antagonist with greatest potency against the α9α10 subtype. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra indicated that all three αB-VxXXIVA isomers were poorly structured in aqueous solution. This was consistent with circular dichroism (CD results which showed that the peptides were unstructured in buffer, but adopted partially helical conformations in aqueous trifluoroethanol (TFE solution. The α9α10 nAChR is an important target for the development of analgesics and cancer chemotherapeutics, and αB-VxXXIVA represents a novel ligand with which to probe the structure and function of this protein.

  13. In vivo functional analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Dα6 using the insecticide spinosad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jason; Nguyen, Joseph; Lumb, Chris; Batterham, Phil; Perry, Trent

    2015-09-01

    The vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used to identify and manipulate insecticide resistance genes. The advancement of genome engineering technology and the increasing availability of pest genome sequences has increased the predictive and diagnostic capacity of the Drosophila model. The Drosophila model can be extended to investigate the basic biology of the interaction between insecticides and the proteins they target. Recently we have developed an in vivo system that permits the expression and study of key insecticide targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), in controlled genetic backgrounds. Here this system is used to study the interaction between the insecticide spinosad and a nAChR subunit, Dα6. Reciprocal chimeric subunits were created from Dα6 and Dα7, a subunit that does not respond to spinosad. Using the in vivo system, the Dα6/Dα7 chimeric subunits were tested for their capacity to respond to spinosad. Only the subunits containing the C-terminal region of Dα6 were able to respond to spinosad, thus confirming the importance this region for spinosad binding. A new incompletely dominant, spinosad resistance mechanism that may evolve in pest species is also examined. First generated using chemical mutagenesis, the Dα6(P146S) mutation was recreated using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, the first use of this technology to introduce a resistant mutation into a controlled genetic background. Both alleles present with the same incompletely dominant, spinosad resistance phenotype, proving the P146S replacement to be the causal mutation. The proximity of the P146S mutation to the conserved Cys-loop indicates that it may impair the gating of the receptor. The results of this study enhance the understanding of nAChR structure:function relationships. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute Ethanol Administration Upregulates Synaptic α4-Subunit of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors within the Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine R. Tarren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, nucleus accumbens (NAc, ventral tegmental area (VTA, and amygdala (Amg by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP. We observed a robust increase in α4-YFP subunit levels in the NAc and the Amg following acute ethanol, with no changes in the PFC and VTA. To further investigate whether this upregulation was mediated by increased local mRNA transcription, we quantified mRNA levels of the Chrna4 gene using qRT-PCR. We found no effect of ethanol on α4 mRNA expression, suggesting that the upregulation of α4 protein rather occurs post-translationally. The quantitative counting of YFP immunoreactive puncta further revealed that α4-YFP protein is upregulated in presynaptic boutons of the dopaminergic axons projecting to the shell and the core regions of the NAc as well as to the basolateral amygdala (BLA, but not to the central or lateral Amg. Together, our results demonstrate that a single exposure to binge ethanol upregulates level of synaptic α4∗ nAChRs in dopaminergic inputs to the NAc and BLA. This upregulation could be linked to the functional dysregulation of dopaminergic signalling observed during the development of alcohol dependence.

  15. Molecular characterization and expression profiles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Wu, Shun-Fan; Teng, Zi-Wen; Yao, Hong-Wei; Fang, Qi; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2017-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel (cysLGIC) superfamily, mediating fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system in insects. Insect nAChRs are the molecular targets of economically important insecticides, such as neonicotinoids and spinosad. Identification and characterization of the nAChR gene family in the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, could provide beneficial information about this important receptor gene family and contribute to the investigation of the molecular modes of insecticide action and resistance for current and future chemical control strategies. We searched our C. suppressalis transcriptome database using Bombyx mori nAChR sequences in local BLAST searches and obtained the putative nAChR subunit complementary DNAs (cDNAs) via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Similar to B. mori, C. suppressalis possesses 12 nAChR subunits, including nine α-type and three β-type subunits. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression profiles of the nAChR subunits in various tissues, including the brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglion, abdominal ganglion, hemocytes, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Developmental expression analyses showed clear differential expression of nAChR subunits throughout the C. suppressalis life cycle. The identification of nAChR subunits in this study will provide a foundation for investigating the diverse roles played by nAChRs in C. suppressalis and for exploring specific target sites for chemicals that control agricultural pests while sparing beneficial species. ©2016 The Authors Insect Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Anagyrine desensitization of peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A potential biomarker of quinolizidine alkaloid teratogenesis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagyrine, a teratogenic quinolizidine alkaloid found in certain Lupinus spp., has been proposed to undergo metabolism by pregnant cattle to a piperidine alkaloid which acts inhibit fetal movement, the putative mechanism behind crooked calf syndrome. The objective of this study was to test the hypot...

  17. The effects of microenvironment on the redifferentiation of regenerating neurones: neurite architecture, acetylcholine receptors and Ca2+ channel distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, M E; Zeldes, D; Hochner, B; Dormann, A

    1987-09-01

    Severed adult neurones, which are capable of regrowth, encounter different microenvironments from those encountered during development. Moreover, adult neurones may respond in a different manner from developing neurones to the same environmental cues. Thus, the recovery of the integrative and transmission capabilities (which depend on the neuronal architecture, passive and active membrane properties, and synaptic receptor distribution) by a regenerating adult neurone may not be complete. In the present review, we examine several aspects of the outcome of the interaction between the microenvironment and regrowing neurones using the cockroach giant interneurones (GINs) as a model system. We demonstrate that whereas extrinsic cues govern the morphological redifferentiation and distribution of synaptic receptors, the distribution of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels is to a large extent determined by intrinsic factors. The pathway of regrowth and the architecture of regenerating GINs were studied by examination of intracellularly stained fibres. The environments provided by the connectives and ganglia are different. The elongating sprouts in the connective appeared as smooth cylinders. Within the ganglionic domain, the main longitudinal sprouts emitted neurites which extended and branched into the neuropile. The local cues for branching of neurites were eliminated by freezing and thawing of the ganglia prior to the arrival of the growing tips. The failure to extend neurites under these conditions is attributed to the elimination of extrinsic signals for morphological redifferentiation of the fibres, since the same fibres emit neurites in anterior ganglia which have not been subjected to freezing and thawing. The distribution of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on the GINs was mapped by ionophoretic application of ACh. In both the intact and regenerating GINs receptors were located only on the neurites. Freezing and thawing of a ganglion eliminated the local signals for

  18. Bupropion Binds to Two Sites in the Torpedo Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Transmembrane Domain: A Photoaffinity Labeling Study with the Bupropion Analog [125I]-SADU-3-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhare, Akash; Hamouda, Ayman K.; Staggs, Brandon; Aggarwal, Shaili; Duddempudi, Phaneendra K.; Lever, John R.; Lapinsky, David J.; Jansen, Michaela; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Blanton, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Bupropion, a clinically-used antidepressant and smoking-cessation drug, acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To identify its binding site(s) in nAChRs, we developed a photoreactive bupropion analog, (±)-2-(N-tert-butylamino)-3′-[125I]-iodo-4′-azidopropiophenone (SADU-3-72). Based upon inhibition of [125I]SADU-3-72 binding, SADU-3-72 binds with high affinity (IC50 = 0.8 μM) to the Torpedo nAChR in the resting (closed channel) state and in the agonist-induced desensitized state, and bupropion binds to that site with three-fold higher affinity in the desensitized (IC50 = 1.2 μM) than in the resting state. Photolabeling of Torpedo nAChRs with [125I]SADU-3-72 followed by limited in-gel digestion of nAChR subunits with endoproteinase Glu-C established the presence of [125I]SADU-3-72 photoincorporation within nAChR subunit fragments containing M1-M2-M3 helices (αV8-20K, βV8-22/23K and γV8-24K) or M1-M2 helices (δV8-14). Photolabeling within βV8-22/23K, γV8-24K and δV8-14 was reduced in the desensitized state and inhibited by ion channel blockers selective for the resting (tetracaine) or desensitized (thienycyclohexylpiperidine (TCP)) state, and this pharmacologically specific photolabeling was localized to the M2-9 leucine ring (δLeu265, βLeu257) within the ion channel. In contrast, photolabeling within the αV8-20K was enhanced in the desensitized state and not inhibited by TCP, but was inhibited by bupropion. This agonist-enhanced photolabeling was localized to αTyr213 in αM1. These results establish the presence of two distinct bupropion binding sites within the Torpedo nAChR transmembrane domain: a high affinity site at the middle (M2-9) of the ion channel and a second site near the extracellular end of αM1 within a previously described halothane (general anesthetic) binding pocket. PMID:22394379

  19. Bupropion binds to two sites in the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane domain: a photoaffinity labeling study with the bupropion analogue [(125)I]-SADU-3-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhare, Akash; Hamouda, Ayman K; Staggs, Brandon; Aggarwal, Shaili; Duddempudi, Phaneendra K; Lever, John R; Lapinsky, David J; Jansen, Michaela; Cohen, Jonathan B; Blanton, Michael P

    2012-03-27

    Bupropion, a clinically used antidepressant and smoking-cessation drug, acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To identify its binding site(s) in nAChRs, we developed a photoreactive bupropion analogue, (±)-2-(N-tert-butylamino)-3'-[(125)I]-iodo-4'-azidopropiophenone (SADU-3-72). Based on inhibition of [(125)I]SADU-3-72 binding, SADU-3-72 binds with high affinity (IC(50) = 0.8 μM) to the Torpedo nAChR in the resting (closed channel) state and in the agonist-induced desensitized state, and bupropion binds to that site with 3-fold higher affinity in the desensitized (IC(50) = 1.2 μM) than in the resting state. Photolabeling of Torpedo nAChRs with [(125)I]SADU-3-72 followed by limited in-gel digestion of nAChR subunits with endoproteinase Glu-C established the presence of [(125)I]SADU-3-72 photoincorporation within nAChR subunit fragments containing M1-M2-M3 helices (αV8-20K, βV8-22/23K, and γV8-24K) or M1-M2 helices (δV8-14). Photolabeling within βV8-22/23K, γV8-24K, and δV8-14 was reduced in the desensitized state and inhibited by ion channel blockers selective for the resting (tetracaine) or desensitized (thienycyclohexylpiperidine (TCP)) state, and this pharmacologically specific photolabeling was localized to the M2-9 leucine ring (δLeu(265), βLeu(257)) within the ion channel. In contrast, photolabeling within the αV8-20K was enhanced in the desensitized state and not inhibited by TCP but was inhibited by bupropion. This agonist-enhanced photolabeling was localized to αTyr(213) in αM1. These results establish the presence of two distinct bupropion binding sites within the Torpedo nAChR transmembrane domain: a high affinity site at the middle (M2-9) of the ion channel and a second site near the extracellular end of αM1 within a previously described halothane (general anesthetic) binding pocket.

  20. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of novel spirocyclic quinuclidinyl-Delta2 -isoxazoline derivatives as potent and selective agonists of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallanoce, Clelia; Magrone, Pietro; Matera, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    A set of racemic spirocyclic quinuclidinyl-¿(2) -isoxazoline derivatives was synthesized using a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition-based approach. Target compounds were assayed for binding affinity toward rat neuronal homomeric (a7) and heteromeric (a4ß2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. ¿(2) -Isoxazol......-L- or (-)-dibenzoyl-D-tartaric acid as resolving agents. Enantiomer (R)-(-)-6¿a was found to be the eutomer, with K(i) values of 4.6 and 48.7 nM against rat and human a7 receptors, respectively....

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-({sup 18}F)fluoro-A85380, a radioligand for {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 2} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Sang Eun; Hwang, Sae Hwan; Paik, Jin Young; Choi, Yong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which mediate excitatory neurotransmission, are known to participate in various neurophysiological functions. Severe losses of nAChRs have been noted in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, noninvasive and quantitative imaging of nAChRs would offer a better understanding on the function of these receptors. In this study, 2 -({sup 18}F)fluoro-A85380 ([{sup 18}F]1), an {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 2} nAChRs radioligand, was prepared using one HPLC purification and evaluated in mouse brain, and the results were compared with those in the literature. ({sup 18}F)1 was prepared by ({sup 18}F)fluorination of the iodo precursor followed by acidic deprotection and then purified by HPLC. Tissue distribution studies were performed in mouse brain at the indicated time points and the result was expressed as %ID/g. Inhibition studies were also carried out with pretreatment of various ligands. One HPLC purification method gave the desired product in 15-20% radiochemical yield and with high specific activity (38-55 GBq/{mu}mol). Tissue distribution studies showed that ({sup 18}F)1 specifically labeled nAChRs in mouse brain with a high thalamus to cerebellum uptake ratio (13.8 at 90 min). Inhibition studies demonstrated selective binding of ({sup 18}F)1 to nAChRs, blocking the uptake of the ({sup 18}F) 1 in nAChR-rich regions by selective ligands such as cytisine and nicotine which are well-known nAChRs agonists. This study demonstrated that the ({sup 18}F)1 produced by the method using one HPLC purification gave the results similar to those reported in the lieterature. Therefore, this synthetic method can be readily applied to the routine preparation of ({sup 18}F)1, a PET radioligand for {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 2} nAChRs imaging.

  2. Cyclic nucleotides of canine antral smooth muscle. Effects of acetylcholine, catecholamines and gastrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, S; Grant, B; Wooton, J

    1981-01-07

    1. The effects of acetylcholine, catecholamines and gastrin on the intracellular content of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in antral circular muscle have been determined. 2. Acetylcholine results in a significant but transient increase in intracellular cyclic GMP. 3. Isoproterenol and norepinephrine increase intracellular cyclic AMP. Based on half-maximal effective doses, isoproterenol is 2.7-times more effective than norepinephrine. The increase in intracellular cyclic AMP by both agents is inhibited by propranolol but not phentolamine, indicating that both agents act on the muscle cell by a beta-receptor-coupled mechanism. 4. Gastrin has no demonstrable effect on either cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. This suggests that while gastrin and acetylcholine can produce a like myoelectric response in the muscle cell, the action of gastrin is mediated by a separate receptor, presumably on the muscle cell, and not by a release of acetylcholine.

  3. Benzodiazepine receptor agonists cause drug-specific and state-specific alterations in EEG power and acetylcholine release in rat pontine reticular formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Viviane S; Gauthier, Elizabeth A; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2010-07-01

    Benzodiazepine (BDZ) and non-benzodiazepine (NBDZ) hypnotics enhance GABAergic transmission and are widely used for the treatment of insomnia. In the pontine reticular formation (PRF), GABA inhibits rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and acetylcholine (ACh) release. No previous studies have characterized the effects of BDZ and NBDZ hypnotics on ACh release in the PRF. This study tested 2 hypotheses: (1) that microdialysis delivery of zolpidem, eszopiclone, and diazepam to rat PRF alters ACh release in PRF and electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power and (2) that intravenous (i.v.) administration of eszopiclone to non-anesthetized rat alters ACh release in the PRF, sleep, and EEG delta power. A within- and between-groups experimental design. University of Michigan. Adult male Crl:CD*(SD) (Sprague-Dawley) rats (n = 57). In vivo microdialysis of the PRF in rats anesthetized with isoflurane was used to derive the concentration-response effects of zolpidem, eszopiclone, and diazepam on ACh release. Chronically instrumented rats were used to quantify the effects of eszopiclone (3 mg/kg, i.v.) on ACh release in the PRF, sleep-wake states, and cortical EEG power. ACh release was significantly increased by microdialysis delivery to the PRF of zolpidem and eszopiclone but not diazepam. EEG delta power was increased by zolpidem and diazepam but not by eszopiclone administered to the PRF. Eszopiclone (i.v.) decreased ACh release in the PRF of both anesthetized and non-anesthetized rats. Eszopiclone (i.v.) prevented REM sleep and increased EEG delta power. The concentration-response data provide the first functional evidence that multiple GABA(A) receptor subtypes are present in rat PRF. Intravenously administered eszopiclone prevented REM sleep, decreased ACh release in the PRF, and increased EEG delta power. The effects of eszopiclone are consistent with evidence that ACh release in the PRF is lower during NREM sleep than during REM sleep, and with data showing that cholinergic

  4. Mutation (G275E) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit is associated with high levels of resistance to spinosyns in Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wellington M; Berger, Madeleine; Bass, Chris; Williamson, Martin; Moura, Danielle M N; Ribeiro, Lílian M S; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2016-07-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta, now a major pest of tomato crops worldwide, is primarily controlled using chemical insecticides. Recently, high levels of resistance to the insecticide spinosad have been described in T. absoluta populations in Brazil. Selection of a resistant field-collected strain led to very high levels of resistance to spinosad and cross-resistance to spinetoram, but not to other insecticides that target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In this study the mechanisms underlying resistance to spinosad were investigated using toxicological, biochemical and molecular approaches. Inhibition of metabolic enzymes using synergists and biochemical assessment of detoxification enzyme activity provided little evidence of metabolic resistance in the selected strain. Cloning and sequencing of the nAChR α6 subunit from T. absoluta, the spinosad target-site, from susceptible and spinosad-resistant strains were done to investigate the role of a target-site mechanism in resistance. A single nucleotide change was identified in exon 9 of the α6 subunit of the resistant strain, resulting in the replacement of the glycine (G) residue at position 275 observed in susceptible T. absoluta strains with a glutamic acid (E). A high-throughput DNA-based diagnostic assay was developed and used to assess the prevalence of the G275E mutation in 17 field populations collected from different geographical regions of Brazil. The resistant allele was found at low frequency, and in the heterozygous form, in seven of these populations but at much higher frequency and in the homozygous form in a population collected in the Iraquara municipality. The frequency of the mutation was significantly correlated with the mortality of these populations in discriminating dose bioassays. In summary our results provide evidence that the G275E mutation is an important mechanism of resistance to spinosyns in T. absoluta, and may be used as a marker for resistance monitoring in

  5. Double-seropositive myasthenia gravis with acetylcholine receptor and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 antibodies associated with invasive thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hidehiro; Taniguchi, Akira; Ii, Yuichiro; Higuchi, Osamu; Matsuo, Hidenori; Nakane, Shunya; Asahi, Masaru; Niwa, Atsushi; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2017-10-01

    We describe two cases of myasthenia gravis (MG) with double seropositivity for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) antibodies (AChR/LRP4-MG) with invasive thymoma. Both cases showed myasthenic weakness, which was restricted to the ocular muscles for >5 months from onset, and then unprovoked severe clinical deterioration supervened with predominant bulbar symptoms. The patients responded adequately to therapeutic intervention. Serum AChR antibody levels at post-intervention were markedly decreased, whereas LRP4 antibodies were almost unchanged in case 1 and slightly decreased in case 2. Although our results suggest that patients with AChR/LRP4-MG are likely to present with more severe symptoms than those with LRP4-MG, none of the previously reported cases had thymomas. Coexistence of autoantibodies may reflect breakdown of self-tolerance caused by invasive thymomas. The main cause affecting symptoms of MG in our cases was probably AChR antibodies, and anti-LRP4 antibodies might have been an exacerbating factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nicotine increases stress-induced serotonin release by stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Takada, Y; Nagai, N; Urano, T; Takada, A

    1998-03-01

    We used a microdialysis technique to analyze the effects of footshock stress on the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) in the striatum or prefrontal cortex (PFC) in rats that were pretreated with nicotine. Neither nicotine administration alone nor stress application alone changed 5-HT release. During stress application, however, both chronic nicotine administration and local infusion of nicotine to the striatum significantly increased 5-HT release in the striatum, though not in the PFC. These increases in 5-HT release were eradicated by a local infusion of mecamylamine. Release of 5-HT increased in the striatum during stress application when nicotine was injected to the striatum, while nicotinic injection to the dorsal raphe nucleus did not increase 5-HT release in the striatum. The present study demonstrates that nicotine induced a release of 5-HT upon stress application by stimulating presynaptic nicotinic receptors in the striatum.

  7. Annulated heterocyclic bioisosteres of norarecoline. Synthesis and molecular pharmacology at five recombinant human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Ebert, B; Brann, M R

    1995-01-01

    = 0.011 microM), and 4d (IC50 = 0.0008 microM). Pharmacological effects (EC50 or Ki values) and intrinsic activities (per cent of maximal carbachol responses) were determined using five recombinant human mAChRs (m1-m5) and the functional assay, receptor selection and amplification technology (R......]QNB (brain) and [3H]Oxo-M (brain) binding data, were shown to be predictive of pharmacologically determined intrinsic activities at m1-m5, the same rank order of intrinsic activity being observed at all five mAChRs (4a > 4d > 4b > 4c). It is concluded that within this class of high-affinity mAChR (m1-m5...

  8. Gamma-secretase activity of presenilin 1 regulates acetylcholine muscarinic receptor-mediated signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Bogdan O; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2004-01-01

    causing an exon 9 deletion in PS1 results in enhanced basal phospholipase C (PLC) activity (Cedazo-Minguez, A., Popescu, B. O., Ankarcrona, M., Nishimura, T., and Cowburn, R. F. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 36646-36655). To further elucidate the mechanisms by which PS1 interferes with PLC-calcium signaling...... by the PLC inhibitor neomycin, the ryanodine receptor antagonist dantrolene, the general aspartyl protease inhibitor pepstatin A, and the specific gamma-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester. The cells expressing either PS1 D257A or PS1 D385N had attenuated...... or PS1 D385N dominant negative cells. Our findings suggest that PS1 can regulate PLC activity and that this function is gamma-secretase activity-dependent....

  9. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBecchetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs. This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the α4β2* subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na+-dependent K+ channel, DEPD5 (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5, and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex.

  10. Partial agonism at the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor improves attention, impulsive action and vigilance in low attentive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Andrew; Adamson, Lisa; Neill, Joanna C

    2017-04-01

    Inattention is a disabling symptom in conditions such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nicotine can improve attention and vigilance, but is unsuitable for clinical use due to abuse liability. Genetic knockout of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) induces attention deficits therefore selective agonism may improve attention, without the abuse liability associated with nicotine. The α7 nAChR partial agonist encenicline (formerly EVP-6124) enhances memory in rodents and humans. Here we investigate, for the first time, efficacy of encenicline to improve attention and vigilance in animals behaviourally grouped for low attentive traits in the 5 choice-continuous performance task (5C-CPT). Female Lister Hooded rats were trained to perform the 5C-CPT with a variable stimulus duration (SD). Animals were then grouped based on performance into upper and lower quartiles of d' (vigilance) and accuracy (selective attention), producing high-attentive (HA) and low-attentive (LA) groups. LA animals showed an increase in selective attention and vigilance at 0.3mg/kg encenicline, a reduction in impulsive action (probability of false alarms) and increase in vigilance following 1mg/kg at 0.75sSD. At 1mg/kg, HA animals had reduced selective attention at 0.75sSD and reduced vigilance at 0.75 and 1.25sSD. Improvement of attention, vigilance and impulsive action in LA animals demonstrates that encenicline has pro-attentive properties dependent on baseline levels of performance. Our work suggests that α7 nAChR partial agonism may improve attention particularly in conditions with low attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive improvements in a mouse model with substituted 1,2,3-triazole agonists for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Boonyarat, Chantana; Fokin, Valery V; Taylor, Palmer; Vajragupta, Opa

    2015-08-19

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a recognized drug target for dementias of aging and certain developmental disorders. Two selective and potent α7-nAChR agonists, winnowed from a list of 43 compounds characterized in a companion article (DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00058), 5-((quinuclid-3-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1H-indole (IND8) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) quinuclidine (QND8), were evaluated for cognitive improvement in both short- and long-term memory. Tacrine, a centrally active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and PNU-282987, a congeneric α7 nAChR agonist, were employed as reference standards. Three behavioral tests, modified Y-maze, object recognition test (ORT), and water maze, were performed in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Intraperitoneal injection of these two compounds significantly improved the cognitive impairment in a modified Y-maze test (5 μmol/kg for IND8 and 10 μmol/kg for QND8), ORT (10 μmol/kg), and water maze test (25 μmol/kg). For delay induced memory deficit or natural memory loss in mice, IND8 and QND8 at 10 μmol/kg were able to enhance memory comparable to PNU-282987 when evaluated using ORT time delay model. Cognitive enhancement of IND8 and QND8 was mediated through α7-nAChRs as evidenced by its complete abolition after pretreatment with a selective α7-nAChR antagonist, methyllycaconitine. These data demonstrate that IND8 and QND8 and their congeners are potential candidates for treatment of cognitive disorders, and the substituted triazole series formed by cycloaddition of alkynes and azides warrant further preclinical optimization.

  12. Biophysical and ion channel functional characterization of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in varying detergent-lipid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo A; Asseo-García, Aloysha M; Quesada, Orestes; Hanson, Michael A; Cheng, Anchi; Nogueras, Carlos; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A; Stevens, Raymond C

    2008-05-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. However, high-resolution structural studies have been hampered by the lack of mechanistic molecular models that describe how detergents influence membrane protein stability and function. Furthermore, elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. This study examines the effects of nine detergents on: (1) nAChR-lipid composition (gas chromatography with flame ionization; GC-FID and/or mass selective detectors; GC-MSD), (2) stability and aggregation state (analytical size exclusion chromatography; A-SEC and electron microscopy; EM) and (3) ion channel function (planar lipid bilayers). Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. Upon purification, native lipid depletion occurred in all detergents, with lipid-analogue detergents CHAPS {(3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate}, FC-12 (n-dodecylphosphocholine) and sodium cholate (3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid) maintaining stability and supporting ion channel function, and non-lipid-analogue detergents Cymal-6 (6-cyclohexyl-1-hexyl-beta-D-maltoside), DDM (n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltopyranoside), LDAO (lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide) and OG (n-octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside) decreasing stability and significantly reducing or completely suppressing ion channel function. Anapoe-C(12)E(9 )(polyoxyethylene-[9]-dodecyl ether) and BigCHAP (N,N'-bis-[3-d-gluconamidopropyl] cholamide) retained residual amounts of native lipid, maintaining moderate stability and ion channel function compared to lipid-analogue detergents. Therefore, the nAChR can be stable and functional in lipid-analogue detergents or in detergents that retain moderate amounts of residual native lipids, but not in non

  13. Mechanisms involved in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-induced neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerve terminals in the mouse vas deferens.

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    Damian J Williams

    Full Text Available Prejunctional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs amplify postganglionic sympathetic neurotransmission, and there are indications that intraterminal Ca(2+ stores might be involved. However, the mechanisms by which nAChR activation stimulates neurotransmitter release at such junctions is unknown. Rapid local delivery (picospritzing of the nAChR agonist epibatidine was combined with intracellular sharp microelectrode recording to monitor spontaneous and field-stimulation-evoked neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerve terminals in the mouse isolated vas deferens. Locally applied epibatidine (1 µM produced 'epibatidine-induced depolarisations' (EIDs that were similar in shape to spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (SEJPs and were abolished by nonselective nAChR antagonists and the purinergic desensitizing agonist α,β-methylene ATP. The amplitude distribution of EIDs was only slightly shifted towards lower amplitudes by the selective α7 nAChR antagonists α-bungarotoxin and methyllcaconitine, the voltage-gated Na(+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin or by blocking voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels with Cd(2+. Lowering the extracellular Ca(2+ concentration reduced the frequency of EIDs by 69%, but more surprisingly, the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release blocker ryanodine greatly decreased the amplitude (by 41% and the frequency of EIDs by 36%. Ryanodine had no effect on electrically-evoked neurotransmitter release, paired-pulse facilitation, SEJP frequency, SEJP amplitude or SEJP amplitude distribution. These results show that activation of non-α7 nAChRs on sympathetic postganglionic nerve terminals induces high-amplitude junctional potentials that are argued to represent multipacketed neurotransmitter release synchronized by intraterminal Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, triggered by Ca(2+ influx directly through the nAChR. This nAChR-induced neurotransmitter release can be targeted pharmacologically without affecting spontaneous or electrically

  14. The Role of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus in Trace Fear Conditioning

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    Raybuck, J. D.; Gould, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute nicotine enhances multiple types of learning including trace fear conditioning but the underlying neural substrates of these effects are not well understood. Trace fear conditioning critically involves the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, which both express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Therefore, nicotine could act in either or both areas to enhance trace fear conditioning. To identify the underlying neural areas and nAChR subtypes, we examined the effects of infusion of nicotine, or nicotinic antagonists dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHβE: high-affinity nAChRs) or methyllycaconitine (MLA: low-affinity nAChRs) into the dorsal hippocampus, ventral hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on trace and contextual fear conditioning. We found that the effects of nicotine on trace and contextual fear conditioning vary by brain region and nAChR subtype. The dorsal hippocampus was involved in the effects of nicotine on both trace and contextual fear conditioning but each task was sensitive to different doses of nicotine. Additionally, dorsal hippocampal infusion of the antagonist DHβE produced deficits in trace but not contextual fear conditioning. Nicotine infusion into the ventral hippocampus produced deficits in both trace and contextual fear conditioning. In the mPFC, nicotine enhanced trace but not contextual fear conditioning. Interestingly, infusion of the antagonists MLA or DHβE in the mPFC also enhanced trace fear conditioning. These findings suggest that nicotine acts on different substrates to enhance trace versus contextual fear conditioning, and that nicotine-induced desensitization of nAChRs in the mPFC may contribute to the effects of nicotine on trace fear conditioning. PMID:20727979

  15. α-Conotoxin dendrimers have enhanced potency and selectivity for homomeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jingjing; Huang, Johnny X; Vetter, Irina; Mobli, Mehdi; Lawson, Joshua; Tae, Han-Shen; Abraham, Nikita; Paul, Blessy; Cooper, Matthew A; Adams, David J; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F

    2015-03-11

    Covalently attached peptide dendrimers can enhance binding affinity and functional activity. Homogenous di- and tetravalent dendrimers incorporating the α7-nicotinic receptor blocker α-conotoxin ImI (α-ImI) with polyethylene glycol spacers were designed and synthesized via a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition of azide-modified α-ImI to an alkyne-modified polylysine dendron. NMR and CD structural analysis confirmed that each α-ImI moiety in the dendrimers had the same 3D structure as native α-ImI. The binding of the α-ImI dendrimers to binding protein Ac-AChBP was measured by surface plasmon resonance and revealed enhanced affinity. Quantitative electrophysiology showed that α-ImI dendrimers had ∼100-fold enhanced potency at hα7 nAChRs (IC50 = 4 nM) compared to native α-ImI (IC50 = 440 nM). In contrast, no significant potency enhancement was observed at heteromeric hα3β2 and hα9α10 nAChRs. These findings indicate that multimeric ligands can significantly enhance conotoxin potency and selectivity at homomeric nicotinic ion channels.

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and genotypes of transient receptor potential ion channel and acetylcholine receptor genes from isolated B lymphocytes in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya; Johnston, Samantha; Chacko, Anu; Nguyen, Thao; Smith, Peter; Staines, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Objective The pathomechanism of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is unknown; however, a small subgroup of patients has shown muscarinic antibody positivity and reduced symptom presentation following anti-CD20 intervention. Given the important roles of calcium (Ca2+) and acetylcholine (ACh) signalling in B cell activation and potential antibody development, we aimed to identify relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotypes in isolated B cells from CFS/ME patients. Methods A total of 11 CFS/ME patients (aged 31.82 ± 5.50 years) and 11 non-fatigued controls (aged 33.91 ± 5.06 years) were included. Flow cytometric protocols were used to determine B cell purity, followed by SNP and genotype analysis for 21 mammalian TRP ion channel genes and nine mammalian ACh receptor genes. SNP association and genotyping analysis were performed using ANOVA and PLINK analysis software. Results Seventy-eight SNPs were identified in nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes in the CFS/ME group, of which 35 were in mAChM3. The remaining SNPs were identified in nAChR delta (n = 12), nAChR alpha 9 (n = 5), TRPV2 (n = 7), TRPM3 (n = 4), TRPM4 (n = 1) mAChRM3 2 (n = 2), and mAChRM5 (n = 3) genes. Nine genotypes were identified from SNPs in TRPM3 (n = 1), TRPC6 (n = 1), mAChRM3 (n = 2), nAChR alpha 4 (n = 1), and nAChR beta 1 (n = 4) genes, and were located in introns and 3' untranslated regions. Odds ratios for these specific genotypes ranged between 7.11 and 26.67 for CFS/ME compared with the non-fatigued control group. Conclusion This preliminary investigation identified a number of SNPs and genotypes in genes encoding TRP ion channels and AChRs from B cells in patients with CFS/ME. These may be involved in B cell functional changes, and suggest a role for Ca2+ dysregulation in AChR and TRP ion channel signalling in the pathomechanism of CFS/ME.

  17. The interaction between alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α represents a new antinociceptive signaling pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donvito, Giulia; Bagdas, Deniz; Toma, Wisam; Rahimpour, Elnaz; Jackson, Asti; Meade, Julie A; AlSharari, Shakir; Kulkarni, Abhijit R; Ivy Carroll, F; Lichtman, Aron H; Papke, Roger L; Thakur, Ganesh A; Imad Damaj, M

    2017-09-01

    Recently, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), primarily activated by binding of orthosteric agonists, represent a target for anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug development. These receptors may also be modulated by positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), ago-allosteric ligands (ago-PAMs), and α7-silent agonists. Activation of α7 nAChRs has been reported to increase the brain levels of endogenous ligands for nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type-α (PPAR-α), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA), in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Here, we investigated potential crosstalk between α7 nAChR and PPAR-α, using the formalin test, a mouse model of tonic pain. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we found that PNU282987, a full α7 agonist, attenuated formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in α7-dependent manner. Interestingly, the selective PPAR-α antagonist GW6471 blocked the antinociceptive effects of PNU282987, but did not alter the antinociceptive responses evoked by the α7 nAChR PAM PNU120596, ago-PAM GAT107, and silent agonist NS6740. Moreover, GW6471 administered systemically or spinally, but not via the intraplantar surface of the formalin-injected paw blocked PNU282987-induced antinociception. Conversely, exogenous administration of the naturally occurring PPAR-α agonist PEA potentiated the antinociceptive effects of PNU282987. In contrast, the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist rimonabant and the CB2 antagonist SR144528 failed to reverse the antinociceptive effects of PNU282987. These findings suggest that PPAR-α plays a key role in a putative antinociceptive α7 nicotinic signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo interactions between α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α: Implication for nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Asti; Bagdas, Deniz; Muldoon, Pretal P; Lichtman, Aron H; Carroll, F Ivy; Greenwald, Mark; Miles, Michael F; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-05-15

    Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-α (PPARα) has been implicated as a downstream signaling target of the α7 nAChR in ventral tegmental area dopamine cells. The present study investigated PPARα as a possible mediator of the effect of α7 nAChR activation in nicotine dependence. Our results demonstrate the PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocks actions of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 on nicotine reward in an unbiased CPP test in male ICR adult mice. These findings suggests that α7 nAChR activation attenuates nicotine CPP in a PPARα-dependent manner. To evaluate PPARα activation in nicotine dependence we used the selective and potent PPARα agonist, WY-14643 and the clinically used PPARα activator, fenofibrate, in nicotine CPP and we observed attenuation of nicotine preference, but fenofibrate was less potent. We also studied PPARα in nicotine dependence by evaluating its activation in nicotine withdrawal. WY-14643 reversed nicotine withdrawal signs whereas fenofibrate had modest efficacy. This suggests that PPARα plays a role in nicotine reward and withdrawal and that further studies are warranted to elucidate its function in mediating the effects of α7 nAChRs in nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acetylcholine Inhibits LPS-Induced MMP-9 Production and Cell Migration via the a7 nAChR-JAK2/STAT3 Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells

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    Yong-Hua Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 has been found in several inflammatory diseases. Previous studies have shown that acetylcholine (ACh reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased tissue damage. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the potential effects and mechanisms of ACh on MMP-9 production and cell migration in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation in RAW264.7 cells. Methods: MMP-9 expression and activity were induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells, and examined by real-time PCR, western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. ELISA was used to determine the changes in MMP-9 secretion among the groups. Macrophage migration was evaluated using transwell migration assay. Knockdown of a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7 nAChR expression was performed using siRNA transfection. Results: Pre-treatment with ACh inhibited LPS-induced MMP-9 production and macrophage migration in RAW264.7 cells. These effects were abolished by the a7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA and a7 nAChR siRNA. The a7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 was found to have an effect similar to that of ACh. Moreover, ACh enhanced the expression of JAK2 and STAT3, and the JAK2 inhibitor AG490 and the STAT3 inhibitor static restored the effect of ACh. Meanwhile, ACh decreased the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and this effect was abrogated in the presence of MLA. In addition, the JAK2 and STAT3 inhibitor abolished the inhibitory effects of ACh on phosphorylation of NF-κB. Conclusions: Activation of a7 nAChR by ACh inhibited LPS-induced MMP-9 production and macrophage migration through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. These results provide novel insights into the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of ACh.

  20. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit variants are associated with blood pressure; findings in the Old Order Amish and replication in the Framingham Heart Study

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    Ott Sandy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic blood pressure, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, is regulated via sympathetic nerve activity. We assessed the role of genetic variation in three subunits of the neuromuscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positioned on chromosome 2q, a region showing replicated evidence of linkage to blood pressure. Methods We sequenced CHRNA1, CHRND and CHRNG in 24 Amish subjects from the Amish Family Diabetes Study (AFDS and identified 20 variants. We then performed association analysis of non-redundant variants (n = 12 in the complete AFDS cohort of 1,189 individuals, and followed by genotyping blood pressure-associated variants (n = 5 in a replication sample of 1,759 individuals from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS. Results The minor allele of a synonymous coding SNP, rs2099489 in CHRNG, was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in both the Amish (p = 0.0009 and FHS populations (p = 0.009 (minor allele frequency = 0.20 in both populations. Conclusion CHRNG is currently thought to be expressed only during fetal development. These findings support the Barker hypothesis, that fetal genotype and intra-uterine environment influence susceptibility to chronic diseases later in life. Additional studies of this variant in other populations, as well as the effect of this variant on acetylcholine receptor expression and function, are needed to further elucidate its potential role in the regulation of blood pressure. This study suggests for the first time in humans, a possible role for genetic variation in the neuromuscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, particularly the gamma subunit, in systolic blood pressure regulation.

  1. [(3)H]chlorpromazine photolabeling of the torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor identifies two state-dependent binding sites in the ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, David C; Hamouda, Ayman K; Ziebell, Michael R; Mejia, Luis A; Garcia, Galo; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2009-10-27

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) noncompetitive antagonist, binds with higher affinity in the ion channel in the desensitized state than in the closed channel state and with low affinity to additional sites in nAChR-rich membranes. For nAChR equilibrated with agonist, we confirm previous reports that [(3)H]CPZ occupies a site near the cytoplasmic end of the M2 ion channel domain, photolabeling positions M2-2, M2-6, and/or M2-9 in each subunit. We find that [(3)H]CPZ also binds at the extracellular end of the channel, photolabeling amino acids at positions M2-16 (alpha,gamma), M2-17 (alpha,beta,delta), and M2-20 (alpha,beta,delta). The photolabeling at the cytoplasmic end of the channel is fully inhibitable by phencyclidine or proadifen, whereas neither drug inhibits [(3)H]CPZ photolabeling at the extracellular end, establishing that positively charged drugs can bind simultaneously at the cytoplasmic and extracellular ends of the ion channel. [(3)H]CPZ photolabeling is not detected in the transmembrane domain outside the ion channel, but it photolabels alphaMet-386 and alphaSer-393 in the cytoplasmic alphaMA helix. In the nAChR equilibrated with alpha-bungarotoxin to stabilize the nAChR in a closed state, [(3)H]CPZ photolabels amino acids at M2-5 (alpha), M2-6 (alpha,beta,delta), and M2-9 (beta,delta), with no labeling at M2-2. These results provide novel information about the modes of drug binding within the nAChR ion channel and indicate that within the nAChR transmembrane domain, the binding of cationic aromatic amine antagonists can be restricted to the ion channel domain, in contrast to the uncharged, allosteric potentiators and inhibitors that also bind within the delta subunit helix bundle and at subunit interfaces.

  2. Structure-activity studies of diazabicyclo[3.3.0]octane-substituted pyrazines and pyridines as potent α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanio, Marc J C; Shi, Lei; Bunnelle, William H; Anderson, David J; Helfrich, Rosalind J; Malysz, John; Thorin-Hagene, Kirsten K; Van Handel, Ceclia E; Marsh, Kennan C; Lee, Chih-Hung; Gopalakrishnan, Murali

    2011-11-10

    A series of diazabicyclo[3.3.0]octane substituted pyridines and pyrazines was synthesized and characterized at the α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The compounds were designed to mimic the profile of ABT-089, high affinity binding ligand for the α4β2 nAChR, with limited agonist activity. Carboxamide derivatives of 3-(diazabicyclo[3.3.0]octane)-substituted pyridines or 2-(diazabicyclo[3.3.0]octane)-substituted pyrazines were found to have the desired binding and activity profile. The structure-activity relationship of these compounds is presented.

  3. Nicotinic potentiation of frog retinotectal transmission in tectum layer F by α3β2, α4β2, α2β4, α6β2, or α7 acetylcholine receptor subtypes

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    Armuntas Baginskas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The tonic and phasic potentiation of the retinotectal transmission in the tectum layer F were not mediated by the receptors of α3β2, α4β2, α2β4, α6β2 or α7 subtype. The results suggest that presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the frog optic fibers are different from those of the mammalian optic fibers.

  4. Interaction of alpha-conotoxin ImII and its analogs with nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins: additional binding sites on Torpedo receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasheverov, Igor E; Zhmak, Maxim N; Fish, Alexander; Rucktooa, Prakash; Khruschov, Alexey Yu; Osipov, Alexey V; Ziganshin, Rustam H; D'hoedt, Dieter; Bertrand, Daniel; Sixma, Titia K; Smit, August B; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2009-11-01

    alpha-Conotoxins interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) at the sites for agonists/competitive antagonists. alpha-Conotoxins blocking muscle-type or alpha7 nAChRs compete with alpha-bungarotoxin. However, alpha-conotoxin ImII, a close homolog of the alpha7 nAChR-targeting alpha-conotoxin ImI, blocked alpha7 and muscle nAChRs without displacing alpha-bungarotoxin (Ellison et al. 2003, 2004), suggesting binding at a different site. We synthesized alpha-conotoxin ImII, its ribbon isomer (ImIIiso), 'mutant' ImII(W10Y) and found similar potencies in blocking human alpha7 and muscle nAChRs in Xenopus oocytes. Both isomers displaced [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin from human alpha7 nAChRs in the cell line GH(4)C(1) (IC(50) 17 and 23 microM, respectively) and from Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica AChBPs (IC(50) 2.0-9.0 microM). According to SPR measurements, both isomers bound to immobilized AChBPs and competed with AChBP for immobilized alpha-bungarotoxin (K(d) and IC(50) 2.5-8.2 microM). On Torpedo nAChR, alpha-conotoxin [(125)I]-ImII(W10Y) revealed specific binding (K(d) 1.5-6.1 microM) and could be displaced by alpha-conotoxin ImII, ImIIiso and ImII(W10Y) with IC(50) 2.7, 2.2 and 3.1 microM, respectively. As alpha-cobratoxin and alpha-conotoxin ImI displaced [(125)I]-ImII(W10Y) only at higher concentrations (IC(50)> or = 90 microM), our results indicate that alpha-conotoxin ImII and its congeners have an additional binding site on Torpedo nAChR distinct from the site for agonists/competitive antagonists.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi infection induces up-regulation of cardiac muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in vivo and in vitro

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    K. Peraza-Cruces

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of chagasic cardiomyopathy is not completely understood, but it has been correlated with parasympathetic denervation (neurogenic theory and inflammatory activity (immunogenic theory that could affect heart muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR expression. In order to further understand whether neurogenic and/or immunogenic alterations are related to changes in mAChR expression, we studied two models of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: 1 in 3-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats chronically infected with T. cruzi and 2 isolated primary cardiomyocytes co-cultured with T. cruzi and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Using [³H]-quinuclidinylbenzilate ([³H]-QNB binding assays, we evaluated mAChR expression in homogenates from selected cardiac regions, PBMC, and cultured cardiomyocytes. We also determined in vitro protein expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in serum and cell culture medium by ELISA. Our results showed that: 1 mAChR were significantly (P < 0.05 up-regulated in right ventricular myocardium (means ± SEM; control: 58.69 ± 5.54, N = 29; Chagas: 72.29 ± 5.79 fmol/mg, N = 34 and PBMC (control: 12.88 ± 2.45, N = 18; Chagas: 20.22 ± 1.82 fmol/mg, N = 19, as well as in cardiomyocyte transmembranes cultured with either PBMC/T. cruzi co-cultures (control: 24.33 ± 3.83; Chagas: 43.62 ± 5.08 fmol/mg, N = 7 for both or their conditioned medium (control: 37.84 ± 3.84, N = 4; Chagas: 54.38 ± 6.28 fmol/mg, N = 20; 2 [³H]-leucine uptake was increased in cardiomyocytes co-cultured with PBMC/T. cruzi-conditioned medium (Chagas: 21,030 ± 2321; control 10,940 ± 2385 dpm, N = 7 for both; P < 0.05; 3 plasma IL-6 was increased in chagasic rats, IL-1β, was increased in both plasma of chagasic rats and in the culture medium, and TNF-α level was decreased in the culture medium. In conclusion, our results suggest that cytokines are involved in the up-regulation of mAChR in chronic Chagas disease.

  6. The Sleep–Wake Cycle in the Nicotinic Alpha-9 Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Knock-Out Mice

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    Natalia Madrid-López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a neural matrix controlling the sleep–wake cycle (SWC embedded within high ranking integrative mechanisms in the central nervous system. Nicotinic alpha-9 acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha-9 nAChR participate in physiological processes occurring in sensory, endocrine and immune systems. There is a relationship between the SWC architecture, body homeostasis and sensory afferents so that disruption of afferent signaling is expected to affect the temporal organization of sleep and wake states. The analysis of the SWC of 9 nAChR knock-out animals may help to reveal the contribution of alpha-9 nAChR to sleep chronobiological determinants. Here we explore the polysomnogram in chronically implanted alpha-9 nAChR knock-out (KO and wild-type (WT individuals of the hybrid CBA/Sv129 mouse strain. Records were obtained in isolation chambers under a stable 12:12 light:dark cycle (LD. To unmask the 24-h modulation of the SWC a skeleton photoperiod (SP protocol was performed. Under LD the daily quota (in % of wakefulness (W, NREM sleep and REM sleep obtained in KO and WT animals were 45, 48 and 7, and 46, 46 and 8 respectively. Both groups exhibit nocturnal phase preference of W as well as diurnal and unimodal phase preference of NREM and REM sleep. The acrophase mean angles of KO vs. WT genotypes were not different (Zeitgeber Time: 6.5 vs. 14.9 for W, 4.3 vs. 2.8 for NREM sleep and 5.3 vs. 3.4 for REM sleep, respectively. Transference to SP do not affect daily state quotas, phase preferences and acrophases among genotypes. Unmasking phenomena of the SWC such as wake increment during the rest phase under SP was evident only among WT mice suggesting the involvement of retinal structures containing alpha-9 nAChR in masking processes. Furthermore, KO animals exhibit longer NREM and REM sleep episodes that is independent of illumination conditions. Consolidated diurnal NREM sleep contributed to obtain higher values of NREM sleep delta-EEG activity

  7. Assessment of {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in juvenile pig brain with [{sup 18}F]NS10743

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Fischer, Steffen; Hiller, Achim; Funke, Uta; Brust, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmacy, Leipzig (Germany); Becker, Georg; Sabri, Osama [Univ. of Leipzig, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Cumming, Paul; Xiong, Guoming [Univ. of Munich, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Peters, Dan [NeuroSearch A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)

    2011-08-15

    To conduct a quantitative PET assessment of the specific binding sites in the brain of juvenile pigs for [{sup 18}F]NS10743, a novel diazabicyclononane derivative targeting {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ({alpha}7 nAChRs). Dynamic PET recordings were made in isoflurane-anaesthetized juvenile pigs during 120 min after administration of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 under baseline conditions (n = 3) and after blocking of the {alpha}7 nAChR with NS6740 (3 mg.kg{sup -1} bolus + 1 mg.kg{sup -1}.h{sup -1} continuous infusion; n = 3). Arterial plasma samples were collected for determining the input function of the unmetabolized tracer. Kinetic analysis of regional brain time-radioactivity curves was performed, and parametric maps were calculated relative to arterial input. Plasma [{sup 18}F]NS10743 passed readily into the brain, with peak uptake occurring in {alpha}7 nAChR-expressing brain regions such as the colliculi, thalamus, temporal lobe and hippocampus. The highest SUV{sub max} was approximately 2.3, whereas the lowest uptake was in the olfactory bulb (SUV{sub max} 1.53 {+-} 0.32). Administration of NS6740 significantly decreased [{sup 18}F]NS10743 binding late in the emission recording throughout the brain, except in the olfactory bulb, which was therefore chosen as reference region for calculation of BP{sub ND}. The baseline BP{sub ND} ranged from 0.39 {+-} 0.08 in the cerebellum to 0.76 {+-} 0.07 in the temporal lobe. Pretreatment and constant infusion with NS6740 significantly reduced the BP{sub ND} in regions with high [{sup 18}F]NS10743 binding (temporal lobe -29%, p = 0.01; midbrain: -35%, p = 0.02), without significantly altering the BP{sub ND} in low binding regions (cerebellum: -16%, p = 0.2). This study confirms the potential of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 as a target-specific radiotracer for the molecular imaging of central {alpha}7 nAChRs by PET. (orig.)

  8. Effect of α{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Kevin D., E-mail: kevin.welch@ars.usda.gov [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Pfister, James A. [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Lima, Flavia G. [Federal University of Goías, School of Veterinary Medicine, Goiânia, Goías (Brazil); Green, Benedict T.; Gardner, Dale R. [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ► Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ► These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ► There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.

  9. Vagus Nerve Attenuates Hepatocyte Apoptosis upon Ischemia-Reperfusion via α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor on Kupffer Cells in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Min; Fu, Hui; Huang, Fang; Zhao, Ting; Chen, Ji-Kuai; Li, Dong-Jie; Shen, Fu-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR) injury is a complication of liver surgery. As much as 50% of hepatocytes undergo apoptosis within the first 24 h of reperfusion. The neurotransmitters of the vagus nerve can activate α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on macrophages. The function of Kupffer cells (KCs) determines HIR injury. We hypothesize that the vagus nerve could attenuate HIR-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by activating α7nAChR on KCs. Hepatic vagotomized C57BL/6J mice, KC-eliminated C57BL/6J mice, and α7nAChR mice were used for HIR. Primary KCs and hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR). Liver injury, hepatocyte apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and soluble CD163 were measured. Hepatic vagotomy and α7nAChR caused higher levels of alanine transaminase and liver caspase-3 and -8 activity by HIR. Activating α7nAChR attenuated these changes in wild-type but not in the α7nAChR mice. Furthermore, activating α7nAChR diminished hepatic injury and reduced liver apoptosis by HIR in vagotomized mice. In vitro, activating α7nAChR reduced apoptosis of hepatocytes cocultured with KCs that suffered HR. Similar to the effects by catalase, activating α7nAChR on KCs reduced ROS and H2O2 by HR. The supernatant from KCs, with α7nAChR activated or catalase treated, prevented hepatocyte apoptosis by HR. Finally, KC elimination reduced HIR-induced H2O2 production in mice. Activating α7nAChR significantly attenuated soluble CD163 both in mice by HIR (serum: 240 ± 34 vs. 446 ± 72; mean ± SD; n = 8; P vagus nerve could minimize HIR-induced liver apoptosis through activating α7nAChR on KCs possibly by preventing their excessive ROS production.

  10. Acetylcholinesterase and Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-21

    trimethylammonio- acetate, (CH 3 ) 3 N* CH2 CO2 CH3 , tert-butyl peracetate, (CH3) 3 C- OOCOCH3 , methyl methanesulfonate, CH3 SO2 0CH3 , methyl benzene - sulfonate ...recovered. Enzyme was assayed by the Ellman procedure (16). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel equipment was assembled and procedures for assay...Other Potential Irreversible Inhibitors 13 Reversible Inhibitors 14 Benzene Derivatives as Inhibitors and Accelerators 15 Substrates 16 Discussion and

  11. The distribution of cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in vivo in patients with dementia. A controlled study with 123IQNB and single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, D.R.; Gibson, R.; Coppola, R.; Jones, D.W.; Molchan, S.; Sunderland, T.; Berman, K.F.; Reba, R.C. (National Institute of Mental Health Neuroscience Center, Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-02-01

    A high-affinity muscarinic receptor antagonist, 123IQNB (3-quinuclidinyl-4-iodobenzilate labeled with iodine 123), was used with single photon emission computed tomography to image muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in 14 patients with dementia and in 11 healthy controls. High-resolution single photon emission computed tomographic scanning was performed 21 hours after the intravenous administration of approximately 5 mCi of IQNB. In normal subjects, the images of retained ligand showed a consistent regional pattern that correlated with postmortem studies of the relative distribution of muscarinic receptors in the normal human brain, having high radioactivity counts in the basal ganglia, occipital cortex, and insular cortex, low counts in the thalamus, and virtually no counts in the cerebellum. Eight of 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease had obvious focal cortical defects in either frontal or posterior temporal cortex. Both patients with a clinical diagnosis of Pick's disease had obvious frontal and anterior temporal defects. A region of interest statistical analysis of relative regional activity revealed a significant reduction bilaterally in the posterior temporal cortex of the patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. This study demonstrates the practicability of acetylcholine receptor imaging with 123IQNB and single photon emission computed tomography. The data suggest that focal abnormalities in muscarinic binding in vivo may characterize some patients with Alzheimer's disease and Pick's disease, but further studies are needed to address questions about partial volume artifacts and receptor quantification.

  12. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel; Tomàs, Josep

    2016-06-23

    The development of the nervous system involves an initially exuberant production of neurons that make an excessive number of synaptic contacts. The initial overproduction of synapses promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities (the least active are punished) leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity and increases specificity. The neuromuscular junction is innervated by a single axon at the end of the synapse elimination process and, because of its relative simplicity, has long been used as a model for studying the general principles of synapse development. The involvement of the presynaptic muscarinic ACh autoreceptors may allow for the direct competitive interaction between nerve endings through differential activity-dependent acetylcholine release in the synaptic cleft. Then, the most active ending may directly punish the less active ones. Our previous results indicate the existence in the weakest axons on the polyinnervated neonatal NMJ of an ACh release inhibition mechanism based on mAChR coupled to protein kinase C and voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that this mechanism plays a role in the elimination of redundant neonatal synapses. Here we used confocal microscopy and quantitative morphological analysis to count the number of brightly fluorescent axons per endplate in P7, P9 and P15 transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice. We investigate the involvement of individual mAChR M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes in the control of axonal elimination after the Levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to agonist and antagonist in vivo. We also analysed the role of adenosine receptor subtypes (A1 and A2A) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor. The data show that postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that guaranteed the monoinnervation of the neuromuscular synapses. The three receptor sets considered (mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors

  13. Inhibitory effects of pine nodule extract and its component, SJ-2, on acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis in bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojia; Horishita, Takafumi; Toyohira, Yumiko; Shao, Hui; Bai, Jie; Bo, Haixia; Song, Xinbo; Ishikane, Shin; Yoshinaga, Yukari; Satoh, Noriaki; Tsutsui, Masato; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2017-04-01

    Extract of pine nodules (matsufushi) formed by bark proliferation on the surface of trees of Pinus tabulaeformis or Pinus massoniana has been used as an analgesic for joint pain, rheumatism, neuralgia, dysmenorrhea and other complaints in Chinese traditional medicine. Here we report the effects of matsufushi extract and its components on catecholamine secretion and synthesis in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. We found that matsufushi extract (0.0003-0.005%) and its component, SJ-2 (5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-trans-stilbene) (0.3-100 μM), but not the other three, concentration-dependently inhibited catecholamine secretion induced by acetylcholine, a physiological secretagogue. Matsufushi extract (0.0003-0.005%) and SJ-2 (0.3-100 μM) also inhibited 45Ca2+ influx induced by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner, similar to its effect on catecholamine secretion. They also suppressed 14C-catecholamine synthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by acetylcholine. In Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, matsufushi extract (0.00003-0.001%) and SJ-2 (1-100 μM) directly inhibited the current evoked by acetylcholine. The present findings suggest that SJ-2, as well as matsufushi extract, inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in bovine adrenal medullary cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bupropion and its photoreactive analog (±)-SADU-3-72 interact with luminal and non-luminal sites at human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Hugo R; Feuerbach, Dominik; Ortells, Marcelo O

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of (±)-bupropion [(±)-BP] with the human (h) α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) was compared to that for its photoreactive analog (±)-2-(N-tert-butylamino)-3'-iodo-4'-azidopropiophenone [(±)-SADU-3-72]. Ca2+ influx results indicated that (±)-SADU-3-72 and (±)-BP inhibit hα4β2 AChRs with practically the same potency. However, (±)-SADU-3-72 binds to the [3H]imipramine sites at resting and desensitized hα4β2 AChRs with 3-fold higher affinity compared to that for (±)-BP, which is supported by molecular docking results. The docking results also indicate that each isomer of BP and SADU-3-72, in the protonated state, interacts with luminal and non-luminal sites. In the channel lumen, both ligands bind to two overlapping subsites, one that overlaps the imipramine site, and another much closer to the cytoplasmic side. The results suggest, for the first time, three differentiated non-luminal domains, including the transmembrane (TMD), extracellular (ECD), and ECD-TMD junction. In the ECD-TMD junction, BP and SADU-3-72 bind to overlapping sites. Interestingly, only SADU-3-72 binds to intrasubunit and intersubunit sites in the TMD, and to additional sites in the ECD. Our results are consistent with a model where BP and SADU-3-72 bind to overlapping sites in the luminal and ECD-TMD junctional domains of the hα4β2, whereas only SADU-3-72 binds to additional non-luminal sites. The BP junctional site opens the door for additional inhibitory mechanisms. The pharmacological properties of (±)-SADU-3-72 showed in this work support further photolabeling studies to mapping the BP binding sites in the hα4β2 AChR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. L-Satropane Prevents Retinal Neuron Damage by Attenuating Cell Apoptosis and Aβ Production via Activation of M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Lu; Tang, Ya-Bin; Song, Yun; Lu, Juan-Juan; Hou, Li-Na; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Cui, Yong-Yao

    2017-09-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonists have been used to treat glaucoma due to their intraocular pressure-lowering effects. Recently, it has been reported that retinal mAChRs activation can also stimulate neuroprotective pathways. In our study, we evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of L-satropane, a novel mAChR agonist, on retinal neuronal injury induced by cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). CoCl2-induced hypoxia injury in cultured cell models and I/R-induced retinal neuronal damage in rats in vivo were used to evaluate the abilities of L-satropane. In detail, we measured the occurrence of retinal pathological changes including molecular markers of neuronal apoptosis and Aβ expression. Pretreatment with L-satropane protects against CoCl2-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 and primary retinal neuron (PRN) cells in a dose-dependent manner by increasing retinal neuron survival. CoCl2 or I/R-induced cell apoptosis by upregulating Bax expression and downregulating Bcl-2 expression, which resulted in an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and upregulating caspase-3 expression/activity was significantly reversed by L-satropane treatment. In addition, L-satropane significantly inhibited the upregulation of Aβ production in both retinal neurons and tissue. We also found that I/R-induced histopathological retinal changes including cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) and increased TUNEL positive retinal ganglion cells in GCL and thinning of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL) were markedly improved by L-satropane. The effects of L-satropane were largely abolished by the nonselective mAChRs antagonist atropine and M1-selective mAChR antagonist pirenzepine. These results demonstrated that L-satropane might be effective in preventing retinal neuron damage caused by CoCl2 or I/R. The neuroprotective effects of L-satropane may be attributed to decreasing cell apoptosis and Aβ production through activation

  16. Reduction in mRNA and protein expression of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α8 subunit is associated with resistance to imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixi; Wang, Xin; Yang, Baojun; Hu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Lixin; Bass, Chris; Liu, Zewen

    2015-11-01

    Target-site resistance is commonly caused by qualitative changes in insecticide target-receptors and few studies have implicated quantitative changes in insecticide targets in resistance. Here we show that resistance to imidacloprid in a selected strain of Nilaparvata lugens is associated with a reduction in expression levels of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit Nlα8. Synergism bioassays of the selected strain suggested resistance was conferred, in part, by a target-site mechanism. Sequencing of N. lugens nAChR subunit genes identified no mutations associated with resistance, however, a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of Nlα8 was observed during selection. RNA interference knockdown of Nlα8 decreased the sensitivity of N. lugens to imidacloprid, demonstrating that a decrease in Nlα8 expression is sufficient to confer resistance in vivo. Radioligand binding assays revealed that the affinity of the high-affinity imidacloprid-binding site of native nAChRs was reduced by selection, and reducing the amount of Nlα8 cRNA injected into Xenopus oocytes significantly decreased imidacloprid potency on recombinant receptors. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that a decrease in Nlα8 levels confers resistance to imidacloprid in N. lugens, and thus provides a rare example of target-site resistance associated with a quantitative rather than qualitative change. In insects, target-site mutations often cause high resistance to insecticides, such as neonicotinoids acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here we found that a quantitative change in target-protein level, decrease in mRNA and protein levels of Nlα8, contributed importantly to imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens. This finding provides a new target-site mechanism of insecticide resistance. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. The association between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit gene (CHRNA4 rs1044396 and Internet gaming disorder in Korean male adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Eun Jeong

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to investigate the genetic predisposition of Internet gaming disorder (IGD, and the secondary aim was to compare the results to those of alcohol dependence (AD. Two independent case-control studies were conducted. A total of 30 male participants with IGD, diagnosed according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 criteria, and 30 sex-matched controls participated in study 1. We designed targeted exome sequencing (TES to test for 72 candidate genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of addiction. The genes included seven neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, r-aminobutyric acid (GABA, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and opioid system genes. A total of 31 male in-patients with AD and 29 normal male controls (NC were enrolled in study 2. The same 72 genes included in study 1 and ten additional genes related to alcohol-metabolic enzyme were selected as the target genes, and we identified the genetic variants using the same method (TES. The IGD group had a lower frequency of the T allele of rs1044396 in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit (CHRNA4, and this variant represents a protective allele against IGD. However, we did not find a significant difference in the polymorphisms of the 72 genes that encode neurotransmitter systems between the AD and NC groups. This study demonstrated that rs1044396 of CHRNA4 was significantly associated with IGD.

  18. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Li, Ruisheng [Institute of Infectious Diseases, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Jia, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Xiao, Dongjie [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Dang, Ningning [Department of Dermatology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Wang, Yunshan [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2014-07-15

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer. - Highlights

  19. Dimensions of the ion channel in neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as estimated from analysis of conformation-activity relationships of open-channel blocking drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhorov, B S; Brovtsyna, N B; Gmiro, V E; Lukomskaya NYa; Serdyuk, S E; Potapyeva, N N; Magazanik, L G; Kurenniy, D E; Skok, V I

    1991-04-01

    Relationship between the size of the molecule in the series of organic ions Et3+N--(CH2)5--+NR1R2R3 (Ri--alkyl or cycloalkyl substituents) and their abilities to block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) due to their open-channel blockade in the neurons of autonomic ganglia and in frog end-plate was analyzed. All low-energy equilibrium conformations of the drugs were calculated by the molecular mechanics method. A unique rectangular channel profile 6.1 x 8.3 A, for which the best correlation between blocking activity of the drugs and total population of their conformations being able to penetrate into the channel, was deduced from all those tested.

  20. Beta-3 adrenergic receptor is expressed in acetylcholine-containing nerve fibers of the human urinary bladder: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ana; Antunes-Lopes, Tiago; Gillespie, James; Cruz, Francisco

    2017-11-01

    To identify in the human bladder the structures which express the Beta-3 adrenoceptor (β3AR). Human bladders from cadaveric organ donors (equally balanced in sex and age) were collected. Bladders were immediately fixed in paraformaldehyde and further processed for cryostat sectioning. Single and double immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against β3AR C-terminal, β3AR N-terminal, a pan-neuronal marker (β3-Tubulin) and markers of cholinergic (Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter), adrenergic (Tyrosine Hidroxylase), and peptidergic (Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide) nerve fibers. Nerve fibers expressing immunoreactivity for β3AR were abundantly found in the mucosa and muscular layers of the human bladder. No β3AR-IR was detected on urothelial or smooth muscle cells. The presence of β3AR-IR in nerve fibers was confirmed by co-expression with β3-Tubulin. Nerve fibers expressing β3AR-IR were cholinergic, VAChT(+) , and abundantly observed in the suburothelium. The cholinergic fibers were in close proximity and intermingled with adrenergic TH(+) and peptidergic CGRP(+) fibers. We demonstrated that β3AR is abundantly located in acetylcholine-containing nerve fibers. These findings have important consequences to understand the mechanism of action of β3AR agonists currently used for the treatment of OAB. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies to Study the Structural Basis of the Function of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Electric Organ and Muscle and to Determine the Structure of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    of chicken neurona .4receptor subunits. Sequences of al and a2 are from Net .Ot al. -l Sequences of a3 and a4 were determintl from clones described...Sucrose gradient analysis of neurona & nicotinic receptors was conducted as follows. Chicken ind rat brain receptors were extracted from crude

  2. Decreased cerebral {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease assessed with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendziorra, Kai; Meyer, Philipp Mael; Barthel, Henryk; Hesse, Swen; Becker, Georg Alexander; Luthardt, Julia; Schildan, Andreas; Patt, Marianne; Sorger, Dietlind; Seese, Anita; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); University of Zurich, Department of Old Age Psychiatry and Psychiatry Research, Psychiatric University Hospital (PUK) Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Gertz, Herman-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Postmortem studies indicate a loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to establish whether these changes in the cholinergic system occur at an early stage of AD, we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with a specific radioligand for the {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}4{beta}2* nAChR) in patients with mild to moderate AD and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), who have a high risk to progress to AD. Nine patients with moderate AD, eight patients with MCI and seven age-matched healthy controls underwent 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380) PET. After coregistration with individual magnetic resonance imaging the binding potential (BP{sub ND}) of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 was calculated using either the corpus callosum or the cerebellum as reference regions. PET data were analysed by region of interest analysis and by voxel-based analysis. Both patients with AD and MCI showed a significant reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} in typical AD-affected brain regions. Thereby, the corpus callosum was identified as the most suitable reference region. The 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment. Only MCI patients that converted to AD in the later course (n = 5) had a reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND}. 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET appears to be a sensitive and feasible tool for the detection of a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2* nAChRs which seems to be an early event in AD. In addition, 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET might give prognostic information about a conversion from MCI to AD. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of acetylcholine receptor diversity in a nematode parasite leads to characterization of tribendimidine- and derquantel-sensitive nAChRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Buxton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs of parasitic nematodes are required for body movement and are targets of important "classical" anthelmintics like levamisole and pyrantel, as well as "novel" anthelmintics like tribendimidine and derquantel. Four biophysical subtypes of nAChR have been observed electrophysiologically in body muscle of the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum, but their molecular basis was not understood. Additionally, loss of one of these subtypes (G 35 pS was found to be associated with levamisole resistance. In the present study, we identified and expressed in Xenopus oocytes, four O. dentatum nAChR subunit genes, Ode-unc-38, Ode-unc-63, Ode-unc-29 and Ode-acr-8, to explore the origin of the receptor diversity. When different combinations of subunits were injected in Xenopus oocytes, we reconstituted and characterized four pharmacologically different types of nAChRs with different sensitivities to the cholinergic anthelmintics. Moreover, we demonstrate that the receptor diversity may be affected by the stoichiometric arrangement of the subunits. We show, for the first time, different combinations of subunits from a parasitic nematode that make up receptors sensitive to tribendimidine and derquantel. In addition, we report that the recombinant levamisole-sensitive receptor made up of Ode-UNC-29, Ode-UNC-63, Ode-UNC-38 and Ode-ACR-8 subunits has the same single-channel conductance, 35 pS and 2.4 ms mean open-time properties, as the levamisole-AChR (G35 subtype previously identified in vivo. These data highlight the flexible arrangements of the receptor subunits and their effects on sensitivity and resistance to the cholinergic anthelmintics; pyrantel, tribendimidine and/or derquantel may still be effective on levamisole-resistant worms.

  4. Investigation of acetylcholine receptor diversity in a nematode parasite leads to characterization of tribendimidine- and derquantel-sensitive nAChRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Samuel K; Charvet, Claude L; Neveu, Cedric; Cabaret, Jacques; Cortet, Jacques; Peineau, Nicolas; Abongwa, Melanie; Courtot, Elise; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of parasitic nematodes are required for body movement and are targets of important "classical" anthelmintics like levamisole and pyrantel, as well as "novel" anthelmintics like tribendimidine and derquantel. Four biophysical subtypes of nAChR have been observed electrophysiologically in body muscle of the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum, but their molecular basis was not understood. Additionally, loss of one of these subtypes (G 35 pS) was found to be associated with levamisole resistance. In the present study, we identified and expressed in Xenopus oocytes, four O. dentatum nAChR subunit genes, Ode-unc-38, Ode-unc-63, Ode-unc-29 and Ode-acr-8, to explore the origin of the receptor diversity. When different combinations of subunits were injected in Xenopus oocytes, we reconstituted and characterized four pharmacologically different types of nAChRs with different sensitivities to the cholinergic anthelmintics. Moreover, we demonstrate that the receptor diversity may be affected by the stoichiometric arrangement of the subunits. We show, for the first time, different combinations of subunits from a parasitic nematode that make up receptors sensitive to tribendimidine and derquantel. In addition, we report that the recombinant levamisole-sensitive receptor made up of Ode-UNC-29, Ode-UNC-63, Ode-UNC-38 and Ode-ACR-8 subunits has the same single-channel conductance, 35 pS and 2.4 ms mean open-time properties, as the levamisole-AChR (G35) subtype previously identified in vivo. These data highlight the flexible arrangements of the receptor subunits and their effects on sensitivity and resistance to the cholinergic anthelmintics; pyrantel, tribendimidine and/or derquantel may still be effective on levamisole-resistant worms.

  5. Investigation of Acetylcholine Receptor Diversity in a Nematode Parasite Leads to Characterization of Tribendimidine- and Derquantel-Sensitive nAChRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Cedric; Cabaret, Jacques; Cortet, Jacques; Peineau, Nicolas; Abongwa, Melanie; Courtot, Elise; Robertson, Alan P.; Martin, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of parasitic nematodes are required for body movement and are targets of important “classical” anthelmintics like levamisole and pyrantel, as well as “novel” anthelmintics like tribendimidine and derquantel. Four biophysical subtypes of nAChR have been observed electrophysiologically in body muscle of the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum dentatum, but their molecular basis was not understood. Additionally, loss of one of these subtypes (G 35 pS) was found to be associated with levamisole resistance. In the present study, we identified and expressed in Xenopus oocytes, four O. dentatum nAChR subunit genes, Ode-unc-38, Ode-unc-63, Ode-unc-29 and Ode-acr-8, to explore the origin of the receptor diversity. When different combinations of subunits were injected in Xenopus oocytes, we reconstituted and characterized four pharmacologically different types of nAChRs with different sensitivities to the cholinergic anthelmintics. Moreover, we demonstrate that the receptor diversity may be affected by the stoichiometric arrangement of the subunits. We show, for the first time, different combinations of subunits from a parasitic nematode that make up receptors sensitive to tribendimidine and derquantel. In addition, we report that the recombinant levamisole-sensitive receptor made up of Ode-UNC-29, Ode-UNC-63, Ode-UNC-38 and Ode-ACR-8 subunits has the same single-channel conductance, 35 pS and 2.4 ms mean open-time properties, as the levamisole-AChR (G35) subtype previously identified in vivo. These data highlight the flexible arrangements of the receptor subunits and their effects on sensitivity and resistance to the cholinergic anthelmintics; pyrantel, tribendimidine and/or derquantel may still be effective on levamisole-resistant worms. PMID:24497826

  6. Soluble Extracellular Domain of Death Receptor 5 Inhibits TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis by Disrupting Receptor-Receptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vunnam, Nagamani; Lo, Chih Hung; Grant, Benjamin D; Thomas, David D; Sachs, Jonathan N

    2017-09-15

    Dysregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor signaling is a key feature of various inflammatory disorders. Current treatments for TNF-related diseases function either by sequestering ligand or blocking ligand-receptor interactions, which can cause dangerous side effects by inhibiting the receptors that are not involved in the disease condition. Thus, alternate strategies that target receptor-receptor interactions are needed. We hypothesized that the soluble extracellular domain (ECD) of long isoform of death receptor 5 (DR5) could block endogenous receptor assembly, mimicking the biological effect of decoy receptors that lack the death domain to trigger apoptosis. Using live-cell fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies, we demonstrated that soluble ECD disrupts endogenous DR5-DR5 interactions. Cell viability assays were used to demonstrate the complete inhibition of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by the ECD, although TRAIL is still able to bind to the receptor. Importantly, we used mutagenesis to prove that the inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the ECD predominantly comes from the disruption of DR5 oligomerization and not ligand sequestration. Inhibition of death receptor activation should have important therapeutic applications in diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. More generally, this approach should be generalized to enable the inhibition of other TNF receptor signaling mechanisms that are associated in a wide range of clinical conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sally M; Robertson, Alan P; Brown, Laurence; Williams, Tracey; Woods, Debra J; Martin, Richard J; Sattelle, David B; Wolstenholme, Adrian J

    2009-07-01

    Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29), nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29), levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the development of

  8. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally M Williamson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the

  9. [(3)H]Epibatidine photolabels non-equivalent amino acids in the agonist binding site of Torpedo and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shouryadeep; Hamouda, Ayman K; Pandhare, Akash; Duddempudi, Phaneendra K; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Cohen, Jonathan B; Blanton, Michael P

    2009-09-11

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as epibatidine and its molecular derivatives, are potential therapeutic agents for a variety of neurological disorders. In order to identify determinants for subtype-selective agonist binding, it is important to determine whether an agonist binds in a common orientation in different nAChR subtypes. To compare the mode of binding of epibatidine in a muscle and a neuronal nAChR, we photolabeled Torpedo alpha(2)betagammadelta and expressed human alpha4beta2 nAChRs with [(3)H]epibatidine and identified by Edman degradation the photolabeled amino acids. Irradiation at 254 nm resulted in photolabeling of alphaTyr(198) in agonist binding site Segment C of the principal (+) face in both alpha subunits and of gammaLeu(109) and gammaTyr(117) in Segment E of the complementary (-) face, with no labeling detected in the delta subunit. For affinity-purified alpha4beta2 nAChRs, [(3)H]epibatidine photolabeled alpha4Tyr(195) (equivalent to Torpedo alphaTyr(190)) in Segment C as well as beta2Val(111) and beta2Ser(113) in Segment E (equivalent to Torpedo gammaLeu(109) and gammaTyr(111), respectively). Consideration of the location of the photolabeled amino acids in homology models of the nAChRs based upon the acetylcholine-binding protein structure and the results of ligand docking simulations suggests that epibatidine binds in a single preferred orientation within the alpha-gamma transmitter binding site, whereas it binds in two distinct orientations in the alpha4beta2 nAChR.

  10. [3H]Epibatidine Photolabels Non-equivalent Amino Acids in the Agonist Binding Site of Torpedo and α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shouryadeep; Hamouda, Ayman K.; Pandhare, Akash; Duddempudi, Phaneendra K.; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Blanton, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as epibatidine and its molecular derivatives, are potential therapeutic agents for a variety of neurological disorders. In order to identify determinants for subtype-selective agonist binding, it is important to determine whether an agonist binds in a common orientation in different nAChR subtypes. To compare the mode of binding of epibatidine in a muscle and a neuronal nAChR, we photolabeled Torpedo α2βγδ and expressed human α4β2 nAChRs with [3H]epibatidine and identified by Edman degradation the photolabeled amino acids. Irradiation at 254 nm resulted in photolabeling of αTyr198 in agonist binding site Segment C of the principal (+) face in both α subunits and of γLeu109 and γTyr117 in Segment E of the complementary (−) face, with no labeling detected in the δ subunit. For affinity-purified α4β2 nAChRs, [3H]epibatidine photolabeled α4Tyr195 (equivalent to Torpedo αTyr190) in Segment C as well as β2Val111 and β2Ser113 in Segment E (equivalent to Torpedo γLeu109 and γTyr111, respectively). Consideration of the location of the photolabeled amino acids in homology models of the nAChRs based upon the acetylcholine-binding protein structure and the results of ligand docking simulations suggests that epibatidine binds in a single preferred orientation within the α-γ transmitter binding site, whereas it binds in two distinct orientations in the α4β2 nAChR. PMID:19620239

  11. Interaction of bispyridinium compounds with the orthosteric binding site of human α7 and Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, K V; Tattersall, J E H; Timperley, C M; Bird, M; Green, C; Seeger, T; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2011-09-25

    Standard treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents with atropine and oximes lacks efficacy with different nerve agents. A direct pharmacologic intervention at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was proposed as an alternative therapeutic approach and promising in vitro and in vivo results were obtained with the bispyridinium compound SAD-128. In addition, a number of SAD-128 analogues improved neuromuscular transmission of soman-poisoned diaphragms in vitro. We investigated the interaction of six of these SAD-128 analogues with the orthosteric binding site of the human α7 nAChR and Torpedo californica nAChR with a high-throughput assay using radioactive ligands. The determined affinity constants indicate a weak interaction of three test compounds (K(i) in the micromolar range) with both receptors, but no interaction could be recorded with the other three test compounds. The six SAD-128 analogues showed a low intrinsic inhibitory potency with human acetylcholinesterase (IC₅₀ > 400 μM). In conclusion, the results of the present study do not indicate a correlation between the affinity to the orthosteric binding site and the functional improvement of neuromuscular transmission and it is assumed that other mechanisms contribute to the therapeutic effect of the tested compounds. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2013-11-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perampanel inhibition of AMPA receptor currents in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yin Chen

    Full Text Available Perampanel is an aryl substituted 2-pyridone AMPA receptor antagonist that was recently approved as a treatment for epilepsy. The drug potently inhibits AMPA receptor responses but the mode of block has not been characterized. Here the action of perampanel on AMPA receptors was investigated by whole-cell voltage-clamp recording in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Perampanel caused a slow (τ∼1 s at 3 µM, concentration-dependent inhibition of AMPA receptor currents evoked by AMPA and kainate. The rates of block and unblock of AMPA receptor currents were 1.5×105 M-1 s-1 and 0.58 s-1, respectively. Perampanel did not affect NMDA receptor currents. The extent of block of non-desensitizing kainate-evoked currents (IC50, 0.56 µM was similar at all kainate concentrations (3-100 µM, demonstrating a noncompetitive blocking action. Parampanel did not alter the trajectory of AMPA evoked currents indicating that it does not influence AMPA receptor desensitization. Perampanel is a selective negative allosteric AMPA receptor antagonist of high-affinity and slow blocking kinetics.

  14. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Croy, Carrie Hughes; Dencker, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane...... (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects...... of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side...

  15. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Kang, Jae Soon; Kim, Gil-Hah; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-07-25

    We evaluated the insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibition activity of 11 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents in adult male and female Blattella germanica. Of the 11 Apiaceae plant essential oils tested, dill (Anethum graveolens), carvi (Carum carvi), and cumin (Cuminum cyminum) demonstrated >90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 mg/filter paper. In a contact toxicity test, dill (Anethum graveolens), carvi (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) produced strong insecticidal activity against adult male and female German cockroaches. Among the test compounds, (S)-(+)-carvone, 1,8-cineole, trans-dihydrocarvone, cuminaldehyde, trans-anethole, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene demonstrated strong fumigant toxicity against adult male and female B. germanica. In a contact toxicity test, carveol, cuminaldehyde, (S)-(+)-carvone, trans-anethole, thymol, and p-cymene showed strong contact toxicity against adult male and female B. germanica. IC(50) values of α-pinene, carvacrol, and dihydrocarvone against female AChE were 0.28, 0.17, and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The toxicity of the blends of constituents identified in 4 active oils indicated that carvone, cuminaldehyde, and thymol were major contributors to the fumigant activity or contact toxicity of the artificial blend.

  16. [{sup 123}I]-3-Iodcytisin as possible radiotracer for the imaging of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using single photon emission computer tomography; [{sup 123}I]-3-Iodcytisin als moeglicher Radiotracer fuer die Darstellung der nikotinergen Acetylcholin Rezeptoren mittels Single-Photon-Emissions-Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulik, Dagmar Julia

    2015-03-06

    For the synthesis of [{sup 123}I]-3-Iodcytisin as possible radiotracer for the imaging of nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors using SPECT two different technologies were used: the radio-iodination with iodogen and the radio-iodination with nitric acid. The latter one showed higher efficiency. The radiotracer will allow to detect degenerative processes and other nACh-depending diseases in the brain (Alzheimer, Parkinson) and to observe the progress. The autoradiography is aimed to the imaging of the nACh receptors in the brain bypassing the brain-blood barrier. The highest activity was measured in the thalamus of mice and rat brains.

  17. Cocaine Inhibits Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling via Sigma-1-D2 Receptor Heteromers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Bonaventura, Jordi; Brugarolas, Marc; Farré, Daniel; Aguinaga, David; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carmen; Ferre, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor) can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain. PMID:23637801

  18. Neurotransmitter Receptors and Their Ionic Channels as Targets for Drugs and Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-06

    antibiotic, antiviral, and antiarrhythmic drugs . Molec. Pharmacol. 22:72-81, 1982. 28 12. Eldefrawi, M.E. The acetylcholine receptors of electric organs. In...8/4 Neurotransmitter Receptors and Their Ionic Final_9/28/81-9/1//84 Channels as Targets for Drugs and Toxins 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7...nse.eemy and fdeuWify by block tmmbe) ..-9 A variety of drugs inhibited nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor func- tion competitively via its agonist

  19. Identifying the Lipid-Protein Interface of the α4β2 Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: Hydrophobic Photolabeling Studies with [125I]TID †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ayman K.; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Chiara, David C.; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Blanton, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Using an acetylcholine-derivatized affinity column, we have purified human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) from a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. Both the quantity and the quality of the purified receptor are suitable for applying biochemical methods to directly study the structure of the α4β2 nAChR. In this first study, the lipid-protein interface of purified and lipid reconstituted α4β2 nAChRs was directly examined using photoaffinity labeling with the hydrophobic probe 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl) diazirine ([125I]TID). [125I]TID photoincorporated into both α4 and β2 subunits, and for each subunit the labeling was initially mapped to fragments containing the M4 and M1-M3 transmembrane segments. For both the α4 and β2 subunits, ~ 60% of the total labeling was localized within fragments that contain the M4 segment which suggests that the M4 segment has the greatest exposure to lipid. Within M4 segments, [125I]TID labeled homologous amino acids α4-Cys582/β2-Cys445 which are also homologous to the [125I]TID-labeled residues α1-Cys418 and β1-Cys447 in the lipid exposed face of Torpedo nAChR α1M4 and β1M4, respectively. Within the α4M1 segment, [125I]TID labeled residues Cys226 and Cys231 which correspond to the [125I]TID-labeled residues Cys222 and Phe227 at the lipid exposed face of the Torpedo α1M1 segment. In β2M1, [125I]TID labeled β2-Cys220 which is homologous to α4-Cys226. We conclude from these studies that the α4β2 nAChR cam be purified from stably transfected HEK-293 cells in sufficient quantity and purity for structural studies and that the lipid-protein interface of the neuronal α4β2 nAChR and the Torpedo nAChR display a high degree of structural homology. PMID:17994769

  20. In vivo evaluation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists [11C]A-582941 and [11C]A-844606 in mice and conscious monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Toyohara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play an important role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate the two carbon-11-labeled alpha7 nAChR agonists [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 for their potential as novel positron emission tomography (PET tracers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The two tracers were synthesized by methylation of the corresponding desmethyl precursors using [(11C]methyl triflate. Effects of receptor blockade in mice were determined by coinjection of either tracer along with a carrier or an excess amount of a selective alpha7 nAChR agonist (SSR180711. Metabolic stability was investigated using radio-HPLC. Dynamic PET scans were performed in conscious monkeys with/without SSR180711-treatment. [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 showed high uptake in the mouse brain. Most radioactive compounds in the brain were detected as an unchanged form. However, regional selectivity and selective receptor blockade were not clearly observed for either compound in the mouse brain. On the other hand, the total distribution volume of [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 was high in the hippocampus and thalamus but low in the cerebellum in the conscious monkey brain, and reduced by pretreatment with SSR180711. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A nonhuman primate study suggests that [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 would be potential PET ligands for imaging alpha7 nAChRs in the human brain.

  1. Stimulation of Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Upregulation of MMP, MCP-1, and RANTES through Modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 Signaling Pathway in RAW264.7 and MOVAS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation through alpha7 nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR signaling had been demonstrated attenuation of inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether PNU-282987, a selective α7-nAChR agonist, affected activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and inflammatory cytokines in nicotine-treatment RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms. RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells were treated with nicotine at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml for 0–120 min. Nicotine markedly stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells. Pretreatment with U0126 significantly suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and further attenuated nicotine-induced activation of c-Jun and upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP- 1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES. Similarly, nicotine treatment also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES in MOVAS cells. When cells were pretreated with PNU-282987, nicotine-induced activations of ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells and c-Jun in MOVAS cells were effectively inhibited. Furthermore, nicotine-induced secretions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES were remarkably downregulated. Treatment with α7-nAChR agonist inhibits nicotine-induced upregulation of MMP and inflammatory cytokines through modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 signaling in RAW264.7 cells and AP-1 in MOVAS cells, providing a new therapeutic for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  2. Standardization of the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) model by immunization of rats with Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptors--Recommendations for methods and experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Mario; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar; Molenaar, Peter C; Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Tzartos, Socrates; Brenner, Talma; Duan, Rui-Sheng; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon; Kusner, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is characterized by a chronic, fatigable weakness of voluntary muscles. The production of autoantibodies involves the dysregulation of T cells which provide the environment for the development of autoreactive B cells. The symptoms are caused by destruction of the postsynaptic membrane and degradation of the AChR by IgG autoantibodies, predominantly of the G1 and G3 subclasses. Active immunization of animals with AChR from mammalian muscles, AChR from Torpedo or Electrophorus electric organs, and recombinant or synthetic AChR fragments generates a chronic model of MG, termed experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). This model covers cellular mechanisms involved in the immune response against the AChR, e.g. antigen presentation, T cell-help and regulation, B cell selection and differentiation into plasma cells. Our aim is to define standard operation procedures and recommendations for the rat EAMG model using purified AChR from the Torpedo californica electric organ, in order to facilitate more rapid translation of preclinical proof of concept or efficacy studies into clinical trials and, ultimately, clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine as a PET tracer for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.-S. E-mail: ding@bnl.gov; Liu, N.; Wang, T.; Marecek, J.; Garza, V.; Ojima, I.; Fowler, J.S

    2000-05-01

    Both ABT-594 ((R)-2-chloro-5-(2-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine) and A-85380 (3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine), novel nicotinic agonists that possess potent non-opioid analgesic properties, have high affinity for neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) but do not elicit the pronounced toxicity of epibatidine. 6-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380), a F-18 labeled analogue of these two compounds, is therefore a promising radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans. The use of trimethylammonium as a leaving group in nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions has proven to be a versatile and efficient strategy, and offers several advantages over other leaving groups. Here, we report the synthetic strategy for the preparation of a precursor, as a trimethylammonium iodide salt, and its use in the radiosynthesis to 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380. Preliminary comparative PET studies of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380 and 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380 were carried out in baboon to examine their suitability as tracers for studying nAChR system.

  4. Structural Analysis and Deletion Mutagenesis Define Regions of QUIVER/SLEEPLESS that Are Responsible for Interactions with Shaker-Type Potassium Channels and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meilin; Liu, Clifford Z; Joiner, William J

    2016-01-01

    Ly6 proteins are endogenous prototoxins found in most animals. They show striking structural and functional parallels to snake α-neurotoxins, including regulation of ion channels and cholinergic signaling. However, the structural contributions of Ly6 proteins to regulation of effector molecules is poorly understood. This question is particularly relevant to the Ly6 protein QUIVER/SLEEPLESS (QVR/SSS), which has previously been shown to suppress excitability and synaptic transmission by upregulating potassium (K) channels and downregulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in wake-promoting neurons to facilitate sleep in Drosophila. Using deletion mutagenesis, co-immunoprecipitations, ion flux assays, surface labeling and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that only loop 2 is required for many of the previously described properties of SSS in transfected cells, including interactions with K channels and nAChRs. Collectively our data suggest that QVR/SSS, and by extension perhaps other Ly6 proteins, target effector molecules using limited protein motifs. Mapping these motifs may be useful in rational design of drugs that mimic or suppress Ly6-effector interactions to modulate nervous system function.

  5. Inflammation decreases the level of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain mitochondria and makes them more susceptible to apoptosis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykhmus, Olena; Gergalova, Galyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tzartos, Socrates; Komisarenko, Sergiy; Skok, Maryna

    2015-11-01

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) are involved in regulating inflammatory reactions, as well as the cell viability. They are expressed in both the plasma membrane and mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Previously we found that neuroinflammation resulted in the decrease of α7 nAChR density in the brain of mice and was accompanied by accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and memory impairment. In the present paper, it is shown that inflammation induced by either regular bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections or immunizations with α7 nAChR extracellular domain (1-208) affected also the brain cell mitochondria. Using various modifications of sandwich ELISA, we observed the decrease of α7 nAChRs and accumulation of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) in mitochondria of immunized or LPS-treated mice compared to control ones. Mitochondria of treated mice responded with cytochrome c release to lower Ca(2+) concentrations than mitochondria of control mice and were less sensitive to its attenuation with α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987. It is concluded that inflammation decreases α7 nAChR expression in both mitochondria and cell plasma membrane and makes mitochondria more susceptible to apoptosis induction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular modeling of sulfoxaflor and neonicotinoid binding in insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: impact of the Myzus β1 R81T mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nick X; Watson, Gerald B; Loso, Michael R; Sparks, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    Sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active), a new sulfoximine-class insecticide, targets sap-feeding insect pests, including those resistant to neonicotinoids. Sulfoxaflor acts on the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in a distinct manner relative to neonicotinoids. Unlike any of the neonicotinoids, sulfoxaflor has four stereoisomers. A homology model of Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) based on the ACh binding protein from Aplysia californica, overlaid with M. persicae nAChR sequence (α2 and β1 subunits) was used to investigate the interactions of the sulfoxaflor stereoisomers with WT and R81T versions of the nAChR. Whole-molecule van der Waals interactions are highly correlated with the binding affinity for the neonicotinoids and correctly predict the rank order of binding affinity for neonicotinoids and sulfoxaflor. The R81T mutation in M. persicae nAChR is predicted to have much less effect on binding of sulfoxaflor's stereoisomers than that of the neonicotinoids. All four stereoisomers predictably contribute to the activity of sulfoxaflor. The WT and R81T nAChR homology models suggest that changes in a whole-molecule electrostatic energy component can potentially explain the effects of this target-site mutation on the pattern of reduced efficacy for the modeled neonicotinoids, and provide a basis for the reduced effect of this mutation on sulfoxaflor. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Fcγ receptor-mediated inflammation inhibits axon regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Anti-glycan/ganglioside antibodies are the most common immune effectors found in patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome, which is a peripheral autoimmune neuropathy. We previously reported that disease-relevant anti-glycan autoantibodies inhibited axon regeneration, which echo the clinical association of these antibodies and poor recovery in Guillain-Barré Syndrome. However, the specific molecular and cellular elements involved in this antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration are not previously defined. This study examined the role of Fcγ receptors and macrophages in the antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration. A well characterized antibody passive transfer sciatic nerve crush and transplant models were used to study the anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration in wild type and various mutant and transgenic mice with altered expression of specific Fcγ receptors and macrophage/microglia populations. Outcome measures included behavior, electrophysiology, morphometry, immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting. We demonstrate that the presence of autoantibodies, directed against neuronal/axonal cell surface gangliosides, in the injured mammalian peripheral nerves switch the proregenerative inflammatory environment to growth inhibitory milieu by engaging specific activating Fcγ receptors on recruited monocyte-derived macrophages to cause severe inhibition of axon regeneration. Our data demonstrate that the antibody orchestrated Fcγ receptor-mediated switch in inflammation is one mechanism underlying inhibition of axon regeneration. These findings have clinical implications for nerve repair and recovery in antibody-mediated immune neuropathies. Our results add to the complexity of axon regeneration in injured peripheral and central nervous systems as adverse effects of B cells and autoantibodies on neural injury and repair are increasingly recognized.

  8. Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis reveals distortions in the helical structure of the δM4 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Nunez, David A; Otero-Cruz, Jose D; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2012-01-01

    The lipid-protein interface is an important domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that has recently garnered increased relevance. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, there is still a need to gain insight into the mechanism by which lipid-protein interactions regulate the function and conformational transitions of the nAChR. In this study, we extended the tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (TrpScanM) approach to dissect secondary structure and monitor the conformational changes experienced by the δM4 transmembrane domain (TMD) of the Torpedo californica nAChR, and to identify which positions on this domain are potentially linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The difference in oscillation patterns between the closed- and open-channel states suggests a substantial conformational change along this domain as a consequence of channel activation. Furthermore, TrpScanM revealed distortions along the helical structure of this TMD that are not present on current models of the nAChR. Our results show that a Thr-Pro motif at positions 462-463 markedly bends the helical structure of the TMD, consistent with the recent crystallographic structure of the GluCl Cys-loop receptor which reveals a highly bent TMD4 in each subunit. This Thr-Pro motif acts as a molecular hinge that delineates two gating blocks in the δM4 TMD. These results suggest a model in which a hinge-bending motion that tilts the helical structure is combined with a spring-like motion during transition between the closed- and open-channel states of the δM4 TMD.

  9. Association of Common Polymorphisms in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alpha4 Subunit Gene with an Electrophysiological Endophenotype in a Large Population-Based Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mobascher

    Full Text Available Variation in genes coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunits affect cognitive processes and may contribute to the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CHRNA4 gene that codes for the alpha4 subunit of alpha4/beta2-containing receptors have previously been implicated in aspects of (mostly visual attention and smoking-related behavioral measures. Here we investigated the effects of six synonymous but functional CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs on the N100 event-related potential (ERP, an electrophysiological endophenotype elicited by a standard auditory oddball. A total of N = 1,705 subjects randomly selected from the general population were studied with electroencephalography (EEG as part of the German Multicenter Study on nicotine addiction. Two of the six variants, rs1044396 and neighboring rs1044397, were significantly associated with N100 amplitude. This effect was pronounced in females where we also observed an effect on reaction time. Sequencing of the complete exon 5 region in the population sample excluded the existence of additional/functional variants that may be responsible for the observed effects. This is the first large-scale population-based study investigation the effects of CHRNA4 SNPs on brain activity measures related to stimulus processing and attention. Our results provide further evidence that common synonymous CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs affect cognitive processes and suggest that they also play a role in the auditory system. As N100 amplitude reduction is considered a schizophrenia-related endophenotype the SNPs studied here may also be associated with schizophrenia outcome measures.

  10. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the α7-like subunit mediate contractions of muscles responsible for space positioning of the snail, Helix pomatia L. tentacle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Kiss

    Full Text Available Three recently discovered tentacle muscles are crucial to perform patterned movements of upper tentacles of the terrestrial snail, Helix pomatia. The muscles receive central and peripheral excitatory cholinergic innervation lacking inhibitory innervation. Here, we investigate the pharmacology of acetylcholine (ACh responses in muscles to determine the properties of the ACh receptor (AChR, the functional availability of which was assessed using isotonic contraction measurement. Using broad spectrum of nicotinic and muscarinic ligands, we provide the evidence that contractions in the muscles are attributable to the activation of nAChRs that contain the α7-like subunit. Contractions could be evoked by nicotine, carbachol, succinylchloride, TMA, the selective α7-nAChR agonist choline chloride, 3-Bromocytisine and PNU-282987, and blocked by nAChR selective antagonists such as mytolon, hexamethonium, succinylchloride, d-tubocurarine, hemicholinium, DMDA (decamethonium, methyllycaconitine, α-Bungarotoxin (αBgTx and α-Conotoxin IMI. The specific muscarinic agonist oxotremorine and arecoline failed to elicit contractions. Based on these pharmacological properties we conclude that the Na+ and Ca2+ permeable AChRs of the flexor muscle are nicotinic receptors that contain the α7-like subunit. Immunodetection experiments confirmed the presence of α7- or α7-like AChRs in muscle cells, and α4-AChRs in nerves innervating the muscle. These results support the conclusion that the slowly desensitizing αBgTx-sensitive responses obtained from flexor muscles are produced by activation of α7- like AChRs. This is the first demonstration of postsynaptic expression and an obligatory role for a functional α7-like nAChR in the molluscan periphery.

  11. Quantification of cerebral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by PET using 2-F-18 fluoro-A-85380 and the multi-injection approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallezot, J.D.; Bottlaender, M.A.; Delforge, J.; Valette, H.; Saba, W.; Dolle, F.; Coulon, C.M.; Ottaviani, M.P.; Hinnen, F.; Syrota, A. [CEA, DSV, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, I2BM, F-91401 Orsay (France); Gregoire, M.C. [CEA, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, CNRS, URA 2210, F-91401 Orsay (France)

    2008-07-01

    The multi-injection approach was used to study in vivo interactions between {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and 2-[{sup 18}F] fluoro-A-85380 in baboons. The ligand kinetics was modeled by the usual nonlinear compartment model composed of three compartments (arterial plasma, free and specifically bound ligand in tissue). Arterial blood samples were collected to generate a metabolite-corrected plasma input function. The experimental protocol, which consisted of three injections of labeled or unlabeled ligand, was aiming at identifying all parameters in one experiment. Various parameters, including B'max (the binding sites density) and K{sub d}V{sub R} (the apparent in vivo affinity of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380) could then be estimated in thalamus and in several receptor-poor regions. B'max estimate was 3.0 {+-} 0.3 pmol/ml in thalamus, and ranged from 0.25 to 1.58 pmol/ml in extra-thalamic regions. Although K{sub d}V{sub R} could be precisely estimated, the association and dissociation rate constants kon/V{sub R} and koff could not be identified separately. A second protocol was then used to estimate koff more precisely in the thalamus. Having estimated all model parameters, we performed simulations of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380 kinetics to test equilibrium hypotheses underlying simplified approaches. These showed that a pseudo-equilibrium is quickly reached between the free and bound compartments, a favorable situation to apply Logan graphical analysis. In contrast, the pseudo-equilibrium between the plasma and free compartments is only reached after several hours. The ratio of radioligand concentration in these two compartments then overestimates the true equilibrium value, an unfavorable situation to estimate distribution volumes from late images after a bolus injection. (authors)

  12. {alpha}4 {beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs.

  13. Pharmacological profile of Ascaris suum ACR-16, a new homomeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor widely distributed in Ascaris tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K; Courtot, Elise; Charvet, Claude L; Neveu, Cédric; McCoy, Ciaran J; Verma, Saurabh; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Control of nematode parasite infections relies largely on anthelmintic drugs, several of which act on nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), and there are concerns about the development of resistance. There is an urgent need for development of new compounds to overcome resistance and novel anthelmintic drug targets. We describe the functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a homomeric nAChR, ACR-16, from a nematode parasite. Using RT-PCR, molecular cloning and two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology, we localized acr-16 mRNA in Ascaris suum (Asu) and then cloned and expressed acr-16 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes. Sensitivity of these receptors to cholinergic anthelmintics and a range of nicotinic agonists was tested. Amino acid sequence comparison with vertebrate nAChR subunits revealed ACR-16 to be most closely related to α7 receptors, but with some striking distinctions. acr-16 mRNA was recovered from Asu somatic muscle, pharynx, ovijector, head and intestine. In electrophysiological experiments, the existing cholinergic anthelmintic agonists (morantel, levamisole, methyridine, thenium, bephenium, tribendimidine and pyrantel) did not activate Asu-ACR-16 (except for a small response to oxantel). Other nAChR agonists: nicotine, ACh, cytisine, 3-bromocytisine and epibatidine, produced robust current responses which desensitized at a rate varying with the agonists. Unlike α7, Asu-ACR-16 was insensitive to α-bungarotoxin and did not respond to genistein or other α7 positive allosteric modulators. Asu-ACR-16 had lower calcium permeability than α7 receptors. We suggest that ACR-16 has diverse tissue-dependent functions in nematode parasites and is a suitable drug target for development of novel anthelmintic compounds. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β2 subunit gene implicated in a systems-based candidate gene study of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, DV; Lee, W.; D. Li; Liu, J.; Van Den Berg, D.; Thomas, PD; Bergen, AW; Swan, GE; Tyndale, RF; Benowitz, NL; Lerman, C

    2008-01-01

    Although the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence has been previously demonstrated, there is substantial variability among individuals in treatment response. We performed a systems-based candidate gene study of 1295 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 58 genes within the neuronal nicotinic receptor and dopamine systems to investigate their role in smoking cessation in a bupropion placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Putative functional variants were supplemented w...

  15. Gβ promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Stone, David E

    2016-04-12

    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are processes that are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptors on the plasma membrane polarize to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin cable-dependent delivery of vesicles to the plasma membrane (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independently of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Bimodal concentration-response of nicotine involves the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channels in mouse trachea and sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichko, Tatjana I; Lennerz, Jochen; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Babes, Ramona M; Neuhuber, Winfried; Kobal, Gerd; Reeh, Peter W

    2013-11-01

    High concentrations of nicotine, as in the saliva of oral tobacco consumers or in smoking cessation aids, have been shown to sensitize/activate recombinant transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (rTRPV1) and mouse TRPA1 (mTRPA1) channels. By measuring stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from the isolated mouse trachea, we established a bimodal concentration-response relationship with a threshold below 10 µM (-)-nicotine, a maximum at 100 µM, an apparent nadir between 0.5 and 10 mM, and a renewed increase at 20 mM. The first peak was unchanged in TRPV1/A1 double-null mutants as compared with wild-types and was abolished by specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibitors and by camphor, discovered to act as nicotinic antagonist. The nicotine response at 20 mM was strongly pHe-dependent, - five times greater at pH 9.0 than 7.4, indicating that intracellular permeation of the (uncharged) alkaloid was required to reach the TRPV1/A1 binding sites. The response was strongly reduced in both null mutants, and more so in double-null mutants. Upon measuring calcium transients in nodose/jugular and dorsal root ganglion neurons in response to 100 µM nicotine, 48% of the vagal (but only 14% of the somatic) sensory neurons were activated, the latter very weakly. However, nicotine 20 mM at pH 9.0 repeatedly activated almost every single cultured neuron, partly by releasing intracellular calcium and independent of TRPV1/A1 and nAChRs. In conclusion, in mouse tracheal sensory nerves nAChRs are 200-fold more sensitive to nicotine than TRPV1/A1; they are widely coexpressed with the capsaicin receptor among vagal sensory neurons and twice as abundant as TRPA1. Nicotine is the major stimulant in tobacco, and its sensory impact through nAChRs should not be disregarded.

  17. A subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors plays a critical role in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Jongrye; Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    AChRs are coexpressed with D(1) dopamine receptors in a specific subset of striatal projection neurons. To investigate the physiological relevance of this M(4) mAChR subpopulation in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate mutant mice that lack M(4) mAChRs only in D(1) dopamine....... Since enhanced central dopaminergic neurotransmission is a hallmark of several severe disorders of the CNS, including schizophrenia and drug addiction, our findings have substantial clinical relevance....

  18. Allosteric effects of four stereoisomers of a fused indole ring system with 3H-N-methylscopolamine and acetylcholine at M1-M4 muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareno, S; Birdsall, B; Fukazawa, T; Gharagozloo, P; Hashimoto, T; Kuwano, H; Popham, A; Sugimoto, M; Birdsall, N J

    1999-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that brucine and some analogues allosterically enhance the affinity of ACh at muscarinic receptor subtypes M1, M3 or M4. Here we describe allosteric effects at human M1-M4 receptors of four stereoisomers of a pentacyclic structure containing features of the ring structure of brucine. All compounds inhibited 3H-NMS dissociation almost completely at all subtypes with slopes of 1, with similar affinity values at the 3H-NMS-occupied receptor to those estimated from equilibrium assays, consistent with the ternary complex allosteric model. Compound 1a showed positive cooperativity with H-NMS and small negative or neutral cooperativity with ACh at all subtypes. Its stereoisomer, 1b, showed strong negative cooperativity with both 3H-NMS and ACh across the subtypes. Compound 2a was positive with 3H-NMS at M2 and M4 receptors, neutral at M3 and negative at M1 receptors; it was negatively cooperative with ACh at all subtypes. Its stereoisomer, 2b, was neutral with 3H-NMS at M1 receptors and positive at the other subtypes; 2b was negatively cooperative with ACh at M1, M3 and M4 receptors but showed 3-fold positive cooperativity with ACh at M2 receptors. This latter result was confirmed with further 3H-NMS and 3H-ACh radioligand binding assays and with functional assays of ACh-stimulated 35S-GTPgammaS binding. These results provide the first well characterised instance of a positive enhancer of ACh at M2 receptors, and illustrate the difficulty of predicting such an effect.

  19. Iodine-123 labelled Z-(R,R)-IQNP: a potential radioligand for visualization of M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, K.A. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Nuclear Medicine Sections, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Halldin, C.; Okubo, Yoshiro; Nobuhara, Kenji; Swahn, C.G.; Karlsson, P.; Larsson, S.; Schnell, P.O.; Farde, L. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Nuclear Medicine Sections, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Savonen, A.; Hiltunen, Jukka [MAP Medical Technologies Oy, Tikkakoski (Finland); McPherson, D.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Nuclear Medicine Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Z-(R)-1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl (R)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (Z-IQNP) has high affinity to the M{sub 1}and M {sub 2} muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes according to previous in vitro and in vivo studies in rats. In the present study iodine-123 labelled Z-IQNP was prepared for in vivo single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies in cynomolgus monkeys. SPET studies with Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP demonstrated high accumulation in monkey brain (>5% of injected dose at 70 min p.i.) and marked accumulation in brain regions such as the thalamus, the neocortex, the striatum and the cerebellum. Pretreatment with the non-selective mAChR antagonist scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg) inhibited Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP binding in all these regions. The percentage of unchanged Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP measured in plasma was less than 10% at 10 min after injection, which may be due to rapid hydrolysis, as has been demonstrated previously with the E-isomer of IQNP. Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP showed higher uptake in M {sub 2}-rich regions, compared with previously obtained results with E-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP. In conclusion, the radioactivity distribution from Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP in monkey brain indicates that Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP binds to the M {sub 1}- and M {sub 2}-rich areas and provides a high signal for specific binding, and is thus a potential ligand for mAChR imaging with SPET. (orig.)

  20. Probing the structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with the hydrophobic photoreactive probes [125I]TID-BE and [125I]TIDPC/16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, M P; McCardy, E A; Huggins, A; Parikh, D

    1998-10-13

    The hydrophobic photoreactive compound 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl) diazirine ([125I]TID) has revealed important structural information about the pore of the ion channel and lipid-protein interface of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). To further characterize the structure of the AChR, we have mapped the sites of photoincorporation of a benzoic acid ester analogue of TID ([125I]TID-BE) and a phospholipid analogue ([125I]TIDPC/16). For each photoreactive probe, labeled sites were identified by amino-terminal sequencing of purified tryptic fragments of individual receptor subunits. [125I]TID-BE reacted with alphaCys-412, alphaMet-415, and alphaCys-418 in the M4 segment of the alpha-subunit and gammaCys-451 and gammaSer-460 in gammaM4. In the M1 segment of the alpha- and beta-subunits, [125I]TID-BE labeled alphaPhe-227, alphaLeu-228, and betaLeu-234, betaAla-235, respectively. The labeling pattern in the M1 and M4 segments indicate that TID and TID-BE interact with the AChR lipid-protein interface in a similar fashion, revealing the same lipid-exposed face of each transmembrane segment. In contrast to TID, there was, however, no detectable incorporation of [125I]TID-BE into the channel lining betaM2 segment when the AChR was labeled in the resting state conformation. In the presence of agonist (desensitized state), [125I]TID-BE reacted with betaLeu-257, betaVal-261, and beta-Leu-264 in betaM2; a labeling pattern which indicates that, in comparison to TID, the binding loci for TID-BE is located closer to the extracellular end of the channel. For [125I]TIDPC/16, receptor labeling was insensitive to the presence of agonist and the sites of incorporation mapped to the confines of the transmembrane segments alphaM4, alphaM1, and gammaM4, validating previous results found with small lipophilic probes.

  1. Evaluation of [18F]-(−)-Norchlorofluorohomoepibatidine ([18F]-(−)-NCFHEB) as a PET Radioligand to Image the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Non-human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frederic; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Lin, Shu-Fei; Esterlis, Irina; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of the present study were to develop an optimized microfluidic method for the production of the selective nicotinic acetylcholine α4β2 receptor radiotracer [18F]-(−)-NCFHEB ([18F]-Flubatine) and to investigate its receptor binding profile and pharmacokinetic properties in rhesus monkeys in vivo. Methods [18F]-(−)-NCFHEB was prepared in two steps, a nucleophilic fluorination followed by N-Boc deprotection. PET measurements were performed in rhesus monkeys including baseline and preblocking experiments with nicotine (0.24 mg/kg). Radiometabolites in plasma were measured using HPLC. Results [18F]-(−)-NCFHEB was prepared in a total synthesis time of 140 min. The radiochemical purity in its final formulation was >98% and the mean specific radioactivity was 97.3 ± 16.1Bq/μmol (n = 6) at end of synthesis (EOS). In the monkey brain, radioactivity concentration was high in the thalamus, moderate in the putamen, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and lower in the cerebellum. Nicotine blocked 98–100% of [18F]-(−)-NCFHEB specific binding, and the non-displaceable distribution volume (VND) was estimated at 5.9 ± 1.0 mL/cm3 (n = 2), or 6.6 ± 1.1 mL/cm3 after normalization by the plasma free fraction fP. Imaging data are amenable to kinetic modeling analysis using the multilinear analysis (MA1) method, and model-derived binding parameters display good test-retest reproducibility. In rhesus monkeys, [18F]-(−)-NCFHEB can yield robust regional binding potential (BPND) values (thalamus = 4.1 ± 1.5, frontal cortex = 1.2 ± 0.2, putamen = 0.96 ± 0.45, cerebellum = 0.10 ± 0.29). Conclusion An efficient microfluidic synthetic method was developed for preparation of [18F]-(−)-NCFHEB. PET examination in rhesus monkeys showed that [18F]-(−)-NCFHEB entered the brain readily and its regional radioactivity uptake pattern was in accordance with the known distribution of α4β2 receptors. Estimated non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) values in brain

  2. Imidacloprid and thiacloprid neonicotinoids bind more favourably to cockroach than to honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: insights from computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Balaji; Graton, Jérôme; Laurent, Adèle D; Alamiddine, Zakaria; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Coqueret, Olivier; Olivier, Christophe; Thany, Steeve H; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The binding interactions of two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMI) and thiacloprid (THI) with the extracellular domains of cockroach and honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in an homomeric receptor have been studied through docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding mode predicted for the two neonicotinoids is validated through the good agreement observed between the theoretical results with the crystal structures of the corresponding complexes with Ac-AChBP, the recognized structural surrogate for insects nAChR extracellular ligand binding domain. The binding site of the two insect α6 receptors differs by only one residue of loop D, a serine residue (Ser83) in cockroach being replaced by a lysine residue (Lys108) in honeybee. The docking results show very close interactions for the two neonicotinoids with both α6 nAChR models, in correspondence to the trends observed in the experimental neonicotinoid-Ac-AChBP complexes. However, the docking parameters (scores and energies) are not significantly different between the two insect α6 nAChRs to draw clear conclusions. The MD results bring distinct trends. The analysis of the average interaction energies in the two insects α6 nAChRs shows indeed better affinity of neonicotinoids bound to α6 cockroach compared to honeybee nAChR. This preference is explained by tighter contacts with aromatic residues (Trp and Tyr) of the binding pocket. Interestingly, the non-conserved residue Lys108 of loop D of α6 honeybee nAChR interacts through van der Waals contacts with neonicotinoids, which appear more favourable than the direct or water mediated hydrogen-bond interaction between the OH group of Ser83 of α6 cockroach nAChR and the electronegative terminal group of the two neonicotinoids (nitro in IMI and cyano in THI). Finally, in both insects nAChRs, THI is consistently found to bind more favourably than IMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of [{sup 125}I]I-TSA as a brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}{sub 7} subtype imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Mikako [Laboratory of Genome Bio-Photonics, Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu Medical University, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Tatsumi, Ryo [Pharmaceuticals Research Unit, Research and Development Division, Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation, Yokohama 227-0033 (Japan); Fujio, Masakazu [Pharmaceuticals Research Unit, Research and Development Division, Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation, Yokohama 227-0033 (Japan); Katayama, Jiro [Pharmaceuticals Research Unit, Research and Development Division, Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation, Yokohama 227-0033 (Japan); Magata, Yasuhiro [Laboratory of Genome Bio-Photonics, Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu Medical University, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan)]. E-mail: magata@hama-med.ac.jp

    2006-04-15

    Introduction: Some in vitro investigations have suggested that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) {alpha}{sub 7} subtype is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and others. Recently, we developed (R)-3'-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,5'-[1',3'] oxazolidin]-2'-one (Br-TSA), which has a high affinity and selectivity for {alpha}{sub 7} nAChRs. Therefore we synthesized (R)-3'-(5-[{sup 125}I]iodothiophen-2-yl)spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,5'- [1',3']oxazolidin]-2'-one ([{sup 125}I]I-TSA) and evaluated its potential for the in vivo detection of {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR in brain. Methods: In vitro binding affinity of I-TSA was measured in rat brain homogenates. Radioiodination was accomplished by a Br-I exchange reaction. Biodistribution studies were undertaken in mice by tail vein injection of [{sup 125}I]I-TSA. In vivo receptor blocking studies were carried out by treating mice with methyllycaconitine (MLA; 5 nmol/5 {mu}l, i.c.v.) or nonradioactive I-TSA (50 {mu}mol/kg, i.v.). Results: I-TSA exhibited a high affinity and selectivity for the {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR (K {sub i} for {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR=0.54 nM). Initial uptake in the brain was high (4.42 %dose/g at 5 min), and the clearance of radioactivity was relatively slow in the hippocampus ({alpha}{sub 7} nAChR-rich region) and was rather rapid in the cerebellum ({alpha}{sub 7} nAChR poor region). The hippocampus to cerebellum uptake ratio was 0.9 at 5 min postinjection, but it was increased to 1.8 at 60 min postinjection. Although the effect was not statistically significant, administration of I-TSA and MLA decreased the accumulation of radioactivity in hippocampus. Conclusion: Despite its high affinity and selectivity, [{sup 125}I]I-TSA does not appear to be a suitable tracer for in vivo {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR receptor imaging studies due to its high nonspecific binding. Further structural optimization is needed.

  4. CB1 receptor inhibition leads to decreased vascular AT1 receptor expression, inhibition of oxidative stress and improved endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyerili, Vedat; Zimmer, Sebastian; Jung, Suzin; Wassmann, Kerstin; Naehle, Claas P; Lütjohann, Dieter; Zimmer, Andreas; Nickenig, Georg; Wassmann, Sven

    2010-07-01

    Inhibition of the cannabinoid receptor CB(1) (CB(1)-R) exerts numerous positive cardiovascular effects such as modulation of blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and serum lipid concentrations. However, direct vascular effects of CB(1)-R inhibition remain unclear. CB(1)-R expression was validated in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and aortic tissue of mice. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were treated with cholesterol-rich diet and the selective CB(1)-R antagonist rimonabant or vehicle for 7 weeks. CB(1)-R inhibition had no effect on atherosclerotic plaque development, collagen content and macrophage infiltration but led to improved aortic endothelium-dependent vasodilation and decreased aortic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH oxidase activity. Treatment of cultured VSMC with rimonabant resulted in reduced angiotensin II-mediated but not basal ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity. CB(1)-R inhibition with rimonabant and AM251 led to down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) expression, whereas stimulation with the CB(1)-R agonist CP 55,940 resulted in AT1-R up-regulation, indicating that AT1-R expression is directly regulated by the CB(1)-R. CB(2)-R inhibition had no impact on AT1-R expression in VSMC. Consistently, CB(1)-R inhibition decreased aortic AT1-R expression in vivo. CB(1)-R inhibition leads to decreased vascular AT1-R expression, NADPH oxidase activity and ROS production in vitro and in vivo. This antioxidative effect is associated with improved endothelial function in ApoE-/- mice, indicating beneficial direct vascular effects of CB(1)-R inhibition.

  5. Activation of the dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves tamoxifen-induced memory retrieval impairment in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Azam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Sardari, Maryam

    2016-07-07

    Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has frequently been used in the treatment of breast cancer. In view of the fact that cognitive deficits in women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is a common health problem, using female animal models for investigating the cognitive effects of TAM administration may improve our knowledge of TAM therapy. Therefore, the present study assessed the role of dorsal hippocampal cholinergic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the effect of TAM administration on memory retrieval in ovariectomized (OVX) and non-OVX female rats using a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that pre-test administration of TAM (2-6mg/kg) impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.3-0.5μg/rat) reversed TAM-induced memory impairment. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.1-0.3μg/rat) plus 2mg/kg (an ineffective dose) of TAM impaired memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of the same doses of nicotine and mecamylamine by themselves had no effect on memory retrieval. In OVX rats, the administration of TAM (6mg/kg) produced memory impairment but pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (0.5μg/rat) had no effect on TAM response. Moreover, the administration of an ineffective dose of TAM (2mg/kg) had no effect on memory retrieval in OVX rats, while pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (0.3μg/rat) impaired memory retrieval. Taken together, it can be concluded that the impairing effect of TAM on memory formation may be modulated by nAChRs of the CA1 regions. It seems that memory impairment may be considered as an important side effect of TAM. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Encenicline, an α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist, as a Treatment for Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Richard S E; Meltzer, Herbert A; Dgetluck, Nancy; Gawryl, Maria; Koenig, Gerhard; Moebius, Hans J; Lombardo, Ilise; Hilt, Dana C

    2015-12-01

    Encenicline is a novel, selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist in development for treating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. A phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-design, multinational study was conducted. Patients with schizophrenia on chronic stable atypical antipsychotics were randomized to encenicline 0.27 or 0.9 mg once daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the Overall Cognition Index (OCI) score from the CogState computerized battery. Secondary end points include MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) (in US patients), the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) total score, SCoRS global rating, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscale and cognition factor scores. Of 319 randomized patients, 317 were included in the safety population, and 307 were included in the intent-to-treat population. Notable trends in improvement were demonstrated across all cognition scales. For the OCI score, the LS mean difference for encenicline 0.27 mg vs placebo was significant (Cohen's d=0.257; P=0.034). Mean SCoRS total scores decreased showing improvement in function over time, and the difference was significant for encenicline 0.9 mg vs placebo (P=0.011). Furthermore, the difference between encenicline 0.9 mg and placebo was significant for the PANSS Cognition Impairment Domain (P=0.0098, Cohen's d=0.40) and for the PANSS Negative scale (P=0.028, Cohen's d=0.33). Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported at similar frequencies across all treatment groups (39.0% with placebo, 23.4% with encenicline 0.27 mg, and 33.3% with encenicline 0.9 mg). Overall, encenicline was generally well tolerated and demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements in cognition and function in patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, José D

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300–301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery. PMID:21785268

  8. Analysis of peripheral B cells and autoantibodies against the anti-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor derived from patients with myasthenia gravis using single-cell manipulation tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Makino

    Full Text Available The majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG, an organ-specific autoimmune disease, harbor autoantibodies that attack the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR-Abs at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle weakness. Single cell manipulation technologies coupled with genetic engineering are very powerful tools to examine T cell and B cell repertoires and the dynamics of adaptive immunity. These tools have been utilized to develop mAbs in parallel with hybridomas, phage display technologies and B-cell immortalization. By applying a single cell technology and novel high-throughput cell-based binding assays, we identified peripheral B cells that produce pathogenic nAChR-Abs in patients with MG. Although anti-nAChR antibodies produced by individual peripheral B cells generally exhibited low binding affinity for the α-subunit of the nAChR and great sequence diversity, a small fraction of these antibodies bound with high affinity to native-structured nAChRs on cell surfaces. B12L, one such Ab isolated here, competed with a rat Ab (mAb35 for binding to the human nAChR and thus considered to recognize the main immunogenic region (MIR. By evaluating the Ab in in vitro cell-based assays and an in vivo rat passive transfer model, B12L was found to act as a pathogenic Ab in rodents and presumably in humans.These findings suggest that B cells in peripheral blood may impact MG pathogenicity. Our methodology can be applied not only to validate pathogenic Abs as molecular target of MG treatment, but also to discover and analyze Ab production systems in other human diseases.

  9. Role for the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor in Top-Down Cognitive Processing Using a Touchscreen Visual Discrimination Task in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, R W; Dencker, D; Grannan, M; Bubser, M; Zhan, X; Wess, J; Xiang, Z; Locuson, C; Lindsley, C W; Conn, P J; Jones, C K

    2015-10-21

    The M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been implicated in the underlying mechanisms of learning and memory and represents an important potential pharmacotherapeutic target for the cognitive impairments observed in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in top-down processing involving conflict between sensory-driven and goal-oriented processes that can be modeled in preclinical studies using touchscreen-based cognition tasks. The present studies used a touchscreen visual pairwise discrimination task in which mice discriminated between a less salient and a more salient stimulus to assess the influence of the M1 mAChR on top-down processing. M1 mAChR knockout (M1 KO) mice showed a slower rate of learning, evidenced by slower increases in accuracy over 12 consecutive days, and required more days to acquire (achieve 80% accuracy) this discrimination task compared to wild-type mice. In addition, the M1 positive allosteric modulator BQCA enhanced the rate of learning this discrimination in wild-type, but not in M1 KO, mice when BQCA was administered daily prior to testing over 12 consecutive days. Importantly, in discriminations between stimuli of equal salience, M1 KO mice did not show impaired acquisition and BQCA did not affect the rate of learning or acquisition in wild-type mice. These studies are the first to demonstrate performance deficits in M1 KO mice using touchscreen cognitive assessments and enhanced rate of learning and acquisition in wild-type mice through M1 mAChR potentiation when the touchscreen discrimination task involves top-down processing. Taken together, these findings provide further support for M1 potentiation as a potential treatment for the cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia.

  10. Design, synthesis, and characterization of a 39 amino acid peptide mimic of the main immunogenic region of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Vu B; Foster, Alex J; Fairclough, Robert H

    2014-05-01

    We have designed a 39 amino acid peptide mimic of the conformation-dependent main immunogenic region (MIR) of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (TAChR) that joins three discontinuous segments of the Torpedo α-subunit, α(1-12), α(65-79), and α(110 - 115) with two GS linkers: This 39MIR-mimic was expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein with an intein-chitin-binding domain (IChBD) to permit affinity collection on chitin beads. Six MIR-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) bind to this complex and five agonist/antagonist site directed mAbs do not. The complex of MIR-directed mAb-132A with 39MIR has a Kd of (2.11±0.11)×10(-10)M, which is smaller than (7.13±1.20)×10(-10)M for the complex of mAb-132A with α(1-161) and about the same as 3.4×10(-10)M for that of mAb-132A with TAChR. Additionally, the 39MIR-IChBD adsorbs all MIR-directed antibodies (Abs) from an experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) rat serum. Hence, the 39MIR-mimic has the potential to inactivate or remove pathogenic Torpedo MIR-directed Abs from EAMG sera and to direct a magic bullet to the memory B-cells that produce those pathogenic Abs. The hope is to use this as a guide to produce a mimic of the human MIR on the way to an antigen specific therapeutic agent to treat MG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, Jose D; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and (125)I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300-301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery.

  12. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, R., E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Ghazavi, E. [Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology), The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hinton, T. [School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology), The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, K.A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Hennessy, A. [School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, NSW 2751 (Australia); Heart Research Institute, 7 Eliza St Newtown, NSW 2042 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta.

  13. Anxiolytic effects of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors agonist oxotremorine in chronically stressed rats and related changes in BDNF and FGF2 levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, Valentina; Frinchi, Monica; Verdi, Vincenzo; Vitale, Angela; Plescia, Fulvio; Cannizzaro, Carla; Massenti, Maria F; Belluardo, Natale; Mudò, Giuseppa

    2017-02-01

    In depressive disorders, one of the mechanisms proposed for antidepressant drugs is the enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Previously, we showed that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist oxotremorine (Oxo) increases neuronal plasticity in hippocampal neurons via FGFR1 transactivation. Here, we aimed to explore (a) whether Oxo exerts anxiolytic effect in the rat model of anxiety-depression-like behavior induced by chronic restraint stress (CRS), and (b) if the anxiolytic effect of Oxo is associated with the modulation of neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and phosphorylated Erk1/2 (p-Erk1/2) levels in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus and in the medial prefrontal cortex. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: control unstressed, CRS group, CRS group treated with 0.2 mg/kg Oxo, and unstressed group treated with Oxo. After 21 days of CRS, the groups were treated for 10 days with Oxo or saline. The anxiolytic role of Oxo was tested by using the following: forced swimming test, novelty suppressed feeding test, elevated plus maze test, and light/dark box test. The hippocampi and prefrontal cortex were used to evaluate BDNF and FGF2 protein levels and p-Erk1/2 levels. Oxo treatment significantly attenuated anxiety induced by CRS. Moreover, Oxo treatment counteracted the CRS-induced reduction of BDNF and FGF2 levels in the ventral hippocampus and medial prefrontal cerebral cortex CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that Oxo treatment ameliorates the stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and rescues FGF2 and BDNF levels in two brain regions involved in CRS-induced anxiety, ventral hippocampal formation, and medial prefrontal cortex.

  14. Association study of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes identifies a novel lung cancer susceptibility locus near CHRNA1 in African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Amos, Christopher I; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Gorlov, Ivan P; Sison, Jennette D; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R; Hansen, Helen M; Lu, Emily Y; Wei, Chongjuan; Zhang, Huifeng; Chen, Wei; Lloyd, Stacy M; Frazier, Marsha L; Bracci, Paige M; Seldin, Michael F; Wrensch, Margaret R; Schwartz, Ann G; Wiencke, John K

    2012-11-01

    Studies in European and East Asian populations have identified lung cancer susceptibility loci in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes on chromosome 15q25.1 which also appear to influence smoking behaviors. We sought to determine if genetic variation in nAChR genes influences lung cancer susceptibly in African-Americans, and evaluated the association of these cancer susceptibility loci with smoking behavior. A total of 1308 African-Americans with lung cancer and 1241 African-American controls from three centers were genotyped for 378 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the sixteen human nAChR genes. Associations between SNPs and the risk of lung cancer were estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for relevant covariates. Seven SNPs in three nAChR genes were significantly associated with lung cancer at a strict Bonferroni-corrected level, including a novel association on chromosome 2 near the promoter of CHRNA1 (rs3755486: OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.18-1.67, P = 1.0 x 10-4). Association analysis of an additional 305 imputed SNPs on 2q31.1 supported this association. Publicly available expression data demonstrated that the rs3755486 risk allele correlates with increased CHRNA1 gene expression. Additional SNP associations were observed on 15q25.1 in genes previously associated with lung cancer, including a missense variant in CHRNA5 (rs16969968: OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.27-2.01, P = 5.9 x 10-5). Risk alleles on 15q25.1 also correlated with an increased number of cigarettes smoked per day among the controls. These findings identify a novel lung cancer risk locus on 2q31.1 which correlates with CHRNA1 expression and replicate previous associations on 15q25.1 in African-Americans.

  15. Sex Differences and Drug Dose Influence the Role of the α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor in the Mouse Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSharari, Shakir D; Bagdas, Deniz; Akbarali, Hamid I; Lichtman, Patraic A; Raborn, Erinn S; Cabral, Guy A; Carroll, F Ivy; McGee, Elizabeth A; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-04-01

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to assess the role of α7 nAChRs in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in male and female mouse. We first compared disease activity and pathogenesis of colitis in α7 knockout and wild-type mice. We then evaluated the effect of several α7 direct and indirect agonists on the severity of disease in the DSS-induced colitis. Male and female adult mice were administered 2.5% DSS solution freely in the drinking water for 7 consecutive days and the colitis severity (disease activity index) was evaluated as well as colon length, colon histology, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha colonic levels. Male, but not female, α7 knockout mice displayed a significantly increased colitis severity and higher tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels as compared with their littermate wild-type mice. Moreover, pretreatment with selective α7 ligands PHA-543613, choline, and PNU-120596 decreased colitis severity in male but not female mice. The anti-colitis effects of these α7 compounds dissipated when administered at higher doses. Our results suggest the presence of a α7-dependent anti-colitis endogenous tone in male mice. Finally, our results show for the first time that female mice are less sensitive to the anti-colitis activity of α7 agonists. Ovarian hormones may play a key role in the sex difference effect of α7 nAChRs modulation of colitis in the mouse. Our collective results suggest that targeting α7 nAChRs could represent a viable therapeutic approach for intestinal inflammation diseases such as ulcerative colitis with the consideration of sex differences.

  16. Mice Lacking the β4 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Show Memory Deficits, Altered Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behavior, and Diminished Nicotine-Induced Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Svetlana; Contet, Candice; Roberts, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The role of β4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in cognition, anxiety, depression, and analgesia in the absence of nicotine is unclear. Methods: Wild-type (β4+/+) and knockout (β4−/−) mice for the nAChR β4 subunit were tested in behavioral tests assessing cognitive function, affective behaviors, and nociception. Results: There were no learning and memory deficits in β4−/− mice compared with β4+/+ mice during the acquisition of the Barnes maze, contextual fear conditioning, and Y maze tasks. In the Barnes maze memory retention test, male β4−/− mice showed reduced use of the spatial search strategy, indicating small spatial memory deficits compared with β4+/+ mice. In the cue-induced fear conditioning memory retention test, β4−/− mice exhibited reduced freezing time compared with β4+/+ mice. Compared with β4+/+ mice, β4−/− mice exhibited decreased anxiety-like behavior in the light–dark box. Depression-like behavior in β4−/− mice was decreased in the tail suspension test and increased in the forced swim test compared with β4+/+ mice. β4−/− mice did not differ from β4+/+ mice in basal nociception but were less sensitive to the antinociceptive effect of nicotine in 2 tests of acute thermal pain. Conclusions: Lack of β4-containing nAChRs resulted in small deficits in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent memory retention functions. β4-containing nAChRs are involved in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and contribute to the analgesic effects of nicotine. PMID:22573727

  17. In vitro evaluation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A85380 in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmaljohann, Joern [Department of Neurology, University of Bonn (Germany) and Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: joern.schmaljohann@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Guendisch, Daniela [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Bonn (Germany); Minnerop, Martina [Department of Neurology, University of Bonn (Germany); Bucerius, Jan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn (Germany); Joe, Alexius [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn (Germany); Reinhardt, Michael [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn (Germany); Guhlke, Stefan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn (Germany); Biersack, Hans-Juergen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Bonn (Germany); Wuellner, Ullrich [Department of Neurology, University of Bonn (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are involved in many physiological functions and appear to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we describe the in vitro evaluation of nAChRs in PD with 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A85380, a ligand with high affinity to the {beta}2 nAChR subunit. Autoradiography with 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A85380 in untreated rat brain corresponded to the known distribution of {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs with high uptake in the thalamus, moderate uptake in the striatum and cortex and low uptake in the cerebellum (47%, 43% and 19% of the thalamus, respectively). The localization of {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs in the striatum was investigated in rodents with unilateral lesion of the substantia nigra. 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A85380 binding was significantly reduced in the striatum ipsilateral to the lesion side (to 64% of the contralateral side), indicating that a fraction of {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs is located on dopaminergic terminals, whereas another fraction resides on striatal interneurons or cortical afferents. Similarly, in human brain sections of PD patients, 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A85380 uptake was significantly reduced not only in the caudate and putamen but also in the thalamus (approximately 30% of the binding of control brain in all three regions); within the striatum, nAChRs in the putamen were significantly more severely affected as in the caudate. The observed pattern of {alpha}4{beta}2* nAChR loss demonstrates the potential of 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A85380 for further investigations of this positron emission tomography ligand for in vivo studies of {alpha}4{beta}2* nAChRs in PD.

  18. Binding properties of the cerebral {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380 to plasma proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorger, Dietlind [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: sord@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Becker, Georg Alexander [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Hauber, Katharina; Schildan, Andreas [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Patt, Marianne [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Birkenmeier, Gerd [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Otto, Andreas [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Meyer, Philipp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Kluge, Magnus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Schliebs, Reinhard [Paul Flechsig Institute of Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Sabri, Osama [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Introduction: To determine the availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different human brain regions using the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-[{sup 18}F]FA) and invasive approaches for quantification, it is important to correct the arterial input function as well for plasma protein binding (PPB) of the radioligand as for radiolabeled metabolites accumulating in blood. This study deals with some aspects of PPB of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA. Methods: Patients with different neurological disorders (n=72), such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, and a group of healthy volunteers (n=15) subjected for PET imaging were analyzed for their PPB level of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA using ultrafiltration. Protein gel electrophoresis of plasma samples was performed to identify the binding protein of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA. The dependency of PPB on time and on free ligand concentration was analyzed to obtain the binding parameters B {sub max} and K {sub d}. Results: Albumin was identified to be the binding protein of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA. PPB of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA was low at 17{+-}4% and did not show significant differences between the groups of patients. Corresponding to this, a narrow range of plasma albumin of 0.62{+-}0.05 mM was observed. B {sub max} was determined as twice the albumin concentration, which indicates two binding sites for 2-[{sup 18}F]FA on the protein. No time dependence of the PPB could be observed. By relating PPB to B {sub max}, an average K {sub d} value of 6.0{+-}1.5 mM was obtained. Conclusion: This study shows the dependency of PPB of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA on human albumin plasma concentration. An equation utilizing B {sub max} and K {sub d} to easily estimate PPB is presented.

  19. Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reduces ischemic stroke injury through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages and oxidative stress.

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    Zhenying Han

    Full Text Available Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR has a neuro-protective effect on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR agonist protects brain injury after ischemic stroke through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1 and oxidative stress. C57BL/6 mice were treated with PHA568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR agonist, methyllycaconitine (MLA, nAchR antagonist, or saline immediately and 24 hours after permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery (pMCAO. Behavior test, lesion volume, CD68(+, M1 (CD11b(+/Iba1(+ and M2 (CD206/Iba1+ microglia/macrophages, and phosphorylated p65 component of NF-kB in microglia/macrophages were quantified using histological stained sections. The expression of M1 and M2 marker genes, anti-oxidant genes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase were quantified using real-time RT-PCR. Compared to the saline-treated mice, PHA mice had fewer behavior deficits 3 and 7 days after pMCAO, and smaller lesion volume, fewer CD68(+ and M1 macrophages, and more M2 macrophages 3 and 14 days after pMCAO, whereas MLA's effects were mostly the opposite in several analyses. PHA increased anti-oxidant genes and NADPH oxidase expression associated with decreased phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 in microglia/macrophages. Thus, reduction of inflammatory response and oxidative stress play roles in α-7 nAchR neuro-protective effect.

  20. Varenicline provokes impulsive action by stimulating α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the infralimbic cortex in a nicotine exposure status-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Yu; Sasamori, Hitomi; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Izumi, Takeshi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Higher impulsivity is a risk factor for criminal involvement and drug addiction. Because nicotine administration enhances impulsivity, the effects of stop-smoking aids stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on impulsivity must be determined in different conditions. Our goals were 1) to confirm the relationship between varenicline, a stop-smoking aid and α4β2 nAChR partial agonist, and impulsivity, 2) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of varenicline, 3) to examine whether a low dose of varenicline that does not evoke impulsive action could block the stimulating effects of nicotine on impulsive action, 4) to determine whether the route of administration could modulate the effects of varenicline on impulsive action, and 5) to determine whether the effects of varenicline on impulsivity could be altered by smoking status. We used a 3-choice serial reaction time task to assess impulsivity and other cognitive functions in rats. Our findings are as follows: 1) acute subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of varenicline evoked impulsive action in a dose-dependent manner; 2) the effects of varenicline on impulsivity were blocked by the microinjection of dihydro-β-erythroidine, a α4β2 nAChR antagonist, into the infralimbic cortex; 3) the low dose of varenicline did not attenuate the effects of nicotine on impulsive action at all; 4) oral administration of varenicline evoked impulsive action in a similar manner to s.c. injection; and 5) the stimulating effects of varenicline on impulsive action were not observed in rats that received nicotine infusion for 8days or nicotine-abstinent rats after discontinuing infusion. Additionally, we found that oral varenicline administration enhanced attentional function whether nicotine was infused or not. Thus, although varenicline administration could be harmless to heavy smokers or ex-smokers, it could be difficult for non-smokers with respect to impulsivity, whereas it may be beneficial with respect to

  1. Younger patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome are more likely to have salivary IgG anti-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 3 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakanthan, K; Ramya, J; Mandal, Santosh Kumar; Sandhya, P; Gowri, M; Danda, Debashish

    2016-03-01

    Acetylcholine type 3 receptor (M3R) is recognized as an autoantigen in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Assay of anti-M3R antibody levels in serum is fraught with low sensitivity for diagnosis of pSS. Salivary assay is more likely to improve the diagnostic accuracy. Patients with pSS classified either by the American European Consensus Group (AECG) or American college of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, attending rheumatology clinic between October 2014 and July 2015 were included. Hospital staff and lupus patients constituted healthy and disease controls, respectively. Evaluation of pSS included clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, ESSDAI and ESSPRI scoring. Unstimulated saliva was collected by the spitting method. Salivary IgG antibody against M3R (anti-M3R) was quantified by indirect ELISA. In this study, 43 patients with pSS, 34 with lupus and 42 healthy controls were recruited. The frequency of anti-M3R antibody levels was 55.81, 17.64 and 7 % for pSS, lupus and healthy controls, respectively. Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic was 0.7791 (95 % CI,, 0.67-0.87). Sensitivity and specificity of the assay for diagnosis of pSS were 44.19 and 88.16 %, respectively. Salivary anti-M3R IgG antibody positivity was associated with lower age, shorter disease duration and higher globulin levels in our cohort. Salivary anti-M3R IgG antibody assay has high specificity in pSS; younger patients and those with hyperglobulinemia more frequently tested positive for this antibody.

  2. Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A]is a potent ligand for selectively labeling α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Arik J.; Whiteaker, Paul; Mohn, Jesse L.; Jacob, Michele H.; McIntosh, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels α7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic α7 ligand α-bungarotoxin binds to α1* and α9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC50 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked α7 nAChRs but not α1* or α9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing α7 but not cells expressing α3β2, α3β4, or α4β2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild type mice but not from nAChR α7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging α7 nAChRs. PMID:20492354

  3. Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] is a potent ligand for selectively labeling alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Arik J; Whiteaker, Paul; Mohn, Jesse L; Jacob, Michele H; McIntosh, J Michael

    2010-08-01

    The alpha7* (*denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels alpha7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic alpha7 ligand alpha-bungarotoxin binds to alpha1* and alpha9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC(50) 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked alpha7 nAChRs but not alpha1* or alpha9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing alpha7 but not cells expressing alpha3beta2, alpha3beta4, or alpha4beta2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice but not from nAChR alpha7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging alpha7 nAChRs.

  4. Functional α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in hippocampal interneurons exhibit high sensitivity to pathological level of amyloid β peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation is described as a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Aβ perturbs a number of synaptic components including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs, which are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus and found on GABAergic interneurons. We have previously demonstrated the existence of a novel, heteromeric α7β2-nAChR in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that exhibits high sensitivity to acute Aβ exposure. To extend our previous work, we evaluated the expression and pharmacology of α7β2-nAChRs in hippocampal interneurons and their sensitivity to Aβ. Results GABAergic interneurons in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus expressed functional α7β2-nAChRs, which were characterized by relatively slow whole-cell current kinetics, pharmacological sensitivity to dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE, a nAChR β2* subunit selective blocker, and α7 and β2 subunit interaction using immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, α7β2-nAChRs were sensitive to 1 nM oligomeric Aβ. Similar effects were observed in identified hippocampal interneurons prepared from GFP-GAD mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that Aβ modulation of cholinergic signaling in hippocampal GABAergic interneurons via α7β2-nAChRs could be an early and critical event in Aβ-induced functional abnormalities of hippocampal function, which may be relevant to learning and memory deficits in AD.

  5. Achieving Acetylcholine Receptor Clustering in Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Constructs In vitro through a Materials-Directed Agrin Delivery Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John B; Ward, Catherine L; Corona, Benjamin T; Deschenes, Michael R; Harrison, Benjamin S; Saul, Justin M; Christ, George J

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) can result from trauma, infection, congenital anomalies, or surgery, and produce permanent functional and cosmetic deficits. There are no effective treatment options for VML injuries, and recent advances toward development of muscle constructs lack the ability to achieve innervation necessary for long-term function. We sought to develop a proof-of-concept biomaterial construct that could achieve acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering on muscle-derived cells (MDCs) in vitro. The approach consisted of the presentation of neural (Z+) agrin from the surface of microspheres embedded with a fibrin hydrogel to muscle cells (C2C12 cell line or primary rat MDCs). AChR clustering was spatially restricted to areas of cell (C2C12)-microsphere contact when the microspheres were delivered in suspension or when they were incorporated into a thin (2D) fibrin hydrogel. AChR clusters were observed from 16 to 72 h after treatment when Z+ agrin was adsorbed to the microspheres, and for greater than 120 h when agrin was covalently coupled to the microspheres. Little to no AChR clustering was observed when agrin-coated microspheres were delivered from specially designed 3D fibrin constructs. However, cyclic stretch in combination with agrin-presenting microspheres led to dramatic enhancement of AChR clustering in cells cultured on these 3D fibrin constructs, suggesting a synergistic effect between mechanical strain and agrin stimulation of AChR clustering in vitro. These studies highlight a strategy for maintaining a physiological phenotype characterized by motor endplates of muscle cells used in tissue engineering strategies for muscle regeneration. As such, these observations may provide an important first step toward improving function of tissue-engineered constructs for treatment of VML injuries.

  6. α7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-specific antibody induces inflammation and amyloid β42 accumulation in the mouse brain to impair memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Lykhmus

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs expressed in the brain are involved in regulating cognitive functions, as well as inflammatory reactions. Their density is decreased upon Alzheimer disease accompanied by accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ42, memory deficit and neuroinflammation. Previously we found that α7 nAChR-specific antibody induced pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 production in U373 glioblastoma cells and that such antibodies were present in the blood of humans. We raised a hypothesis that α7 nAChR-specific antibody can cause neuroinflammation when penetrating the brain. To test this, C57Bl/6 mice were either immunized with extracellular domain of α7 nAChR subunit α7(1-208 or injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS for 5 months. We studied their behavior and the presence of α3, α4, α7, β2 and β4 nAChR subunits, Aβ40 and Aβ42 and activated astrocytes in the brain by sandwich ELISA and confocal microscopy. It was found that either LPS injections or immunizations with α7(1-208 resulted in region-specific decrease of α7 and α4β2 and increase of α3β4 nAChRs, accumulation of Aβ42 and activated astrocytes in the brain of mice and worsening of their episodic memory. Intravenously transferred α7 nAChR-specific-antibodies penetrated the brain parenchyma of mice pre-injected with LPS. Our data demonstrate that (1 neuroinflammation is sufficient to provoke the decrease of α7 and α4β2 nAChRs, Aβ42 accumulation and memory impairment in mice and (2 α7(1-208 nAChR-specific antibodies can cause inflammation within the brain resulting in the symptoms typical for Alzheimer disease.

  7. Progesterone Inhibits Human Myometrial Contractions by Action on Membrane Receptors

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    Remzi Gokdeniz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms for myometrial inhibition are still being investigated Aim: To examine mechanisms of progesterone (P4 inhibition of uterine contractility. Methods: Prospective study Tertiary care center at St. Joseph’s Hospital and at Maricopa Hospital, Phoenix, AZ and research center in Arizona, USA. During 2010-2011, 24 women given birth by cesarean section. Uterine tissues from women (n=24 at term were suspended in organ chambers and exposed to various agents. Contractility was registered and compared before and after addition of agents. Tissues were treated with P4 alone, a progestin (R5020 with low affinity to the progesterone membrane receptor (mPR, or a non-sex steroid (cholesterol. Other tissues were pretreated with inhibitors of adenylate cyclase (SQ 22536, phosphodiesterase (rolipram, nitric oxide (NO synthases (L-NAME or a nuclear P4 receptor antagonist (mifepristone, MIF, followed by P4. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: P4 (P0.05 inhibitory effects. P4 inhibition is not blocked by MIF, SQ, ODQ, rolipram or L-NAME (P>0.05. Conclusions: P4 rapidly inhibits myometrial contractility by nongenomic mechanisms through action on mPR but not via cAMP, cGMP, or NO [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 92-102

  8. Repeated potentiation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates behavioural and GABAergic deficits induced by early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP) treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Fejgin, Kim

    2013-01-01

    with ADX47273 or SSR180711. We examined GABAergic transmission by whole cell patch-clamp recordings of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) in pyramidal neurons in layer II/III of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and by activation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABAA receptors by THIP. Following PCP...... whether behavioural and GABAergic functional deficits induced by the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), could be reversed by repeated administration of two drugs known to enhance GABAergic transmission: the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (m...

  9. Alpha2 subunit specificity of cyclothiazide inhibition on glycine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Sun, Guang-Chun; Liu, Lu-Ying; Yu, Fang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2008-04-01

    In the mammalian cortex, alpha2 subunit-containing glycine receptors (GlyRs) mediate tonic inhibition, but the precise functional role of this type of GlyRs is difficult to establish because of the lack of subtype-selective antagonist. In this study, we found that cyclothiazide (CTZ), an epileptogenic agent, potently inhibited GlyR-mediated current (I(Gly)) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The inhibition was glycine concentration-dependent, suggesting a competitive mechanism. Note that GlyRs containing the alpha2 but not alpha1 or alpha3 subunits, when being heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells, were inhibited by CTZ, indicating subunit specificity of CTZ action. In addition, the degree of CTZ inhibition on I(Gly) in rat spinal neurons declined with time in culture, in parallel with a decline of alpha2 subunit expression, which is known to occur during spinal cord development. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis indicates that a single-amino acid threonine at position 59 near the N terminus of the alpha2 subunit confers the specificity of CTZ action. Thus, CTZ is a potent and selective inhibitor of alpha2-GlyRs, and threonine at position 59 plays a critical role in the susceptibility of GlyR to CTZ inhibition.

  10. Covalent Trapping of Methyllycaconitine at the α4-α4 Interface of the α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absalom, Nathan L; Quek, Gracia; Lewis, Trevor M

    2013-01-01

    competitive antagonism and an apparently insurmountable mechanism that only occurs after preincubation with MLA. We hypothesized an additional MLA binding site in the α4-α4 interface that is unique to this stoichiometry. To prove this, we covalently trapped a cysteine-reactive MLA analog at an α4β2 receptor...... containing an α4(D204C) mutation predicted by homology modeling to be within reach of the reactive probe. We demonstrate that covalent trapping results in irreversible reduction of ACh-elicited currents in the (α4)3(β2)2 stoichiometry, indicating that MLA binds to the α4-α4 interface of the (α4)3(β2......)2 and providing direct evidence of ligand binding to the α4-α4 interface. Consistent with other studies, we propose that the α4-α4 interface is a structural target for potential therapeutics that modulate (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs....

  11. Making choice between competing rewards in uncertain versus safe social environment:role of neuronal nicotinic receptors of acetylcholine

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    Jonathan eChabout

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In social environments, choosing between multiple rewards is modulated by the uncertainty of the situation. Here, we compared how mice interact with a conspecific and how they use acoustic communication during this interaction in a 3 chambers task (no social threat was possible and a Social Interaction Task, SIT (uncertain situation as two mice interact freely. We further manipulated the motivational state of the mice to see how they rank natural rewards such as social contact, food, and novelty seeking. We previously showed that beta2-subunit containing nicotinic receptors -2*nAChRs- are required for establishing reward ranking between social interaction, novelty exploration, and food consumption in social situations with high uncertainty. Knockout mice for 2*nAChRs -2-/-mice- exhibit profound impairment in making social flexible choices, as compared to control -WT- mice.Our current data shows that being confronted with a conspecific in a socially safe environment as compared to a more uncertain environment, drastically reduced communication between the two mice, and changed their way to deal with a social conspecific. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time, that 2-/- mice had the same motivational ranking than WT mice when placed in a socially safe environment. Therefore,2*nAChRs are not necessary for integrating social information or social rewards per se, but are important for making choices, only in a socially uncertain environment.This seems particularly important in the context of Social Neuroscience, as numerous animal models are used to provide novel insights and to test promising novel treatments of human pathologies affecting social and communication processes, among which Autistic spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.

  12. Analysis of gait in rats with olivocerebellar lesions and ability of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist varenicline to attenuate impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C S; Philpot, R M; Engberg, M E; Johns, B E; Wecker, L

    2015-09-15

    Studies have demonstrated that administration of the neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist varenicline to rats with olivocerebellar lesions attenuates balance deficits on a rotorod and balance beam, but the effects of this drug on gait deficits have not been investigated. To accomplish this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to walk on a motorized treadmill at 25 and 35 cm/s and baseline performance determined; both temporal and spatial gait parameters were analyzed. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the key components of gait, and the cumulative gait index (CGI) was calculated, representing deviations from prototypical gait patterns. Subsequently, animals either remained as non-lesioned controls or received injections of 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP)/nicotinamide to destroy the climbing fibers innervating Purkinje cells. The gait of the non-lesioned group was assessed weekly to monitor changes in the normal population, while the gait of the lesioned group was assessed 1 week following 3-AP administration, and weekly following the daily administration of saline or varenicline (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0mg free base/kg) for 2 weeks. Non-lesioned animals exhibited a 60-70% increased CGI over time due to increases in temporal gait measures, whereas lesioned animals exhibited a nearly 3-fold increased CGI as a consequence of increases in spatial measures. Following 2 weeks of treatment with the highest dose of varenicline (3.0mg free base/kg), the swing duration of lesioned animals normalized, and stride duration, stride length and step angle in this population did not differ from the non-lesioned population. Thus, varenicline enabled animals to compensate for their impairments and rectify the timing of the gait cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of ketamine on intraspinal acetylcholine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Goldkuhl, Renée Röstlinger; Nylund, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The general anaesthetic ketamine affects the central cholinergic system in several manners, but its effect on spinal acetylcholine release, which may be an important transmitter in spinal antinociception, is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ketamine on spinal acetylcholine...... increased the acetylcholine release in high concentrations (100 microM to 10 mM). The results indicate that spinal nicotinic receptors are important for the ketamine-induced acetylcholine release, and that the effect is partly mediated at the spinal level....

  14. Coupling the Torpedo microplate-receptor binding assay with mass spectrometry to detect cyclic imine neurotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Ramos, Suzanne; Pelissier, Franck; Guérineau, Vincent; Benoit, Evelyne; Vilariño, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Zakarian, Armen; Molgó, Jordi

    2012-12-04

    Cyclic imine neurotoxins constitute an emergent family of neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin that are potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We developed a target-directed functional method based on the mechanism of action of competitive agonists/antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors for the detection of marine cyclic imine neurotoxins. The key step for method development was the immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes rich in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of microplate wells and the use of biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin as tracer. Cyclic imine neurotoxins competitively inhibit biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The microplate-receptor binding assay allowed rapid detection of nanomolar concentrations of cyclic imine neurotoxins directly in shellfish samples. Although highly sensitive and specific for the detection of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a class, the receptor binding assay cannot identify a given analyte. To address the low selectivity of the microplate-receptor binding assay, the cyclic imine neurotoxins tightly bound to the coated Torpedo nicotinic receptor were eluted with methanol, and the chemical nature of the eluted ligands was identified by mass spectrometry. The immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes on the surface of microplate wells proved to be a high-throughput format for the survey of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors directly in shellfish matrixes with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

  15. Involvement of a subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the antipsychotic-like effects of the M1/M4 preferring muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission are believed to be centrally involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact and the cholinergic muscarinic agonist xanomeline has shown antipsychotic effects in clinical studies. Preclinical...... studies indicate that the M(4) muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtype (mAChR) modulates the activity of the dopaminergic system and that this specific mAChR subtype is involved in mediating the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline. A specific neuronal subpopulation that expresses M(4) mAChRs together...... with D(1) dopamine receptors seems to be especially important in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors. Using mutant mice that lack the M(4) mAChR only in D(1) dopamine receptor-expressing cells (D1-M4-KO), we investigated the role of this neuronal population in the antipsychotic-like effects...

  16. Mechanisms of μ-opioid receptor inhibition of NMDA receptor-induced substance P release in the rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenling; Ennes, Helena S; McRoberts, James A; Marvizón, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between NMDA receptors and μ-opioid receptors in primary afferent terminals was studied by using NMDA to induce substance P release, measured as neurokinin 1 receptor internalization. In rat spinal cord slices, the μ-opioid receptor agonists morphine, DAMGO and endomorphin-2 inhibited NMDA-induced substance P release, whereas the antagonist CTAP right-shifted the concentration response of DAMGO. In vivo, substance P release induced by intrathecal NMDA after priming with BDNF was inhibited by DAMGO. ω-Conotoxins MVIIC and GVIA inhibited about half of the NMDA-induced substance P release, showing that it was partially mediated by the opening of voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels. In contrast, DAMGO or ω-conotoxins did not inhibit capsaicin-induced substance P release. In cultured DRG neurons, DAMGO but not ω-conotoxin inhibited NMDA-induced increases in intracellular calcium, indicating that μ-opioid receptors can inhibit NMDA receptor function by mechanisms other than inactivation of Cav channels. Moreover, DAMGO decreased the ω-conotoxin-insensitive component of the substance P release. Potent inhibition by ifenprodil showed that these NMDA receptors have the NR2B subunit. Activators of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A (PKA) induced substance P release and this was decreased by the NMDA receptor blocker MK-801 and by DAMGO. Conversely, inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase and PKA, but not of protein kinase C, decreased NMDA-induced substance P release. Hence, these NMDA receptors are positively modulated by the adenylyl cyclase-PKA pathway, which is inhibited by μ-opioid receptors. In conclusion, μ-opioid receptors inhibit NMDA receptor-induced substance P release through Cav channel inactivation and adenylyl cyclase inhibition. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Involvement of a subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the antipsychotic-like effects of the M1/M4 preferring muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Jeon, Jongrye; Thomsen, Morgane; Sager, Thomas N; Mørk, Arne; Woldbye, David P D; Wess, Jürgen; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2011-04-20

    Disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission are believed to be centrally involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact and the cholinergic muscarinic agonist xanomeline has shown antipsychotic effects in clinical studies. Preclinical studies indicate that the M(4) muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtype (mAChR) modulates the activity of the dopaminergic system and that this specific mAChR subtype is involved in mediating the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline. A specific neuronal subpopulation that expresses M(4) mAChRs together with D(1) dopamine receptors seems to be especially important in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors. Using mutant mice that lack the M(4) mAChR only in D(1) dopamine receptor-expressing cells (D1-M4-KO), we investigated the role of this neuronal population in the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline in amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and apomorphine-induced climbing. Interestingly, the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline in the two models were almost completely abolished in D1-M4-KO mice, suggesting that M(4) mAChRs colocalized with D(1) dopamine receptors are centrally involved in mediating the antipsychotic-like effects of xanomeline. This is consistent with the hypothesis that activation of the M(4) mAChR represents a potential target for the future medical treatment of psychosis.

  18. Inhibition of the androgen receptor activity by Coprinus comatus substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Nesly; Wasser, Solomon P; Mahajna, Jamal

    2011-11-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma is the second leading cause of death from cancer in Western men. The common prostate cancer treatments are effective in the early stages; however, advanced prostate cancer is resilient to most of these treatments. Altered androgen receptor (AR) activity caused by point mutations or signaling mechanisms that regulate AR function has been proposed as a key mechanism in the transition to the androgen-independent stage. Our previous results demonstrated that hexane extract prepared from Coprinus comatus (C. comatus) strain 734 was able to interfere with AR activity. The current study was made to further evaluate the antiandrogenic activity of the C. comatus mushroom strain 734. Activity-guided chromatography was conducted and 2 active fractions, F-32-and F-33, were found to contain substances that were able to inhibit AR-mediated reporter activity and reduce the levels of AR and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) transcripts in LNCaP cells. Fraction F-32 also inhibited the proliferation and clonigenicity of LNCaP cells. Furthermore, F-32 was able to inhibit the binding of AR to the PSA enhancer region and to inhibit Akt-mediated AR phosphorylation at Ser 213. This study illustrated the potential of substances from the C. comatus mushroom to serve as natural antiandrogenic modulators for the treatment of prostatic disorders.

  19. Nicotine-Mediated Regulation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Non-Small Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma by E2F1 and STAT1 Transcription Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Schaal

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, which accounts for 80% of all lung cancers. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco smoke, can induce proliferation, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, angiogenesis, and survival in NSCLC cell lines, as well as growth and metastasis of NSCLC in mice. This nicotine-mediated tumor progression is facilitated through activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, specifically the α7 subunit; however, how the α7 nAChR gene is regulated in lung adenocarcinoma is not fully clear. Here we demonstrate that the α7 nAChR gene promoter is differentially regulated by E2F and STAT transcription factors through a competitive interplay; E2F1 induces the promoter, while STAT transcription factors repress it by binding to an overlapping site at a region -294 through -463bp upstream of the transcription start site. Treatment of cells with nicotine induced the mRNA and protein levels of α7 nAChR; this could be abrogated by treatment with inhibitors targeting Src, PI3K, MEK, α7 nAChR, CDK4/6 or a disruptor of the Rb-Raf-1 interaction. Further, nicotine-mediated induction of α7 nAChR was reduced when E2F1 was depleted and in contrast elevated when STAT1 was depleted by siRNAs. Interestingly, extracts from e-cigarettes, which have recently emerged as healthier alternatives to traditional cigarette smoking, can also induce α7 nAChR expression in a manner similar to nicotine. These results suggest an autoregulatory feed-forward loop that induces the levels of α7 nAChR upon exposure to nicotine, which enhances the strength of the signal. It can be imagined that such an induction of α7 nAChR contributes to the tumor-promoting functions of nicotine.

  20. Subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid changes electrophysiological properties and expression pattern of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in insect neurosecretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzidane, Yassine; Goven, Delphine; Abd-Ella, Aly Ahmed; Deshayes, Caroline; Lapied, Bruno; Raymond, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging. We used cockroach neurosecretory cells identified as dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive (α-bgt-insensitive) nAChR subtypes, nAChR1 and nAChR2, which differ in their sensitivity to imidacloprid. Although nAChR1 is sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 is insensitive to this insecticide. In this study, we demonstrate that subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid differentially changes physiological and molecular properties of nAChR1 and nAChR2. Our findings reported that this treatment decreased the sensitivity of nAChR1 to imidacloprid, reduced current density flowing through this nAChR subtype but did not affect its subunit composition (α3, α8 and β1). Subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid also affected nAChR2 functions. However, these effects were different from those reported on nAChR1. We observed changes in nAChR2 conformational state, which could be related to modification of the subunit composition (α1, α2 and β1). Finally, the subchronic exposure affecting both nAChR1 and nAChR2 seemed to be linked to the elevation of the steady-state resting intracellular calcium level. In conclusion, under subchronic exposure to sublethal dose of imidacloprid, cockroaches are capable of triggering adaptive mechanisms by reducing the participation of imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and by optimizing functional properties of nAChR2, which is

  1. Nicotine-Mediated Regulation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Non-Small Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma by E2F1 and STAT1 Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Courtney; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for 80% of all lung cancers. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco smoke, can induce proliferation, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), angiogenesis, and survival in NSCLC cell lines, as well as growth and metastasis of NSCLC in mice. This nicotine-mediated tumor progression is facilitated through activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), specifically the α7 subunit; however, how the α7 nAChR gene is regulated in lung adenocarcinoma is not fully clear. Here we demonstrate that the α7 nAChR gene promoter is differentially regulated by E2F and STAT transcription factors through a competitive interplay; E2F1 induces the promoter, while STAT transcription factors repress it by binding to an overlapping site at a region -294 through -463bp upstream of the transcription start site. Treatment of cells with nicotine induced the mRNA and protein levels of α7 nAChR; this could be abrogated by treatment with inhibitors targeting Src, PI3K, MEK, α7 nAChR, CDK4/6 or a disruptor of the Rb-Raf-1 interaction. Further, nicotine-mediated induction of α7 nAChR was reduced when E2F1 was depleted and in contrast elevated when STAT1 was depleted by siRNAs. Interestingly, extracts from e-cigarettes, which have recently emerged as healthier alternatives to traditional cigarette smoking, can also induce α7 nAChR expression in a manner similar to nicotine. These results suggest an autoregulatory feed-forward loop that induces the levels of α7 nAChR upon exposure to nicotine, which enhances the strength of the signal. It can be imagined that such an induction of α7 nAChR contributes to the tumor-promoting functions of nicotine.

  2. Activation of transfected M1 or M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors induces cell-cell adhesion of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing endogenous cadherins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S H; Puhl, H L; Phelps, S H; Williams, C L

    1999-04-10

    Expression of endogenous cadherins by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has not been previously reported. However, we observed that CHO cells adhere to one another upon activation of transfected muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR), suggesting that the cells express endogenous cadherins. A 160-base pair RT-PCR product with 100% homology to the cytoplasmic domain of human E-cadherin was amplified from CHO cells. A second RT-PCR product amplified from these cells has 92% homology to the cytoplasmic domain of human cadherin-9 and 86% homology to the cytoplasmic domain of human cadherin-6. Western blotting indicates that CHO cells express a 165-kDa protein recognized by E-cadherin antibodies and a 120-kDa protein recognized by an antibody to the cadherin C-terminus sequence. The ability of transfected mAChR subtypes to regulate cadherin-mediated adhesion of CHO cells was tested by measuring the permeation of horseradish peroxidase across confluent CHO cell monolayers, by microscopic examination of the cells, and by aggregation assays. Cell-cell adhesion is induced within 15 min of activating transfected M1 or M3 mAChR which functionally couple to protein kinase C (PKC). In contrast, CHO cell adhesion is not affected by activating transfected M2 mAChR which functionally couple to other effectors. Activation of PKC with phorbol esters also induces cell-cell adhesion of all CHO sublines tested. Immunofluorescence assays reveal that endogenous cadherins redistribute on the plasma membrane of CHO cells following mAChR or PKC activation. Inactivation of cadherins by removal of extracellular Ca2+ abrogates adhesion induced by mAChR or PKC activation. Our demonstration that activation of only odd-numbered mAChR subtypes induces cadherin-mediated adhesion suggests that the unique responses of cells to M1 or M3 mAChR stimulation may involve cadherin activation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Distinctive Roles for α7*- and α9*-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Inflammatory and Autoimmune Responses in the Murine Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Whiteaker, Paul; Morley, Barbara J; Shi, Fu-Dong; Lukas, Ronald J

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine, including in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model in mice of some forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Other studies using knock-out (KO) mice have implicated nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors containing α7, α9, or β2 subunits (α7*-, α9*- or β2*-nAChR) in different, disease-exacerbating or disease-ameliorating processes. These outcomes are in harmony with gene expression analyses showing nAChR subunit mRNA in many classes of immune system cell types. Consistent with influences on disease status, predictable effects of nAChR subunit (and subtype) KO, or of nicotine exposure, are seen on immune cell numbers and distribution and on cytokine levels or other markers of immunity, inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degradation. Providing support for our hypotheses about distinctive roles for nAChR subtypes in EAE, here we have used direct and adoptive EAE induction and a nAChR subunit gene double knock-out (DKO) strategy. Immune cell expression of nAChR α9 subunits as protein is demonstrated by immunostaining of isolated CD4+, CD8+, CD11b+ and CD11c+ cells from wild-type (WT) mice, but not in cells from nAChR α9 subunit KO animals. Nicotine exposure is protective against directly-induced EAE in WT or α7/α9 DKO animals relative to effects seen in WT/vehicle-treated mice, but, remarkably, EAE is exacerbated in vehicle-treated α7/α9 DKO mice. Brain lesion volume and intra-cranial inflammatory activity similarly are higher in DKO/vehicle than in WT/vehicle-treated animals, although nicotine's protective effects are seen in each instance. By contrast, in adoptive transfer studies, disease severity is attenuated and disease onset is delayed in recipients of splenocytes from WT animals treated with nicotine rather than with vehicle. Moreover, protection as seen in nicotine-treated WT animals is the same in recipients of splenocytes from nAChR

  4. Distinctive Roles for α7*- and α9*-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Inflammatory and Autoimmune Responses in the Murine Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine, including in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model in mice of some forms of multiple sclerosis (MS. Other studies using knock-out (KO mice have implicated nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh receptors containing α7, α9, or β2 subunits (α7*-, α9*- or β2*-nAChR in different, disease-exacerbating or disease-ameliorating processes. These outcomes are in harmony with gene expression analyses showing nAChR subunit mRNA in many classes of immune system cell types. Consistent with influences on disease status, predictable effects of nAChR subunit (and subtype KO, or of nicotine exposure, are seen on immune cell numbers and distribution and on cytokine levels or other markers of immunity, inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degradation. Providing support for our hypotheses about distinctive roles for nAChR subtypes in EAE, here we have used direct and adoptive EAE induction and a nAChR subunit gene double knock-out (DKO strategy. Immune cell expression of nAChR α9 subunits as protein is demonstrated by immunostaining of isolated CD4+, CD8+, CD11b+ and CD11c+ cells from wild-type (WT mice, but not in cells from nAChR α9 subunit KO animals. Nicotine exposure is protective against directly-induced EAE in WT or α7/α9 DKO animals relative to effects seen in WT/vehicle-treated mice, but, remarkably, EAE is exacerbated in vehicle-treated α7/α9 DKO mice. Brain lesion volume and intra-cranial inflammatory activity similarly are higher in DKO/vehicle than in WT/vehicle-treated animals, although nicotine’s protective effects are seen in each instance. By contrast, in adoptive transfer studies, disease severity is attenuated and disease onset is delayed in recipients of splenocytes from WT animals treated with nicotine rather than with vehicle. Moreover, protection as seen in nicotine-treated WT animals is the same in recipients of

  5. Tyrosine phosphatases such as SHP-2 act in a balance with Src-family kinases in stabilization of postsynaptic clusters of acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüegg Markus A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of neural networks requires that synapses are formed, eliminated and stabilized. At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ, agrin/MuSK signaling, by triggering downstream pathways, causes clustering and phosphorylation of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs. Postnatally, AChR aggregates are stabilized by molecular pathways that are poorly characterized. Gain or loss of function of Src-family kinases (SFKs disassembles AChR clusters at adult NMJs in vivo, whereas AChR aggregates disperse rapidly upon withdrawal of agrin from cultured src-/-;fyn-/- myotubes. This suggests that a balance between protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs such as those of the Src-family may be essential in stabilizing clusters of AChRs. Results We have analyzed the role of PTPs in maintenance of AChR aggregates, by adding and then withdrawing agrin from cultured myotubes in the presence of PTP or PTK inhibitors and quantitating remaining AChR clusters. In wild-type myotubes, blocking PTPs with pervanadate caused enhanced disassembly of AChR clusters after agrin withdrawal. When added at the time of agrin withdrawal, SFK inhibitors destabilized AChR aggregates but concomitant addition of pervanadate rescued cluster stability. Likewise in src-/-;fyn-/- myotubes, in which agrin-induced AChR clusters form normally but rapidly disintegrate after agrin withdrawal, pervanadate addition stabilized AChR clusters. The PTP SHP-2, known to be enriched at the NMJ, associated and colocalized with MuSK, and agrin increased this interaction. Specific SHP-2 knockdown by RNA interference reduced the stability of AChR clusters in wild-type myotubes. Similarly, knockdown of SHP-2 in adult mouse soleus muscle by electroporation of RNA interference constructs caused disassembly of pretzel-shaped AChR-rich areas in vivo. Finally, we found that src-/-;fyn-/- myotubes contained elevated levels of SHP-2 protein. Conclusion Our data

  6. Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist treatment reduces neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury in mice with ischemic stroke and bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhenying; Li, Li; Wang, Liang; Degos, Vincent; Maze, Mervyn; Su, Hua

    2014-11-01

    Bone fracture at the acute stage of stroke exacerbates stroke injury by increasing neuroinflammation. We hypothesize that activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) attenuates neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, and reduces brain injury in mice with bone fracture and stroke. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed in C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0.8 mg/kg PHA 568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR-specific agonist), 6 mg/kg methyllycaconitine (α-7 nAchR antagonist), or saline 1 and 2 days after pMCAO. Behavior was tested 3 days after pMCAO. Neuronal injury, CD68(+) , M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) microglia/macrophages, phosphorylated p65 component of nuclear factor kappa b in microglia/macrophages, oxidative and anti-oxidant gene expression were quantified. Compared to saline-treated mice, PHA-treated mice performed better in behavioral tests, had fewer apoptotic neurons (NeuN(+) TUNEL(+) ), fewer CD68(+) and M1 macrophages, and more M2 macrophages. PHA increased anti-oxidant gene expression and decreased oxidative stress and phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa b p65. Methyllycaconitine had the opposite effects. Our data indicate that α-7 nAchR agonist treatment reduces neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, which are associated with reduced brain injury in mice with ischemic stroke plus tibia fracture. Bone fracture at the acute stage of stroke exacerbates neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, and our study has shown that the α-7 nAchR agonist, PHA (PHA 568487), attenuates neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury in mice with stroke and bone fracture. Hence, PHA could provide an opportunity to develop a new strategy to reduce brain injury in patients suffering from stroke and bone fracture. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, Rita, E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Say, Meichien [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, Karen A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk throu